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MODULE 10
Earthing and Lightning/Surge
Protection
Topic 10.4 Topic 10.4 Topic 10.4 Topic 10.4
Lighting Protection Of Structures Lighting Protection Of Structures Lighting Protection Of Structures Lighting Protection Of Structures
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Key Learning Objectives
ವ Basics of Lightning protection
ವ Protection system design approach
ವ Evaluation of protection zone
ವ Main components of protection system
ವ Relation between type of construction and protection
ವ Side flash-Prevention by lsolation or Bonding
ವ Non Conventional protection systems
ವ Protection of electrical installations
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Protection Basics
ವ Attract a downward leader away from
vulnerable parts
ವ Conduct discharge current safely into the
ground
ವ Provide multiple paths for lower impedance
ವ Ensure good grounding
ವ Ensure bonding to avoid differential potential
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Entry And Exit Points
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Protection Levels-lEC 61024-1
ವ Protection efficiency is the product of
ದ lnterception efficiency (how well lightning can be
attracted by the lightning protection system) and
ದ Sizing efficiency (Adequacy of lightning conductors
to carry the lightning discharge current)
ವ Protection level l represents the highest
efficiency and level lV the lowest
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PROTECTlON LEVELS Vs
EFFlENCY
ವ Level l 98%
ವ Level ll 95%
ವ Level lll 90%
ವ Level lV 80%
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Peak Current Distribution
ವ Source BS:6651
ದ 1% of strokes exceed 200 kA
ದ 10% of strokes exceed 80 kA
ದ 50% of strokes exceed 28 kA
ದ 90% of strokes exceed 8 kA
ದ 99% of strokes exceed 3 kA
ವ Useful in assessing protection effectiveness
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Quiz
ವ A structure is provided with protection Level
lll. lt is not likely to attract a lightning stroke
with peak current
a) 100 kA
b) 60 kA
c) 10 kA
d) 3 kA
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Protection Design
ವ Risk assessment to verify need for protection
ವ Evaluate the zone of protection
ವ Decide placement of air terminations accordingly
ವ Select/place down conductors or alternatively use of
conducting vertical structures
ವ Provide earth electrodes
ವ Review services to/from building
ವ Provide bonding to avoid differential potential
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Zone Of Protection
ವ The portion of space within which an object or
structure is considered to be protected by a
lightning protection system
ವ Helps in deciding which parts of a building are
protected by other parts
ವ Unprotected parts will need air terminations
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Evaluation Methods
ವ Cone of protection (Geometric protection)
ವ lmproved cone of protection
ವ RSM (Electro Geometric Approach)
ವ Collection volume (lmproved Electro
Geometric approach)
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Protection Methods
ವ Franklin Rod
ವ Mesh/Faraday Cage
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Franklin Rod uses
Cone of Protection
principle
Cone Of Protection
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Drawbacks
ವ Lacks scientific basis
ವ Unreliable
ವ Cannot be easily applied to large buildings
ವ Efficacy for tall structures doubtful
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lmproved Cone Of Protection
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Mesh Type Protection
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Mesh Type Protection
Principle:
ವ A building enclosed within a conducting cage
is not affected.
ವ Lightning discharge goes around the building.
Examples:
ದ Aircraft, Automobiles, Metal buildings
ವ Also Called Faraday Cage protection
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A Practical Mesh
ವ Air terminations on the top
ವ Downconductors to conduct discharge
currents to ground
ವ Ground electrodes connected to each
downconductor
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A Practical Mesh
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Protection
Level
Mesh Spacing
I 5m x 5m
II 10m x 10m
III 15m x 15m
IV 20m x 20m
Mesh Spacing For Flat Surface
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Rolling Sphere Method (RSM)
ವ Used in combination with Mesh type protection
ವ Basis of all current Standards of Lightning Protection
of Buildings
ವ Uses the principle of rolling an imaginary sphere over
a building to ascertain the need for protection
ವ Surfaces which the sphere can touch need to be
protected.
