# Tutorial for ANSYS®

Release 6.1 Finite Element Analysis Software

For Unix Based Workstations Truss, Frame, and Plate Examples

By Andrew R. Mondi Using examples and revisions from: Cosmos-GeoStar Tutorial, January 2000, by Keith M. Mueller Department of General Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign May 2003 Corrections: May 18, 2004

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This tutorial is based upon Cosmos-Geostar Tutorial written by Dr. Keith M. Mueller in January 2000. The example problems solved in that tutorial are also solved here. I tried to incorporate the strengths of Cosmos-GeoStar Tutorial into this ANSYS tutorial, even though the structure and content of each are quite different. I thank Professor David E. Goldberg for his guidance while writing this booklet. He is a skilled manager and leader. I thank Mr. Raja R. Katta for his assistance. His concise and timely explanations of difficult material in ANSYS were essential for swiftly completing this project. Also, I thank Professor Thomas F. Conry for his advice and suggestions for refining and improving this tutorial.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. TRUSS EXAMPLE Preprocessing Introduction Modeling Element Type Real Constants Material Properties Meshing Solution Phase Analysis Type Apply Constraints Apply Loads Apply Solution Post-processing Reaction Forces Member Forces and Axial Stresses Displacements 3. FRAME EXAMPLE Preprocessing Introduction Modeling Element Type Real Constants Material Properties Define Sections Meshing Solution Phase Introduction Analysis Type Define Frame Constraints Define Frame Loads Apply Solution 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-3 2-1 2-1 2-1 2-2 2-7 2-8 2-10 2-12 2-16 2-16 2-16 2-17 2-19 2-20 2-20 2-20 2-23 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-2 3-4 3-4 3-5 3-7 3-7 3-7 3-7 3-7 3-9 iv . INTRODUCTION What is ANSYS? Helpful Web Links Purpose of this Tutorial Using this Tutorial Effectively Starting up in a Unix System Default View in ANSYS Familiarizing Yourself with ANSYS 2.

FRAME EXAMPLE (continued) Post-processing Introduction Reaction Forces Member Forces and Stresses Member Displacements and Rotations 4. APPENDIX Working with ANSYS in Unix Saving an ANSYS file Opening a previously saved ANSYS file Printing result tables Printing graphical output Managing your EWS Account How to Access EWS files Deleting EWS files in Unix Creating Axisymmetric Models General Notes on Understanding ANSYS 3-9 3-9 3-10 3-10 3-10 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-4 4-5 4-6 4-6 4-8 4-8 4-8 4-8 4-9 4-10 4-10 5-1 5-1 5-1 5-1 5-2 5-2 5-2 5-2 5-2 5-3 5-5 v . PLATE EXAMPLE Preprocessing Introduction Modeling Element Type Real Constants Material Properties Meshing (and refining a mesh) Solution Phase Introduction Analysis Type Apply Constraints Apply Loads Apply Solution Post-processing 5.3.

You should not perform any operations in this window.Starting up in a Unix System After logging onto the workstation. type ansys. a session file screen (Figure 1-3) will pop-up. Figure 1-2 Tansys window First. you will see an x-term window (Figure 1-1) on the desktop: Figure 1-1 x-term window At the prompt in this window. ANSYS NOW. You may need to wait for a few seconds until the graphicalinterface component of the program launches and you see the graphical interface (Figure 1-4 on the next page): Figure 1-3 Session file window 1-2 . Note: the question-mark icon accesses Help. Click the top icon. which creates a new window (Figure 1-2) on the desktop titled “Tansys” with square icons.

and the z-axis pointing out of the screen. Familiarizing Yourself with ANSYS The fastest. It may look intimidating at first glance however think about the information that you need to solve for all of the components in a structure.Figure 1-4 ANSYS with graphical interface Default View in ANSYS The default view in ANSYS is well suited for two-dimensional designs with the x-axis pointing horizontally to the right. the position. Zoom and repaint (or refresh screen) commands are very similar to those used in most CAD or word processing software. and material of the structural members. and the constraints on the structure. easiest and most logical way to use ANSYS is through the Main Menu located on the far left-hand side of the screen (Figure 1-5 at left). In order to get ANSYS to work properly. You need to know the position. magnitude and direction of all the loads on the structure. y-axis pointing vertically upwards. you simply need to tell the program this information and it will do the rest for you! Figure 1-5 Main Menu 1-3 . length.

it will allow for demonstration of modeling a truss containing different materials and member sizes. Modeling (define Keypoints and lines and using plot controls) 2.2. ANSYS is constructed in an outline format. Meshing (one division per element) 2-1 . This tutorial is built so as to mimic this outline structure. Always be thinking about where you are in the modeling process and how the steps you are completing are meaningful and can be used in other problems you will solve in your classes. In each of these major steps. I. the four diagonal members will be assumed to be aluminum and have an area of 30 in2. Preprocessing A. While this creates a somewhat unrealistic truss. TRUSS EXAMPLE Given the following loaded truss. Figure 2-1 Given truss For illustrative purposes. Remember: Think about the modeling processing as having 3 major steps: Preprocessing. and the three horizontal members will be assumed to be steel and have an area of 10 in2. Element Type (2D truss spars) 3. find the internal forces in all members and displacements of all joints. there are small sub-steps. and Post-processing. Introduction – several steps will be completed in the Pre Processing stage: 1. Real Constants (define cross-sectional areas of truss spars) 4. Solution.

