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I used to think that running an organization was equivalent to conducting a symphony orchestra. But I don't think that's quite it; it's more like jazz. There is more improvisation. — Warren Bennis Good leaders are made not born. If you have the desire and willpower, you can become an effective leader. Good leaders develop through a never ending process of self-study, education, training, and experience (Jago, 1982). To inspire your workers into higher levels of teamwork, there are certain things you must be, know, and, do. These do not come naturally, but are acquired through continual work and study. Good leaders are continually working and studying to improve their leadership skills; they are NOT resting on their laurels. Definition of Leadership The meaning of a message is the change which it produces in the image. — Kenneth Boulding in the Image: Knowledge in Life and Society Before we get started, let’s define leadership. Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. This definition is similar to Northouse's (2007, p3) definition — Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal.Leaders carry out this process by applying their leadership knowledge and skills. This is called Process Leadership (Jago, 1982). However, we know that we have traits that can influence our actions. This is called Trait Leadership (Jago, 1982), in that it was once common to believe that leaders were born rather than made. These two leadership types are shown in the chart below (Northouse, 2007, p5):
Power, Politics & Leadership style
While leadership is learned, the skills and knowledge processed by the leader can be influenced by his or hers attributes or traits, such as beliefs, values, ethics, and character. Knowledge and skills contribute directly to the process of leadership, while the other attributes give the leader certain characteristics that make him or her unique. Skills, knowledge, and attributes make the Leader, which is one of the:
Four Factors of Leadership
There are four major factors in leadership (U.S. Army, 1983):
Power, Politics & Leadership style
Leader You must have an honest understanding of who you are, what you know, and what you can do. Also, note that it is the followers, not the leader or someone else who determines if the leader is successful. If they do not trust or lack confidence in their leader, then they will be uninspired. To be successful you have to convince your followers, not yourself or your superiors, that you are worthy of being followed. Followers Different people require different styles of leadership. For example, a new hire requires more supervision than an experienced employee. A person who lacks motivation requires a different approach than one with a high degree of motivation. You must know your people! The fundamental starting point is having a good understanding of human nature, such as needs, emotions, and motivation. You must come to know your employees' be, know, and do attributes. Communication You lead through two-way communication. Much of it is nonverbal. For instance, when you “set the example,” that communicates to your people that you would not ask them to perform anything that you would not be willing to do. What and how you communicate either builds or harms the relationship between you and your employees. Situation All situations are different. What you do in one situation will not always work in another. You must use your judgment to decide the best course of action and the leadership style needed for each situation. For example, you may need to confront an employee for inappropriate behavior, but if the confrontation is too late or too early, too harsh or too weak, then the results may prove ineffective. Also note that the situation normally has a greater effect on a leader's action than his or her traits. This is because while traits may have an impressive stability over a period of time, they have little consistency across situations (Mischel, 1968). This is why a number of leadership scholars think the Process Theory of Leadership is a more accurate than the Trait Theory of Leadership.
Leadership Models Leadership models help us to understand what makes leaders act the way they do. Four Framework Approach In the Four Framework Approach. while keeping the pains within your own. Examples of forces are your relationship with your seniors.First.Next. The Process of Great Leadership The road to great leadership (Kouzes & Posner. Bolman and Deal (1991) suggest that leaders display leadership behaviors in one of four types of frameworks: Structural. share your vision in words that can be understood by your followers. or Symbolic.When the process gets tough. but to realize that every situation calls for a different approach or behavior to be taken. 1987) that is common to successful leaders: Challenge the process . Two models will be discussed. the informal leaders within your organization.Share the glory with your followers' hearts. Model the way . find a process that you believe needs to be improved the most. the skill of your followers. Political.Power. the Four Framework Approach and the Managerial Grid. Enable others to act . and how your organization is organized. The ideal is not to lock yourself in to a type of behavior discussed in the model. a leader shows that it can be done. Encourage the heart . Leadership Page 4 . A boss tells others what to do. Human Resource.Give them the tools and methods to solve the problem. Politics & Leadership style Various forces will affect these four factors. get your hands dirty. Inspire a shared vision .
Leadership Page 5 . Relying on only one of these approaches would be inadequate. experimentation. strategy. depending upon the situation. implementation. the Symbolic approach may be better. a Structural leadership style may be more effective than a Symbolic leadership style. and not just depend on one or two. during a major organization change. the leader is a petty tyrant whose leadership style is details.Power. any style can be effective or ineffective. environment. While in an ineffective leadership situation. Structural Framework In an effective leadership situation. Politics & Leadership style This model suggests that leaders can be put into one of these four categories and there are times when one approach is appropriate and times when it would not be. We also need to understand ourselves as each of us tends to have a preferred approach. thus we should strive to be conscious of all four approaches. We need to be conscious of these at all times and be aware of the limitations of just favoring one approach. and adaptation. the leader is a social architect whose leadership style is analysis and design. Structural Leaders focus on structure. during a period when strong growth is needed. For example. That is.