ವ Smaller the radius of the sphere, more effective is the
protection
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RSM Example
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Sphere Radii And Protection Levels
Protection Level Radius of Sphere
m
Interception
current kA peak
I 20 2.9
II 30 5.4
III 45 10.1
IV 60 15.7
Note: Protection Level III is called the Standard level
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RSM-lnadequacies
ವ Effects of field intensification created by the
structure not considered
ವ Results in conservative design
ವ At the same time some parts remain
vulnerable
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Vulnerable Features
ವ Pointed apex roofs, spires and protrusions
ವ Gable roof ridge ends
ವ Outer roof corners
ವ Exposed edges of horizontal roofs, and the
slanting and horizontal edge of gable roofs
ವ Lower horizontal edges and vertical edges on
outer-sides just below corners
ವ Flat surfaces near points and corners
ವ lntruding surfaces
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RSM-lmprovements
ವ Paper by Hartono and Robiah
ವ Studies conducted in Singapore and Malaysia
ವ RSM does not consider the issue of relative
risk of different points in a building.
ವ The paper documents actual strikes on
unprotected features.
ವ Top corners, Horizontal edges and Vertical
Edges are the most vulnerable (in that order)
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Flat Roof Protection
Method adopted in AS:1768 (Australian Lightning
Protection standard)
ವ Recommends use of larger sphere radius (Next slide)
ವ Use of vertical air terminations in addition to
horizontal conductors
ವ Permits increased spacing of horizontal conductors
ವ Alternatively, horizontal conductors placed at an
elevation
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Protection Of Large Flat Surfaces
Protection Level Radius of Sphere m (Dual
values)
I 20 (60)
II 30 (60)
III 45 (90)
IV 60 (120)
Note:
Larger radius values are applicable for large
flat surfaces
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Large Flat Side-protection
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Protection System Components
ವ Air Terminals
ವ Down conductors
ವ Grounding system
Note:
ದ Actual design of these components will be as per
applicable local codes
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Air Terminals
ವ Combination of horizontal and vertical
conductors
Examples:
ದ Spire: single vertical rod
ದ Sloped roof: single horizontal termination on the
ridge
ದ Large flat roof: Combination of horizontal and
vertical conductors
ದ Explosive store: lndependently supported
horizontally strung wires
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Minimum Sizes-air Terminals
ವ Strip conductors 25mm x 3mm
ವ Rods 10mm dia.
ವ Stranded conductors 35 sq.mm
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Methods of connecting Air termination with down conductors
Air Terminals
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Down Conductors
ವ A means of carrying the lightning discharge current
to ground.
ವ Air terminations also protect the vertical side
surfaces.
ವ To be provided along the periphery at interval 30m or
less.
ವ Re-bars of RCC Columns and Structural columns
may act as downconductors
ವ Avoid re-entrant loops.
ವ Down conductors at all building corners.
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Downconductors-minimum Sizes
ವ Strip conductors 25mm x 3mm
ವ Rods 10mm dia.
ವ Stranded conductors 35 Sq.mm
ವ Galvanised materials 35 Sq.mm
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Earthing
ವ Low impedance electrode for limiting the touch
and step potential
ವ Difficulty in measuring impedance, specially at
high frequency.
ವ Electrodes of 10 Ohm resistance are
considered adequate, as a rule of thumb.
ವ lnterconnection with other electrodes will
further reduce the impedance.
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LPS Materials -Requirements
ವ Conductivity
ವ Mechanical Strength
ವ Durability
ವ Corrosion resistance
ವ Should not result in corrosion of other building
services
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LPS Materials
ವ Preferred: Copper, Galvanised Steel and Aluminium
ದ Caution: Copper may cause corrosion of steel materials
when used as ground electrodes. To consider cathodic
protection.
ವ Conducting coatings on LPS components-Non
inflammable and durable.
ವ Air Terminations for chimneys to be coated with tin or
lead for corrosion avoidance.
ವ Materials in the form of strips preferred to circular
sections due to skin effect.
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Structure Plays A Role-1
ವ Completely metallic building does not need air
terminations or down conductors
ವ Grounding of structural support columns is
adequate.
ವ Bonding between roof members and vertical
supports must be ensured
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Structure Plays A Role-2
ವ Building with Non conducting roof and steel
columns needs air terminations but no down
conductors.
ವ Air terminations to be bonded to support
columns.
ವ Support columns to be connected to ground
electrodes.
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Structure Plays A Role-3
ವ An RCC frame building needs air terminations,
down conductors and ground electrodes.
ವ Rebars can serve as down conductors by
proper bonding.
ವ Column RCC footings can be used as ground
electrodes if resistance values are adequate.
(To be measured for typical cases during
construction)
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Side Flash
ವ Occurs due to High Potential rise between
LPS components and adjacent metallic
surfaces.
