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CONTENTS
KANDUNGAN

1

THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS STRUKTUR ATOM

1

2

CHEMICAL FORMULA AND EQUATIONS FORMULA DAN PERSAMAAN KIMIA

22

3

PERIODIC TABLE JADUAL BERKALA

49

4

CHEMICAL BOND IKATAN KIMIA

72

5

ELECTROCHEMISTRY ELEKTROKIMIA

88

6

ACID AND BASES ASID DAN BES

114

7

SALT GARAM

139

8

MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY BAHAN KIMIA DALAM INDUSTRI

168

Con-Chem F4 (B).indd 3

12/9/2011 6:00:06 PM

Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE

1

THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS
STRUKTUR ATOM
MATTER / JIRIM

• PARTICLE THEORY OF MATTER / TEORI ZARAH JIRIM
– To state the particle theory of matter
Menyatakan teori zarah jirim

– To differentiate and draw the three types of particles i.e. atom, ion and molecule
Membezakan dan melukis tiga jenis zarah jirim iaitu atom, ion dan molekul

– To describe the laboratory activity to investigate the diffusion of particles in gas, a liquid and a solid. (To prove that matter is made up of tiny and discrete particles)
Menghuraikan aktiviti makmal untuk mengkaji resapan zarah dalam gas, cecair dan pepejal (Untuk membuktikan bahawa jirim terdiri daripada zarah-zarah yang halus dan diskrit)

• KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER / TEORI KINETIK JIRIM
– To state the kinetic theory of matter
Menyatakan teori kinetik jirim

– To relate the change of physical states of matters with energy change
Menghubungkaitkan perubahan keadaan jirim dengan perubahan tenaga

– To relate the change of energy in the particles with kinetic particle theory of matter
Menghubungkaitkan perubahan tenaga dalam zarah dengan perubahan tenaga kinetik zarah

THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS / STRUKTUR ATOM

• HISTORY OF ATOMIC MODELS DEVELOPMENT / SEJARAH PERKEMBANGAN MODEL ATOM

– To state the contribution of scientists in the atomic structure model such as the scientists who discovered electron, proton, nucleus, neutron and shell

Menyatakan sumbangan ahli sains kepada perkembangan model struktur atom dan ahli sains yang menemui elektron, proton, nukleus, neutron dan petala

• SUBATOMIC PARTICLES / ZARAH-ZARAH SUBATOM

– To compare and differentiate subatomic particles i.e. proton, neutron and electron from the aspect of charge, relative mass and location
Membanding dan membezakan zarah-zarah subatom iaitu proton, neutron dan elektron dari segi cas, jisim relatif dan kedudukan

– To state the meaning of proton number and nucleon number based on the subatomic particle
Menyatakan maksud nombor proton dan nombor nukleon berdasarkan zarah subatom Menulis simbol unsur yang mengandungi nombor proton dan nombor nukleon

– To write the symbol of elements with proton number and nucleon number

• ISOTOPE / ISOTOP

– To state the meaning, examples and the use of isotopes

Menyatakan maksud isotop, contoh-contoh isotop dan kegunaan isotop

• ELECTRON ARRANGEMENT / SUSUNAN ELEKTRON

– To know the number of electron shells and number of electrons in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd shell
Mengetahui bilangan petala elektron serta bilangan elektron yang diisi dalam petala 1, 2 dan 3

– To write the electron arrangement of atoms based on proton number or number of electrons and state the number of valence electron

Menulis susunan elektron bagi suatu atom berdasarkan nombor proton atau bilangan elektron dan seterusnya menyatakan bilangan elektron valens

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01-Chem F4 (3p).indd 1

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H2 Air. Zarah neutral terdiri daripada atom-atom bukan logam berlainan terikat secara ikatan kovalen. gas adi dan beberapa unsur bukan logam seperti karbon dan silikon). Na O O O O O O O O C C O O O Zarah bercas positif atau negatif terbentuk dari logam dan bukan logam terikat secara ikatan ion. . O2 Contoh: Example: Carbon dioxide gas. H2 Hydrogen gas. atau different lebih Types of particles / Jenis zarah Types of particles / Jenis zarah Atom / Atom The smallest neutral particle of an element (Normally pure metals. dua Bahan yang terdiri daripada unsur berbeza yang terikat secara kimia. H2O Water. Nil a – Formation of molecule and ion will be studied in Chapter 4 (Chemical Bond). CO2 Ion / Ion Positively or negatively charged particles. tio 2 n Sdn. CaO Kalsium oksida.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 MATTER / Jirim Matter is any substance that has mass and occupies space. NaCl Neon gas. ion ions dan molekul . Matter is made up of tiny and discrete particles. Contoh: Example: Sodium metal. Matter can be classified as element or compound. Ne H H Ne Ne H H H H H H O O H H H Cl – Na+ Cl – Na + Cl – Ne O H Na+ Cl – Na+ Cl – Na+ Calcium oxide. and molecules . Tiga jenis zarah tersebut ialah atom atoms . Ne Contoh: Example: Sodium chloride. Zarah neutral terdiri daripada atom-atom bukan logam serupa terikat secara ikatan kovalen. Contoh: Molecule / Molekul A neutral particle consists of different non-metal atoms which are covalently-bonded. / Jirim boleh dikelaskan sebagai unsur atau sebatian. H2O Natrium klorida. The Particle Theory of Matter / Teori Zarah Jirim 1 2 3 Jirim adalah sebarang bahan yang mempunyai jisim dan memenuhi ruang. Bh 12/9/2011 5:59:27 PM . Complete the following: / Lengkapkan yang berikut: MATTER / JIRIM ELEMENT / UNSUR satu type of atom. Na Gas oksigen. which are formed from metal atom and non-metal atom respectively. Molecule / Molekul A neutral particle consists of similar non-metal atoms which are covalently-bonded. Zarah neutral yang paling kecil bagi suatu unsur (Biasanya logam tulen. CO2 Logam natrium. A substance made from only satu Bahan yang terdiri daripada jenis atom sahaja. CaO Ca2+ O 2 Ca2+ O 2 Ca2+ O 2 Ca2+ O 2 Ca2+ O 2 Ca2+ O 2 Ca2+ O 2 Ca2+ – Elements can be identified as metal or non-metal by referring to the Periodic Table. C O Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Gas Neon. COMPOUND / SEBATIAN two or more A substance made from elements which are bonded together. The force of attraction between the two oppositely charged ions forms an ionic bond. NaCl Na+ Cl – Na+ Cl – Na+ Gas hidrogen. 01-Chem F4 (3p).indd 2 d. Pembentukan molekul atau ion akan dipelajari dalam Tajuk 4 (Ikatan Kimia). Three types of tiny particles are Jisim terdiri daripada zarah yang halus dan diskrit. noble gases and a few non-metal elements such as carbon and silicon). Example: Oxygen gas. Daya tarikan antara dua ion yang berlawanan cas membentuk ikatan ion. O2 Gas karbon dioksida. m Publica Unsur boleh dikenal pasti sebagai logam atau bukan logam dengan merujuk kepada Jadual Berkala Unsur.

