B

O
O
K
1

EdkifiHrJh? tajcrJh uav;rsm;? q&mq&mrrsm;ESifhtwl…
EdkifiH&Sdaomfvnf; 'Drdkua&pDtpdk;&tkyfcsKyfa&;r&&Sdao;wJh uav;rsm;? q&mq&mrrsm;udk
tpOfowd&vQuf …

rlvwef;tqifh rnfonfh jyXmef;pmtkyfESifhrqdk yl;wGJavhusifhoif-um;&ef vrf;n¸efpmtkyfwpftkyf?

B
O
O
K
1

Thein Naing
B.Appl.Sc Grad.Dip.Ed M.Ed

Principal
Federal Institute of Teacher Education

Academic Coordinator

NHEC

pGef@OD;wDxGifzefwD;vdkpdwf (Creativity) udkðypkysKd;axmif&efESifh
a0befydkif;jcm;pOf;pm;awG;ac: jcif; (Critical Thinking) pGrf;&nfrsm;
zGH@ðzd;wdk;wufap&ef rlvwef;tqifh oifcef;pmtpDtpOfrsm; (q&mvrf;n¸ef)
Lesson Plans and teacher resources for Developing
Critical Thinking and Creativity (Primary grades)

yHkESdyfjcif;rSww
f rf;
pmtkyftrnf
yxrt=udrf
tkyaf &
rsufESmzHk;yef;csD
pmtkyf'DZdkif;ESifhtjyiftqif
xkwfa0

'Drdkua&pDpmoifcef;twGif;u uBm=uD;
arv 2006
1 000
pef;aomfwm
qm,m
ynma&;tpDtpOf/ NHEC

qufoG,f&ef
Education Program
PO Box 178 Chiang Mai University
Chiang Mai 50202 Thailand
Tel./Fax.
Mobile:
Email:
Web:

+66 (053) 357 083
09 999 6135
theinnaing@nhecburma.org
tnaing2003@yahoo.com
www.nhecburma.org

Trlvwef;tqifh q&mvrf;n$efpmtkyfudk pDrHcsuf0ife,fajrrsm;ESifh qufpyfa'orsm;twGif;&Sd
rlvwef; pmoifausmif;rsm;ESifh q&mq&mrrsm;twGuf (wpfausmif;wpftkyfE_ef;jzifh - ausmif;
wpfaxmif) tcrJh uef@owfjzef@csDonf? ynma&;twGuf toHk;ðy&ef xyfqifh aumfyDul;,l
Edkifygonf?

rm wd um
q&m/ q&mrrsm;twGuf trSmpm
tydkif; (1) u|EkfyfESifh &Sifoefjcif;

1

tydkif; (2) ae heJ hn

13

tydkif; (3) tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;

24

tydkif; (4) jcHO,smOfrSm rsKd;pHkpGm

35

tydkif; (5) upm;p&mqdkif

46

tydkif; (6) tpm;tpm

57

tydkif; (7) vnfvGef;wJhbD;awG

68

tydkif; (8) jrdK h/ &Gmwnfaqmuf-ur,f

78

tydkif; (9) pufypPnf;rsm;

89

tydkif; (10) vlr+todkif;t0dkif;xJrSm u|efawmfwdk hvnf;ae-uygw,f 100
tydkif; (11) 'dkifEdkaqmwdk h&J hurBm

114

tydkif; (12) ðyjyifp&m wdk h&J h&Gm

118

jyefajymjyr,f (Show and Tell) tpDtpOf

122

Š

oif,lavhvmr+ESifh oif-um;r+qdkif&m ,Hk-unfcsufrsm;
TpmtkyfwGif uav;rsm;. oif,lavhvmr_rsm;ESifh oif=um;r_qdkfif&m atmufyg,lqcsufrsm;jzifh ðypka&;om;
wifjyxm;jcif;jzpfonf?
• vlwdkif;onf oif,lavhvmolrsm;jzpf=ujyD; oif=um;jyool (q&m) rsm;vnf;jzpf=uonf?
• wuf=uGaom oif,lavhvmolrsm;onf rdrdudk,fudk ,Hk=unfolrsm;jzpf=uonf?
• rdrdudk,fudk ,Hk=unfolrsm;onf wuf=uGaom oif,lavhvmolrsm;jzpf=uonf?
• vlwdkif; oif,lavhvmEdkifpGrf;udk,fpD &Sd=uonf?
• uav;tm;vHk; oif,lavhvm=urnf[lI ar#mfvifhcsufxm;&Sdonf?
• xda&mufaom oif,lavhvmr_rSm rdrdudk,fudk ,Hk=unfr_rSwqifh &,lEdkifonf? rdrdudk,fudk ,Hk=unfr_onf
ydkrdkxda&mufaom oif,lavhvmr_udk wdk;wufjzpfxGef;aponf?
• wpfwef;vHk;ESihf wpfOD;csif;tvdkuf rdrdudk,fudk jyefvSefppfaq;jcif;/ oHk;oyfjcif;/ jyefvSefawG;awm pOf;pm;
apjcif;rsm; jyKvkyf&ef tm;ay;ulnDoifhygonf?
• tjyeftvSef av;pm;r_&Sdap&efrSm vGefpGmta&;=uD;ygonf? odk@rSom rdrdESifh tjcm;olrsm;udk av;pm;Edkifjcif;
pGrf;&nf zGH@jzdK;wdk;wufvmrnf?
• wpfOD;csif;pD. rwl/ uGJjym;jcm;em;r_rsm;udk todtrSwfjyK=u&ygrnf? yg0ifonfh tcsufrsm;rSm vlrsKd;/ bmom
t,l0g'/ vlr_pD;yGm;/ vdifuJjG ym;r_/ pGrf;&nftrsKd;rsKd;/ Om%f&nftaxGaxG/ tawG@t=uHKrsm;/ ,Ofaus;r_rsm;ESifh
tjcm;aomaemufcHtcsuftvufrsm; jzpf=uonf?
• jyefvSefavhvmoHk;oyfjcif;onf vGefpGmta&;=uD;jyD; ESpfbufpvHk; (oif,lol/ oif=um;ol) twGuf jzpfonf?
• olwdk@. cHpm;csufrsm;ESifh pdwful;/ pdwfoef;rsm;/ tawG;tac:t,ltqrsm;udk a&mifjyef[yfjcif;ESifh (udkf,f/
pdwf) oufawmifhoufom&Sdaom pmoifcef;0ef;usifwGif uav;i,frsm; ydkrdkxda&mufpGm avhvmoif,l=u
ygonf?
• twlwuG yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufjcif;jzifh tcsif;csif; tjyeftvSef ydkrdkxda&mufpGm oif,lavhvm=uonf?
• rnfonfh ywf0ef;usiftajctaerqdk oif,lavhvmEkdif&ef tcGifhtvrf;rsm; &Sdaeavonf? ausmif;jyify
ywf0ef;usif toD;oD;wGifvnf; oif,lavhvmr_ jzpfxGef;Edkifonf?
• tpDtpOfuseI tquftpyf&Sdjcif;onf xda&mufaom oif,ljcif;/ oif=um;jcif;twGuf t"duusonf?
• pmoif,lavhvmjcif;ESifh oif=um;jcif;onf ay#mf&GifzG,f&m jzpfoifhonf?
• oifaxmufulrsm;/ t&if;tjrpfrsm;rSm ae&mwumwGif &&SdEdkifonf? TwGif q&mq&mrrsm;ESifh ausmif;ol/
ausmif;om;rsm; olwdk@ukd,fwdkifrSm t"duusonfh oifaxmufulpm&if;wGif yg0ifonf?
• xda&mufaom oif,lavhvmjcif;onf rnfonfh (ta=umif;t&m) udk oif,ljcif;uJhokd@ rnfodk@rnfyHk
avhvmoif,ljcif; (oif,lavhvmenf;) uddk oif,ljcif;vnf;jzpfonf?
• uav;rsm;. ,Ofaus;r_aemufcHrsm;udk oif,lavhvmcGifh &&Sd&efrSm ta&;=uD;onf?
• oif,lavhvmjcif;&v'frsm;udk enf;vrf;trsKd;rsKd;udk toHk;jyKI vltrsm;ESifhr#a0oifhonf?
• oif,lavhvmjcif;&v'frsm;tay:rlwnfI vufawG@vkdufemjcif;/ prf;oyfjcif;/ ðyrllaqmif&Gufjcif;rsm;udkðy
vkyf&rnf?
• a0befydkif;jcm;pOf;pm;awG;ac:jcif;ESifh pGef@OD;wDxGifzefwD;vdkpdwfwdk@udk zGH@jzdK;apoifhygonf?
• uav;rsm;tm;ar;cGef;rsm;ar;jref;&ef tm;ay;ulnDoihfonf?
• oif,lavhvmr_OD;wnfcsufrsm;udk wdwdususxm;&SdI vkyfaqmifEdkifpGrf;vnf;&Sdoifhonf? ed*Hk;csKyfqdkjcif;jzifh
tqHk;owfEdkif&rnf?
• q&mq&mrrsm;onf uav;rsm;twGuf pHjytwk,lEdkifolrsm;jzpf=uonf?
o pDpOfaqmif&Gufwwfjcif;/ tcsdefudk xda&mufpGm pDrHcef@cJEG dkifjcif;/
o pGef@pm;vkyfaqmifjcif;/
o pl;prf;avhvmI oif,ljcif;/
o (tvkyfvkyf&mwGif trSm;rsm;&SdEdkifaomfvnf;) vkyfoifhonfwdk@udk vkyfaqmifjcif;/
o tjrifoabmxm;rsm; (Oyrm- ajyjypfpGmqufqHjcif;/ tjcm;olrsm;udk wefzdk;xm;jcif;)/

pmoif,lavhvm&ef ywf0ef;usif
q&mq&mrrsm;ESifh ausmif;rsm;rS uav;rsm;twGuf oifhawmfonfh oif,lavhvm&ef ywf0ef;usifudk zefwD;ay;
&rnfjzpfonf? q&mq&mrrsm;onf Ê uav;wdkif;udk wefzdk;xm;I av;pm;pGm qufqHonf?
Ê udk,fwdkifOD;aqmifI pGef@pm;vkyfaqmifjcif;rsm;udk tcgtm;av#mfpGmjyKvkyfonf? rodao;/ rvkyfzl;ao;aom
t&mrsm;udk OD;aqmifI prf;oyfvkyfaqmifolrsm;jzpf=uonf? ðyjyifajymif;vJjcif;rsm;rSm wefzdk;&SdEdkifa=umif;
todtrSwf ðyonf?
Ê q&mq&mrsm;onf uav;rsm;. oif,lavhvmyHkudk od&Sdem;vnfxm;olrsm;jzpfonf?
Ê ynma&;tawG;tac:/ ynma&;pdwfynmESifh uav;oli,fzGH@jzdK;wdk;wufr_ynmudk avhvmxm;olrsm;vnf;
jzpf=uonf?
Ê oif=um;jcif;ESifh oif,ljcif; vkyfief;pOfrsm;/ enf;vrf;rsm;udk od&Sdem;vnfxm;olrsm;vnf;jzpf=uonf?
Ê q&mq&mrrsm;onf rdrdwdk@udk,fwdkif pmoifcef;wGif yg0ifaqmif&Guf=uolrsm;/ oif,lavhvmaeolrsm; [lI
vnf; ESvHk;ydkufonf?
Ê ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;ESifh ywfoufI aemufcHtcsuftvufrsm;udk od&Sdem;vnfxm;&ef tpOf =udK;yrf;
tm;xkwfonf?
Ê &&SdEdkifonfh t&if;tjrpfrsm;/ oifaxmufulypPnf;rsm;udk tjynfht0 toHk;jyKonf?
Ê wdus&Sif;vif;aom &nfrSef;csufrsm;xm;&SdjyD; oif,lavhvmjcif; tpDtpOfrsm;/ oifcef;pmrsm;udk jyifqif
xm;&Sdonf?
Ê ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;. pdwfyg0ifpm;r_ESifh vdktyfcsufrsm;tay:wGifrlwnfI oifhawmfonfh oifcef;pm
tpDtpOfrsm;udk udk,fwdkifavhvma&;qGJEdkifolrsm;jzpf=uonf?
Ê ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;rS olwdk@udk,fwkdif tpysKd;OD;aqmifonfh vkyf&yfrsm;wGif q&mq&mrrsm;rS yHhydk;
ulnDr_jyKonf?
Ê ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;ESifh aqG;aEG;wkdifyifI pnf;rsOf;/ pnf;urf;rsm;/ vkyfief;pOfrsm;udk csrSwfxm;jyD;
wdwdususvdkufemaqmif&Gufolrsm;jzpf=uonf?
Ê &nfrSef;csufrsm; jyD;pD;onfhtcgwdkif; rdrdwdk@.vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;/ oif=um;r_rsm;udk jyefvSefoHk;oyfonf?
Ê ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;. ynm&nfwdk;wufr_ESifh odem;vnfr_rsm;/ vkyfaqmifEkdifr_pGrf;&nfrsm;udk pOfquf
rjywftuJcwfonf?
Ê pHE_ef;jynhfrDonfh pDrHtkyfcsKyfjcif;ESifh ausmif;/ pmoifcef; pDrHcef@cGJr_ynmudk avhvmxm;&Sdonf?
Ê enf;pepftopfrsm;jzifh oif,ljcif;-oif=um;jcif;enf;emrsm;udk tpOfavhvm&SmazGaeoljzpfonf?
Ê q&mtwwfynm. wpfpdwfwpfa'otaejzifh q&mtwwfynmpGrf;&nf uHkvHkjynfh0aeap&ef tpOf
avhvm qnf;ylaeoljzpfonf?
TuJhodk haom pmoif,ljcif;ywf0ef;usifwGif ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;onf =
Ê tvSnfhus vkyfaqmifcGifh&&Sd=uonf?
Ê atmifjrifaomoif,lavhvmEdkifpGrf;&Sdolrsm;taejzifh rdrdudk,fudk ,Hk=unfr_&Sdonf?
Ê todynmrsm;udk r#a0jcif;/ pl;prf;avhvmjcif;/ ar;jref;pHkprf;jcif;ESifh tcsif;csif; tm;ay;ulnDjcif;rsm;ðyvkyfI
oif,lavhvm=uonf?
Ê q&mq&mrrsm;tay:wGif uav;rsm;rS Todk@oabmxm;&Sdonf?
o pmoif=um;ol q&mq&mrrsm;jzpf=uonf?
o wkdifyifaqG;aEG;Edkifolrsm;jzpf=uonf?
o rdwfaqG (oli,fcsif;) vnf;jzpfonf?
o uav;rsm;ESifhtwl yl;aygif;avhvmaeolrsm;jzpfonf?
o OD;aqmifvrf;jyoljzpfonf?
o (tjrifoabmxm;rsm;/ pHE_ef;wefzdk;rsm;ESifh tjyKtrlqdkif&m) twk,lzG,f&m pHjyyk*~dKvfrsm; jzpfonf?

Ê
Ê
Ê
Ê
Ê

rdrdudk,fudk jyefvSefavhvmqef;ppfaeolrsm;jzpf=uonf?
vGwfvyfpGmjzifh rdrdbmom oif,lavhvmEdkifpGrf;&Sd=uolrsm;jzpfjyD; usKd;a=umif;qDav#mfpGmjzifh qHk;jzwfcsuf
rsm;udk csrSwfEdkifolrsm;jzpf=uonf?
tjcm;olrsm;ESihf yl;aygif;vkyfaqmifEdkifpGrf;vnf;&Sdonf?
yifudk,foabmt& pl;prf;avhvmtm;xkwfolrsm;jzpfvm=uonf?
ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;. pDrHcef@cGJr_pGrf;&nfrsm; zGH@jzdK;wdk;wufvm=uonf?

pmoif,lavhvmjcif;ywf0ef;usifESifh pmoifcef;rsm;/ ausmif;rsm;onf =
Ê ay#mf&$ifzG,f&mjzpfjyD;v#if uav;tm;vHk;udk =udKqdkvufcHonf?
Ê uav;rsm;. zefwD;csufvuf&mrsm;udk cif;usif;jyoxm;onf?
Ê uav;rsm;. pdwful;/ pdwfoef;rsm;udk vGwfvyfpGmaz:xkwfcGifh&Sdonf?
Ê tpDtpOfwus jzpfjyD;v#if xda&mufaom oif=um;jcif;-oif,ljcif;rsm;twGuf jyifqifxm;&Sdonf?
Ê vdktyfonfh oifaxmufulypPnf;rsm;udk jznhfqnfhxm;&Sdonf?
Ê uav;rsm;. pdwfyg0ifpm;r_/ aemufcHtcsuftvufrsm;/ vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;twGuf oifhawmfudkufnDonf?
Ê vlr_w&m;r#wjcif;udk az:aqmifonf? uav;tm;vHk; oif,lydkifcGifhESifh atmifjrifEkdif pGrf;rsm;twGufjzpfonf?
Ê uav;tm;vHk;tusLH;0ifaompmoifcef;rsm;jzpfonf? pGrf;&nf/ Om%f&nfqdkif&m/ vdifydkif;qdkif&m/ vlrsKd;a&;
qdkif&mESifh ,Ofaus;r_rsm;qdkif&mwdk@wGif cGJjcm;qufqHjcif;rsm;tvsOf;r&Sd? taoG;ta&mifpHk,Ofaus;r_ ynma&;
pepfudk usifhoHk;onf?
Ê ESpfvdkzG,f&mjzpfjyD;v#if tjriftm;jzifh oif,lavhvmvdkpdwfudk Ed_;qGay;Edkifonf?
Ê uav;rsm;twGuf tEœ&m,fuif;I udk,f/ pdwf ESpfjzmvHkjcHKcsrf;ajrhzG,f&mjzpfonf?
Ê ynma&;qdkif&m oifaxmufulypPnf;rsm;ESifh ynma&;enf;ynmrsm;udk toHk;ðyonf?
Ê twef;wGif;&Sd uav;i,frsm;udkukd,fpm;jyKaom oauFw/ jy,k*fvnf;jzpfonf?
Ê toHk;jyKaomoltm;vHk;. jrwfEdk;av;pm;jcif;&Sdonf?
Ê uav;i,frsm;twGuf *k%f,lzG,f&m pmoifcef;jzpfonf?
Ê todynmrsm;xdk;xGif;odjrifapjcif;/ ckdifjrJapjcif;ESifhb0wpfoufwmynma&;c&D;twGuf tm;ay;ulnDonf?
Ê 'Drdkua&pDusifhpOfrsm;ESifh vl@,Ofaus;r_A[k0g' xGef;um;&me,fajrjzpfonf?
oif,ljcif; = oif-um;jcif;enf;ynmtwGuf pum;vufaqmif
Ê oifcef;pmrsm;udk tawG;tac:ESifh,SOfonfh “acgif;pOf=uD;rsm;/ tdkif'D,m=uD;rsm/; jrifuGi;f us,frsm;- Big
ideas” tay: rlwnfI wnfaqmufoifhygonf? tquftpyfr&Sdaom tydkif;tprsm;rjzpfoifhyg? tawG;
tjrif jrifuGif;us,fESifh tdkif'D,m=uD;rsm;udk A[dkjyKIwnfaqmufxm;onfh oifcef;pmrsm;/ bmom&yf
tydkif;rsm;onf uav;rsm;od&Sdxm;jyD;onfh owif;tcsuftvufrsm;/ ta=umif;t&mrsm;ESifh topfjzpf
aom todynmrsm;udk qufpyfem;vnf&ef rsm;pGm taxmuftuljzpfaponf? tdkif'D,m=uD;rsm;/ tawG;
tjrif jrifuGif;us,frsm;/ acgif;pOf=uD;rsm;[lIqdk&m0,f Oyrmtaejzifh - “touf&Sifoefr_twGuf a&onf
vGefpGm ta&;=uD;onf?” [lIjzpfEdkifjyD; oifcef;pmacgif;pOfi,ftaejzifh “uav;wdk@ 'Dae@ a&aumif; a&oef@
&&SdyHk/ &&Sdenf;awGudk avhvm=ur,f?” [lIjzpfEdkifygonf?
Ê uav;rsm;.todynmzGH@ðzd;wdk;wufr_udk xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;&efvdktyfygonf? tcsKd@aomuav;rsm;twGuf
tcsdefydkrdk,l&ef vdktyfEdkifygonf?
Ê uav;wpfOD;csif;. oD;oef@jzpfwnfaer_rsm;udk od&Sdem;vnfoifhjyD; q&mq&mrrsm;rSm vrf;n¸ef=uD;=uyfol
rsm;/ t&if;tjrpfrsm;udk pDrcH ef@cGJolrsm;taejzifh vkyfaqmifoifhygonf? uav;tm;vHk;twGuf pmoifcef;
jzpfoifhygonf?
Ê wpfOD;csif;vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;wGifjzpfap/ tzGJ@vdkufvkyfaqmifcsufrsm;wGifjzpfap uav;rsm;onf q&m/
q&mrrsm;/ uav;rsm;tcsif;csif; ajymqdkaqG;aEG;jcif;/ wifjyjcif;/ tjyeftvSefar;jref;jcif;rsm; vkyfaqmifEdkif
&ef tcGifhtvrf;rsm;xm;&Sdoifhygonf?

Ê

Ê

Ê

uav;rsm;tm;vHk;onf pmoifcef;twGif; tzGJ@tpnf;=uD;wpfcktaejzifh yg0ifaqmif&GufEdkifap&eftwGuf
vkyfaqmifcsufwdkif;udk jyifqifxm;&Sdoihfygonf? twGJvdkfufjzpfap/ tzGJ@i,frsm;zGJ@Ijzpfap tm;vHk;yg0ifI vkyf
aqmifEdkifcGifhudk xm;&Sdoifhygonf?
oif&dk;n¸ef;wrf;rSm uav;rsm;twGuf toHk;wnfhzG,f&mjzpfoifhygonf? xdk@twGuf vdktyfcsufrsm;t&
rnfonfh oif&dk;n¸ef;wrf;/ oif&dk;rmwdumrsm;udkrqdk q&mq&mrrsm;taejzihf ðyjyif/ ajymif;vJ/ jyifqif/
wnf;jzwfcGifh&Sdygonf? bmom&yfqdkif&m ta=umif;t&mrsm;twGuf uav;rsm;udk,fwdkif todynmudk
em;vnf,lEdkifjcif;ESifh wnfaqmufEdkifolrsm;jzpfvmap&ef yHhydk;ulnDoifhygonf?
uav;rsm;. tawG;tjrifrsm;udk &Sif;jycGifh&&Sdap&ef ar;cGef;rsm;udk zefwD;wnfaqmufyg? “rSefovm;/ rSm;o
vm;/ [kwfovm;/ r[kwfbl;vm;” ponfhar;cGef;rsm;ESifh “rSefw,f/ rSm;w,f/ [kwfw,f/ r[kwfbl;” tajz
rsm;udkom tpOftoHk;rðyygESifh? “em;vnf=u&J@vm;” [lIvnf; c%c%rar;ygESifh/ tjcm;aom ar;cGef;
rsm;jzifh ajymif;vJar;jref;yg? “b” ajcmufvHk;ar;cGef;rsm;udk toHk;ðyyg? b,fvdkxifygovJ/ bmjzpfvdk@ tJ'Dvdk
xifjrif,lqwmvJ/ ponfjzifhar;jref;yg?

TpmtkyfzGJ hpnf;yHk
TpmtkyfrSm uav;A[dkðyynma&;twGuf oifcef;pmrsm;udk q&mvrf;n¸eftaejzifh ðypkxm;&Sdonfh
rlvwef;tqifhrsm;twGuf yxrwGJjzpfonf? ody`H/ enf;ynm/ vlr_a&;/ tEkynm/ 'DZdkif;ESifh obm0ywf0ef;usif
bmom&yfrsm;twGuf t"dutm;jzifh ðypka&;om;jcif;jzpfygonf? rlvwef;tqifhwGif ta&;=uD;onfh bmom
pum;pGrf;&nfzGH@ðzd;wdk;wufapjcif;/ obm0ody`HESifh vlr_a&;qdkif&m tajccHtodynmrsm;&&Sdapjcif;/ pGef@OD;wDxGif
zefwD;vdkpdwfudk ysKd;axmifjcif;/ a0befydkif;jcm;qef;ppfpOf;pm;jcif;ESifh vlr_qufqHa&;xGef;um;apjcif;rsm;twGuf
Toifcef;pmrsm;udk pDpOfxm; &Sdygonf? tjcm;aom yif&if;bmom&yfrsm;jzpfonhf bmompum; (rdcifbmom/
wkdif;&if;bmom/ jrefrmpm) bmom&yfrsm;yg &nfrSef;csufrsm;udk ckdifjrJapjcif;twGufvnf; taxmuftul
jzpfaprnf[k ,Hk=unfygonf? acgif;pOf=uD; (12) udk A[dkðyI oifcef;pmrsm;udk wnfaqmufxm;&Sdygonf? q&m
q&mrrsm;twGuf pmoifcef;twGif;aemufqufwGJvkyfaqmifEdkfifonfh t=uHðycsurf sm;udkvnf; acgif;pOf=uD;rsm;.
tqHk;wGif aqG;aEG;xm;ygonf? xdk@tjyif uav;rsm;twGuf pmoifcef;twGif;avhusifh&ef oifcef;pmrsm;udkvnf;
acgif;pOf=uD;wdkif;wGif xnfhoGif;xm;&Sdygonf? rdwWLul;,lI uav;rsm;udk a0ay;oifhygonf?
Tpmtkyfudk tjcm;aom oif&dk;n$ef;wrf;/ oif&dk;rmwdumrsm;/ &nfn$ef;pmtkyfrsm;/
rlvwef;zwfpmtkyfrsm;/ oifaxmufulypPnf;rsm;ESifh wGJzufI toHk;ðyyg?
ausmif;pmoifcef;rsm;twGif; Tpmtkyfwpftkyfwnf;udkom roHk;ygESifh?
pmoifcef;twGif;&Sd uav;rsm;ESifh vlr+todkif;t0kdif;. vdktyfcsufrsm;t& T
oifcef;pmrsm;udk rGrf;rHjyifqifyg/ jznhfpGufyg/ ðyjyifajymif;vJyg?
uav;rsm;ESifhay#mf&$ifzG,f&m urBmwpfckudk wnfaqmufEdkifygap?
rlvwef;jyq&mq&mrrsm;ESifhtwl…
q&modef;Edkif
ausmif;tkyf/ zuf'&,fq&mtwwfynmoifwef;ausmif;/
ynma&;qdkif&mwm0efcH/
ynma&;tpDtpOf/ trsKd;om;usef;rma&;ESifh ynma&;aumfrDwD/
xkdif;=jrefrme,fpyfa'o/
{jyDv/ 2006 ckESpf?

tydkif; (1)
oifcef;pm (1) odyH`/ vlr+a&;bmom
u|Ekfyf. ta-umif;pmtkyf
&nf&G,fcsuf
• rdom;pk0if wpfOD;taejzifhvnf;aumif;/ vlr_
todkif;t0dkif;twGif; tzGJ@0ifwpfOD; taejzifh
vnf;aumif;/ rdrdwdk@ wpfOD;csif;. oD;oef@
jzpfwnfaer_rsm;/ cHpm;csufrsm;/ t&nf
taoG;rsm;ESifh tjcm;olrsm;ESifh qufpyfaer_
rsm;udk od&Sd em;vnfap&ef?
• uav;i,frsm;.
b0wGif yxrOD;qHk;
udk,fydkif pmtkyf wpftkyfpD (u|Ekfyf.
ta=umif;) xkwfa0 jcif;?

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm;
• a&mifpHkcJwHrsm;/ yHkqGJaq;awmifhrsm;/
• pm&GuftvGwfrsm;/
(A4) (odk@r[kwf)
toifh jyifqifxm;onfh pm&GufaumfyDrsm;/
(avhusifh&ef pm&Gufyg yHktwdkif;)/
• aywH/ uyfaus;/ pmn‡yr
f sm;/ pwyfyvm/
(uyfaus;ESifh pmn‡yrf sm;udk owdxm; udkifwG,f
cdkif;yg?)

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? uav;i,frsm;ESifh (wpfwef;vHk;taejzifh) olwdk@. &kyfydkif;qdkif&m (qHyif/ rsufvHk;/ t&yf) vuQ%mrsm;/ tpm;
taomuf =udKufESpfoufr_rsm;/ tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;/ upm;enf;rsm;/ rdom;pk0ifrsm;/ oli,fcsif;rsm;ponfjzifh
ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg? tcsuftvuftcsKd@udk (oifykef;ay:wGif) pm&if;jyKpkyg?
2? rdom;pkwGif;ESifh ausmif;wGif rnfodk@jyKrlqufqH&rnfudkvnf; ar;jref;aqG;aEG;yg?
3? oli,fcsif;/ taygif;toif;rsm;ESifh rdom;pk. ta&;=uD;yHkudkvnf; aqG;aEG;=uonf? yHkjyif Zmwfvrf;rsm;xJrS
oifcef;pmrsm;udk xkwfEkwfI aqG;aEG;yg?
4? ‘u|Ekfyf.ta=umif;’ pmtkyfwpftkyfpD jyKpkxkwfa0=urnfjzpfa=umif;ESifh vdktyfonfh tcsuftvufrsm;/ vkyf
aqmif&rnfh tqifhrsm;/ ypPnf;rsm;ESifhywfoufI &Sif;vif;yg?
• avhusifhcef;pmrsufESmwGifyg&Sdonfh tpDtpOftwkdif; A4 pm&GufwGif Z,m;uGuf (6) ckudk aywHjzifh
a&;qGJyg? pmrsufESm eHygwf 1 rS 6 txdukd pm&GufaxmifhwGif a&;rSwfxm;ygap?
• oufqdkif&m pmrsufESmtvdkuf vdktyfonfh tcsuftvufrsm;/ &kyfyHkrsm;udk uav;rsm; jznfhpGuf/ a&;qGJ
=uonf?
• rsOf;vdkif;twdkif; pm&Gufudk 6 ydkif; jzwfjyD; pmrsufESmtvdkufxyfI pwyfyvmjzihf pmtkyf (tao;
pm;av;) csKyf=uonf?
5? tm;vHk;jyD;qHk;ygu uav;rsm;wpfOD;csif;tvdkuf twef;a&S@odk@xGufI rdrd.ta=umif;udk pmtkyfi,fxJrS pm
rsufESmrsm;tvdkuf ajymjy=uonf?
6? uav;i,frsm; Tpmtkyfi,frsm;udk tdrfokd@,loGm;EdkifjyD; rdb/ nDtudk armifESrrsm;tm; jyoygap?
7? olwdk@b0. yxrqHk; udk,fwdkifzefwD;xm;onfh Tpmtkyfi,fav;udk pmoifESpfukefonftxd raysmuf
rysufap&ef (zdkifwGJwGifjzpfap) odrf;qnf;xm;ckdif;yg?

‡ ‰

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

1

oifcef;pm (2) odyH`
teH h t&om = ESmacgif;ESifh v#m
&nf&G,fcsuf
• t&omESifh teH@cH tm&Hkt*Fgrsm; ta=umif;
pl;prf; avhvmjcif;?

vdktyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;
• yHkpHwlaomfvnf; t&omrwl=uonfh tpm;
tpm yHkpHrsm; - Oyrm- qefr_ef@/ *sKHr_ef@/ yJr_ef@/
o=um;ESifh qm;/
• rsufpdydwf&ef t0wfprsm;/
• cJwHrsm;/ puULtvGwfrsm;/

oifcef;pmtpDtpOf
uav;rsm;tm; olwdk@=udKufESpfoufonfh (r=udKufonfh) t&omrsm;/ teH@rsm;ESifh ywfoufI ar;jref;aqG;aEG;yg?
tb,fa=umifh =udKufESpfoufonf/ rESpfoufonfponfjzifh aqG;aEG;yg?
1? tpm;tpm prf;oyfcsufwpfckudk jyKvkyf=urnfjzpfonf? uav;rsm;tm; rwlnDaom a&G;cs,fxm;onfh
tpm;tpm (8) rsKd;udk ay;I avhvm=urnf? ESpfa,mufwpfwJG twGJvdkuf vkyfaqmif=urnfjzpfojzifh
uav;wpfOD; pDwGif tpm;tpm (4) rsK;d pD&&Sd=uonf? o=um;ESifh qm;/ yef;oD;ESifh opfawmfoD;/ bde;f rkef@ESifh
acgufrkef@/ a&ESifh azsmf&nf tp&Sdonfh tpm;tpmrsm;rSm yHko¿mef qifwljcif;rsm;/ uGJjym;jcm;em;jcif;rsm;udk
Ed_if;,SOf avhvmEkdif&eftwGuf taxmuftuljzpfaponf?
2? twGJtvdkuf wpfOD;udkrsufpdydwfI vufawG@avhvmEdkif=uap&ef wpfcef;vHk;udk pDrHyg? tpydkif;wGif tm&Hkwpfck
wnf;udkom toHk;jyKygap? tpm;tpmrsm;udk trsKd;tpm;ESifh trnfaz: jyEdkifap&ef tjcm;aom tm&Hkrsm;udk
wjznf;jznf;csif; toHk;jyKygap?
3? uav;rsm;tm; rnfonfh tpm;tpmjzpfonfqdkonfudk cef@rSef;cdkif;yg? tjcm;uav;rsm;rS az:jycsufrsm;udk
&kyfyHk/ oauFwrsm;a&;qGJI rSwfxm;ckdif;yg?
4? wpfcef;vHk; ausmif;ol/ ausmif;om;rsm; twGJvdkuf tvSnfhus vufawG@avhvm vkyfaqmifjyD;pD; onfhtcg
wGif olwdk@. tawG@t=uHKrsm;udk ar;jref;aqG;aEG;=uonf? tm&HkwpfckpDudk toHk;jyKjcif;jzifh rwlnDonfh
owif;tcsuftvuf tcsKd@udk &&SdEdkifa=umif;ESifh (t=um;/ tjrif/ teH@/ t&om/ txdtawG@) tm&Hk
tm;vHk;udk toHk;jyKjcif;jzifh uav;rsm;. ywf0ef;usifESifh TurBm=uD;. ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk ydkrdk em;vnf
od&SdEdkifa=umif;udk aqG;aEG;yg? v#mwGif;&Sd t&omudkcHpm;Edkifonfh tzktxpfrsm;a=umifh tpm;tpm. csKdjcif;/
cg;jcif;/ csOfjcif;/ iHjcif; tp&Sdonfh tcsuftvufrsm;udk od&SdapjyD; teH@tm&HkrS tjcm;aom t&omrsm;udk
azmfjyEdkifjyD; tjriftm&Hkjzifh tjcm;tcsuftvufrsm;udk ydkrkd&&Sdapygonf? at;cJaeonfh tpm;tpmrsm;rSm
teH@cH&ef cufcJI t&omudk od&SdEdkif&ef rvG,fulyg?
5? tqdyf&Sdonfh t&m0wWKrsm;udk teH@/ t&omcH&ef roifhawmfa=umif;udk xnfhoGif;aqG;aEG;yg? tpm;tpm
rsm;udk rudkifwG,frD vufudk pif=u,fatmifaq;a=umoifha=umif; wpfudk,f&nf oef@&Sif;a&; usef;rma&;
A[kokwrsm; udk xnhfoGif; aqG;aEG;yg?
oifcef;pm (3)
cHpm;-unfhyg oli,fcsif;
oifcef;pm &nf&G,fcsuf
• tjriftm&Hk/ txdtawG@tm&Hkrsm;udk owdjyK
rdap&ef/
• ae@pOf &Sifoefr_rsm;/ vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;wGif T
cHpm;r_ tm&Hkrsm;. ta&;=uD;r_udk od&Sd em;vnf
ap&ef?

