# रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch.

4 Network Theorems 1
Topics to be Discussed
 Superposition Theorem.
 Thevenin’s Theorem.
 Norton’s Theorem.
 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem.
 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for AC
Circuits.
 Millman’s Theorem.
 Reciprocity Theorem.
 Tellegen’s Theorem.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 2
Network Theorems
 Some special techniques, known as network
theorems and network reduction methods, have
been developed.
 These drastically reduce the labour needed to
solve a network.
 These also provide simple conclusions and good
insight into the problems.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 3
Superposition
Principle
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 4
Superposition Theorem
 The response (current or voltage) in a linear network
at any point due to multiple sources (current and/or
emf) (including linear dependent sources),
 can be calculated by summing the effects of each
source considered separately,
 all other sources “turned OFF” or “made
inoperative”.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 5
“Turning off” the sources
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 6 Next
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 7
Linear Dependent Source
 It is a source whose output current or voltage is
proportional only to the first power of some
current or voltage variable in the network or to the
sum of such quantities.
 Examples :
linear. not is 6 . 0
6 . 0 but,
linear, is 16 6 . 0
2 1
2
1
2 1
v i v
or i v
v i v
s
s
s
=
=
÷ =
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 8
Application
 Problem : Consider two 1-V batteries in
series with a 1-Ω resistor. Let us apply the
principle of superposition, and find the
power delivered by both the batteries.

 Solutions : Power delivered by only one
source working at a time is
P
1
= 1 W
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 9
 Therefore, the power delivered by both the
sources,
P = 2P
1
= 2 W

 The above answer is obviously wrong,
because it is a wrong application of
the superposition theorem.

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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 10
Example 1
Find the current I in the network given,
using the superposition theorem.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 11
Solution :

A 0.375 ÷ =
÷
=
+
×
÷ =
4 . 0
15 . 0
3 . 0 1 . 0
3 . 0 5 . 0
1
I
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 12
A 0.175
A 0.2
÷ = + =
=
+
×
=
÷
2 1
3
2
I
3 . 0 1 . 0
10 80
I I
I
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 13
Example 2
Using superposition theorem, find current i
x
in the
network given.

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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 14
Solution :
A 05 . 0
150 50
10
1
=
+
= i
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 15
A 30
150 50
150
40
2
=
+
× = i
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 16
A 30
150 50
50
120
3
÷ =
+
× ÷ = i
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 17
A 0.05 =
÷ + =
+ + =
30 30 05 . 0
3 2 1
i i i i
x
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 18
Benchmark Example 3
Find voltage v across 3-Ω resistor by applying
the principle of superposition.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 19
Solution :
Using current divider,
A
3
2
) 3 2 ( 1
1
4 =
+ +
× = i
V 2.0 Ω) (3 A) (2/3
4
= × = × = R i v
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 20
Using current-divider, the voltage v
5
across 3-Ω
5
1
5 A (3 ) 2.5V
1 (2 3)
v
(
= ÷ × × O = ÷
(
+ +
¸ ¸
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 21
By voltage divider,
V 3.0
3 2 1
3
6
6
=
+ +
× = v
4 5 6
2.0 2.5 3.0 v v v v = + + + = + ÷ + = +2.5 V
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 22
Find current i
2
across R
2
resistor by applying the
principle of superposition. Where R
1
=R
2
=R
3
=1-Ω
and V
S
=10V, V
b
= 5V, α = 2.
Example 4
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 23
Thevenin’s Theorem
 It was first proposed by a French telegraph
engineer, M.L. Thevenin in 1883.
 There also exists an earlier statement of the
theorem credited to Helmholtz.
 Hence it is also known as Helmholtz-Thevenin
Theorem.
 It is useful when we wish to find the response
only in a single resistance in a big network.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 24
Thevenin’s Theorem
 Any two terminals AB of a network
composed of linear passive and active
elements may by replaced by a simple
equivalent circuit consisting of
1. an equivalent voltage source V
oc
,

and

2. an equivalent resistance R
th
in series.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 25
 The voltage V
oc
is equal to the potential
difference between the two terminals AB caused
by the active network with no external
resistance connected to these terminals.