As Stewart and Manz (1995. they empower. Symbolic Framework In an effective leadership situation. “More specifically. these leaders use symbols to capture attention. whose leadership style is abdication and fraud. the leader is a hustler. Politics & Leadership style Human Resource Framework In an effective leadership situation. the leader is a prophet. the leader is a fanatic or fool. and empowerment. they assess the distribution of power and interests.Power. work team management or supervision is often identified as a primary reason why self-management teams fail to properly develop and yield improvements in productivity. While in an ineffective leadership situation. then use negotiation and coercion only if necessary. share information. advocating. Team Leadership A lack of leadership is often seen as a roadblock to a team's performance. the leader is a catalyst and servant whose leadership style is support. the leader is a pushover. whose leadership style is smoke and mirrors? Symbolic leaders view organizations as a stage or theater to play certain roles and give impressions. While in an ineffective leadership situation. increase participation. p. whose leadership style is coalition and building. Political Framework In an effective leadership situation. Larson and LaFasto (1989) looked in the opposite direction by interviewing excellent teams to gain insights as to what enables them to function to a high degree. they build linkages to other stakeholders. They came away with the following conclusions: Leadership Page 6 . they discover and communicate a vision. whose leadership style is inspiration. use persuasion first. While in an ineffective leadership situation. whose leadership style is manipulation. Political leaders clarify what they want and what they can get. and quality of life for for American workers.” Rather than focusing on ineffective teams. they try to frame experience by providing plausible interpretations of experiences. support. quality. they are visible and accessible. and move decision making down into the organization.748) writes. the leader is an advocate. Human Resource Leaders believe in people and communicate that belief.
not a group A collaborative climate — aligned towards a common purpose High standards of excellence — they have group norms Principled leadership — the central driver of excellence External support — they have adequate resources Team Leadership Model While there are several Team Leadership models. Leadership Page 7 . or an Environmental intervention? Select a function depending on the type of intervention. This Team Leadership model is built on a number of research projects: The Four Layers or Steps in the Team Leadership Model 1. Second Layer: Is it at an Internal or External leadership level? 3. Relational. Politics & Leadership style A clear elevating goal — they have a vision Results driven structure — visions have a business goal Competent team members with right number and mix Unified commitment — they are a team. and then take appropriate action to correct team problems (Northouse.Power. 2007). Hill's Team model is perhaps one of the better known ones as it provides the leader or a designated team member with a mental road map to help diagnose team problems. Bottom layer: Correctly performing the above three steps create high Performance through Development and Maintenance functions. Third layer: Is it Task. Top layer: Effective team performance begins with leader’s mental model of the situation and then determining if the situation requires Action or just Monitoring? 2. See the next section for explanation of Function Interventions. 4.
Power. focusing on issues. etc. processes. roles. Train members through both formal and informal means Assess performance an confront when necessary Internal Relationship Functions Coach team members Leadership Page 8 . Politics & Leadership style Hill's Team Leadership Model Team Leadership Function Interventions Internal Task Functions Focus on goals by clarifying and/or getting agreement Restructure plans. coordination is better. etc. in order to gain desired results (process improvement) Guide the decision-making process so that better information is obtained.
Power. disrupting both tradition and rational rule by shaping followers attitudes according to the leader's revealed ideas. leadership is defined as charismatic when people follow someone because he or she is “considered extraordinary and treated as endowed with supernatural. the essential point is Leadership Page 9 . In contemporary leadership theory. or at least specifically exceptional powers or qualities. Politics & Leadership style Use more collaborative methods to involve all team members (this survey includes questions to determine if the environment is collaborative) Manage conflict Build commitment and esprit de corps through the use of ethos leadership Satisfy team members' needs Model what you expect from your team members External Environmental Functions Network to increase influence and gather information Advocate by representing your team so that it shows them at their best Get support for your team by gathering resources and recognition for your team Buffer the team from environmental distractions Assess the environment through surveys and other performance indicators to determine its impact on the organization Share information with the team Charismatic leadership “A catalyst in acceptance & resistance to Change” Charismatic leadership is generally associated with social change and renewal. Weber (1922/1968). charismatic leaders are highlighted as pre-eminent agents of organizational change. Charismatic authority typically arises in times of crisis. superhuman.
Bryman's (1992)model of the social formation of charisma and Conger and Kanungo's (1998)model of the perceived behaviors of charismatic leaders.Power. Politics & Leadership style not whether the leader really is an extraordinary person or actually possesses any exceptional powers or qualities . Leadership Page 10 . particularly in organizational contexts. both of which identify a number of phenomena typically but not necessarily associated with charismatic leadership.
Leadership Page 11 . Making organizations more innovative. Unconventional behavior—engages in unconventional behavior in order to achieve organizational goals. power and influence. Such issues include: Implementing strategic or adaptive change in the face of formidable resistance. The changes that are shaping the nature of work in today's complex organizations require that we develop the political will. Fostering entrepreneurial and creative behavior despite strong opposition. visioning and the management of change. as well as managing organizational processes linked to values and ethics. is entrepreneurial. we face the inevitable prospect of becoming immersed in bureaucratic infighting. power and influence issues. Personal risk—takes high personal risks for the sake of the organization. often exhibits unique behavior that surprises other members of the organization. has vision. is inspirational.Power. Without political awareness and skill. morale and performance (Kotter 1985). organizational culture. Gaining resources and support from bosses whose personal agendas might include organizationally harmful political games. responsive and responsible requires focusing on a number of leadership. expertise and personal skills to become more flexible. These issues are critical in coping with the strategic and strategic leader performance requirements in that environment. innovative and adaptive. parochial politics and destructive power struggles. The issues influence developing teams at the strategic level. innovation. Strategic Leadership One main quality of Charismatic Leaders The challenges faced by strategic leaders in implementing complex and long-range consequential decisions demand that they be sophisticated with respect to issues of leadership. Politics & Leadership style The main perceived behaviors are as follows: Strategic vision and articulation—provides inspiring strategic and organizational goals. uses nontraditional means to achieve organizational goals. which greatly retard organizational initiative.