The world in the democratic classroom

vdktyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;
• rsufvHk;rsm;ydwfxm;&ef t0wfprsm;/
(wpfOD;csif;jzpfap/ tkyfpktvdkufjzpfap) “o&J&kyf
=uD;” wpf&kyfpD jyKvkyfEkdif&eftwGif t&m0wˆK
trsKd;rsKd;/ puULtxl/ tyg;/ a&mifpHkpuULrsm;/ cJwHrsm;/
wkwfacsmif;rsm;/ aumf/ =udK;/ ydfwfptrsKd;rsKd;/
=u,foD;ponfh tdrfwdkif;Y &&SdEdkifonfh ypPnf;rsm;/
Saya Thein Naing

2

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? uav;rsm; awG@jrifbl;=uonfh tvGef pdwf0ifpm;p&maumif;onfh t&mrsm;/ &_cif;rsm;/ &kyfyHkrsm;/ ta&mif
taoG;pHkyef;csDrsm;/ ywf0ef;usifrsm; ponfwkd@udk aqG;aEG;jcif;jzifh tjriftm&Hkudk owdjyKrdap&ef zefwD;yg?
2? “tjriftm&Hkprf;oyfcsuf” vufawG@vkyfaqmifjcif;/ 2 a,mufwpfwGJ tkyfpkrsm;jzifh wpfOD;tm; rsufvHk;rsm;
udk t0wfjzifhydwfxm;I usefwpfOD;rS OD;aqmifonf? t&m0wˆK/ ypPnf;trsKd;rsKd; (El;nHhjcif;/ cufrmjcif;/
aysmhjcif;/ t&Snf/ twdk/ yHko¿mef) rsm;tm; txdtawG@jzifh cGJjcm;cdkif;yg?
3? “rsufrjrifwpfOD;tm; vrf;jyjcif;” tpDtpOf? uav;rsm; (2) a,mufwpfwGJ (wpfO;D tm; rsufvHk;rsm; pnf;
xm;I) vrf;jyaponf? q&m/ q&mrrsm;rS teD;uyf =uyfrwfyg?
4? rsufrjrifwpfOD;.b0ESifh tcuftcJrsm;udk aqG;aEG;=uonf? &SifoefaexdkifEdkif&efvdktyfcsufrsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg?
5? olwdk@rsufvHk;rsm;ydwfxm;cH&pOfu toHk;jyKonfh tjcm;tm&Hkrsm; (txdtawG@/ teH@touf/ t=um;) udk
uav; rsm;ESifh aqG;aEG;yg?
6? pmoifcef;twGif;ESifh tdrf&Sd t&m0wˆKypPnf;rsm; trsKd;rsKd;. txdtawG@ cHpm;csufwdk@udk avhvm=uonf?
“o&J &kyf=uD;” wpf&kyfpD uav;rsm; (tkyfpktvdkufjzpfap) zefwD;jyKvkyf=uonf? emrnfay;=urnf?
oifcef;pm (4)
toHawG -um;ae&w,f
oifcef;pm &nf&G,fcsuf
• ywf0ef;usif&SdtoHrsm; - qlnHoH/ om,moH/
twdk;/ tus,f/ tedrfhtjrifh - ponfh toH
trsKd; rsKd;ESifh ywfoufI owdjyKrdap&ef?
• toHtm&Hk (t=um;pGrf;&nf) xufoefr_ &Sd
ap&ef?

vdktyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;
• toHxGufonfh obm0ESifh vlwdk@ zefwD;xm; &Sd
onfh t&mrsm;/ toHxGufypPnf;trsKd;rsKd ;/

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? uav;rsm;tm; olwdk@=udKufonfh toHrsm;/ r=udKufonfh toHrsm;ESifhywfoufI ar;jref;yg? tb,fa=umifh
qdkonfudk &Sif;vif;ajymjyygap?
2? us,favmifaom toHESifh wdk;n‡if;aomtoHrsm;ESihf xGufay:&mae&mrsm;udk ar;jref;aqG;aEG;yg?
3? ausmif;ywf0ef;usif ae&mtESHtjym;odk@ uav;rsm;udk ac:,ljyD; toHtrsKd;rsKd;udk em;axmif=urnf? tcsKd@
aom ae&mrsm;wGif tcgtm;avsmfpGm rsufvHk;rsm;rSdwfI toHrsm;udk tm&Hk,l=unfhonf? jzpfEdkifygu T
toHrsm;udk toH zrf;,lxm;&Sdrnf?
4? Todk@zrf;,lxm;&Sdonfh toHrsm;udk =um;ae&onfh toHtrsKd;rsKd;ESifh Ed_if;,SOfavhvm=urnf?
5? toHtrsKd;rsKd;udk &&Sdap&ef t&m0wWKrsm;jzihf prf;oyfyg? toHtedrfh/ tjrifhESifh twkd;/ tus,fponfwdk@udk
em;axmifcHpm;aponf? t&m0wWKrsm;udk acgufjcif;/ v_yfjcif;/ wD;cwfjcif;ESifh yGwfwdkufjcif;jzifh toHrsm;
xGufay: aponf?
6? Todk@ pl;prf;&SmazG&&Sdxm;onfh toHrsm;jzifh o&kyfaz: yHkjyifav;wpfyk'f (odk@r[kwf) wd&p>mefrsm;t&kyfwdk@udk
zefwD;=uygap? toHrsm;. aumif;usKd;/ qdk;usKd;rsm;/ aqmif&ef/ a&Smif&efrsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg?

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

3

oifcef;pm (5) enf;ynm
om;om;/ rD;rD;wdk h&J h tdrfuav;
&nf&G,fcsuf
• (tao;pm;) tdrfuav; wpftdrf aqmufvkyf
&mwGif &dk;pif;aom pdwful;/ pdwfoef;rsm;ESifh
'DZdkif; tdkif'D,mrsm; ay:xGufvma&;/
• aqmufvkyf&mwGif vdktyfonfh ypPnf;trsKd;
tpm; trsKd;rsKd;udk toHk;jyKwwfa&;?
rD;rD;

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm;
• (toHk;jyK&ef tqifajyrnfh) u'fxlaowWm
tao;/ t=uD;rsm;/
• puULaowWmrsm;/ wdyfrsm;/ aumf/ uyfaus;/
• tdyf&mcif;rsm;/ owif;pm puULrsm;/ tdrfyHkyg
r*~Zif;rsm;/
• yHkqGJcJwHrsm;/ a&mifpHkaq;awmifh/ tdrfyHkpH yef;csD
um;rsm; ponf?

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? uav;i,frsm;tm; tb,fa=umifh (tao;pm;) tdrfi,fav;rsm;udk =udKufESpfouf=ua=umif; ar;jref;
aqG;aEG;yg?
2? tdrfyHkpHtrsKd;trsKd; yg&Sdaom &kyfyHkum;csyfrsm;/ pm&Gufrsm;udk jyojyD; ae&m/ a'orsm;ta=umif; ajymjyyg?
tdrf toD;oD;wdk@. t&G,ftpm;/ yHko¿mef/ toHk;jyKonfh ypPnf;rsm;ESihf wnf&Sd&ma'orsm;ta=umif;udk
aqG;aEG;yg?
3? uav;rsm;tm;vHk; olwdk@. udk,fydkif tdrfi,fav;rsm;udk wnfaqmuf&rnfjzpfI ESpfouf&m tdrfyHkpH 'DZdkif;
rsm;udk a&;qGJzefwD;xm;&efajymyg?
4? puULaowWm/ u'fxlaowWm tao;/ t=uD;rsm;ESifh tjcm;jyefvnftoHk;òyEdkifonfh ypPnf;rsm;udk a0iSyg?
5? uav;rsm; tkyfpktvdkuf (Oyrm/ 4 a,muf wpftkyfpk) taejzifh udk,fydkif tdrfuav;wpfvHk; wnfaqmuf
Ekdif&ef tkyfpkzGJ@ay;yg?
6? rdrdwdk@. tdrfuav;udk emrnfwpfckcka&G;cs,fay;apjyD; puULwGifa&;I tdrfuav;wGif uyfxm;ygap?
7? olwdk@udk,fwdkifaqmufvkyfxm;aom Ttdrfuav;wGif uav;rsm; ae@vnfpm (odk@) rkef@wpfckck pm;aomuf
=uygap?

(ae&mESifh ypPnf;rsm; tcuftcJ&Sdygu trsKd;rsK;d aom tdrfyHkpHi,frsm;udk jyKvkyfzefwD;Edkif=uygonf?)
oifcef;pm (6) vlr+a&;bmom
-uD;jyif;vmwJhtcg
oifcef;pm &nf&G,fcsuf
• ajymif;vJv#uf&Sdonfh oabmw&m; tajccHudk
owdjyKrdap&ef/
• touft&G,ftvdkuf
ajymif;vJvmyHkrsm;ESifh
jzwfoef;r_rsm;udk owdjyKrdap&ef?

vdktyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;
• uav;rsm; tvGefi,f&G,fonfh ESpfrsm;u
&dkuful; xm;onfh "gwfyHkrsm;/
• touft&G,ftrsKd;rsKd; (uav;/ vli,f/ vl&G,f/
vlvwf/ vl=uD;/ tzdk;tzGm;) udk udk,fpm;jyK
onfh "gwfyHkrsm;/ &kyfyHkum;csyfrsm;/
• tvkyftudkiftrsKd;rsKd;rS vlrsm;. &kyfyHk/ "gwfyHk
rsm;?

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? uav;rsm;tm; olwdk@ i,f&G,fonfhESpfrsm; (Edk@pdk@uav;b0/ rl=udKponf) rS "gwfyHkrsm;udk ausmif;
odk@ ,lvm=u&ef =udKwifajymxm;yg?

The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

4

2? “rSef;qI tajzay;jcif;upm;enf;” udk upm;=urnf? uav;i,ftoD;oD;. toufi,f&G,fonfh umv

rsm;rS "gwfyHkrsm;udk eH&Huyfpm&Guf=uD;wGif uyfxm;jyD; rnfol.yHkjzpfonfudk uav;rsm; rSef;qI tajz
ay;=uonf?
3? touft&G,f=uD;jyif;vmr_ESifh ywfoufI ajymif;vJjcif;jzpfpOfrsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg? nDtudk/ armifESrrsm;/
rdbrsm;/ tzdk;/ tzGm;rsm;ESifhywfoufI ajymqdkaqG;aEG;yg?
4? uav;b0wkef;u aeyHkxkdifyHk/ jyKrlyHkrsm;/ ,ckjyKrlyHkrsm;/ vmrnfhESpfrsm; (5-10-20 ESpfrsm;)wGif jyKrlrnfhyHk
rsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg? rwl/ ajymif;vJvmr_rsm;udk pOf;pm;/ awG;ac: avhvm=uonf?
5? touft&G,ftrsKd;rsKd;tvkduf/ vlrsm;. tvkyftudkif trsKd;rsKd; &kyfyHkrsm;jyojyD; aqG;aEG;yg?
uav;rsm; t&G,fa&muf =uD;jyif;vmonhftcg rnfonfhtvkyftudkifrsm; vkyu
f dkif=urnfudk aqG;aEG;=uonf?
olwdk@ vkyfudkif=urnfh tvkyftudkifrsm;vkyfudkifae=uyHk (wpfOD;csif;pD. yHk) rsm;udk a&;qGJ=urnf?
oifcef;pm (7) tEkynmbmom&yf
uíefawmfh&J hyHk/ usr&J hyHk
oifcef;pm&nf&,
G cf suf
• cE<mudk,fwnfaqmufyHkESifhoGifjyifvuQ%mrsm;
ESifh pyfvsOf;I vlrsm;. qifwlr_rsm;ESifh rwl/
uGJjym;jcm;em;csufrsm;udk od&Sdem;vnfap&ef?
• oifaxmufulypPnf;rsm;jzifh vl&kyfyHkrsm; zefwD;
Edkifap&ef?

vdktyfonfhypPnf;rsm;
• a&mifpHkpuUL/ u'fxl/ (r*~Zif;/ owif;pma[mif;
rsm;rS) &kyfyHk/ t0wfp/ "gwfyHk ponfwdk@uJhodk@
jzwf n‡yfuyfEdkifonfh ypPnf;rsm;/
• aumf/
• uyfaus;rsm;/
• aqmhyif/ rifwH/ a&mifpHk abmvfyifrsm;?

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? pmoifcef;twGif;&Sd ausmif;ol/ ausmif;om;rsm;. udk,fcE<m oGifjyifvuQ%mtrsKd;rsKd; (qHyifa&mif/ rsufvHk;
ta&mif/ tom;ta&ta&mif/ t&yftedrfhtjrihf/ udk,ftav;csdef ponf) wdk@. rwl/ uGJjym;jcm;em;r_rsm;udk
aqG;aEG;yg? ar;jref;yg?
2? vlrsm;. wlnDr_rsm;/ ESifh rwlnDr_rsm;wdk@udk aqG;aEG;yg?
3? oifaxmufulypPnf;rsm; (a&mifpHkpuUL/ u'fxl/ (r*~Zif;/ owif;pma[mif;rsm;rS) &kyfyHk/ t0wfp/ wkwfacsmif;/
"gwfyHk ponfwdk@uJhodk@ jzwfn‡yfuyfEidk fonfh yHkpHtrsKd;rsKd; ypPnf;rsm;?) jzifh uav;rsm; wpfOD;csif;jzpfap/ twGJ
tvdkufjzpfap vl&kyyf Hk wpfckpDudk yHkaz:zefwD;=uonf?
4? zefwD;jyD;pD;onfh vl&kyyf HkpHrsm;udk a&mifpHkcs,fEdkif=ujyD; pmoifcef;twGif; cif;usif;jyoEdkifonf? wpfwef;vHk;
taejzifh olwdk@zefwD;xm;&Sdonfh &kyfyHkrsm;ta=umif;udk aqG;aEG;=uonf?

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

5

tydkif; (1) “uíEkfyfESifh &Sifoefjcif;” acgif;pOfESifh pyfvsOf;I
aemufqufwGJvkyfaqmifEdkifonfh pmoifcef;wGif; pDrHcsufrsm;/ vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;
Projects and Activities Ideas

ody`H (Science)
Ú tpm;tpm/ a&/ av/ t0wftxnf/ aetdrf ponfwdk@uJhodk@aom b0wGif&SifoefaexdkifEdkif&efr&Sdrjzpf
ta&;w=uD; vdktyfonfht&mrsm;ESifh vdktyf&onfh ta=umif;&if;rsm;udk tkyfpktvdkufavhvmI pm&if;
jyKpkjcif;/
Ú eHeufcif; tdyf,mxcsdefrSpI ntdyf,m0ifcsdeftxd uav;rsm;. wpfae@wmvkyaf qmifr_rsm;udk wpfOD;
csif;tvdkuf jyefvSefoHk;oyfavhvm=uonf? vkyfaqmifr_rsm;udk tcsdeftvkduf pm&if;jyKpk=uonf?
enf;ynm (Technology)
Ú uav;rsm; tvGefvdkcsifonfh olwdk@pdwfu;l xJrS tdyfcef;udk 'DZdkif;a&;qGJ=uonf?
Ú xl;jcm;qef;=u,fonfh uav;tdyfukwifwpfvHk;pDudk uav;rsm;. pdwful;/ pdwfoef;rsm;twdkif; 'DZdkif;
a&;qGJ=uonf?
vlr_a&;ESifh ywf0ef;usif (Studies on Society and Environment)
Ú wd&p>mefrsm; =uD;jyif;vmyHk tqifhqifhudk avhvm=ujyD;v#if vlom;rsm;. =uD;jyif;vmyHk tqifhqifhESifh
Ed_if;,SOf avhvm=uonf?
Ú &dk;pif;onfh rdom;pk0ifpm&if; (rdom;pkopfyif) oabmobm0udk rdwfqufoif=um;yg?
Ú vlwdk@. rlvtpESifhpyfvsOf;I &dk;&m"avhrsm;xJrS yHkjyifrsm;/ tjcm;aom yHkjyifrsm;udk ajymjyyg?
zwf=um;yg?
Ú uav;rsm;. tESpfoufqHk;ae&mrsm;ESifhywfoufI aqG;aEG;=uyg? tb,fa=umifhESpfouf=uonfudk
ar;jref;yg? xdkae&mrsm;. ta&;=uD;yHkESifh *&kpdkuf&efvdktyfcsufrsm;udk aqG;aEG;=uonf?
Ú pmoifcef;twGif;jzpfap/ ausmif;wGifjzpfap uav;rsm;. vlrsKd;/ udk;uG,fonfhbmomESifh tjcm;aom
rwl/ uGJjym;jcm;em;onfh ,Ofaus;r_yHkpH tajccHrsm;udk pl;prf;avhvm=uonf? (rnfonfh tkyfpkudkrS
rxdcdkufap&efESifh uav;rsm;. taumif;jrifoabmxm;rsm; zGH@jzdK;wdk;wufvmap&ef *&kpdkufyg?)
Ú tdrfESifh ausmif;wGif uav;rsm;. vkyfaqmifcsuftrsKd;rsKd;udk aqG;aEG;yg? toHk;jyKonfh ypPnf;trsKd;rsKd;udk
pm&if;jyKpkckdif;yg? rvkdtyfawmhonfh ypPnf;rsm;udk pGef@ypfonfh enf;vrf;rsm;udk pl;prf;avhvmcdkif;yg?
tEkynmbmom (Arts)
Ú uav;rsm;. udk,fcE<mtpdwftydkif;rsm; (vufacsmif;rsm;/ vufrsm;/ ajcaxmufrsm;) udk toHk;jyKI
aumufa=umif;yHk a&;qGJzefwD;=uonf?
Ú eH&Huyfpm&Guf=uD;ay:wGif uav;rsm; (touf 5-8 ESpt
f &G,fcef@) . wpfudk,fvHk;yHkpHaumufa=umif;udk
a&;qGJ=uonf? xdk@aemuf aq;a&mifpHkjc,fjcif;/ aumufa=umif;yHkudk qif,ifjcif;rsm;ponfwdk@udk
zefwD;=uonf?

The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

6

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

7

jzpfygw,f?

twef;uawmh

vdk@ac:ygw,f?

vlrsKd;jzpfygw,f

uíefawmf/ usru

tdrfrSm/ jcHrSm arG;xm;wJh wd&p>mefrsm;

jzpfygw,f?

aewJh&Gmuawmh

ausmif;rSmwufygw,f?

jzpfygw,f?

ESpf &SdygjyD?

t&yfuawmh

touf

uíefawmf/ uíefr&J hemrnf

u|Ekfyf. ta-umif;pmtkyf

t&rf;=udKufwJh upm;enf;rsm;

r=udKufwJh tpm;tpmrsm;/

=udKufwJh tpm;tpmrsm; (yHkvnf;qGJEdkifw,f/)

om;om;/ rD;rD;eJ@ tcspfqHk; oli,fcsif;rsm;yHk

om;om;/ rD;rD/&J@ rdom;pkyHk

teH h t&om = ESmacgif;ESifh v#m
bmpm;p&mygvdrfh?
uíefawmf. cef@rSef;csufrsm;rSm ESmacgif;wpfckwnf;udk toHk;jyKwJhtcg

1?

2?

3?

4?

3?

4?

3?

4?

ESmacgif;eJ@ vufacsmif;rsm;udk toHk;jyKwJhtcg

1?

2?

ESmacgif;/ vufacsmif;eJ@ v#mudk toHk;jyKwJhtcg

1?

2?

ESmacgif;/ vufacsmif;/ v#meJ@ rsufvHk;awGudk tm;vHk;tokHk;jyKwJhtcg

1?

2?

3?

4?

t=udKufqHk; t&om
r=udKufwJh t&om

The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

8

cHpm;-unfhyg oli,fcsif;?
rsufvHk;rsm;eJ h vufacsmif;rsm;

pmoifcef;twGif;rSm&SdwJh t&mrsm;

ausmif;0if;twGif;rSm&SdwJh t&mrsm;

acsmarG@

acsmarG@

=urf;wrf;

=urf;wrf;

aysmhpdpd

aysmhpdpd

pl;c|efc|ef

pl;c|efc|ef

usd&$J&GJ

usd&$J&GJ

=urf;&S&S

=urf;&S&S

El;nHh

El;nHh

rnDrnm (tzktxpf)

rnDrnm (tzktxpf)

o&J&kyf=uD;yHk wpfyHkqGJyg?

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

9

toHawG -um;ae&w,f
om;om;/ rD;rD;=um;&wJh toHrsm;
pmoifcef;twGif;rSm

ausmif;0if;twGif;rSm

&Hk;cef;xJrSm

tdrfrSm

toHxGufapaom ypPnf;rsm;rSm

toHyHkjyif/ &kyyf kH

The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

10

om;om;/ rD;rD;wdk h&J h tdrfuav;
aecsifp&m tdrfuav;wpfvHk;yHk

tdrfaqmufvkyf&ef vdktyfaomypPnf;rsm;

tdrfrSmuyfxm;rnfh qdkif;bkwf

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

11

-uD;jyif;vmwJhtcg

touft&G,fa&mufvmwJheJ@ tr#vlawG[m ajymif;vJvdk@aew,f?

[dk;i,fi,fav;wkef;u
om;om;/ rD;rD; &J@ yHk/ [mobJaemf?

om;om;/ rD;rD; &J@ tckyHk?
om;om;/ rD;rD;=uD;vmwJhtcg
'DvdkyHkrsKd;jzpfr,f xifygw,f?

om;om;/ rD;rD; vkyfr,fh tvkyfuawmh

The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

12

tydkif; (2)
oifcef;pm (1) ody`H
tjrJwrf;vkyfae&w,f?
oifcef;pm&nf&,
G cf suf
• uav;rsm;. ae@ydkif;tcsdefrsm;ESifh nydkif;tcsdef
rsm;wGif vkyfaqmifr_rsm;/ tawG@t=uHKrsm;/
jzpf&yfrsm;udk tpOftvdkuf rSwfwrf;wif xm;&Sd
jcif;?

vdktyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;
• cJwHrsm;?

oifcef;pmtpDtpOf
1? ae@buftcsdefrsm;ESifh nbuftcsdefrsm;udk umvtydkif;tjcm;tvdkuf cGJjcm;xm;&SdyHkudk wpfwef;vHk;taejzifh
aqG;aEG;yg? (Oyrm- eHeufcif;/ rGef;wnfh/ ae@vnf/ nae/ qnf;qmcsdef/ n/noef;aumif/nv,f/ tm&k%fOD;)
2? wpf&ufwmtwGif; uav;rsm;vkyfaqmif=uonfh t&mrsm;udk wpfwef;vHk;taejzihf aqG;aEG;yg? oifykef;ay:
wGif pm&if;rSwfwrf;jyKpkyg?
3? nbuftcsdfefrsm;wGif uav;rsm;vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;udv
k nf; txufygtwkdif; aqG;aEG;I rSwfwrf;wifyg?
4? uav;wpfOD;csif;pD ae@bufESifh nbufrsm;wGif jyKrlvkyfaqmifcsufrsm;tm;vHk;udk rSwfwrf;wif=u&rnf jzpf
a=umif;&Sif;jyyg? &ufowWywf wpfywfwdwd ae@pOfvkyaf qmifcsufrsm;udk rSwfwrf;wif=u&rnf? txufwGif
aqG;aEG;cJhonfhtcsufrsm;udk Oyrmtaejzifh avhvmEdki&f efajymjyyg? vdktyfcsufrsm;udk wdwdususn$ef=um;yg?
5? &ufowWywf ukefqHk;vGefajrmufygu uav;rsm;. rSwfwrf;wifxm;&Sdcsufrsm;udk Ed_if;,SOfavhvm=ujcif;/
wpfwef;vHk;taejzifh aqG;aEG;=ujcif;rsm;jyKvkyfyg? ae@pOfae@wdkif; yHkrSefvkyfaqmifcsufrsm;rSmrnfonfwdk@enf;?
yHkrSefrvkyfaqmifonfh t&mrsm;rSm rnfonfwdk@jzpf=uygoenf;? tb,fa=umihfenf;? ae@ESifh nbuf
vkyfaqmifcsufrsm; wlnD=uygovm;? uGJjym;=uygovm;? ae@bufESifh nbufyg vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;rSm
tb,ft&mrsm;enf;?
6? uav;rsm;. &ufowWywf vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;rSwfwrf;udk toHk;jyKI tcsdefESifh tpDtpOfa&;qGJjcif; tajccH
oabmobm0udk rdwfqufoif=um;yg? tm;vHk;. rSwfwrf;rsm;udk pkaygif;I pmtkyfcsKyfEdkifonf? odk@r[kwf
pmoifcef;twGif; cif;usif;jyoEdkifygonf?
oifcef;pm (2 ) ody`H
ae heJ h/ n&J h aumif;uif-uD;
oifcef;pm&nf&,
G cf suf
• ae@bufESifh nbuf aumif;uif=uD;. oGifjyif
vuQ%mrsm;udk pl;prf;avhvmjcif;/

vkdtyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;
• ae@bufESifh nbufqkdif&m ydkpwmrsm;/ &kyfyHk
um;csyfrsm;/ AD'D,dkacGrsm;ESifh yHkjyifrsm;?

oifcef;pmtpDtpOf
1? ae@ydkif;tcsdefrsm;wGif uav;rsm;tm; pmoifcef;jyify ae&mvGwfodk@ac:aqmifI ae@buftcsdefywf0ef;usifESifh
aumif;uif=uD;udk pl;prf;avhvm =unfh&_=uonf? ae@bufaumif;uif. oGifjyifvuQ%mrsm;udk pl;prf;
avhvmjcif;/ rSwfwrf;wifjcif;/ aqG;aEG;jcif;rsm;jyKvkyf=uyg? (rdk;wdrfrsm;/ v (jrifEdkifygu)/ ae/ =u,f/
aumif;uifta&mifrsm; ponf)?
pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

13

2?
3?

4?
5?
6?

q&mq&mrrsm; owdjyK&ef - aeudk wkduf&dkufwnfhwnfh r=unfh=u&ef uav;rsm;tm; owday;yg?
uav;rsm; pl;prf;avhvm&SmazGjcif;rsm;udk avhusifhcef;pm&GufwGif rSwfwrf;wif=uonf?
nbufaumif;uifjyif=uD;. oGifjyifvuQ%mrsm;ESifh oabmobm0udk &kyfyHkum;csyfrsm;/ yHkjyifZmwfvrf;rsm;/
AD'D,dktacGrsm;udk toHk;jyKI pkaygif;avhvm aqG;aEG;=uonf? naumif;uif. oGifjyifvuQ%mrsm;udk
rSwfwrf;wif=uonf? (=u,frsm;/ v/ t&Hj*dKvfrsm;/ j*dKvfrsm;/ rdk;wdrfrsm;/ =u,fysHrsm;/ =u,fwm&m
tpkta0;?)
uav;rsm;tm; ntcsdefwGif nbufaumif;uif=uD;udk avhvm=unfh&_&efrSm=um;yg? olwdk@ avhvm awG@&dS
csufrsm;udk &kyfyHkqGJvm=u&ef tdrfpmay;yg?
uav;rsm;. avhvmawG@&Sdcsufrsm;udk tajccHIvnf;aumif;/ tjcm;aom oifaxmuful ypPnf;rsm;&Sd
tcsuftvufrsm;jzifhvnf;aumif; vkyfief;avhusifhcef;pm&GufwGif jznfhpGuf=uonf?
ae@bufaumif;uifESihf naumif;uifjyifwkd@udk Ed_if;,SOfavhvm=ujyD;v#if wlnDcsufrsm;/ uGJjym;csufrsm;udk
avhvm aqG;aEG;=uonf?

oifcef;pm (3) ody`H
t&dyfyHk
oifcef;pm&nf&,
G cf suf
• wpfae@wm. tcsdeftvdkuf aumif;uifjyifwGif
ae. wnfae&mtay:wGifrlwnfjyD; ajymif;vJ
vsuf&Sdonf t&dyfrsm;udk avhvmjcif;?

vdktyfonfypPnf;rsm;
• aeomaomae@wpfae@/
• ajrjzLcJ/
• ausmif;0if;twGif; ajymif;a&$@Ekdifaom t&m
0wWKypPnf;rsm;/
• cJwHteufrsm;/ pm&Gufrsm;/
• rD;jcpfbl;/
• pm&Gufay:wGif t&dyfxifaprnfh aumfuyfxm;
Edkifaompvif'gyHkpHxkvHk;&Snfrsm;ESifh tjcm;aom
t&m0wˆKrsm;?

oifcef;pmtpDtpOf
yxrydkif;
1? uav;rsm;tm;vHk;udk pmoifcef;tjyifbufodk@ac:aqmifI ausmif;0if;twGif;&Sd opfyifrsm;/ ypPnf;rsm;/
taqmuftOD;rsm;ESifh t&m0wÎKypPnf;rsm;. t&dyfusaeyHkrsm;udk avhvm&eftcsdefay;yg?
2? uav;rsm; twGJtvdkuf olwdk@. yHk&dyfrsm;xifaeonfhtwdkif; ajr=uD;ay:wGif ajrjzLcJjzifh aumufa=umif;
vdkufa&;qGJ=uonf?
3? tvif;a&mifa=umifh t&dyfjzpfay:&onfh oabmobm0udk od&Sdem;vnfap&eftwGuf t&m0wˆKypPnf;
rsm;udk ae&mtoD;oD;odk@ (t&dyfxJtygt0if) a&$@cdkif;yg?
4? uav;rsm;tm; pmoifcef;twGif;odk@ jyefvnfac:,lvmjyD;v#if olwdk@. pmoifcef;jyify tawG@t=uHKrsm;
t& t&dyfyHkrsm;udk (odk@r[kwf) t&dyfrJrJ o&J&kyf=uD;yHkrsm;udk a&;qGJ=uonf?
'kwd,ydkif;
1? jyD;cJhonfh oifcef;pmwGif avhvmcJhonfh t&dyfrsm;. wpfae@wmtwGif; jzpfysufaeyHkudk avhvm=urnf?
uav;rsm;tm; wpfae@wmtwGif; t&dyfrsm; ajymif;vJvmjcif;ESifh ywfoufI olwdk@. xifjrif,lqcsufrsm;
udk ar;jref;yg? uav;rsm;. awG;qcsufrsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg?
2? vufawG@avhvmvkyfaqmifcsufwpfckudk jyKvkyf&eftwGuf &Sif;vif;ajymjyyg? avhusifhcef; pm&Gufay:wGif
tydkif; (3) ckxm;&Sdonf? (1) eHeufcif; t&dyf/ (2) rGef;wnfhcsdef t&dyfESifh (3) ae@vnfydkif;csdef t&dyfrsm;
The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

14

jzpf=uonf? uav;rsm;taejzihf t&G,fwl/ yHkpHwl t&m0wˆK (3) rsKd; (Oyrm - rD;jcpfbl;/ xkvHk;&Snf/
abmvHk;i,f ponf) udk a&G;cs,fI puUL=uD;ay:wGif aumfjzihfuyf=uonf?
3? uav;rsm;rS olwdk@. avhusifhcef;pm&Gufay:wGif owfrSwfxm;onfh tcsdefrsm;twdkif; yHk&dyfrsm;udk yHkwl
aumufa=umif;a&;qGJ=uonf? yHk&dyfrsm;tvdkuf ae. wnf&Sd&mudkvnf; avhvm=uonf?
owdjyK&ef - uav;rsm;tm; aeudk wnfhwnfhwdkuf&dkuf r=unfh=u&ef owday;yg?
4? wpfae@wmpmoifcsdefjyD;qHk;ygu yHk&dyfrsm;. t&G,ftpm;udk Ed_if;,SOfavhvm=uIf ae. taetxm; udkvnf;
Ed_if;,SOfavhvm=uonf?
wpfae@wmtwGif t&dyfrsm;. yHkpHajymif;vJjcif;rsm;ESifh ae.wnfae&m oabmobm0udk uav;rsm;taejzifh
od&Sdem;vnf&ef Toifcef;pmudk avhvm=ujcif;jzpfonf?
oifcef;pm (4) vlr+a&;ESifh ywf0ef;usif
vHkjcHKwJhae&mrSm
oifcef;pm &nf&G,fcsuf
• uav;rsm;twGuf pdwfcs vHkjcHKr_&Sdonfh ae&m
rsm;ESihf rvHkjcHKbJ tEœ&m,f&Sdonf[lI cHpm;&
aom ae&mrsm;udk od&Sdem;vnfap&ef? Todk@
rvHkjcHKbJ tEœ&m,f&Sdonfh[lI cHpm;&aom
ae&mrsm;ESifh ywfoufI rnfodk@ jyKvkyf
aqmif&GufEdkifonfudk owdjyKrdap&ef?

vdktyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;
• uav;rsm; ae@pOfae@wdkif; &Sdaewwfonfh ywf
0ef;usif taetxm;rsm;ESifh ywfoufonfh ydk
pwmrsm;/ &kyfyHkum;csyfrsm;?

oifcef;pmtpDtpOf
1? uav;rsm;taejzihf ae@pOfoGm;vmwwfonfh ae&mrsm;udk udk,fpm;jyKaz: jyxm;onfh &kyfyHkum;csyfrsm;/
ydkpwmrsm;udk pmoifcef;twGif; cif;usif;jyoyg? (Oyrm - yef;jcHrsm;/ ausmif;0if;/ tdrfaemufaz;jcH/ vlaetdrf
r&Sdonfh ajrvGwfae&mrsm;/ vlraeonfh tdrf=uD;rsm;/ aps;/ ukefwdkuf/ vrf;r=uD;/ aemufaz;vrf;/ vrf;=um;/
ponfjzihf)
2? uav;rsm;taejzifh txufygae&mrsm;wGif ae@tcsdefESifh ntcsdefwdk@wGif oGm;vmwwfonfudk aqG;aEG;yg?
rnfonfhae&mrsm;odk@oGm;vmcsif=uonfudk ar;jref;yg? tb,fa=umifh oGm;vmvdkonf/ ESpfoufonfudk
ar;jref;yg? rnfolwdk@ESifh oGm;vmwwfonfudk ar;jref;yg?
3? ae@bufwGifjzpfap/ nbufwGifjzpfap uav;rsm;taejzifh vHkjcHKr_r&Sd[k cHpm;&onfh ae&mrsm;udk ar;jref;yg?
tb,fa=umifh vHkjcHKr_r&Sd[k cHpm;&onfudk aqG;aEG;yg?
4? ae&mrsm;twGuf vHkjcHKr_&Sdaponfh tcsufrsm;ESifh vHkjcHKr_r&SdbJ tEœ&m,f&Sdonf[lI cHpm;&onfh tcsuf
tvufrsm;udk wpfwef;vHk;taejzifh pm&if;jyKpkyg? uav;rsm;. tjrifoabmxm;rsm;udk t"du &,lyg?
q&mq&mrrsm;taejzihf rdrw
d kd@. &yf&Gma'oESifh ausmif;ywf0ef;usif tajctaersm;t&ESifh pDrEH dkifr_tay:wGif
rlwnfI uav;rsm;udk ae&mtoD;oD;odk@ ac:aqmifoGm;Ekdif&ef tqifajyygu pDpOfaqmif&GufEdkifonf? txl;
ojzifh uav;rsm;onf olwdk@taejzihf ae&mtcsKd@rmS rvHkjcHK/ tEœ&m,f&Sdonf[lI cHpm;ae&r_udk (uav;rsm;
udk,fwkdi)f owdjyKrdygu oifcef;pm &nf&G,fcsuf atmifjrifygonf? oifcef;pm aemufqufwGJtaejzifh q&m/
q&mrrsm;onf ausmif;/ toif;tzGJ@rsm;ESifh rdbrsm;. yHhydk;ulnDrr_ sm;udk &,lI uav;tcGifhta&; csK;d azgufcH&r_
rsm;/ tEdkiftxufjyKusifhcH&r_rsm;/ apmfum;cH&jcif;rsm;ESifh uav;rsm;tay: t=urf;zufjcif;rsm;qdkif&m ta=umif;
t&mrsm;udk aqG;aEG;Edkifygonf?

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

15

oifcef;pm (5) enf;ynm
t0wftpm;eJ h tcsdeftcg
oifcef;pm &nf&G,fcsuf
• ae@ydkif;ESifh nbufwdk@wGif 0wfqif=uonfh
t0wftxnfrsm;udk od&Sdem;vnfap&ef?

vdktyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;
• r*~Zif;/ owif;pmESifh *sme,fta[mif;rsm;rS
jzwf,lxm;&Sdaom 0wfpm;qif,ifyHkrsm;/
• ydwfp erlemtrsKd;rsKd;/
• uyfaus;rsm;/

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? uav;rsm;tm; r*~Zif;/ owif;pmESifh *sme,fta[mif;rsm;rS jzwf,lxm;&Sdaom 0wfpm;qif,ifyHkrsm;udk
pkaqmif;xm;&Sd&ef (wpfywfcef@) =udKwifajymxm;yg? q&mq&mrrsm;rSvnf; pkaqmif;xm;yg?
2? 3 a,muf (odk@r[kwf) 4 a,muf wpftkyfpkpDjzihf &kyfyHkrsm;udk pkpnf;I avhusif&ef pm&GufwGifyg&Sdonfh ae&m
tvdkuf t0wftxnfyHkrsm;udk rsKd;wlcGJjcm;=uonf? (ausmif;0wfpHk/ tvkyf0wfpHk/ ygwDyGJ0wfpHk/ ntdyf0wfpHk
ponf)? avhusifhcef;pm&GufwGif xm;&Sdonfhae&mrsm;wGif tqdkyg&kyfyHkrsm;udk aumfjzihfuyf=uonf?
3? ae@bufESifh nbufrsm;wGif 0wfqifonfh t0wftpm;rsm;. ydwfpyHkpHrsm;udk uav;rsm;tm;udkifwG,f
avhvmcdkif;yg? ydwfprsm;. wlnDr_rsm;ESifh rwlnDr_rsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg? (yHkpH/ trsKd;tpm;/ txltyg;/ tom;/
El;nHhr_/ wGef@a=ur_/ ta&miftaoG;ESifh toHk;jyKonfh ae&mrsm;/ t0wftxnfyHkpHrsm;/)
4? ydwfptrsKd;rsKd;wdk@udk ae@bufESifh nbuf tcsdefrsm;wGif 0wfqif&ef t0wftxnfrsm; csKyfvkyf&mwGif
toHk;jyKjcif;ta=umif;udk aqG;aEG;yg? (n0wf taEG;xnf/ ygwD0wfpHk/ ausmif;0wfpHk ponfjzifh)?
5? n0wftusDyHkpHtrsKd;rsKd;udk erlemjyyg? csKyfvkyfxm;onfh yHkpHrsm;ESifh ydwfptrsKd;tpm;wdk@udk uav;rsm;tm;
udkifwG,favhvmygap?
6? uav;rsm; ae@bufESifh nbufwdk@wGif 0wfqifonfh t0wftxnfrsm;udk Ed_if;,SOfavhvm=uonf? t0wf
txnf 'DZdkif;yHkpHrsm;/ toHk;jyKonfh ydwfptrsKd;tpm;rsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg? uGJjym;jcm;em;jcif;rsm;udk avhvm
=ujyD;v#if tb,fa=umihf uGJjym;jcm;em;&onfudk aqG;aEG;yg?
7? ydwfprsm;udk ae@bufESihf nbuf t0wftxnfrsm;csKyfvkyfoihfonfwdk@udk a&G;cs,fygap? avhusihfcef; pm&Guf
xJwGif oifhawmf&mae&mrsm;wGif xdkydwfprsm;udkaumfjzihf uyfxm;=urnf?
8? n0wftuFs Drsm;. vkHjcHKaEG;axG;r_udk aqG;aEG;yg? (ydwfp/ trsKd;tpm;/ 'DZdkif;yHkpH ponf?)
olwdk@. t&kyfuav;rsm;twGuf t0wftxnfwpfpHkpDudk 'DZdkif;a&;qGJ&ef uav;rsm;&Sif;jyyg?

