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• • Specification of works Standard Specification, Govt.of Maharashtra Bldg. & Communication Dept. Nagpur. Quantity Survey and Estimation – by B.N.Dutta & Rangawala. National building code.
• INTRODUCTION & DISCUSSION OF THE SUBJECT • SPECIFICATIONS IN GENERAL MEANING, DEFENITION, OBJECTS, TYPES,SUB-DIVISIONS • STANDARDIZED SPECIFICATIONS
• Specification is specific description of a particular subject. • Information regarding the quality of materials & workmanship is conveyed in a separate contract document which is known as ―specification‖ for the work.
Specification deals with • • • • Methods of execution. • Measurement of work done. The qualities of materials. . Nature or labour to be employed. Proportion in which materials are to be mixed.
OBJECTS • To illustrate the quality of material. This helps the contractor to quote the correct rates for work. • It serves as a guide to the supervising staff and contractor during the construction and execution of work. the workmanship desired and the methods of doing the work. . • To protect the interest of the owner against low quality material or bad workmanship and helps the contractor to finish the work on time.
TYPES • BRIEF SPECIFICATION: It serves as a guide to the person preparing the estimate of the work. which do not form a part of the contract document. • DETAIL SPECIFICATION: These form a part of the contract document and gives detail information regarding the quality of materials and workmanship. .
It can be further subdivided as
• GENERAL PROVISIONS: These are the general conditions which governs the contract and are applicable to the work as a whole. • TECHNICAL PROVISION: These provisions in relation to the drawings describe in detail regarding the desired quality of the final product or items and the inspections & steps which shall be done during construction.
Specification for material and workmanship
– Chemical composition of the material. – Physical properties such as hardness, compressive strength, tensile strength and appearance. – Precautions regarding projection during transport, storage and handling. – Methods of performing various tests and inspections.
Control over quality and workmanship
The details regarding the construction method of each item is specified
– Details regarding protection of finished work as well as the adjacent properties – Details of results desire keeping in view the practical limit of tolerance.
plywood are the examples of the materials whose specification are given. fittings. reinforcement. . timber.Specification for performance These describe about the equipments and machinery to be used in construction work. windows. Specification for proprietary commodities: It describes about standardized items like for the doors.
and c.p. .w. which occur in the similar works.w.Standardized specifications • Usually the specifications are standardized for most of the items of work.d. the specifications of p. • While writing the contract bond only the serial number of standard specifications are written. of the state are treated as standard specifications. • These standardized specifications are numbered and are revised from time to time to include the changes in technique while preparing contract bond.d. by concerned departments.
UNIT-2 • METHOD OF PREPARATION OF SPECIFICATION • CONSIDERATIONS FOR PREPARING SPECIFICATIONS • DETAILED SPECIFICATIONS • SPECIFICATION OF WORK • GENERAL CLAUSES .
it should be clearly understood by the supervisors.METHOD OF PREPARATION OF SPECIFICATION • While preparing a specification care is taken that. • Many of whom may have very little or no technical knowledge or training. the workers and the contractors. .
Care should be taken while framing sentence. • • • • • . All the sentences should be according to the rules of grammar. The writing style and tenses should be kept same through out. Omission or misplacement of a comma should not alter its sense. award and supervise the work and there may be least chances for any dispute.The main points to be kept in view while preparing the specifications • They should be concise. As far as possible pronouns should be avoided and only nouns should be used. clearly worded and unambiguous so that the site engineers may plan.
• Only suitable words with desired meaning should be used. • In addition all the likely difficulty. hazards should be specified to give clear picture of the work. . • As the specifications are a legal document they should be concise as far as possible. • Practical limitations of materials and workmanship should be kept in view • It should be fair to both the parties and should not throw the risk on the shoulder the contractor alone.The main points to be kept in view while preparing the specifications • The specification should give accurate and complete information in all respects because incomplete information will lead to disputes.
The details given are as: Quality of the materials Quantity of the materials Methods of measuring quantities of materials Precautions to be observed during transporting and handling of the material Proportion of mortar and concrete Shuttering and centering details • • • • • • .DETAILED SPECIFICATION It describes the item of work in detail accurately and complete in all prescribes in relation to the drawings of the work.
DETAILED SPECIFICATION • Methods of mixing concrete and mortar • Methods of laying concrete • Various tests to be conducted at various stages of work • Curing methods • Methods of doing work and workmanship • Methods of execution • Methods of measurements • General precautions • Details of work which are included in the rate list .
• • .SPECIFICATION OF WORK GENERAL CAUSES: • General condition of contract To be according to the printed form of conditions of contract laid down by the Indian institute of architect. Contractors to provide everything necessary as per the requirement for proper execution of the works according to the drawings and specification taken together. Execution of work the whole of the work as described in the contract and as instructed by the architect from time to time is to be carried out and completed in all its parts to the entire satisfaction of the architect. Mumbai.
Shades and workshop the contractor to provide at his own expense all necessary shades and workshops for the use of the workman and storage of materials and maintain and keep the same in order to the entire satisfaction of the architect and remove it on completion. Attendance to sub contractor’s requirements— the general contractor is to allow the use of water and his scaffolding to the subcontractor and others. • • .GENERAL CAUSES • Scaffolding tools and plants the contractor should provide the necessary tools labour and materials for proper execution of the work and is to remove the same on the completion of the work. For the execution of their respective works on job and cost there of shall be paid by the sub-contractor as fixed by the architect.
• The cost for the water should be borne by the contractor. fittings and other temporary plumbing works required and shall be maintained in satisfactorily conducted throughout the whole period of the contract and completion of the work and take away and remove all such work to the satisfaction of the architect. • The contractor shall provide at his own cost brick masonry water storage tank and all necessary pipes. • Storage should be sufficient as directed by the architect. .WATER SUPPLY AND DRAINAGE • Water from municipal main or from tank or well.
. • All these works are included in the rates of different items quoted or tendered by the contractor and nothing extra will be paid for the same. • The contractor is to pay necessary charges to the municipality for treating the water with suitable disinfectant.WATER SUPPLY AND DRAINAGE • The tank for the water storage is to be connected to the proper drainage system of the municipality. • The contractor is to provide at his own expense temporary sanitary accommodation and washing places for the workers on the site and to remove the same on completion of the building works.
..I. pipes of requisite dia.e. couplings etc. I. assorted fittings such as bends. municipal tested with G. elbows tees.SPECIFICATIONS FOR PLUMBING AND DRAINAGE WORK G. shall be used and the same shall be fixed with jute and zink joints and clamps complete with boring holes in the walls and beams including excavating in earth wherever necessary and tar coating to the pipes and necessary back filling the same complete. Pipes: ‘C’ class i.
STOP COCK :1/2‖ brass stop cocks shall be provided for the supply connection to the flush tanks.SPECIFICATIONS WASH BASINS: wash basins white glazed Hindustan sanitary ware of size 22‖x16‖fixed on c. p.c. BIB TAPS: 1/2‖ c. .heavy bottle trap. c. connector ½‖c. cantilever brackets with screws including 1½‖c. blocks.p.toilets and w. i. p. v .p. plug and chain with necessary cement joint complete.p. bib taps shall be provided in kitchen . waste couplings 1¼‖c. wash basins and geyser.pillar tap.
p. cock shall be provided in toilets with c. .SPECIFICATIONS NAHNI TRAPS: 3‖c. grating shall be provided below the built in sink in kitchen and toilet blocks. SHOEWR: Shower with c. shower rose with ½‖ c.i.i. p. p. nahni traps with c. connections and fittings. GEYSER: 1to3 kw instent geyser of ISI quality shall be provided in each toilet with marble fixing with necessary wooden blocks and coach screws complete with water and electric connections.
