Electrical Machines-II

Experiment No. 2

Experiment No. 2
1.0 Title:To Determine voltage regulation of three-phase Alternator by Synchronous Impedance method.

2.0

Prior Concepts:Working principle and construction of Alternator. EMF equation. Effect of load p.f. on EMF. Open Circuit characteristics.

3.0

New Concepts:Proposition 1: Short Circuit Test:It is obtained by short circuiting the armature (stator) through a low resistance or ammeter. The Excitation is adjusted to obtain 1.25 times the full load current. During this test the speed is kept constant which need not be synchronous. Concept structure 1:-

Proposition 2: Voltage Regulation:The regulation of alternator is defined as the change in output voltage from no load to full load. % voltage regulation = Where Eo is the magnitude of voltage induced at no load and is given by:Where V is the magnitude of voltage at full load. (Note :– Use ‘+’ sign for lagging p.f. load and ‘-’ sign for leading p.f. load)

4.0

Learning Objectives:4.1 Intellectual Skills:• • • • • • • • • To understand necessity of excitation and methods of excitation. To understand effect of speed and field current on EMF. To select proper instruments. To state the performance at different power factors. To make the connections as per circuit diagram. To adjust the terminal voltage of alternator to the rated value. To adjust the armature short circuit current to rated value. To plot the open circuit and short circuit characteristics. To calculate synchronous impedance and regulation.

4.2

Motor Skills:-

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

♦ 7

Potential Divider : —————————A..0 Equipments:• DC Motor coupled to alternator: DC Motor .50 Hz. .c.) .0 Circuit Diagram:Circuit diagram for open circuit test:- Circuit diagram for short circuit test:- 8 ♦ MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION .) . (a. ——— rpm Alternator . (A2) —— Amps (d.c. ——— A. Ammeters – (A1) —— Amps (a.) .c. ——— A.c.(d.——— HP/kW.——— V. ——— A . ——— rpm. 3 ph. 2 Electrical Machines-II 5.) Rheostats – (R1): ——— Ohm. (R2): ——— Ohm. (V2) ——— volts. ——— kVA.Experiment No.c. ———————— Ù Tachometer • • • • • 6. (A3) —— Amps. ———A. (d. ——— V.) Voltmeter – (V1) ——— volts.

6. Take reading up to 10% more than the rated voltage. Switch ON the supply and start the motor with the help of starter. Set its field potential divider to zero output position. 6. 2 Circuit diagram for measurement of Armature resistance:- 7. MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION ♦ 9 .Electrical Machines-II Experiment No.6. Note the ammeter readings for different values of excitation. Adjust the speed of motor to the synchronous speed of alternator with the help of the field rheostat and note the meter readings. Keep its field rheostat in minimum resistance position and potential divider to zero output. 2. Switch ON supply to alternator field and increase excitation. separately. Set the field resistance of motor to minimum value. Short circuit test:1. 5.3) B) C) 8. 2. Adjust the speed of the motor to the synchronous speed with the help of field rheostat. Measurement of armature resistance:1) Measure the value of armature resistance of all the three phases.1.25 times rated armature current. 4. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram in fig. Switch ON the DC supply and start the motor with the help of the starter. in steps and note the corresponding meter readings. by ammeter and voltmeter method or by ohmmeter accurately (fig. 4. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram in fig. 3.2. 3. 6. Switch ON the supply to alternator field. Take the readings upto 1.0 Stepwise Procedure:A) Open circuit test:1.0 Observation Table:Synchronous speed = A) For open circuit test:rpm.

2 Electrical Machines-II B) For short circuit test:- C) For measurement of armature resistance :Voltage across armature winding (V2) . Volts.Experiment No.……. From this graph calculate the value of synchronous impedance for rated value of excitation.0 Graph:Plot the graph between open circuit voltage and short circuit current against field current..……. V2 Armature resistance per phase (Ra) = ——— = ………= ……….. Amp.4? 10 ♦ MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION . The nature of the graph will be as shown in fig 6. Current through armature winding (I3) . I3 Dated signature of subject teacher 9.…… ohms.

2 GRAPH MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION ♦ 11 .Electrical Machines-II Experiment No.

2 Electrical Machines-II 12 ♦ MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION .Experiment No.

ohms.Electrical Machines-II Experiment No..8 lead power factor : = ……………ohms = ……………. 2 10. =…………….8 lag power factor: c) At unity power factor: MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION ♦ 13 .0 Calculations :V1 The synchronous impedance (Zs) = …… I1 The synchronous reactance Calculate % voltage regulation : a) At 0. b) At 0.

F. Space for answers 14 ♦ MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION . Draw the nature of voltage characteristic of an alternator for a load at lagging.8 p. Draw the labelled vector diagram for lagging power factor load. lagging – iii) ……….0 Result and Conclusion:The regulation for the alternator is found to be – i) ……… at 0.0 Questions :(Note :. State the values of field current at which synchronous impedance should be calculated? Why? 5. Why the regulation is negative in case of leading power factor load? 10. leadingii) ……. at unity p.Experiment No.. load – 12.. How the synchronous impedance is affected by the frequency? 4.. 2 Electrical Machines-II 11.8 p. and unity power factors. 9. at 0. State why the OC characteristics is non linear? 3.Teacher shall distribute the following questions in Three different groups) 1. Whether the value of synchronous impedance (Zs) is constant? State the conditions on which it depends? 7.f.. leading. Why the saturation under short circuit conditions is low? 8. What is advantage of this method over direct loading test of an alternator? 2. Why this method is called as pessimistic method? 6.f.

Electrical Machines-II Experiment No. 2 Space for answers MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION ♦ 15 .

2 Electrical Machines-II Space for answers Remark / Grade Date :- Checked by 16 ♦ MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION .Experiment No.

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