The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

16

tydkif; (2) “ae heJ hn” acgif;pOfESifh pyfvsOf;I
aemufqufwGJvkyfaqmifEdkifonfh pmoifcef;wGif; pDrHcsufrsm;/ vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;
Projects and Activities Ideas

ody`H (Science)
Ú tyifrsm;. =uD;xGm;jcif;ESifh pyfvsOf;I tvif;ESifh tarSmif. oufa&mufr_udkavhvm=uonf? opfyif
i,f (ysKd;yif) rsm;udk aea&mifjcnfwGifxm;&Sdjcif;/ t&dyfae&mwGifxm;&Sdjcif;ESifh tvGefarSmifonfh
(u'fxlyHk;) ae&mwGifxm;&Sdjcif;jzihf prf;oyfcsufjyKvkyfEdkifonf? rnfodk@jzpfvmEkdifonfudk uav;rsm;tm;
=udKwifrSef;qcdkif;jyD;v#if &uftvdkuf avhvmawG@&Sdcsufrsm;udk rSwfwrf;wifxm;&Sd=uonf?
Ú tylpkyf,ljcif;/ t&nfaysmfapjcif;/ ajcmufaoG@apjcif;wdk@ESifhpyfvsOf;I aea&mifjcnf. *k%fowWdrsm;ESifh
oufa&mufr_rsm;udk avhvm=uonf? ta&miftrsKd;rsKd; (teufa&mif/ tjzLa&mif/ tjyma&mif/
t0ga&mif/ teDa&mif ponf) jzifh ypPnf;rsm;udk aea&mifatmufwGifxm;&SdjyD;v#if owfrSwfxm;&Sdonfh
tcsdefumv twGif; rnfonfhta&mifjzihfypPnf;u tylqHk;jzpfonfudk avhvm=uonf? a&cJwHk;/
axmywf/ xef;nufcJ/ acsmuvuf ponfwdk@udk aea&mifatmufwGif xm;&SdjyD;v#if ajymif;vJvmr_
yHkpHrsm;udk avhvm=uonf? yef;oD;/ opfawmfoD;/ rmvumoD;wdk@udk cGJpdyfjyD;v#if yef;uefxJxnfhI
yvyfpwpftzHk;jzihf tkyfjyD; aea&mifjzihf tajcmufvSef;yg? ausmif;qif;csdefwGif tcef;xJwGifxm;I ae@pOf
opfoD;pdyfrsm; udkvSefay;yg?
Ú ae@bufESihf nbuftcsdefrsm;wGif toHrsm;udk Ed_if;,SOfavhvm=uonf? rsufvHk;rsm;ydwfxm;jyD;v#if
em;pdkufaxmifjcif;jzifh ywf0ef;usif&Sd toHtrsKd;rsKd;udk uav;rsm;pl;prf;Edkif=uonf? nbuftcsdef
toHrsm;udk avhvm&ef tdrfpmay;Edkifonf?
Ú nwd&p>mefrsm; oGm;vmyHkESifh tpm;tpm&SmazGjcif;wkd@udk pl;prf;avhvm=uonf? ae@bufwd&p>mefrsm;ESifh
nbuf wd&p>mefrsm;. rsufvHk;yHkpHrsm;udk &kyfyHkum;csyrf sm;toHk;jyKI &Sif;vif;yg? uGJjym;jcm;em;jcif;rsm;udk
uav;rsm;tm; ar;jref;yg?
Ú tvif;&&SdEdkifonfh enf;vrf;rsm;udk avhvm&SmazG=uonf? ud&d,mypPnf;rsm; - vufESdyf"gwfrD;/ rD;vHk;/
pm;yGJwifrD;acsmif;/ za,mif;wkdif;/ qDrD;cGuf/ *wfpfrD;zdk - wdk@udk avhvm=unfh&_jyD;v#if toHk;jyKyHkrsm;udk
aqG;aEG;=uonf?
Ú tvif;. *k%fowWdrsm;udk csJ@xGifavhvmEkdif=uonf?
o aea&mifatmufwGif a&r_ef/ a&r$m;jzifh oufwef@a&mifjcnfudk zefwD;Edkifygonf? oufwef@a&mif (7)
rsKd;udk avhvm=uonf?
o tvif;jyefjcif; tajccHoabmw&m;udk avhvm=uonf? aea&mifatmufwGif rSefrsm;udk toHk;jyKI
owif;ydk@Edkif=uonf? tvif;jyefonfh rsufESmjyifrsm;udk &SmazG=uonf?
vlr_a&;ESifh ywf0ef;usifbmom (Studies on Society and Environment)
Ú rdom;pktwGif; ae@tcsdefESihf ntcsdefrsm;wGif jyKvkyf=uonfh t&mrsm;/ jzpfpOfrsm; udkavhvm=uonf?
pmoifcef;twGif;ausmif;ol/ ausmif;om;rsm;tkyfpt
k vdkuf Ed_if;,SOfavhvm=uonf? TjzpfpOfrsm;ESifh
ywfoufI uav;rsm; &kyfyHkrsm;a&;qGJEdkif=uonf?
Ú ae@ESihf nqdkif&m yHkjyifrsm;udk zwf=uonf? ausmif;ol ausmif;om;rsm;udkwdkif TuJhodk@aom udk,fydkif
yHkjyif topfrsm;udk zefwD;=uonf?
Ú tvif;pGrf;tifudk acíwmEdkif&ef enf;vrf;rsm;udk &SmazG=uonf? rvdktyfbJ rD;rxGef;xm;=u&ef
vH_aqmfonfh eH&Huyfydkpwmrsm;udk uav;rsm;tkyfpktvdkuf zefwD;=uonf?
Ú aea&mifjcnf. aumif;usKd;rsm;ESifh qdk;usKd;rsm;/ tEœ&m,frsm;udk avhvm=uonf? tom;ta&udk
jyif;xefonfhaea&mifjcnfrS umuG,f&ef vdktyfa=umif;udk aqG;aEG;yg? aea&mifjyif;xefcsdefwGif

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

17

tjyifxGufygu tusF DESifh OD;xkyf/ xD;jzifh vHkvHkjcHKjcHK umuG,foifhonfh ynmay;yef;csDrsm;/ ydkpwmrsm;ESifh
ydk@pu'frsm;udk zefwD;=uonf?
enf;ynm (Technology)
Ú nrD;r_efr_efwGif t&dyfyHko¿mefrsm;udk avhvm=uonf? tb,fa=umifh Todk@yHkpHrsm;jzpf=uonfudk
avhvm =uonf? tvif;vrf;a=umif;udk ajymif;Edkifonfh t&dyfyHkrsm;udk 'DZdkif;a&;qGJ=uonf? uawmhyHk
u'f xlyHkpHrsm;/ pvif'gyHkpHrsm;/ wpf&_;puULuJhodk@ puULaysmhESifh ylazgif;abmfvHk;rsm;jzifh rD;vHk;yHkpHrsm;
zefwD;I avhvmEdkif =uonf?
Ú t&dyf&&Sdaponfh ypPnf;rsm;trsKd;rsKd;udk avhvmpl;prf;=uonf? ypPnf;trsKd;rsKd;. toHk;0ifr_ESifh xda&mufr_
rsm;udk avhvmaqG;aEG;=uonf? uav;rsm;avhvmEdkifonfh ypPnf;rsm;rSm - ydwfprsm;/ yvyfpwpf/
*kefav#mf txnf=urf;/ rSnf=unfpuUL/ uGef&ufxnf?
Ú aea&mifjcnfESifh ta&jym;uifqma&m*gjzpfyGm;jcif;wdk@qufEG,fr_&SdyHkudk &Sif;vif;wifjyEdkifonfh enf;vrf;
trsKd;rsKd;udk &SmazG=uonf? ydkpwmrsm;/ a&'D,dkZmwfvrf;/ wDAGD/ owif;?
tEkynmbmom&yf (Arts)
Ú pmoifcef;twGif; t&dyf&kyfao;yGJawmfudk usif;y=urnf? u'fxlrsm;jzifh &kyfao;&kyfrsm;zefwD;I =udK;wef;
jzifh wifqufEdkifonf?
Ú ae/ v/ =u,fwm,mESifh j*dKvfrsm;tpkta0;ESifh wnf&SdaeyHk yHkpHi,fudk pmoifcef;rsufESm=uufwGif
=udK;wef;rsm;/ t0wfvSef;csdwfrsm;toHk;jyKI csdwfqGJxm;jcif;jzifh zefwD;Edkifonf?
Ú wd&p>mefrsm; eHeufcif;wGif tdyf,mxjcif;ESihf ntdyf,m0ifjcif;qkdif&m oHaygufuAsmrsm;jzifh uav;rsm;
oDqdk uckefEdkif=uonf? wd&p>mefrsm;. obm0ESifh tjyKtrlrsm;udk pD'D/ ADG'D,dktacGrsm;jzifh avhvm
=unfh&_Edkif=uonf?

The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

18

tjrJwrf; vkyfae&w,f?

ae@buftcsdefrsm;rSmvkyfwJht&mrsm;

nbuftcsdefrsm;rSmvkyfwJht&mrsm;

wevFmae@

t*Fgae@

Ak'<[l;ae@

=umoyaw;ae@

aom=umae@

paeae@

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

19

ae heJ h/ n&J h aumif;uif-uD;
uav;rsm;tm; aeudk wkduf&dkuf wnfhwnfh r=unfh=u&ef owday;ajym=um;yg?

ae@buf
aumif;uifjyif

nbuf
aumif;uif
jyif

The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

20

t&yd yf kH
wpf&ufwmtcsdefrSm t&dyfawGudk avhvm=unfhawmh 'Dvdk rwlnDwJh yHk&dyfawGudk &&Sdygw,f?

uíefawmfh&J@ reufydkif; yHk&dyfyg?
aumif;uifrSm aerif;=uD;u&J@ae&muawmh

uíefawmfh&J@ rGef;wnfhcsdef yHk&dyfyg?
aumif;uifrSm aerif;=uD;u&J@ae&muawmh

uíefawmfh&J@ ae@vnfydkif; yHk&dyfyg?
aumif;uifrSm aerif;=uD;u&J@ae&muawmh
t&dyfawGjzpfay:&wJh ta=umif;uawmh
t&dyfawG yHkpHajymif;&wJh ta=umif;uawmh

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

21

vHkjcHKwJhae&mrSm (ae@bufeJ@ nbuf)
vHkjcHKapwJh t&mawGuawmh

vHkjcHKapwJh t&mawGuawmh

The world in the democratic classroom

vHkjcHKapwJh ae&mawGuawmh

vHkjcHKapwJh ae&mawGuawmh

Saya Thein Naing

22

t0wftpm;eJ h tcsdeftcg
vlawG0wfqif=uwJh t0wftxnfrsm;
tvkyfvkyf&ef

ntdyf&ef

ausmif;oGm;&ef

ygwDyGJoGm;&ef

ntdyfwJtcgrSm 0wfwJh t0wftxnfrsm;

ae@bufrSm 0wfwJh t0wftxnfrsm;

t&kyfuav;twGuf t0wftpm;wpfpHk
om;om;/ rD;rD;&J@ tcspfqHk; t&kyfuav;yHk

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

23

tydkif; (3)
oifcef;pm (1) ody`H
cspfp&mh tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;
oifcef;pm &nf&G,fcsuf
• tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;. oGifjyifvuQ%mrsm;udk
od&Sd em;vnf&ef?

vdktyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;
• r*~Zif;/ owif;pmESifh tjcm;aom pmtkyf
pmwrf;rsm;rS wd&p>mefrsm;. &kyfyHkrsm;/ ydkpwm
rsm;/
• uav;rsm;. tdrfarG;wd&p>mef "gwfyHkrsm;/
• cJwHrsm;/
• uyfaus;rsm;?

oifcef;pmtpDtpOf
1? uav;rsm;. tdrfwGif arG;jrLxm;&Sdaom tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;ta=umif;udk ar;jref;yg? ausmufoifykef;ay:
wGif pm&if;jyKpkyg?
2? r*~Zif;/ owif;pmrsm;rS tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;&kyfyHkwkd@udk jzwf,ljcif;ESifh tdrf&Sd tjcm;aom "gwfyHkrsm;/ &kyfyHk
um;csyfrsm;udk uav;rsm; pkaqmif;=ujyD; pmoifcef;odk@,lvm=uonf?
3? TtdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;udk rsKd;&dk;tkyfpktvdkuf cGJjcm;xm;&Sd&ef oifhawmfonfh tkyfpktrnf/ trsKd;tpm;rsm;udk
uav;rsm;tm;ar;jref;yg?
4? uav;rsm;tkyfpktvdkuf tdrfarG; wd&p>mefrsm;pm&if;ESifh &kyfyHkrsm;&Sd wd&p>mefrsm;udk tkyfpkcGJjcm;xm;=uonf?
5? tkyfpktvdkuf uav;rsm;. cGJjcm;xm;&Sdjcif;rsm;udk wpfwef;vHk;odk@jyefvnfwifjyaqG;aEG;=uonf?
6? rsKd;pktkyfpkwGifryg&Sdaom tjcm;tkyfpkpm&if;wdk@udk aqG;aEG;yg?
7? avhusifhcef;pm&GufwGif yg&Sdonfh rsKd;pktkyfpkrsm;tvdkuf tdrfarG; wd&p>mefrsm;yHkrsm;udk xnhfoGif;jcif;/ uav;
rsm; udk,fwkdif a&;qGJjcif;rsm;jyKvkyf=uonf?
oifcef;pm (2) ody`H
tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;. vdktyfcsufrsm;
oifcef;pm&nf&,
G cf suf
• tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;. vdktyfcsufrsm;udk od&Sd
em;vnfapjyD; tpma&pmESifh aep&mwdk@twGuf
vlrsm;tay:wGifrSDcdk&jcif;udkoabmaygufap&ef?

vdktyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;
• pm&Gufrsm;/ cJwHrsm;/
• pmoifcef;twGifY
a&$ig;arG;uefi,fwpfckudk
xm; &Sdvkdygu uírf;usifolxHrS tultnDudk
&,lyg?

oifcef;pmtpDtpOf
1? uav;rsm; olwdk@. tdrfarG;wd&p>mef &kyfyHkrsm;udka&;qGJ=uonf? tdrfarG;wd&p>mefr&Sdaom uav;rsm;taejzihf
ESpfouf&m tdrfarG;wd&p>mef&kyfyHkudk jzpfap/ olwdk@pdwful;xJ&Sd wd&p>mefrsm;udkjzpfap &kyfyHkrsm;a&;qJGEdkifonf?
2? olwdk@a&;qGJxm;onfh tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;twGuf vdktyfonfh tpm;tpmrsm;udk aqG;aEG;I rSwfwrf;xm;yg?
uav;rsm;. &kyfyHkrsm;ESifh tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;twGuf vdktyfaom tpm;tpmrsm;udk wpfOD;csif;tvdkuf
twef;a&S@xGufI &Si;f vif;wifjy=uonf?
3? olwdk@. tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;twGuf tjcm;aomvdktyfonfh t&mrsm;- Oyrm -aep&m/ a&/ acgif;zD;
vdrf;jcif;ESifh aq;0g;rsm;udk aqG;aEG;=uonf?
The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

24

4? uav;rsm; touf&Sifaexdkif&ef vdktyfcsufrsm;ESifh olwdk@tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;. vdktyfcsufrsm;udk Ed_if;,SOfI

avhvmaqG;aEG;=uonf? uav;rsm;. vdktyfcsufrsm;ESifh ywfoufI rdom;pktwGif; rnfolwdk@xHrS &&Sd
onfudk aqG;aEG;=uonf?
5? tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;. vdktyfcsufrsm;twGuf vlrsm;rS jznfhqnf;ay;&onfh ta=umif;&if;udk ar;jref;yg?
tu,fI vlrsm;rS tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;. vdktyfcsufrsm;udk rjznfhqnf;ay;yg bmjzpfEdkifonfudk aqG;aEG;yg?
(tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;rSm vlaetdrfrsm;wGifom ,Ofyg;aejyDjzpfI awmwGif;ESifh opfawmxJwGif aexdkifEdkif&ef
ESifh olwdk@udk,fudk *&kpdkuf&efrvG,fulygacs? tpma&pmESifh aep&mudk r&SmazGwwfawmhyg?)
6? pmoifcef;twGif;Y a&$ig;uefi,fav;wpfckudk zefwD;yg? Ta&$ig;uav;rsm;twGuf vdktyfonfh tpm;
tpmESifh tjcm;vdktyfcsufrsm;udk rSwfwrf;wif=uonf?
oifcef;pm (3) ody`H
tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm; eJ hawmwGif; wd&p>mefrsm;
oifcef;pm &nf&G,fcsuf
• tdrfarG;ESifh awmwGif; wd&p>mefrsm;. wlnDcsuf
rsm;ESifh uGJjym;jcm;em;csufrsm;

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm;
• tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;ESifh awmwGif;ae wd&p>mef
rsm;. ydkpwmrsm;/ &kyfyHkum;csyfrsm;/

oifcef;pmtpDtpOf
1? tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;taejzifh vlwdk@arG;jrLaom wd&p>meftrsKd;tpm;rsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg? (Oyrm - a=umif/
acG;/ ,kef/ =uGufjzL/ iSufrsm;/ ig;rsm;/ vdyfrsm;/ arsmufrsm; ESifh tjcm; tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;)/
2? txufyg tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;ESifh qifwlonfh awmwGif;&Sd om;&Jwd&p>mefrsm;udk ar;jref;yg?
3? tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;ESifh qifwlonfh awmwGif;ae om;&Jwd&p>mefrsm;. &kyfyHkrsm;/ ydkpwmrsm;udk jyoyg? Jrefrm
EdkifiHtwGif; jynfe,ftoD;oD;&Sd awm&dkif;wd&p>mefrsm;ESifh tjcm;EkdifiHrsm;rS wd&p>mefrsm;udkvnf;jyoyg?
rwluGJjym;jcm;em;r_rsm;udk od&Sdem;vnfEdkifaprnfjzpfygonf? Oyrm - a=umifrSm tdrfarG;wd&p>mef jzpfaomf
jim;vnf; ,if;ESifh qifwlonfh jcaoFhrsm;ESifh usm;rsm;rSm awmwGif;ae om;&Jwd&p>mefrsm; jzpfonfudk
aqG;aEG;yg?
4? tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;ESifh ,if;ESifh yHkpHwlonfh awmwGif;ae wd&p>mefrsm;t=um; wlnDcsufrsm;ESifh uGJvGJcsufrsm;
udk avhvmaqG;aEG;=ujyD;v#if rSwfwrf;wif=uonf?
5? awmwGif;ae wd&p>mefrsm;udk tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;taejzifh tdrfrsm;wGif tb,fa=umihf arG;jrL&ef rjzpfEdkif
onfudk aqG;aEG;=uonf?
6? tu,fI jzpfEdkifygu uav;rsm; wd&p>mefO,smOfodk@ tvnftywfoGm;a&mufEdkif&ef pDpOfaqmif&Gufay;yg?
oifcef;pm (4) vlr+a&;ESifh ywf0ef;usif
uíefawmfh&J h acG;uav;
oifcef;pm &nf&G,fcsuf
• tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;udk arG;jrL&mwGif wm0ef&Sdr_
ESifh ywfoufI uav;rsm; od&Sdoabmayguf
ap&ef?

vdktyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;
• cJwHrsm;?

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? vlrsm;taejzifh tb,fa=umifh tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;udk arG;jrL&onfudk aqG;aEG;yg? tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;
a=umifh vlrsm;/ tdrfoltdrfom;rsm;/ uav;rsm; aysmf&$if=u&onfh ta=umif;rsm;udk pm&if;jyKpk=uonf?
pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

25

2? uav;rsm;taejzifh tb,fa=umihf tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;udk xm;&Sd&onfudk ar;jref;yg? ta=umif;&if;rsm;udk
3?
4?
5?
6?

pm&if;jyKpkyg?
tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;ESifhtwl uav;i,frsm; vkyfaqmifonfh t&mrsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg? acG;av;rsm;ESifh twl
vrf;av#mufxGufjcif;/ abmvHk;upm;jcif;/ a=umifav;rsm;ESifh twlupm;jcif;/ omvdumrsm;ESifh pum;
ajymjcif; ponfjzihf?
TtdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;ESihf ywfoufI uav;rsm; vkyfaqmif&onfh t&mrsm;/ wm0efrsm;udk ar;jref;yg?
txufyg vkyfaqmif&onfh t&mrsm;/ wm0efrsm;udk tb,fa=umifhvkyfaqmif&ef ta&;=uD;onfudk aqG;aEG;
yg? tu,fI rvkyfygu bmjzpfEkdifonfudk aqG;aEG;ar;jref;yg?
obm0ywf0ef;usif/ awmwGif;wd&p>mefrsm;ESifh Ed_if;,SOfavhvmcsuftaejzifh tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;udk arG;jrL
jcif;wGifyg&Sdonfh wm0ef0wW&m;rsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg? awmwGif;wd&p>mefrsm;ESifh obm0ywf0ef;usif/ yef;jcH
rsm;twGuf a=umifrsm;/ acG;rsm;rS zsufqD;Edkifonfh t&mrsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg? odk@jzpfI tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;
arG;jrLxm;olrsm;taejzifh owdxm;&Sd&rnfh tcsufrsm;udk pm&if;jyKpkyg? (Oyrm - a=umifrsm;udk nbufwGif
tdrfxJwGifoGif;xm;&ef/ acG;rsm;udk yef;jcHxJwGif vrf;av#mufxGufonfhtcgwGif odkif;=udK;wyfxm;&ef/)

oifcef;pm (5) enf;ynm
a-umifav;/ acG;uav;twGuf aep&mtdrf
oifcef;pm &nf&G,fcsuf
• tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;twGuf txl;vdktyfonfh
aep&m tdrfi,frsm;udk 'DZdkif;a&;qGJjcif;/
• Ttdrfi,frsm;twGuf vdktyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;/
ud&d,mrsm;udk pm&if;jyKpkjcif;/

vdktyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;
• opfom;tydkif;tprsm;/ twdktxGmrsm;/
• u'fxlyHk;rsm;/
• aowWmrsm;/
• pm&Gufrsm;
• aumf/
• jzwf&efypPnf;rsm;/

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? uav;rsm;. tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;ESifh ,if;wdk@aexdkif&ef vdktyfonfhaep&myHkpHrsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg?
2? tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;twGuf vdktyfonfh aep&mrsm;. t&G,ftpm;rsm;/ yHko¿mefrsm;udk ar;jref;yg? tb,f
a=umifh TuJhodk@aom t&G,ftpm;ESifh ykHo¿mefrsm; vdktyf&onfudk aqG;aEG;yg?
3? tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;aep&mtwGuf vdktyfcsuftrsKd;rsKd;ukdaqG;aEG;yg? Oyrm - acG;avSmiftdrfrSm acG;rsm;
twGuf aexdkifEkdif&ef us,fus,f0ef;0ef;&Sd&rnf/ rdk;a&rpdkap&efESifh vHkjcHKaEG;axG;r_&Sd&rnf?
4? Taep&mrsm;udk jyKvkyf&mwGif toHk;jyKonfh ypPnfrsm;trsKd;tpm;rsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg?
5? uav;rsm;rS olwdk@. tdrfarG;wd&p>mefwpfaumifaumif (odk@) arG;jrLvdkonfh wd&p>mefrsm;. aep&myHkpHrsm;udk
a&;qGJ=uonf?
6? txufyg tdrfaqmufvkyf&mwGif olwdk@toHk;jyKonfh ypPnf;rsm;udk aqG;aEG;I avhusifhcef;pm&GufwGif a&;qGJ
=uonf?
7? oifaxmufulypPnf;rsm;jzifh uav;rsm; tdrfyHkpHi,frsm;udk vufawG@aqmufvkyf=uonf?
8? olwdk@. tdrfrsm;toD;oD; aqmufvkyfjyD;pD;ygu tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;twGuf tqifajyr_ &Sd/ r&SdESifh tm;om
csufrsm;/ tm;enf;csufrsm;udk oHk;oyfaqG;aEG;=uonf?

The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

26

oifcef;pm (6) tEkynmbmom
tdrfarG;wd&p>mef rsufESmzHk;pGyf
oifcef;pm &nf&G,fcsuf
• uav;rsm;. tdrfarG;wd&p>mef rsufESmzHk;pGyfrsm;
jyKvkyf&ef?

vdktyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;
• tarG;wk/
• a&mifpHkpuULrsm;/
• aq;a&mifrsm;/
• ydwfptydkif;tprsm;/

oifcef;pmtpDtpOf
1? uav;rsm;. tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;trsKd;rsKd;udk aqG;aEG;=ujyD;v#if rsKd;EG,fpkpm&if;wGif xnhfoGif;=uonf? Oyrm
- iSuf/ ig;/ Edk@wdkufowW0g/ tdrfajr‡mif/ ykwfoif/ tif;quf ponf?
2? Twd&p>mefrsm;. ta&cGH/ tqif;yHkpHESifh ta&miftaoG;wdk@udk aqG;aEG;yg?
3? Twd&p>mefrsm;. ta&cGH/ tqif;yHkpHESifh ta&miftaoG;tvdku rsufESmzHk;pGyfjyKvkyf&ef vdktyfonfh yHkpHwk
ypPnf;rsm;udk ay;a0yg?
4? xdkypPnf;rsm;jzifh wd&p>mefrsufESmzHk;pGyfrsm;udk zefwD;jc,fo=ujyD;v#if ESmacgif;/ rsufvHk;/ em;&Gufrsm; jznfhpGuf
Edkif=uonf?
5? zefwD;jc,fojyD;ygu jzwfn‡yfI rsufESmzHk;pGyf0wf=ujyD;v#if wd&p>mefrsm;qdki&f m upm;enf;rsm; upm;jcif;ESifh/
uAsmoHaygufrsm;udk &Gwfqdkjcif;wdk@ jyKvkyfEdkif=uonf?

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

27

tydkif; (3) “cspfp&mh tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;” acgif;pOfESifh pyfvsOf;I
aemufqufwGJvkyfaqmifEdkifonfh pmoifcef;wGif; pDrHcsufrsm;/ vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;
Projects and Activities Ideas

ody`H (Science)
Ú tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;a&mif;csonfhqdkifodk@ tvnftywfoGm;a&mufI tdrfarG;wd&p>meftrsKd;tpm;rsm;ESifh
rsKd;EG,frsm;udk avhvm=uonf?
Ú tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;rS wqifh vludkul;pufEdkifaom a&m*gydk;r$m;rsm;/ Oyrm - rsufajr‡;a&mifem/ rsufpdem/
oefaumif/ oef;/ ponfwkd@udk avhvm=uonf? Ta&m*grsm;rul;pufap&efESifh umuG,f&ef vkyfaqmif
vdkufemoifhonf usef;rma&;ynmay; A[kokwrsm;udk aqG;aEG;jcif;/ pm&if;jyKpkjcif;rsm;jyKvkyfEdkifonf?
Ú tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;. =uD;xGm;vmyHktqifhqifhESifh oufwrf;rsm;udk pm=unfhwdkufwGifavhvm=uonf?
vlr_a&;ESifh ywf0ef;usif ( Studies of Society and Environment)
Ú obm0ywf0ef;usiftay: tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;rS qdk;usKd;rsm;ay;jcif;ESifhywfoufI avhvm=uonf? T
jy\emrsm; udk umuG,fwm;qD;Edkif&ef rnfodk@vkyfaqmifEkdifygoenf;?
Ú vlwdk@arG;jrLaomwd&p>mefrsm;rS vlwdk@tm; tvkyfvkyfay;jcif;ESifh toHk;0ifyHkrsm;udk avhvm=uonf?
Oyrm - EGm;rsm;/ jrif;rsm;rS v,f,m/ pdkufysKd;a&;ESifh arG;jrLa&;vkyfief;rsm;wGif taxmuftuljyKyHk?
Twd&p>mefrsm;ESifh tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;udk Ed_if;,SOfavhvm=uonf?
Ú ouf=uD;&G,ftdk tzdk;tzGm;rsm;/ rsufrjrifrsm;ESifh txD;usefqefaeolrsm;taejzifh tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;udk
toHk;jyKyHkudk aqG;aEG;=uonf? taz:tjzpf toHk;0ifyHkrsm;udk aqG;aEG;=uonf?
Ú wd&p>meftm;vHk;udk tdrfwGifarG;jrLoifh/ roifhESifh tdrfarG;wd&p>meftjzpftoHk;jyKEkdifjcif; &Sd/ r&Sdudk aqG;aEG;
=uonf?
Ú ausmif;/ pmoifcef;wGif; tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;ae@udk usif;yEdkifonf? rdbrsm;. tultnDudk &,lyg?
tdrfarG; wd&p>mefrsm;udk ausmif;Y oD;oef@xm;&SdI xdk@ae@wGif tcsdefydkif;omxm;&efvdktyfygonf?
enf;ynmbmom (Technology)
Ú a'owGif;&Sd iSufrsm;twGuf O O&ef todkuf (odk@r[kw)f tpmacG/ ajrmif;/ cGuf yHkpHrsm;udk uav;rsm;
'DZdkif; a&;qGJ=uonf?
Ú =uGufi,fav;rsm;twGuf avhusifhcef;jyKvkyf&ef ud&d,mrsm;yg&Sdonfh =uGufavSmiftdrfi,f yHkpH'DZdkif;udk
uav;rsm; zefwD;=uonf?
tEkynmbmom (Arts)
Ú tdrfarG;wd&p>mefwpfaumif. ae&mwGif 0ifa&mufcpH m;I uav;rsm; yHkjyifwpfyk'fpDa&;om;=uonf?
txl; ojzihf tdrfarG;wd&p>mefwdk@tay:wGif tdrf&Sdvlrsm;rS jyKrlqufqHyHkrsm;udk olwdk@cHpm;&onfudk
a&;om; =uonf?
Ú uav;rsm;. pdwful;,Of txl;pyg,f&S,f tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;. &kyfyHkwkd@udka&;qGJ=uonf? txl;
aep&m tdrf/ todkuf/ *l/ ESifh txl; tpm;tpmrsm;udkvnf; t&kyfa&;qGJ=uonf?
Ú tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;. ta&cGHrsm;/ tqif;yHkpHrsm;/ ta&miftaoG;rsm;/ tarG;tjr‡ifrsm; ponfwdk@udk
aumufa=umif;yef;csDa&;qGJ=uonf? odk@r[kwf puUL/ t0wfp/ &kyfyHk/ "gwfyHkwkd@jzihf yHkpHaz: tEkynmudk
zefwD;=uonf?

The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

28

cspfp&mh tdfrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;?
om;arG; (tarG;) &Sdaom tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;

tawmif&Sdaom tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;

ta=u;cGH&Sdaom tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;

toD;t&Gufpm;aom tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;/

tom;pm;aom tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;

uíefawmf. tdfrfwGifarG;xm;aom wd&p>mefrsm;yHk -

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

29

tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;. vdktyfcsufrsm;
tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;. trnf

vdktyfonfhtpm

The world in the democratic classroom

ae&ef ae&m

Saya Thein Naing

30

tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;ESifh awmwGif;wd&p>mefrsm;
tdrfarG; wd&p>mefrsm;

awmwGif;&Sd rsKd;wl wd&p>mefoli,fcsif;rsm;

wlnD=uyHkrsm;

uGJjym;jcm;em;csufrsm;

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

31

uíefawmfhcspfwJh tdrfarG;wd&p>mef
tdrfrSmarG;xm;wJh wd&p>mef

tJ'DtdrfarG;wd&p>mefav;eJ@ uíefawmfvkyfwJht&mrsm;

uíefawmfol@udk *&kwpdkufeJ@xm;&wmyg? uíefawmfvkyfay;wJht&mawGuawmh

uíefawmfudk tJ'Dwd&p>mefav;vdktyfw,f? bmjzpfvdk@vJqdkawmh

The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

32

a-umifav;/ acG;uav;twGuf aep&mtdrf
tdrfarG;wd&p>mefav;twGuf aep&m tdrfyHk 'DZdkif;rsm;/

tJ'DtdrfrSmaewJh wd&p>mefuawmh

aep&mtdrfudk aqmufvkyf&ef vdktyfaomypPnf;rsm;

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

33

tdrfarG;wd&p>mef rsufESmzHk;yHk

rsufESmzHk;yHkqGJyg?
em;&GufawGwyfay;yg?
ESmacgif;qGJay;yg?
ta&mifcs,fay;yg?
emrnfay;yg?
The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

34

tydkif; (4)

oifcef;pm (1) ody`H
opfwpfyifudk avhvmjcif;
oifcef;pm &nf&G,fcsuf
• opfyifrsm;. tpdwftydkif;rsm;udk avhvm=unfh
&_I rSwfwrf;wifjcif;/

vdktyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;
• ajrtdk;jzifh pdkufxm;onfh yef;yGifhaom tyifrsm;
ESifh yef;ryGifhaom tyifrsm;?

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? ausmif;0if;twGif;&Sd opfyif/ yef;yiftrsKd;rsKd;udk uav;rsm;avhvmEdkif&ef pDpOfyg? tyifrsm;. tpdwftydkif;
rsm;udk avhvm=uonf?
2? opfyifrsm; &Sifoef=uD;jyif;onfh ae&mrsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg? oHrHwvif;/ tkwfcif;=um;xJrS jrufyifi,frsm;/
ausmif; O,smOfjcHxJ&Sd tpDt&D pdkufysK;dxm;onfh yef;yifrsm;/ csKHrsm;/ ponf?
3? opfyifrsm;ESifh oufqdkifonfh yHkjyifrsm;udk zwf=uonf? opfyif/ yef;yifrsm;. &kyfyHkum;csyfrsm;udk cif;usif;
jyoyg?
4? a&G;cs,fxm;aom ajrtdk;rsm;xJrS tyiftrsKd;rsKd;wdk@. tpdwftydkif;rsm;udk uav;rsm;tkyfpktvdkuf avhvm
=u onf? a&;rSwfxm;jcif;/ yHkqGJjcif;rsm; jyKvkyf=uonf?
5? tyif. tpdwftydkif;rsm;udk aqG;aEG;I trnfay;=uonf? tdk;xJrS tyiftcsKd@udk xkwf,ljyD; tjrpfrsm;
zGJ@pnf; wnf&SdaeyHkudk avhvm=uonf? (xk@d aemuf tdk;xJjyefxnhfxm;Edkifygonf?)
6? avhusihfcef; pm&GufxJwGif uav;rsm; tyif. tpdwftydkif;toD;oD;udk a&;jznhf=uonf?
oifcef;pm (2) ody`H
tarSmifxJu claumif/ aygufzuf
oifcef;pm &nf&G,fcsuf
• aea&mifjcnf/ a&ESifh taEG;"gwfponfwdk@jzifh
prf;oyfI tyifrsm;. vdktyfcsufwdk@udk od&Sd
em;vnfap&ef?

vdktyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;
• 15 pifwDrDwmcef@ jzwfxm;onfh yg;v$maom
t0wfydkufrsm;/ ajctdyf&Snfrsm; (uav;wpfOD;
v#if wpfydkif;)/
• opfyifpdkufysKd;&ef oifhawmfonfh ajr=uD;/
• jrufyifrsKd;aph/
• upm;p&mrsufvHk;yHkpHrsm;/
(yvyfpwpf/
=u,foD; ponf)?