the capacity to achieve. but who are outside your chain of command and your direct control. If power involves the employment of stored influence by which events. Richard Nixon wrote.Power. writing about leadership and power in organizations. Avoiding becoming a victim or casualty of destructive power struggles. to create. "Of course leaders are preoccupied with power! The significant questions are: What means do they use to gain it? How much do they exercise it?" To what ends do they exercise it? He further states. and not getting mired in bureaucratic politics or dysfunctional power conflicts. to nudge history in a different direction. power is recognized as "the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire" (Salancik and Pfeffer 1977). the capacity to translate intention into reality and sustain it. Power is the opportunity to build. to put it another way. Avoiding the numerous traps that generate power misuses and ultimately power loss. The concept of organizational politics can be linked to Harold Lasswell's (1936) definition of politics as who gets what. notes." Hence. and who may suspect your motives. POWER IN ORGANIZATIONS THE CONCEPTS OF POWER AND ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS John Gardner. Building and developing effective teams in an internal environment where the natural tendency is to conflict with each other and engage in "turf battles". when and how. actions and Leadership Page 12 . Politics & Leadership style Avoiding destructive adversarial relationships with others whose help and cooperation are paramount to your success." In a similar way. "Power is the basic energy needed to initiate and sustain action or. Fostering organizational excellence. "The great leader needs. innovation and creativity. instead of against it. For strategic leaders in most organizations the key to successfully implementing organizational change and improving long term performance rests with the leader's skill in knowing how to make power dynamics work for the organization.
Such differences change slowly. preferences. Politics & Leadership style behaviors are affected. with power viewed as a source of potential energy to manage relationships. if at all. human resources. Through a negotiation process. The preceding discussion indicates that the concepts of power and organizational politics are related. and symbolic. political. the competition is for personnel spaces and funding. Mission is the means to gain both. members combine forces to produce common objectives and agreed upon ways to utilize resources thus aggregating their power.Power. and perception of reality. In government at present. There are enduring differences among individuals and groups in values. agencies compete for significance in the Leadership Page 13 . we define organizational politics as the use of power. as well as to enhance and protect the vested interests of individuals or groups. the use of organizational politics suggests that political activity is used to overcome resistance and implies a conscious effort to organize activity to challenge opposition in a priority decision situation. Thus. Power bases are developed that can accomplish more than individual forces alone. Thus. because resources tend to follow mission. Organizations are coalitions of individuals and interest groups. The political frame is an excellent tool for examining the concept of organizational politics and makes a number of assumptions about organizations and what motivates both their actions and the actions of their decision makers. THE POLITICAL FRAME Bolman and Deal describe four "frames" for viewing the world: structural. information. beliefs. and then politics involves the exercise of power to get something done. which form because the members need each other’s' support. Most of the important decisions in organizations involve allocation of scarce resources: they are decisions about who gets what. In the government as a whole.
and power dynamics will inevitably generate political forces. Jefferies makes the point that organizations play the political game within the broader governmental context. POWER AS A MOTIVE Power is attractive because it confers the ability to influence decisions. Leadership Page 14 . because it confers the ability both to allocate resources. Because of scarce resources and enduring differences.in itself a way to increase power-and to consolidate power by bringing others with similar goals and objectives into the inner decision making core. with a healthy power motive can learn to understand and manage political processes. power becomes more attractive as a tool for reducing uncertainty. but those individuals also play politics within organizations. dysfunctional or aggrandizing behavior. Conflict is more likely in under-bounded systems (less regulation and control).Power. what goals are pursued. about who gets what resources. conflict is central to organizational dynamics and power is the most important resource. They assert that organization diversity. Leaders. Particularly as decision issues become more complex and outcomes become more uncertain. Politics & Leadership style national/international picture. because significance means public approval and that means resources. The five propositions of the political frame do not attribute organizational politics to negative. what philosophy the organization adopts. Power also gives a sense of control over outcomes. Organizational politics cannot be eliminated or fantasized away. who succeeds and who fails. And power is key in both cases. In an over-bounded system with power concentrated at the top. what actions are taken. regardless of the players. So both influences are at work. interdependence. however. resource scarcity. and may in fact convey such enhanced control. but underground. politics remains.
While our focus has been on establishing a legitimate context for understanding organizational politics. agencies and organizations compete for power within the broader governmental context. Politics & Leadership style Power competition exists at two levels. perhaps through more than just formal (vertical) organizational channels. the means by which the competitors seek to accumulate it. "All good persons. The essence of rational process is the belief that. will come to the same conclusion. Even when compelling physical force is the means. given the same information. the mechanism is political. and for assigning values to the benefits and costs expected from each of the alternatives. In both cases. while the rational frame to organizational decision making may be highly desirable to most decision makers. THE RATIONAL FRAME By definition. The fact is there are politics involved in Leadership Page 15 . and the value that accrues to all competitors by virtue of the competition. rational processes are different from political processes." Those seeking to employ the rational process to the exclusion of political process thus seek open communication. As George points out. the operations are essentially political. it is not immune to political influences. Individuals compete for power within agencies and organizations. The mechanics of power competition are much the same. Rational decisions rest heavily on analytic process. power accrues when an individual or an organization achieves control of a scarce commodity that others need. And sophisticated computational methods are readily available for calculating benefits/costs ratios once these values are assigned. the political process can be either destructive or constructive. So. a countervailing view to the political frame is the rational frame of organizational decision making. And in both cases. depending on the resource to be accumulated. An analytic process can be defined as one in which there are agreed-upon methods for generating alternative solutions to problems.Power.
