The primary purpose of filtration is to remove suspended particles and floc from the water being treated. 1 Surface wash: 2 1. Baylis 2. Fixed grid 3. Rotary 4. Air scour Surface washing usually prevents mudball formation. Coagulant aids (like a cationic polymer) are best added ahead of flocculators. Filter aids (like a nonionic polymer) are added to the sedimentation effluent. In the normal operation of the filter process, it’s best to calculate when the filtration cycle will be completed on the following guidelines: 3 1. Head loss 2. Effluent turbidity level 3. Elapsed run time (not to be used by itself) Never “bump” a filter to avoid backwashing!! 4 The most important water quality indicator in monitoring the filtration process is the filter influent and effluent turbidity. Shortened filter runs can occur because of air bound filters. Air binding is caused by the release of dissolved air in saturated cold water, due to a decrease in pressure. 5 Filter media are usually classified by the following characteristics: 6 1. Effective size 2. Uniformity coefficient 3. Specific gravity 4. Hardness The more uniform the media, the slower the head loss buildup. 6


I. Sand 3. 237. Garnet 4. Gravel The relationship between turbidity breakthrough and limiting head loss is also strongly affected by optimum chemical treatment. Hard and durable 4. 213.82 6. 6. 229. 218. 6. I. I. 6.71 4.71 5. 6.4 2. 211. Free of impurities 5. 6. Coal (Anthracite or Bituminous) 2. I. 218. 223.33 10. 6.30 7. 212.30 9. I. Does not react with substances in the water (inert and easy to clean) 3. I.6 8.52 2 . Insoluble in water Filter media configuration (top to bottom): 7 1. Poor chemical treatment can often result in either early turbidity breakthrough or rapid head loss. 9 A chemical application point just prior to filtration permits the application of a filter aid chemical (such as a nonionic polymer). 6. Good hydraulic characteristics (permeable) 2. 6.I. 10 Footnotes 1.322 3. I. 6. 6.Desirable filter media characteristics: 8 1. I. 6 A master controller is required to monitor the overall plant flow and adjust the flow rate of each filter accordingly. 228. 218. fig. I.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful