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4 Network Theorems 1
Topics to be Discussed
Superposition Theorem.
Thevenin’s Theorem.
Norton’s Theorem.
Maximum Power Transfer Theorem.
Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for AC
Circuits.
Millman’s Theorem.
Reciprocity Theorem.
Tellegen’s Theorem.
Next
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 2
Network Theorems
Some special techniques, known as network
theorems and network reduction methods, have
been developed.
These drastically reduce the labour needed to
solve a network.
These also provide simple conclusions and good
insight into the problems.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 3
Superposition
Principle
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 4
Superposition Theorem
The response (current or voltage) in a linear network
at any point due to multiple sources (current and/or
emf) (including linear dependent sources),
can be calculated by summing the effects of each
source considered separately,
all other sources “turned OFF” or “made
inoperative”.
Next
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 5
“Turning off” the sources
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 6 Next
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 7
Linear Dependent Source
It is a source whose output current or voltage is
proportional only to the first power of some
current or voltage variable in the network or to the
sum of such quantities.
Examples :
linear. not is 6 . 0
6 . 0 but,
linear, is 16 6 . 0
2 1
2
1
2 1
v i v
or i v
v i v
s
s
s
=
=
÷ =
Next
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 8
Application
Problem : Consider two 1V batteries in
series with a 1Ω resistor. Let us apply the
principle of superposition, and find the
power delivered by both the batteries.
Solutions : Power delivered by only one
source working at a time is
P
1
= 1 W
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 9
Therefore, the power delivered by both the
sources,
P = 2P
1
= 2 W
The above answer is obviously wrong,
because it is a wrong application of
the superposition theorem.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 10
Example 1
Find the current I in the network given,
using the superposition theorem.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 11
Solution :
A 0.375 ÷ =
÷
=
+
×
÷ =
4 . 0
15 . 0
3 . 0 1 . 0
3 . 0 5 . 0
1
I
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 12
A 0.175
A 0.2
÷ = + =
=
+
×
=
÷
2 1
3
2
I
3 . 0 1 . 0
10 80
I I
I
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 13
Example 2
Using superposition theorem, find current i
x
in the
network given.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 14
Solution :
A 05 . 0
150 50
10
1
=
+
= i
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 15
A 30
150 50
150
40
2
=
+
× = i
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 16
A 30
150 50
50
120
3
÷ =
+
× ÷ = i
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 17
A 0.05 =
÷ + =
+ + =
30 30 05 . 0
3 2 1
i i i i
x
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 18
Benchmark Example 3
Find voltage v across 3Ω resistor by applying
the principle of superposition.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 19
Solution :
Using current divider,
A
3
2
) 3 2 ( 1
1
4 =
+ +
× = i
V 2.0 Ω) (3 A) (2/3
4
= × = × = R i v
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 20
Using currentdivider, the voltage v
5
across 3Ω
5
1
5 A (3 ) 2.5V
1 (2 3)
v
(
= ÷ × × O = ÷
(
+ +
¸ ¸
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 21
By voltage divider,
V 3.0
3 2 1
3
6
6
=
+ +
× = v
4 5 6
2.0 2.5 3.0 v v v v = + + + = + ÷ + = +2.5 V
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 22
Find current i
2
across R
2
resistor by applying the
principle of superposition. Where R
1
=R
2
=R
3
=1Ω
and V
S
=10V, V
b
= 5V, α = 2.
Example 4
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 23
Thevenin’s Theorem
It was first proposed by a French telegraph
engineer, M.L. Thevenin in 1883.
There also exists an earlier statement of the
theorem credited to Helmholtz.
Hence it is also known as HelmholtzThevenin
Theorem.
It is useful when we wish to find the response
only in a single resistance in a big network.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 24
Thevenin’s Theorem
Any two terminals AB of a network
composed of linear passive and active
elements may by replaced by a simple
equivalent circuit consisting of
1. an equivalent voltage source V
oc
,
and
2. an equivalent resistance R
th
in series.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 25
The voltage V
oc
is equal to the potential
difference between the two terminals AB caused
by the active network with no external
resistance connected to these terminals.
The series resistance R
th
is the equivalent
resistance looking back into the network at the
terminals AB with all the sources within the
network made inactive, or dead.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 26
Illustrative Example 3
Using Thevenin’s theorem, find the current in
resistor R
2
of 2 Ω.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 27
Solution :
1. Designate the resistor R
2
as “load”.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 28
2. Pull out the load resistor and enclose the remaining
network within a dotted box.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 29
3. Temporarily remove the load resistor R
2
, leaving the
terminals A and B open .
