Alkalinity and Hardness

When alkalinity is greater than the total hardness, then all the hardness is in the carbonate form. 1 When pH is less than 8.3, all the alkalinity is in the bicarbonate (carbonate) form; this is “natural alkalinity”. 2 When the pH is above 8.3, the alkalinity may consist of carbonate, bicarbonate and hydroxide. As pH increases, the alkalinity shifts towards the carbonate and hydroxide forms. 2 Carbonate hardness (temporary hardness) is removed by lime only. 3 Non-carbonate hardness (permanent hardness) is removed with lime and soda ash. 3 Levels of Hardness 5 Extremely soft to soft Soft to moderately hard Moderately hard to hard Hard to very hard Very hard to excessively hard Too hard for ordinary domestic use Alum / Alkalinity Ratio For every mg/L of alum added, 0.45 mg/L of bicarbonate alkalinity is required to complete the chemical reaction. 2:1 (1 alum to ½ bicarbonate alkalinity) 6 Definitions: Alkalinity – Capacity of water to neutralize acids. A measure of how much acid must added to a liquid to lower the pH to 4.5 It is expressed in mg/L of equivalent CaCO3 4 0-45 46-90 91-130 131-170 171-250 OVER 250

81. 14. 2. II. Total hardness – Sum of the carbonate hardness and the noncarbonate hardness.22 II. 14. 5.Hydrated lime – Ca(OH)2 .Calcium Hydroxide Quicklime – CaO . 4. 14. 6. 14. 3. table 14. 176.31 II. 5. carbonate and hydroxide. 78.Calcium Oxide Total alkalinity – Sum of the bicarbonate. 82.1 I. Footnotes 1.20 II. 84.241 . 81.22 II.

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