Keypoints . You will be creating points and lines. A sub-menu will drop-down listing all of the commands you can use in the Preprocessing stage. Modeling 1. b.The first step in designing any structure in ANSYS is to define the Keypoints of the structure. These points simulate the joints of the structural members and also serve as endpoints of the members. This menu lists all of the objects you can create in ANSYS. Left click the small plus sign next to Keypoints. The pop-up window will prompt you for a keypoint number and a set of coordinates for that keypoint. On the Main Menu. Left click the small plus sign next to Modeling. c. d. Another sub-menu of all modeling commands is listed here.Figure 2-2 Main Menu B. a. Note: This sequence of steps will be summarized using the following notation: Preprocessor>Modeling>Create>Keypoints>Active CS The Create Keypoints window will appear: Figure 2-3 Create Keypoints window 2-2 . left click the plus sign next to Preprocessor. Left click the small plus sign next to Create. Click the small icon next to Active CS.

Figure 2-5 All keypoints defined 2.In ANSYS. lines represent structural members. Now all of the points for our truss have been defined. You define lines by connecting the keypoints created previously. ANSYS will define a new point at (0. a. Begin by numbering your structure’s members on your paper copy for your own records. You will find that there are Delete commands that correspond to all Create commands.zero.0)! Note: If you need to remove keypoints that you have already created. Lines (Defining Members) .0. go to Preprocessor>Modeling>Delete. This is done for you below: 2-4 . if you press “OK”.

d. Be sure that the options Pick.Figure 2-6 Given truss with numbered members b. This defines the member 1. A yellow box will highlight this point. Your mouse cursor will appear to be a small vertical arrow pointing upwards. 0). Move the cursor right to point 2 (200. The Create Straight Line window will appear (at right). Figure 2-7 Create Straight Line window Figure 2-8 Line (member) 1 defined Note: The process is the same for defining all other members: left click once on the start point. c. Left click once near or on point 2. we will begin with member 1. 200). Move your mouse cursor to a Keypoint that will serve as the start of the first member you wish to define. Single. Go to Preprocessor>Modeling>Create>Lines> Lines> Straight Line in the Main Menu. 2-5 . move to the end point and left click once. Left click once on point 1 (0. and List of Items are selected. ANSYS will provide a preview sketch of member 1.

Turn on the Keypoint and Line numbers options and select OK. Go to Preprocessor>Element Type>Add/Edit/Delete in the Main Menu. Now you should be able to see your truss completely numbered. Element Type 1. 2-7 .” The Element Type Library window will pop-up. Select “Add.. Note: Throughout this tutorial you may need to Replot your model several times to get a good visual representation of your model. C. The Element Type window will pop-up.Figure 2-11 Numbering window e.. Figure 2-12 Element Type window 2. Know that you can turn on and off visual components of your model using the options under the Plot and Plot Controls (PlotCtrls) command on the top menu bar.

This means that this element will be a truss link. Click close.Figure 2-13 Element Type Library window 3. b. This will force your truss members to be displaced in 2 dimensions. 1. Select OK. c. D. e..next you must define the cross-sectional areas for the members of your truss. Select “Link” in the left hand box. Select Add. this will close the Library window. Leave the default 1 for element reference type number. Real Constants . d. Select “2D spar” in the right hand box.. In this window set the following: a. Go to Preprocessor>Real Constants>Add/Edit/Delete in the Main Menu. 2-8 . You will return to the Element Types window (Figure 2-12). so that the Element Type for Real Constants window will popup. Figure 2-14 Real Constants window 2. The Real Constants window will pop-up.

Set Real Constant Set No. ANSYS is now prepared to receive the set of real constants for steel (type 2). Initial strain to 0 2-9 . Enter the cross-sectional area for steel (10) [in units of in2]. to 2 e. d. Initial Strain is 0. Enter the following in the Set Constants window: a. b. Note that you are in Real Constant Set Number 1. f. The Set Constants window will pop-up. Click Apply. Select OK.LINK1" is already highlighted. c. This will store the information for aluminum. Note that "Type 1 .Figure 2-15 Element Type for Real Constants window 3. Enter the cross-sectional area for Al (30) [in units of in2]. Figure 2-16 Set Constants window 4.

In this window. On the right hand side double click on Structural>Linear>Elastic> Isotropic. 2-10 . Now there are two real constant sets for cross-sectional area defined (one for each material). E. 3. Click OK. The Material Behavior window will appear.Figure 2-17 Set Constants window with those for steel g. Remember that the diagonal members are aluminum and the horizontal members are steel.now you must define the materials that make up your truss members. Note that “Material 1” has already been created . This will launch a new pop-up window Material Properties for Material Number 1. h. Figure 2-18 Material Model Behavior window 2. 1.ANSYS is waiting for you to define it. Go to Preprocessor> Material Props>Material Models. Material Properties . Click Close in the Real Constants window. This window is divided into two regions: Material Models Defined on the left and Material Models Available on the right. The box will close and you will return to the Real Constants window. left click on Material 1 so it is highlighted (this may already be done).