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 30
4. Find the opencircuit voltage across the terminals A
B,
V 11.2 = × + =
= =
+
÷
=
1 2 . 4 7
A; 4.2
5
21
1 4
7 28
AB
V
I
5. This is called Thevenin voltage, V
Th
= V
AB
= 11.2 V.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 31
6. Turn OFF all the sources in the circuit
Find the resistance between terminals A and B. This is
the Thevenin resistance, R
Th
. Thus,
1 4
1  4
1 4
Th
R
×
= O O = =
+
0.8 Ω
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 32
7. The circuit within the dotted box is replaced by the
Thevenin’s equivalent, consisting of a voltage source of
V
Th
in series with a resistor R
Th
,
Next
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 33
8. The load resistor R
2
is again connected to Thevenin’s
equivalent forming a singleloop circuit.
• The current I
2
through this resistor is easily calculated,
Th
2
Th 2
11.2
0.8 2
V
I
R R
= = =
+ +
4 A
Important Comment
The equivalent circuit replaces the circuit within the
box only for the effects external to the box.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 34
Example 4
Using Thevenin’s Theorem, find the current in the
ammeter A of resistance 1.5 Ω connected in an
unbalanced Wheatstone bridge shown.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 35
Solution :
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 36
V 6 ÷ = × ÷ × =
÷ = =
=
+
=
=
+
=
6 5 . 1 4 75 . 0
A 5 . 1
6 2
12
and A 75 . 0
4 12
12
2
1
BD AD AB oc
V V V V
I
I
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 37
Ans. 1 A
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 38
Benchmark Example 5
Again consider our benchmark example to determine
voltage across 3Ω resistor by applying Thevenin’s
theorem.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 39
Solution :
• We treat the 3Ω resistor as load.
• Thevenin voltage V
Th
is the opencircuit voltage
(with R
L
removed).
• We use source transformation.
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 40
V 5 = × = 1 5
Th
V
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 41
To compute R
Th
, we turn off all the sources in the
circuit within box and get the circuit
Thus, R
Th
= 3 Ω.
Next
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 42
V 2.5 =
+
× =
3 3
3
5
L
V
Next
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 43
Thevenin’s Theorem for dependent
sources
CaseI : When circuit contain both dependent
and independent sources.
(i) The open circuit voltage is determined as
usual with the sources activated or alive.
(ii) A sort circuited is applied across the terminal
ab and the value of sort circuit current i
sc
is
found as usual.
(iii) Now the thevenin’s resistance R
th
= V
oc
/i
sc
Next
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 44
Thevenin’s Theorem for dependent
sources
CaseII : When circuit contain only dependent
sources.
(i) In this case, V
oc
= 0.
(ii) We connect 1A source to terminal ab and
calculate the value of V
ab
.
(iii) Now the thevenin’s resistance R
th
= V
ab
/1
Next
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 45
WORKED EXAMPLE 3
Find Thevenin’s Equivalent circuit across terminal ab.
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 46
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 47
Norton’s Theorem
It is dual of Thevenin’s Theorem.
A two terminal network containing linear
passive and active elements can be replaced
by an equivalent circuit of a constant
current source in parallel with a resistance.
Next
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 48
The value of the constantcurrent source is
the shortcircuit current developed when
the terminals of the original network are
short circuited.
The parallel resistance is the resistance
looking back into the original network with
all the sources within the network made
inactive (as in Thevenin’s Theorem).
Next
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 49
Example 6
Obtain the Norton’s equivalent circuit with respect to
the terminals AB for the network shown, and hence
determine the value of the current that would flow
through a load resistor of 5 Ω if it were connected
across terminals AB.
Next
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 50
Solution :
When terminals AB are shorted
N 1 2
10 5
5 10
I I I = + = + = 2.5 A
Next
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 51
Turning OFF the sources,
Ω
3
10
=
+
×
=
10 5
10 5
N
R
Next
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 52
A 1 =
+
× =
+
=
5 ) 3 / 10 (
) 3 / 10 (
5 . 2
L N
N
N L
R R
R
I I
Next
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 53
Norton’s Theorem for dependent
sources
CaseI : When circuit contain both dependent
and independent sources.
(i) The open circuit voltage is determined as
usual with the sources activated or alive.
(ii) A sort circuited is applied across the terminal
ab and the value of sort circuit current i
sc
is
found as usual.
(iii) Now the Norton’s resistance R
N
= V
oc
/i
sc
Next
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 54
Norton’s Theorem for dependent
sources
CaseII : When circuit contain only dependent
sources.
(i) In this case, I
SC
= 0.
(ii) We connect 1A source to terminal ab and
calculate the value of V
ab
.
(iii) Now the thevenin’s resistance R
N
= V
ab
/1
Next
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 55
Find Norton’s Equivalent circuit across terminal ab.