WASTE WATER PIPE: 3‖dia. pipe 6’long at end in the ground.C.i. etc. COWLS: All the pipes shall be provided with A. double Y .SPECIFICATIONS W. SOIL PIPES: 4‖ dia. Cowls. Antisyphonage pipes shall be provided as required.C.C. flush tank conforming to ISI specifications shall be provided for the c. SANITARY FITTINGS: All the sanitary fittings such as bends.c. for 4‖ . 3‖ . .c.i.c. approved quality one piece c.PANS: Indian type white glazed w.ANTISYPHONAGE PIPE: 2 ½‖ dia approved quality A.C. A. A.pan with attached foot rest with 3gln.pipes shall be provided at the end.C. 2 ½‖ dia A. blocks with necessary water supply and drainage connection as required in ground floor . tees .I. C. pipes shall be cast iron. and 6’ long approved quality a.C.
H.c.heavy cover and frame with locking arrangement shall be provided over the manhole in O. air tight and leak proof joints including necessary excavation of trenches in earth upto 6’ depth including backfilling the trenches watering. ramming and consolidating the surface complete with carting away surplus earth from the site. tanks. MANHOLE COVER: 2’dia.SPECIFICATIONS STONEWARE PIPES: 4‖ and 6‖ dia. salt glazed stoneware pipes of best quality with fittings shall be laid for external drainage in proper slope with spun yarn gasket and cement.i. .
fixed with proper screws shall be provided over wash basin.SPECIFICATIONS GULLY TRAP: 6‖x4‖stoneware salt glazed traps on cement concrete bedding with cement gasket joints including 9‖x12‖ brick masonry hopper chamber with cement plaster inside and outside fixing of 9‖x12‖ c. . hinged type on top with cement mortar including excavation on earth and back filling complete. i. MIRROR: 22‖x16‖best make mirror with shelf and attachment with plywood seating. light airtight cover and frame.
c.cone shape having grating on top fixing with cement joints after boring holes in walls and making the same complete. .)best Indian make Kirloskar mono block pumps shall be provided with necessary water supply connections.SPECIFICATIONS INSPECTION CHAMBER: 3’x1’6‖shall be constructed in 9‖thick brick masonry over cement concrete bedding with cement plaster inside and outside with smooth finishing.P. complete.heavy lead bell month with c. RAINWATER PIPES: 4‖dia. I .(3H. PUMP SETS: 2no. inside with half round channels in bottom with 3’x1’6‖c.i.airtight hinged cover on top complete with excavation the trenches upto 6’depth backfilling and consolidating the surface etc.rainwater pipes with 4‖dia.a.
i.LADDER: for O. overflow pipe with necessary g. H.SPECIFICATIONS M.g. i.S. WATER SPOUTS: 11/2‖dia. i. down take pipe as directed. c. fitting shall be provided with outlet inside the w. OVERFLOW FLUSH TANK: ½‖dia g. tank with brick masonry tappa and cement plaster with two coats of red oxide paint complete. . C.water spouts for balconies to be fixed after boring holes in RCC pardi complete and the same shall be connected by A.
PERMANENT WATER CONNECTION FOR BUILDING: It shall be provided on completion of the work. SUN DRY ITEMS: Such as brackets. clamps shall be provided wherever necessary. . all a. pipes used for the work shall be of approved quality.SPECIFICATIONS TEMPORARY WATER CONNECTION FOR CONSTRUCTION: It shall be obtained from the nearest source prior to commencement of the construction work. c. cleats.
.SPECIFICATIONS The plumbing and drainage arrangement shall include in each toilet block as directed. The drainage line shall be connected to CIDCO’S sewerage line as per requirement. Pumps of adequate H. P. are to be provided with the pump room to be built over suction tank.
.SPECIFICATIONS FOR ELECTRICAL WIRING AND INSTALLATION • LIGHTING POINTS: Wiring shall be done using 1/18 PVC copper wire (ISI brand cable) and 14gauge copper Earthing wire with switch board with provision for two regulators. • LIGHTING PLUG POINTS:14 guage copper Earthing wire and other materials as above.
• Cable glands for fixing above cables for water pump mains. . • Main line for staircase lighting using 1/18 PVC copper wire using (ISI brand cable)staircase lighting points with bulk head fittings with each wiring having one control switch on concealed pipe.SPECIFICATIONS FOR ELECTRICAL WIRING AND INSTALLATION • Domestic points using 3/20 guage PVC copper wire with 14 guage copper Earthing wire. • Domestic point using 7/20 PVC to PVC copper wire with 34 guage brass with 14 guage copper Earthing wire.
• Main switch providing for four 15 Amp.W.500V main switches for two pumps in the pump house with changeover switch with fixing K. • One light point inside and outside the pump house to be provided.5mm underground with fixing for 5H.pumps.B. .P.SPECIFICATIONS FOR ELECTRICAL WIRING AND INSTALLATION • Water pump main line providing Siemens armoured copper cable 4x2.
G. . fittings in concealed system shall be provided at the four concerns of the building at first floor level to light the compound.SPECIFICATIONS FOR ELECTRICAL WIRING AND INSTALLATION • Compound lighting-bracket type lamps with water proof lighting fixtures using ½‖conduit pipes with H. • One lamp holder with switches to be provided for meter box cupboard.
.SPECIFICATIONS FOR ELECTRICAL WIRING AND INSTALLATION • Temporary connection from neighbouring sources for adequate number of tile polishing machines including providing necessary wiring. • Obtaining permanent connection to the building including providing and laying necessary service cables and other service materials inclusive of lighting and domestic meters.
. • Meter boxes with partly paneled and partly grilled shutters shall be provided in the staircase hall at the ground floor as per requirement of the Electric Supply Company. All electrical fittings shall be of ISI quality.SPECIFICATIONS FOR ELECTRICAL WIRING AND INSTALLATION • The meters shall be provided for lighting and domestic lines and the same shall be located at the staircase hall on the ground floor.
AMENITIES • A mirror 20‖x16‖(commander make) with cabinet for toiletries shall be provided in the passage above wash basin. Anchor or Bajaj make shall be provided in 2nd floor.2’6‖long shall be provided in each bathroom .. • Ding dong bell. • Cromium plated Towel rod of 5/8‖ dia.toilet and passage on 2nd floor. .
• Dado of 2’x1’6‖ shall be provided of glazed tiles of 8‖x4‖ above each wash basins in passage. .AMENITIES • Best quality PVC cloth lines on aluminium brackets shall be provided in balcony or passage in each flat as directed.
MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP • All materials shall be of best quality and all the works shall be carried in the form of best workmanship. • It shall be approved by and to the satisfaction of the architect. . • The decision of the architect shall be final and binding as regards to the quality of workmanship and materials used on the work.
efficiency and that they comply with the Indian standard specification. • Defective material shall be removed from the site and the portion of works if found defective should be re-executed by the contractor at his own cost. .TESTING OF WORK AND MATERIALS • The contractor shall if required by the architect arrange to test the material and portions of work at his own cost in order to prove their soundness.
all kinds of rubbish as well as shrubs and other growth. the materials.CLEARING THE SITE • The site shall be cleared off all the obstructions. • This work shall be included in the rates paid for various items and no extras should be paid. All hollows shall be carefully filled up and the ground left in a clean and level condition as required. . • The products of the clearing to be stacked in such a manner as directed or removed from site.
• The columns shall be measured in cubic feet of the actual work done between the slabs. . • All beams shall be measured in cubic feet of the actual work done where the beams and columns meet.MEASUREMENT • All the works shall be measured in accordance to the standard mode of measurement of building works as per published by the IIA Mumbai. • The sizes of all RCC members shall be those actually done with a finishing. • The slab shall be measured in square feet of the required thickness. • The measurements for the finished RCC work are to be paid as per the RCC drawings. • Lintels should be measured in cubic feet. • Chajjas and canopies shall be measured in square feet of the required thickness.
classification. uses. properties.UNIT-3 SPECIFICATIONS OF BASIC MATERIALS LIME sources. properties. storage. testing. measurement CEMENT introduction. storage. tests. measurement .
.LIME Lime is one of the most common building material. known to the Indians since the early days of building construction. • It is obtained by calcination at 900 c of limestone. SOURCES: • Lime in free state is not found in nature.
USES • • • • • • Chief use of lime in building construction is Preparation of lime mortar Plastering Lime concrete for foundations Lime terracing for water proofing roofs Distempering White washing .
• Hydraulic lime Consists of calcium oxide chemically combined with silica and alumina and hardens in the presence of water. .CLASSIFICATION Depending on the raw materials lime can be classified into two broad categories as: • Fat lime Consists of calcium oxide and hardens in the presence of air.
Semi-hydraulic lime used for masonry work. • Class C. . • Class B.Fat lime used mainly for finishing coat in plastering. to produce artificial hydrolic mortor.Classification As per Indian standards IS712 of 1964 the building lime can be classified as: • Class A-Eminently hydraulic lime used for structural purposes. white washing with suitable admixture suh as surkhi or any other pozzolanic material.
• The slaked lime shall be screened through IS240 sieve for mortar used for concrete or masonry & first coat of plaster& IS120 sieve for second & third coats of plaster . • The lime shall be slaked with water not less than one week or more than two weeks before the use.PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS • All impurities. ashes or pieces improperly burnt shall be screened or picked out before slaking.
moisture. • The lime shall be used when it is fresh i. shall be kept in a waterproof and damp proof closed shed with impervious floor and sides to protect it against rain. within 14 days of its removal from kiln. weather & extraneous materials mixing with it.e.STORAGE • The slaked lime if stored. . • The rejected lime shall be removed from the worksite immediately.
SAMPLING AND TESTING • Sample of lime should be approved by the engineer who shall keep it in his office for reference. • Lime needs to be tested for its adhesiveness. tensile and compressive strengths and its workability. .
.MEASUREMENT It shall be by volume with cubic m. as the unit.
i.00 • Fineness of cement is very important property. • A good cement is judged by its property of soundness.INTRODUCTION • Cement means a binding material. • Usually portland cement which sets well under water. hardens quickly and attains strength. oxides of iron and alumina. silica. . • Portland cement is a combination of lime. • The color of cement should be grey. consistency of volume. • A specific gravity of well burnt portland cement should be at least 3.e.
• The weight of ordinary Portland cement shall be taken as 144 kg/m³ and rapid hardening Portland cement as 121 kg/m³. • When half bag is required cement shall be taken by weight. • The measurement of proportion of cement should normally be on the basis of weight and whole bag of cement.CEMENT • The type of cement shall be specified. (whether ordinary rapid hardening or low heat cement) When no type of cement is specified ordinary Portland cement shall be used. . When the basis of mix is by volume. Each bag sealed with 50 kg cement be considered equivalent to 35 liters in volume. cement will be taken by weight.
• No lumps should be present. • It should float on water before sinking. • When hand immersed in bag it should feel cool. . • Feeling to the fingers after rubbing should be silky.TESTS • The contractor should ensure that cement is of sound and required quality before using it .
STORAGE • Cement required for use shall be as fresh as possible and stored upon planks which are raised to 15-20 cm above the floor and stacked 30 cm away from the walls in suitable closed weather. • Jute/paper bag should be used for storage. • Ordinary cement stored for more than two months from the date of receipt from the factory shall be subjected to test and used only if found satisfactory.proof building at the work site or at selected approved site in such a manner as to prevent deterioration by dampness or moist atmosphere. • The cost of the test shall be borne by the agency responsible for the storage after two months from receipt. . • Not more than 15 bags shall be stacked vertically in one pile and max. width of the piles should not be more than 3 m.
measurement shall be weight with tonne as a unit. .MEASUREMENT • When required to be measured.
function WATER . classification. requisites of good sand. uses.UNIT-4 SAND sources. selection.
It is light brown/golden yellowish It should be screened and washed before use. • • . PIT SAND: It is free from salts and is an excellent material for mortar or concrete work.SAND • • • SOURCES: It is obtained from pits. river beds and sea shores. Accordingly it is classified.
SEA SAND: The grains of sea sand are fine. It should be screened and washed before use.CLASSIFICATION • • • • • • • • • RIVER SAND: It is more white in color. The grains of river sand are not sharp and angular. plastering and concrete work. If used walls would have permanent dampness. . It is suitable for plastering work. Finer than pit sand. mostly rounded. It is of light brown color. rounded. Because of presence of salt it is not suitable for masonry.
• It should be free from clayey materials and organic matters. • The grains should be of durable minerals. • The gradation of grain sizes should be such that it will give minimum voids. . • It should be free from salts.Requisites of good sand • The grains should be sharp.angular and coarse.
medium sand for brickwork. plastering.SAND • • • SELECTION: It should be done with three major aspects Quality. availability and cost. A good quality sand consumes less cement and makes the structure more strong and durable keeping the maintenance cost low. concrete work. USES: It is extensively used in bricklayers work. Fine sand for plastering. FUNCTION: It prevents shrinkage and cracking of mortar in setting and gives strength to mortar against crushing. • • • . coarse sand for making concrete.
it shall be clean.WATER • Water for mixing cement/lime mortar or concrete shall not be salty. storage & handling of water shall be clean. • Water shall be obtained from sources approved by the Eengineer. • Water fit for drinking will generally be found suitable for mixing cement/ lime mortar or concrete.C.C. • Containers for transport. organic matter which will either weaken the mortar or concrete or attack the steel in R. . reasonably clear and free from objectionable quantities of silt & traces of oil acid and injurious alkali.
work. • Sea water and water containing more than 3% of chloride salts should not be used for curing R.C. • Potable water will generally be found suitable for curing cement/ lime mortar or concrete. • It should have PH value ranging between 4. WATER .C.• Water for curing cement or concrete should not be too acidic or too alkaline.5 to 8.5.
measurements . types.size. classification.uses tests. qualities BRICKS Classification. types.protection.UNIT-5 STONE Characteristics.
strong and durable to resist wear and tear.CHARACTERISTICS • A good building stone should be hard. • It should not absorb more than 5% of water. loose organic matters. . • It should be close-grained and homogeneous and free from cracks. cavities. iron oxides.
