# Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) on Mac

24. Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)
Binary Frequency-Shift Keying (BFSK) [1-3] A binary frequency-shift keying (BFSK) signal can be defined by  A cos 2π f0t, s (t) =   A cos 2π f1t, 0≤t≤T elsewhere

(24.1)

where A is a constant, f 0 and f 1 are the transmitted frequencies, and T is the bit duration. The signal has a power P = A 2 /2, so that A = 2 P . Thus equation (24.1) can be written as   =       =        =     2 P cos 2π f0t, 2 P cos 2π f1t, PT PT E 2 cos 2π f0t, T 2 cos 2π f1t, T 2 cos 2π f0t, T 0≤t≤T elsewhere 0≤t≤T elsewhere 0≤t≤T (24.2) elsewhere

s (t)

2 E cos 2π f1t, T

where E = PT is the energy contained in a bit duration. For orthogonality, f0 = m /T and f 1 = n / T for integer n > integer m and f 1 - f 0 must be an integer multiple of 1 / 2 T. We can take φ 1 ( t ) = 2 2 cos 2 π f 0 t and φ 2 ( t ) = sin 2 π f 1 t as the T T orthonormal basis functions [3]. The applicable signal constellation diagram of the orthogonal BFSK signal is shown in Figure 24.1. Figure 24.1 Orthogonal BFSK signal constellation diagram. Figure 24.2 shows the BFSK signal sequence generated by the binary sequence 0 1 0 1 0 0 1. Figure 24.2 (a) Binary sequence, (b) BFSK signal, and (c) binary modulating and BASK signals.

24.1

Figure 24. ∆ f = β B is the frequency deviation . The bandwidth is approximately equal to 2 ∆ f . the Fourier transform of the BFSK signal s(t) is j 2π f 0 t A ∞ ] e-j2 π ft dt+ [m 0 (t) e ∫ 2 −∞ -j 2π f0t -j2 π ft A ∞ ]e dt+ [m 0 (t) e ∫ 2 −∞ j 2π f 1 t A ∞ ] e-j2 π ft dt+ [m 1 (t) e ∫ 2 −∞ -j 2π f1 t -j2 π ft A ∞ ]e dt [m 1 (t) e ∫ 2 −∞ = A M 0 (f . Figure 24. we have a narrowband BFSK signal. (b) Spectrum of (a). When ∆f >> 1/T.f 0 = 2∆ f and s(t) = Acos2π( fc + ∆f)t (24.2 . An alternative representation of the BFSK signal consists of letting f0 = fc .∆ f and f1 = fc + ∆f.3 shows the amplitude spectrum of the BFSK signal when m 0 (t) and m 1 (t) are periodic pulse trains.3 (a) Modulating signals. 24. β is the modulation index .4 shows the modulator and coherent demodulator for BFSK signals [2].5) (24. Figure 24. Then f 1 .3) Figure 24. The bandwidth is approximately equal to 2B.4 (a) BFSK modulator and (b) coherent demodulator.Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) on Mac It can be seen that phase continuity is maintained at transitions.4) where f c is the carrier frequency. When ∆ f << 1/T .f0 ) + A M 0 ( f + f0 ) + 2 2 A M (f . Further. the BFSK signal is the sum of two BASK signals generated by two modulating signals m 0 ( t ) and m1(t). Therefore.f ) + A M (f + f ) 1 1 2 1 2 1 S (f) = (24. we have a wideband BFSK signal. and (c) spectrum of BFSK signal (positive frequencies only). and B = 1/T is the bandwidth of the modulating signal.

M ..3 . f 3 = ( k + 4)/ T . Thus equation (24.. . Figure 24. the arbitrary phase angle θ' is taken to be zero. 2 PT cos(2 π fit + θ '). .7) where E = PT is the energy of s ( t ) contained in a symbol duration for i = 0. Figure 24. f 1 = (k + 2)/ T . Figure 24. we can take φ 1 (t) = 2 2 cos 2 π f 0 t ... 1. It has a power P = A 2/2. φ 2 ( t ) = sin 2 π f 1 t . and T is the symbol duration.Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) on Mac M-ary Frequency-Shift Keying (M -FSK) [2-4] An M-ary frequency-shift keying (M-FSK) signal can be defined by  A cos(2π fit + θ' ).1. A is a constant. Figure 24.. Here. as the orthonormal basis T T functions [3]. 24. M .1. f i is the transmitted frequency... T 0<t<T 0<t<T 0<t<T (24.. 1. T 2 E cos(2 π fit + θ '). Figure 24.6 4-FSK modulation: (a) binary signal and (b) 4-FSK signal..6) for i = 0. s (t) =  0. Figure 24. .5 Orthogonal 3-FSK signal constellation diagram. For convenience..7 (a) M-FSK modulator and (b) coherent demodulator. .5 shows the signal constellation diagram of an orthogonal 3-FSK signal.7 shows the modulator and coherent demodulator for M-FSK signals [4]. so that A = 2 P ..6 shows the 4-FSK signal generated by the binary sequence 00 01 10 11. The mapping table simply maps the detected index i onto a binary vector. θ ' is the initial phase angle.6) can be written as s (t) = = = 2 P cos(2π fit + θ '). If we choose f 0 = k / T . 0≤t≤T elsewhere (24. k > 0.

