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Homework #7. Filtration

1. Determine the effective size (d

10

, in mm) and the uniformity coefficient (UC) for the sand

filter media characterized by the sieve analysis results presented in the following table.

Include a plot of % Weight passing versus media size in your analysis.

Sieve Number (mm size opening) % Weight Passing

14 (1.41) 100

16 (1.19) 100

18 (1.00) 94

20 (0.84) 83

25 (0.71) 57

30 (0.59) 30

35 (0.50) 8

40 (0.42) 5

45 (0.35) 1

50 (0.297) 0

Answer:

First plot % weight passing vs size of sieve opening in mm

Size (mm) % Weight Passing

1.41 100

1.19 100

1.00 94

0.84 83

0.71 57

0.59 30

0.50 8

0.42 5

0.35 1

0.297 0

5 points total for

entire homework

1 point for #1

Sieve Size (mm)

0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

%

W

e

i

g

h

t

P

a

s

s

i

n

g

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

d

60

d

10

Therefore from the graph we estimate:

d

10

=size @ 10% weight passing =~0.51 mm

and the d

60

appear to be about 0.73 mm, so

uC =

J

60

J

10

=

u.7Smm

u.S1mm

= 1.4S

From Fig 7-13 in your text (pg 222), the typical media for sand in a dual media filter has an

effective size of 0.45-0.55 mm and a uniformity coefficient of less than 1.7

Therefor, these d

10

and UC values are typical for silica sand used in a dual-media filter

2. Consider the design of granular media filters for a water treatment plant with a design flow

of 24 MGD:

a) For a filtration hydraulic loading of 4 gpm/ft

2

determine the total filter area required

for filtration (in square ft). Next, select the number of parallel filters needed, and

their length and width (even foot increments), if each filter is square with area

between 450 and 650 square feet.

Answer:

A

totuI

=

µ

I

o

=

24H0Ð[

10

6

guI

Mu

¸ [

60x24mìn

du¡

¸

4

guI¡mìn

]t

2

= 4164¡t

2

Number needed will be in the range of

1 point for #2a

4164¡t

2

6Su

]t

2

]ìItc¡

= 6.4 ¡iltcrs or nominolly 7

To

4164¡t

2

4Su

]t

2

]ìItc¡

= 9.2S ¡iltcrs or nominolly 1u

If you select 8 filters, each will be 4164ft

2

/8 or 520ft

2

in area.

Then the linear dimensions for a square filter box will be:

x = ¸S2u¡t

2

= 22.8¡t , nominolly 2S ¡t

So the options include this one as well as those selecting 7 and 9 filters as follows:

#filters Length (ft) Width (ft)

7 25 25

8 23 23

9 22 22

Note that selection of 8 filters at the slightly larger size of 25x25 ft would allow you to meet the

design filtration rate with one filter off line.

b) Choose a dual media filter consisting of 20 inches of anthracite with an effective

size (ES) of 1.1 mm over 12 inches of sand with an ES of 0.45 mm. The porosity of

the anthracite layer is 0.40 and the sand porosity is 0.36. Determine the superficial

filtration velocity and the pore velocities in both the anthracite and sand layers in

both ft/min and m/hr units.

Answer:

First calculate superficial velocity which will be the same for both filters

I

o

= 4

gol¡min

¡t

2

_

1¡t

3

7.48gol

_ = u.SS

¡t

min

,

and

I

o

= u.SS

¡t

min

,

_

6umin

br

]

1m

S.28¡t

= 9.7

m

br

,

Now recall that the pore velocity is just the superficial velocity divided by the porosity, so:

Media Porosity

Pore Velocity

( ft/min) (m/hr)

Anthracite 0.40 1.33 24.3

Sand 0.36 1.47 26.9

1 point for #2b

c) Calculate the detention time (in minutes) through the entire depth of the filter.

Answer:

For the anthracite media:

t =

bcJ Jcptb

porc :clocity

=

I

I

o

e

,

=

2uin

1]t

12ìn

1.SS

]t

mìn

= 1.2Smin

For the sand media:

t =

bcd dcpth

po¡c ¡cIocìt¡

=

L

v

c

c

,

=

12ìn

1]t

12in

1.47

]t

min

= u.68min

So the total detention time is the sum:

t =1.25 min +0.68 min =1.9 min

d) Calculate the clean bed head loss (in feet) for the filter using the Carmen-Kozeny

equation. Assume a water temperature of 68 ºF and the design hydraulic loading

rate. Also assume a value of 5 for the constant “k” in the Carmen-Kozeny equation

(slides for Lecture #19). Use the media effective size for media diameter in the

calculation.

e) What is the clean bed head loss if the filtration rate was 6 gpm/ft

2

? What is the

clean bed head loss if the water temperature is 40 ºF at the design loading rate?

f) If the entire filter depth was sand of the same size as the sand used in the dual

media, and the total filter media depth was also the same, what would the clean bed

head loss be for the conditions of part (d)?

These three all involve the Carmen Kozeny Equation, so I answer all three together.

Also note that the kinematic viscosity is

1.664 x 10

-5

ft

2

/s @ 40ºF

1.091 x 10

-5

ft

2

/s @ 68ºF

You can find this information from many textbooks and web sources, such as:

http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/water-dynamic-kinematic-viscosity-d_596.html

Prob (d) Prob (e) Prob (f)

68ºF 68ºF 40ºF 68ºF

Media Depth (ft) Porosity Dia (mm) 4 gpm/ft

2

6 gpm/ft

2

4 gpm/ft

2

4 gpm/ft

2

Anthracite 1.67 0.40 1.1 0.39 0.59 0.60

Sand 1.00 0.36 0.45 2.19 3.28 3.34 5.85

Total 2.58 3.87 3.94 5.85

g d

V k

L

H

c

2 3

0

2

) 1 ( 36

ε

ν ε −

=

Δ

0.5 points for #2c

0.5 points

for #2d

0.5 points

for #2e

0.5 points

for #2f

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