ವ The resulting potential gradient may cause
break down of the air gap and cause a flash
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Side Flash
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Side Flash-inhibition
ವ By lsolation
ವ By Bonding
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Side Flash-isolation
ವ By maintaining appropriate air clearances
ದ Caution: can be compromised by later
modifications/additional services
ವ By applying proper external insulation on LPS
conductors
ದ Caution: High impulse insulation required for preventing
breakdown may be difficult to achieve
ದ Caution: Other service piping may also assume high
transferred potentials
ವ Useful only for very small structures
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Side Flash-bonding
ವ Connecting of all metal surfaces with lightning
protection conductors (at different levels, including
below ground)
ವ Bonding to include:
ದ All structural Steel members
ದ All exposed metal parts on the building exterior
ದ (Ex: Window frames)
ದ All metallic piping (with due care to Cathodic protection)
ದ All cable sheathing, Armoring etc. of power,
communication and Data cables
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Non Conventional Systems
ವ Designs based mainly on laboratory
experiments.
ವ Aimed at cost effective design by reduction of
number of terminations.
ವ Two basic types:
ದ Early Streamer Emission
ದ Charge Transfer System
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Early Streamer Emission
ವ Deploys some form of active vertical
termination.
ವ lntense electrical field created when a
downward leader is sensed.
ವ A very fast upward streamer propagated
1m/Micro Sec.
ವ Active Terminations may use for this purpose:
ದ Radio active sources
ದ Passive electronics
ದ Powered by external source
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Charge Transfer System
ವ Also called dissipation Array
OR
ವ Lightning Elimination system
ವ Deploys an elevated array of sharp points.
ವ Emits Corona currents when a charged cloud
is overhead to neutralize cloud charge.
ವ Prevents downward leaders.
ವ Suppresses a lightning strike
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Non Conventional Systems
Drawbacks/Problems
ವ No scientific proof
ವ Work in Laboratory but failures have been
reported in actual use
ವ Conflicting claims
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Effect Of Lightning On Electrical
lnstallations
ವ Direct strikes on overhead lines and outdoor
substations
ದ Surges in lines causing failures of insulators
ದ Overvoltage at terminal equipment
ವ lndirect strike (near overhead lines)
ದ Overvoltage at terminal equipment
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Effects On Overhead Lines
ವ A direct strike on a conductor of a power line causes
extremely high voltage pulses at the strike point,
ವ The pulses form traveling waves in either direction
from the point of strike.
ವ The crest of the pulse can be calculated as:
V = 0.5 x l x Z
&
where
ದ V is the crest voltage
ದ l is the peak lightning current (dividing into two parts) and
ದ Z
&
is the surge impedance (or Characteristic impedance)
seen by the pulse along the direction of travel
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Effects On Overhead Lines
ವ lmpedance Z is approximately 150 Ohms.
ವ For a peak current of 40 kA the voltage of the
pulse will be 3000 kV, far higher than what any
line can withstand.
ವ Conclusion
A direct strike will cause a flash-over except in
lines of very high BlL (400 kV systems or
higher)
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Lightning Current Along A Line
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Lightning Strike On Shield Wire
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Lightning Protection Of Lines
ವ The surge current will flow into the ground through
the first tower on either side
ವ ln the process a voltage is generated due to the
impedance of the grounding path (previous slide)
ವ The voltage can cause a breakdown of the air space
between line conductors and shield wire
ವ Shield wire is not useful for lines of less than 90 kV
where the clearance is insufficient to prevent
breakdown
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Substation Protection
ವ lndoor substations are immune from direct
strikes
ವ Outdoor substations need to be protected by
ದ Lightning masts which can be:
ವ Free standing
ವ lntegrated with other structures
ದ Shield wires strung over the equipment
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Protection Analysis
ವ Cone of protection method
ವ Rolling sphere method (Recommended for
large substations)
ವ Examples shown in next slides
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Substation Yard With Multiple Masts
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OUTDOOR SWlTCHYARD
PROTECTlON
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RSM-Protection By Mast
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RSM Applied To Outdoor Switchyard
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Lightning Arrestors ln Substations
ವ Direct lightning strike on a line causes a breakdown
but there will be a residual surge
ವ lndirect strike (on shield wire or any point on the
ground near the line) will cause a current pulse in
phase conductors and result in a voltage surge
ವ This energy needs to be diverted away from terminal
equipment such as circuit breakers, transformers,
measuring devices etc.
ವ This is done by lightning arrestors
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End of Session
Topic 10.4 Topic 10.4 Topic 10.4 Topic 10.4
Lighting Protection Of Structures
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