a. Enter 0. Poisson's ratio is not used. PRXY is for Poisson's Ratio.000 psi (10. d.3 in the PRXY box c.Figure 2-19 Material Properties for Material Number 1 4. For all two-dimensional models (spars). Select the Material drop-down menu in the upper left-hand corner of the window and select New Model. Select OK. 2-11 .000. In the Material Model Behavior window (Figure 2-18) click on Material 2 in the left hand box so that it is highlighted.000 ksi). The box EX is for the Elastic Modulus of the material. Enter 10000000 in the EX box b. You will return to the Define Material Behavior window. Note: we will follow the same steps to define Material 2 (steel) as we did for Material 1 (aluminum). let us make Material 1 behave like aluminum with an Elastic Modulus of 10. For this example. click OK (the default number is sufficient). A pop-up window asking for a Material ID number. but it is a good idea to be in the habit of entering it. Figure 2-20 Material Menu location in Define Material Behavior window Figure 2-21 Material ID window 5. so it doesn’t have to be entered.

2-12 .the Mesh function is the heart of ANSYS! Meshing is like breaking your structure into small pieces that ANSYS can recognize and then “gluing” these pieces of your model together. Be sure that Pick and Single are selected. Select lines 1. 7. 8. Figure 2-22 Pick Line Attributes 2. Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>Mesh Attributes>Picked Lines. The properties window for Material Properties for Material Number 2 will pop-up (Figure 2-19). Select OK in the Line Attributes window. 4. Once this is complete. 3. each with a single left click. In the workspace. The Pick Line Attributes window will pop-up. In the right hand box and double click on Structural>Linear>Elastic> Isotropic (this may already be done). Define the elastic modulus (EX) to be that of steel for this example (30000000 psi) and Poisson's ratio (PRXY) to be 0. 3. if you do not already know how to do this). 5 and 7 (all the diagonals). Note: You may want to turn line numbering under PlotCtrls>Numbering to see the line numbers if this is not already done.3. The Define Line Attributes window will pop-up. 1. F. it is difficult to pull it apart so you should save your model NOW (see Appendix. page 5-1. note that the mouse will be a small black upward pointing arrow.6. Meshing . Select OK and exit out of this window by clicking on the close box or selecting Exit in the Material Menu.

6. and 6). The Define Line Attributes window will pop-up. Real constant number and Element type for the lines that you selected. Select OK on the Line Attributes window. Real Constant Number = 1 c. e. 4. In this window you can set the Material Number. Figure 2-24 Define Line Attribute window for material 2 (steel) 2-13 .Figure 2-23 Define Line Attributes window for material 1 (aluminum) 5. Select with a left mouse click all of the steel members (2. Now you are ready to define the material properties for the steel members. There is no need to define the Element Section. Element type = 1 d. 7. define these lines accordingly: a. Select Apply so you will return to the Pick Line Window. Since you selected all of the aluminum members. Material Number = 1 b.

The Element Size window will pop-up. Element Type = 1 d. This will close both this window and the Line Attributes window (if you haven't already done so). Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>Size Controls>ManualSize>Lines> All lines. Note the lines of your truss will appear shorter than before (see below): Figure 2-26 Truss after number of divisions per element are set to 1 2-14 . Set the number of divisions per line (NDIV) to 1. Select OK.8. Material Number = 2 b. Define these properties for the steel members: a. Select OK. 9. The other boxes should remain blank. Figure 2-25 Element Size window 10. Real Constant = 2 c. 11. this will close the window.

Figure 2-29 Analysis Type window 2. The Apply U on KP’s window will pop-up. Attrib. You may want to turn on your element numbering through PlotCtrls>Numbering and setting Elem. Figure 2-30 Apply U on KP’s window 2-16 . go to Solution> Define Loads >Apply> Structural> Displacement>On Keypoints. The Analysis Type window will pop-up. Go to Solution>Analysis Type>New Analysis in the Main Menu. Numbering to Element Numbers. Analysis Type 1. A. Next. Select Static and OK.II. Be sure that Pick and Single are turned on. Apply Constraints 1. Solution Phase – here you will be applying loads and constraints to your truss. B.

UY b. this will close the Define Constraints window (Figure 2-31). Apply Loads 1. e. Displacement value = 0 d. Figure 2-31 Define Constraints window 4. Apply as a constant value c. Now select node 5 (far right and bottom of truss). 6. 5. Select Apply. Go to Solution>Define Loads>Apply>Structural>Force/Moment>On Keypoints in the Main Menu. this will close the Define Constraints window and the Apply U on KP’s window. Doing so will highlight the point with a small yellow box. Note there is now a small triangle under node 1. Be sure that Pick and Single are selected. 2-17 . Apply as a constant value c. The Define Constraints window (Figure 2-31) will pop-up. Select node 1 (coincident with the origin) with a left click near or on the point. C. Leave KEXPND option as default. Leave KEXPND option as default. In the Apply U on KP’s window.2. 7. Select the following: a. select Apply. The Apply U on KP’s window (Figure 2-30) should still be available. Doing so will highlight the point with a small yellow box. Select OK. UX and UY b. Set the following: a. Note there are two small triangles (one horizontal and another vertical) under node 5. The Apply F/M on KP’s window will pop-up. 3. Select Apply. Displacement = 0 d. The Define Constraints window will pop-up. e.