and reward systems that support and encourage this behavior. beliefs. "An organization is high in consensus potential when it has the capacity to synthesize the commitment of multiple constituencies and stakeholders in response to specific challenges and aspirations. "Cultural/spiritual potential refers to a sense of timeless destiny about the organization. The higher one goes in organizations. the more use of organizational politics becomes an important social process. politics are often required to get important decisions implemented in complex systems (Pfeffer). cooperation. What skills and Leadership Page 16 . and the management of group and team decision making processes. NATURE OF STRATEGIC LEADER POWER A number of authors writing in Strivastva's Executive Power(1992) argue that power at the strategic organization level is manifested and executed through three fundamental elements: consensus. Politics & Leadership style innovation and change and successful strategic leaders must be effective politicians. "Cooperative potential refers to an organization's capacity to catalyze cooperative interaction among individuals and groups. ideals and values." Power is employed by a strategic leader in the management of organization structures. resource allocation. Although the road to power is open to those who wish to travel it. task designs. not all will distinguish themselves as master practitioners. strategic leader power is derived from the management of ideas." Strategic leaders use power in this area to manage and institutionalize organizational symbols. and culture. its role in its own area of endeavor as well as its larger role in its service to society. myths. the management of agreement. Their strategic aim is to create a strong culture that connects the destiny of the organization to the personal goals and aspirations of its members." In this area.Power.
Possessing this attribute is related to the characteristics of adaptability and flexibility. Absent this attribute other skills and characteristics may not be of much value. Depending on the situation and players. their positions and what strategy to follow in communicating with and influencing them. Politics & Leadership style attributes distinguish those strategic leaders who use power effectively from those who do not? INDIVIDUAL SKILLS AND ATTRIBUTES AS SOURCES OF POWER Pfeffer's(1992) research and observations emphasize the following characteristics as being especially important for acquiring and maintaining strategic power bases: High energy and physical endurance is the ability and motivation to work long and often times grueling hours. The willingness to take on the tough issues and challenges and execute a successful strategic decision is a source of power in any organization. and manage emotional or ego concerns in the situation. Motivation to engage and confront conflict is the ability and skill to deal with conflict in order to get done what you want accomplished. Adaptability and flexibility is the ability and skill to modify one's behavior. abandon a course of action that is not working. Directing energy is the ability and skill to focus on a clear objective and to subordinate other interests to that objective. This skill requires the capacity to re-direct energy. CONCEPTUAL SKILLS AND ATTRIBUTES Leadership Page 17 . Attention to small details embedded in the objective is critical for getting things done. Successfully reading the behavior of others is the ability and skill to understand who are the key players. Subordinating one's ego is the ability and skill to submerge one's ego for the collective good of the team or organization.Power. by exercising discipline and restraint an opportunity may be present to generate greater power and resources in a future scenario. Equally essential in using this skill is correctly assessing their willingness or resistance to following the Strategic Leader's direction.
It includes rapid grasp complex and difficult situations as they unfold. appreciation of long-range planning. or negotiating across agency lines. Future Vision reflects strategic vision. POSITIVE ATTRIBUTES Interpersonal Competence is essential for effectiveness in influencing others outside your chain of command. It suggests high confidence in the worth of other people.Power. Conceptual Competence relates to conceptual flexibility in that both are essential for strategic vision. Politics & Leadership style Professional Competence is one of the many ways leaders "add value" by grasping the essential nature of work to be done and providing the organizing guidance so it can be done quickly. and a good sense of the broad span of time over which strategic cause and effect play out. which is reflected in openness and trust in others. Political Sensitivity is being skilled in assessing political issues and interests beyond narrow organizational interests. It involves the personal capacity to develop meaningful roles for subordinates and then to encourage initiative in the execution of these roles. and well. Conceptual Flexibility is the capacity to see problems from multiple perspectives. getting team members the resources to do a Leadership Page 18 . and the ability to understand complex and perhaps unstructured problems quickly. It has to do with the scope of a person's vision and the power of a person's logic in thinking through complex situations. efficiently. It means possessing the ability to compete in an arena immersed in the political frame to ensure that your organization is adequately resourced to support your stated organization interests and those of the nation. It also includes tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. Empowering Subordinates goes beyond simple delegation of tasks and is crucial for creating and leading high performing organizations. Team Performance Facilitation includes selecting good people in assembling a team.
Politics & Leadership style job. It is important to remember there is more interdependence at the strategic level of the organization where task accomplishment is more complex. For example. 3. This step is very important because a leader needs to determine how much power these units have to leverage influence either in support or opposition to their effort. This involves mapping the critical organization units and sub-units and assessing their power bases. With the goal in mind. be part of a team effort and take charge in situations as required. the leader must assess the patterns of dependence and interdependence among the key players and determine to what extent he or she will be successful in influencing their behavior. Getting things done means the leader should "draw" a political map of the terrain that shows the relative power of the various players to fully understand the patterns of dependence and interdependence. Initiative/Commitment is the ability to stay involved and committed to one's work. The first task is to decide what it is the leader is trying to achieve that necessitates the use of power. Understanding the character of strategic leader power and the requisite personal attributes and skills sets the stage for employing power effectively. this implementation decision could change power relationships among the players. It is critical that the leader develop power and influence when the key players have expressed a differing point of view. LEADING WITH POWER The acquisition and use of strategic leader power involves managing a sequential process that is described below: 1. the leader needs to know the opposing players and the depth of Leadership Page 19 . if a leader is proposing to introduce a consensus team decision making process in a joint interdependent environment. get things done.Power. Objectivity is the ability to "keep one's cool" and maintain composure under conditions that might otherwise be personally threatening. providing coordination to get tasks done and moving quickly to confront problem individuals. 2. In this case.