CLASSIFICATION Based on physical characteristics and practical needs stones are classified as: Granite Sandstone Limestone slate • • • • .
hard & 10%mica.pink. 40%felspar and • It is durable. •It is white.or red. •Polished •it readly cracks under columns in a strong fire.VARIOUS STONES Name of stone Granite composition characteristics uses Consists of 50 •It has mottled 60%quartz.30appearance. •Steps • its cost is high. grey. •Bridge piers •Sea walls •Marine works heavy with close •Plinths crystalline structure. . bldgs.
Name of stone
This is a sedimentary rock
Color may be whitish, yellowish, red, grey and all shades of blue. Grit variety of sandstones are strong and heavy.
Flag stones are used for paving, tile stones for roofing, free stones for ornamental works, hard sandstones for steps
Name of stone
Roofing, paving, wall decoration, steps as a damp proof course Columns, staircases, floors,staircases dados etc.
Made of silica Color varies and alumina from purple to
green. hard, tough, compact and durable.
White, gray, blue, brown, pink in color
STONE FOR MASONRY
• Stone to be used in masonry shall be granite, laterite or any other type good stone that may be specified in the item. • The stone shall stand weathering well and when immersed in water for 24 hrs shall not absorb water more than 5% of its dry weight when tested. • The stone for the required quality shall be obtained from the quarry specified in the contact and the stone shall generally be freshly quarried. • Laterite stone should be compact in texture and the type of stones in which clay occurs should not be used as building stones. • Laterite stones exposed to weather to harden for sometime should be preferred. • It should not be used where it is subjected to great pressure and is liable to be soaked with water.
the stone shall be from the quarry. hard.QUALITY OF FACED STONES • It should be tough. sound and durable. durability or the appearance. • The size and shape of stone shall be as per the requirements of each item. the product of which is known to be satisfactory quality in use. uniform in colour and texture. resistant to weathering action. • They shall be with clean faces and shall be of such a character that it can be rough to such lines and surfaces as may be required. . • Preferably. free from cracks or other defects that would adversely affect the strength. • The exposed face shall be entirely free from any type of discolouration.
QUALITY OF RUBBLE STONE It shall be of approved quality. hard and durable. free from cracks and other structural defects tending to defect their soundness and strength. .
straight and right angled edges. • They shall have a clear metallic ringing sound . • Uniformly well burnt throughout but not over burnt. • They shall have plain rectangular faces with parallel sides and sharp. Frog should not be less than 1 cm and should not be more than 2 cms. • It has a frog of 10 mm depth on one of the faces.Class I bricks • They shall be of regular and uniform size and shape and reddish colour.
specially of permanent nature.Only bricks of one standard size shall be used on one work unless specially permitted by the architect.All sorts of sound work. • Absorption. .Class I bricks • Size.Absorption by weight shall not exceed by 20% of the dry weight of the brick when tested • Uses.
.37 kg/sq.8 kg/sq.cm then more tests are required to be done.cm • Test.7 kg/sq.The load to crush the brick when dry shall not be less than 43.when bricks are to be used in high load bearing walls where the load coming on the wall is of the order of 4.cm and when thoroughly soaked shall not be less than 32.Class I bricks • Crushing strength.
Class II bricks • They shall be similar to class I bricks except that they may be slightly over burnt and may not have very sharp edges. • All other provisions specified for class I bricks shall also be applied to class II bricks . • Crushing strength may be 10% less than the prescribed for class I brick. Absorption shall not exceed 22% when tested. • Tolerance in depth shall be ± 3 mm.
• Special care should be taken to see that the earth used for making sun dried brick is free from salt and all traces of white ants. • They shall be sand moulded. • If cracks appear in drying.Sun dried bricks • They shall be made from the same kind of clay as will give good bricks on being burnt. . they indicate too little sand and such bricks with cracks shall be rejected.
Water absorption shall not be more than 20% .Common burnt clay building bricks As per IS1077-1976 average compressive strength not less than 35 kg/sq cm.
• ordinary brick-23cm x 10cm x 9cm. thokla/gattu brick-23cm x 15cm x 10cm .SIZE • The surface may not be plane on the • All the bricks shall be thoroughly dried before being used.
. • They should be handled and stacked carefully to avoid damage.Protection • Sun dried bricks should from rain at all time.
TESTS • If the bricks break on being throne on their flat face on the ground from height of about 60 cm or such bricks shall be rejected .
.MEASUREMENT • The measurement shall be by numbers with 1000 as the unit for all types of bricks.
UNIT-6 • • • STEEL GLUE NEERU .
STEEL Structural steel – IS-800 of 1962 and IS-226 of1962 • The steel shall be free from defects and shall have a smooth uniform finish. . • It shall be stored above the surface of ground upon the platform. • It should be so stored and handled that it will not be subjected to excessive stress and damage.
Length of bar should be 11 to 12 m. The sharp bends shall be caused for rejection. smoothly cut to the required lines. It shall be major to the correct centimeters and weight shall be calculated nearest to 0. STEEL . The contract shall be unit of one quintal or one tonne.• • • • • Strengthening: All deform material structure will be properly straightened by methods which are not injurious prior to being laid or punched or otherwise worked in the shop. Measurement:The sections shall be supplied in specified exact lengths.1 of kg.
The contractor shall produce a test certificate of the manufacture. oil. paint. • • . The bars shall be directly weighed. shall be protected from surface deterioration by direct contact with undesirable elements or by exposure to conditions producing rust on corrosion Measurement It shall be by weight with quintals or tones as the unit. grease and rust at the time of placing.Mild steel bars for reinforcement IS-432 of 1966 • • • • Material The mild steel that is used for reinforcement shall be clean and free from dirt. Storage It shall be stored above the ground surface upon the platforms to avoid distortion and sags of long lengths.
.22mm diameter i. oil. 16th or 18th gauge. The use of black or galvanized wire will be permitted for binding reinforced bar.e.63mm or 1.Mild steel binding wires IS-280 of 1962 • A mild steel wire shall be of 1. paint. • It shall be free from rust. • It should be soft for twisting. grease or any other undesirable coating that will prevent adhesion of cement mortar.
Mild steel binding wires • Storage The wire shall be stored above ground on platforms and protected from surface deterioration by direct contact with other harmful elements. Measurement and payment No measurement will be taken of the wires used for tying the reinforcement bar. The rate of the reinforcement steel and its fabrication shall include the cost of the binding wire. • • • . The measurement shall be by weight with quintals or tones as the unit.
cakes and granules and power as specified by the purchaser. . • The glue shall be prepared from skin or bone material.GLUE • Animal glue for general woodworking process. • It shall be supplied in the form of sheets.
• The glue when tested shall not less than 6 days without evidence of purification or mould growth or liquefaction.GLUE ODOUR: • The odour of a freshly prepared solution of glue shall not be objectionable. .
GLUE STORAGE PROPERTY • The glue shall retain all properties for at least 12 months from the date of manufacture when stored in a cool dry place. • The chloride content shall not exceed 2% as Sodium chloride.2. . • The pH value of the glue shall be not lower than 4 and not higher than 8. Moisture content of the glue shall not be less than 14% and no individual value should be greater than 18%.