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? tarG;rsm;jzifh zHk;v$rf;aeonfh claumif (opf&Gufaygufzufaumif) rsm;udk zefwD;=urnfjzpfa=umif;ESifh T
claumifrsm;udk vufawG@ prf;oyfcsufrsm;wGif toHk;jyKrnfjzpfa=umif;udk uav;rsm;udk &Sif;jyyg? uav;rsm;rS
tqihfqihfudk a&;rSwfxm;=uonf?
tqifhrsm;
• jzwfxm;onfh t0wfydkufi,f/ ajctdyftydkif;prsm;udk wpfbufwGif=udK;jzifh ydwfcsnfyg?
• jrufyifrsKd;aphrsm;ESifh ajr=uD;udk a&maESmyg?
• uav;rsm;tm; t0wfydkufi,fxJwGifxnfhoGif;&ef tcsKd;usay;yg?
pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

35



2?
3?
4?
5?
6?

xnfhjyD;ygu t0wfydkufi,fudk =udK;jzifhydwfcsnfyg?
rsufvHk;&kyfrsm;wyfqifyg? aumfjzifhuyfEkdifonf?
yvyfpwpfjym;ay:wGif tpDt&Dxm;&SdjyD; a&yHkrSefavmif;yg?
prf;oyfcsufwGif toHk;jyK&eftwGuf aemufxyfI claumif 6 aumifudk txufygtwdkif;zefwD;yg?
txufyg claumifrsm;udk xm;&Sdoifhonfh ae&mrsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg? tarG;rsm; (jrufrsm;) aygufvmap&ef
apmifh&efvdkygonf? arSmifonfhbD&dkxJwGif/ a&cJaowWmxJwGif/ aeomaomae&mwGif/ a&r&Sdonfhae&mwGif
ponfjzifh xm;&Sdygu bmjzpfEdkifonfudk aqG;aEG;yg?
uav;rsm;. pOf;pm;csufrsm;udk a&;rSwfxm;cdkif;yg?
pmoifcef;twGif;ae&m tESHtjym;wGif uav;rsm;. claumifrsm;udk ae&mcsxm;=urnf?
prf;oyfcsuftwGuf claumif 6 aumifteuf 2 aumifpDudk udk (1) arSmifonhf bD&dkxJwGif (2)
a&cJaowWmxJwGif/ (3) aeomaomae&mwGif xm;yg? (wpfckudk a&avmif;I usefwpfckudk a&ravmif;ygESihf)/
2 ywfcef@=umaomf prf;oyfcsuf. &v'fudk uav;rsm;ESifh aqG;aEG;yg? TawG@&Sdcsufrsm;udk uav;rsm;
claumifav;rsm;ESifh Ed_if;,SOfavhvmyg? uav;rsm;. awG;qcsufrsm;rSefuefygovm;?

oifcef;pm (3) ody`H
wd&p>mefwdk h&J hae&mrsm;
oifcef;pm &nf&G,fcsuf
• jcHxJwGif&Sdaom ydk;r$m;wd&p>mefrsm;ESifh olwdk@.
ae&mrsm;/

vdktyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;
• pm&Gufrsm;/ cJwHrsm;
• jcHxJwGif &Sdaom ydk;aumifi,frsm;ESifh olwdk@.
tpmuGif;quf?

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? uav;rsm;tm; pmoifcef;tjyifbuf ausmif;0if;odk@ac:aqmifjyD;v#if ausmif;0if;twGif; ae&mtESH@tjym;
udk avhvmcdkif;yg? Oyrm- oJyHk/ opfyifatmuf/ wd&p>mefi,frsm;udk &SmazG&ef? yk&GufqdwfESifh a&$ydk;aumifrsm;
udk &SmazG&ef tpwGifcufcJEdkifonfhtwGuf uav;rsm;udk tcsdefay;I ulnD&SmazGyg?
2? olwdk@avhvmawG@&Sdonfh taumifav;rsm;udk t&kyfqGJckdif;yg?
3? olwdk@&kyfyHkrsm;udk toHk;jyI jcHxJwGif taumifi,fav;rsm; aexkdif&mae&mrsm;ESifh wd&p>mefrsm;udk rSwfwrf;
wifyg? TwGif jzpfEkdifonfh ae&mrsm;rSm - opfyifrsm;/ csKH/ jrufcif;/ opf&Guftrd_ufyHk/ ausmufwHk;/ a&ESihf
ajr=uD;?
4? olwdk@. taumifi,fav;rsm; pm;aomufonfh t&mrsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg? &kyfyHkum;csyfrsm;ESifh ADG'D,dkacGrsm;udk
toHk;jyKEdkifygonf?
5? &dk;pif;aom tpmuGif;quf oabmw&m;udk rdwfqufyg? Oyrm- claumif rS opf&Gufrsm;udk pm;aomuf
onf? yifhulrsm;rS claumifrsm;udk pm;onf? iSufrsm;rS yifhulrsm;udk pm;onf--- ponfjzihf?
oifcef;pm (4) ody`H
tm;vHk;twlwlyJvm;?
oifcef;pm&nf&,
G cf suf
• wd&p>mefrsm;t=um; wlnDcsufrsm;/ uGJjym;jcm;
em;csufrsm;ESifh wd&p>mefESifh vlwdk@t=um; wlnD
csufrsm;/ uGJjym;jcm;em;csufrsm;udk avhvm &ef?

The world in the democratic classroom

vdktyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;
• Edk@wdkufowW0grsm;/ tif;quf/ wGm;oGm; owW0g
rsm;/ iSufESifh ydk;aumifi,frsm;. &kyfyHkum;csyf
rsm;/ ydkpwmrsm;?

Saya Thein Naing

36

oifcef;pmtpDtpOf
1? owW0grsKd;EG,fpk tkyfpkcGJjcm;onfh &kyyf Hkum;csyfrsm;udk jyoyg? tif;qufrsm;/ iSufrsm;/ wGm;oGm;owW0g/ ydk;r$m;
taumifi,frsm;ESifh Edk@wdkufowW0grsm;? Twd&p>mefrsm;t=um; wlnDcsufrsm;/ uGJjym;jcm;em;csufrsm;udk
aqG;aEG;yg?
2? uav;rsm;tm; ausmif;0if;twGif;ESifh tdrf&Sd jcHO,smOfxJwGif txufyg wd&p>mefrsm;udk &SmazGI avhvm
cdkif;yg?
3? olwdk@avhvm&SmazGawG@&Sdonfh taumifrsm;. oGifjyifvuQ%mtrsKd;rsKd;udk Ed_if;,SOfjcif;/ aqG;aEG;jcif;rsm;
jyKvkyfyg?
4? olwdk@avhvmawG@&Sdonfh wd&p>mefrsm;udk rsKd;EG,fpkpm&if;wGif oufqdkif&mtkyfpktvdkuf pm&if;oGif;=uonf?
5? vlom;wdk@. oGifjyifvuQ%mrsm;udk ar;jref;I olwdk@avhvmxm;&Sdonfh wd&p>mefrsm;ESifh Ed_if;,SOfavhvm
ckdif;yg?
6? olwdk@avhvmawG@&Sdonfh wd&p>mefrsm;pm;onhf t&mrsm;udk Ed_if;,SOfavhvmckdif;yg? vlwdk@pm;aomufonfh
t&mrsm;ESifhvnf; Ed_if;,SOfavhvmcdkif;yg? wlnDcsufrsm;/ uGJjym;jcm;em;csufrsm;udk aqG;aEG;=uonf?
7? wd&p>mefrsm;t=um;ESifh vlESifh wd&p>mefrsm;t=um;wGif oGifjyifvuQ%mESifh tpm;tpm wlnDcsufrsm;/ uGJjym;
jcm;em;csufrsm;udk uav;rsm; od&Sdem;vnfoabmaygufoifhygonf?
oifcef;pm (5) enf;ynm
ae&musOf;usOf;av;xJu jcHO,smOfi,f
oifcef;pm &nf&G,fcsuf
• ae&musOf;usOf;wGif pdkufysKd;Edkifonfh tyifrsm;?
• O,smOfjcHi,fwpfckudk 'DZdkif;a&;qGJ&ef?

vdktyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;
• tyifi,fav;rsm;/ (uav;wpfOD; wpfyif)/
• jcHi,fpkdufysKd;&ef ae&m?

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? uav;rsm;udk tjyifbufodk@ac:aqmifI ausmif;0if;twGif;ae&mtESH@wGif opfyif=uD;rsm;/ EG,fyifrsm; pdkufysKd;
&ef roifhawmfaom ae&mrsm;udk avhvm=uonf? jyLwif;aygufatmuf/ vloGm;vrf;ab;/ tdrfaxmifh
ae&mrsm; ponf?
2? ausmif;ywfywfvnfwGifpdkufysKd;xm;&Sdonfh tyifi,frsm;udk uav;rsm;&SmazGavhvm=uonf?
3? opfyif=uD;rsm;rSpI a&nd‡yifrsm;txd tyift&G,ftpm;rsKd;pHkESifh toGifo¿mefrsm;udk avhvm=uonf?
4? O,smOfi,fwpfckjyKvkyf&eftwGuf uav;rsm;udk ysKd;yifi,ftrsKd;rsKd;udk a0iSyg?
5? oHk;a,mufwpftkyfpkjzihf O,smOfjcHi,fyHkpHrsm;udk 'DZdkif;a&;qGJ=uonf? tkyfpktvdkuf olwdk@. 'DZdkif;rsm;udk
aqG;aEG;=uonf? tyiftwef;rsm;/ csKH/ tyifvwf/ =uD;/ ajrtdk;rsm;/ ausmufwHk;rsm;/ opfom;rsm;udk toHk;jyK
jcif; ponfjzihf?
6? wpfwef;vHk;taejzifh O,smOfjcHi,fwpfck. 'DZdkif;yHkpHudk a&;qGJzefwD;=urnfjzpfonf? T'DZdkif;twdkif; twef;
tvdkuf O,smOfjcHi,fwpfckudk ysKd;axmif=uonf? uav;wpfOD;pD. tyifrsm;udk oifhawmf&m ae&mrsm;wGif
pdkufysKd;=uonf?

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

37

oifcef;pm (6) tEkynmbmom
ykef;aewJh wd&p>mefrsm;
oifcef;pm &nf&G,fcsuf
• O,smOfjcHxJwGif wd&p>mefrsm; (ywf0ef;usifESifh
wpfom;wnf;xif&atmif)
udk,fa&mifazsmufjcif;ESifh pyfvsOf;aom tEk
ynm vuf&mrsKd;pHkudk zef;wD;jcif;?

vdktyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;
• udk,fa&mifazsmufonfh wd&p>mefrsm;ESifh ouf
qdkifaom yHkjyifrsm;/ &kyfyHkum;csyfrsm;/ ydkpwm
rsm;/
• ydwfp tydkif;tprsm;/
• puUL/
• aumf/
• uyfaus;/
• aq;a&miftrsKd;rsKd;/

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? (ywf0ef;usifESifh wpfom;wnf;&Sdaeap&ef) udk,fa,mifazsmufwwfonfh wd&p>mefrsm;ta=umif;yHkjyifrsm;udk
uav;rsm;tm; zwfjyyg? Todk@ udk,fa,mifazsmufxm;&jcif;. ta&;=uD;yHkudk uav;rsm;ESifh aqG;aEG;yg?
2? udk,fa,mifazsmufxm;onfh wd&p>mefrsm;&Sdwwfonfh ae&mrsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg? tpdrf;a&mifopf&Gufay:rS
tpdrf;a&mifclaumif/ opfacgufxJrS a&$ydk;aumif/ ausmufwHk;ay:rS uif;vdyfa&Sm ponf?
3? udk,fa,mifazsmufxm;onfh wd&p>mefrsm;. &kyfyHkum;csyfrsm;udk jyoyg? yHkpH/ ta&miftaoG;/ tqif;o¿mef
rsm; udk aqG;aEG;yg?
4? ydwfprsm;/ a&mifpHkpuULrsm;/ aq;a&mifrsm;udk toHk;jyKI udk,fa,mifazsmufxm;onfh wd&p>mefrsm; yHkpHwdk@udk
zefwD;=uonf? ywf0ef;usif. yHkpH/ ta&miftaoG;/ tqif;o¿mefrsm; twdkif; wd&p>mefrsm; udk,fa,mif
azsmufwwfa=umif;udk &Sif;vif;aqG;aEG;yg?
5? uav;rsm;. zefwD;csufrsm;udk jyo&Sif;vif;ygap?
tydkif; (4) “jcHO,smOfrSm pHkvifpGm” acgif;pOfESifh pyfvsOf;I
aemufqufwGJvkyfaqmifEdkifonfh pmoifcef;wGif; pDrHcsufrsm;/ vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;
Projects and Activities Ideas

ody`H (Science)
Ú O,smOfjcHtwGif;&Sd wd&p>meftrsKd;rsKd;. &dk;pif;aom tpmuGif;qufta=umif; avhvmaqG;aEG;=uonf?
Ú jcHO,smOfpdkufysKd;jcif;jzifh a'owGif;&Sd aus;iSufrsm;ESifh tjcm;aom wd&p>mefrsm; vma&mufEdkif=ujcif;
ta=umif;udk aqG;aEG;=uonf? jzpfEdkifygu ausmif;ywf0ef;usifwGif a'owGif;&Sd tyifrsKd;EG,fpkrsm;udk
pdkufysKd;=urnf? Ta'owGif;&Sd tyifrsKd;EG,fpkrsm;tay:wGif rSDcdk &Sifoefaexdkif=uonf a'owGif;&Sd
wd&p>mefrsKd;EG,fpkrsm;udk pm&if;jyKpk=uonf?
Ú ausmif;O,smOf&SdjyD;jzpfygu TO,smOfodk@vma&mufI tpm;tpm&SmazGpm;aomuf=uaom a'o
twGif;rS aus;iSufrsm;/ wd&p>mefrsm;udk pm&if;jyKpk=uonf?
Ú tjyeftvSef trSDo[JjyK=u&jcif; oabmw&m;tajccHudk rdwfqufoif=um;yg? wd&p>mefrsm;rS opfyif
rsm;udk tumtuG,f,lI udk,fa,mifazsmuf=u&jcif;/ cdkvH_=u&jcif;/ tpm;tpm&,ljcif;/ O Ojcif;/ t&dyf
cdkjcif; ponfh oabmw&m;rsm;udk aqG;aEG;=uonf? opfyifrsm;rSvnf; &SifoefEdkif&efESifh rsKd;quf
jyef@yGm;ap&ef wd&p>mefrsm;. tultnDudk &,l&jcif;udk avhvmaqG;aEG;=uonf? Oyrm -ysm;rsm;
a=umifh yef;yGifhrsm; 0wfr_eful;=u&jcif;/ iSufrsm;rS taphrsm;udk o,faqmifay;jcif;/ ponf?)

The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

38

vlr_a&; (Science)
Ú yef;jcHrsm;/ O,smOfrsm;uJhodk@aom uav;rsm; tyef;ajzjcif;/ upm;jcif;rsm;wGif oGm;a&muf=uonfh
ae&mrsm;udk avhvm=uonf? Tae&mrsm;. ta&;ygr_ESifh xdef;odrf;umuG,f&ef vdktyfr_rsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg?
rnfodk@jyKpk apmifha&Smufoifhonfrsm;udk aqG;aEG;=uonf? yef;jcHrsm;/ O,smOfrsm;udk jyKpkapmifha&Smuf&ef
vdktyfcsufrsm;/ pnf;urf;rsm;/ pnf;rsOf;rsm;udk a&;qGJ=uonf?
Ú vlwdk@. jrdK@&Gmywf0ef;usif&Sd yef;jcHrsm;/ O,smOfrsm; ta&;=uD;ouJhodk@ opfawmrsm;/ awm&dkif;ajrrsm;.
ta&;ygr_ udkvnf; avhvm =uonf?
Ú a'owGif;ESifh EdkifiHawmiftqifh yef;jcHrsm;/ O,smOfrsm;udk vlwdk@toHk;jyKyHktrsKd;rsKd;udk aqG;aEG;=uonf?
enf;ynm (Technology)
Ú pm;oHk;oD;ESH O,smOfjcHwpfckudk pDpOfI pdkufysKd;=uonf?
Ú (tylodkavSmifxdrf;odr;f Edkifonfh) zefvHktdrfrsm;udk toHk;jyKyHkudk avhvm=uonf? 0g;vHk;rsm;/ opfacsmif;rsm;ESifh
yvyfpwpft=unfprsm;udk toHk;jyKI zefvHktdrf tao;pm;wpfckudk zefwD;=uonf? 0g;vHk; (odk@)
wpfzufcíefopfacsmif; 3 acsmif;udk yd&rpf yHkpHxm;I yvyfpwpft=unfpjzifh &pfywfxm;Edkifonf? xdk@aemuf
tyifwpfyifay:wGif zHk;tkyfxm;jcif;jzifh tylESifh a&aiG@udk odkavSmif&&SdEdkifonf?
Ú tyifi,frsm;/ ysKd;yifrsm; jyif;xefaomaea&mifjcnfrS t&dyf&ap&efESifh rkd;rkefwdkif;rsm;rS umuG,f&eftay:rS
zHk;v$rf;xm;Edkifonfh ypPnf;rsm;/ tumtuG,f trsKd;tpm;rsm;udk avhvm=uonf? tb,fa=umifh toHk;jyK
&onfudk aqG;aEG;yg?
tEkynmbmom (Arts)
Ú O,smOfjcHtwGif;&Sd tif;qufydk;r$m;rsm;udk =unfh&_avhvmI ,if;wdk@. v_yf&mS ;oGm;vmyHkrsm;udk pl;prf;avhvm
=uonf? xdk@aemufuav;rsm;udk vufwef;uAsmrsm;/ uav;oDcsif;rsm;pyfqdkcdkif;jyD;v#if; tif;qufydk;tuudk
zefwD;=urnf?
Ú wGm;oGm;onfh tif;qufyHkpH rdk',fudk zefwD;=uonf? =uufOxnfhonfh u'fxlbl;&Snfrsm;/ yvyfpwpf
tcsKd&nf bl;cGHrsm;/ tjcm;aom yvyfpwpf Al;i,frsm;/ a&mifpHkpuULrsm;/ aq;rifrsm;/ a&cJacsmif;wkwfwHrsm;/
oGm;=um;xkd;wHrsm;ESifh tjcm;aom toHk;jyKEdkifonfh pGef@ypfypPnf;rsKd;pHkudk toHk;jyKEdkifygonf?

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

39

opfwpfyifudk avhvmjcif;
ausmif;0if;twGi;f awG@&Sd&onfh opfyifrsm;. tpdwftydkif;rsm;
tn¸ef;wyfay;yg?
t&Guf

yef;yGifh

yifpnf

tjrpf

The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

40

tarSmifxJu claumif/ aygufzuf (jrufyifclaumifprf;oyfcsuf)
tarG;&Snf&SnfeJ@ claumifav;awGudk uíeaf wmfwdk@ zefwD;=uygw,f?
zefwD;yHktqifhqifhrSm -

prf;oyf&&SdwJh &v'frsm;rSm t0wfbD&dkxJu jrufclaumif

a&cJaowWmxJu jrufclaumifrsm;

aeomaomae&mrS jrufclaumifrsm;

uíefawmfwdk@tkyfpk&J@ oHk;oyfcsufrsm; -

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

41

wd&p>mefwdk h&J h ae&mrsm;
jcH0if;twGif;rSmawG@&wJh taumifrsm;
awG@&or#taumifrsm;udk a&;yg? yHkqGJyg?

opfyifay:rSm
opf&Gufay:rSm
opfudkif;ay:rSm
jcHKxJrSm
ausmufwHk;atmufrSm
jrufcif;xJrSm
yef;yGifhxJrSm
ajr=uD;xJrSm
opf&GufaqG;awGxJrSm
opfwkH;atmufrSm
yifpnfxJrSm
tjrpfatmufrSm

The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

42

tm;vHk; twlwlbJvm;
jcHxJrSm&Sdaom wd&p>mefrsm;
tif;qufrsm;

iSufrsm;

uif;vdyfacsmrsKd;EG,frsm;

Edk@wdkufwd&p>mefrsm;

wDaumifrsKd;EG,frsm;

ajcaxmufb,fESpfacsmif;&Sdoenf;?

rnfonfh tpm;tpmrsm;udk pm;aomuf=uoenf;?

tif;qufydk;

tif;qufydk;

wDaumif

wDaumif

uif;vdyfacsm

uif;vdyfacsm

iSuf

iSuf

Edk@wdkufwd&p>mefrsm;

Edk@wdkufwd&p>mefrsm;

uíefawmf

uíefawmf

uíefawmfwdk@ rwlnD=uyg? tb,fa=umifhqdkaomf
odk@&mwGif uíefawmfwdk@wGif wlnrD _rsm;vnf;&Sd=uygonf? ,if;wdk@rSm

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

43

ae&musOf;usOf;av;xJu jcHO,smOfi,f
tyifi,frsm;pdkufysKd;xm;onfh jcHO,smOfrsm;

ae&musOf;usOf;av;xJrSm pdkufysK;dxm;onfh tyifrsm;

ae&musOf;usOf;av;xJwGif tyifrsm;udk pdkufysK;d&ef yHkpHrsm;

uíefawmfwdk@. jcHO,smOfyHkpH 'DZdkif;

The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

44

ykef;uG,faewJh wd&p>mefrsm;

yifpnfay:rS taumifrsm;

opf&Gufay:rS taumifrsm;

ausmufwkH;atmufrS taumifrsm;

wd&p>>mefrsm; yke;f atmif;&m
tjcm;aomae&mrsm;

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

45

tydkif; (5)
oifcef;pm (1) ody`H
upm;csdefrSm upm;yg? (upm;p&mrsm;)
oifcef;pm &nf&G,fcsuf
• uav;rsm; upm;onfh ypPnf;rsm;/ upm;p&m
trsKd;rsKd;udk od&Sdem;vnf=uap&ef?
• Tupm;p&mrsm;. v_yf&Sm;/ vnfywfyHkESifh
pGrf;tif &,lyHkrsm;udk avhvm=u&ef?

vdktyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;
• uav;rsm;. tdrf&Sd upm;p&mrsm;/

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? uav;rsm;.tdrf&Sd upm;p&mypPnf;tcsKd@udk ausmif;odk@,laqmifvmckdif;yg? &ufowWywf wpfywfcef@ausmif;
pmoifcef;wGif cif;usif;jyoyg? pmoifcef;tjyifodk@ xkwf,lcGifhrjyKygESifh?
2? 4 a,mufwpftkyfpkjzifh uav;rsm;udk tkyfpkzGJ@I upm;p&mypPnf;rsm;udk trsKd;tpm;cGJjcif;/ tkyfpkoGif;jcif;rsm;
jyKvkyf=uonf? avhusifhcef; pm&Gufygtwdkif; tcsKd@jzpfEkdifI tcsKd@ygcsifrS yg0ifygrnf?
3? avhusihfcef;pm&GufwGifyg&Sdonfh tkyfpkrsm;udk aqG;aEG;I uav;rsm;. upm;p&mypPnf;rsm;udk tkyfpkoGif;yg?
4? upm;p&mrsm; v_yf&Sm;/ vnfywfyHkudk csJ@xGifaqG;aEG;yg? (wGef;&jcif;/ =udK;jzifhqGJ&jcif;/ pufyg&Sdjcif;/ bufx&D
xnfh&jcif;/ v#yfppfrD;=udK;yg&Sdjcif; ponfjzifh/)
5? vl (odk@r[kwf) puf (odk@r[kwf) v#yfppf pGrf;tif tultnDjzifh upm;p&mrsm; v_yf&Sm;vnfywfyHkudkESifh
pGrf;tif vdktyfcsufrsm;udk avhvm=unfh&_=uonf? prf;oyf=uonf?
oifcef;pm (2) ody`H
jidaew,f?
(oHvkdufeJ hupm;p&mrsm;)
oifcef;pm &nf&G,fcsuf
• oHvdkufrsm;.
*k%fowWdudk
oabmayguf&ef?

od&Sdem;vnf

vdktyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;
• yHkpH/ t&G,ftpm;trsKd;rsKd;&Sdaom oHvdkufrsm;/
• oHowWKjzifh jyKvkyfxm;aom upm;p&mrsm;/
ypPnf;rsm;/ tjcm;aom oHowWKr[kwfaom
ypPnf;rsm;/
• oHvdkufyg&Sdaom upm;p&mypPnf;rsm;/
• oHxnfypPnfrsm;/ tcíefrsm;udk owdjzifh udkif
wG,fcdkif;yg? teD;uyf =uyfrwfyg?

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? uav;rsm;udk yHkpH/ t&G,ftpm;trsKd;rsKd;&Sdaom oHvdkufrsm; a0iSyg?
2? pmoifcef;jyify ausmif;0if;twGif;odk@uav;rsm;udk ac:aqmifI oHvkdufrsm;rS uyfjidEdkifonfh ypPnf;rsm;udk
avhvm prf;oyf=uonf?
3? pmoifcef;twGif;Yvnf; txufygtwdkif; prf;oyf=uonf?
4? oHjzifhjyKvkyfxm;aomypPnf;rsm;ESihf tjcm;ypPnf;rsm; (yiftyf/ wG,fcsdwf/ oHrd_/ puUL/ pmn‡yf/ pm&Gufcsdwf/
a&cGuf/ ponf/) a0iSyg? rnfonfhypPnf;rsm;onf oHvkdufjzifh qGJaqmifr_&Sda=umif;/ uyfjidEdkfifa=umif;udk
ar;jref;yg? uav; rsm; awG;q=uonf?
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Saya Thein Naing

46

5? olwdk@. awG;qcsufrsm;udk vufawG@prf;oyfI avhvm=uonf? olwdk@. awG;qcsufrsm; rSef/ rSefrrSefudk
aqG;aEG; =uonf?
6? oHvkdufjzifh jyKvkyfxm;&Sdonfh upm;p&mypPnf;rsm;jzifh prf;oyfavhvm=uonf? oHxnfypPnf;wpfckckjzifh
upm;p&mwGif oHvkduf&Sdonfh ae&mudk &SmazG=uonf? oHvdkufaom tjcm;ae&mrsm;udk pl;prf;&SmazG=uonf?
7? upm;p&mwGif;rS oHvkdufonf tjcm;aom ypPnf;wpfckck/ upm;p&mwpfckckudk qGJaqmifjcif;/ uyfjcif;&Sd
a=umif;udk uav;rsm; od&Sdem;vnf oabmaygufEdkifrnfjzpfonf?
oifcef;pm (3) vlr+a&;ESifh ywf0ef;usif
a[mif;ayr,fh aumif;ao;w,f?
upm;p&m ta[mif;rsm;ESifh topfrsm;
oifcef;pm &nf&G,fcsuf
• rsKd;quftvdkuf upm;p&mrsm; ajymif;vJvmyHk
udk od&Sdem;vnfoabmayguf&ef?

vdktyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;
• twdwfumvrsm;ESifh ,ae@acwfay: upm;p&m
ypPnf;rsm;. &kyfyHkum;csyfrsm;/ ydkpwmrsm;/
• upm;p&mrsm;ESifh ywfoufonfh yHkjyifrsm;/
tcsuftvufrsm; yg&Sdonfh pmtkyfrsm;/
• twdwfESifh ,ae@acwf upm;p&mrsm;?

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? uav;rsm;tm; olwdk@. rdb/ tzdk;tzGm;vufxufu upm;cJh=uonfh upm;p&m ypPnf;rsm;udk &SmazG
pkaqmif;I ausmif;odk@,laqmifvm=u&ef =udKwifrSm=um;yg?
2? uav;rsm;. rdb/ tzdk;tzGm;wdk@ i,f&G,fpOftcgu upm;cJh=uyHkrsm;udk aqG;aEG;=uonf?
3? rdbrsm;ESifh tzdk;tzGm;rsm;udk pmoifcef;odk@zdwf=um;I olwdk@. upm;p&mrsm;ESifh ywfoufI ajymjyaqG;aEG;
=uonf? bdk;bGm;&dyfom/ ouf=uD;toif;rsm;odk@uav;rsm;udk ac:aqmifI i,f&G,fpOfuav;b0 tawG@
t=uHKrsm;ESifh upm;cJhyHkrsm;udk jyefvnfajymjcif;rsm;/ aqG;aEG;jcif;rsm;udk jyKvkyfEdkifygonf?
4? ynma&;tpDtpOfrsm;ESifh acwftqufquf upm;p&mypPnf;rsm;udk rSwfwrf;wifxm;&Sdonfh jywdkuf/
pm=unfhwdkufrsm;odk@uav;rsm;udk ac:aqmifI avhvma&;c&D;oGm;a&mufEkdifygonf?
5? acwftqufquf upm;p&mrsm;. &kyfyHkum;csyfrsm;/ ydkpwmrsm;udk pmoifcef;twGif;cif;usif;jyoEkdifygonf?
yHkjyifZmwfvrf;rsm;udk zwfjyEdkifygonf?
6? twdwfumvrsm;ESifh ,aeacwfumv upm;p&mypPnf;rsm;. wlnDr_ESifh uGm[jcm;em;r_rsm;udk avhvm
oHk;oyfjcif;jzifh oifcef;pmudk tqHk;owfEdkifygonf?
oifcef;pm (4) enf;ynm
vdkw& upm;p&mqdkif
oifcef;pm &nf&G,fcsuf
• upm;p&mypPnf;rsm; a&mif;csonfhqdkifESifh aps;
qdkif. oabmw&m;udkem;vnf&ef?

vdktyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;
• upm;p&mypPnf;qdkifrsm;. twGif;ESifh tjyif
buf &kyfyHkum;csyfrsm;/ ydkpwmrsm;/
• upm;p&mypPnf;qdkifESifh ywfoufonfh yHkjyif
rsm;/ tcsuftvufrsm; yg&Sdonfh pmtkyfrsm;/

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? upm;p&mypPnf;qdkifrsm;. twGif;ESifh tjyifbuf &kyfyHkum;csyfrsm;/ ydkpwmrsm;udk cif;usif;jyoyg? upm;p&m
aps;qdkifrsm;ESifh oufqdkifonfh yHkjyifrsm;udk ajymjyyg?
2? upm;p&mrsm; tjyifqkdifwGif;Y uav;rsm; owdjyKrdonfh tjcm;tcsufvufrsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg?
pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

47

3? upm;p&maps;qdkif tpdwftydkif;rsm;udk=unfh&_avhvmI tb,fa=umifh qdkifzGifhxm;onfudk aqG;aEG;yg?

taqmuftODxJwGif bma=umifh&SdaeygovJ? aps;E_ef;rsm;bma=umihf uyfxm;&ygovJ? vdkcsifonfh
upm;p&m t&kyfrsm;udk b,fvdk&SmazGrvJ? upm;p&maps;qdkifjzpfrSef; rnfodk@od&SdygovJ?
4? pmoifcef;wGif;ypPnfrsm;/ oifaxmufulypPnf;rsm;ESifh uav;rsm;. upm;p&mypPnf;rsm;jzifh pmoifcef;
twGif; upm;p&maps;qdkifudk wnfaxmif=uonf?
oifcef;pm (5) enf;ynm
tHhbG,f upm;p&m
oifcef;pm &nf&G,fcsuf
• tHh=ozG,f&m tvkyfvkyfaqmifEkdifonfh upm;
p&mwpfckudk uav;rsm; 'DZdkif;a&;qGJ=u&ef?

vdktyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;
• xl;jcm;qef;=u,faom pdwful;,Of upm;p&m
ypPnf;rsm;ESifh ywfoufonfh yHkjyifrsm;/ tcsuf
tvufrsm; yg&Sdonfh pmtkyfrsm;/

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? uav;rsm;tm; xl;jcm;qef;=u,faom pdwful;,Ofupm;p&mypPnf;rsm;ESifh ywfoufonfh yHkjyifrsm;/ tcsuf
tvufrsm; yg&Sdonfh pmtkyfrsm;udk zwf=um;jyyg?
2? uav;rsm; vdkcsifonfh xl;jcm;qef;=u,faom upm;p&mypPnf;rsm;ta=umif;udk aqG;aEG;ar;jref;yg?
3? Txl;jcm;qef;=u,faom upm;p&mypPnf;rsm;rS vkyfaqmifEkdifr_rsm;udk ar;jref;aqG;aEG;yg?
4? uav;rsm;olwdk@vdkcsifonfh xl;jcm;qef;=u,fI tHh=obG,f&m pdwful;,Of upm;p&mrsm;udk 'DZdkif; a&;qGJ
=uonf?
oifcef;pm (6) tEkynm
pGef hpm;cef;c&D;oGm;wJh t&kyfuav;
oifcef;pm &nf&G,fcsuf
• pma&;om;jcif;qdkif&m pdwful;/ pdwfoef;rsm;
(pdwful;,Ofjcif;pGrf;&nf) ESifh zefwD;r_pGrf;&nf
xufjrufvmap&ef?

vdktyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;
• uav;upm;p&m yHkjyifZmwfvrf;rsm;/

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? uav;rsm;tm; upm;p&mypPnf;rsm;ESifh ywfoufonfh yHkjyifrsm;/ tcsuftvufrsm; yg&Sdonfh pmtkyfrsm;udk
zwf=um;jyyg? yHkjyifwpfyk'fudk ajymjyyg?
2? uav;rsm;. tESpfoufqHk; upm;p&mrsm;/ t&kyfrsm;ta=umif;udk ar;jref;aqG;aEG;yg?
3? xdkt&kyfuav;rsm;. v_yf&Sm;ðyrlyHkrsm;udk wkyvkyfaqmif=uonf?
4? olwdk@. tESpfoufqHk; t&kyfuav;rsm;/ upm;p&mrsm; &kyfyHk 3 yHk/ 4 yHkpD a&;qGJ=uonf?
5? uav;rsm;tm; rsufpdrsm;ydwfxm;apjyD;v#if pdwful;,OfpOf;pm;cdkif;yg? “olwdk@. tESpfoufqHk; t&kyf
uav;rsm;/ (odk@) upm;p&mrsm;onf trSefwu,fv_yf&Sm;touf0ifvmI pGef@pm;cef; c&D;xGufoGm;=u
avjyD?”
6? t&kyfuav;rsm; oGm;=urnfhae&mrsm;/ pGef@pm;cef;c&D;rsm;udk aqG;aEG;=uonf?
7? olwdk@. t&kyfuav;rsm; pGef@pm;cef;c&D;pOfESifh ywfoufI uav;rsm; &kyfyHkZmwfvrf;rsm;a&;qGJjcif;/ yHkjyif
Zmwfvrf; a&;om;jcif;rsm;udk jyKvkyf=uonf?
8? wpfcef;vHk;taejzihf xdkZmwfvrf;rsm;twdkif; jyKrlv_yf&Sm;I upm;=uonf? o&kyfaz: wifqufjcif;rsm;
jyKvkyf=uonf? pmoifcef;twGif; &kyfao;yGJawmfudk usif;yEkdifygonf?
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Saya Thein Naing

48

tydkif; (5) “upm;p&mypPnf;qdkif” acgif;pOfESifh pyfvsOf;I
aemufqufwGJvkyfaqmifEdkifonfh pmoifcef;wGif; pDrHcsufrsm;/ vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;
Projects and Activities Ideas

ody`H (Science)
Ú upm;p&mt&kyfuav;rsm;jzifh toHrsm;udk jyKvkyfzefwD;=uonf? puULcGufESifh csnf=udK;jzifh w,fvDzkef;
pum;ajym=um;Edkifonf? =udK;rsm;udk wif;wif;qGJxm;&efvdktyfygonf?
Ú AHkrsm;/ pnfrsm;ESifh acgif;avmif;rsm;udk wD;cwfonfhtcgwGif wkefcgr_udk cHpm;=uapjyD;v#if avxJwGif
toH.jzwfoef;oGmvmr_ oabmw&m;udk rdwfqufaqG;aEG;Edkifygonf?
Ú a&wGifupm;Ekdifonfh t&kyfuav;rsm;ESifh ay:avmay:ed,mr oabmw&m;tajccHudk rdwfqufaqG;aEG;
Edkifonf? avyg&Sdaom t&kyfrsm;ESifh avrygaom t&kyfrsm;jzihf a&wGif ay:Edkifjcif;ESifh epfðryfjcif;udk
Ed_if;,SOf avhvmEdkifonf?
Ú oHywfay;xm;jyD;upm;Edkifonfh t&kyfrsm;/ upm;p&mrsm;udk =unfh&_avhvmapjyD;v#if py&ifESifh pGrf;tif
oabmtajccHudk rdwfqufaqG;aEG;Edkifygonf?
vlr_a&;ESifh obm0ywf0ef;usif (Studies on Society and Environment)
Ú t&kyfrsm;ESifh upm;p&mypPnf;rsm;rS udk,fpm;jyKazmfjyonfh ,Ofaus;r_ rwluGJjym;jcm;em;jcif;rsm;udk
avhvm=uonf? tjcm;EdkifiHrsm;ESifh jynfe,fa'orsm;rS upm;p&mypPnf;rsm;udk pkaqmif;I cif;usif;
jyoEdkifonf?
Ú upm;p&mypPnf;rsm;/ t&kyfrsm;ESifh wDAGDtpDtpOftcsKd@. qufEG,faer_udk avhvm=uonf? uav;rsm;
ESpfoufonfh wDAGD tpDtpOfrsm;ESifh ,if;wdk@wGif t&kyfrsm;/ upm;p&mrsm;yg&Sdr_/ aps;xJwGif 0,f,l
&&SdEdkifr_ESifh ywfoufI ar;jref;aqG;aEG;Edkifonf?
Ú tem*wfumvwGif uav;rsm;upm;=urnfh t&kyfrsm;/ upm;p&mypPnf;rsm;ESifhywfoufI uav;rsm;
pdwful;I 'DZdkif;a&;qGJ=uonf?
enf;ynm (Technology)
Ú ,rif;&kyfuav;rsm;/
0uf0H&kyfuav;rsm;udk
jyKvkyfxm;onfh
ypPnf;trsKd;tpm;rsm;/
tqif;o¿mefrsm;udk =unfh&_avhvm=uonf? t&kyfrsm;ae@tpDtpOfudk pmoifcef;wGif;usif;yEdkfifonf?
Ú uav;rsm;udk,fwdkif ,rif;&kyfuav;rsm;/ 0uf0H&kyfuav;rsm;ESifh tjcm;t&kyfuav;rsm;udk ypPnf;trsKd;
tpm;topfrsm;/ yHkpHtopfrsm;jzifh olwdk@. pdwful;/ pdwfoef;topfrsm;twdkif; 'DZdkif;yHkpHaz:I
a&;qGJ=uonf?
Ú tvGefi,f&G,fonfh uav;rsm;twGuf t&kyfrsm;ESifh upm;p&mypPnf;rsm;. tEW&m,fudk aqG;aEG;
Ekdifonf? tb,fa=umifh tEW&m,f&SdEdkifonfudk avhvmaqG;aEG;jcif;/ owday;a=unmrsm;a&;om;jcif;udk
jyKvkyfEdkif=uonf?
tEkynm (Arts)
Ú pufud&d,myg0ifaom upm;p&mrsm;ESifh tjcm;t&kyrf sm;. v_yf&Sm;r_ESifh vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;udk
avhvm=uonf? TuJhodk@ vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;udk uav;rsm; vufiif; zefwD;=uonf? 4 a,muf wpf
tkyfpk tkyfpkzGJ@I t&kyftursm;udk wDxGifzefwD;=uonf?
Ú t&kyfrsm;. rsufESmrsm;twdkif; pm&Gufrsm;jzifh rsufESm;zHk;pGyfrsm;jyKvkyf=uonf?
Ú &kd;&Sif;vG,fulaom &kyfao;&kyfrsm;udk ajctdyfrsm;/ vuftdyfrsm;/ puULtdyfrsm;jzifh zefwD;=uonf?