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 56
WORKED EXAMPLE 3
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 57
Power Transferred to the Load
Consider the circuit :
Source Load
r
E
R
L
p
(Variable)
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रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 58
p
R
L
0
p
max
R
L
= r
Maximum power is transferred when
R
L
= r.
Next
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 59
Proof
 
( ) 0
0 2 ) ( ) (
zero. to equal numerator put we , maximizing For
) (
1 ) ( 2 1 ) (
4
2
2
2
= ÷
= ÷ + +
+
× + × ÷ × +
=


.

\

+
=
L
L L L
L
L L L
L
L
L
R r
R r R r R
r R
r R R r R
E
dR
dp
R
r R
E
p
Next
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 60
Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
Maximum power is drawn form a source
when the Load Resistance is equal to the
Source Internal Resistance.
When maximum power transfer condition is
satisfied, we say that the load is matched
with the source.
Under maximum power transfer condition,
the efficiency of the source is only 50 %.
Next
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 61
What is the maximum power that a source
of emf E and internal resistance r can
ever deliver ?
Ans.
r
E
4
2
Available Power
Next
Click
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 62
Prove that under maximum power transfer
condition, the efficiency of the source is only
50 %.
% 50
% 100
) (
2
2
=
×
+
= ÷
r R I
R I
P
P
L
L
in
o
q
Next
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 63
Example 7
The opencircuit voltage of a standard carbattery is 12.6
V, and the shortcircuit current is approximately 300 A.
What is the available power from the battery ?
Solution : The output impedance of the battery,
oc
o
sc
12.6
0.042
300
V
R
I
= = = O
Therefore, the available power
2 2 2
oc Th
avl
Th o
(12.6)
4 4 4 0.042
V V
P
R R
= = = =
×
945 W
Next
Click
Click
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 64
Millman’s Theorem
A number of parallel voltage sources V
1
, V
2
, V
3
…,
V
n
with internal resistances R
1
, R
2
, R
3
…, R
n
,
respectively can be replaced by a single voltage
source V in series with equivalent resistance R.
Next
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 65
n
n n
G G G G
G V G V G V G V
V
+ + +
+ + +
=
...
...
3 2 1
3 3 2 2 1 1
1 2 3
1 1
...
n
R
G G G G G
= =
+ + +
and
Equivalent Circuit
Next
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 66
Reciprocity Theorem
In a linear bilateral network, if a voltage source V
in a branch A produces a current I in any other
branch B, then the same voltage source V acting
in the branch B would produce the same current I
in branch.
The ratio V/I is known as the transfer
resistance.
Let us verify the reciprocity theorem by
considering an example.
Next
Click
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 67
Example 8
• In the network shown, find the current in branch B due
to the voltage source of 36 V in branch A.
• Now transfer the voltage source to branch B and find
the current in branch A.
• Is the reciprocity theorem established ?
• Also, determine the transfer resistance from branch A
to branch B.
Next
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 68
Solution : The equivalent resistance for the voltage
source,
O = + + = + + + = 9 4 3 2 4 )] 1 3 (  12 [ 2
eq
R
Next
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 69
The current supplied by the voltage source = 36/9 = 4 A.
Using current divider, the current I in branch B,
A 3 =
+
× =
4 12
12
4 I
Now, transferring the voltage source to branch B,
Next
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 70
The equivalent resistance for the voltage source,
O = + + = + + + = 8 1 4 3 1 )] 4 2 (  12 [ 3
eq
R
The current supplied by the voltage source = 36/8 =
4.5 A. Using current divider, the current I’ in branch
A,
A 3 =
+
× =
6 12
12
5 . 4 ' I
The transfer resistance
Ω 12 = = =
3
36
I
V
R
tr
Next
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 71
Tellegen’s Theorem.
It was published in 1952 by Bernard Tellegen.
It is valid for any lumped network that contains any
elements, linear or nonlinear, passive or active.
It simply state that the sum of instantaneous power
delivered to each branch of a network is zero.
If there are b branches in a lumped circuit, and the
voltage u
k
, current i
k
of each branch apply passive
sign convention, then we have
Next
¿
=
=
b
k
k k
i u
1
0
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 72
Example 9
• In the network shown in Fig 42, Verify Tellegen's theorem. The
values of components used are presented below.
V
1
=15V, V
2
= 6V, R
1
=2 Ω, R
2
=3 Ω, R
3
=3Ω, R
4
=2 Ω
R
5
= 5 Ω, R
6
=3 Ω.
Next
रवििार, 7 जुलाई 2013 Ch. 4 Network Theorems 73
Review
Superposition Theorem.
Thevenin’s Theorem.
Norton’s Theorem.
Maximum Power Transfer Theorem.
Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for AC Circuits.
Millman’s Theorem.
Reciprocity Theorem.
Next
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