hd 3 Nila 01-Chem F4 (3p). The slow diffuse very between closely packed space of gel particles which is in solid form. Resapan berlaku dalam pepejal. (c) Diffusion occurs in a solid.indd 3 12/9/2011 5:59:28 PM m . Lengkapkan jadual berikut: Diffusion in a gas Resapan dalam gas (b) Diffusion occurs when particles of a substance move between the particles of another substance. Resapan berlaku apabila zarah-zarah suatu bahan bergerak di antara zarah-zarah bahan lain. Copper(II) sulphate. Warna perang wap bromin. Kalium manganat(VII) terdiri daripada ion kalium dan ion manganat(VII). liquid and gas. Br2 merebak cepat memenuhi kedua-dua dengan balang gas.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE 4 Tentukan jenis zarah bagi setiap bahan berikut: Substances Bahan Determine the type of particles in the following substances: Type of particle Jenis zarah Substances Bahan Type of particle Jenis zarah Substances Bahan Type of particle Jenis zarah Hydrogen gas (H2) Gas hidrogen (H2) Molecule Sulphur dioxide (SO2) Sulfur dioksida (SO2) Iron (Fe) Ferum (Fe) Carbon (C) Karbon (C) Molecule Tetrachloromethane (CCl4) Tetraklorometana (CCl4) Molecule Copper(II) sulphate (CuSO4) Kuprum(II) sulfat (CuSO4 ) Argon (Ar) Argon (Ar) 5 Ion Atom Zink chloride (ZnCl2) Zink klorida (ZnCl2 ) Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) Hidrogen peroksida (H2O2) Ion Atom Atom Molecule Resapan Diffusion (a) The tiny and discrete particles that made up matter are constantly moving. Kuprum(II) sulfat. cecair dan gas. the particles are closer together and in solids. KMnO4 spreads slowly throughout the water. in liquids. perlahan KMnO4 merebak dengan di dalam air. Warna biru kuprum(II) sulfat. Publicat n io Sdn. In gases. Molekul bromin meresap pantas besar melalui ruang antara zarahzarah udara yang berbentuk gas. zarah-zarahnya disusun dengan sangat padat dan teratur. The slowly diffuse between close space of water particles which is in liquid form. The purple colour of solid potassium manganate(VII). The blue colour of copper(II) sulphate. molecules diffuse Bromine quickly between large space of air particles which is in gas form. Jirim terdiri daripada zarah-zarah halus dan diskrit yang sentiasa bergerak. Br2 dan udara terdiri molekul daripada . susunan zarah-zarahnya adalah berjauhan antara satu sama lain. zarah-zarahnya disusun lebih rapat dan dalam pepejal. CuSO4 terdiri daripada ion ion kuprum(II) dan Ion-ion sulfat. Br2 and air are made molecules . ini meresap dengan perlahan sangat antara ruang padat zarah agar-agar yang berbentuk pepejal. Dalam gas. CuSO4 is made ions and up of copper(II) ions ions sulphate . CuSO4 spreads very slowly throughout the gel. Complete the following table: Diffusion in a liquid Resapan dalam cecair Diffusion in a solid Resapan dalam pepejal Experiment Eksperimen A few drops of bromine liquid Beberapa titis cecair bromin After few minutes Selepas beberapa minit Water Air After a few hours Selepas beberapa jam Agar-agar Gel After a day Selepas sehari Potassium manganate(VII) Kalium manganat(VII) Copper(II) sulphate Kuprum(II) sulfat Observation Pemerhatian The brown colour of bromine vapour. up of Wap bromin. sangat perlahan CuSO4 merebak di dalam agar-agar. far Br2 spreads throughout the two jars. Warna ungu pepejal kalium manganat(VII). Ion-ion perlahan ini meresap rapat antara ruang zarah air yang berbentuk cecair. B . they are arranged closely packed. Potassium manganate(VII) is made up of potassium ions and ions manganate(VII) ions. these particles are very far apart from each other. Explanation Penerangan Bromine vapour. dalam cecair.

yang The Kinetic Theory of Matter / Teori Kinetik Jirim 1 2 3 4 5 tiny halus and dan discrete diskrit Matter exists in three different states which are Jirim wujud dalam tiga keadaan iaitu pepejal . Gas bromin. Zarah-zarah adalah antara zarah-zarah lebih rapat antara satu sama lain. Zarah-zarah tenaga yang berbeza. fixed position. Bh 12/9/2011 5:59:28 PM . padat . Zarah-zarah tersusun teratur dan . potassium manganate(VII) and copper(II) sulphate are made up of particles that are constantly moving/constant motion . kalium manganat(VII) dan kuprum(II) sulfat terdiri daripada zarah-zarah sentiasa bergerak . Zarah-zarah cecair adalah liquid than in solid. Zarah bergetar . rotate move and freely. Jirim terdiri daripada zarah-zarah As the temperature increases. larger further space in between the particles of apart. movement and energy content. liquid dan and gas gas . cecair Matter that made up of tiny and halus discrete dan particles which are always in constantly diskrit yang sentiasa bergerak . Particles in a are closer are together. . The particles in the liquid lebih besar berjauhan gas Resapan berlaku lebih cepat di dalam berbanding di dalam cecair.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 (d) Conclusions: Kesimpulan: gas than in liquid. rotate move and throughout the liquid. The particles in the solid are very Resapan berlaku lebih cepat di dalam cecair antara zarah-zarah dan padat cecair larger close space in between the particles together. Setiap zarah (atom / ion / molekul) diwakili dengan ‘ ’ Particles arrangement Susunan zarah The particles are arranged closely packed in orderly manner. Zarah bergetar . There is (ii) Diffusion occurs faster in a liquid of a than a solid. the Apabila suhu meningkat. 01-Chem F4 (3p). lebih besar rapat berbanding di dalam pepejal. There is (i) Diffusion occurs faster in gas gas a than a liquid. solid . from . Nil a m Publica tio 4 n Sdn. pergerakan dan kandungan Complete the following table: / Lengkapkan jadual di bawah: State of matter Keadaan jirim Pepejal Solid Liquid Cecair Gas Gas Draw the particles arrangement. dalam keadaan jirim yang berbeza mempunyai susunan. terpisah jauh Zarah-zarah antara satu sama lain. Terdapat ruang yang gas gas berbanding dengan cecair. . daya tarikan antara zarah. Terdapat ruang yang berbanding dengan pepejal.indd 4 d. moving . antara satu sama lain. . berputar dan bergerak bebas. Zarah-zarah pepejal tersusun sangat antara satu sama lain. Each particle (atom/ ion/ molecule) is represented by Lukis susunan zarah. strength of forces between them. (iii) Bromine gas. padat The particles are arranged closely packed but not in orderly manner Zarah-zarah tersusun tidak teratur tetapi The particles are very widely separated each other. tenaga kinetic energy of particles increases and the particles move faster kinetik zarah-zarah akan bertambah dan zarah-zarah akan bergerak dengan lebih cepat Particles in different states of matter have different arrangement. berputar dan bergerak dalam cecair. Particles can vibrate . Particles can vibrate . Particles movement Pergerakan zarah Particles can only vibrate rotate about their and Zarah bergetar dan berputar pada kedudukan tetap.