Select OK. This will close both the Define F/M and Apply F/M windows.Figure 2-32 Apply F/M on KP’s window 2. Select the following: a. d. 5. FX b. This will close the Define F/M window (Figure 2-33) but will leave the Apply F/M window open. it will be highlighted by a small yellow box as before. Select Apply. d. Select Apply in the Apply F/M window. Now select node 2 again and Apply in the Apply F/M window (Figure 2-32). Select node 2. FY b. Apply as a constant c. 2-18 . Figure 2-33 Define F/M on KP’s window 4. Magnitude = -300 [units of lbf]. 6. Apply as constant c. Magnitude = -400 [units of lbf]. Select the following: a. 3. The Define F/M window (Figure 2-33) will pop-up. The Define F/M on KP’s window will pop-up.

Figure 2-34 Fully constrained and loaded truss D. The Solve Current Load Step window will appear. Figure 2-35 Solve Current Load Step window 2. 2-19 . It may take a few seconds before both of the following windows appear. Repeat this process (steps 5 and 6) for node 3 (load = -1000) [units of lbf]. Select OK. Go to Solution>Solve>Current LS in the Main Menu. You may close them both. Now your truss is fully constrained and loaded. You are now ready to have ANSYS actually solve the truss. After doing so. Apply Solution 1. your truss should look like the one below. Then ANSYS will solve the truss. Figure 2-36 Solution windows.7.

A.this is the last step of the three major analysis steps in ANSYS. You can see the node numbering on your truss by going to Plot Controls>Numbering>Nodes (this may not be necessarily the same as the Keypoint numbers). Go to General Postprocessor>List Results>Reaction Solution. Figure 2-37 Define Element Table window 2.This completes the Solution Phase. Go to General Postproc>Element Table>Define Table. 2-37 Reaction Solution Table 2. Select “Add. Reaction Forces 1. In this section we will order ANSYS to output internal member forces. 2-20 .”. You are now ready for the final step. Note that the reaction solution results are listed by node number. The Define Element Table window will pop-up.. In the pop-up window select All items and OK. Post-processing . Member Forces and Axial Stresses 1. The Reaction Solution window will pop-up. The Define Additional Element Table Items window will pop-up.. and node displacements. B. III. Post-processing. member axial stresses.

e. This will close the window. type “Axial Stress”. e. Set the following: a. b. Figure 2-39 Define Additional Element Table window 5. 2-21 .Figure 2-38 Define Additional Element Table window 3. Place a 1 next to SMISC in the selection box after the comma.. 6. d. Set the following a.. In the “User Label for item” box. Select OK. Set “By sequence num” in the left hand box (may already be done). In the User label item set the name to “member forces”.”. c. Select “Add. Select SMISC in the right hand box. this will launch the Additional Elements window again. b. c. Select OK. Place a “1” after the comma in the Selection box in the lower right. 4. Close element Data Table. You will return to the Element Table Data Window. d. In the right hand box select LS. In the left hand box scroll to the bottom and select “By sequence num”.

Figure 2-40 List Element Data 8. page 5-2). You can save it to your EWS account or print the data (if you do not know how to do this. The element numbers are in the first column followed by the Member Forces and Axial Stresses. Select Member Forces and Axial stresses by left clicking on each . Go to General Postproc>Element Table>Plot Elem Table. The List Element Data window will pop-up. Select OK. The Contour Plot of Element Table window will pop-up. Figure 2-41 Element Table 10. This will close the window. You can also get a visual representation of your truss using some of the graphical results options. They should be at the top of the listing. Go to General Postproc>Elem Table> List Elem Table.7. 2-22 .the two quantities you defined. 9. Your element table will appear. 11. see Appendix. To output this data go to the File at the top of the window. Note how the values are listed.

For this example we will plot member forces. Note that along the bottom you can see that the element forces correspond to the certain colors of the plot. 13. The Plot Nodal Solution window will pop-up. You should now be able to see a deformed truss with the member forces plotted.do not average”. 2-42) you can choose what you would like to output. Click OK.Figure 2-42 Contour Plot of Element Table window 12. C. In the “Item to be plotted” box (Fig. This will close the window. Figure 2-43 Contour Plot of Truss 14. General Postproc>Plot Results>Deformed shape. Displacements 1. Leave the lower box as “No . Figure 2-44 Plot Nodal Solution window 2-23 .

2. This will close the window. To see the values of the deformations go to General Postproc>List Results>Nodal Solution. Click OK. This will close the window and create a table of displacement results. Figure 2-46 Nodal Solution window 5. You should now move on to the FRAME example. Click OK. for this example plot “deformed and undeformed. The Nodal Solution window will pop up. Choose your plot preference. Figure 2-47 Displacement Table This completes the Post-processing. 2-24 .” 3. Figure 2-45 Deformed and undeformed truss 4. Set DOF solution in the left box and “All dofs” in the right box 6.