Salancik and Pfeffer. 1964. Developing multiple power bases is a process connected to those personal attributes and skills previously discussed and to structural sources of power. 1977) Framing/Reframing tactics establishes the context for analyzing both the decision and the action taken. 1985. 1992. This process sensitizes the leader to the context of organizational decision making by increasing his or her self-awareness of history-the history of past relationships and past choices. Kotter. and the importance of leading the "right" organization. 1981. Pfeffer. Blau. interpersonal connections with influential others. 1985. Interpersonal influence tactics recognizes that power and influence tactics Leadership Page 20 . Politics & Leadership style their power bases. the strategic leader is positioned to influence what looks reasonable or inappropriate in terms of language and the overall process for generating the decision itself. allies or supporters. location in communication and information networks. Framing and reframing tactics thus give the leader the ability to set a context within which present and possible future decisions are evaluated. reputation for being powerful. The strategic leader must have an arsenal of influence strategies and tactics that convert power and influence into concrete and visible results. 5. Recognizing the need for multiple power bases and developing them is not enough. Structural sources of power comes from the leader's creation and control over resources. Framing and reframing decision making is an important tactic for influencing organizational behavior. 1979. and an important perceptual lens that provides leverage for producing innovative ideas for getting things done. By framing the context early in the process. Research on strategies and tactics for employing power effectively suggests the following range of influence tactics: (Allen. 4. 1978. Bennis and Nanus.Power. This move will likely require the mobilization of allies and the neutralization of resisters.
thinking about the most effective means to influence the individual and crafting appropriate tactics to the needs and concerns of the other person. asking probing questions to understand a countervailing power position. information. Structural tactics can be employed to divide and dominate the opposition. Politics & Leadership style are fundamental to living and operating in a world where organizations are characterized as interdependent social systems that require getting things done with the help of other people. These types of action include: initiating action first to catch your adversary unprepared. Typical behaviors of a leader using these tactics include: high involvement and participation in the decision making process. using delay tactics to erode the confidence of proponents or opponents as it relates to setting priorities. using active listening skills. and maintaining a broad network of individual contacts. allocating resources and establishing deadlines. Timing tactics involve determining not only what to do but when to move out. The sequencing of agenda items is very critical where decisions are interdependent. emotional energy. intellectual stimulation. Empowerment tactics create conditions where subordinates can feel powerful. developmental opportunities and appropriate rewards. Leaders empower their followers and subordinates through a process that provides direction. involving others in the strategy formulation and implementation process. thereby establishing possible advantage in framing a context for action. A leader employing interpersonal influence tactics typically demonstrate behaviors that include: understanding the needs and concerns of the other person. and instilling confidence in those who will implement the solutions. managing constructive relationships with superiors. initiatives and decisions. and formal authority.Power. especially those who have a high need for power. controlling the agenda and order of agenda items to affect how decisions are made. anticipating how individuals may respond to ideas or information. modifying and adapting one's ideas to include suggestions from others. Re-aligning organizational structure can also be used to co-op others to support a leader's ideas. looking for creative and innovative solutions that will benefit the total organization. They can be used to consolidate power by putting a leader or his or her subordinates and allies in a position to exercise more control over resources. peers and subordinates. Effective employment of structural tactics is accomplished when leaders aggressively use their Leadership Page 21 .
facts. and lastly. These influence tactics are typically effective in a political environment involving opposing or resisting forces. Organizational mapping tactics focus the leader's sight on possible power-dependent and interdependent relationships. and preparing arguments to support their case. demonstrate the advantages of their approach. Leadership Page 22 . ceremonies and propitious events. finding and presenting examples that are embedded in the political and cultural frames such as language. using systems thinking to demonstrate the advantages of their approach. garnering support by bringing together individuals from different areas of the organization. and data to influence others. The critical task is to identify and secure the support of important people who can influence others in the organization. Behaviors include: presenting ideas that create an emotional bond with others. isolating key individuals to build support for a decision. by making concessions. interesting or dramatic means to structure a decision situation to gain the support of others. consistently demonstrating high energy and physical stamina in getting the job done. Employment of a leader's expert power base can be used to support logical persuasion. expand and control the organizational landscape. Leaders using these tactics will employ behaviors that include: determining which actors are likely to influence a decision. Impact leadership tactics include thinking carefully about the most profound. linking the reputations of important players to the decision context and working outside formal organization channels to get the support of key decision makers. or by negotiating a decision that mutually advances the interests of all participants. Logical persuasion tactics requires using logical reasons. or when the collective interests of all can be served. Effective use of these tactics include the following behaviors: persuading others by emphasizing the strengths and advantages of their ideas. when a leader is in a position to do something for another individual or group. and preparing arguments to support their case. getting things done by identifying existing coalitions and working through them. developing more than one reason to support one's position.Power. Politics & Leadership style formal power to consolidate. using innovative and creative ways to present information or ideas. Bargaining tactics involve leader behaviors that attempt to gain influence by offering to exchange favors or resources.