 The series resistance R
th
is the equivalent
resistance looking back into the network at the
terminals AB with all the sources within the
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 26
Illustrative Example 3
 Using Thevenin’s theorem, find the current in
resistor R
2
of 2 Ω.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 27
Solution :
1. Designate the resistor R
2
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 28
2. Pull out the load resistor and enclose the remaining
network within a dotted box.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 29
3. Temporarily remove the load resistor R
2
, leaving the
terminals A and B open .
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 30
4. Find the open-circuit voltage across the terminals A-
B,
V 11.2 = × + =
= =
+
÷
=
1 2 . 4 7
A; 4.2
5
21
1 4
7 28
AB
V
I
5. This is called Thevenin voltage, V
Th
= V
AB
= 11.2 V.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 31
6. Turn OFF all the sources in the circuit
Find the resistance between terminals A and B. This is
the Thevenin resistance, R
Th
. Thus,
1 4
1 || 4
1 4
Th
R
×
= O O = =
+
0.8 Ω
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 32
7. The circuit within the dotted box is replaced by the
Thevenin’s equivalent, consisting of a voltage source of
V
Th
in series with a resistor R
Th
,
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 33
2
is again connected to Thevenin’s
equivalent forming a single-loop circuit.
• The current I
2
through this resistor is easily calculated,
Th
2
Th 2
11.2
0.8 2
V
I
R R
= = =
+ +
4 A
Important Comment
The equivalent circuit replaces the circuit within the
box only for the effects external to the box.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 34
Example 4
 Using Thevenin’s Theorem, find the current in the
ammeter A of resistance 1.5 Ω connected in an
unbalanced Wheatstone bridge shown.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 35
Solution :
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 36
V 6 ÷ = × ÷ × =
÷ = =
=
+
=
=
+
=
6 5 . 1 4 75 . 0
A 5 . 1
6 2
12
and A 75 . 0
4 12
12
2
1
V V V V
I
I
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 37
Ans. -1 A

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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 38
Benchmark Example 5
Again consider our benchmark example to determine
voltage across 3-Ω resistor by applying Thevenin’s
theorem.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 39
Solution :
• We treat the 3-Ω resistor as load.
• Thevenin voltage V
Th
is the open-circuit voltage
(with R
L
removed).
• We use source transformation.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 40
V 5 = × = 1 5
Th
V
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 41
To compute R
Th
, we turn off all the sources in the
circuit within box and get the circuit
Thus, R
Th
= 3 Ω.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 42
V 2.5 =
+
× =
3 3
3
5
L
V
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 43
Thevenin’s Theorem for dependent
sources
Case-I : When circuit contain both dependent
and independent sources.
(i) The open circuit voltage is determined as
usual with the sources activated or alive.
(ii) A sort circuited is applied across the terminal
ab and the value of sort circuit current i
sc
is
found as usual.
(iii) Now the thevenin’s resistance R
th
= V
oc
/i
sc

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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 44
Thevenin’s Theorem for dependent
sources
Case-II : When circuit contain only dependent
sources.
(i) In this case, V
oc
= 0.

(ii) We connect 1A source to terminal ab and
calculate the value of V
ab
.
(iii) Now the thevenin’s resistance R
th
= V
ab
/1

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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 45
WORKED EXAMPLE 3

Find Thevenin’s Equivalent circuit across terminal ab.
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 46
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 47
Norton’s Theorem
 It is dual of Thevenin’s Theorem.
 A two terminal network containing linear
passive and active elements can be replaced
by an equivalent circuit of a constant-
current source in parallel with a resistance.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 48
 The value of the constant-current source is
the short-circuit current developed when
the terminals of the original network are
short circuited.

 The parallel resistance is the resistance
looking back into the original network with
all the sources within the network made
inactive (as in Thevenin’s Theorem).

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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 49
Example 6
 Obtain the Norton’s equivalent circuit with respect to
the terminals AB for the network shown, and hence
determine the value of the current that would flow
through a load resistor of 5 Ω if it were connected
across terminals AB.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 50
Solution :
When terminals A-B are shorted
N 1 2
10 5
5 10
I I I = + = + = 2.5 A
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 51
Turning OFF the sources,
Ω
3
10
=
+
×
=
10 5
10 5
N
R
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 52
A 1 =
+
× =
+
=
5 ) 3 / 10 (
) 3 / 10 (
5 . 2
L N
N
N L
R R
R
I I
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 53
Norton’s Theorem for dependent
sources
Case-I : When circuit contain both dependent
and independent sources.
(i) The open circuit voltage is determined as
usual with the sources activated or alive.
(ii) A sort circuited is applied across the terminal
ab and the value of sort circuit current i
sc
is
found as usual.
(iii) Now the Norton’s resistance R
N
= V
oc
/i
sc

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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 54
Norton’s Theorem for dependent
sources
Case-II : When circuit contain only dependent
sources.
(i) In this case, I
SC
= 0.