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procedures that are the same or very similar to those in the truss example will not be outlined in much detail. This tutorial assumes that you have already worked through the truss tutorial. a complete finite element analysis in ANSYS has three components: Preprocessing. The following frame will be constructed: Figure 3-1 Given Frame Once again. The coordinates for the Keypoints are: 3-1 . You will find that many of the steps in this tutorial are similar to those in the truss. and Post-processing. 1. Element Type (different . the major difference between trusses and frames is that members are beams and thus can have a reaction moment.beam) 3. I. Material Properties (similar) 5. Preprocessing A.cross sectional area) 4. Real Constants (similar . Sections (new) 6. FRAME EXAMPLE As you should already know.3. Go to Preprocessor>Modeling>Create>Keypoints>Active CS. Consequently. Solution. Try to complete this without help of the tutorial. Meshing (similar) B. Modeling (similar) 2. The greatest differences between the frame and truss examples occur in defining and assigning member properties and applying loads (in this case a distributed load). The steps to be completed in this phase are listed below. Introduction – think about the steps that you will complete in this section of the tutorial and how they are similar or different from the truss tutorial. Modeling – none of the principles used in this example are different from the truss. 1.

Define Real Constants 1. 3-2 . Select Add. The Define Element type window will appear. You will only have one choice since you have only defined one type of beam. C. 2. X coord. Go to Preprocessor>Element Type>Add/Edit/Delete on the Main Menu. Go to Preprocessor>Real Constants>Add/Edit/Delete in the Main Menu. The Real Constants window will pop-up. Y coord.. Define the Element Type – this frame is composed of beams.Table 3-1 Keypoint Locations KP No. Select OK. the Library of Element Types window will pop-up. 4. Select OK. Select Beam in the left-hand box and 2D Elastic in the right.. D. 2. Another window will appear prompting for which beam to select. The Real Constants for a Beam window will appear. 1. 1 0 0 2 0 144 3 180 0 4 180 144 5 360 0 6 360 144 2. Click Add. This will close the window and return you to the Element Types window. Close this window as well. 3. Figure 3-2 Library of Element Types Window 3. Connect the Keypoints with lines from Preprecessor>Modeling>Create> Lines>Lines>Straight lines.

Initial strain = 0 g. Real Constant Set No.Figure 3-3 Define Real Constants for a Beam 4. (In British units./in. ANSYS is now ready to accept the constants for the second and third types of beams.) h. 5. Repeat step 4 for the other two beam types with values from the following table. Height = 8 e. Real Constant set number 1 will correspond to the W8x42 beam used for members 1 and 5.5 lbm. Moment of Inertia = 8000 d. = 1 b. 3-3 . Cross-sectional area = 20 c. in the British system. Often tables will report these values in other unit sets such as “Added mass/unit length” in lbm/ft. Just like entering in Keypoint coordinates. Added mass/unit length = 42 lbm/ft. units of force are in lbf and units of mass are in lbm. Note: Remember that you are working this problem in lbf and INCHES. Shear deflection constant = 0 f. Pay close attention to your units! Also. Once you are complete select OK and close out of the Real Constants boxes. = 3. Select Apply. lbf and lbm have the same numerical value. In this window you define all of the constants for members 1 and 5. Define this beam: a.

The Define Material Properties window will appear. 2. Define the material just as you defined steel or aluminum in the truss example.Table 3-2 Real Constant Values Corresponding Beam W8x42 W10x48 RC Set No. 1 2 Cross-sectional area 20 25 Moment of intertia 8000 10000 Height 8 10 Shear deflctn. Go to Preprocessor>Material Props>Material Models in the Main Menu. Figure 3-4 Beam Tool 3-4 . Enter E (EX=30000000) and Poisson's Ratio (PRXY=0.5 4 W12x54 3 30 12000 12 0 0 4. The Beam Tool window will appear. In this example we will use traditional I beams.3) and Exit. Double click in right hand box Structural>Linear> Elastic>Isotropic. Define Sections – this section tells ANSYS what sort of beam you are using. Go to Preprocessor>Sections>Beam>Common Sectns. F. constant 0 0 Initial strain 0 0 Added mass/unit length 3. Define Material Properties 1.5 E. 1.

This is also why it is so important to save often while conducting your analysis and especially before Meshing! 3-5 . For clarity. It was not necessary for any further divisions because in a truss there are no internal moments or rotations that need to be calculated. we set the number of divisions per element to 1. T1 = T2 = T3 = 1 g. do not create too many elements as your analysis will become computationally more expensive possibly causing the program to crash or freeze. T3 1 1 1 G. Your frame will now appear to be of dashed lines. W2. The Element Size box will appear. Offset to centroid e. Note: The ndiv function divides the element into small pieces. let us have the dimensions of each beam correspond with the same Real Constant Set. Note: all of these dimension values are expressed in units of inches. However. Also note that you could choose a different number of divisions per element. For this frame example (and for all structures that have members with internal forces that vary with position.2. Repeat step 4 for the other two beam types with values from the following table. W3 8 10 12 T1. Name = W8x42 c. “finite elements”. rotations. T2. Just remember that your results may be less accurate with fewer finite elements. Once you are complete select OK. This will save the information for the W 8x42 beam. Sub Type = I (from drop-down menu) d. 3. Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>Size Cntrls>ManualSize>Lines>All lines in the Main Menu. Meshing 1. W1 = W2 = W3 = 8 f. Thus we have selected 25 divisions per element as a good manageable value. Set the number of divisions (ndiv) to 25. Select Apply. Table 3-3 Section Definitions ID 1 2 3 Name W8x42 W10x48 W12x54 Sub Type I I I Offset Centroid Centroid Centroid W1. For the W 8x42 beam (Real Constant set 1) enter the following: a. Leave the other boxes blank and select OK. and other structural properties so we need several elements per part to get accurate results. ID = 1 b. such as beams) we need to be able to calculate internal moments. For the truss.