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

49

&kyaf o;&kyf jyKvkyfEdkifonfh enf;vrf;rsm; Ú ajctdyf&kyfao;&kyfrsm; - av#mfzGyfxm;onfh ajctdyfa[mif;rsm;udk vufwGif 0wfI vufndK;ESifh
vufrjzifh yg;pyfyHkpHudk zefwD;Edkifonf? a&mifpHkpuUL/ t0wfp/ =u,foD;rsm;jzihf rsufpdESifh v#mwdk@
wyfqifEdkifonf? aq;rif/ 0g*Grf;/ ESifh tarG;wkrsm;jzifh qHyifESifh tjcm;yHkpHtrsKd;rsKd;udk zefwD;Edkifygonf?
Ú vufacsmif;&kyfao;&kyfrsm; - puULvdyf/ u'fxlvdyf tao;av;rsm;jyKvkyfI vufacsmif;rsm;wGif
pGyfEdkifonf? rsufESmtwGuf aq;rifjc,fjcif;/ *Grf;p/ csnf=udK;/ odk;arG;prsm;jzihf qHyifwyfEdkifonf?
Ú puULtdyf&kyfao;&kyfrsm; - owif;pmta[mif;rsm;jzifh jznfhodyfI puULtdyf&kyfao;&kyfudk zefwD;Ekdifonf?
rsufESmtwGuf aq;rifjc,fjcif;/ *Grf;p/ csnf=udK;/ odk;arG;prsm;jzihf qHyifwyfjcif;ESifh tjcm;aom udk,ft*Fg
tpdwftydkif;rsm;udkvnf; zefwD;Edkifygonf?

The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

50

upm;csdefrSm upm;yg? upm;p&mrsm; (&kyfyHkrsm;jznfhpGufyg?)
wGef;wJhtcg v_yf&Sm;EdkifwJh upm;p&mrsm;

qGJvdk&wJh upm;p&mrsm;

oHywfygwJh upm;p&mrsm;

bufx&DeJ@ upm;p&mrsm;

ysHoef;EdkifwJhupm;p&meJ@ a&rSmy:wJhupm;p&mrsm;

tjcm;aom upm;p&mrsm;

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

51

jidaew,f? oHvdkufeJ hupm;p&mrsm;
oHvdkufEdkifwJhupm;p&mrsm;

oHvdkufrSm ruyfwJh upm;p&mrsm;

oHvdkufrSm uyfwJht&m0wˆKrsm;

oHvdkufrSm ruyfwJh t&m0wˆKrsm;

rSefwJhtajzrsm;

rSm;wJhtajzrsm;

oHvdkufudk toHk;jyKwJh upm;p&mrsm;

The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

52

a[mif;ayr,fh aumif;ao;w,f?
upm;p&m ta[mif;rsm;/ topfrsm;
tzdk;/ tzGm;wdk@acwfwkef;u upm;wJh t&kyfrsm;/ upm;p&mrsm; -

azaz/ ararwdk@i,fi,fwkef;u upm;wJh t&kyfrsm;/ upm;p&mrsm; -

tck om;om;/ rD;rD;wdk@upm;wJh upm;p&mrsm;/ t&kyfrsm; -

tcsK@dt&kyfawGu twllwlyg?

tcsK@dt&kyfawGu rwl=ubl;?

upm;p&m ta[mif;awGxJu uíefawmf/ uíefrwdk@=udKufwJh t&mrsm; -

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

53

vdkw& upm;p&mqdkif
upm;p&mqdkifyHk

upm;p&mrsm;

trsKd;tpm;rsm;

uíefawmf&J@upm;p&maps;qdkifyHkESifh &&SdEdkfifwJh upm;p&mrsm;yHk (yHkqGJyg? tn$ef;wyfay;yg/ aps;E_ef;a&;yg?)

The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

54

tHhbG,fupm;p&m/ t&kyfuav;
tifrwef xl;jcm;qef;=u,fwJh upm;p&myg? (yHkqGJyg?)
trnfay;yg?

'Dupm;p&mav;vkyfwwfwJh t&mrsm;uawmh ---

tjcm;aom xl;jcm;qef;=u,fonfh upm;p&mrsm; ---

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

55

pGef hpm;cef;c&D;oGm;wJh t&kyfuav;
uíefawmfh yHkjyifxJu t&kyfuav;awG&J@ &kyfyHkrsm;?

t&kyfuav;rsm;&J@ emrnfawGuawmh t&kyfuav;awG&J@ pGef@pm;cef;Zmwfvrf;yHkjyifyg? (uav;wdk@&J@ yHkjyifudk ajymjyyg?) (Zmwfvrf;a&;yg/ yHkqGJyg?)
pGef@pm;cef;roGm;cif jyifqif=uyHk -

olwdk@awG c&D;wpfckudk pwifjyD;xGufvm=uygw,f?

vrf;rSmolwdk@awG@&wmuawmh -

c&D;wpfav#mufrSmolwdk@ vkyfcJh=uwmawGu -

aemufqHk;rSmawmh

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Saya Thein Naing

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tydkif; (6)
oifcef;pm (1) ody`H
rkefvkyfpm;-ur,f? (-uufOrkef h)
oifcef;pm &nf&G,fcsuf
• tpm;tpmrsm;udkcsufjyKwfonfhtcgwGifajymif;
vJjcif;jzpfpOfudk od&Sdem;vnfap&ef?

vdktyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;
• =uufOrkef@vkyf&ef vrf;n$ef/
• tajccHvdktyfcsufrsm; - *sKHr_ef@/ qefr_ef@/ =uufO/
EGm;Edk@/ o=um;r_ef@/ axmywf?
• rD;zkdESifh v#yfppfrD;wdk@udk owdxm; toHk;jyK&ef
vdktyfonf?

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? uav;rsm;tm; ,ae@=uufOrkef@ vkyfpm;=urnfjzpfa=umif;udkajymjyyg? csufðywfjyD;onfhtcgwGif tpm;tpm
rsm; yHkpHajymif;vJvmjcif;udk avhvm=u&rnfjzpfa=umif; &Sif;vif;ajymjyyg? xkwfuek frsm;jzpfonfh *sKHr_ef@/
qefr_ef@rsm;ESifh obm0ypPnf;rsm;jzpfonfh =uufOwdk@. yHkpHajymif;vJvmjcif;udk qdkvdkygonf?
2? =uufOrkef@ðyvkyf&eftwGuf vdktyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;udk uav;rsm;tm;ar;jref;yg? pm&if;ðypkyg?
3? toHk;jyKrnfh ypPnf;rsm;udk pm&if;jyKpkI aqG;aEG;yg? rcsufjyKwfrD &Sdaeonfh yHkpHrsm;udk =unfh&_avhvmjcif;/
udkifwG,f prf;oyfjcif;rsm;udk ðyvkyf=uonf?
4? =uufOrkef@ðyvkyf&ef yg0ifonfh ypPnf;rsm;udka&maESmyg? uav;rsm;. tultnDudk&,lyg? a&maESmjyD;ygu
toGifo¿mefudk avhvmapjyD;v#if t&omudk cHpm;jcif;ESifh udkifwG,fprf;oyfjcif;rsm;ðyvkyf=uonf?
5? puULcGufrsm;wGifxnfhjyD;v#if rkef@zkwfEdkifonf? rkef@zkwfaepOf ajymif;vJjcif;rsm;udk uav;rsm;tm; cef@rSef;
pOf;pm;aponf?
6? =uufOrkef@rsm;udk jyKvkyfjyD;pD;ygu rkef@zkwfaepOftwGif; jzpfay:ajymif;vJvmr_rsm;ESifhywfoufI avhvm
=uonf? =uufOrkef@rsm;. yHko¿mefudk avhvm=unfh&_jyD; udkifwG,fprf;oyfI t&omudk od&Sd&ef pm;oHk;
=uonf? rcsufao;rD yHkpHESifh Ed_if;,SOfavhvm=uonf?
rSwfcsuf?
? rD;zkwfEdkif&eftwGuf tqifajyaqmif pDpOfaqmif&Guf&efvdktyfygonf?
oifcef;pm (2) odyH`/ 'DZdkif;tEkynm/
yiful&J htpm
&nf&G,fcsuf
• &dk;pif;aom tpmuGif;qufudk avhvmEdkifap&ef?
• wd&p>mefrsm;. &Sifoefaexdkifjcif;wGif tcsif;csif;
tjyeftvSef trSDðyae&onfh oabmudk em;
vnfap&ef?

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm;
• yifhultdrfESifh zrf;rdxm;onfh taumifi,frsm;
yg&Sdonfh ydkpwm/ um;csyfrsm;/
• ausmif;0if;ESifhpmoifcef;twGif;&Sdyifhultdrfrsm;?

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? zrf;rdxm;onfh taumifi,fav;rsm;yg&Sdonfh yifhultdrf wpftdrfudk pmoifcef;ESifh ausmif;ywf0ef;usifwGif
&SmazGyg? odk@r[kwf yifhultdrfwGif zrf;rdwwfonfh taumifi,frsm;ESifh yifhultdrfydkpwm/ &kyfyHkum;csyf
wdk@udktoHk;ðyyg? avhusihfcef;pm&GufwGif uav;rsm; taumifi,frsm;. yHkpHwdk@udk pm&ifðypkjcif; (odk@r[kwf)
&kyfyHkrsm; a&;qGJjcif; wdk@udk ðyvkyf=uonf?
pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

57

2? csnfprsm;/ odk;arG;xnfta[mif;rsm;/ 0g*Grf;vdyfrsm;/ a&mifpHkpuULrsm;/ u'fxlrsm;ESifh wkwfwHwdk@udk toHk;jyKI

taumifi,fav;rsm;udk zrf;rdxm;&Sdonfh yifhultdrfwpfyHkpHudk ðyvkyfzefwD;=uonf?
3? yifhultdrfwGif axmifacsmufqifI zrf;rdxm;onfh tifqufydk;r$m;rsm;rS pm;aomufcJh=urnfh tyifrsm;/
tjcm;aom taumifi,frsm;ta=umif;udk aqG;aEG;yg?
4? yifhulrsm;udk pm;aomuf=uonfh tjcm;aom wd&p>mefrsm;udk ar;jref;aqG;aEG;yg? rnfonfhwd&p>mefrsm; jzpfEdkif
onfudk avhvm=uonf? olwdk@avhvmawG@&Sdcsufrsm;udk rSwfwrf;a&;=uonf?
5? &dk;pif;aom tpmuGif;qufwpfckudk Toifcef;pmwGif avhvmawG@&Sdcsufrsm;tay:wGif tajcjyKI a&;qGJ
=uonf? tpmuGif;quf. oabmobm0udk rdwfqufoif=um;I wd&p>mefrsm;. tcsif;csif; tjyeftvSef
trSDo[JjyKI &Sifoefaexdkif=u&jcif;udk aqG;aEG;yg?
oifcef;pm (3) odyH`/
tyifESifh wd&p>mefrsm;. tpm;tpm
&nf&G,fcsuf Activity Focus
• touf&SifoefEdkif&eftwGuf vlom;rsm;/ tyif
rsm;ESifh wd&p>mefrsm;. tcsif;csif; tjyeftvSef
trSDo[J ðyae=u&onfh oabmobm0udk
od&Sd em;vnfap&ef?

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm; Materials
• tyifpm;wd&p>mefrsm;ESifh tom;pm; wd&p>mef
rsm;. &kyfyHkrsm;/ AD'D,dkrsm;/ pmtkyfrsm;/ tcsuf
tvufrsm;/

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf Session Outline
1? uav;rsm; pm;aomuf=uonfh tpm;tpmrsm;ESifh ywfoufI ar;jref;yg? Ttpm;tpmrsm;udk rnfonfh
ae&mrS &&Sdonf/ rnfodk@&&Sdonf/ pwifvmonfhae&m tp&Sdonfwdk@udk aqG;aEG;yg? Oyrm - xrif; - pyg;yif/
trJom; - EGm;?
2? Ttpm;tpmrsm;udk tyifrsm; (odk@r[kwf) wd&p>mefrsm;rS &&Sdonf[lI tkyfpkcGJyg?
3? vlwdk@pm;oHk;onfh tyifrsm;udk pm;oHk;onfh tjcm;aom wd&p>mefrsm; avhvm=uonf? Oyrm - =uGufrsm;rS
qef/ xrif;rsm;udk pm;onf?
4? vlwdk@pm;oHk;onhf wd&p>mef tom;rsm;udk pm;oHk;onfh tjcm;aom wd&p>mefrsm;udkvnf; avhvm=uonf?
Oyrm- a=umifrsm;rS ig;a=umfudkpm;onf?
5? vlom;/ wd&p>mefrsm;ESifh tyifrsm;. touf&SifaexdkifEdkif&eftwGuf tcsif;csif;tjyeftvSef qufoG,f
aer_udk aqG;aEG;yg?
6? wd&p>mefrsm;rS tyifrsm;ESifh tjcm;aom wd&p>mefrsm;/ taumifrsm;udk pm;oHk;jcif;/ vlom;rsm;rSvnf; tyif
rsm;ESifh awmwd&p>mefrsm;/ arG;jrLa&;wd&p>mefrsm;udk pm;oHk;jcif;jzihf touf&Sifaexdkif=u&onfudk uav;rsm;
taejzihf od&Sdem;vnfoabmayguf&ef &Sif;jyyg?
oifcef;pm (4) ywf0ef;usifESifh vlr+a&;
py`g,f&S,f tpm;tpmrsm;
&nf&G,fcsuf Activity Focus
• arG;ae@rsm;/
oDwif;uíwf/ wefaqmifrkef;/
o=uFef/ c&pPrwfyGJawmfESifh tjcm;aom 12 v
&moD yGJawmfESifh wdkif;&if;om;wdk@. &dk;&myGJawmf
rsm; tvdkuf pm;oHk;=uonfh txl;py`g,f&S,f
tpm;tpmrsm;?
The world in the democratic classroom

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm; Materials
• txufyg txl;tcsdeftcg yGJawmfumvrsm;udk
azmfjyonfh &kyfyHkum;csyfrsm;/ ydkpwmrsm;ESifh
tpm;tpm &kyfyHkrsm;/ AGD'D,dkacGrsm;?

Saya Thein Naing

58

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf Session Outline
1? uav;rsm; ae@pOfpm;aomuf=uonfh tpm;tpmrsm;udk ar;jref;yg?
2? ae@pOfpm;oHk;onfh tpm;tpmrsm;ESifh rwlnDonfh tjcm;aom txl;py`g,f&S,ftpm;rsm;udk pm;oHk;onhf
tcsdef tcgESifh yGJawmfrsm;udk ar;jref;yg? wpfwef;vHk;taejzifh aqG;aEG;yg?
3? TtcsdeftcgESifh yGJawmfumvrsm;udk pm&if;jyKpk=uonf?
4? tb,fa=umifh TyGJawmfrsm; usif;y&onfudk &Sif;vif;aqG;aEG;yg?
5? yGJawmfrsm;tvdkuf txl;ðycsufjyKwfpm;aomuf=uonhf tpm;tpmrsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg? pm&if;jyKpkyg?
rSwfcsuf?
? bmoma&;tvdkuf txl;jyKyGJawmfrsm;/ tpm;tpmrsm;/ wdkif;&if;om;wkd@. &dk;&m,Ofaus;r_
yGJawmfrsm;/ &yf&Gma'otvdkuf txl;jyKyGJawmfrsm;/ tpm;tpmrsm;udk aqG;aEG;Edkifygonf?
oifcef;pm (5) enf;ynm
oef h&Sif;usef;rm/ cGeftm;wdk;apwJh tpm
&nf&G,fcsuf Activity Focus
• oef@&Sif;aom tpm;tpm/ usef;rmaom tpm;
tpm/ cGeftm;wdk;apaom tpm;tpmrsm;
ESifh ,if;wdk@udk jyKvkyfyHkenf;pepfudk od&Sdem;vnf
ap&ef?
• pmoifcef;twGif; pm;aomufzG,f&m wpfckckudk
twlwuG csufjyKwfpm;aomuf=u&ef?

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm; Materials
• tpm;tpmrsm;. tm[m&wefzdk;rsm;udk az:
jyxm;onfh ydkpwm/ um;csyf/ &kyfyHkrsm;/
• &dk;pif;aom tpm;tpm wpfrsKd;rsKd;udk csufjyKwf
pm;aomufEdkif&eftwGufvdktyfonfh
ypPnf;rsm;/

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf Session Outline
1? uav;rsm; ae@pOfpm;aomuf=uonfh tpm;tpmrsm;udk ar;jref;yg? rnfonfhtpm;tpmudk t=udKuf ESpf
oufqHk; jzpfa=umif;udk ar;jref;yg?
2? uav;rsm;taejzihf rwnfhaom tpm;tpmrsm;udk ar;jref;yg? tb,fa=umihf rwnfh& onfudkaqG;aEG;yg?
3? uav;rsm; tvGef=udKufESpfoufonfh tpm;tpmrsm;ESifh usef;rma&;twGuf rnfr# taxmuftulðyonf
udk aqG;aEG;yg?
4? rnfr#pm;oHk;oifhonfudkvnf;aqG;aEG;yg? tvGeftuíH pm;oHk;ygu bmjzpfEkdifygoenf;?
5? tpm;tpmrsm;wGifyg&Sdaom tm[m&wefzdk;rsm;udk aqG;aEG;=uonf? tm[m&wefzdk;=wd*HZ,m;jzifh avhvm
=uonf? &Sif;vif;aqG;aEG;Edkifygonf? usef;rma&;Xmersm;rS Z,m;rsm;udk iSg;&rf;I pmoifcef;wGif &uf
owWywfcef@ csdwfqGJxm;yg?
oifcef;pm (6) tEkynm
tpm;tpmvl&kyf
&nf&G,fcsuf Activity Focus
• r*~Zif;rsm;/ pmtkyfa[mif;rsm;rS tpm;tpm
&kyfyHkrsm;udk toHk;jyKI tpm;tpm trsKd;tpm;
tkyfpkrsm;udk zefwD;jcif;? tpm;tpm vl&kyfyHk
o¿mefudk ðyvkyfjcif;?

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm; Materials
• tpm;tpm&kyfyHkrsm;yg&Sdaom r*~Zif;a[mif;rsm;/
• puULrsm;/ a&mifpHkpuULrsm;/
• aumf/
• uyfaus;
• ta&mifpHkajrjzL/

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oifcef;pm tpDtpOf Session Outline
1? ausmif;ESifh tdrfywf0ef;usif&Sd aps;qdkifrsm;/ ukefwdkufrsm;/ aps;rsm;wGif &&SdEdkifaom tpm;tpm trsKd;rsKd;udk
aqG;aEG;yg?
2? olwdk@=udKufESpfoufonfh tpm;tpmrsm;. &kyfyHkrsm;udk r*~Zif;rsm;ESifh tjcm;aom vufurf; pm&Gufrsm;rS
jzwf,l pkaqmif;ckdif;yg?
3? olwdk@. tpm;tpm&kyfyHkrsm;udk tkyfpkcGJyg? Oyrm - tom;/ ig;/ Edk@xGuftpm;tpm/ upD"gwf/ toD; tESH/
[if;oD;[if;&Guf ponfjzifh?
4? uav;rsm;tkyfpktvdkuf tpm;tpmtkyfpkwpfrsKd;pDwGif yg&Sdaom tpm;tpmrsm;udk avhvm=uonf?
&kyfyHkrsm;udk jznfhpGuf=uonf?
5? r*~Zif;rsm;rS &kyfyHkrsm;/ a&mifpHkcJwHrsm;/ ajrjzLrsm;udk toHk;jyKI tpm;tpmtrsKd;tpm;tvdkuf o&kyfaz:
zefwD;=uonf? tpm;tpm&kyfyHkrsm;jzifh udk,fcE<mtpdwftydkif;rsm;udk jznfhpGuf=uI vl&kyyf Hk o¿mefudk
zefwD; ðyvky=f uonf?
6? uav;rsm;ESifh tpm;tpmwpfrsKd;wnf;udkom pm;oHk;&efroifhawmfa=umif;udk ar;jref;aqG;aEG;yg?
7? uav;rsm; zefwD;xm;&Sdonfh tpm;tpm vl&kyfyHko¿mefrsm;ESifh ywfoufI ar;jref;aqG;aEG;=ujyD;v#if
pmoifcef; twGif;Y cif;usif;jyoxm;yg?
tydkif; (6) “tpm;tpm” acgif;pOfESifh pyfvsOf;I
aemufqufwGJ vkyfaqmifEdkifonfh pmoifcef;wGif; pDrHcsufrsm;/ vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;
Projects and Activities Ideas

ody`H (Science)
Ú obm0tpm;tpmrsm;ESifh vlwdk@zefwD;xm;&Sdonfh pufr_xkwfukef tpm;tpmrsm;udk avhvm=uonf?
wlnD csufrsm;/ uGJjym;csufrsm;udk Ed_if;,SOfavhvm=uonf? ukefxkwf tpm;tpmrsm;udk jyKvkyfyHk/
jyKvkyfenf;rsm;/ tb,fa=umifh xkwfvkyf&onf ponfjzifh avhvm =uonf?
Ú tpm;tpmtrsKd;rsKd;ESifh ,if;wdk@. teH@/ t&omtaxGaxGudkvnf; avhvm=uonf? tqif;/ ta&mif/
teH@t&omt& tpm;tpmrsm;udk tm&Hkrsm;toHk;jyKI avhvm=uonf?
Ú opfoD;0vHrsm;/ [if;oD;[if;&Gufrsm;wGif yg&Sdonfh taphrsm;udk avhvm=uonf?
Ú wd&p>meftkyfpkrsm;ESifh ,if;wdk@pm;oHk;onfh tpm;tpmrsm;udk Ed_if;,SOfavhvm=uonf?
Ú wd&p>mefrsm; tpmpm;onfh trlt,m/ oGm;/ ar;&dk;rsm;ESifh yg;pyf v_yf&Sm;yHk/ wnfaqmufyHk wdk@udk
avhvm=uonf? vlESifh uGm[csufwdk@udk avhvm=uonf?
Ú [if;csuf&mwGif yg0ifonhf azsmf&nfrsm;/ tESpfjyKvkyfyHk/ ponfwdk@udkavhvm=uonf?
vlr_a&;ESifh ywf0ef;usif (Studies of Society and Environment)
Ú rwl/ uGJjym;jcm;em;aom ,Ofaus;r_rsm;. tpm;tpmwdk@udk avhvm=uonf? wdkif;&if;om;&dk;&m
tpm;tpm yJGawmfae@/ EdkifiHwumtpm;tpmae@ ponfwdk@udk pmoifcef;wGif;Y usif;yjyKvkyf =uonf?
Ú vGefcJhonfh ESpf 100 ausmfcef@umvwGif tpm;tpm jyKvkyfyHkenf;pepfwdk@ukd avhvm=uonf?,ae@acwf
tpm;tpmrsm;udk jyKvkyfyHkwdk@ESifh Ed_if;,SOfavhvm=uonf? urBmOD;acwf/ ausmufacwfESifh yk*Hacwf/
tzdk;tzGm; wdk@wGif vlwdk@ pm;aomufyHkrsm;ESifh Ed_if;,SOfavhvm=uonf?
Ú v,f,mxGef,ufpdkufysKd;&eftwGuf ajr&dkif;rsm;udk ckwfxGif&Sif;vif;jcif;a=umihf obm0ywf0ef;usif
tay:wGif tusKd;oufa&mufr_rsm;udk avhvm=uonf? Oyrm - awm wd&p>mefrsm;twGuf aep&m
r&Sdawmhjcif;?
Ú tpm;tpmrsm;udk a&mif;csonfh aps;qdkifrsm;udk avhvm&ef wpfwef;vHk; avhvma&;c&D;xGufyg?
The world in the democratic classroom

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Ú pGef@ypfonfh tpm;tpm tºuGif;tusefrsm;jzifh ajraqG;jyKvkyfyHk/ ajczsufyHkwdk@udkavhvmonf? ajrtdk;

wpftdk;wGif prf;oyfEdkifonf?

enf;ynm (Technology)
Ú tpm;taomufqdkiftrsKd;rsKd; (Oyrm - yifv,fpm/ oufoufvGwf/ rkef@ ponfjzihf) wGif a&mif;csrnfh
tpm;tpm rD;El;pm&if;udk zefwD;=uonf?
Ú ukefwdkuf=uD;wpfckodk@oGm;a&mufvnfywf=ujyD;v#if a&mif;csonfh tpm;tpmtrsKd;rsKd;ESifh xkwfydk;yHkwdk@udk
avhvm=uonf? pmoifcef;axmifhae&mwGif ukefwdkufyHkpHi,fudk zefwD;=uonf?
Ú wdkif;&if;om; &dk;&mtpm;tpmrsm; jyKvkyf&mwGif yg0ifonfh t&mrsm;udk aqG;aEG;=uonf?
tEkynm (The Arts)
Ú jrefrmESifh EdkifiHwum tpm;tpmqdkif&m uav;oli,fyHkjyifrsm;udk pmoifcef;wGif zwf=uonf?
Ú tpm;tpmyHkpHtrsKd;rsKd;ESifh tkyfpkrsm;udk udk,fpm;jyKonfh &kyfao;&kyfrsm;udk zefwD;=uonf? opfyifrsm;
=uD;xGm;vmyHkESifh t[m&jzpfyHkwdk@udk &kyfao;yGJawmfusif;y=uonf?
Ú uav;rsm;tESpfoufqHk;tpm;tpmrsm;qdkif&m &kd;pif;aom uAsmrsm;/ oDcsif;rsm;udk pyfqdk=uonf?
um&ef rsm;/ oHpOftvG,frsm;udk toHk;jyKI oDqdk=uonf?
Ú toD;tESHrsm;/ [if;oD;[if;&Gufrsm;udk uef@vef@jzpfap/ tvsm;vdkufjzpfap cGJjcrf;onfhtcgwGif taphrsm;
wnf&Sdaeonfh yHkpHrsm;/ toGifo¿mefrsm;udk avhvm=uonf?
Ú a&mifpHk&$H@aysmhrsm;jzifh uav;oli,frsm;. tESpfoufqHk;tpm;tpmyHkpHrsm;udk zefwD;=uonf?
Ú tpm;tpm wpfrsKd;wnf;udkom tvGeftuíH pm;oHk;onhftwGuf tvGef0onfh vlyHkpHudk wkyI
yHkpHwkjzifh Zmwfvrf;ajymjy=uonf?

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

61

rkef hvkyfpm;-ur,f? (-uufOrkef h)
rkef@jyKvkyfyHk tqihfqihfESifh yg0ifonfh ypPnf;rsm;/

csufjyKwf&mwGif ajymif;vJvmr_rsm;/

The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

62

yifhul&J htpm
ausmif;ywf0ef;usifrSm awG@&Sd&wJh yifultdrfrsm;.yHk

yifhulrsm;rS pm;aomufjcif;cH&onfh tif;qufydk;r$m;rsm;trnfESifh yHkrsm;

yifhulrsm;udk pm;aom wd&p>mefrsm;

tif;qufydk;r$m;rsm;r&Sdawmhygu yifulrsm;bmjzpfEdkifygoenf;?

tpmuGif;qufyHk

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

63

tyifESifh wd&p>mefwdk h. tpm;tpmrsm;
uíefawmfwkd@pm;oHk;aom tyifrsm;ESifh wd&p>mefrsm;rSmtyifrsm;

taumifrsm;/ wd&p>mefrsm;

tyifrsm;udk pm;oHk;aom wd&p>mefrsm;

tom;pm;aom wd&p>mefrsm;

EGm;Edk@

The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

64

py`g,f&S,ftpm;tpmrsm;
TtywftwGif;pm;aom tpm;tpmrsm;rSm -

arG;ae@yGJ/ &dk;&myGJawmfae@EiS fh ae=uD;&uf=uD;rsm;/
tjcm;aomyGJrsm;wGif pm;aom txl;py`g,f&S,ftpm;tpmrsm;/

&dk;&m tpm;tpmrsm;

uíefawmfwdk@ vlrsKd;rsm;. txl;py`g,f&,
S ftpm;tpmrsm;ESifh pm;oHk;onhf yGJawmftrnfrsm;

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

65

usef;rmoef h&Sif;/ cGeftm;wdk;apwJhtpm
usef;rma&;twGuf ae@pOfpm;oHk;oifhonfh tpm;tpmrsm;rSm-

uíefawmf/ uíefrESifh rwnfhaom tpm;tpmrsm;ESifh rwnfh&onhf ta=umif;rsm;

t=udKufqHk;tpm;tpmrsm;

wpfae@v#ifa&rnfr#aomufoihfygoenff;?
uíefawmfwdk@ ausmif;upm;uGif;yHkESifh uíefawmf=udKufaom tm;upm;rsm;

usef;rmap&ef rnfodk@ jyKrlaexdkifpm;aomuf&rnfenf;?

The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

66

tpm;tpmvl&kyfyHk
tpm;tpm&kyfyHkrsm;udk toHk;jyKI vl&kyfwpf&kyfzefwD;yg?

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

67

tydkif; (7)
oifcef;pm (1) odyH`/ 'DZdkif;tEkynm/
ae&mwumrSm bD;awG
&nf&G,fcsuf
• uav;rsm;. ywf0ef;usifwGif bD;rsm;udk toHk;
ðyyHkrsm;udk avhvm&ef?

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm;
• r&Sd?

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? pmoifcef;twGif;ESifh ausmif;0if;twGif;&Sd bD;rsm;udk pl;prf;&SmazGjyD;v#if toHk;ðyyHkudk avhvm=uonf?
(Oyrm-wGef;vSnf;i,f&Sd bD;rsm;/)
2? ausmif;jyify ae&mrsm;/ vrf;rsm;ay:odk@ wpfwef;vHk; pDwef;vSnfhvnfI awG@&Sd&onfh bD;trsKd;rsKd;udk
rSwfwrf;jyKjcif;ESifh toHk;ðyyHktrsKd;rsKd;wdk@udk avhvm=uonf?
3? uav;rsm;. avhvmawG@&Sdcsufrsm;udk wpfwef;vHk;taejzihf pm&if;ðypk=uonf?
4? toHk;ðyyHkrsm;ESifh ywfoufI aqG;aEG;=uonf?
tdrfESifh ywf0ef;usifwGif awG@&Sd&onfh bD;rsm;udk avhvmckdif;jyD;v#if pmoifcef;twGif;aqG;aEG;=uonf?
oifcef;pm (2) odyH`/ 'DZdkif;tEkynm/
wGef;tm;
&nf&G,fcsuf
• jyifnDESifh avsmapmif;rsufESmjyifwdk@wGif bD;rsm;
v_yf&Sm;oGm;yHkrsm;?

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm;
• uav;upm;p&m pufbD;i,f/
• u'fxlpvif'g/
• ausmufwkH;/
• uav;pD;pufbD;/
• opfom;wkH;/
• pm&GuftvGwfrsm;/
• ysOfjym;/

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? tedrfhtjrifhrwlnDonfh jyifnDESpfcu
k dk qufoG,fxm;onfh ysOf;jym;av#mapmif;rsufESmjyifay:wGif upm;p&m
pufbD;/ opfwdkp/ cJwH/ puULxkvHk;&Snf/ pm&Guf/ ausmufcJ ponfwdk@udkxm;&Sdygu rnfodk@ðyrlrnfudk uav;
rsm;tm; =udKwifcef@rSef;cdkif;yg?
2? txufygcef@rSef;csufrsm;udk uav;rsm;vufawG@ prf;oyfavhvm=uonf?
3? avhvmawG@&Sdcsufrsm;udk rSwfwrf;ðy=ujyD;v#if wpfwef;vHk;aqG;aEG;=uonf? av#mapmif;rsufESmjyifay:wGif
a&$@vsm;r_ yHkpHrsm;/ a&$@vsm;onfh t&m0wˆKrsm;/ ra&$@vsm;Edkifonfh t&m0wˆKrsm;/ tcsKd@ypPnf;rsm; t&Sdefjzifh
a&$@vsm; jcif;ESifh tb,fa=umifhjzpf&onfwdk@udk aqG;aEG;=uonf?
4? jyifnDrsufESmjyifay:wGifvnf; txufyg prf;oyfcsufudk ðyvkyf=uonf? &v'frsm;udk Ed_if;,SOf avhvm=u
onf? t&m0wÎKrsm;a&$@vsm;&ef rnfodk@jyKvkyfEdkifonfudk uav;rsm;tm;ar;jref;yg? ydkrdkvG,fulpGm a&$@vsm;
onfh ypPnf;rsm;ESifh tb,fa=umihfvG,ful&onfwdk@udk aqG;aEG;=uonf?

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5? jyifnDrsufESmjyifESifh avsmapmif;rsufESmjyifwdk@wGif uav;wpfOD;udk yHkpHjy pufbD;pD;ckdif;yg? rnfonfh rsufESm
jyifay:wGif ydkrdkvG,fulygoenf;?

oifcef;pm (3) odyH`/
pufbD;rsm;ESifh ,mOfbD;rsm;
&nf&G,fcsuf
• pufbD;wpfpD;. tpdwftydkif;wdk@ESifh toHk;ðy
onfh ypPnf;trsKd;tpm;wdk@udkavhvmjcif;?

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm;
• uav;pD; pufbD;wpfpD;?

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? uav;wpfOD;. pufbD;udk wpf&ufwmacwWiSg;I pmoifcef;twGif; jyoxm;yg?
2? uav;rsm;tm;vHk; pufbD;wpfpD;vHk;. tpdwftydkif;rsm;udk udkifwG,f=unhf&_=ujyD; acsmarG@onfhae&m/
=urf;wrf;onfh ae&mESifh yHko¿mefrsm;udk avhvm=uonf?
3? pufbD;. tpdwftydkif;toD;oD;ta&mifrsm;udk avhvm=ujyD;v#if ajymifvufonfhta&mifrsm;/ a&mifjyef[yf
onfh t&mrsm;/ ta&mifrGJonfh tpdwftydkif;rsm; ponfjzifh avhvm=uonf?
4? pufbD;wpfpD;. (rjynfhpHkonfh) &kyfyHkwGif vkdtyfonfhae&mrsm;udk jznhfpGufa&;qGJjcif;/ tn$ef;wyfjcif;rsm;udk
jyKvkyf=uonf?
5? pufbD;. tpdwftydkif;rsm; twlwuGtvkyfvkyf=uyHkwdk@udk aqG;aEG;yg? Oyrm- ajceif;ESifh csdef;=udK;qufoG,f
xm;jcif;rS bD;rsm;udk vnfywfyHk/ vufudkifwef;ESifh a&S@bD;wdk@udk qufoG,fxm;jcif;?
oifcef;pm (4) vlr+a&;ESihf ywf0ef;usif/
ab;uif;/ tEW&m,fuif;= pufbD;eif;?
&nf&G,fcsuf
• a,bk,stm;jzihf pnf;urf;rsm;ESifh enf;Oya'
wkd@udk od&Sdapjcif;?
• txl;ojzihf vrf;pnf;urf;/ pufbD;pnf;urf;
wdk@udk od&Sdap&ef?

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm;
• vrf;pnf;urf;/ ,mOfpnf;urf;wdk@ESifh oufqdkif
onfh ydkpwmrsm;/ AD'D,dkacGrsm;?