(ii) We connect 1A source to terminal ab and
calculate the value of V
ab
.
(iii) Now the thevenin’s resistance R
N
= V
ab
/1

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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 55
Find Norton’s Equivalent circuit across terminal ab.
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 56
WORKED EXAMPLE 3

रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 57
 Consider the circuit :
r
E
R
L
p
(Variable)
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 58
p
R
L
0
p
max

R
L
= r
Maximum power is transferred when
R
L
= r.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 59
Proof
| |
( ) 0
0 2 ) ( ) (
zero. to equal numerator put we , maximizing For
) (
1 ) ( 2 1 ) (
4
2
2
2
= ÷
= ÷ + +
+
× + × ÷ × +
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
L
L L L
L
L L L
L
L
L
R r
R r R r R
r R
r R R r R
E
dR
dp
R
r R
E
p
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 60
Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
 Maximum power is drawn form a source
when the Load Resistance is equal to the
Source Internal Resistance.
 When maximum power transfer condition is
satisfied, we say that the load is matched
with the source.
 Under maximum power transfer condition,
the efficiency of the source is only 50 %.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 61
What is the maximum power that a source
of emf E and internal resistance r can
ever deliver ?
Ans.
r
E
4
2
Available Power
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 62
Prove that under maximum power transfer
condition, the efficiency of the source is only
50 %.
% 50
% 100
) (
2
2
=
×
+
= ÷
r R I
R I
P
P
L
L
in
o
q
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 63
Example 7
The open-circuit voltage of a standard car-battery is 12.6
V, and the short-circuit current is approximately 300 A.
What is the available power from the battery ?
Solution : The output impedance of the battery,
oc
o
sc
12.6
0.042
300
V
R
I
= = = O
Therefore, the available power
2 2 2
oc Th
avl
Th o
(12.6)
4 4 4 0.042
V V
P
R R
= = = =
×
945 W
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Click
Click
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 64
Millman’s Theorem
 A number of parallel voltage sources V
1
, V
2
, V
3
…,
V
n
with internal resistances R
1
, R
2
, R
3
…, R
n
,
respectively can be replaced by a single voltage
source V in series with equivalent resistance R.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 65
n
n n
G G G G
G V G V G V G V
V
+ + +
+ + +
=
...
...
3 2 1
3 3 2 2 1 1
1 2 3
1 1
...
n
R
G G G G G
= =
+ + +
and
Equivalent Circuit
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 66
Reciprocity Theorem
 In a linear bilateral network, if a voltage source V
in a branch A produces a current I in any other
branch B, then the same voltage source V acting
in the branch B would produce the same current I
in branch.
 The ratio V/I is known as the transfer
resistance.
 Let us verify the reciprocity theorem by
considering an example.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 67
Example 8
• In the network shown, find the current in branch B due
to the voltage source of 36 V in branch A.
• Now transfer the voltage source to branch B and find
the current in branch A.
• Is the reciprocity theorem established ?
• Also, determine the transfer resistance from branch A
to branch B.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 68
Solution : The equivalent resistance for the voltage
source,
O = + + = + + + = 9 4 3 2 4 )] 1 3 ( || 12 [ 2
eq
R
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 69
The current supplied by the voltage source = 36/9 = 4 A.
Using current divider, the current I in branch B,
A 3 =
+
× =
4 12
12
4 I
Now, transferring the voltage source to branch B,
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 70
The equivalent resistance for the voltage source,
O = + + = + + + = 8 1 4 3 1 )] 4 2 ( || 12 [ 3
eq
R
The current supplied by the voltage source = 36/8 =
4.5 A. Using current divider, the current I’ in branch
A,
A 3 =
+
× =
6 12
12
5 . 4 ' I
The transfer resistance
Ω 12 = = =
3
36
I
V
R
tr
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 71
Tellegen’s Theorem.
 It was published in 1952 by Bernard Tellegen.
 It is valid for any lumped network that contains any
elements, linear or nonlinear, passive or active.
 It simply state that the sum of instantaneous power
delivered to each branch of a network is zero.
 If there are b branches in a lumped circuit, and the
voltage u
k
, current i
k
of each branch apply passive
sign convention, then we have

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¿
=
=
b
k
k k
i u
1
0
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 72
Example 9
• In the network shown in Fig 42, Verify Tellegen's theorem. The
values of components used are presented below.
V
1
=15V, V
2
= 6V, R
1
=2 Ω, R
2
=3 Ω, R
3
=3Ω, R
4
=2 Ω
R
5
= 5 Ω, R
6
=3 Ω.

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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 73
Review
 Superposition Theorem.
 Thevenin’s Theorem.
 Norton’s Theorem.
 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem.
 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for AC Circuits.
 Millman’s Theorem.
 Reciprocity Theorem.
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