Element type number = 1 d. Real Constant number = 1 c. Figure 3-5 Line Attributes window 4.W10x48 3 . Set the following: a. Element section = W8x42 e. Repeat this process for the other members in the frame assigning the following constants: Table 3-4 Line Attribute Assignments Member No. Select Apply.W12x54 6. Material number = 1 b. 7. This will close the Line Attributes window. Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>Mesh>Lines.2. Select all of the lines and OK. 1 1 1 Real Constant No. Select lines 1 and 5 with a single left click. Go to Preprocessing>Meshing>Mesh Attributes>Picked lines. 3. 3-6 . 1 2 3 Element Type No. 1 and 5 3 2 and 4 Material No. The Line Attributes box will appear. Select Apply in the pick lines box. If the mesh was successful the frame will made of blue-green solid lines. It is always a good idea to save your project before meshing – do this now. a select lines box will appear. 1 1 1 Element Section 1 . The members will be highlighted. 5.W8x42 2 .

and OK. Apply Solution (similar) B. Go to Solution>Define Loads>Apply>Structural>Displacement>On Keypoints in the Main Menu. 1. The Apply Constraints box will appear. Define Frame Constraints (different . Go to Solution>Define Loads>Apply>Structural>Pressure>On Beams. You should see two small green triangles and little red crosses indicating these are constrained in all three directions at each end. This will be simulated by applying a load to each node. Select OK. 2. Define Frame Loads (different . Select All Degrees of Freedom (All DOF) since all of the free ends are fixed and constrained in the x. Select OK in the selection box. 1. The Apply Pressure on Beams selection window will appear. each will be highlighted by small yellow boxes. Define Frame Loads – unlike in the truss that contained all point loads. Solution A. Select the first option. Single left click on all three bottom nodes. 4.three fixed ends) 3. Static.static) 2. Introduction – the most significant change from the truss tutorial is the presence of the distributed load. 3-7 . Go to Solution>Analysis Type>New Analysis in the Main Menu. Define Frame Constraints – we will fix the three bottom ends of the frame. 2. The Analysis Type window will appear.distributed) 4. you will need to apply a distributed load to the frame. this is a static analysis. 5. y and rotational directions. D. C. Just as with the truss tutorial. a selection box will appear. Figure 3-6 Apply Constraints window 3. Analysis Type (similar .II. 1. Analysis Type – just like in the truss tutorial. Apply as a constant value of 0. 1.

You make the box by holding down the left mouse button and dragging. The define pressure on beams window will appear. select OK in the Apply F/M on Nodes window. In the Apply Pressure on Beams selection window (Figure 3-7). highlight all of the nodes on the top of the frame where the distributed load will be applied by enclosing this area in a box. In the workspace. Figure 3-8 ANSYS workspace window after the top of the frame is selected for application of a distributed load 4. Then individually left click on the each small yellow box on the vertical supports where no load should be applied. thus you must deselect these locations. 3. 3-8 . In this case change the select style option to BOX (not Single).Figure 3-7 Apply Pressure on Beams selection window 2. Undoubtedly. change the Pick option (at the top) to Unpick and the Box option to Single. you will select some of the vertical supports where you do not want to apply the distributed load. 5. Once you are certain that only the nodes where the load should be applied are highlighted.

Select OK. Just as with the truss. or other set of units! E. 3. Remember this load was given in 100 lb/in. 52. 2. In the numbering window turn node numbers to ON. III. Also. the nodes at the fixed points (bottom of vertical members) are 1. it is good to see the numbers assigned to each of your nodes so you can make a meaningful interpretation of this data. and 102 (from left to right respectively).G. ANSYS assigns a number to each node and reports Postprocessing information according to this nodal number. you can zoom in on your model display by PlotCntrls>Pan Zoom Rotate.. Before beginning your Post-processing. Select Solve in the pop-up window. Set the pressure value to 100. 1. The other boxes may remain blank. etc. Select OK. Apply the Solution 1. You numbering might be different and is dependent upon the precise order you created lines. Keypoints. ANSYS will return data tabulated for these small pieces (finite elements) that ANSYS calls nodes. but you would need to convert this value if this were given in lb/ft. For this example.Figure 3-9 Apply Pressure on Beams window 6. Introduction – as discussed in the notes of section I.1 (page 3-5) recall that by setting the number of divisions per node (ndiv = 25) we broke the beams into small pieces or “finite elements”. Post-processing A. THESE NODES ARE DIFFERENT FROM KEYPOINTS. A tool box will appear. To see you nodal numbering go to PlotCntrls>Numbering. Go to Solution>Solve>Current LS. 3-9 . close all of the pop-up boxes. if you have trouble seeing your nodal numbers. For most of the Post-processing functions we will use in this section. It would be a good idea to “Save As…” before Post-processing.

Member Forces and Stresses – reporting this data is no different from the truss tutorial. Go to General Postproc>List Results>Reaction Solution. in the x direction and 8807. You can see that the forces at node 1 (which in this example are coincident with Keypoint number 1) are 2025.2. See the printing section (near the end of this booklet) on how to do this. The List Nodal Solution window will pop-up. D.9 lbf in the y direction and a moment of –76121 lbf-in. Reaction Forces 1. * (180in. you should print these results now. Figure 3-10 Reaction Solution window 2. 4.000 lbf (since 100lbf /in. the y forces sum to 36. Member Displacements and Rotations 1. In the pop-up window select All items and OK.4 lbf in the x direction. Similarly. This is a good fast way to check that your model is correct. B. Go to General Post-processing>List Results>Nodal Solution>DOF Soln.9 lbf in the y directions and a moment of 76121 lb-in. See section III.+180in. Take note of the nodal numbers in significant places such as those at the ends of each beam. the forces at node 102 (which corresponds to Keypoint number 5) are –2025. If you desire. C. Note that the nodal numbering will increase or decrease linearly from one end of a beam to another. The Reaction Solution window will pop-up. 3-10 . 3.000 lbf were applied) and the moments sum to 0 lbf-in.4 lbf. Note that the x forces sum to 0 lbs.) = 36. 8807. (since none were applied). Also note that the sum of all the reaction forces are listed at the bottom under total values.B (in the Post-processing section) in the truss tutorial while keeping in mind that the output will be listed by NODE and not Keypoint as explained previously in the Reaction Forces section. Your solution may be somewhat different from the one given here.

Figure 3-12 Nodal Solution Table 3. This concludes the frame tutorial. In this window select All DOFs (degrees of freedom) and OK. the displacement in the x and y direction and the rotation of each node is listed. With your nodal numbering turned on. In this window. 3-11 .Figure 3-11 List Nodal Solution window 2. the plate tutorial. you should be able to find the corresponding node to the Keypoint or other member location of interest. At the bottom of the list maximum values for each parameter are reported. Proceed to Chapter 4. The solution will appear in tabular form.

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Although it has a thickness. Introduction – below is an overview of the steps we will complete in this example and how those steps compare to the previous examples: 4-1 . 20” steel square plate with 4” diameter hole thickness = .4. we will take advantage of its SYMMETRY. Preprocessing A. As a rule of thumb. it is always good to take advantage of symmetry because it allows for your analysis to be smaller and subsequently more specific.1” uniform tensile loading of 8 psi Figure 4-1 Steel plate with hole in center When we model this plate. We can see symmetry by dividing the plate into 4 parts about the center of the hole and then apply constraints to edges of this divided part. Below is the geometry that we will define in ANSYS: Figure 4-2 Model of plate that takes advantage of symmetry I. PLATE EXAMPLE For this example we will model the plate below. ANSYS allows us to model it as a two dimensional representation.

1. Modeling (different – defining areas and using Boolean operations) 2. Element Type (different – plate with thickness) 3. Real Constants (similar - define element thickness) 4. Material Properties (no changes here) 5. Meshing (different – mesh areas and refine mesh) B. Modeling 1. Begin by going to: Preprocessor>Modeling>Create>Areas>Rectangle>By 2 Corners, the Create Rectangle by 2 corners window will appear.

Figure 4-3 Create Rectangle by 2 Corners window 2. The boxes WX and WY specify the coordinates of one corner of the rectangle. Enter 0 in both boxes and width and length of 10 (we will be working this problem in inches and pounds). 3. Now we must create the hole in the rectangle. Go to Preprocessor> Modeling>Create>Areas>Circle>Solid Circle. The Create Solid Circular Area window will pop up.

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Figure 4-4 Create Solid Circular Area window 4. The WP X and WP Y boxes specify the center point of the circle. Our circle will be centered at (0,0) and has a radius of 2. Your model should be as below:

Figure 4-5 Model after defining both rectangular and circular areas. 5. Just like when using a CAD program, you must perform a Boolean operation to remove the circle from the rectangle. Go to Preprocessor> Modeling>Operate>Booleans>Subtract>Areas. The Subtract Area selection window will appear.

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Figure 4-6 Subtract Area selection window 6. Single left click on the rectangle in the workspace. Be sure that you click on the area that is occupied ONLY BY THE RECTANGLE. Do not click on the area occupied by both the rectangle and the circle. The rectangle should now appear pink or purple. 7. Select OK in the Subtract Area window (Figure 4-6). You have now defined the area that we will be subtracting from. 8. Single left click on the circle in the workspace. Be sure that you click on the area occupied ONLY BY THE CIRCLE. Do not click on the area occupied by both the circle and the rectangle. The circle should now be highlighted. 9. Select OK in the Subtract Area selection window. You have now defined all of your geometry. C. Element Type 1. Go to Preprocessor>Element Type>Add/Edit/Delete. The Define Element Type window will appear just as in the previous tutorials (Figure 2-17). Select Add... The Element Type Library window will appear. 2. In the left hand box select Structural Solid. In the right hand box select Quad 4 node (42). This will define the elements to be small quadrilaterals each with 4 nodes from which the location of each square will be calculated. 3. Select OK. Note that the Element Types window will still be open. Be sure that the element type is highlighted and select Options. The Element Type Options window will appear:

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Close out of the Real Constants windows. D. Set the thickness to . Go to Preprocessor>Real Constants>Add/Edit/Delete. Select OK. Figure 4-8 Define Real Constants Set window 2. Keep the type number as the default (1). 4-5 . In the Element Behavior box select “Plane Stress with Thk”.be sure that the correct (and only) element type is highlighted (Type 1 Plane 42) and select OK. Select OK and Close the Element Type window. Real Constants 1. A new window will appear .1. select Add. The Real Constants window will appear.Figure 4-7 Element Type Options 4. The other options may remain as default. The Define Real Constants Set window will appear.