• It shall be prepared by mixing together four parts of lime paste and one part of fine sieved sand by volume. • It shall be measured by volume with cubic meter as the unit. . It should harden within 12 hrs.NEERU • It is material to be used for plaster finishes in building works. • The neeru thus prepared shall be kept moist until used and no more than what can be consumed in 15 days shall be prepared at a time. after application on walls. • The colour should be even and uniform (reddish/white).
UNIT-7 • TIMBER structural ply wood block board .
. • When the kind of wood is not specified. good quality Indian teak alone shall be used.TIMBER • The specification covers the requirement of good quality timber to be used for various works.
cluster knots. • It shall be uniform in substance and straight in fibre. loose.QUALITY OF INDIAN TEAK • It shall be from the heart of a sound tree of mature growth and the sapwood being entirely removed. • All timber shall be conditioned and free from decay. which will affect the strength. rot or insect attacks and from any other damage of harmful nature. free from large. . appearance or its usefulness for the purpose for which it is required. dead knots or defects of any kind. durability. • It should be free from spongy or brushy condition.
INDIAN TEAK COLOR • The colour should be uniform. . • The darkness of colour being generally a sign of strength and durability.
KINDS • Normally. • For temporary and interior work and where economy is the sole consideration jungle wood or hard wood is mentioned. . Indian teak wood of the best quality from ballarshah shall be used. for doors. roofs and trusses in all permanent and first class work. windows. • Properly seasoned and treated nana wood can be used as an alternative to teak wood when so specified seasoned rose wood can be used for internal fittings of first class work and furniture.
• For the pole and the post it is measured in meters in groups of each girth of diameter. These are classified as battens and the supply is measured in meters and the completed item in sq m. • When the thickness and the width is >5cm. . quantity is measured in cubic meter. • When the thickness of planks is <5cm and width >5cm they are classified as planks.CLASSIFICATION • The logs which are now square or rectangle when it is not processed.
• The species of timber recommended for manufacture of plywood have been chosen keeping in view the strength.STRUCTURAL PLYWOOD • It is speciality plywood different from other grades and types of plywood. • The veneer quality and most importantly on the construction details to be observed in the manufacture of plywood can be mass produced under the routine produced under the routine production schedule. viability and specific characteristics . • In this the special emphasis is made on species of timber to be used.
and pressing time. • The glued veneers shall be assembled with grain direction in alternate layers at right angle to each other and hot pressed under controlled condition of temperature. pressure. .MANUFACTURE • Veneer for manufacture of plywood for structural purposes shall be rotary cut or sliced. • This veneer shall be smooth to permit and even spread glue. • The glue veneers shall be dried to moisture content not exceeding 6% and shall be smooth to permit and even spread glue.
180×120 and 180×90 cms Finish: • The faces of plywood panels shall be smooth. 210×120.STRUCTURAL PLYWOOD Dimensions: • Unless otherwise specified structural plywood panels shall be of the size as 240×140. . 210×90. 240×90.
STRUCTURAL PLYWOOD Adhesive: • Adhesive that is used for binding the veneer of structural plywood will be of phenol formaldehyde type. .
.BLOCK BOARD • It is a board having a core made up of wood strips each not exceeding 30mm in width which may or may not be glued between two or more veneer with the direction of the grains of the core blocks running at right angle to the directions of the grains of the adjacent veneer.
prefabricated house where it is likely to be exposed to high humidity. . panelling. tabletops. panelling and ceiling each of these are divided into two types Decorative type: these are block boards with decorated phase veneer on one or other side for use in furniture. train coaches. partition. partitions and panelling to be painted over flooring and seats of bus bodies and railway coaches. interior decoration and partition. Grades 2 interior grade of block boards which are meant for furniture.TYPES OF GRADES • • • • There are two types of grades Grade 1 is the exterior type of block boards which are used for bus bodies. Commercial type: these are block boards with veneers of commercial timber on both sides and are used for ordinary furniture.
trimmed and cut ends of finish block boards shall be given protective treatment.MATERIALS: • Any suitable species of timber may be used for block boards manufacture. .
.BLOCK BOARD CORE: • The wooden strips for the core shall be cut out from timber seasoned. the moisture content not exceeding 12%. • In any one block board the core strips shall be of one species of timber only. • These strips may consist of specimen of small length placed end to end where the end joints shall be staggered.
40. 25. 19. and year of manufacture . 45. 15. or 50mm MARKING: Each block board shall be legibly marked on any of its edges with the following: Indication of the source of manufacture Grade and type of block board Thickness Batch no.BLOCK BOARD • • • • • • DIMENSIONS: The thickness of the block board shall be 12. 35. 30.
UNIT-8 • WATER PROOFING • PLASTERING AND POINTING .
. • The materials which are used are bituminous solution of suitable viscosity to be applied to the walls or floor surface to assist adhesion of the binding material.WATER PROOFING • Providing and laying DPC for the basement.
• Primer shall be laid before applying the first coat of binder. • In the case of an internal column the DPC shall be laid by extending DPC of the floor along the column face to half the depth of skirting and covered over with skirting laid in 1:3 cement mortar and well grouted. • The water proof course shall be of two layers of felt.LAYING • The poison of the DPC shall be as per the drawings unless specified in the special provisions. • The binder shall be applied at the temp not less than 121˚ C. • The gap between the protecting masonry and bitumen felt shall be grouted with cement mortar 1:3 . • Cement mortar fillets shall be laid in the corner.
m of net area covered by DPC ignoring laps.m.MODE OF MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT • The contract rate shall be 1 sq. • The measurement shall be for the area covered. • Dimensions being measured correct up to a centimetre and the area calculated up to two places of decimal of sq. .
.PLASTERING AND POINTING • Providing cement plaster 6 mm thick in single coat in cement mortar with or without cement or neeru finish on concrete surfaces in all positions including scaffolding and curing in complete.
. • The surface has to be hard enough.PLASTERING AND POINTING • Plastering is a process of applying one or more coats of mortar to a concrete surface or brick work or stone masonry. rough and clean.
PLASTERING AND POINTING • Plaster of cement mortar shall be laid with some what more than 6 mm thickness and pressed and levelled with a wooden ruler to a finished thickness of 6mm long straight edge shall be freely used to ensure a perfectly even surface. • All corners and edges shall be perfectly plumb and soffit of arches true to the specified curve. .5mm thick shall be applied to the plastered surface with a trowel by the 1st coat is still plastic. • Watering for curing shall be started soon after initial set of the surface material to avoid the damage. • For the cement finishing a coat of pure Portland cement slurry about 1. • When cement finish is not specified the external plaster shall be finished with a wooden door to give a granular surface and the internal plaster finished smooth with steel trowel. • All the junk of doors and windows and other frames shall be neatly finished.
CURING • • • • • • each coat should be kept damp continuously for at least five days it should be allowed to dry before the next coat is applied the base coat should be evenly damp before the next coat the normal curing period of 7-10 days is sufficient for the final coat there should be a gap of 7 days between 1st and 2nd coat of plaster curing helps in reducing cracking of concrete surface .
Water proofing compound may be added in case plaster is exposed.EXTERNAL PLASTER • • • It is made in rich cement mortar usually done in two layers. 1st layer is of 10 to12mm thickness and final layer is of 6mm thickness. .
INTERNAL PLASTER • it is done in single layer of 12.5mm with good quality neeru finish .
. scaffolding keeping the surface base coat rough to receive the sand liquid finishing the surface by taking out grains and curing concrete. • the type and grade of cement • the type and grading of sand • the location of plaster internal or external and the purpose of application • Providing sand faced plaster in cement-mortar using sand in all positions including the base coat.PROPORTIONING • The proportion of cement and sand in plaster will depend on several factors such as the environmental condition existing around masonry.
• The base coat shall be of cement mortar. • The water proofing compound of approved make sika, accoproof shall be added according to the maker’s instructions to make the mortar waterproof. • The plaster with this mortar shall be laid with thickness of 15mm for brick work and concrete surface and 20mm for rubble sole masonry. • Keys shall be formed on the surface by thoroughly combing it with varied horizontal line about 12mm apart and 3mm deep. • When the mortar is still plastic the base coat shall be cured for not less than 2 days.
• WHITE WASH • GLASS
• It is prepared from the fresh burnt white stone lime of shell lime. • This lime shall be of class C type. • Surkhi lime or lime of equivalent quality shall be used. • The lime shall be dissolved in a tub with sufficient quantity of water – 4.5 l/kg of lime, until it attains the consistency of thin cream. • The wash should be taken out in small quantities and drained through clean coursed cloth
• All loose pieces shall be scraped off and the holes stopped with mortar. the old colour wash must be entirely renewed before the white wash is applied.PREPARATION OF SURFACE • It should be prepared by removing all mortar droppings and foreign matter and thoroughly cleaned with wire or fibre brush to produce an approved clean and even surface. • In case where the surfaces have been previously colour-washed. .
the whitewash shall be laid with a brush. • The first stroke of the brush shall be from the top to downwards and another from bottom to upwards over the first stroke and thirdly one stroke from the right and another from the left over the first brush before it dries. . • This will form one coat.APPLICATION • On surface so prepared. Each coat must be allowed to dry and the surface shall present a smooth uniform finish free from brush marks and it should not come off easily when rubbed with a finger.
• For all color wash . a sample must be first applied and allowed to dry as it looks much paler than precisely the same shapes are applied to large surface such as the walls of a room.APPLICATION OF COLOR WASH • This is prepared by adding necessary coloring matter of approved make to the whitewash which has been stained. • Care must be taken to mix sufficient color wash to complete whole surface to be treated and sufficient gum should be applied to prevent the color wash coming off when rubbed with fingers. . • The color wash should be applied over a base coat(2 coats of white wash).
Mix thoroughly and then strain in cloth. • No brush marks shall be seen.APPLICATION OF PLASTIC EMULSION PAINT • • • • • Add about 50% water in plastic emulsion paint. • For the third coat if and when specified the same procedure shall be followed. Brush the paint on wall. Allow it to dry properly. For the second coat add about 15 – 20% water and give a coat by the brush. .
a priming coat shall be applied over the completely dried surface in a manner recommended by the makers in the case of patent distempers. • Distemper shall not be mixed in a larger quantity then is actually required for a days work. • When no priming coat is specified. • The coating when dry being rubbed as clean and smooth as possible. • The rate shall include the labour.WASHABLE DISTEMPER • After the surface the distemper is cleaned. • It shall be applied in dry weather with a broad stiff brush in long parallel strokes. • The brushes used should never be allowed to rest on the brushes and after the use they should be carefully and thoroughly cleaned. • The treated surface shall be allowed to dry and harden. the material and tools required to carry out the work of a given specified area.a finely powdered chalk mixed with a thin solution of glue shall be applied to prepare a good hard background. . • Hot water should be used to prepare the mixture .
• Specifications for different kind of glass shall be as IS1761-1960 .Glacier’s work • The glass shall be of best quality. air holes. blisters and other defects. • Thickness of the glass shall be uniform.free from bubbles.
Sheet glass • This glass shall be patent. flattened sheet glass of the best quality weighing 75kg/sq.75kg/sq. the weight shall be not less than 8.m up to 60×60cm panels. for 90×90cm-not less than 11.25kg/sq.m.m . • Longer panel 80×80cm.
• It shall be of polished. plate glass of specified thickness is used. . • It shall have clean undistorted vision and reflection.Plate glass • For important buildings and panels above 90cm size. • Thickness shall be 6mm. patent plate glass of best quality.
Obscured glass • It transmits light so that the vision is partially or almost completely obscured. .
Wired glass • Wire netting is embedded in a sheet or plate glass. • The thickness shall not be less than 3mm. • Wire mesh is inserted during the rolling. 22mm hexagonal mesh is used. .
20 or 30 cm sq and approximately 10 cm thick . • The size of this may be 15. • These are used in glass brick panels which are hollow.Glass blocks • They are also called glass bricks.
UNIT-10 • WOOD WORK .
the materials used are timber which shall comply with specification no A16 in all respects. air space shall be loft of 6mm at the end of sides wherever practicable and necessary.WOOD WORK • The specification refers wood work including carpentry. No extra payment shall be made for such tarring. Precautions against decaying must be taken. • The tar shall be so applied as not to appear on the exposed timber. • All parts of the wood work resting on or set in masonry shall be well painted with two coats of hot boiled tar. . • There are two types of roof one is organic type which shall be from skin and bone material and second is synthetic type—it should be of such a material that may be used without causing harm and order. • Good Indian teak wood alone shall be used. • Timber buried in the ground shall be well coated with tar. joinery for roof. floors and stairs etc. When the end of the beam or joist is embedded with masonry.
• For internal work where the joints are not likely to be affected by moisture. the joints may be glued and lay pinned. • All the moulding shall be cleaned and accurately finished. . all the joints should be simple tenon and mortice joint with the end of the tenon exposed to view. • All framed joinery for external joint shall be put together with white lead and joints filled with hard wood or bamboo pins.WORKMANSHIP • All wood work shall be neatly and truly finished to the exact dimensions required unless otherwise specified.
workman and for any action or compensation that may arise in this connection. . • He is responsible for safety of the work.SCAFOLDING • The contractor shall provide all labours scaffolding ladders and tackle all the necessary inspections during wood work fixing and during construction.
• If it is to be painted it shall be given the first two coats on the ground before beam fixed in position and third coat afterwards. .IRON WORK • All the iron work connected to wood work and going to be embedded in masonry shall before the erection receive two coats of hot coal tar.
• It shall have the primary coat of paint put on or otherwise treated before being fitted in the position. . • The subsequent coats of paint or other finish shall be applied after the wood work is fixed in position.INSPECTION • All the wood work shall be inspected and passed by the contractor before being put to work.
.MODE OF MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT • It will be paid by net measurements and allowance will be made for wastage. • When the schedule call for supply of rot timber the rate shall be including carriage and delivery at site of work.
UNIT-10 • OIL PAINT .
. • Factory mixed paints only shall be used unless other types are specifically mentioned.OIL PAINT • It shall be thoroughly stirred with clean stick before use to keep the pigment in uniform suspension.
• Flat brushes when specifically authorised by contractor in writing shall not be over 8cm.BRUSHES • All brushes round or oval shaped. .
.CONTAINER • The paint while being applied shall be kept in shallow pants and not in cans. • All paint cans must be clean at the end day’s work.
dirt or any other foreign material of surface.APPLICATION • The primer coat of the paint shall be applied as soon as possible after the surface is cleaned before deterioration of the surface by rust and contamination of surface by dust. • It shall be applied so as to produce uniform even coating over the entire surface free from wrinkles or other irregularities. • Paint may be applied by spraying or brushing. . • Preferably painting should be done immediately after cleaning of the same day. • Painting shall be normally done only in dry weather. • Paint shall not be applied when the air is misty or atmospheric conditions such as to promote condensation or the conditions are otherwise unsatisfactory for the work. • It shall not be applied on damp or moist surface. • Sufficient time shall be allowed for 1 coat of paint to dry before the next coat is applied.
rain condensation. contamination or surface damage until it is dry to the fullest extent. • Boards indicating wet paint shall be put up wherever necessary. .PROTECTION • Painted surface shall be protected from the Sun.
• Number of primer coats shall be one coat if not specified. • The number of finishing coats of required shades of colour shall be two if number is not specified. .HOW TO DO OIL PAINTING PAINTING IRON AND STEEL WORK • Red lead paint shall be used for primer coat unless other paints are specified.
• After preparing the surface. • Before any paint is applied. • The surface shall be then rubbed smooth with sand paper. the wood work shall be finished smooth with the plane. the primary coat shall be applied .PAINTING NEW WOOD WORK • Paint shall not be applied to a wood work which is not well seasoned • The surface to be painted must be dry. clean and smooth.
57litre of raw linseed oil + 40gm of patent driers.14 litre of boiled linseed oil + 0.25kg of red lead + 4kg of white lead + 1. This shall be applied before the wood work is fixed in place. • • .The priming coat shall be as follows • For outside wood work it shall consist of 0. After applying the priming coat the work shall be lightly rubbed down smooth with sand paper and subsequent coarse of paint of the specified shade shall be applied.
• . The finished surface shall not show any air marks or dry patches of paints. For wood work unless specified provisions for Coats of paint shall be applied exclusively of the priming coat. Each coat of paint shall be allowed to dry and shall be lightly rubbed before next laid. In the interior of the building 2 coats are sufficient.The priming coat shall be as follows • The paints applied by brushes shall be spread as smoothly as possible with the brush by means of crossing (at right angles to the rail) laying off with brush in the direction of rail over the crossing.
On no account shall putty be used before the priming coat is put on. burning or try paint removers. Priming coat shall be applied as specified for painting. After priming the defects shall be stopped by putty. Some precautions shall be taken as:While removing paint by burning by using blow lamp. The surface shall be rubbed smooth with sand paper. While removing paint by scraping care shall be taken not to damage the under lying surface of the wood. particular care shall be taken to avoid burning of wood work. • • • • • • .REPAIRING OLD WOOD WORK All the paint shall be removed either by scrubbing. It shall be prepared from pure whiting mixed with proper consistency of raw linseed oil.
• New plaster shall not be painted till it is completely dry and hard priming coat shall consist of equal parts of white and red lead mixed in boiled linseed oil to required consistency applied uniformly over the surface. PAINTING PLASTERED SUFACES . • The paint shall be applied by brush and shall be spread as smoothly as possible. • When this coat is dry. • The second coat shall be thicker and shall contain a small quality of turpentine with some of the required colouring equipment. • The surface shall then be rubbed with sand paper and dusted clean. • The first coat shall be thin so that the plaster may be thoroughly saturated. all cracks. • The third coat shall be thicker having equal parts of linseed oil and turpentine. • The last coat shall be as specified for each item of painting walls and ceiling shall be given flat finish as glossy finishing coat shows up irregularity in plaster. holes and other such defects shall be filled with a mixture of 1 part white lead and 3 parts ordinary putty. • The finishing coat may be necessary to give 4 coats of paint over the priming coat.
UNIT-10 • TILES .
sieving.CERAMIC TILES • Ceramic tiles are thin slabs made from clay. • They can be glazed or unglazed and are unaffected by light . • They are prepared by grinding. • Generally used as coverings for floor. and are shaped by pressing. walls and façade. silica. mixing. colour. and other mineral raw material. • Usually at room temperature they are then dried and subsequently fired at a high temperature. casting all other processes.
SIZE OF THE TILE • The tiles and sizes are based on M (M=100mm). 3M. A brief specification shall be supplied which shall include • The description of the tile • The number of relevant standard • The nominal size and the work size • The nature of the tiled surface . and 5M and also their multiples or sub divisions except for tiles with a surface area of less than 9000mm². Normally 2M.
They shall be uniform in shape and size and shall be free from irregularities such as twist. The face of the tile shall be either plain or grooved but back of the tile shall be corrugated so as to give the grip to the mortar. The width is 100-200mm in stages of 25mm. cracks and particles of stone. Size: length -150-250mm in the stages of 25mm. • • • • . bent. The thickness is 15-20mm.TYPES • • BURNT CLAY FLAT TERRACING TILES The terracing tile shall be made from good soil of even texture and shall be evenly burnt.
• The marking shall not cover more than 5% of the area of the specimen. . • Strength: the average module of rupture in bending of 6 tiles when tested shall not be more than 2 N/mm² • Marking: each terracing tile shall be legibly marked with indication of source of manufacturer and the tile also should be marked by letter M to indicate it is machine made.BURNT CLAY FLAT TERRACING TILES • The average mortar absorption of 6 tiles when tested shall not exceed 15%.
the tiles are manufactured. . • The pigments that are synthetic are used for colouring tiles for durable colour. • From the mixture of cement natural aggregate and colouring materials. • They shall not contain zinc compounds and organic dyes. • The materials used is cement which may be OPC or rapid hardening Portland cement.CHECKED CEMENT CONCRETE TILES • These are cement tiles or terrazzo tiles with a centre-tocentre distance of the chequers not less than 25mm and not more than 50mm with grooves not less than 3mm. Lead pigments shall not be used unless specified otherwise. white P cement and aggregate consists of marble chips or natural stone chips of similar characteristics and hardness if required more hardener also be added.
• During their manufacture. • The thickness shall be measured at two points situated 50mm apart from the ends on a line that is tested for its strength. 250 × 250 × 22mm and 300 × 300 × 25mm half tiles rectangular in shape shall also be made available. • On removal from the mould the tiles shall be kept in moist condition continuously for such a period that will ensure the required standard. • Normal size of the tiles is 200 × 200 × 22mm. the tiles are subjected to pressure not less than 14 N/mm². • The proportion of cement to aggregate is 1:3 by mass where the colouring material shall not exceed 10% by mass of cement used in the mix. • The tiles shall be stored under the cover. CHECKED CEMENT CONCRETE TILES .
• It shall not show any sign of crazing after two cycles of test in an autoclave. • Glazed surface (white/cream) shall show no deterioration. .GLAZED TILES • Water absorption shall not exceed 18%.
depression. • The colour and texture should be uniform throughout its thickness.GENERAL QUALITY OF TILES • The tiles shall be supplied with initial grinding and grouting of the upper layer of the tile. cracks and cavity. • The upper layer of the tile shall be free from projection. • The edge of tiles may be rounded. • The thickness should be less than 5mm. .