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? tdrfESifh ausmif;wGifvkdufem=u&rnfh pnf;urf;rsm;udk wpfwef;vHk;aqG;aEG;I pm&if;ðypkyg?
tb,fa=umihfTuJhodk@aom pnf;urf;rsm;xm;&Sd&onfudk aqG;aEG;jcif;/ &Sif;jyjcif;/ vdktyfcsufudk pkaygif;
avhvm=uonf?
2? uav;rsm;vdkufem=u&rnfh vrf;pnf;urf;rsm;udk pm&if;ðypkaqG;aEG;yg? Oyrm - rsOf;usm;wGif vrf;ul;jcif;/
vrf;ay:wGif pufbD;pD;jcif;/ vrf;pnf;urf;/ ,mOfpnf;urf;wdk@EiS fh oufqkdifonfh AD'D,dkacGrsm;/ ydkpwmrsm;udk
toHk;ðyjcif;jzifh taotcsm &Sif;vif;jyoEdkifygonf?
3? tb,fa=umifh txufyg pnf;urf;rsm;/ Oya'rsm; vdktyfonfudk uav;rsm;ESihftwl aqG;aEG;yg?
4? jzpfEdkifygu ,mOfpnf;urf;xdef;odrf;a&;t&m&Sd wpfOD;udkzdwfac:I uav;rsm;tm; vrf;pnf;urf;/ ,mOfpnf;
urf; ponfwdk@. ta&;=uD;yHk/ vkdufem=u&ef vdktyfyHkrsm;udk &Sif;vif;aqG;aEG;aponf?

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

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69

oifcef;pm (5) enf;ynm/
uíefawmf zefwD;xm;wJh puf
&nf&G,fcsuf
• pufbD;wpfpD;. tpdwftydkif;rsm; twlwuG
aygif;pyf vkyfaqmifyHkudk avhvmjcif;?

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm;
• pufypPnf;rsm; (txl;ojzifh bD;yg&Sdaom) .
&kyfyHkum;csyfrsm;/ ydkpwmrsm;/ pmtkyfrsm;/
• cJwHrsm;

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? bD;yg&Sdonfh pufrsm;. toHk;jyKyHktrsKd;rsKd;wdk@udk aqG;aEG;yg?
2? bD;rsm;udk toHk;jyKEdkifonfh enf;vrf;trsKd;rsKd;wdk@udk uav;rsm;. pdwful;&Sdonfhtwkdif; aqG;aEG;=uonf?
3? Tpdwful;rsm;rS wqifh pufrsm;wDxGifEkdifrnfhf enf;vrf;rsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg? t=uHðywifjyyg?
4? uav;wdk@. pdwful;rsm;twkdif; txl;py`g,f&S,fpufrsm;udk pm&if;ðypkyg? olwdk@. pdwful;pdwfoef;rsm;/
awG;ac:,lqcsufrsm;ESifh jzpfcsif/ vdkcsifonfhtwdkif; aqG;aEG;ygap? Oyrm - bD;ygaom ausmif;vG,ftdwf/
5? yHkqGJ&ef pm&GufxJwGif olwdk@. pdwful;rsm;twdkfif; txl;py`g,f&S,f pufrsm;udk uav;rsm;'DZdkif;a&;qGJ=uonf?
6? uav;rsm;a&;qGJxm;onfh pufrsm;udk aqG;aEG;ckdif;yg? cif;usif;jyoyg?
oifcef;pm (6) tEkynmbmom/
bD;tu
&nf&G,fcsuf
• bD;rsm;. vnfywfyHktwkdif; tuwpfrsKd;udk
zefwD;jcif;?

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm;
• tuyHkpH/ v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; yg&Sdaom pm&Guf/
• jrL;ºuGonfh tuaw;oD;csif;acGrsm;/

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? avhusifhcef;pm&GufwGifyg&Sdonfh bD;tu. uuGufrsm;/ v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg/ o&kyfjyyg? uav;vnf;
twlwuG uckef=uonf?
2? TuuGufrsm;udk aw;oD;csif;rsm;ESifh wGJzufjyD; uckef=uonf?
3? bD;vnfywfyHktwkdif;/ pufbD;pD;eif;onfh yHkpHtwkdif; tjcm;aom uuGufrsm;udk uav;rsm; prf;oyfwDxGifI
uckef=uonf? rlvtuwGif uuGuftopfrsm;udk xnfhoGif;uckef=uonf?
4? uav;rsm; (4- 5 a,muf) tkyfpktvdkuf uuGufrsm;/ tuopfrsm;udk zefwD;=uonf?
5? tkyfpktvdkuf uuGuftopfrsm;udk twef;a&S@xGufI ujy=uonf?

rlvwef;t&G,fuav;i,frsm;tm; oifcef;pmESifh qufEG,faeaom yPnf;rsm;udk vufawG@
jyojcif;/ udkifwG,favhvmapjcif;/ wnfaqmufyHkudk udk,fwdkifavhvmapjcif; ponfwdk@jzifh olwdk@.
xdk;xGif; odjrifr_rsm;/ pl;prf;avhvmvdkpdwfrsm;/ pGef@OD;wDxGif=uHq zefwD;vdkpdwfrsm;udk zefwD;ay;&
rnfjzpfygonf?

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Saya Thein Naing

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tydkif; (7) “vnfvGef;wJh bD;awG” acgif;pOfESifh pyfvsOf;I
aemufqufwGJ vkyfaqmifEdkifonfh pmoifcef;wGif; pDrHcsufrsm;/ vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;
Projects and Activities Ideas

ody`H (Science)
Ú yHko¿mef/ t&G,ftpm;/ tpdwftydkif;/ toHk;ðyyHkrsm;udk avhvmI o,f,l ydk@aqmifa&;,mOfrsm;udk
Ed_if;,SOf avhvm=uonf? pmapmif/ r*~Zif;rsm;wGiyf g&Sdaom &kyfyHkrsm;ESifh ,mOftppfrsm;udk avhvm
=ujcif;jzifh ,mOftrsKd;rsKd;. wlnDr_rsm;/ uGJjym;csufrsm;udk Ed_if;,SOf=uonf?
Ú pufrsm;wGif bD;rsm;. toHk;jyKyHktrsKd;rsKd;udk avhvm=uonf? bD;rsm;onf pufwpfckvHk;udkjzpfap/ tpdwf
tydkif; tcsKd@udkjzpfap vnfywfEkdifonf? tpdwftydkif;rsm;twGuf puftwGif;ydkif; tvkyfvkyfyHk (Oyrm em&D) udk avhvm&ef vdktyfygonf?
Ú tuGmta0;wpfcktwGif; vrf;av#mufjcif;/ ajy;jcif;/ pufbD;pD;jcif;jzihf =umcsdefudk Ed_if;,SOf avhvm
=uonf?
Ú pufbD;rsm;ESifh tjcm;aom o,f,lydk@aqmifa&;,mOfrsm;. pGrf;tif&&SdyHk/ toHk;jyKyHkwdk@udk Ed_if;,SOf
avhvm=uonf?
Ú bD;yg&Sdaom upm;p&mypPnf;rsm;udk pmoifcef;twGif; cif;usif;jyoyg?
Ú rsufESmjyifrsm;ESihf yGwftm;udk pl;prf;avhvm&eftwGuf bD;ygaomupm;p&mrsm;udk toHk;jyKyg? jrefjref
a&$@vsm;apaom rsufESmjyifrsm;ESifh t&Sdefavsmhaponfh rsufESmjyifrsm;udk Ed_if;,SOfavhvm=uonf?
vlr_a&;ESifh ywf0ef;usif (Studies on Society and Environment)
Ú ordkif;wpfavsmufwGif acwfumvtvdkuf bD;rsm;udk toHk;jyKyHkwdk@udk avhvm=uonf?
Ú pGrf;tif acíwmjcif;/ xdef;odrf;jcif; oabmw&m;tajccHrsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg? pufbD;pD;eif;jcif;onf 'DZ,f/
"gwfqD tp&Sdonfh avmifpmrsm;udk toHk;jyKonfh ,mOfrsm;xuf pGrf;tifxdef;odrf;&ma&mufjyD;/ obm0
ywf0ef;usif npfnrf;jcif;rS umuG,fyHkudk aqG;aEG;yg?
Ú tm;upm;wGif bD;rsm;udk toHk;jyKyHktrsKd;rsKd;udk aqG;aEG;yg? Oyrm - pufbD;jydKifjcif;/ um;jydKifjcif;/
jrif;vSnf;jydKifyGJ/ vufwGef;bD;vSnf; tm;upm;jydKifyGJ (roefrpGrf;)/
Ú bD;yg&Sdaom puftrsKd;rsKd;ESifh oufqdkifonfh yHkjyifrsm;/ umwGef;rsm;udk twlwuGzwfI aqG;aEG;Edkifyg
onf?
enf;ynmbmom (Technology)
Ú pGef@ypfypPnf;rsm;ESifh ta[mif;rsm; (Oyrm - u'fxlrsm;/ xkvHk;&SnfyHk;rsm;) udk toHk;jyKI bD;wyf
upm;p&m rsm;udk 'DZdkif;a&;qGJjcif;/ wnfaqmufjcif;wdk@udk jyKvkyfEdkifonf?
Ú pufbD;rsm;ESihf um;bD;rsm;udk wyfqifyHkESifh tb,fa=umihf Todk@wyfxm;r_udk aqG;aEG;yg? pwD;vfacG
tjyif tjcm;aom ypPnf;rsm;vnf; bD;wpfvHk;wGif vdktyfjcif;udk aqG;aEG;yg?
tEkynmbmom (Arts)
Ú pdwful;,Of wGef;vSnf;av;. c&D;pOfZmwfvrf;uJhodk@aom yHkjyifrsm;udk tkyfpktvdkuf zefwD;=uonf?
Ú pufbD;rsm;udk ta&mifpHk tqifwefqmrsm;jzifh vSypGm qif,ifxm;&SdjyD;v#if pufbD;ae@udk
usif;yEdkifonf? uav;rsm;. pufbD;rsm;udk ausmif;odk@,lvmckdif;jyD;v#if &&SdEdkifonfh ypPnf;rsm;jzifh
wyfqif=uonf? twef;wGif; pufbD;ae@ (tkdvHypfyGJ ponf) usif;yEdkifonf?
Ú bD;rsm;jzihf zefwD;xm;&Sdonfh &kyfyHkrsm;/ Zmwfaumifrsm;udk jyKvkyf=uonf? &$H@aysmhrsm;udk
toHk;jyKEdkifonf?

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

71

vnfvGef;wJhbD;awG
ae&mwumrSm bD;awG
bD;awG&SmazGay;yg? &kyfyHkqGJyg?
pmoifcef;twGif;rSm

vrf;ray:rSm

tdrfrSm

t=uD;qHk;bD;ESifh tao;qHk; bD;wpfvHk;pDudk a&;qGJyg? rnfonfhae&mwdk@wGif toHk;ðyygoenf;?

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wGef;tm;
wGef;tm;jydKifyGJ
a0;a0;roGm;EdkifwJh ypPnf;rsm;

ta0;qHk;a&G@oGm;EdkifwJh ypPnf;rsm;

bD;ygaom ypPnf;rsm;ESifh bD;rygaom ypPnf;rsm;yHk

bD;awGu ----------------------- tultnDay;w,f?

bD;t=uD;ESifh bD;ti,f bmuGmjcm;ygvJ?

bD;awGomr&SdcJhbl;qdk,if bmjzpfEdkifovJ?

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

73

pufbD;rsm;ESifh bD;rsm;
pufbD;wpfpD;&J@ tpdwftydkif;rsm;udk jznfhpGufay;yg?

tcsKd@tpdwftydkif;awGu =urf;wrf;w,f?
tcsKd@tpdwftydkif;awGu
tcsKd@tpdwftydkif;awGu ajymifajymifvufvufjzpfygw,f? a&mifjyef[yfw,f?
tcsKd@tpdwftydkif;awGusjyefawmh
txufyg pufbD;wGif bD;yHko¿mef b,fESpfckyg&Sdoenf;? a&wGufjyyg?

The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

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tEW&m,fuif;/ ab;uif; pufbD;eif;
tdrfrSm vdkufem&rnfh pnf;urf;rsm;

ausmif;rSm vdkufem&rnfh pnf;urf;rsm;

pnf;urf;awGcsrSwfxm;&ygw,f? bmjzpfvkd@vJqdkawmh

uíefawmfodwJh ab;tEW&m,fuif;a0;ap&ef vdkufem&rnfh pnf;urf;rsm; bmpnf;urf;awGudk vkdufem&rvJ?
um;xJrSm

pufbD;pD;wJhtcg

vrf;jzwful;wJhtcg

tjcm;aom pnf;urf;rsm; (&yf&GmxJrSm/ tm;upm;uGif;rSm--)

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

75

uíefawmfzefwD;xm;wJh puf
bD;ygwJh txl;py`g,f&S,f puf=uD;yHk

bD;ygwJh txl;py`g,f&S,f puf=uD;vkyfaqmifEdkifwJht&mawGuawmh

tjcm;aom bD;ygwJh pufrsm;

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bD;tu
bD;tu u =u&atmif

uíefawmfwdk@ tkyfpku wDxGifxm;wJh bD;tuopf

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

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77

tydkif; (8)
oifcef;pm (1) ody`H/
taqmuftOD ckdifckdifcHhcHh
&nf&G,fcsuf
• taqmuftOD;rsm; aqmufvkyf&mwGif toHk;jyK
onfh ypPnf;rsm;/

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm;
• opfom;/ pwD;vf/ yvyfpwpfjym;rsm;/ tkwf/
oJ/ ausmuf erlemrsm;/
• taqmuftOD;wpfck aqmufvkyfonfh tqifh
qifhaom vkyfaqmifcsufudk jyoonfh ydkpwm?

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? uav;rsm;udk tdrf/ taqmuftODESifh ywfoufonfh yHkjyifZmwfvrf;rsm;/ uav;yHkjyifrsm; (Oyrm - 0uf
uav; oHk;aumifESifh tdrf oHk;rsKd;) rsm;udk zwfjyyg? yHkjyifyg tcsuftvufrsm;udk ar;jref;aqG;aEG;yg?
2? taqmuftODrsm;udk rnfonfhypPnf;rsm;jzihf aqmufvkyf=uonfudk ar;jref;yg? tb,fa=umihf 4if;ypPnf;rsm;
jzifh aqmufvkyf=u&onfudk aqG;aEG;yg?
3? 4if;ypPnf;yHkpHrsm;udk avhvm=unfh&_jcif;/ udkifwG,fprf;oyfjcif;rsm;jyKvkyf=uonf?
4? TypPnf;rsm;udk rnfodk@toHk;ðyonfudk aqG;aEG;jcif;ESifh rnfonfhtpdwftydkif;rsm;wGif toHk;ðyonfudk
aqG;aEG;=uonf?
5? taqmuftOD yHkpH (4) rsKd;wGif toHk;jyKonfh ypPnf;rsm;udk pm&if;jyKpkyg? opfom;taqmuftOD/ oHr%dydkuf/
yvyfpwm (eH&HtwGuf)/ tkwfeH&H? TypPnf;rsm;. ckdifcHhr_ESifh toHk;jyKyHkudk Ed_if;,SOfavhvm=uonf? Oyrm oHr%dydkufrsm;/ oHvHk;rsm;onf opfom;rsm;xufydkfrdk rmausmckdifcHhojzifh ESpfxyf/ oHk;xyf&Sdonfh taqmuf
tODrsm;udk aqmufvkyfEdkifonf?
6? taqmuftODwGifyg&Sdonfh ypPnf;rsm;udk rnfonfh t&mrsm;jzihf ðyvkyfxm;onfudkaqG;aEG;jcif;/ &&Sdonfh
obm0ywf0ef;usifESifh qufEG,faer_rsm;udk aqG;aEG;jcif;rsm; ðyvkyfEdkifygonf?
7? taqmuftODwpfck. aqmufvkyfyHktqifhqifhudk "mwfykHrSwfwrf;ðyvkyfI pmoifcef;twGif;Y cif;usif;jyo
Edkifonf? aqG;aEG;Edkifonf?
oifcef;pm (2) odyH`/
tvif;a&mifrsm; 0ifa&mufygap/
&nf&G,fcsuf
• tvif;jzwfoef;Edkifonfh t&m0wˆKrsm;/ ypPnf;
rsm;udk cGJjcm;avhvmjcif;?

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm;
• pm&Guftxl teufa&mif/
• tvif;jzwfypPnf;rsm;/ tvif;ydwfypPnf;rsm;/
(Oyrm - u'fxl/ opfom;/ ydwfp/ yvyfpwpf/)

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? tdrfrsm;/ taqmuftODrsm;wGif obm0tvif;a&mif&&Sd&efrSm vGefpGmta&;=uD;jciff;ESifh ywfoufI aqG;aEG;
=ujyD;v#if rnfodk@vkyfaqmifEdkifonfudk avhvm=uonf?
2? tjcm;aom tvif;jzwfEdkifonfh ypPnf;rsm;udk avhvm&eftwGuf uav;rsm; (ydkufvHk;ðyvkyf&ef) jyifqif
=uonf?
3? pm&Guftxl teufa&mifjzifh ydkufvHk;ðyvkyfjyD;v#if rsufvHk;wpfzufrSdwfxm;jzihf tjcm;wpfzufjzifh =unfh&_
Ekdifygonf?
The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

78

4? uav;rsm;twGJvdkuf wpfOD;rS ydkufvHk;jzifh =unfh&_aepOf tjcm;uav;rS t&m0wÎKypPnf;rsm; (tvif;ydwf/
tvif;jzwf ponf) udk ydkufvHk;tqHk;wGif uyfxm;ay;onf?
5? tvif;ydwf/ tvif;jzwfypPnf;rsm;ESifh ywfoufI olwdk@. avhvmawG@&Sdcsufrsm;udk pm&GufwGif pm&if;ðypk
=uonf?
6? tvif;ydwf/ tvif;jzwf ypPnf;rsm;[lI t"dutkyfpk (2) ck&Sdrnfjzpfaomfjim;vnf; tcsKd@aom ypPnf;rsm;
(Oyrm-ydwfp) rSm tvif;tenf;i,fjzwfEdkifygvdrfhrnf? tb,fa=umifhjzpf&onfudk aqG;aEG;yg? (Oyrm ydwfp txltyg;/)
oifcef;pm (3) odyH`/
taqmuftODtwGuf pGrf;tm;rsm;/
&nf&G,fcsuf
• taqmuftOD aqmufvkyf&ef pGrf;tm;rsm;?

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm;
• taqmuftOD aqmufvkyfonfh ae&mwGif vkyf
aqmif=uonfh vkyfief;aqmifwmrsm;udk udk,f
pm;jyKaz: jyaom &kyfyHkum;csyfrsm;/ ydkpwmrsm;/
AD'D,dkacGrsm;?

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? uav;rsm;udk taqmuftODrsm; aqmufvkyfonfhae&modk@ ac:aqmifyg? rjzpfEdkifygu &kyfyHkum;csyfrsm;/
AD'D,dkacGrsm;udk toHk;jyKyg? txl;ojzihf taqmuftOD aqmufvkyfonfh tqifhqifhaom vkyfaqmif
csufrsm;udk toHk;jyKyg?
2? aqmufvkyfolrsm; (tif*sifeD,m/ vuform;/ yef;&H ponf) wdk@. vkyfaqmifcsuftrsKd;rsKd; avhvm=ujyD;v#if
aqG;aEG;=uonf? aqmufvkyfa&; vkyif ef;rsm;twGuf pufypPnf;/ ud&d,mtrsKd;rsKd;. toHk;jyKyHkrsm;vnf;
aqG;aEG;=uygap? avhusihfcef;pm&Gufay:wGif owif;pm/ r*~Zif;rsm;rS jzwf,lxm;&Sdonfh pufud&d,mrsm;udk
oifhawmf&m ae&mrsm;wGif uyfyg?
3? pufud&d,mypPnf;rsm;. tokH;ðyyHkrsm;udk &kyfyHkrsm;ESifh ,SOfwGJcdkif;yg? Oyrm - (0efcsDpuf) u&def;pufonf
ypPnf;rsm;udk r &efESifh ae&ma&$@&eftwGuf toHk;ðyjcif;?
4? pufud&d,mrsm;. v_yf&Sm;vnfywfyHkESifh tiftm;xkwf,lyHkrsm;udk uav;rsm;avhvm=uonf? Oyrmu&def;puf onf rEdkifjyD;/ ajrwl;pufonf wGef;Edkifonf?
5? tvkyform;rsm;. vkyfaqmifcsuftrsKd;rsKd;ESifh vkyaf qmifyHkrsm;udkvnf; avhvmaqG;aEG;ygap? Oyrm yef;&Horm;rsm;onf tkwfcJrsm;pD=ujcif;/ vuform;rsm; v$qGJjcif;ESifh tcsKd@rSm usif;/ ajrmif;wl;jcif; ponf?
6? t&m0wˆKypPnf;rsm;udk a&$@&eftwGuf pGrf;tifESifh tm;rsm;udk toHk;ðy=uonfh tcsufudk t"dutm;jzifh
aqG;aEG;yg? Oyrm - u&def;pufonf taqmuftODwGif toHk;ðyonfh ypPnf;rsm;udk r ,ljcif;/ a&$@ajymif;
jcif;ESifh yef;&Horm;rsm; tkwfcJ/ ausmufcJ ponfwkd@udk a&$@ajymif;jcif;rsm;?
oifcef;pm (4) vlr+a&;ESifh ywf0ef;usif/
jrdK hajryHk
&nf&G,fcsuf
• ðrd@wGif;/ &GmwGif;&Sd tdrf/ taqmuftOD;rsm;ESihf
4if;wdk@udktoHk;jyKyHkrsm;/ vlwkd@.vkyfaqmifr_rsm;/

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm;
• ðrd@/ &GmwGif; o&kyfaz: &kyfyHkum;csyf/ ydkpwmrsm;/
• tdrf/ taqmuftODwdk@. twGif;ydkif;yHkrsm;/
• cJwHrsm;?

q&modef;Edkif

79

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? ðrd@&GmESihf ywfoufI uav;rsm;udk uav;rsm;odor#udk ar;jref;yg? jrdK@wGif;&Sd tvkyfvkyf&efae&m/ vlwdk@
aexdkif&m&yfuGuf/ yef;jcH/ aps;/ ponfjzihf ae&mrsm;ta=umif;udk aqG;aEG;yg?
2? ðrd@wGif;&Sd taqmuftODrsm;. &kyfyHkrsm;udk =unfh&_avhvmI toHk;ðyyHkrsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg?
3? uav;rsm;udk jrdK@e,ftwGif; tcsuftcsmusaom ae&mrsm;okd@ oGm;a&mufvnfywfapjyD;v#if taqmuf
tODrsm;udk avhvmapjcif;/ toHk;jyKyHkrsm;udkvnf; avhvm=uonf?
4? taqmuftODrsm;twGif; vlwdk@. vkyfudkifaqmif&Gufaer_rsm;udk avhvm=uonf?
5? pmoifcef;odk@jyefa&mufygu olwdk@. avhvmawG@&Sdcsufrsm;udk rSwfwrf;jyKjcif;/ aqG;aEG;jcif;rsm; ðyvkyf=u
onf?
6? avhvmawG@&Sdcsufrsm;rS avhusihfcef;pm&GufwGif jznfhpGufjcif;/ y&dabm*rsm;/ ud&d,mrsm;/ ,mOfrsm;/ vlrsm; /
toHk;taqmifrsm;udk jznfhpGufjcif;rsm; ðyvkyf=uonf?
oifcef;pm (5) enf;ynm/
jrdK hyHkpH
&nf&G,fcsuf
• wpfwef;vHk;taejzihf pmoifcef;twGif; ðrd@wpf
ðrd@udk wnfaqmufjcif;?

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm;
• pm&Guf/
• cJwH/
• aqmhyif/
• u'fxlaowWmrsm;/
• Edk@Al;cGHrsm;/ puULAl;rsm;/
• u'fxljym;rsm;/
• =uufOu'f tvGwfrsm;?

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? ðrd@wpfðrd@udk wnfaqmuf&eftwGuf uav;rsm;. pdwful;xJwGif vkdcsif=uonfh yHkpHrsm;udk ar;jref;I pm&if;
ðypkyg? uav;rsm;pdwful;rsm;/ tawG;rsm;xJrS tcsuftvufrsm;twdkif; pm&if;rSwfyg? wpfwef;vHk; taejzifh
pm&if;ðypkyg?
2? av;a,mufwpftkyfpkjzihf ðrd@yHkpHudk zefwD;a&;qGJ=uygap? olwdk@jzpfapcsifonfh/ vkdcsifonfh tcsufrsm;twkdif;
'DZdkif; a&;qGJ=uygap?
3? olwdk@ tkyfpktvdkuf a&;qGJxm;onfh ðrd@yHkpHudk wpfwef;vHk;tm; jyo&Sif;vif;ygap? olwdk@pw
d ful; pdwfoef;rsm;
twdkif; a&;qGJxm;onfh ðrd@yHkpHrsm;onf rnfr#vufawG@usonfudkvnf; &Sif;vif;aqG;aEG;=uygap? Oyrm pmoifausmif;udk puf&Hk=uD;teD;wGif xm;&Sdoifhygovm;/ tb,fa=umihfenf;?
4? ðrd@yHkpHudk aqmufvkyf&mwGif toHk;jyrnfh ypPnf;rsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg?
5? aowWmi,frsm;/ Edk@Al;cGHrsm;/ puULAl;cGHrsm;/ u'fxljym;rsm;/ ponfwdk@udk tkyfpktvkduf ay;I olwdk@ tkyfpk.
ðrd@yHkpH'DZdkif;twkdif; yHkpHi,fudk pmoifcef;twGif; zefwD;wnfaqmuf=uonf?
6? ðrd@wGif;&Sd qdkif;bkwfrsm;ta=umif;udk ar;jref;aqG;aEG;yg? Oyrm-tdrf/ qdkifrsm;/ vrf;rsm;ay: &Sdqdkif;bkwfrsm;?
7? olwdk@. jrdK@yHkpHi,frsm;wGifvnf; qdkif;bkwfrsm;udk xnhfoGif;=uygap?
8? tkyfpktm;vHk;. ðrd@yHkpHi,frsm; zefwD;jcif;jyD;qHk;ygu tkyfpktoD;. zefwD;csufrsm;rS wlnDcsufrsm;/ rwlnDr_
rsm;/ vuf&Sdðrd@rsm;ESifh uGm[csufrsm;/ ajymif;vJxm;&Sdr_rsm;/ ðyjyifxm;&Sdr_rsm;/ topfzefwD;csufrsm;udk aqG;
aEG;=uyg? ðrd@yHkpHrsm;twkdif;aqmufvkyf&mwGif vdktyfrnfh ypPnf;rsm;/ ud&d,mrsm;udkvnf; aqG;aEG;=uyg?

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oifcef;pm (6) tEkynmbmom/
t&G,ftpm;rsm;/ yHko¿mefrsm;wnfaqmufjcif;/
&nf&G,fcsuf
• taqmuftODrsm;. t&G,ftpm;/ yHk&dyfrsm;/
toGifo¿mefrsm;/ 'DZdkif;rsm;/ ta&mifrsm;/
tvif;tarSmifobm0/

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm;
• taqmuftODrsm;. ta=umif;yg&Sdonfh yHk 0wˆK
rsm;/ yef;csDum;csyfrsm;/ "gwfyHkrsm;/ pdwf0ifpm;
zG,f&m taqmuftOD &kyfyHkrsm;
• yHkqGJ&efcJwHrsm;/ puULrsm;/ a&mifpHkcJwHrsm;/ aywH
rsm;? qDaq;yef;csDtwGuf ypPnf;rsm;/

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? uav;rsm;udk ausmif;ywf0ef;usif jrdK@e,fwGif;&Sd vrf;rsm;ay:rS taqmuftODrsm;odk@ ac:aqmif oGm;jyD;v#if
taqmuftODrsm;. t&G,ftpm;rsm;/ yHk&dyfrsm;/ toGifo¿mefrsm;/ 'DZdkfif;rsm;/ ta&mifrsm; ponfwdk@udk
avhvmckdif;yg? yHkjyifZmwfvrf;rsm;/ taqmuftODrsm;ESifh ywfoufonfh tEkynm vuf&mrsm;/ "gwfyHk
um;csyfrsm;/ ydkpwmrsm;udkvnf; toHk;jyKEdkifygonf?
2? pmoifcef;twGif; jyefvnfa&muf&Sdygu olwdk@. avhvmawG@&cSd sufrsm;udk yHka&;qGJ=uonf?
3? taqmuftODta[mif;rsm;ESifh topfrsm;. rwlnDr_rsm;ESifh jcm;em;csufrsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg?
4? qDaq;yef;csD&kyfyHkrsm;a&;qGJapjcif;jzifh tvif;tarSmifobm0udk zefwD;jcif;/ ESpfzufjrif yHk&dyfrsm; a&;qGJapjcif;/
yHkqGJcJwHrsm;jzihf uav;rsm;. udk,fydkif taqmuftODyef;csDum;rsm;udk zefwD;=ujcif;/ yHkpH'DZdkif;rsm;udk &kyfyHkaz:
jcif;?

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

81

tydkif; (8) “ðrd h&Gmwnfaqmuf-ur,f” acgif;pOfESifh pyfvsOf;I
aemufqufwGJ vkyfaqmifEdkifonfh pmoifcef;wGif; pDrHcsufrsm;/ vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;
Projects and Activities Ideas

ody`H (Science)
Ú tdrf/ ausmif;ESifh &yf&Gm/ jrdK@e,fywf0ef;usiftwGif;&Sd aus;iSufrsm;/ wd&p>mefrsm;udk =unfh&_avhvmjcif;?
Ú jrdK@wGif;&Sd qlnHaomae&mrsm;rS toHrsm;udk avhvmjcif;? toHrsm;jzwfoef;onfh t&m0wˆKrsm;udk
pl;prf; avhvmjcif;?
Ú taqmuftODrsm; aqmufvkyf&mwGif toHk;jyKonfh j'yfaESmrsm;/ a&mpyfxm;onhf t&mrsm;udk
avhvmjcif;/ Oyrm - bdvyfajrESifh oJ/ ausmuf (rqvm)/ yvyfpwm/ uwW&map;?
vlr_a&;ESifh ywf0ef;usif (Studies on Society and Environment)
Ú jrdK@&GmtwGif; rSDwif;aexdkif=uonfh wd&p>mefrsm;udk umuG,fapmifha&SmufEdkifonfh enf;vrf;rsm;udk
avhvm=uonf? jrdK@&GmtwGif; aus;/ iSufrsm;/ awmwd&p>mefrsm; vma&mufaexdkifap&ef rnfodk@jyKvkyf
zefwD;xm;Edkfifonfudk avhvm=uonf?
Ú jrdK@&Gmwnfaxmifjcif;jzifh obm0ywf0ef;usif ajymif;vJvm&r_rsm;udk pl;prf;avhvm=uonf?
Ú jrdK@&Gma'otwGif;&Sd wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;/ vlrsKd;pkrsm;/vlenf;pkrsm;ESihf ,Ofaus;r_/ udk;uG,f,Hk=unfr_
rsm; ponfwdk@udk avhvm=uonf?
Ú jrdK@&Gma'otwGif; azsmfajzjcif;yHkpHrsm; (&kyf&Sif/ ZmwfyGJ/ &dk;&myGJawmf/ tm;upm;) wdk@ESifh ywfoufI
avhvm=uonf?
Ú avxknpfnrf;r_udk prf;oyfcsufwpfck jyKvkyfEdkif=uygonf? (&dk;&Sif;vG,fulaom prf;oyfcsufwpfckrSm)
tjzLa&mif t0wfprsm;udk jrdK@&Gm tESH@tjym;wGif xm;&Sdjcif;jzifh pkaqmif;&&Sdonfh tr_efrsm;/ tnpf
ta=u;rsm;udk avhvmEdkif=uygonf?
Ú jrdK@&Gma'otwGif; o,f,lydk@aqmifr_yHkpHrsm;udk avhvm=uonf?
enf;ynmbmom (Technology)
Ú t&kyfqufupm;Edkifonfh (vuf*dk twHk;rsm;jzpfap/ tjcm;aom &yf&Gma'otwGif;Y &&SdEdkifonfh opfwdkf
opfrsm;/ u'fxlrsm;/ Al;cGHrsm;/ ykvif;rsm; ponfh) oifaxmufulypPnf;rsm;udk toHk;jyKI taqmuf
tODrsm; zefwD;=uonf? taqmuftODrsm;. twGif;ydkif;ae&mrsm;. wnfaqmuf yHkudk pl;prf;avhvm
=uonf?
Ú yef;jcHrsm;twGif; uav;upm;&efae&mrsm;. wnfaqmufxm;&SdyHkwdk@udk avhvm=uonf? wnf
aqmufyHk/ 'DZdkif;/ toHk;jyKonfhypPnf;rsm;/ vHkjcHKa&;twGuf pOf;pm;csufrsm;/? olwdk@vdkcsifonfh upm;
uGif; 'DZdkif;udk uav;rsm;udk,fwdkif 'DZdkif;a&;qGJ=uonf?
tEkynmbmom (Arts)
Ú pmoifcef;eH&Hay:wGif jrdK@jy/ aus;vufESifh ywf0ef;usif obm0udk yHkaz:onfh eH&Hyef;csDudk uav;rsm; a&;
qGJEdkif=uonf?
Ú jrdK@&Gmwnfaqmuf&mwGifvkyfaqmifcsufrsm;udk uav;rsm;wkyI[eftrlt&mjzihf o&kyfaz: wifquf
=uonf?
Ú jrdK@jy&Sd trd_ufo&dkufrsm;udk udk,fpm;jyKI Zmwfvrf;rsm;zefwD;jcif;/ trd_ufuif;pifap&ef tajz&Smjcif;
rsm;udk Zmwfvrf;yrmrsm;jzihf o&kyfaz:=uonf?
Ú wl&d,mypPnf;rsm;jzifh jrdK@jy. toHtrsKd;rsKd;udk zefwD;=uonf (Oyrm - w,fvDzkef;jrnfoH/ um;[Gef;oH/
bk&m;ausmif;rS acgif;avmif;oH/ pmoifausmif;rS toHrsm;?)
The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

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taqmuftOD ckdifckdifcHhcHh
taqmuftODrsm; aqmufvkyf&mwGif toHk;jyKaom ypPnf;rsm;/

opfom;udk toHk;jyKyHk

tkwfcJrsm;udk toHk;jyKyHk

yvmpwmrsm;udk toHk;jyKyHk

oHr%dESihf oHxnfrsm;udk toHk;jyKyHk

opfom;udk

rSxkwf,l&&Sdonf?

tkwfcJrsm;udk

rSxkwf,l &&Sdonf?

oHxnfrsm;udk

rS xkwf,l&&Sdonf?

t&rf;cdkifwJh taqmuftODwpfvHk;yHk -

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

83

tvif;a&mifrsm; 0ifa&mufygap/
taqmuftODrsm;wGif tvif;a&mifvdktyfygonf? tb,fa=umifhqdkaomf
tvif;rsm;onf TypPnf;rsm;udk jzwfI 0ifa&mufEdkifygonf? 4if;wdk@rSm

tvif;ydkuf prf;oyfcsuf
tvif;jzwfonfh
ypPNnf;rsm;

The world in the democratic classroom

tvif;rjzwfaom
ypPNnf;rsm;

tvif;tenf;i,fjzwfaom
ypPNnf;rsm;

Saya Thein Naing

84

taqmuftODtwGuf pGrf;tm;rsm;
taqmuftODrsm; aqmufvkyf&mwGif toHk;jyKonfh pufrsm;?

pufrsm;. vkyaf qmifcsufrsm;

aqmufvkyfa&;vkyfom;rsm;
vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;? b,folawGvJ?

0efcsDpufrsm;
ypPnf;rsm;udk ronf?
ajrwl;pufrsm;
qGJonf?
v$$rsm;
wGe;f onf?
tav;rpuf
wlxo
k nf?
x&yfum;rsm;
vGefoGm;rsm;

txl;pufwpfvHk;yHkqGJyg?

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

85

jrdK hajryHk
jrdK@rSm &SdwJh t&mrsm;? taqmuftODrsm;/ vlrsm;/ t&m0wˆKrsm;?

jrdK@wnfaqmuf=u&atmif? ðrd hajryHkqGJyg? tn$ef;wyfyg?

The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

86

ðrd hyHkpH
uíEdkyfwdk@. ðrd@yHk

pdwful;xJu ðrd@wnfaqmufwJhtcg oHk;r,fhypPnf;rsm;

uíEfkyfwdk@. pdwful;xJrS ðrd@yHkpH

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

87

t&G,ftpm;rsm;/ yHko¿mefrsm;wnfaqmufjcif;/
taqmuftODrsm;&J@ yHko¿mefrsm;

taqmuftODrsm;&J@ tqif;'DZdkif;rsm;

taqmuftODrsm;&J@ ta&mifrsm;

uíefawmfh&J@ taqmuftOD yHk'DZdkif;

The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

88

tydkif; (9)

oifcef;pm (1) ody`H/
pl;prf;avhvmp&m pufud&d,mrsm;
&nf&G,fcsuf
• uav;rsm;. ae@pOfb0wGif awG@jrifae&aom
pufud&d,mrsm;udk pl;prf;avhvm&ef?