tenaga kinetik zarah (b) Inter . the they vibrate less vigorously. Daya tarikan yang antara zarah-zarah. conical flask. kinetic energy of the particles decreases and berkurang dan oleh jirim (semasa disejukkan). Kandungan tenaga lebih tinggi daripada pepejal tetapi lebih rendah daripada gas. Bunsen burner and wire gauze Procedure / Prosedur: I. low . stopwatch. kinetic kinetik energy of the particles zarah bertambah (ii) When matter releases heat energy (it is cooled). Strong the forces in the solid. diserap Apabila tenaga haba oleh jirim (semasa dipanaskan). beaker.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE Attractive forces between the particles Daya tarikan antara zarah strong forces Very between the particles. forces between the particles but weaker than kuat Daya tarikan yang antara zarah-zarah tetapi lebih lemah berbanding di dalam pepejal. water Apparatus / Radas: Boiling tube. Kandungan tenaga tinggi. Energy content is high. retort stand. Energy content is higher than solid but less than in a gas.conversion of the states of matter: Perubahan keadaan jirim: Solid Pepejal 7 Melting / Peleburan Freezing / Pembekuan Liquid Cecair Boiling/Evoporation / Pendidihan/Penyejatan Condensation / Kondensasi Gas Gas Penentuan takat lebur dan takat beku naftalena Determination of melting and freezing points of naphthalene Materials / Bahan: Naphthalene powder. Energy content of the particles Kandungan tenaga zarah Energy content is very Kandungan tenaga sangat rendah . tenaga dan zarah tersebut bergerak dengan lebih cepat. hd 5 Nila 01-Chem F4 (3p). dibebaskan Apabila tenaga haba zarah tersebut bergerak kurang cergas. very sangat 6 Perubahan keadaan jirim Changes in the state of matter (a) Matter undergoes change of state when heat energy is haba absorbed di or released/lose atau di : : Jirim mengalami perubahan keadaan apabila tenaga serap bebaskan (i) When heat energy is absorbed by the matter (it is heated). B . Weak the perticles forces between lemah Daya tarikan yang sangat kuat antara zarah-zarah. Heating of naphthalene / Pemanasan naftalena Set-up of apparatus: / Susunan radas: Thermometer / Termometer Boiling tube / Tabung didih Water / Air Naphthalene / Naftalena Haba Publicat n io Heat Sdn.indd 5 12/9/2011 5:59:28 PM m . the increases and they vibrate faster. thermometer 0 – 100°C.

indd 6 d. conical flask kelalang kon as shown seperti Tabung didih dan kandungannya dikeluarkan daripada kukus air dan dipindahkan ke dalam dalam gambar rajah. Apabila suhu naftalena mencapai sehingga suhunya mencapai 90°C 60°C . Bh 12/9/2011 5:59:29 PM .MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 boiling tube (a) A placed into it. stirred constantly with thermometer throughout cooling (b) The content in the boiling tube is supercooling process to avoid (the temperature of cooling liquid drops below freezing point. Suhu naftalena dicatat setiap suhu 30 saat 30 seconds interval until the temperature drops 60°C . . Graf melawan dilukis untuk proses pemanasan dan penyejukan. Tabung didih di dalamnya. Air dipanaskan dan naftalena perlahan-lahan dengan 60°C . thermometer . is filled 3 . dikacau Kandungan dalam tabung didih perlahan-lahan dengan termometer sepanjang proses penyejukan untuk penyejukan lampau (Suhu cecair yang disejukkan turun melepasi takat beku tanpa pembentukan mengelakkan pepejal). 01-Chem F4 (3p).5 cm height with naphthalene powder and a 3 – 5 cm dan thermometer is diisi dengan serbuk naftalena setinggi termometer diletakkan (b) The boiling tube is immersed in a water bath as shown in the diagram so that the water level in the water bath is higher than naphtalene powder in the boiling tube. the stopwatch is started. Tabung didih dimasukkan ke dalam kukus air seperti di dalam gambar rajah dan pastikan aras air dalam kukus air lebih tinggi daripada aras naftalena dalam tabung didih. sehingga suhunya mencapai masa (d) A graph of temperature against time is plotted for the heating and cooling process respectively. The temperature of (d) When the temperature of naphthalene reaches 90°C naphthalene is recorded at 30 seconds intervals until the temperature of naphthalene reaches . (c) The water is heated and the naphthalene is dikacau stirred slowly with termometer . Nil a m Publica tio 6 n Sdn. Suhu naftalena dicatat setiap 30 saat II. without the appearance of a solid). Cooling of naphthalene / Penyejukan naftalena Naphthalene Naftalena Naftalena (a) The boiling tube and its content is removed from the water bath and put into a in the diagram. mulakan jam randik. (c) The temperature of naphthalene is recorded every 60°C to .

Suhu adalah untuk mengatasi tetap . The temperature kinetik . faster as its energy content increases. lebih cepat Apabila pepejal dipanaskan. Tenaga haba bertambah oleh zarah-zarah dan zarah bergetar dengan naftalena menyebabkan tenaga meningkat . B . Suhu semakin Sdn. The particles begin to move gas diserap Liquid and Gas to form a Tenaga haba . kinetic akan bertambah n io diserap oleh zarah-zarah gas naftalena menyebabkan tenaga Tenaga haba lebih cepat meningkat dan zarah-zarah bergerak dengan . Suhu Heat energy is E to F E ke F absorbed Gas energy to incerease and move gas by the particles in the faster . liquid by the particles in the increase energy to and move oleh zarah-zarah cecair naphthalene causing their faster . the particles absorb heat and move absorbed energy is . . Tenaga haba Point Titik State of Matter Keadaan jirim Explanation Penerangan A to B A ke B Heat energy is kinetic absorbed energy to diserap by the particles in the increase and vibrate pepejal lebih cepat solid faster naphthalene causing their . kinetik . Suhu semakin Heat energy B to C B ke C absorbed by the particles in the liquid solid naphthalene is turn to digunakan used liquid to . the state of matter will change. daya tarikan antara zarah-zarah supaya pepejal oleh zarah-zarah dalam naftalena pepejal cecair berubah menjadi C to D C ke D Heat energy kinetic absorbed . Heat energy overcome D to E D ke E absorbed by the particles in the liquid naphthalene is used freely to the forces of attraction between particles. akan Solid increases. Zarah-zarah mula bergerak tetap adalah . Suhu semakin . As the heat disebabkan kandungan tenaga bertambah.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE The Explanation of the Heating Process of Matter / Penerangan Proses Pemanasan 1 Lengkung pemanasan naftalena: The heating curve of naphthalene: Temperature/°C Suhu/°C F D B A Time/s Masa/s E C 2 When a solid is heated. hd Publicat 7 Nila 01-Chem F4 (3p). The Solid and Liquid overcome temperature Tenaga haba yang forces between particles so that the remains constant diserap .indd 7 12/9/2011 5:59:29 PM m . zarah-zarah menyerap haba dan bergerak diserap menyebabkan perubahan keadaan jirim. The temperature causing their increases . daya tarikan antara zarah-zarah. The temperature akan Liquid increases Tenaga haba bertambah diserap dan zarah-zarah bergerak dengan kinetik naftalena menyebabkan tenaga lebih cepat meningkat . The temperature oleh zarah-zarah dalam remains constant cecair . naftalena digunakan untuk mengatasi bebas gas untuk membentuk .