or pressure to get others to do what a leader wants done. linking the work of the organization to the leader's vision and broader goals. HOW POWER IS LOST In a general sense power is lost because organizations change and leaders don't. Leaders will use unobtrusive behaviors to disguise their true intention. Typical leader behaviors include: using position power to demand obedient compliance or blind loyalty. Information and analysis tactics suggest that leaders in control of the facts and analysis can exercise substantial influence. orders or instructions. Leaders who have learned to do things a specific way become committed to predictable choices and decision actions. which is to effectively employ influence tactics that seemingly appear rational and analytical. Leader behaviors in executing these tactics include: articulating ideas that connect the organization's membership to an inspiring vision of what the organization can become. and punishing individuals who do not implement the leader's requests. making perfectly clear the costs and consequences of not "playing the game". publicly abusing and reprimanding people for not performing. appealing to organization core values or principles. power may be lost because of negative personal attributes that diminish a leader's capacity to lead with power effectively. Organizational dynamics create complex conditions and different decision situations that require innovative and creative approaches. The SLDI identifies a number of negative attributes that when linked to certain organizational dynamics will generate potential loss of power: Leadership Page 23 . Ultimately. These tactics involve employing threats. new skill sets and new dependent and interdependent relationships. punishment. creating and using cultural symbols to develop both individual pride and team identity.Power. let alone allocating the political will to accomplish it. They remain bonded and loyal to highly developed social networks and friendships. Coercive tactics are the least effective in influencing strategic decisions. beliefs and values. Politics & Leadership style Visioning tactics demonstrate how a leader's ideas and values support the organization's strategic goals. failing to recognize the need for change.
are generally risk averse and lack conceptual understanding of power sharing and subordinate development. take special privileges. Self-Serving/Unethical leaders abuse power and use it for their own self-aggrandizement. Arrogant leaders makes it almost impossible for subordinates to acquire power as a means to improve their own performance as well as to seek new ways to learn and grow." Leaders are generally inaccessible because they don't place great value on building interpersonal relationships. Peers typically "write the individual off. Explosive and abusive leaders may self-destruct repeatedly in coalition building and negotiating situations. they may have weak interpersonal skills or they may be selfcentered. arrogance produces a negative leadership climate that suppresses the power needs of others. Inaccessible leaders are out of touch with their subordinates particularly when they need access for assistance. Politics & Leadership style Technically Incompetent describes leaders who lack the conceptual skills needed to develop vision and be proactive in managing organizational change. have inadequate control of temper. Leaders who over-supervise their subordinates have strong control needs. Over the long run. Micromanagement of subordinates destroys individual and team motivation. If empowering others is about releasing purposeful and creative energy. and abuse subordinates. Arrogant leaders are impressed with their own self-importance. Explosive and Abusive leaders are likely to be "hot reactors" who use profanity excessively. and talk down to both peers and subordinates thereby alienating them.Power. and exploit peers and subordinates by taking credit for contributions done by others. these leaders engender divisiveness and are not trusted. They may also lack the self-control required to probe for in-depth understanding of complex problems and so may consistently solve them at a superficial level. Self-serving leaders contaminate the ethical climate by modeling power-oriented behavior that influences others to replicate their behavior. Leadership Page 24 .
approaches and skill of the leaders that impact the performance of Pakistan International Airlines (PIA). In this report by using the various leadership approaches evaluates the leaders in the context of their leadership skills. politics and the influence of group in the decision making process at PIA. power and traits and come to a conclusion why one leader was successful than the other. style .Power. We will also discuss the Teamwork. Air Marshal Nur Khan was the most successful leader among the above leaders. Politics & Leadership style Organization: Pakistan International Airlines Introduction Over the years many leaders have taken charge of Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) some being successful and some fails to handle this organization. Leadership Page 25 . After a careful analysis. The leaders we have selected for this report are: • • • Air Marshal Malik Nur Khan (a successful leader) Tariq Kirmani (unsuccessful leader) Captain Aijaz Haroon (Too early to say) In the above. recommendations have been proposed to improve the efficacy of the organization. The purpose of this report is to analyze the leadership style.
The structure is centralized as shown in the fig.’ Leadership Page 26 . operating in passenger and cargo services covering eighty-two domestic and foreign destinations. More than 17000 employees are working at PIA. The organogram of the organization follows. It is divided into the following departments: • • • • • • • • • • • • Human Resource and Administration Marketing Corporate Planning Information Services Finance Flight Services Flight Operation Engineering Procurement and Logistics Customer Services Training and Development Quality Assurance. It has a vast experience in the airline industry of Pakistan with a large fleet of aircrafts. The fleet size is 40.1 with the top-level management making the decisions. with the Chairman (PIA) at the top and directors of departments’ reports directly to him. Vision ‘To be a world class airline exceeding customer expectations through dedicated employees committed to excellence.Power. Politics & Leadership style Pakistan International Airline (PIA) Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) is a national airline. Established in 1955.
Culture The culture is determined by the vision and values communicated throughout the structure and amongst people. Since. The final outcome is goal achievement. so the culture is similar to that of any government organization. tasks are highly valued in PIA. PIA is a bureaucratic organization. Values Leadership Page 27 . Politics & Leadership style SEVEN CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE CHARACTERISTICS INNOVATION RISK TAKING ATTENTION DETAIL OUTCOME ORIENTATION PEOPLE ORIENTATION TEAM ORIENTATION AGGRESSIVENESS STABILITY PIA AND Low TO Low High Low High Low High The results show that PIA focuses more on the goal rather than means to achieve it. The culture determines the type of leadership style.Power. individual satisfaction. The workers see this as the quality of work life which directs their degree of motivation. The characteristics and values form the organizational structure which determines the effectiveness of the organization and the behaviour of employees. Therefore. and personal growth and development. communication and group dynamics within the organization.