9 shows the modulator and a possible implementation of the coherent demodulator for M-QAM signals. Taub and D. Here. Schwartz.Ei sinθ i Ei cosθi T 2 sin2πfct T 2 sin2πf t c T (24. =  0. Digital Communication Systems. =  0.. If we take φ 1 ( t ) = T T orthonormal basis functions. θ i is the phase angle. It has a power P i = A i 2 /2. McGraw Hill. 0≤t≤T elsewhere 0≤t≤T elsewhere s (t) (24...Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) on Mac M-ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (M -QAM) An M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM) signal can be defined by  Ai cos(2π fct + θi ).9) can be written as s (t) = P i T cosθi = 2 cos2πfct . 2/e. 1987. and T is the symbol duration. . Schilling. Thus equation (24..1. Principles of Communication Systems.8. A i is the amplitude. L. Information Transmission..Pi T sinθ i T 2 cos2πfct .9) for i = 0.9 (a) M-QAM modulator and (b) coherent demodulator. M . 1990. and Noise. H. Modulation. 2 2 cos 2 π f c t and φ 2 ( t ) = sin 2π f c t as the M . References [1] M. so that Ai = 2 P i . McGraw Hill. f c is the carrier frequency. 4/e. P.8 (a) 16-QAM and (b) 4-QAM signal constellation diagrams. (24. Peebles. . 1.. the applicable signal constellation diagrams of the 16-QAM and 4-QAM signals are shown in Figure 24. Figure 24.4 [2] [3] . Jr. 1.10) where E i = P iT is the energy of s ( t) contained in a symbol duration for i = 0.8)  Ai cosθi cos 2π fct − Ai sin θi sin 2π fct. Figure 24. 1986 24.. Prentice Hall.1. Figure 24. Z.

24.Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) on Mac [4] F.5 . 2000. Artech House. Xiong. Digital Modulation Techniques.

2 (a) Binary sequence.1 Orthogonal BFSK signal constellation diagram. Binary sequence 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 T (a) Time s (t ) BFSK signal A -A 0 (b) Time m (t ) 0 1 0 BASK signal Time A -A m (t ) 1 1 Time 0 Time BASK signal A -A 0 (c) Time Figure 24. (b) BFSK signal. and (c) binary modulating and BASK signals.6 .Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) on Mac φ ( t ) = 2 cos 2 π f t 2 1 T E s1 s0 0 E φ ( t ) = 2 cos 2 π f t 1 0 T Figure 24. 24.

24. (b) Spectrum of (a).7 . 0 2B f 0+3 T fc (c) f 0-3 T f 0 1 f 0 +1 f 0T T f1 .4 (a) BFSK modulator and (b) coherent demodulator.5 Am 0 ( t ) cos 4 π f 0 t + 0.3 (a) Modulating signals. 0..5 Am ( t ) 1 Σ + - 0 m (t ) 0 or m (t ) 1 ~ ~ 0..3 T f1 1 f1 f1 + 1 T T f f1 +3 T Figure 24.5 Am1 ( t ) cos 4 π f 1 t + 0.5 Am ( t ) 0.5 Am ( t ) 0 0 ~ m (t ) 0 A cos 2 π f 0 t Σ m (t ) 1 Acos 2 π f t 1 (a) ~ s (t ) s ( t ) cos 2 π f t 0 0. and (c) spectrum of BFSK signal (positive frequencies only).5 Am ( t ) 1 cos 2 π f 1 t (b) Figure 24.Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) on Mac m (t) 0 0 1 0 m ( t) 1 1 0 1 0 1 t M ( f ) or M ( f ) 0 1 Envelope 1 2T f 3 T T 2T 3T (a) t -3 -2 T T -1 0 B =1 T T (b) 2 T S ( f) 1 2T 2∆f Envelope 1 2T β = ∆f B 2B .

0 E φ ( t ) = 2 cos 2 π f t 1 0 T Binary sequence 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 Time s (t ) 4-FSK signal (a) A -A 0 Time T T (b) Figure 24.5 Orthogonal 3-FSK signal constellation diagram.Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) on Mac φ ( t ) = 2 cos 2 π f t 2 1 T E s1 s0 s2 E φ ( t ) = 2 cos 2 π f t 3 2 T Figure 24.6 4-FSK modulation: (a) binary signal and (b) 4-FSK signal.8 . 24.

24.) dt 0 cos 2 π f M -1 t l M -1 (b) Figure 24.) dt 0 cos 2 π f 0 t l0 s (t ) : cos 2 π f 1 t T (.Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) on Mac log M bits 2 Binary Serial sequence to parallel converter D/A converter Frequency s ( t ) modulator : (a) T (.) dt 0 : l 1 Choose max l i Binary sequence Mapping table T (.7 (a) M-FSK modulator and (b) coherent demodulator.9 .

8 (a) 16-QAM and (b) 4-QAM signal constellation diagrams.5 Ai cos θ i sin 4 π f c t + θ i = tan (.5 Ai cos θ i s (t ) cos 2 π f c t ^ -1 0.5A i sin θ i (b) sin 2 π f c t Figure 24.Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) on Mac s0 s7 s8 s 15 φ ( t ) = .) 0. log M bits 2 Binary sequence Serial to parallel converter Ai cos θ i : Assign amplitude + s (t ) Ai cos 2 π f c t Σ and A i sin θ i phase θi sin 2 π f c t (a) 0.9 (a) M-QAM modulator and (b) coherent demodulator.2 sin 2 π f t 2 c T s3 s2 s1 s5 E4 s 4 θ φ ( t ) = 2 cos 2 π f t 4 1 c T 0 s9 s 10 s 11 s6 s 14 φ 2( t ) s0 E1 0 s1 θ1 φ (t ) 1 s3 (b) s2 s 13 s 12 (a) Figure 24.5 A i cos θ i cos 4 π f c t 0.10 .5 A i sin θ i Binary Mapping sequence table ~ ~ -0. 24.5 Ai sin θ i sin 4 π f c t + 0.5 A i sin θ i cos 4 π f c t 0.5 Ai cos θ i ~ ~ 0.