cecair naphthalene. Zarah-zarah dalam semakin perlahan. As the energy is to the surrounding. Suhu adalah . membebaskan tenaga dan bergetar dengan Nil a m Publica tio 8 n Sdn. Suhu semakin menurun . slower. 01-Chem F4 (3p). suhu tidak berubah kerana haba yang mengatasi daya tarikan antara zarah supaya cecair berubah menjadi gas. zarah membebaskan tenaga dan dibebaskan ke persekitaran. the temperature remains unchanged because heat energy The constant temperature at which a is used to overcome Suhu tetap di mana suatu bahan dalam keadaan cecair liquid boiling point . absorbed by the particles During the melting process. The heat by the Q to R Q ke R released heat Liquid and Solid The temperature Haba tenaga liquid to the surrounding by the particles in naphthalene is balanced solid energy released as the particles attract one another to form a .indd 8 d. releases heat and vibrate slower .MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 3 4 completely changes to become a liquid is called the melting point . remains constant . the particles in the liquid release energy and move released decreases. Zarah-zarah dalam pepejal naftalena menurun Suhu semakin . R to S R ke S Solid The particles in the solid naphthalene decreases . the state of matter will change. Keadaan jirim State of matter Keadaan jirim Explanation Penerangan Heat is P to Q P ke Q released/given out Liquid The particles in the temperature decreases liquid to the surrounding by the particles in the liquid kinetic move lose their energy and . The Explanation for the Cooling Process of Matter: / Penerangan Proses Penyejukan Bahan: 1 Lengkung penyejukan naftalena: The cooling curve of naphthalene: Temperature/°C Suhu/°C P Q R S Time/s Masa/s 2 slower When the liquid is cooled. The dibebaskan ke persekitaran oleh zarah-zarah dalam Haba cecair kinetik kehilangan tenaga dan bergerak naftalena. suhu tidak berubah kerana haba yang mengatasi cecair daya tarikan antara zarah supaya pepejal berubah menjadi . the temperature remains unchanged because heat energy used liquid . cecair Apabila cecair disejukkan. Bh 12/9/2011 5:59:29 PM . by the particles the forces between particles so that the liquid change to turn into a gas. is to overcome the forces between particles so that the solid change to turn into a The constant temperature at which a Suhu tetap di mana suatu takat lebur berubah kepada keadaan cecair dipanggil diserap oleh zarah-zarah Semasa proses peleburan. digunakan untuk solid completely changes to become a gas is called the absorbed During the boiling process. dibebaskan cecair diimbangi ke persekitaran oleh zarah-zarah dalam naftalena oleh haba terbebas yang apabila zarah-zarah tertarik antara satu sama lain untuk membentuk pepejal tetap . takat didih berubah kepada keadaan gas dipanggil . The temperature lebih perlahan . diserap digunakan oleh zarah-zarah untuk Semasa proses pendidihan. pepejal . berubah semasa tenaga Point Titik as its energy content bergerak semakin perlahan.

(b) Which of the substances are element? Explain your answer. Chemical formula / Formula kimia Ag K2O NH3 Cl2 Type of particle / Jenis zarah Atom Ion Molecule Molecule (a) State the type of particles that made up each substance in the table. the temperature remains unchanged because the heat to the surrounding is balanced by the solid . gas jika suhu bahan tersebut lebih tinggi daripada takat didihnya. Suatu bahan berada dalam keadaan A substance is in gas state if the temperature of the substance is above boiling point. Q dan R. Semasa proses dibebaskan diimbangi ke persekitaran oleh haba yang terbebas pembekuan. Silver and chlorine.indd 9 12/9/2011 5:59:29 PM m . Yang manakah antara bahan tersebut merupakan suatu sebatian? Jelaskan jawapan anda. apabila zarah-zarah cecair menyusun semula untuk membentuk Keadaan Fizik Bahan pada Sebarang Suhu: / Physical State Of A Substance At Any Given Temperature: 1 2 3 A substance is in solid state if the temperature of the substance is below melting point pepejal jika suhu bahan tersebut lebih rendah daripada takat leburnya. Nyatakan jenis zarah yang membentuk bahan dalam jadual di atas. Q and R. Potassium oxide and ammonia. During the freezing released process. Substance / Bahan P Q R The table below shows the melting and boiling points of substance P . Yang manakah antara bahan tersebut merupakan suatu unsur? Jelaskan jawapan anda. Potassium oxide and ammonia are made up of two different elements 2 Jadual di bawah menunjukkan takat lebur dan takat didih bagi bahan P. Suatu bahan berada dalam keadaan A substance is in liquid state if the temperature of the substance is between melting and boiling points. Substance / Bahan Silver / Argentum Potassium oxide / Kalium oksida Ammonia / Ammonia Chlorine / Klorin The table below shows substances and their chemical formula. Suatu bahan berada dalam keadaan EXERCISE / LATIHAN 1 Jadual di bawah menunjukkan bahan dan formula kimia masing-masing. Silver and chlorine are made up of one type of atom (c) Which of the substance are compound? Explain your answer. cecair jika suhu bahan tersebut berada antara takat lebur dan takat didihnya. cecair liquid heat released when the liquid particles rearrange themselves to become a Suhu tetap di mana suatu takat beku berubah kepada keadaan pepejal dipanggil . Melting point / Takat lebur / °C –36 –18 98 Boiling point / Takat didih / °C 6 70 230 Publicat n io Sdn. B .Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE 3 The constant temperature at which a freezing point changes to a solid is called . suhu tidak berubah kerana haba yang pepejal . hd 9 Nila 01-Chem F4 (3p).

Bh 12/9/2011 5:59:30 PM . More heat is needed to overcome the force between particles in substance R. Q dan R pada keadaan bilik. Substance PP / Bahan P Bahan Substance QQ / Bahan Q Bahan Substance R/ Bahan RBahan R (c) (i) What is the substance that exist in the form of liquid at 0°C. Lakarkan graf suhu melawan masa bagi pemanasan bahan Q terhadap masa untuk pemanasan bahan Q.indd 10 d. Bahan Q dipanaskan dari suhu bilik hingga 100°C. Q and R at room condition. Temperature/°C 70 Time/s (ii) What is the state of matter of substance Q at 70°C? Apakah keadaan fizik bahan Q pada 70°C? Liquid and gas (e) Compare the melting point of substances Q and R. The melting point of substance R is higher than subtance Q. Explain your answer. P . Terangkan jawapan anda.Q (ii) Give reason to your answer. Nyatakan bahan yang wujud dalam keadaan cecair pada suhu 0°C. The attraction force between particles in substance R is stronger than Q. Bandingkan takat lebur bahan Q dan R. Jelaskan jawapan anda. Lukis susunan zarah P.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 (a) (i) What is meant by ‘melting point’? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan ‘takat lebur’? The constant temperature at which a solid charges to a liquid at particular pressure (ii) What is meant by ‘boiling point’? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan ‘takat didih’? The constant temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas at particular pressure (b) Draw the particles arrangement of substances P . Nil a m Publica tio 10 n Sdn. Sketch a graph of temperature against time for the heating of substance Q. 01-Chem F4 (3p). The temperature 0°C is above the melting point of Q and below the boiling point of Q (d) (i) Substance Q is heated from room temperature to 100°C.