He was a dynamic leader and believed in innovation and new ideas. The airline at that time inducted modern Boeing 720B jet in its fleet. Politics & Leadership style Brief Introduction of Leaders at PIA Air Marshal Malik Nur Khan Nur Khan was PIA's Managing Director from 1959 to 1965. Nur Khan was particularly requested by the government of Pakistan to resume control of PIA. In 1973. It also started flying to China and flights to Europe via Moscow were also launched. His success in establishing PIA a firm and profitable financial basis in 6 years is now a fact of airline history. He was the catalyst in briging the change in PIA and manage politics inside and outside the organization and use his power with great efficiency. Leadership Page 28 . PIA became operator of wide-body DC-10s and Boeing 747s.Power. During his tenure PIA became the first Asian airline to operate jet aircraft. During his second term (1980-1984) as airline's head. Under his charismatic and motivational leadership PIA became one of the leading and respected airlines of the world.
He motivates his employees by challenging their ability to solve the problems.2007. To be precise he was a charismatic leader that gives him a superhuman power. the organization is not going well. As a Leader Air Marshal Nur Khan Nur khan as a leader was a motivator and an intellectual stimulator. Sources tell that he is a drinking buddy of Asif Ali Zardari and appointed as the MD right after Asif Ali Zardari took over the reign. Unluckily the Fokker crash was a big low to his repute and then the banning by SAFA was the last nail in the coffin. Leadership Page 29 . growth and the expansion of PIA. All his characteristics projected him to be a transformational leader.Power. He treated each employee separately but equitably. it was seen as a good omen for the national flag career. Aijaz Haroon He is the Managing Director of PIA since 2008. He has got no previous management experience and comes from a political background and after his inducement in organization. Capt. He hired in young educated recruits thus brought a fresh air to the stale environment of the PIA offices. Tariq Kirmani during his tenure took a number of steps that bore favorable fruits. Politics & Leadership style Tariq Kirmani Tariq Kirmani was MD of PIA between 2006. Pakistan International Airlines at that time was already in heavy waters and bearing unimaginable losses. He setup the infrastructure for PIA and was committed to the development.
low supportive and low directing. Leadership Page 30 .e. His leadership style is delegating i. this leads him to be the authoritative leader. perceptual and reasoning ability as against his descendents. He doesn’t make any decision on knowledge. Trait Approach Intelligence: According to the employees Nur Khan was considered to be the intelligent leader as against the Tariq Kirmani and Aijaz Haroon. he sets direction that how to achieve goals. In short. Aijaz Haroon Capt. he is an intuition make decision maker. Capt. He got a very strong verbal. he was a transactional leader.e.e. Politics & Leadership style Tariq Kirmani Tariq Kirmani was a visionary leader. They were very much certain about their competencies and skills. he takes a “hands-off. So. give no feed back to his employees. Aijaz Haroon is Laissez-faire leader i. Apart from this he also focuses on the rebranding of PIA. Self Confidence: All the leaders possess this ability. delay decisions. vision and goals i.Power. As a leader he is very much ineffective and de-motivating. He also brings in the concept of performance based bonuses. He was more focused toward the task. To accomplish his tasks he establish mission. The reason being he abdicates responsibility. He got no management experience and comes from a political-party.let things ride” approach.
Tariq has a little technical knowledge. with a human skill as against the needs and motivation of needs in his decision making.Tariq were very determined leader i. Whereas Mr. Aijaz who both comes from a political party. We see that that only Mr. Sociability: This characteristic is found in all the leaders that we are considering. May be the reason behind is that Mr. Nur as against the other two leaders. Aijaz is the one who have the technical knowledge about how things are carried out.Nur and Mr. But as a leader technical skill is not that much important then the conceptual skill.Power. he was sensitive to others. Conceptual Skill: Conceptual skills are critical for creating a vision and strategic plan for the organization. Mr. they were very enthusiastic to get the job done where as Mr.e. Human Skill: Human skills are the people effectively with the followers. skills. Mr. Nur and Mr. Politics & Leadership style Determination: It basically refers to the desire to get the job done. Nur and Mr. These skills help leaders in dealing peers and superiors. Aijaz who lacks this skill.Aijaz is very much less concerned about the task as well as the people as a result lacks determination. Tariq and Mr. We found that Mr. Nur was an emergent and assigned leader as Against Mr. Nur was a leader the other two leaders. They all are sensitive to other needs and show concern for their well-being. Integrity: Integrity inspires confidence in other we see this quality in Mr. Skill Approach Technical Skills: It refers to having a specific knowledge about and being proficient about a specific type of work and activity. Tariq possess this skill as against Mr. This skill makes both the leaders to work easily and effectively with ideas and concepts. and taking into account the other Leadership Page 31 .
He place heavy emphasis on the task as against people needs.e. He places a strong concern for the task and for the people. Tariq Kirmani His leadership style is Authoritative-Compliance Management i. This style not only satisfies the employee needs but also promote high degree of participation and teamwork in the organization. Politics & Leadership style Leadership Style Grid Air Martial Nur Khan On the leadership grid MR. 1) on the leadership grid. 9) i. he lies on the (1. He smartly manages politics inside the organization in positive aspects and exerts his power to make this organization a leading organization of Pakistan. (9. 1) on the leadership Grid.e. Capt. Aijaz Haroon He is a leader who is unconcerned about the people as well as the task. Team Management. So. Leadership Grid Leadership Page 32 . Nur leadership style is (9. For him people are just the tools to get the job done.Power.
He motivates his employees to think in a broader way and give his support whenever they need it.Power. Situational Leadership Leadership Page 33 . Capt. He gave the responsibility to the subordinates for getting the job done the way they see fit. As mentioned earlier he has got no technical background and we think this prevent him to give his support to his employees in how to do the work.e. high directive and high supporting as he was involved with the employees and encourage their input. low directing and low supporting.e. high directing and low supporting. Aijaz Haroon His leadership style is delegating i.e. The main reason was that he was less concerned about the people all was that were the task to be completed within the specified time. He disruptor negative politics inside and outside organization and try to minimize the political politics with his charismatic leadership. Tariq Kirmani Tariq Kirmani leadership style was a directing style i. Politics & Leadership style Situational Leadership Air Marshal Nur Khan Nur Khan’s Leadership behavior is coaching i.