ROOFING SLATE TILES . • The standard size of slate tiles shall be 600 × 300 ×15mm and 500 × 250 ×15mm. • It should have uniform colour and texture and shall not contain white patches.• Slates are important roofing materials which are rectangular tiles made out off slate and used for covering the sloping roof. • It shall be free from cracks or other similar source of weakness. • Each slate tile shall be marked in a suitable manner with the manufacturer identification mark and should also be marked with 1st certification mark. • The surface of the slate shall be such as to permit proper laying. • A tolerance of ±5mm shall be allowed on length and breath unless otherwise specified slates shall be of uniform thickness and rectangular shape with true corners and edges.
UNIT-11 EXCAVATION FOR FOUNDATION INCLUDING SHORING AND STRUTTING AS NECESSARY AND DISPOSING OF EXCAVATED STUFF AS DIRECTED .
EXCAVATION FOR FOUNDATION – – The excavation will generally refer to open excavation of foundation wet or dry. True to line. – – – – . curve. The labour and material required will be arranged by the contractor at his own cost. Clearing the site on which the structure is to be built shown on the plan and the area required for setting out and operations should be clear and all obstruction. level and scope. Setting out –after clearing the site the centrelines will be given and it will be the responsibility of the contractor to install substantial reference mark or bench mark and maintain them as long as required. loose stone material and rubbish of all kind should be removed as directed . Useless material will be burnt or otherwise disposed by site engineer.
. • Before starting excavation so that he takes cross sectional level for the purpose of measurement before the ground is disturbed. • The contractor shall notify the engineer.EVACUATION • It shall include removal of all materials whatever nature wet or dry necessary for the construction of foundation and substructure. • It shall be taken to the exact width of the lowest step of the footing and the site shall be plumb with the nature of soil.
• The final surface should be slightly watered and ramped. .PREPARATION OF FOUNDATION FOOTING • The bottom of the foundation shall be levelled or stepped as directed before the footing is laid. • No filling will be allowed to bring the foundation to level.
SHORING • It shall be of sufficient strength to resist side pressure and ensure safety to prevent damage to work and property and injury to the person. • It can be removed as directed after all the items for which it is required are completed. .
PROTECTION • Sufficient preventing measures shall be taken to see that foundation excavation does not effect or damage the adjoining structures. .
. • For back filling the materials shall be placed in 15cm to 20cm and the layer will be completed.5m from the outer edge of the excavation. • The site shall be left clan of all the debris on completion.DISPOSAL OF EXCAVATED MATERIAL • No materials excavated from foundation trenches are to be placed even temporarily nearer than 1. • Rate of excavation includes sorting out of useful material and stacking them separately as directed.
. • When the concrete and masonry is in progress and till they come about the natural water level and till the engineer considers the mortar is sufficiently safe. • The excavation shall be kept free from water during excavation.DEWATERING • Pumping out water from any foundation enclosure or trenches shall be generally in such a way that it will not damage any adjacent structure.
Sorting out useful excavation materials. and equipment ensure the safety and protection against accidents. material. Supply of facilities for inspection and measurement at any time by the government officials.DICIDING THE RATE OF EXCAVATION • • • • • • • • • • Clearing of site. Compensation for injury to life and damage to the property. Necessary protection including labour. Back filling the trenches with approved material up to the natural ground level. Setting out work according to the sanction plan. . Pumping out water when separate provision does not exist in the tender. Excavation and removal of all material of whatever nature wet or dry. Providing and removing shoring and strutting.
• All the materials encountered in the excavation could be mainly classified in the groups. Soils of all sorts- sand, gravel, soft murum and other similar materials. Hard murum- This shall include all kinds of disintegrated rocks free from bolder larger than 0.03cu.m. Hard murum and bolders – This shall include bolders less than 1/2cu.m and larger the 0.03cu.m. Which do not normally need blasting and can be removed easily. Soft rock- All decomposed and weathered rocks. Laterite - Soft and hard laterite rock which can be removed by blasting.
• SPECIFICATION OF WORK
SPECIFICATION OF WORK
• • GENERAL CLAUSES General condition of contract--To be according to the printed form of conditions of contract lay down by the Indian institute of architect, Mumbai. Execution of work—the whole of the work as described in the contract and as instructed by the architect from time to time is to be carried out and completed in all its parts to the entire satisfaction of the architect. Contractors to provide everything necessary—as per the requirement for proper execution of the works according to the drawings and specification taken together. Scaffolding tools and plants—the contractor should provide the necessary tools labour and materials for proper execution of the work and is to remove the same on the completion of the work.
GENERAL CLAUSES • Shades and workshop—the contractor to provide at his own expense all necessary shades and workshops for the use of the workman and storage of materials and maintain and keep the same in order to the entire satisfaction of the architect and remove it on completion. For the execution of their respective works on job and cost there of shall be paid by the subcontractor as fixed by the architect. Attendance to subcontractor’s requirements— the general contractor is to allow the use of water and his scaffolding to the sub. • • .contractor and others.
WATER SUPPLY AND DRAINAGE • Water from municipal main or from tank or well. • Storage should be sufficient as directed by the architect. fittings and other temporary plumbing works required and shall be maintained in satisfactorily conducted throughout the whole period of the contract and completion of the work and take away and remove all such work to the satisfaction of the architect. . • The contractor shall provide at his own cost brick masonry water storage tank at all necessary pipes. • The cost for the water should be borne by the contractor.
• All these works are included in the rates of different items quoted or tendered by the contractor and nothing extra will be paid for the same. .WATER SUPPLY AND DRAINAGE • The tank for the water storage is to be connected to the proper drainage system of the municipality. • The contractor is to pay necessary charges to the municipality for treating the water with suitable disinfectant. • The contractor is to provide at his own expense temporary sanitary accommodation and washing places for the workers on the site and to remove the same on completion of the building works.
• The decision of the architect shall be final and binding as regards to the quality of workmanship and materials used on the work. .MATERIAL AND WORKMANSHIP • All materials shall be of best quality and all the works shall be carried in the form of best workmanship and shall be approved by and to the satisfaction of the architect.
. efficiency and that they comply with the Indian standard specification. • Defective material shall be removed from the site and the portion of works if found defective should be re-executed by the contractor at his own cost.TESTING OF WORK AND MATERIAL • The contractor shall if required by the architect arrange to test the material and portions of work at his own cost in order to prove their soundness.
all kinds of rubbish as well as shrubs and other growth. • The products of the clearing to be stacked in such a manner as directed or removed from site.CLEARING THE SITE • The site shall be cleared off all the obstructions. • All hollows shall be carefully filled up and the ground left in a clean and level condition as required. . • This work shall be included in the rates paid for various items and no extras should be paid. the materials.
• The measurements for the finished RCC work are to be paid as per the RCC drawings. • Lintels should be measured in cubic feet. • Chajjas and canopies shall be measured in square feet of the required thickness. • The slab shall be measured in square feet of the required thickness.MEASUREMENT • All the works shall be measured in accordance to the standard mode of measurement of building works as per published by the IIA Mumbai. • The columns shall be measured in cubic feet of the actual work done between the slabs. • The sizes of all RCC members shall be those actually done with a finishing. • All beams shall be measured in cubic feet of the actual work done where the beams and columns meet. .
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