Namakan sebatian lain yang terdiri daripada molekul. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan graf suhu melawan masa untuk penyejukan cecair asetamida. (a) What is the purpose of using water bath in the experiment? Apakah tujuan menggunakan kukus air dalam eksperimen ini? To ensure even heating of acetemide. Namakan satu bahan lain yang mana takat leburnya boleh ditentukan dengan menggunakan kukus air seperti rajah di atas. Water/naphthalene (g) What is the melting point of acetamide? Apakah takat lebur asetamida? T2°C Publicat n io Sdn. Natrium nitrat mempunyai takat lebur 310°C. Naphthalene (c) Sodium nitrate has a melting point of 310°C. (f) Acetemide exists as molecules. hd 11 Nila 01-Chem F4 (3p). Can the melting point of sodium nitrate be determined by using the water bath as shown in the diagram? Explain your answer. State the name of another compound that is made up of molecules. Thermometer / Termometer Boiling tube / Tabung didih Water / Air Acetamide / Asetamida The melting point of acetamide can be determined by heating solid acetamide until it melts as shown in the diagram below. Jelaskan.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE 3 Takat lebur asetamida boleh ditentukan dengan memanaskan pepejal asetamida sehingga lebur seperti dalam rajah di bawah. Asetamida wujud sebagai molekul. Acetamide is easily combustible. The heat lost to the surrounding is balanced by the heat released when the liquid particles rearrange themselves to become solid. The temperature of acetemide is recorded every three minutes when it is left to cool down at room temperature. (b) State the name of another substance which its melting point can also be determined by using water bath as shown in the above diagram. Bolehkah takat lebur natrium nitrat ditentukan dengan menggunakan kukus air seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam rajah di atas? Jelaskan jawapan anda. Suhu asetamida dicatatkan setiap tiga minit semasa disejukkan pada suhu bilik. B . (ii) The temperature between Q and R is constant. (d) Why do we need to stir the acetemide in the boiling tube in above experiment? Mengapakah asetamida dalam tabung didih itu perlu dikacau sepanjang eksperimen? To make sure the heat is distributed evenly (e) The graph of temperature against time for the cooling of liquid acetamide is shown below.indd 11 12/9/2011 5:59:30 PM m . Explain. Temperature / Suhu/ °C T3 T2 T1 Q R Time / Masa/s (i) What is the freezing point of acetamide? Apakah takat beku asetamida? T2°C Suhu antara titik Q dan R adalah tetap. No. because the melting point of water is 100°C which is less than the melting point of sodium nitrate.

zarah subatom yang pertama... Nukleus mengandungi zarah-zarah neutral dipanggil proton zarah-zarah bercas positif dipanggil ........ dibahagi ..... (iii) Atoms from the same element are Atom daripada unsur sama adalah identical ... Sfera bercas Positively charged sphere Positif positif . Electron bergerak di dalam petala mengelilingi nukleus ... adalah sebahagian daripada nukleus.... contain Nukleus mengandungi proton (ii) Proton Proton is a part of the nucleus. Shell Nucleus that contain proton and neutron Nukleus mengandungi proton dan neutron (i) Discovered the existence of neutron . Bh 12/9/2011 5:59:31 PM . destroyed atau .. mempunyai hampir semua jisim atom.... outside the nucleus bergerak di luar Elektron bergerak di luar nukleus Rutherford nukleus Discovered the nucleus as the centre of an atom and positively charged .. Jisim neutron dan proton neutron dan Electron (iii) The mass of a neutron and proton is almost the same.indd 12 d. nukleus .. the first subatomic particle..... . bercas negatif Elektron bercas negatif (i) Discovered the Menjumpai elektron electrons ........ Sfera bercas Thomson Elektron charges negative Electron ............. charge which embedded with negatively charged particles called electrons .. James Chadwick (ii) Nucleus of an atom contains neutral particles called neutron and positively charged particles called proton ..... .... (ii) Electrons move in the Elektron shells around the nucleus... or divided ..... (iii) Electron Elektron Nukleus move outside the nucleus....... Shell Nucleus that contain proton Nukleus mengandungi proton (i) Discovered the existence of electron petala shells . bergerak di sekeliling nukleus....... atoms atom . Neils Bohr Menjumpai kewujudan elektron..MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 The Atomic Structure / Struktur Atom 1 Sejarah perkembangan model atom: Scientist Saintis History of the development of atomic models: Atomic Model Model atom Discovery Penemuan (i) Dalton Matter is made up of particles called created dicipta .. (ii) Atom is sphere of positif Atom adalah sfera yang bercas elektron bercas negatif dipanggil . yang mengandungi zarah positive (i) Electron moves Elektron .... adalah hampir sama...... 01-Chem F4 (3p). Menjumpai kewujudan neutron . Jirim terdiri daripada zarah-zarah dipanggil (ii) Atoms cannot be Atom tidak boleh dimusnah sama . Nil a m Publica tio 12 n Sdn.. (iv) Most of the mass of the atom found in the nucleus .... yang merupakan pusat bagi atom dan bercas positif Menjumpai Nukleus mengandungi Nucleus that proton proton .

) +1 –1 cas (d) The relative mass of a neutron and a proton which are in the nucleus is 1. Complete the following diagram: / Lengkapkan yang berikut: Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Sodium element Unsur natrium Sodium element Unsur natrium Sodium element Unsur natrium Sodium Atom atom natrium Publicat n io Sdn. mengandungi proton dan neutron.indd 13 12/9/2011 5:59:32 PM m . proton 1 (e) The mass of an electron can be ignored as the mass of an electron is about times the size of a proton or 1 840 neutron. Atom is . Each electron has an electrical charge of –1 . (Suatu atom akan membentuk ion apabila ia kehilangan atau menerima elektron – pembentukan ion akan adalah . oleh itu cas keseluruhan bagi atom adalah neutral . Jisim suatu atom diperoleh daripada jumlah bilangan neutron dan bilangan . from the number of Jisim relatif proton dan neutron di dalam nukleus ialah 1. sifar . 3 Jisim elektron boleh diabaikan kerana ia terlalu kecil iaitu 1 daripada jisim proton dan neutron. Atom Setiap atom mempunyai bilangan proton dan elektron yang sama. The neutron has no (c) Each proton has charge of charge neutral (it is ). An atom has the same number of protons and electrons. 1 840 Lengkapkan jadual di bawah: Subatomic particles Zarah subatom Complete the following table: Symbol Simbol Charge Cas Relative atomic mass Jisim atom relatif Kedudukan Position Electron/Elektron Proton/Proton Neutron/Neutron 4 e p n – (negative) + (positive) neutral 1 =0 1 840 1 1 In the shells In the nucleus In the nucleus Atom adalah zarah neutral paling kecil dalam suatu unsur.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE 2 The structure of an atom: / Struktur Atom: Shell / Petala Nucleus that contain proton and neutron Nukleus yang mengandungi proton dan neutron Electron / Elektron (a) An atom has a central Atom mempunyai nucleus and electrons that move in the shells petala around the nucleus. B . so the overall charge zero neutral of atom is . Neutron tidak mempunyai dipelajari dalam Tajuk 4. mengelilingi nukleus tersebut. The mass of an atom is obtained mainly proton and neutron . +1 . hd 13 Nila 01-Chem F4 (3p). nukleus di tengahnya dan elektron bergerak di dalam (b) The nucleus Nukleus contains protons and neutrons. Atom is the smallest neutral particle of an element. Setiap elektron bercas . (If an atom loses or gains electrons it is called an ion – formation of ion will be studied in Chapter 4) Setiap proton bercas (ianya adalah neutral ).