In the pop up window set the modulus of elasticity (EX) to 290000000 (remember we are working in pounds and inches so this number is in psi!) and Poisson's ratio (PRXY) to 0. Figure 4-9 MeshTool window 2. 4. The MeshTool is a convenient and quick way to mesh an object and refine an object that is already meshed. This will make fairly large finite elements. 3. A Mesh Selection box will appear.E. Material Properties . Then select Mesh (towards the bottom of the window). 2. Turn on the Smart Size option at the top of the MeshTool. Left click and hold down on the control bar and slide it to the right to level 8 (the level is denoted above the bar).3. F. On the Fine to Coarse bar directly below the Smart Size box controls the size of your finite elements. Go to Preprocessor>Material Props>Material Models. Meshing – be sure to save right now! 1. Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>MeshTool. The MeshTool box will appear. In the Define Material Properties window select Structural>Linear>Elastic>Isotropic. 4-6 .note nothing in this section has changed from previous tutorials – try doing this on your own! 1. Left click once on the plate geometry so that it is highlighted.

The Refine Mesh at Element window will pop up. Note that the MeshTool is already set to refine at elements (directly above the refine button). 7.5. Now your element has been meshed and should appear to be divided into quadrilaterals. On the MeshTool select Refine (near the bottom of the MeshTool). 6. Consequently. we should Refine our mesh in this area. A Refine Selection box will appear just like the Mesh Selection box. Select OK in the Mesh Selection window. Then select OK in the Refine Selection box. Single left click on all of the finite elements adjacent to the hole (see below). There is no need to Refine the mesh elsewhere since other stresses in the plate are not as important. we know that the most important stresses in this plate are near the hole. 4-7 . However. Figure 4-10 Refining the mesh near the hole 8.

It is usually good to have your mesh change gradually so that you do not have disjointed elements. are very small and will give a better approximation of the plate’s behavior there. The Apply Constraints window will appear. Note: now the elements near the hole. then ANSYS may crash or give incomplete results. “Why don’t I use the most accurate mesh everywhere in the element?” This is generally not a good idea because when ANSYS tries to solve the plate. The New Analysis window will appear. Apply Pressure (similar – pressure on lines) B. Apply Constraints 1. Solution Phase A. C. it will require a large amount of memory etc. The Define Constraints window will appear. from the computer. where the most important and interesting stresses are located. Analysis Type (no changes – static) 2. 1. You might be thinking. Analysis Type – go to Solution>Analysis Type>New Analysis. Introduction – no radically new concepts are employed in this section that were not used in previous examples. Select OK. thus the approximation in that region will not be as accurate. You can select the defaults (minimal refinement) in this window. Select Static and OK. Select the bottom edge only and OK in the pick box. Apply Constraints (similar – X and Y direction on lines) 3. You can even REFINE your mesh after you run the solution and look at post-processing output. 10. Note that you can refine your mesh several times until you have finite elements in your region of interest that are small enough to your satisfaction. Go to: Solution>Define Loads>Apply>Structural>Displacement>On Lines. The elements elsewhere in the plate are large. 4-8 . move on to the Solution Phase. Once you are satisfied with your mesh. II.Figure 4-11 Refine Mesh at Element 9. However this is not cause for concern since the stresses there are unimportant and uninteresting. If ANSYS requires more memory than the computer can give.

Repeat Steps 1 and 2 for the left edge with a zero-displacement constraint in the X direction. Apply Loads 1. UY b. Displacement value = 0. Go to Solution>Define Loads>Apply>Structural>Pressure>On Lines. Apply as constant c. Select the right hand vertical line and OK. D. The Define Pressure on Lines box will appear. Click on OK. Another pick box will appear. 3. d.Figure 4-12 Apply Constraints window 2. 4-9 . Set the following: a.

Results will be generated in the workspace. Post-processing – The major difference between post-processing with the plate and with the other examples is that you will probably find the graphical outputs most helpful. rotation. III. If you desire.now all the loads are applied and you are ready to solve. tabular output will list far too many nodes to be helpful. 4-10 . As you might guess. displacement. Set a constant value pressure of -8 and select OK (since negative pressure points AWAY from its application point). All graphical outputs that you will need can be accessed from: General Postproc> Plot Results>Contour Plot>Nodal Solu. Select OK in the series of boxes that appear just as in the other tutorials. you can refer to the Truss Example tutorial Post-processing section to review this process. Apply Solution .Figure 4-13 Apply Pressure on Lines 2. Go to Solution>Solve>Current LS. E. energy or any other relevant outputs. The graphical output will likely be the easiest and most meaningful for your analysis. You are now ready for post-processing. This set of commands will output the stress.