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm;
• r*~Zif;rsm;/
• uyfaus;/
• aumf/
• uav;rsm;pkaqmif;xm;aom
pufypPnf;&kyfyHkrsm;/

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? uav;rsm;tm;rdrdwdk@. tdrfESifh ausmif;wGif;/ pmoifcef;twGif;&Sd pufud&d,mypPnf;rsm;udk =unfh&_avhvm
=u&ef/ pm&if;jyKpk=u&ef ar;jref;yg? Oyrm- cJwHcíefpuf/ wDADG/ uufquf/ a&'D,dk ponf?
2? ausmif;ol/ ausmif;om;rsm;udk ausmif;jyify &yf&GmtwGif;ac:aqmifI vrf;r=uD;wpfav#mufwGif awG@jrif&
aom pufypPnf;rsm;udk avhvmckdif;yg? Oyrm - pufbD;/ um;/ "gwfqDqdkif/ qef=udwfpuf?
3? uav;rsm;awG@jrifcJh&aom pufypPnf;trsKd;rsKd;. toHk;ðyyHkrsm;udk avhvmaqG;aEG;=uonf?
4? owif;pmrsm;/ r*~Zif;rsm;rS pufypPnf;&kyfyHkrsm;jzwfydkif;wdk@udk toHk;jyKI olwdk@. awG@jrifavhvm&r_rsm;ESifh
Ed_if;,SOfavhvm=uonf? pufypPnf;trsKd;pHkudk od&Sdem;vnfap&efjzpfonf?
5? uav;rsm;. pkaqmif;xm;&Sdaom &kyfyHkrsm;/ r*~Zif;rsm;rS jzwfydkif;yHkrsm;jzifh pmoifcef;twGuf pufypPnf;
pm&if;pk pmtkyfwpftkyfðypk=uonf?
oifcef;pm (2) ody`H/
pufud&d,mrsm;. tpdwftydkif;rsm;
&nf&G,fcsuf
• pufypPnf;rsm;. tpdwftydkif;udk pl;prf;avhvm
=u&ef?

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm;
• pufypPnf;ta[mif;rsm;/ wDADG/ a&'D,dk/ em&D/
rkef@zkwfpuf/

pufypPnf;rsm;/ tpdwftydkif;rsm;udk udkifwG,favhvmjcif;/ prf;oyfjcif;rsm;wGif ab;tEW&m,fuif;a0ap&efESifh
vHkjcHKpdwfcs&r_&Sdap&eftwGuf tpOfowdjyKyg? uav;rsm;udk =udKwifowday;yg?
oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? pufypPnf;rsm;. twGif;ydkif;wGif yg&Sdaomt&mrsm;/ tpdwftydkif;rsm;udk uav;rsm;tm;ar;jref;yg? uav;
rsm; odor#udk aqG;aEG;=uygap?
2? toHk;rðyawmhonfh pufypPnf;/ ud&d,mta[mif;rsm;udk =udKwifpkaqmif;xm;&SdjyD; pmoifcef;twGif; wpfppD
jzKwfjyyg?
3? tpdwftydkif;wpfckudk v_yf&Sm;apygu/ vnfywfapygu tjcm;rnfonfhtpdwftydkif;rsm;rS rnfodk@wkef@jyef vkyf
aqmifonfudk avhvm=uonf? vufawG@prf;oyf=uonf?
4? pufypPnf; tpdwftydkif;rsm;. yHko¿mefwdk@udk aqG;aEG;=ujcif;/ tb,fa=umifh TuJhodk@aom yHkpHrsm; ðyvkyf
xm;&ygoenf;? Oyrm - qufoG,fv_yf&Sm;Edkif&ef csdwfqufxm;&Sdjcif;/
pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

89

5? pufypPnf;rsm;. tpdwftydkif;rsm;toD;oD; qufoG,fI twlwuGvkyfaqmifcsufrsm;a=umihf pufwpfckvHk;.
tvkyfvkyfaqmifyHkudk aqG;aEG;=uonf?
6? wpfppDjzKwfxm;aom pufypPnf;trsKd;pHkrS tpdwftydkif;wdk@ukd toHk;jyKI uav;rsm; tkyfpktvdkuf “puf&kyf
o&J&kyf=uD;” wpf&kyfpD zefwD;wnfaqmuf=uonf?
7? oifcef;pmtqHk;wGif pufud&d,mypPnf;rsm;/ txl;ojzifh v#yfppfypPnf;rsm;udk udkifwG,ftoHk;ðy&mwGif
owdjyK&rnfh tcsufrsm;/ tEW&m,fuif;a0;ap&eftwGuf aqmif&ef/ a&Smif&eftcsufrsm;udk wpfwef;vHk;
taejzihf tav;xm;I aqG;aEG;=uonf?
oifcef;pm (3) ody`H/
&dk;pif;vG,fulaom pufrsm;
&nf&G,fcsuf
• &dk;pif;vG,fulaom pufrsm; - Oyrm- ukwf/
armif;wH/ jyifnDavsmapmif;/ bD; ponfwkd@udk
owdðyrdap&efESifh toHk;jyKyHkrsm;/ toHk;0ifyHk
rsm;udk em;vnfap&ef?

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm;
• ausmifp&pfcJrsm;/ ausmufcJwHk;=uD;?
• opfom;aowWmrsm;/
• upm;p&mrsm;/
• a*: jym;/ ief;jym;/ a&yHk;rsm;/
• ysOfjym;/
• pufbD; (a&S@jcif;yg&Sd&efvdkonf)?

pmoifcef;twGi;f Y txufygypPnf;rsm;udk ae&mtESH@jzef@usufI xm;yg? tr_dufrsm;yGaeouJhodk@ zefwD;xm;&Sdyg?
av;vHonfh ausmufwHk;=uD;wpfwHk;udkvnf; ae&mcsxm;yg?
oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? pmoifcef;twGif; uav;rsm;taejzihf pkaygif;ajz&Sif;,l&rnfh jy\em=uD;wpfck &Sdaea=umif;udk =udKwif
today;yg?
2? uav;rsm;taejzifh pmoifcef;twGif; &_yfyGaejcif;udk ajz&Sif;&ef ypPNnf;rsm;udk ae&ma&$@&rnfjzpfa=umif;
&Sif;jyyg?
3? TypPnf;rsm;udk a&$@ajymif;&eftwGuf enf;vrf; (3) ck&Sda=umif;/ 4if;wdk@rSm a&yHk;ESifh a*: jym;/ ysOfjym;ESifh
opfacsmif;/ (a&S@jcif;ygaom) pufbD;wdk@ jzpfa=umif; uav;rsm;udk &Sif;jyyg?
4? ypPnf;rsm;udk a&$@ajymif;&eftwGuf toifhawmfqHk;aom enf;vrf;udk &SmazG=u&efjzpfa=umif;ajymjyyg?
5? uav;rsm; (4/ 5) a,muf wpftkyfpkpDjzifh ypPnf;rsm;udk a&$@ajymif;&ef toifhawmfqHk;aom enf;vrf;rsm;udk
&SmazG=uygap? tkyfpktvdkuf a&$@&rnfh ypPnf;rsm;/ prf;oyftoHk;ðy&ef ud&d,mrsm;udk owfrSwfay;yg?
6? ypPnf;rsm;udk a&$@ajymif;&mwGif rnfonfhenf;pepfonf toihfawmfqHk;jzpfa=umif; uav;rsm;. vufawG@
prf;oyfcsufrsm;t& wpfwef;vHk; aqG;aEG;=uonf?
oifcef;pm (4) vlr+a&;ESifh ywf0ef;usif/
tdrfwGif;&Sd pufypPNnf;rsm;
&nf&G,fcsuf
• tdrfwGif;&SdtoHk;ðyaom pufypPnf;rsm;ESifh trsKd;
tpm;rsm;udk owdðyrdap&ef?

The world in the democratic classroom

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm;
• r*~Zif;rsm;/ pufypnf;a=umfjimpm&Gufrsm;
• uyfaus;/ aumf?

Saya Thein Naing

90

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? uav;rsm;udk tdrfY toHk;jyKonfh pufud&d,mrsm;/ ypPnf;rsm;ESifh ywfoufI ar;jref;yg? trsKd;tpm;rsm;t&
uav;rsm;. ajz=um;csufrsm; acgif;pOfcGJI xm;yg? Oyrm - tpm;tpm/ tyl/ tat;ay;&ef/ c&D;oGm;/
azsmfajz&ef/ t0wftpm;/ aqmufvkyfa&; ponfjzihf? pm&if;ðypkyg?
2? &kyfyHkum;csyfrsm;/ ydkpwmrsm;udk toHk;jyKygu Tpm&if;twGuf ydkrdkvG,fulEdkifygonf?
3? tdfrfwGif&Sdaom ypPnf;rsm;. &kyfyHkwdk@udk r*~Zif;rsm;/ pmapmifrsm;/ a=umfjimpm&Gufrsm;rS jzwf,lxm; &SdEdkifyg
onf? wpfwef;vHk;taejzifh *&yfzfwpfckudk zefwD;Edkiyf gonf? uav;rsm;. tdrfwGif&Sdaom ypPnf;rsm;udk
pm&if;tvdkuf/ &kyfyHk *&yfzfwpfckzefwD;jcif;jzpfonf?
4? Tpufud&d,mrsm;/ ypPnf;rsm;udk tb,fa=umihf toHk;ðy&onfudk aqG;aEG;ar;jref;yg? Tud&d,mrsm;/
ypPnf;rsm; r&Sdygu rnfodk@vkyfaqmif=urnfudkvnf;aqG;aEG;yg? ypPnf;ud&d,mrsm;&SdonfhtwGuf tvkyfvkyf
&mwGif ydkrdkvG,fuloufomaponfh tcsufrsm;udk uav;rsm;ESifh aqG;aEG;yg?
oifcef;pm (5) enf;ynm/
uíefawmfzefwD;wDxGifxm;wJh puf
&nf&G,fcsuf
• tvkyfwpfckckudk vkyfaqmifEdkifonfh pufwpfvHk;
udk uav;rsm; 'DZdkif;xGif&ef?

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm;
• cJwHrsm;?

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? uav;rsm;udk olwdk@ ae@pOfvkyfaqmifae&onf t&mrsm;/ tvkyfrsm;xJrS puftultnDjzifh vkyfaqmif
vdkonfh t&mrsm;/ tvkyfrsm;udk ar;jref;aqG;aEG;yg? tb,fa=umifhvkdcsifonfudkvnf; aqG;aEG;yg? Oyrm upm;p&mrsm;udk aumuf,l&ef/ qHyifjzD;&ef? ponfwdk@udk oifykef;ay:wGif pm&if;ðypkyg?
2? olwdk@vkyfaqmifvdkonfh tvkyfrsm;udk vkyfaqmif&eftwGuf pufwGif wyfqif&rnfh tpdwftydkif;rsm;udk ar;
jref;yg? Oyrm - upm;p&mypPnf;rsm;udk aumuf,l&eftwGuf olwdk@. pufwGif pufvufwH (odk@r[kwf)
ypPnf;pkyfydkufwH yg&Sdjcif;?
3? uav;rsm;taejzihf vkyfaqmifcsufwpfckpD a&G;cs,fI olwdk@. puftwGuf vdktyfcsufrsm;/ tpdwftydkif;
rsm;udk 'DZdkif;a&;qGJ=uonf? pdwful;,Of pufypPnf;jzpfI uav;rsm;taejzihf vGwfvyfpGm pOf;pm;awG;ac:
jcif;/ pdwful;/ pdwfoef;topfrsm;udk toHk;ðyjcif;wdk@udk cGifhðyyg? &SdjyD;om; pufypPnf;rsm;. 'DZdkif;ESihf wlnDp&m
rvdktyfyg?
4? uav;rsm;taejzihf olwdk@. pdwful;pdwfoef;rsm;twdkif; 'DZdkif;qGJxm;onhf pufypPnf; tpdwftydkif;rsm;udk
toHk;ðyI pufwpfckvHk;udk 'DZdkif;qGJ=uonf?
5? uav;rsm;. pufrsm;udk aqG;aEG;=uygap? vkyfaqmifEdkifr_rsm;/ toHk;0ifr_rsm;/ vkyfaqmifcsuftrsKd;rsKd;udk
wifjyaqG;aEG;ygap?
oifcef;pm (6) tEkynmbmom/
pufypPnf; tpdwftydkif;rsm;jzihf toHzefwD;jcif;
&nf&G,fcsuf
• pufypPnf;tpdwftydkif;rsm;udk toHk;ðy toH
rsm;/ oHpOfrsm;/ *Dwaw;oGm;rsm;udk zefwD;jcif;?

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm;
• pufypPnf;rsm;rS tpdwftydkif;rsm;/
• aw;*Dwwl&d,mypPnf;rsm;?

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91

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? uav;rsm;tm;vHk;rS pufypPnf; tpdwftydkif;rsm;udk =unfh&_avhvm=ujyD;v#if ,if;wdk@rS xGuf&SdEdkifonfh oHpOf
rsm;udk pl;prf;avhvm=uonf?
2? toHxGufay:ap&ef rnfodk@ðyvkyf=uonfukd aqG;aEG;yg? Oyrm- &dkufcwfjcif;/ vufjzifh ykwfjcif;/ wD;cwfjcif;/
cgjcif;/ v_yfjcif; ponfjzihf?
3? aw;*Dwqdkif&m wl&d,mypPnf;rsm;ta=umif;udkaqG;aEG;yg? toHrsm;rnfodk@ xGufay:onfudkvnf; avhvm
aqG;aEG;=uonf?
4? pufypPnf;tpdwftydkif;rsm;udk wl&d,mypPnf;rsm;tjzpf rnfodk@zefwD;toHk;jyKEdkifr_udk aqG;aEG;yg?
5? pufypPnf;tpdwftydkif;rsm;udk toHk;ðyI uav;rsm;wl&d,mypPnf;tjzpf ajymif;vJzefwD;=uonf?
6? uav;rsm; wl&d,mypPnf;topfrsm;udk toHk;jyI yHkjyifZmwfvrf;wpfckck (uav;rsm; udk,fwdkif zefwD;
csufrsm;tygt0if) udk aw;o&kyfaz: =u&rnfjzpfa=umif;aqG;aEG;yg?
7? yHkjyifZmwfvrf;udk tydkif;tvdkufcGJjcm;yg? tkyfpktvdkuf/ tydkif;tvkduf wm0efay;yg?
8? yHkjyifZmwfvrf; tydkif;tvdkuf vdktyfonfh aw;oGm;rsm;udk zefwD;&ef toHk;jyKrnfh uav;rsm;. wl&d,m
ypPnf;rsm;udk a&G;cs,f=uonf? Zmwfvrf;twdkif; wdk;n‡if;aomtoH/ qlnHoH/ us,favmifaomtoH
ponfjzihf?
9? wpfwef;vHk;taejzifh aw;o&kyfaz: wifquf=uonf?

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tydkif; (9) “pufypPnf;rsm;” acgif;pOfESifh pyfvsOf;I
aemufqufwGJ vkyfaqmifEdkifonfh pmoifcef;wGif; pDrHcsufrsm;/ vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;
Projects and Activities Ideas

ody`H (Science)
Ú pufrsm;udk 4if;wdk@. v_yf&Sm;vnfywfr_/ toHrsm;/ toHk;ðyyHkrsm;t& trsKd;tpm;cGJjcm;=uonf?
Ú tem*wfwGif wDxGifvm=urnfh pufypPnf;rsm;ESifh 4if;wdk@udk toHk;jyKyHkrsm;udk avhvm=uonf?
Ú v#yfppfypPnf;rsm;. tEœ&m,frsm;udk aqG;aEG;=uonf? ab;tEœ&m,fuif;a0;ap&ef vkdufemvkyfaqmif
&rnfh pnf;urf;rsm;udk pm&if;ðypk=uonf?
Ú bufx&Djzihf tvkyfvkyfonhf pufrsm;udkESifh toHk;ðyyHkrsm;udk avhvm=uonf?
vlr_a&;ESifh ywf0ef;usif (Studies on Society and Environment)
Ú um;rsm;udk rwdkifrD acwfumvwGif vlwdk@. o,f,lydk@aqmifr_yHkpHrsm;udk avhvm=uonf?
Ú uav;rsm;. tzdk;/ tzGm;rsm; acwfumvwGif toHk;ðycJhonfh pufypPnf;rsm;udk avhvm=u
onf? ,ae@acwfumv pufypPnf;rsm;ESifh Ed_if;,SOfavhvm=uonf?
enf;ynmbmom (Technology)
Ú ukwf/ armif;wH/ jyifnDysOfjym;/ opfom;acsmif;ESihf bD;rsm;udk toHk;jyKonfh pufwpfvHk;. yHkpHudk a&;qGJ=u
onf?
Ú vuf*dk twHk;uav;rsm;/ opfom;wHk;rsm;/ av;axmifhpuULAl;rsm;ESifh tjcm;aom pGef@ypfypPnf;rsm;udk
toHk;ðyI v_yf&Sm;vnfywfEdkifonfh pufwpfvHk;udk wnfaqmuf=uonf?
tEkynmbmom (Arts)
Ú pufypPnf;rsm;/ pufud&d,mrsm;. v_yf&Sm;/ vnfywfyHktwkdif; wkyI uav;rsm; o&kyfaqmif=uonf?
Ú pufypPnf;rsm;/ pufud&d,mrsm;. yHkpHtwkdif; &kyfao;&kyfuav;rsm;zefwD;=uonf? &dk;pif;I tvG,fwul
&&SdEdkifonfh ypPnf;rsm;jzihf &kyfao;&kyfrsm; zefwD;Edkifygonf?
Ú pufypPnf; tpdwftydkif;rsm;udk toHk;jyKI yef;yk&kyfrsm;/ oHxnf yef;yk&kyfrsm;udk o&kyfaz: zefwD;=uonf?

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

93

pl;prf;avhvmp&m pufud&d,mrsm;
avhvmawG@&Sd&or# pufypPnf;rsm;
ausmif;wGif;rSm

vrf;r=uD;ay:rSm

pufawGvkyfaqmifwJht&mrsm;

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pufud&d,mrsm;. tpdwftydkif;rsm;
pufypPnf;awGudk wpfppD jzKwf=unfhwJhtcgrSm 'DvdkawG@&ygw,f?
awG@&wJh pufypPnf;tpdwftydkif; yHko¿mefrsm;?

puf&kyfo&JyHk=uD;

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

95

&dk;&Sif;aom pufrsm;
vufawG@prf;oyfcsufrsm;?
? ausmufp&pfcJrsm;/ ausmifwHk;rsm;/ aowWmrsm;/ upm;p&mrsm;udk
a&$@ajymif;&eftwGuf taumif;qHk;aom enf;vrf;rsm;?
cef@rSef;csuf a*: jym;udk toHk;ðyyHkysOfjym;udk toHk;ðyyHk pufbD;udk toHk;ðyyHk -

avhvmawG@&Sdcsufrsm; a*: jym;udk

toH;k ðyonf?

ysOjf ym;udk

toH;k ðyonf?

pufbD;udk

toHk;ðyonf?

ypPnf; (3) rsKd;udkomtoHk;ðyI &dk;pif;aompufwpfvHk;udk zefwD;wnfaqmufyg? Tpuf. vkyfaqmifEdkif
csufrsm;udk vkyfjyyg?

The world in the democratic classroom

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tdrfrSm&SdwJh pufrsm;
tdrfrSmtoHk;ðywJh pufypPnf;rsm;?

&GmrSm&SdwJh pufypPnf;rsm;?

'DpufawGu vkyfaqmifwJh t&mrsm;/ tvkyfrsm;/

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

97

uíefawmfzefwD;wDxGifxm;wJh puf
tvdkcsifqHk;aom pufwpfvHk;uawmh 'gawGvkyfwwf&r,f?

uíefawmfwDxGifzefwD;xm;wJh pufyHk

The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

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pufypPnf; tpdwftydkif;rsm;jzihf toHzefwD;jcif;
pufypPnf;tpdwftydkif;rsm;jzihf zefw;D xm;wJh toHxGuf wl&d,m &kyfyHk

toHyHkjyifZmwfvrf;
Zmwfvrf;tp

Zmwfvrf;tv,f

Zmwfvrf;tqHk;

toHk;jyKwJh pufypPnf;
tpdwftydkif;

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

99

tydkif; (10)
oifcef;pm (1) ody`H/
wd&p>mef tkyfpkrsm;
&nf&G,fcsuf
• tcsKd@aomwd&p>mefrsm;tkyfpkjzihf aexkdif=ujcif;
udk od&Sdem;vnfI trnfrsm;udk avhvmEdkif
ap&ef?

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm;
• tkyfpktvdkufaexdkif=uaom wd&p>mefrsm;. &kyf
yHk rsm;?
• wpfOD;wnf; (odk@r[kwf) twGJtvdkuf aexdkif
=uaom wd&p>mefrsm;. &kyfyHkrsm;?

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? tkyfpktvkduf aexdkif=uaom wd&p>mefrsm;. &kyfyHkum;csyfrsm;udk pmoifcef;twGif; cif;usif;jyoyg? Oyrm yk&Gufqdwfrsm;/ ysm;rsm;/ jcrsm;/ uwW0giSufrsm;/
2? wpfOD;wnf; (odk@r[kwf) twGJtvdkuf aexkdif=uaom wd&p>mefrsm;. &kyfyHkum;csyfrsm;udkvnf; cif;usif;
jyoyg? Oyrm - vif;,kefiSuf/ bJwlzsHwl/
3? uav;rsm;udk tcsKd@aom wd&p>mefrsm;rSm tkyfpktvdkuf aexdkif=ujyD;v#if tcsKd@rSm rdrdbmomaexdkif=uonfh
ta=umif;&if;rsm;udk ar;jref;yg?
4? tkyfpktvdkufaexdkif=uonfh wd&p>mefrsm;. &Sifoefr_rsm;/ &yfwnfyHkrsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg? tpm;tpmrnfodk@ &&Sd
yHkudkvnf;aqG;aEG;yg? Twd&p>mefrsm;onf trJvdkufaomwd&p>mefrsm; (odk@r[kwf) om;aumifrsm; jzpfyg
ovm;? TuJhodk@tkyfpktvkdufaexkdif=uaom wd&p>mefrsm;rS rnfonfwkd@xkwfvkyfygoenf;? Oyrm ysm;&nf?
5? wd&p>mefrsm;udk olwdk@aexdkifr_yHkpHtvdkuf (tkyfpkjzifh aexdkifonf? wpfOD;wnf;aexdkifonf? twGJvdkuf
aexkdifonf?) ponfjzifhtkyfpkcGJ=uonf?
6? vlwdk@onfvnf; tb,fa=umihf tkyfpkESifh (&yf&Gm/ jrdK@/ todkif;t0dkif;twGif;) aexdkif=u&onfudk aqG;aEG;=u
onf?
oifcef;pm (2) ody`H/
ysm;tHk wpftHk
&nf&G,fcsuf
• &nf&G,fcsufwlnDonfh vkyfief;ESifh ta&;udpP
rsm;twGuf ysm;rsm; twlwuG nDnDnGwfnGwf
pkaygif;I tvkyfvkyf=ujcif;udk od&Sdem;vnf
ap&ef?
(ysm;&nf xkwfvkyfjcif;ESifh tEœ&m,fudk pkaygif;
umuG,fjcif;?)

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm;
• ysm;rsm;ESifh ysm;tHk yHkum;csyfrsm;?

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? jzpfEdkifygu uav;rsm;udk ausmif;0if;twGif;jzpfap/ jyifywGifjzpfapac:aqmifI ysm;rsm;. v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk
avhvmEdkif&ef pDpOfay;yg?
2? yef;yGifhrsm;rS yef;0wfr_efwdk@udk ysm;rsm; tb,fa=umifh pkaqmif;,l&onfudk aqG;aEG;yg?
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3? ysm;&nfxkwfvkyfonfh ysm;arG;jrL&mXmeodk@ avhvma&;c&D;oGm;a&mufEdkif&efvnf; pDpOfaqmif&Gufyg? pDpOf&ef
4?
5?
6?
7?

tcuftcJ&Sdygu ysm;tHkwGif ysm;&nfxkwfvkyfyHk yef;csDum;/ ydkpwmrsm;udk pmoifcef;twGif; cif;usif;jyo
Edkifygonf?
ysm;tHkudk xdef;odrf;/ umuG,fapmifha&Smuf&mwGif ysm;rsm;. wm0ef,lr_yHkpHrsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg?
tu,fI ysm;bk&ifr=uD;udk z,f&Sm;jcif; (odk@r[kwf) vkyfom;ysm; wpf0ufcef@ towfcH&I r&Sdawmhjcif;
wdk@ESifh =uHKawG@&ygu rnfodk@jzpfvmEdkifonfudk aqG;aEG;yg? uav;rsm;. awG;qcsufwdk@udk &,lyg?
olwdk@. xifjrif,lqcsufrsm;/ awG;qcsufrsm;udk wpfwef;vHk;taejzifh aqG;aEG;yg?
ysm;tHkwGif aexdkif=uaom ysm;rsm;. vkyfaqmifcsuftrsK;d rsKd;/ wm0eftrsKd;rsKd;. ta&;=uD;yHkESifh ysm;wpf
aumifcsif;taejzifh ysm;tHk wdk;yGm;apjcif;/ yHkrSefvnfywfEdkifjcif;/ ab;&efuif;apjcif;wdk@twGuf wm0ef ,lr_udk
aqG;aEG;yg?

oifcef;pm (3) vlr+a&;ESifh ywf0ef;usifbmom/
tm;vHk; twlwuG tvkyfvkyf-u&atmif?
&nf&G,fcsuf
• vlr_todkif;t0dkif;twGif; vdktyfonfh t&m
0wˆK ypPnf;rsm;ESihf 0efaqmifjcif;rsm;udk rnfodk@
&&Sdonf udk owdjyKrdap&ef?

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm;
• tvkyftudkiftrsKd;rsKd;wdk@.
ydkpwmrsm;/

&kyfyHkum;csyfrsm;/

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? vlr_tokdif;t0dkif;twGif;/ &yf&Gma'otwGif;aexdkif=uoltm;vHk;twGuf vdktyfcsufrsm;udk aqG;aEG;I pm&if;
ðypkyg?
2? TvdktyfcsuftcsKd@udk jznfhqnf;ay;onfhae&mrsm; (aps;/ausmif;/ aq;&Hk) tcsKd@odk@ uav;rsm;udkac:aqmifyg?
3? (aps;) odk@avhvma&;c&D; oGm;a&mufvnfywfEdkifonfqdkygu aps;twGif;&Sd qdkiftrsKd;rsKd;ESifh a&mif;csonfh
ypPnf;trsKd;rsKd;udk aqG;aEG;yg? tjcm;ae&mrsm;ta=umif;vnf;TuJhodk@aqG;aEG;=uonf?
4? vlrsm; aexdkifraumif;jzpfonfhtcg vdktyfcsufrsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg? rusef;rmolrsm;twGuf &yf&Gma'o
twGif;Y &&SdEdkifaom tultnDrsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg?
5? &yf&Gma'otwGif; vlrsm; oGm;vma&;twGuf toHk;ðyonfh ,mOfrsm;ESifh tjcm;o,f,lydk@aqmifonfh yHkpH
rsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg? (Oyrm - um;/ bwfpfum;/ pufbD;/ qdkifu,f/ qdkufum;/ wuUpD/ rD;&xm;/ av,mOfysH)
6? pDpOfaqmif&Guf&ef jzpfEdkifygu &yf&Gma'otwGif;&Sd puf&Hkwpf&Hkodk@ avhvma&;c&D;oGm;Edkifygonf?
7? &yf&Gma'otwGif;vlrsm; vkyfudkif=uonfh tvkyftudkifrsm;udk avhvmI pm&if;jyKpk=uonf? Ttvkyf
tudkif toD;oD;. ta&;=uD;yHkESifh xkwfvkyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;/ 0efaqmifjcif;rsm;/ ulnDjcif;rsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg?
8? &yf&Gma'ovlr_todkif;t0dkif;twGif; tvkyfvkyfudkifolrsm;onf wpfenf;r[kwfwpfenf;jzifh vlr_todkif;
t0dkif;. vkdtyfcsufrsm; (xkwfukeyf pPnf;/ 0efaqmifjcif;/ ulnDjcif;/ ponf) udk jznfhqnf;ay;aeolrsm;
jzpfonfudk uav;rsm;taejzifh owdðyrdap&ef aqG;aEG;yg?
9? vlr_todkif;t0dkif;qdkonfrSm vltrsm;pka0;aexdkifjcif;jzpfjyD;v#if vlr_todkif;t0dkif;wpfckvHk; &Sifoefaexdkif
Edkif&eftwGuf pkaygif;tvkyfvkyf=u&jcif;/ yl;aygi;f aqmif&Guf=u&efvdktyfjcif; oabmw&m;tajccHudk uav;
rsm; owdðyrdap&ef q&m/ q&mrrsm;rS OD;aqmifaqG;aEG;yg?

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

101

oifcef;pm (4) vlr+a&;ESifh ywf0ef;usifbmom/
wdkif;&if;om; vlrsKd;rsm;
&nf&G,fcsuf
• zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif; rSDwif;
aexdkifv#uf&Sd=uonfh wdkif;&if;om;rsm;.ordkif;
tpOftvm/ &dk;&m/ ,Ofaus;r_rsm;udk owdðyrdI
od&Sd em;vnfap&ef?

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm;/ vlrsm;
• wdkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pkacgif;aqmifwpfOD;OD;/ ,Ofa
us;r_qdkif&m uírf;usifolwpfOD;OD;?
• wdkif;&if;om;wdk@ &dk;&m/ ,Ofaus;r_udk xyf[yf
ay:vGifaponfh/ az: jyonfh yef;csDum;rsm;/ &kyf
yHk um;csyfrsm;/ "gwfyHkrsm;/ pmtkyfpmwrf;rsm;/
&dk;&myHkjyifrsm;/ ,Ofaus;r_ypPnf;rsm;/

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? &yf&Gma'otwGif;&Sd jrefrmwkdif;&if;om;wdk@. &dk;&m/ ,Ofaus;r_wdk@udk xdef;odrf;xm;&Sdonfh ae&mrsm;/ jywdkuf
rsm;odk@ uav;rsm;udk avhvma&;c&D;oGm;Edkif&ef pDpOfay;yg?
2? wdkif;&if;om;toD;oD;. ,Ofaus;r_ESifh oufqkdifonfh vlr_b0rsm;. tajccHoabmw&m;rsm;udk rdwfquf
aqG;aEG;Edkifygonf? (Oyrm - rdom;pktwGif;&Sd tzdk;/ tzGm;/ trd/ tb/ OD;&D; ponfh olrsm;. wm0ef,l
vkyfaqmifonfh t&mrsm;/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;udk aqmif&GufyHk/ trsKd;orD;/ trsKd;om;rsm;. wm0ef
toD;oD;/ ,Hk=unfudk;uG,fonfh bmomw&m;rsm;/ yHkrSef vkyaf qmifcsufrsm;/ txl;ae@&ufrsm;/ &dk;&m tpm;
tpmrsm;/ t0wftxnfrsm;/ toHk;taqmifrsm;/)
3? a&S;acwfESifh ,ckrsufarSmufacwfumvrsm;. wdkif;&if;om;vlr_todkif;t0dkif;wnfaqmufyHkrsm; (Oyrm &yf&Gmacgif;aqmifrsm;/ &Gmol/ &Gmom;rsm;. wm0efrsm;/ rdom;pktpOftquf/ rsKd;EG,fpkrsm;) udk avhvm
=uonf?
4? a&S;acwfumvrsm;ESifh ,ckacwfumrsm;wGif wdkif;&if;om;a'orsm;wGif usifhoHk;=uonfh Oya'rsm;/ pnf;urf;
rsm;/ &yf&Gma'owGif; ðyrlaqmif&GufyHkrsm;udk avhvmaqG;aEG;=uonf? (tvkyftudkifrsm;/ yGJawmfrsm;/ pm;
0wfaea&; twGuf aqmif&GufyHkrsm;)
5? wdkif;&if;om;acgif;aqmifwpfOD;OD;/ ,Ofaus;r_qdkif&m uírf;usifolwpfOD;OD;udk pmoifcef;twGif;/ ausmif;wGif;
odk@zdwfac:I wdkif;&if;om;&dk;&m,Ofaus;r_qdkif&m a[majymyGJae@udk tcgtm;avsmfpGm usif;yEdkifonf?
6? pmoifcef;twGif;&Sd uav;rsm;udk,fpm;jyKonfh wdkif;&if;om;rsm;. &dk;&m,Ofaus;r_yGJawmfae@udk pmoifcef;
twGif;Yyif usif;yEdkifygonf?
pmoifcef;twGif;&Sd wdkif;&if;om;uav;rsm;/ vlenf;pkrsm;ESifh ywfoufonfh Toifcef;pmrsK;d wGif rnfonfh
uav;i,fESifh wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pkudkrS rxdcdkufap&ef tpOfowdxm;yg? xdckdufepfemaprnfh tjyKtrl/ tajym
tqdkrsm;udk vHk;0rjyKvkyfygESifh/ cGifhrjyKygESifh? ,Ofaus;r_rsm; o[Zmwjzpfapa&;/ ydkrdk od&Sdem;vnfa&;/
taumif;jrifoabmxm;zGH@jzdK;wdk;wufa&; ponfh ausmif;ynma&;. t"du &nfrSef;csufrsm;udk OD;wnf
vkyaf qmifoifhygonf?

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oifcef;pm (5) vlr+a&;ESifh ywf0ef;usifbmom/
,Ofaus;r+ yGJawmf?
&nf&G,fcsuf
• zuf'&,f
jrefrmvlr_todkif;t0dkif;twGif;Y
wkdif; &if;om; vlrsKd;rsm; trsm;tjym;
wnf&Sdaejcif;udk owdjyKrdap&ef?

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm;
• jrefrmEdkifiH wkdif;&if;om;toD;oD;udk udk,fpm;jyK
az: jyonfh yef;csDum;rsm;/ &kyfyHkydkpwmrsm;/
wdkif;&if;om;wdk@. &dk;&m/ ,Ofaus;r_/ udk;
uG,f ,Hk=unfr_/ bmomw&m;/ ordkif;tpOf
tvmESifh tEkynmqdkif&m uav;pmayrsm;/
yHkjyifZmwfvrf;rsm;/ owif;tcsuftvufrsm;?

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? pmoifausmif;wnf&Sd&m teD;pyfqHk; &yf&Gma'otwGif;&Sd jrefrmwkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;/ vlenf;pkrsm;/
vlrsKd;EG,fpkrsm;. ,Ofaus;r_ toD;oD;udk xif[yfay:vGifaponfh &kyfyHkum;csyfrsm;/ tEkynmvuf&mrsm;/
toHk;taqmifypPnf;rsm;/ pmtkyfpmwrf;rsm;/ t0wftxnfrsm;/ tpm;taomufrsm;udk pmoifcef;twGi;f
cif;usif;jyoyg?
2? txufyg ta=umif;t&mrsm;/ ypPnf;rsm;ESifh wdkif;&if;om; vlrsKd;toD;oD;. vlrb
_ 0aexdkif&Sifoefr_yHkpHrsm;udk
avhvm=uonf?
3? uav;rsm;udk wdkif;&if;om;&dk;&myHkjyifZmwfvrf;rsm; yHkrSef (tywfpOf) ajymjyyg? olwdk@. yHkjyifrsm;udkvnf; pm
oifcef;twGif; uav;rsm;udk,fwdkif ajymjyygap?
4? wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;. uav;oli,faw;oDcsif;rsm;/ ,Ofaus;r_ oDcsif;rsm;/ uAsm/ oHaygufrsm;/ tursm;
udkvnf; tcgtm;avsmfpGm pmoifcef;twGif;/ ausmif;wGif;Y avhusifoif=um;yg? uav;rsm;. rdbrsm;xHrS
tultnDudk &,lEdkifygonf? rdbrsm;udk uírf;usifr_tvdkuf pmoifcef;twGif; zdwfac:yg?
5? wdkif;&if;om;&dk;&m ,Ofaus;r_yGJawmfae@udk ausmif;wGif usif;yEdkifygonf? uav;rsm;udk olwdk@udk,fpm;jyKonfh
&dk;&m0wfpHkrsm; 0wfqifvmapjyD; &dk;&mtpm;tpmrsm;udk pmoifcef;twGif;pm;oHk;Edkifygonf? &dk;&mpm;
aomufzG,f&mrsm;twGuf uav;rdbrsm;udk zdwfac:yg?
6? pmoifcef;twGif;&Sd wkdif;&if;om;toD;oD;. wlnDr_rsm;/ rwluGJjym;jcm;em;r_rsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg?
oifcef;pm (6) enf;ynm/
pmoifcef;twGif; puf&Hkwpf&Hkwnfaqmufjcif;?
&nf&G,fcsuf
• puf&Hkwpf&Hk. zGJ@pnf;r_ESifh pepfrsm;wnf&Sdaer_/
vkyfief;rsm;vnfywfr_ESifh xkwfukeftwGuf vkyf
aqmifr_rsm;udk od&Sdem;vnfap&ef?

vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm;
• tdrf. rD;zdkacsmifwGif;&Sd ypPnf;ud&d,mtcsdK@/
• &dk;&mtpm;tpm/ rkef@wpfrsKd;rsKd;udk jyKvkyf&ef vdk
tyfonfh tajccHypPnf;rsm;/
• wpfcgoHk; puULyef;uefrsm;/ aomufa&cGufrsm;/
zJjym;=udK;/
• puULyef;yGifhrsm;twGuf a&mifpHkpuULrsm;/
• ygq,fvufaqmifxkyfydk;&ef puULrsm;?

oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? ukefxkwfypPnf;wpfckckudk a&G;cs,fjyD; yg0ifonfht&mrsm;/ tpdwftydkif;rsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg? (Oyrm-ukefxkwf
ypPnf;/ xkyfydk;jcif;/ wHqyf/ yg0ifonfh ypPnf; ponf-)?