2 Standard representation symbol represents Simbol perwakilan piawai mewakili satu atom one atom of an element. There are two elements chemically bonded in KCl because there are two capital letters represent potassium and chlorine.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 5 Nombor proton sesuatu unsur (Rujuk Jadual Berkala Unsur) Proton number of an element (Refer to Periodic table of an element) (a) Proton number of an element is the number of proton in its atom atom . it must be a capital letter. The first letter of each element is capitalised to show that it is a new element. Tetapi jika simbol terdiri daripada dua huruf. Nombor nukleon juga dikenali sebagai nombor jisim. the first is always a capital letter. Example: / Contoh: Element Unsur Symbol Simbol Element Unsur Symbol Simbol Element Unsur Symbol Simbol Oxygen/Oksigen Magnesium/Magnesium Hydrogen/Hidrogen O Mg H Nitrogen/Nitrogen Sodium/Natrium Potassium/Kalium N Na K Calcium/Kalsium Copper/Kuprum Chlorine/Klorin Ca Cu Cl Huruf yang pertama bagi setiap unsur ditulis dengan huruf besar untuk menunjukkan ia adalah unsur yang baru. K is 19. 8 elektron di dalam petala. 19 elektron di dalam petala. K ialah 19. Contohnya KCl. Nombor proton untuk kalium. 01-Chem F4 (3p). O is 8. Ini sangat berguna semasa menulis formula kimia. The symbol of an element is a short way of representing an element. If it has two letters. . maka ia mesti ditulis dengan huruf besar. atom has 19 protons in the nucleus and 19 electrons kalium mempunyai 19 proton di dalam nukleus dan Atom – Proton number of oxygen. Bh 12/9/2011 5:59:32 PM . It can be written as: sesuatu unsur. Potasium in the shells. . maka huruf pertama merupakan huruf besar dan huruf kedua merupakan huruf kecil. – Proton number of potassium. Symbol of Element And Standard Representation For An Atom of Element Simbol Unsur dan Perwakilan Piawai bagi Atom Sesuatu Unsur 1 Simbol unsur adalah cara mudah untuk mewakilkan unsur. Nombor nukleon sesuatu unsur adalah jumlah bilangan proton dan neutron di dalam nukleus sesuatu atom . O ialah 8. Ianya boleh ditulis sebagai: Nucleon number/Nombor nukleon Proton number/Nombor proton A Z X Symbol of an element/Simbol unsur Nil a m Publica tio 14 n Sdn. atom Atom has 8 protons in the nucleus and 8 proton 8 electrons oksigen mempunyai di dalam nukleus dan Nombor nukleon sesuatu unsur (Rujuk Jadual Berkala Unsur) Nucleon number of an element (Refer to Periodic table of an element) (a) Nucleon number of an element is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of its atom . 6 Nombor proton untuk oksigen. If the symbol has only one letter. Nombor nukleon = bilangan proton + bilangan neutron. Oxygen in the shells.indd 14 d. For example KCl. Terdapat dua unsur yang terikat secara kimia dalam KCl kerana adanya dua huruf besar yang mewakili kalium dan klorin. Jika simbol hanya terdiri daripada satu huruf. neutral Nombor proton sesuatu unsur adalah bilangan proton yang terdapat dalam (b) The number of proton of an atom is also equal to the number of electrons in the atom because atom is (c) Every element has its own proton number: Bilangan proton sesuatu atom adalah sama dengan bilangan elektron dalam atom kerana atom adalah Setiap unsur mempunyai nombor protonnya tersendiri: neutral . while the second is always a small letter. (c) Nucleon number = number of proton + number of neutron. (b) Nucleon number is also known as a mass number. This is helpful when writing a chemical formula.

B . Cobalt-60 is used to destroy cancer cells. To kill microorganism in the sterilising process. 3 – The nucleon number of Aluminium is Nombor nukleon Aluminium adalah Nombor proton Aluminium adalah 27 27 . Isotop ialah atom-atom unsur yang mempunyai bilangan proton yang sama tetapi bilangan neutron yang berbeza. Isotop mempunyai sifat chemical kimia properties but different physical properties because they have the same electron fizik yang berbeza. Contoh: Natrium-24 Untuk memusnahkan sel barah. Hydrogen-1 and Hydrogen-2 atoms have the same proton number or the same but different in nucleon number because of the difference in the number of bilangan proton yang sama tetapi nombor nukleon yang . 13 elektron. Untuk membunuh mikroorganisma semasa proses pensterilan. Unsur itu adalah Aluminium. ii. – Aluminium has 13 protons . – The proton number of Aluminium is 13 13 . To detect any blockage in water. 14 neutrons . Publicat n io Sdn. Atom Hidrogen-1 dan Hidrogen-2 mempunyai nombor proton atau bilangan neutron . Atom Aluminium mempunyai 13 proton 14 neutron Isotope / Isotop (a) Isotopes are atoms of the same element with same number of protons but different number of neutrons. Contoh: Kobalt-60 Untuk mengesan trombosis (saluran darah tersumbat). Bidang perubatan Medical field – – – – – To detect brain cancer. . To detect thrombosis (blockage in blood vessel). . gas atau minyak yang tersumbat. and 13 dan electrons. Untuk mengesan kehausan enjin. yang sama kerana mempunyai susunan elektron yang sama tetapi sifat (b) Examples of the usage of isotopes: Contoh kegunaan isotop: i. Sodium-24 is used to measure the rate of iodine absorption by thyroid gland. Or / Atau Isotopes are atoms of the same element with same Isotop ialah atom-atom unsur yang mempunyai nombor berbeza. 1 1 H Nucleon number/Nombor nukleon = 1 Proton number/Nombor proton = 1 Number of neutron/Bilangan neutron = 0 number of protons proton proton number but different yang sama tetapi nombor nucleon nukleon number. Untuk mengesan barah otak. gas or oil pipes. hd 15 Nila 01-Chem F4 (3p). Bidang industri In the industrial field – – To detect wearing out in machines. Untuk mengesan saluran paip air.indd 15 12/9/2011 5:59:32 PM m . Untuk mengukur kadar penyerapan iodin oleh kelenjar tiroid.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE Example: / Contoh: 27 A1 13 – The element is Aluminium. yang Example: / Contoh: 2 1 H Nucleon number/Nombor nukleon = 2 Proton number/Nombor proton = 1 Number of neutron/Bilangan neutron = 1 neutron berbeza – Hydrogen-1 and Hydrogen-2 are isotopes. kerana perbezaan – Isotopes have the same arrangements.