Nur and Mr. Position Power The position power of Mr.e. Tariq which implies Mr. Whereas the Leader-Member relation was poor in the case of Mr. Nur and Mr. Aijaz the reason being the employees shows distrust and lack of confidence in them. Aijaz as they haven’t had a complete control over the task. Tariq and Mr.Power. Contingency Model of Air Marshal Nur Khan Leadership Page 34 . Aijaz is low as compared to Mr. The task structure was low in the case of Mr. leader has got more control over the task and as a result the task were clearly defined in Mr. Tariq Kirmani was directing i. trust and loyalty towards him and this make the relation good. Task Structure As mentioned earlier that the leadership style of Mr. in the case of the Leader-Member relation the employee show confidence. Tariq Kirmani case. Politics & Leadership style Contingency Model Leader-Member Relations Since. Tariq has the authority to hire and fire or give raises in rank or pay.
Power. Aijaz Haroon Laissez-faire Leader Technical skills Human & conceptual Conceptual skills skills Team Management Coaching People Oriented Authority Compliance Impoverished Management Management Directing Task Oriented Delegating Indifferent Leadership Page 35 . Politics & Leadership style Contingency Model of Tariq Kirmani Contingency Model for Capt. Aijaz Haroon Comparative Analysis of Leaders Air Marshal Nur Khan Transformational Leader Tariq Kirmani Transactional Leader Capt.
easy access to information and resolution of the conflicts.000 employees has various formal and informal groups. The employees will work with more commitment and dedication as he was heard in the decision making process and this would increase the level of motivation. These informal groups are formed because of most of the employees are working in the organization for several years. All these teams have different sets of tasks to perform but unity among these teams is necessary to run the day to day operations. Politics & Leadership style Teamwork Team Work is an important element in the airline industry and PIA is not any different. Hence. As a result issues regarding their behavior would lessen. it is difficult to make team work efficient so. Leadership Page 36 . from ticket reservation to the landing of the plane team work is the decisive factor. so it would ultimately lead to more satisfied employees and enhanced productivity of the organization. flight attendants. cabin crew. As a result employees would feel more comfortable and independent to discuss the issues explicitly without hesitation. Employee Empowerment PIA should make efforts towards employee participation in the decision making process that result in more employee satisfaction and enhanced motivation.Power. Employees work in various teams such as ground staff. Two-Way Communication The implications of the employees can prove to be very effective in improving the operations as they are the ones who manage them. it is major challenge for them. a top-down approach should be replaced with two-way communications. Because of the diverse nature of employees at PIA. The informal groups can manipulate the overall decision making process to some extent due to the nature of the workplace. increased motivation. office staff etc. Influence of Groups on Decision Making PIA as one of the biggest organization that is operating in Pakistan having more than 17. Recommendations for Pakistan International Airlines Decentralization Pakistan International Airline (PIA) should decentralize its structure and that would lead to the easy management.
the skills of using power and influence are critical to getting change accomplished. Leadership Page 37 . It requires building and maintaining a reputation for being effective and it necessitates the skill in getting things done. Leading and managing with power takes time. and leaders need to understand where they are located and what issues are of concern to them. the existence of organizational politics is a reality to most organizations and successful strategic leaders must be good politicians. Politics & Leadership style As a result. In large. Organizational change frequently creates organizational alignments that cause those in power to lose that power. The use of power goes beyond exercising formal authority. It is critical to recognize that in almost every organization.Power. energy and effort. it is critical to know how to develop sources of power and how to employ that power strategically and tactically. implementing new ideas requires developing political will and the skillful use of power and influence. Leveraging Power and Politics in Strategic Decision Making: Practical Implications Power is not last dirty word. It's important to determine whether the most critical sources of power are personal attributes or location in the organization. consequently. Employing power and influence tactics at the strategic level is more about method and process than exercising formal authority. To be effective in the implementation process. complex organizations with more centralized control and institutionalized power. It is important to be able to recognize and assess the organization context of power if ideas and plans are to be implemented effectively. there are clusters of interests. the employees would feel motivated and valued as they would be included in decision-making. Innovation and organizational change almost inevitably threatens the status quo.
Politics & Leadership style In evaluating personal attributes as effective sources of power. the key question is not whether they are attractive or unattractive. but whether they are useful. Leadership Page 38 .Power. It is important to have multiple bases of power to translate influence tactics into concrete results.
In S.Power. Lessons from community partnerships. L.Srivastva&Associates(Eds. Team Leader inbound department at PIA Contact Center Brown. Power. and Politics: How Can You Obtain the Power to Shape Action in Your Organization? Submitted by Susan Letterman Leadership Page 39 . (1986). Power outside organizational paradigms. Politics & Leadership style Bibliography Imran Khan ( Trouble Shooter 1100+) Team Leader Passenger Agency Sales Unit at Pakistan International Airlines Pakistan | Airlines/Aviation Current Status: Team Leader Passenger Agency Sales Unit at Pakistan International Airlines Sheeraz Akhtar Team Leader inbound department at PIA Contact Center Pakistan | Airlines/Aviation Current: Team Leader at Pakistan International Airlines.). Executive power: How executives influence people and organizations.D. San Franci sco: Jossey-Bass Leadership.
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