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

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103

2? uav;rsm;udk tkyfpktvdkufzGJ@I tkyfpkwdkif;udk ukefxkwfypPnf; wpfckpDay;I avhvmckdif;yg? yg0ifonfh
ypPnf;rsm;/ tpdwftydkif;rsm;ESihf ukefxkwfypPnf;. toHk;0ifr_ ponfwdk@udk aqG;aEG;=uonf?
3? tkyfpktvdkuf &&Sdxm;aom ukefxkwfypPnf;. xkyfydk;jyifqifxm;r_rsm; - puULumwGef;rsm;/ yvyfpwpf/
aumfAl;/ zefykvif;/ puULtdwf – wdk@udk cGJjcm;avhvm=uonf?
4? ukefxkwfypPnf;. tpdwftydkif;rsm;udk &&SdyHktqihfqihfudk pm&if;jyKpkyg? Oyrm- rmrm;xkyfwGif qefaph/ *sKHaph
rsm;udk pufjzifh =udwfcGJjcif;/ tr_efrsm;rSwqifh acgufqGJajcmufjyKvkyfjcif;/ yvyfpwpfxkyfwGif xkyfydk;jcif;/
ukr`%D wHqdyf/ ypPnf;wefzdk;ponfh 'DZdkif;rsm; ðyvkyf&jcif;ESifh xkyfydk;a&mif;csjzef@jzL;jcif;?
5? jzpfEdkifygu a'otwGif;&Sd ukefxkwfvkyfief;/ puf&Hk (tao;pm;/ t=uD;pm; wpf&Hk&Hk) odk@ oGm;a&muf
vnfywfI vufawG@avhvmapjcif;/ puf&Hk. xkwfukefypPnf;rsm; jyKvkyfyHk tqifhqifh AGD'D,dkacGrsm;/ &kyfyHk
um;csyfrsm;udk jyojcif;rsm; ðyvkyfoihfonf? puf&HktwGif;&Sd 0efxrf;toD;oD;. wm0efrsm;/ tvkyftudkif
rsm;udk aqG;aEG;yg?
6? uav;rsm; (wpfwef;vHk;) taejzifh pmoifcef;twGif; puf&Hkwpf&Hkudk wnfaqmuf=u&rnfjzpfa=umif;
&Sif;jyyg? a'otwGif;&Sd &dk;&mtpm;tpm/ rkef@wpfrsKd;rsKd;udk zefwD;jyKvkyfjyD; vufaqmiftxkyfrsm;taejzifh
xkyfydk;&ef vdktyfa=umif;udkaqG;aEG;&Sif;jyyg? ðyvkyfyHk tqifhqihfudk aqG;aEG;yg? vdktyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;udk
pm&if;ðypkyg?
7? uav;rsm;udk wpfOD;csif;jzpfap/ tkyfpktvdkufjzpfap vkyfief;wm0efrsm; cGJa0yg?
8? ukefypPnf; tpdwftydkif;rsm;udk rnfodk@xkyfydk;I wHqdyfrsm;wyfjcif;/ txkyfxkyfjcif;ðyvkyf=urnfudk aqG;aEG;yg?
9? TypPnf;. ðyvkyfyHktqifhqifhudk tkyfpt
k vdkufus&m wm0efrsm;jzifh az:jyjcif;/ yHkpHa&;qGJjcif;jzifh xkwfvkyfyHk
tqifhqifhudk ydkpwmcsyf=uD;wGif az: jyxm;&Sdyg? xdk@aemuf tkypf ktvdkuf tqifhrsm;udk &Sif;vif;aqG;aEG;
=u&rnf?
(tcuftcJ&Sdygu uav;rsm;udk toifhjyKvkyfjyD;rkef@wpfrsKd;rsKd;udk pmoifcef;twGif; xkyfydk;cdkif; Edkifonf? rkef@wGif
yg&Sdonfh ypPnf;rsm;/ zefwD;jyKvkyfyHkwdk@udk &Sif;vif;aqG;aEG;cdkif;yg?)

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tydkif; (10) “vlr+todkif;t0dkif;xJrSm uíefawmfwdk hvnf;ae-uygw,f” acgif;pOfESifh pyfvsOf;I
aemufqufwGJ vkyfaqmifEdkifonfh pmoifcef;wGif; pDrHcsufrsm;/ vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;
Projects and Activities Ideas

ody`H (Science)
Ú wd&p>mefrsm;tkyfpktvdkuf aexdkif=u&jcif; ta=umif;&if;udk avhvm=uonf? (trJvdkuf&ef/ ab;&ef um
uG,f&ef/ uav;rsm;udk apmifha&Smuf&ef/ touf&iS f&yfwnfEdkif&ef ponfjzihf)
Ú opfyifwpfrsKd;rsKd; rsKd;wHk;aysmufuG,foGm;ygu jzpfay:vmEdkfifonfh tusKd;qufrsm;udk pl;prf;avhvm
=uonf? (Oyrm - awmxJrSm opfyifrsm;)
vlr_a&;ESifh ywf0ef;usif (Studies on Society and Environment)
Ú obm0ywf0ef;usifudk umuG,fxdef;odrf;&eftwGuf vlr_todkif;t0dkif;wGif wm0ef&Sdr_ESifh vlrsm;rS vkyf
aqmifoifhonfwkd@udk aqG;aEG;Edkifonf?
Ú &yf&Gma'otwGif;usifhoHk;onfh &dk;&mtpOftvmrsm;/ "avhxHk;pHrsm;/ tjyKtrlrsm;udk pl;prf;avhvm
=uonf?
Ú ,Ofaus;r_qdkif&m ta&;=uD;onfhae&mrsm; - ordkif;0ifae&mrsm;/ jywdkufrsm;/ wdkif;&if;om;aus;&Gm
e,fajrrsm;/ bk&m;apwDykxdk;rsm;/ bkef;awmf=uD;ausmif;rsm;/ bk&m;ausmif;rsm;/ AvDrsm; - odk@ tcg
tm;avsmfpGm avhvma&;c&D;xGuf=uonf?
Ú &yf&Gma'o/ vlr_todkif;t0dkif;twGi;f xm;&Sdonfh pnf;rsOf;/ pnf;urf;rsm; (txl;ojzihf uav;oli,f
rsm;ESifh oufqdkifonfh pnf;urf;rsm;-Oyrm- trd_ufrypf&/ rsOf;usm;wGifvrf;ul;jcif;/ ,Ofaus;pGm
aqG;aEG;jcif;/) wdk@udk pkaygif;avhvm=uonf?
Ú &yf&Gma'o/ vlr_todkif;t0dkif;twGif;Y ukefypPnf;rsm;/ 0efaqmifr_rsm;udk rnfodk@&&Sdonfudk avhvm
=uonf? (Oyrm - tpm;tpm/ t0wftxnf/ usef;rma&;/ w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&;/ vHkjcHKa&; ponf)
enf;ynmbmom (Technology)
Ú 3 bufjrif ysm;tHkwpfckudk wnfaqmuf=uonf? upm;p&m &$Haysmhrsm;ESifh tjcm;pGef@ypfypPnf;rsm;udk
toHk;ðyEdkifygonf?
tEkynmbmom (Arts)
Ú &yf&Gma'o vlr_todkif;t0dkif;twGif;&Sd tvkyftudkiftrsKd;rsKd;wkd@. &kyfyHkrsm;udk a&;qGJ=uonf?
Ú &yf&Gma'o vlr_todkif;t0dkif;twGif; vlrsm;tjyeftvSef qufEG,faeyHkudk o&kyfaz: =uonf?
Ú ysm;rsm; pkaygif;tvkyfvkyfaqmifaejcif;ESifh ywfoufonfh aw;o&kyfaz:udk zefwD;=uonf?
Ú zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpkwkdif;&if;om;rsm;. &dk;&moDcsif;rsm;/ uAsmrsm;udk pkaygif;oDqdk=uonf?
Ú zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;rsm;. &dk;&m tursm;udk pkaygif; u=uonf?

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

105

wd&p>mef tkyfpkrsm;
tcsKd@aom wd&p>mefrsm; wpfOD;wnf;aexdkif=uygw,f? tcsKd@uawmh tkyfpkeJ@ae=uygw,f?
wpfOD;wnf;aexdkif=uaom wd&p>mefrsm;

twGJvdkufaexdkif=uaom wd&p>mefrsm;

tkyfpkjzifh aexdkfif=uaom wd&p>mefrsm;

vlrsm;onf &yf&Gmvlr_todkif;t0dkif;twGifaexdkif=uonf? tb,fa=umifhqdkaomf

wd&p>mefrsm;onfvnf; todkif;t0dkif;tkypf jk zifh aexdkif=uygonf? tb,fa=umifhqkdaomf

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ysm;tHk wpftHk
ysm;tHkwpftHkwGif&Sdaom ysm;rsm;. tvkyftudkifrsm; tvkyform; vkyo
f m;ysm;rsm;onf

ysm;bk&ifr=uD;onf

vHkjcHKa&;ysm;vkyfom;rsm;onf
olemjyKysm;vkyfom;rsm;
ysm;xD;rsm;onf
tu,fI ysm;bk&ifr=uD;r&Sdawmhygu bmjzpfEkdifygoenf;?

tvkyform; vkyfom;ysm;rsm;r&Sdygu bmjzpfEdkifygoenf;?

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

107

tm;vHk; twlwuG tvkyfvkyf-u&atmif?
aps;qdkifwGif &&SdEkdifaom t&mrsm;rSm -

uíefawmfwdk@ aeraumif;wJhtcgrSm -

bwfpfum;rsm;/ rD;&xm;rsm;/ um;rsm;/ vSnf;rsm;udk rnfonfhtwGuf toHk;jyKoenf;?

puf&HktwGif; xkwfvkyfonfh ypPnf;rsm;rSm -

uíefawmfwdk@rSm tcuftcJ&SdwJhtcg ulnD=uolrsm; -

vlwdkif; tvkyfvkyf=u&ygrnf? tb,fa=umihfqdkaomf -

uíefawmf pdwf0ifpm;onfh tvkyfrSm pdwf0ifpm;&jcif;rSm -

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wdkif;&if;om; vlrsKd;rsm;
zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpjk refrmEdkifiHwGif wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm; pkaygif;aexdkif=uygonf?
,if;wdk@rSm -

uíefawmfwdk@. pmoifcef;twGif;&Sd wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;rSm -

uíefawmfwdk@. jrdK@e,ftwGif;&Sd wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;rSm -

wdkif;&if;om;&dk;&m0wfpHkrsm;yHk

uíefawmf/ uíefr. wdkif;&if;om;&dk;&m0wfpHkESifhyHk

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

109

jrefrmEdkifiHwkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;aexdkif&m a'orsm;udk jznfhpGufyg? yx0D0ifpmtkyfESifh jrefrmjynfajryHkwdk@udk
udk;um;yg? e,fajra'orsm;udk ta&mifrsm;jc,fI tn¸ef;wyfyg?

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110

zuf'&,f jynfaxmifpk
jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd t"du
wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;ESifh
&dk;&m0wfpHkrsm;yHk
uRefawmf? uRefrwdk h\e,fajr
a'owGif tjcm;aom wdkif;&if;om;
vlrsKd;i,frsm;vnf;rSDwif; aexkdif
Muygonf/ ,if;wdk hrSm -

a&mifpHkvSvS cs,fay;yg?

111

q&modef;Edkif

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

,Ofaus;r+ yGJawmf
uíefawmfESifh vlrsKd;rwlaom tcifrifqHk;oli,fcsif; 3 OD;. &dk;&m0wfpHkrsm;ESifh yHk
uíefawmf.yHk

olwdk@. &dk;&mtpm;tpmrsm;ESifh &dk;&mtutrnfwdk@rmS
trnf

vlrsKd;

&dk;&mtpm;tpm

&dk;&mtu

uíeaf wmfwdk@ausmif;. wkdif;&if;om;&dk;&m,Ofaus;r_yGJawmfae@usif;yaeyHk

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pmoifcef;twGif; puf&Hkwpf&Hkwnfaqmufjcif;
'Dae@uíeaf wmfw@kd . pmoifcef;twGi;f Y xkwv
f yk af om ukeyf pPn;f rSm ukefypPnf;. yHk

xkwfvkyfyHk tqifhqifhrSm- (&kyfyHkrsm;qGJEdkifonf)

uíefawmfwm0ef,lvkyfaqmifcJhaom tvkyf. yHk

uíefawmfwkd@. jrdK@e,fwGif &Sdaom puf&Hkrsm;trnfrsm;ESifh xGufukefypPnf;rsm;

puf&Hkwpf&Hk. yHk

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

113

tydkif; (11)

'dkifEdkaqm (tydkif; = 1)
tqifh (rlvwef;)
uav;i,frsm;onf 'dkifEdkaqmoW0grsm;ESihfywfoufI vGefpGm pdwfyg0ifpm;=uonf? ToW0g=uD;
rsm;ESihf ywfoufIvnf; vGefpGm od&Sdvdk=ujyD; cufcJvSonfh ,if;wkd@. od`Hemrnfrsm;udk (vl=uD;rdbrsm; tHhtm;
oifh&onftxd) tvG,fwulyifavhvmrSwfrdod&Sdaewwf=uavonf?
&nf&G,fcsuf
• 'dkifEdkaqmoW0grsm;ta=umif;udkavhvm=u&if; todynmESifh vufr_pGrf;&nfrsm;zGH@jzdK;wdk;wufap&ef?
• yef;csD tEkynmpGrf;&nf &&Sdap&ef? vufr_ESifh tjrif pGrf;&nfrsm;zGH@jzdK;wdk;wufap&ef?
• vGefcJhaom ESpfoef;aygif;rsm;pGmrS rsKd;wHk;oW0grsm;ta=umif;avhvmod&Sdap&ef/
• od`Hemrnfrsm;/ bmomaA'qdkif&m tac:ta0:rsm;udk ,Ofyg;ap&ef/
vdktyfonfh oifaxmuful yPnf;rsm;
• aumufa=umif;vdkuf a&;qGJEkdifonfh 'dkifEdkaqm&kyfyHku'frsm;/ yPnf;rsm;/ t&kyfrsm;/ yef;csDum;rsm;/
• pUL tjzLrsm;/ a&mifpHku'fxlpULrsm;/ a&mifpHk cJwHrsm;/ yHkpHwkvkyf &$H@aysmha&mifpHkrsm;/ uyfaus;rsm;/
oifcef;pm tpDtpOf
1? ausmif;ol/ ausmif;om;rsm; 'dkifEdkaqm&kyfyHku'frsm;twdkif;/ yef;csDrsm;twdkif; pm&Gufay:wGif aumufa=umif;
vdkuf a&;qGJ=urnf?
2? 'dkifEdkaqm udk,fc³m tpdwftydkif;rsm;udk a&mifpHkcJwHrsm;/ a&mifpHkpULrsm;jzifh a&;qGJjcif;/ uyfjcif;/ &$Haysmhrsm;
jzifh tawmiftwufrsm;uyfjcif;wdk@udk jyKvkyf=urnf?
3? olwdk@zefwD;xm;&Sdonfh 'dkifEdkaqmoW0grsm;udk rsKd;EG,fpkemrnfrsm;toHk;jyKI emrnftopfay;=urnf?
Oyrm –
ausmif;om; ausmfausmftaejzifh – 'dkifEdkausmfausmfaqm&yfpf DinokyawkyawSaurus
&G,f*smtaejzihf – tygvzdkif&G,f*smwdkaqm&yfpf Apatoroyjasaurus

a'otrnf/ ausmif;trnftm;jzihfvnf;ay;Edkifonf?

urm0ufatmepfodkaygh'fpf Kamawatornithopods
uGefrfqdka&mifeDOD;ae;oyfpf Compsoyaungnioonathus
wkdif&efEdketzaqm&yfpf Tyrannonaahphasaurus (tom;pm;=uL;onfh rsKd;wHk;t&dkif;rsKd;EG,f)
Pachycephalosaurus, Deinonychus, Stegosaurus, Ornithopods, Apatosaurus,
Triceratops Compsognathus, Tyrannosaurus

4? uav;rsm;. zefwD;csufrsm; (t&kyfrsm;/ yef;csDrsm;/ &kyfwkyHkpHrsm;) udk wpfOD;csif;jzpfap/ tkyfpktvdkufjzpfap
twef;a&S@odk@xGufapI &Sif;vif;cdkif;yg? olwdk@. vuf&mrsm;udkvnf; pmoifcef;twGif;Y cif;usif; jyo
xm;yg?
uav;i,frsm;. OD;aESmufzGH@jzdK;r_ESifh Om%pGrf;&nfxufjrufvmaprnfh avhusifhcef;rsm;udk zefwD;ay;&rnf
jzpfonf? olwdk@pdwfyg0ifpm;aom ta=umi;ft&mrsm;udk toHk;jyKjyD; (Oyrm – Toifcef;pmwGif 'dkifEdkaqm
oW0grsm;) oifcef;pmudk zefwD;jcif;jzihf uav;rsm; pGrf;&nftrsK;drsKd; wdk;wufzGH hjzdK;vmrnfjzpfonf?
The world in the democratic classroom

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Pachycephalosaurus

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

Deinonychus

q&modef;Edkif

115

'dkifEdkaqm (tydkif; = 2)
a&S;a[mif; &kyf-uGif;rsm;&SmazGjcif;?
,cifoifcef;pm. aemufqufwGJ oifcef;pmjzpfonf?
&nf&G,fcsuf
• obm0ywf0ef;usifY &Sdonfh opfyifrsm;/ oW0grsKd;EG,fpkrsm;. &Sifoefjcif;oabmrsm;udk owdrl
tav;xm;rdap&ef?
• &Sm;yg;oW0grsm;/ rsKd;wHk;oW0grsm;. =uGif;usef&pfaom trSwftom;rsm;/ t&dk;pkrsm;/ &kyf=uGif;rsm;udk
&SmazGjcif;?
• oW0grsm;. udk,fc³mwnfaqmufyHk (udk,fc³maA') tajccH?
• pmoifcef;jyify oifcef;pmtaejzihf jyify0ef;usifESifh xdawG@qufqHjcif;jzifh avhvmoif,lEkdif=u&ef?
• pl;prf;&SmazGavhvmjcif;/ rdrdudk,fwdkif vufawG@rsm;jzifh todynmudk ay#mf&GifpGmwnfaqmufwwfap&ef?
vdktyfonfh oifaxmufulyPnf;rsm;
• 'dkifEdkaqm oW0grsm;. t&dk;pkrsm;/ oW0gwpfaumifvHk;. yHkpHjy t&dk;pkrsm;udk zefwD;&,lEdkifonf?
Oyrm – t&dk;pk tpdwftydkif; (10 rS 15) ckcef@? u'fxlpULrsm;jzifh yHkpHaz:I a&mifpHkcs,fEdkifonf?
• tkyfpktvdkuf vkyfaqmifEdkif&ef oW0g=uD; (5) aumifcef@. t&dk;pkrsm;/ ta&mifrsm;jzifh wpfaumifjcif;
cGJjcm;xm;&Sd&efvdktyfrnf? wdyf/ aumfbl;/
• &moDOwk yGifhvif;om,maomae@wpfae@/ opfawmtkyfi,fyHkpH&Sdonfh ausmif;jcH0if;/ &Gmae&m?
• uav;rsm;ygu tulq&m/ q&mr vdktyfEdkifonf?
oifcef;pmtpDtpOf
1?
,cifoifcef;pm. aemufqufwGJ oifcef;pmjzpfoifhonf?
2?
ausmif;pmoifcef;tjyifbufwGifjyKvkyf&rnfjzpfI &moDOwkaumif;rGef&efvdktyfonf? uav;rsm;ygu
tulq&m/ q&mrwpfOD; (odk@) ausmif;om;=uD;wpfOD;udk vdktyfrnf?
3?
'dkifEdkaqmt&dk;pk toD;oD;udk opfawmtkyftwGif; (ausmif;jcH0if;twGif;) ae&mtESHtjym; (uav;
i,frsm; tœ&m,fuif;&rnf? odk@aomfvHkvpdkufI &SmazGEdkif&rnf? opf&Gufrsm;zHk;v$rf;xm;onfh rjrif
omonfh ae&mrsm;ponfjzihf) wGif =udKwifI ae&mcsxm;yg?
4?
uav;i,frsm; tkyfpktvdkuf (5 a,mufwpftyk fpk) opfawmtkyfxJrS 'dkifEdkaqm&kyf=uGif;rsm;udk
&SmazG&rnf?
5?
owfrSwfcsdefay;xm;yg (rdepf 20)?
6?
tkyfpktvdkuf ,SOfjydKifEdkif&ef t&dk;pkrsm;udk tkyfpkta&miftvdkuf &SmazGjyD;ygu wpfaumifvHk;udk qufpyf
I jyefvnfwnfaqmuf=u&rnf?

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'dkifEdkaqmyHkwpfyHka&;qGJyg? trnfay;yg?

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

117

tydkif; (12)

u|Ekfyfwdk h. ywf0ef;usif = jyKjyifp&m wdk h&J h&Gm
bmom&yfjcif;,SufEG,faygif;pyfI oif=um;jcif;oifcef;pm
ed'gef;

(Integrated Curriculum)

u|Ekfyfwdk@rSDwif;aexdkif&m uBm=uD;onf tœ&m,f trsKd;rsKd;ESifh &ifqdkif=uHKawG@ae&onf? avxk/ a&xk
ESifh ajrxkudk npfnrf; tqdyfoifhapr_wdk@ ae&mwumwGifjzpfyGm;v#uf&Sdonf? El;nHhaom obm0ywf0ef;usif.
nDr#acsudk zsufqD;v#uf&Sdaeonf? wd&>mefrsKd;EG,frsm;/ tyifrsKd;EG,frsm;rSm rsKd;wHk;rnfh tœ&m,fqdk;jzifh &ifqdkif
ae=u&onf? jrefrmEdkifiH. tzdk;wef obm0opfawmrsm;rSmvnf; ta=umif;trsKd;rsKd;a=umifh jyKef;wD;rnfh ab;
tœ&m,frsm;jzifh &ifqdkifae&onfrSm q,fpkESpfrsm;pGmyif =umjrifhcJhygjyD? jynfolvlxktm;vHk;rS obm0 ywf0ef;
usifudk umuG,f xdef;odrf;ap&ef todynmjzifh zefwD;Edkifonf? uav;i,frsm;udk rlvwef; t&G,fuwnf;u
Ttodw&m;rsm; udef;atmif;aeap&ef avhusifhoif=um;ay;&ayrnf?
&nf&G,fcsuf
uav;i,frsm;onf tem*wf acgif;aqmifrsm;jzpf=uojzifh wm0efodwwfjyD; obm0ywf0ef;usifudk
apmifha&Smuf umuG,fxdef;odrf;onfholrsm;taejzifh jyKpkysKd;axmif avhusifhoif=um;jcif;onf ydkrdktvm;tvm
aumif;rGefonfh pdrf;vef;pdkajyI jidrf;csrf;om,maom EdkifiHawmfESifh ajruBmjzpfvmygrnf? rlvwef;tqifhwdkif;rS
pwifI ESpfpOfoif=um;oihfonf?
&nfrSef;csufrsm;
• obm0ywf0ef;usif. ysufpD;qHk;&H_;aer_rsm;/ zsufqD;cH&r_rsm;ESifh =uHKawG@ae&onfh tœ&m,frsm;ponfwdk@udk
od&Sdem;vnfjyD;v#if ajruBmudk umuG,fxdef;odrf;vdkonfh pdw"f gwfrsm;udef;atmif;vmap&ef?
• EdkifiHawmf. &Sm;yg;rsKd;EG,fpk (10) pk.ta=umif;udk od&Sdem;vnfI aemufcHta=umif;&if;rsm;udk od&Sd
em;vnfap&ef?
• obm0ywf0ef;usif jyKjyifxdef;odrf;Edkif&ef uav;rsm;vkyfaqmifEdkifonfh t&mrsm;udk od&Sdem;vnfap&ef?
• obm0ywf0ef;usifpdrf;vef;pdkajyap&ef wpfOD;csif;pDtaejzifh olwdk@. udk,fydkifpdwful;/ pdwfoef;rsm;/ zefwD;
csufrsm;/ wDxGifcsufrsm;udk jyKvkyfcGifhay;jyD; wpfwef;vHk;udk wifjyaqG;aEG;ap&ef?
oifcef;pmtpDtpOf
Toifcef;pmrsm;rSm tcsdefumvtm;jzifh (2) ywf txd,l&rnfjzpfjyD; bmom&yfrsm; ,SufEG,faygif;pyfI
oif=um;jcif; (Integrated Approach) udk toHk;jyK&efvdktyfonf?
tydkif; (1) trd+ufyHkxJu wdk hEdkifiHawmf
• q&m/ q&mrrS uav;rsm;&Gwfqdk&ef uAsmjzpfonfh “tdrf/ vrf;/ &Gm/ ausmif; oef@&Sif;a=umif; pkaygif;
tr_dufodrf;” oHaygufuAsmudk zwfjcif;/ &Gwfqdkapjcif;rsm;jyKvkyfonf? xdk@aemufTuAsm. qdkvdkcsufudk
wpfwef;vHk;aqG;aEG;=urnf? “trd_uf” ESifhywfoufI aqG;aEG;=ujyD; “trd_ufodrf;” / “oef@&Sif;a&;” ponf
wdk@udk tus,fw0ifhaqG;aEG;yg? pmoifausmif;wpfausmif;rS wpfywftwGif;xGuf&Sdonfh trd_ufyrm%udk
cef@rSef; avhvmjcif;/ &Gmwpf&GmvHk;. trd_ufrsm;/ jrdK@/ EdkifiHwEdkifiHvHk;. trd_ufrsm;rS wpfuBmvHk;&Sd trd_uf
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rsm;udk pkyHkvdkufygu&&Sdvmrnfh t&G,ftpm;rsm;udkaqG;aEG;yg? pGef@ypfyPnf;rsm;ESifhywfoufI vlwdkif;wGif
wm0ef&Sda=umif; aqG;aEG;yg? tdrfrsm;/ ausmif;rsm;/ puf&Hkrsm;rS trd_ufrsm;/ pGef@ypfyPnf;rsm; rnfonfhae&m
rsm;odk@ a&muf&SdoGm;ygoenf;/ ponfh ar;cGef;rsm;jzifh uav;i,frsm;. pOf;pm;vdkpdwfrsm;udk Ed_;qGay;yg?
tydkif; (2) pdrf;vef;pdkajy igwdk hajr
• obm0ywf0ef;usifxdef;odrf;&eftwGuf vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;udk jyKvkyf=u&rnf?
o pmoifcef;toD;oD;&Sd trd_ufyHk;rsm;udk odrf;I trd_uftrsKd;tpm;rsm;udk avhvmygap?
o wpfywftwGif;/ wpfvtwGif;rS wpfESpftwGif; Tausmif;wpfausmif;wnf;rSyifxGuf&Sdonfh
trd_uf – owif;pmta[mif;rsm;/ pULtrsKd;rsKd;/ Al;cH/ tpm;taomuft=uGif;tusefrsm;yrm%udk tkyfpktvdkuf wGufcsufI Ed_if;,SOfavhvm=uonf?
o owif;pmrsm;/ r~Zif;rsm;rS obm0ywf0ef;usifqdkif&m aqmif;yg;rsm;/ acgif;=uD;ydkif;rsm;/ &kyfyHkrsm;/
umwGef;rsm;udk jzwf,lxm;&SdapjyD; eH&Huyfydkpwmrsm;jyKvkyfI ausmif;pmoifcef;twGif;Y T
oifcef;pmoifonfh tywf/ vrsm;Y uyfxm;aponf? ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk tcgtm;avsmfpGm
aqG;aEG;yg?
o rdrdwdk@aexdkif&ma'o (jrdK@/ &Gm) teD;tem;&Sd obm0ywf0ef;usif zsufqD;cH&r_rsm;/ opfawm
jyKef;wD;r_ rsm;ESifh tjcm;aom obm0ywf0ef;usif ysufpD;aer_rsm;udk tkyfpktvdkuf vufawG@
avhvma&; jyKvkyf=uonf?
ƒ Oyrm tkyfpk (1) prf;acsmif;/ jrpf/
(2) awmif/ awmwef;/
(3) opfawmi,f/ =udK;0dkif;opfawm/
(4) a&tdkif/ a&umwm/
(5) pdkufuGif;rsm;/ pdkufcif;rsm;/ awmif,m/ v,f/
(6) &Sm;yg;rsKd;eG,fpkrsm;pm&if;/ &kyfyHkrsm;/
(7) trd_ufpGef@ypfjcif; pepf/ trd_ufwpfck. c&D;pOf/
txufygacgif;pOfrsm;udk tkyfpktvdkuf tcsuftvufrsm;&SmazGapjcif;/ ydkpwmrsm;jyKvkyfjcif;/ uAsm
rsm;pyfjcif;/ o&kyfaz:rsm;jyKvkyfapjcif;/ yHkpH'DZdkif;rsm;zefwD;jcif;pmpDpmuHk;rsm;a&;om;apjcif;/ ydk@pu'frsm;
zefwD;apjcif;/ aqmifyk'frsm;wDxGifapjcif;/ jy\emrsm;udk ajz&Sif;apjcif; ponfwdk@jyKvkyf&rnf jzpf
a=umif; aqG;aEG;yg? uav;A[dkjyKynma&;wGif olwdk@. ydkif;jcm;a0befawG;ac:pOf;pm;jcif;/ pGef@OD;wDxGif
zefwD;jcif;ESifh jy\emrsm;udk udk,fwdkifavhvmI tajz&Sm,lapjcif;rsm;udk rlvwef;t&G,fuwnf;u
ynma&;oif&dk;n¸ef;wrf;wGif zefwD;xm;&Sd&rnf?
o tkyfpktvdkuf txufyg tcsuftvufrsm;udk &SmazGEdkif&ef tcsdef (wpfywfcef@) ay;yg?
o aemufqHk;oifcef;pmtcsdefrsm;wGif olwdk@avhvm&SmazGawG@&Sdcsufrsm;udk wpfwef;vHk;tm; jyefvnf
&Sif;vif; aqG;aEG;wifjyjcif;rsm;udk jyKvkyf=u&rnf?
uav;rsm;. vuf&maumif;rsm;/ avhvm&SmazGawG@&Sdcsufrsm;udk trsm;jynfolod&SdEkdifap&ef ydkpwmrsm;/
ydk@pu'frsm;/ v_Haqmfcsufrsm; zefwD;I oufqkdif&m obm0ywf0ef;usifxdef;odrf;a&;Xmersm;/ at*sifpDrsm;/
tkyfcsKyfa&;Xmersm;/ Oya'jyKtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESifh EkdifiHa&; tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;xH ay;ydk@Edkifavonf?

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

119

jyKjyifp&mwdk h&J h&Gm
rdrdwdk@aexdkif&m &Gm/ &yfuGuftwGif;jyKjyif&rnfht&mrsm;/ ae&mrsm;udk pm&if;jyKpkyg? &kyfyHkrsm;a&;qGJyg?

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pHjyaus;&Gm
rdrdwdk@. pdwful;xJwGif&Sdonfh jidrf;csrf;om,maom aus;&Gmwpf&Gm. yHk udka&;qGJyg?

pmoifcef;twGif;u urÇmBuD;

q&modef;Edkif

121

rlvwef; uav;i,fawG[m olwdk@&J@tawG@t=uHKawGudk t&rf;ajymjycsif=uygw,f? vl=uD;awG
eJ@ olwdk@tcsif;csif;udk jyefajymjycGifh&jcif;/ em;axmifcGifh&jcif;awG[m ynm&nf wdk;wufjrifhrm;
ap&efeJ@ vlr_qufqHa&; xGef;um;ap&efwdk@twGufrsm;pGm taxmuftuljzpfapygw,f? tJ'D
twGuf 'D “jyefajymjyr,f? (Show and Tell)” tpDtpOfudk pmoifcef;twGif;rSm yHkrSef
jyKvkyfay;Edkifygw,f? twef;ydkifq&m/ q&mrawGu rdrd&J@oufqdkif&m twef;awG tvdkuf
wm0ef,l vkyfaqmifEdkfif&ef taumif;qHk;aygh?
tjcm;aom bmom&yfpmoifcsdefawGudk rxdcdkufatmif uav;awGtm;vHk; ae@pOftvSnfhus
(w&uf – 3 - a,muf)/ wpfa,muf 2 rdepf- 3 rdepfcef@ ta=umif;t&mwpfckck udk ajymjy&
vdrfhr,f?
bmawGajymEdkifovJ?

'DuBm=uD;rSm &Sd&Sdor# ta=umi;ft&meJ h rdrd tawG ht=uHK tukefvHk; udk
ajymjyEdkifwmayg h?
(EdkifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ vlrla&;/ ynma&;/ owif;/ twif;? rdrdeJ hywfoufor# t&m&m)
EVERYTHING
'gayrJh 2- rdepf/ 3 rdepfxuf rydkap&bl;?
Oyrm?
? rdrdzwfwJh pmtkyf ta=umif;/ rdrd&xm;wJh vufaqmifta=umif;? vuf&Sdowif; wpfckck/
jrefrmjynfta=umif;/ uBm=uD; ta=umif;/ ynm&yfawG ta=umif;? rdrd tawG ht=uHK? wpfjcm;olawG&J htawG h
t=uHK/ rdrd &J h/ oli,fcsif;&J harG;ae hyGJta=umif;? udk,farG;xm;wJ h acG;uav;/ a=umif uav;/
iSufuav;ta=umif;? [mojzpfp&m ta=umif;// rsufvSnfh wpfckck? yx0DxJuta=umif;/ ordkif;xJu
ta=umif;/ od`HxJuta=umif;/ c&D;tawG ht=uHK/ i,fi,fwkef;uta=umif;? tckjzpfaewJhta=umif;?
olrsm;tawG ht=uHK/ ukd,fhjzwfoef;r_xJu rdrdtwGuf/ olrsm;twGuf oifcef;pmawG?
tawG ht=uHK topfawGta=umif;/ ta[mif;awG ta=umif;/ tcuftcJawGta=umif;?
wpfjcm; 'DuBm=uD;rSm/ 'D p=um0Vm=uD;rSm &Sd&Sdor# t&mt&meJ hta=umif;a=umif; - - - - -

2 rdepf – 3 rdepf xuf rydkap&bl;?
olrsm; (rdrd) udk rxdckdufap&bl;?
b,fol htwGufrS a0'em rjzpfap&bl;?
tjcm;ausmif;om;awGxJu ar;cGef; 2 ck jyefar;&vdrfhr,f?
(rlvwef;/ tv,fwef;/ txufwef; pmoifcef;awGxJrSm q&m/q&mrwdk htaeeJ@ tvm;wl tpDtpOfudk
uav;awGeJ h vkyf=unfhygvm;
The world in the democratic classroom

Saya Thein Naing

122

TpmtkyfzGJ hpnf;yHk
T “'Drdkua&pD pmoifcef;twGif;u urBm-uD;” pmtkyrf Sm uav;A[dkðyynma&;twGuf oifcef;pmrsm;udk
q&mvrf;n¸eftaejzifh ðypkxm;&Sdonfh rlvwef;tqifhrsm;twGuf yxrwGJjzpfonf? ody`H/ enf;ynm/ vlr_a&;/ tEk
ynm/ 'DZdkif;ESifh obm0ywf0ef;usif bmom&yfrsm;twGuf t"dutm;jzifh ðypka&;om;xm;jcif;jzpfygonf? rlvwef;
tqifhwGif ta&;=uD;onfh bmompum;pGrf;&nf zGH@ðzd;wdk;wufapjcif;/ obm0ody`HESifh vlr_a&;qdkif&m tajccHtod
ynmrsm;&&Sdapjcif;/ pGef@OD;wDxGif zefwD;vdkpdwfudk ysKd;axmifjcif;/ a0befydkif;jcm;qef;ppfpOf;pm;jcif;ESifh vlrq
_ ufqHa&;
xGe;f um;apjcif;rsm;twGuf oifcef;pmrsm;udk pDpOfxm;&Sdygonf? tjcm;aom yif&if; bmom&yfrsm;jzpfonhf
bmompum; (rdcifbmom/ wkdif;&if;om;bmom/ jrefrmpm) bmom&yfrsm;yg &nfrSef;csufrsm;udk ckdifjrJapjcif;
twGufvnf; taxmuftuljzpfaprnf[k ,Hk=unfygonf? acgif;pOf=uD; (12) udk A[dkðyI oifcef;pmrsm;udk
wnfaqmufxm;&Sdygonf? q&mq&mrrsm;twGuf pmoifcef;twGif; aemufqufwGJvkyfaqmifEdkfifonfh t=uHðy
csufrsm;udkvnf; acgif;pOf=uD;rsm;. tqHk;wGif aqG;aEG;xm;ygonf? xdk@tjyif uav;rsm;twGuf rdwWLul;,lI
pmoifcef;twGi;f avhusifh&ef oifcef;pmrsm;udkvnf; acgif;pOf=uD;wdkif;wGif xnfhoGif;xm;&Sdygonf?

'Drdkua&pD pmoifcef;twGif;u uBm=uD;

q&modef;Edkif

NHEC