– Third shell can be filled with a maximum of 8 8 electrons. First shell is filled with 2 electrons (duplet) Petala pertama diisi 2 elektron (duplet) Petala kedua diisi 8 elektron (oktet) Petala ketiga disi 8 elektron (oktet) Second shell is filled with 8 electrons (octet) Third shell is filled with 8 electrons (octet) (b) Valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost shell of an atom. To sterile insect pests for plants. Lengkapkan jadual berikut: Complete the following table: (a) Draw the electron arrangement and complete the description for each element: Lukis susunan elektron bagi atom dan penerangan bagi setiap unsur berikut: Electron arrangement of an atom Lukiskan susunan elektron bagi atom Standard representation of an element Perwakilan piawai unsur Description Penerangan Hydrogen Atom Atom Hidrogen Number of protons/Bilangan proton Number of eletrons/Bilangan elektron Number of neutrons/Bilangan neutron Proton number/Nombor proton Nucleon number/Nombor nukleon Electron Arrangement/Susunan elektron 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 H 1 H Nil a m Publica tio 16 n Sdn. 5 Elektron valens: Elektron yang diisi dalam petala paling luar suatu atom. Setiap petala hanya boleh diisi dengan bilangan elektron tertentu. For the elements with atomic numbers 1-20: Elektron diisi dalam petala tertentu. 01-Chem F4 (3p). Karbon-14 untuk menentukan usia sesuatu artifak.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 4 – – To detect leakage of pipes underground. Every shell can be filled only with a certain number of electrons. elektron. Bidang pertanian In the agriculture field – – To detect the rate of absorption of phosphate fertilizer in plants. Bidang arkeologi In the archeology field – Carbon-14 can be used to estimate the age of artifacts. iii. Bagi unsur-unsur yang mempunyai nombor proton 1–20: – First shell can be filled with a maximum of Petala pertama boleh diisi dengan bilangan maksimum 2 2 electrons. – Second shell can be filled with a maximum of Petala kedua boleh diisi dengan bilangan maksimum Petala ketiga boleh diisi dengan bilangan maksimum 8 8 electrons. Susunan elektron Electron Arrangement (a) The electrons are filled in specific shells. Untuk mengesan kadar penyerapan baja fosfat oleh tumbuhan. To detect defects/cracks in the body of an aeroplane. elektron. Untuk mengesan keretakan atau kecacatan pada badan kapal terbang. Bh 12/9/2011 5:59:32 PM . Untuk mengesan kebocoran paip bawah tanah. iv.indd 16 d. elektron. Untuk memandulkan serangga perosak tumbuhan.

Atom X mempunyai 23 nombor nukleon. Bilangan nukleon unsur X ialah 23. Publicat n io Sdn. Unsur X mempunyai 11 nombor proton. hd 17 Nila 01-Chem F4 (3p). 23 Na 11 Statement Pernyataan Tick ( 3 / 7 ) Tanda ( 3 / 7 ) Element X has 11 proton number. The number of proton of element X is 11. Bilangan proton unsur X ialah 11.indd 17 12/9/2011 5:59:32 PM m . Atom X has 23 nucleon number. Bilangan proton atom X ialah 11. Nombor nukleon atom X ialah 23. Pilih pernyataan yang betul bagi simbol unsur X. Nucleon number of atom X is 23. Number of neutron of element X is 12. 7 3 3 7 3 3 3 7 7 7 3 7 The proton number of element X is 11. Nombor proton atom X ialah 11. Nombor neutron atom X ialah 12. The number of proton of atom X is 11. B . Number of nucleon of element X is 23.1 23 Na 11 Na Proton number/Nombor proton Nucleon number/Nombor nukleon Electron Arrangement/Susunan elektron (b) Choose the correct statement for the symbol of element X. Neutron number of atom X is 12. Nucleon number of element X is 23. Nombor proton unsur X ialah 11. Nombor nukleon unsur X ialah 23. The proton number of atom X is 11.8. Bilangan neutron unsur X ialah 12. Number of neutron of atom X is 12.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE Sodium Atom Atom Natrium Number of protons/Bilangan proton Number of electrons/Bilangan elektron Number of neutrons/Bilangan neutron 11 11 12 11 23 2. Bilangan neutron atom X ialah 12.

MODULE • Chemistry Form 4

EXERCISE / LATIHAN 1

Lengkapkan jadual berikut:
Symbol of element Simbol unsur

Complete the following table:
Number of proton Bilangan proton Number of electron Bilangan elektron Number of neutron Bilangan neutron Proton number Nombor proton Nucleon number Nombor nukleon Electron arrangement Susunan elektron atom Number of valence electron Bilangan elektron valens

Element Unsur

Hydrogen
Hidrogen

1 1 H 4 2 He 11 5 B 12 6 C 14 7 N

1 2 5 6
7

1 2 5 6
7

0 2 6 6
7

1 2 5 6
7

1 4 11 12 14
20

1 2 2.3 2.4 2.5
2.8

1 2 3 4 5 8 1 2 2

Helium
Helium

Boron
Boron

Carbon
Karbon

Nitrogen
Nitrogen

Neon
Neon

20 Ne 10 23 Na 11 24 Mg 12 40 Ca 20

10
11

10
11

10
12

10
11

Sodium
Natrium

23

2.8.1

Magnesium
Magnesium

12

12 20

12

12 20

24 40

2.8.2
2.8.8.2

Calcium
Kalsium

20

20

2

Rajah di bawah menunjukkan simbol atom P, R dan S.

The diagram below shows the symbol of atoms P , R and S. 35 P 17 12 R 6 37 S 17

(a) What is meant by nucleon number / Apakah maksud nombor nukleon? Nucleon number of an element is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of its atom (b) What is the nucleon number of P / Apakah nombor nukleon atom P? 35 (c) State the number of neutron in atom P / Nyatakan bilangan neutron atom P. 18 (d) State number of proton in atom P / Nyatakan bilangan proton atom P. 17 (e) (i) What is meant by isotope / Apakah maksud isotop? Isotopes are atoms of the same element with same number of proton but different number of neutrons

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01-Chem F4 (3p).indd 18

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Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE

(ii) State a pair of isotope in the diagram shown / Nyatakan sepasang isotop dalam rajah yang ditunjukkan. P and S (iii) Give reason for your answer in (e)(ii) / Berikan sebab bagi jawapan di (e)(ii). Atom P and S have same proton number but different nucleon number//number of neutron

(f) An isotope of R has 8 neutron. Write the symbol for the isotope R.
Isotop bagi atom R mempunyai 8 neutron. Tuliskan simbol bagi isotop R.

14 R 6
3 Jadual di bawah menunjukkan bilangan proton dan neutron bagi atom unsur P, Q dan R.
Element Unsur Number of proton Bilangan proton

The table below shows the number of proton and neutron of atoms of elements P , Q and R.
Number of neutron Bilangan neutron

P Q R

1 1 6

0 1 6

(a) Which of the atoms in the above table are isotope? Explain your answer.

Berdasarkan jadual di atas, atom yang manakah merupakan isotop? Terangkan jawapan anda.

P and Q. Atom P and Q have same number of proton but different number of neutron // nucleon number. (b) (i)

Write the standard representation of element Q.
Tuliskan perwakilan piawai untuk unsur Q.

2 Q 1

(ii) State three information that can be deduced from your answer in (b)(i).
Nyatakan tiga maklumat yang boleh didapati daripada jawapan anda di (b)(i).

The proton number of element Q is 1 // Number of proton of atom Q is 1 Nucleon number of element Q is 2 // Atomic mass of atom Q is 2 Number of neutron of atom Q is 1 Nucleus of atom Q contains 1p and 1n (c) (i)

Draw atomic structure for atom of element R.
Lukiskan struktur atom bagi atom unsur R.

6 protons + 6 neutrons

(ii) Describe the atomic structure in (c)(i).
Huraikan struktur atom di (c)(i).

– The atom consists of 2 parts: the centre part called nucleus and the outer part called electron shell. – The nucleus consists of 6 protons which are positively charged and 6 neutrons which are neutral. – The electrons are in two shells, the first shell consists of two electrons and the second shell consists of four electrons. – Electrons move around nucleus in the shells.
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(d) Element R react with oxygen and to produce liquid Z at room temperature. The graph below shows the sketch of the graph when liquid Z at room temperature, 27°C is cooled to –5°C.

Unsur R bertindak balas dengan oksigen dan menghasilkan cecair Z pada suhu bilik. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan lakaran graf apabila cecair Z pada suhu bilik, 27°C disejukkan sehingga –5°C. Temperature /°C
Suhu /°C

0

Time /s
t1 t2 Masa /s

−5

(i) What is the state of matter of liquid Z from t1 to t2? Explain why is the temperature remain unchanged from t1 to t2.
Apakah keadaan jirim Z daripada t1 hingga t2? Terangkan mengapa suhu tidak berubah daripada t1 hingga t2.

Liquid and solid. Heat lost to the surrounding is balanced by the heat released when the particles at 0 °C (ii) Draw the arrangement of particles of Z at 20°C.
Lukiskan susunan zarah-zarah Z pada suhu 20°C.

(iii) Describe the change in the particles movement when Z is cooled from room temperature to –5°C.
Nyatakan perubahan dalam pergerakan zarah-zarah apabila cecair Z disejukkan daripada suhu bilik ke –5°C.

The particles move slower Objective Questions / Soalan Objektif
1

The diagram shows the arrangement of particles for a type of matter that undergoes a change in physical state through process X.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan susunan zarah sejenis bahan yang mengalami perubahan keadaan fizik melalui proses X.

3

The diagram below shows the heating curve for substance X.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan lengkung pemanasan bahan X.

Temperature / Suhu °C
U S Q P T

X

R

Time (m)
Masa (m)

Apakah proses X ?

What is process X?
Peleburan Pendidihan

Which region of the graph does boiling process occur?
Bahagian manakah pada graf berlaku proses pendidihan?

A Melting

C Freezing

B Boiling 2

D Sublimation

Pembekuan

A PQ B QR

C ST D TU

Pemejalwapan

4

Which of the following information is true?
Change of state Perubahan keadaan Process Proses

Antara pernyataan berikut, yang manakah adalah betul? Heat energy Tenaga haba

Which of the following substances can undergo sublimation when heated?
Antara bahan berikut, yang manakah mengalami pemejalwapan apabila dipanaskan?

A B C D

Solid → Liquid Liquid → Gas
Cecair → Gas

A Sulphur
Sulfur

C Glucose
Glukosa

Pepejal → Cecair

Melting

Peleburan

Released Released Released

Dibebaskan Dibebaskan Dibebaskan

B Ammonium chloride
Ammonium klorida

D Sodium chloride
Natrium klorida

Evaporation
Penyejatan

Gas → Solid

Gas → Pepejal Gas → Cecair

Sublimation

Pemejalwapan

Gas → Liquid

Condensation
Kondensasi

Absorbed
Diserap

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particles in Y absorb heat from the surroundings. Liquid Y freezes completely at S.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE 5 The diagram below shows the graph of temperature against time when a liquid Y is cooled. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan graf suhu melawan masa apabila pepejal Z dipanaskan. 64 Cu 29 A I and III only B I and IV only C II and III only D II and IV only II dan IV sahaja Which of the following is correct based on the symbol the diagram? Antara berikut. yang manakah betul berdasarkan rajah di atas? Proton number Nombor proton Nucleon number Nombor nukleon Number of electron Bilangan elektron II dan III sahaja 6 The diagram below shows the graph of temperature against time when solid Z is heated. yang manakah adalah isotop? W 7 7 X 8 8 Y 8 9 Z 9 10 Which of the following pair of elements is isotope? W dan X A W and X C X and Y B W and Y W dan Y D Y and Z Y dan Z X dan Y Publicat n io Sdn. Semua molekul sangat rapat dan bergerak secara rawak. yang manakah adalah benar pada minit keempat? A 2 B 3 C 4 D 7 10 The table below shows the proton number and the number of neutrons for atoms of elements W. V and W. U. C All the molecules are vibrating at fixed positions. D Some of the molecules are vibrating at fixed positions but some are in random motion. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan graf suhu melawan masa apabila cecair Y disejukkan. Jadual di bawah menunjukkan nombor proton dan bilangan neutron bagi atom unsur W. hd 21 Nila 01-Chem F4 (3p). T. Semua molekul bergetar pada kedudukan tetap. Cecair Y membeku dengan lengkap pada S. B All the molecules are closely packed and in random motion. zarah dalam Y menyerap haba dari persekitaran. yang manakah adalah betul tentang lengkung itu? At Q. Substance Bahan Melting point/°C Takat lebur/°C Boiling point/°C Takat didih/°C S T U V –182 –23 –97 41 132 –162 77 65 182 290 Temperature / Suhu °C t3 t2 t1 P Q R W S Which substance exists as liquid at room temperature? Bahan yang manakah wujud sebagai cecair pada suhu bilik? Time (m) Masa (m) A S only Which of the following statements are true about the curve? I B S and T only S dan T sahaja S sahaja C T and U only D V and W only V dan W sahaja T dan U sahaja Antara pernyataan berikut. liquid Y begins to freeze. T. Antara berikut. Y dan Z. cecair Y mula membeku. Jadual di bawah menunjukkan takat lebur dan takat didih bahan S. The freezing point of Y is t2°C.indd 21 12/9/2011 5:59:34 PM m . Element Atom Proton number Nombor proton Number of neutrons Bilangan neutron 7 Antara pasangan berikut. The table shows the melting points and boiling points of substances S. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan perwakilan piawai atom kuprum. I dan III sahaja I dan IV sahaja Pada PQ. A B C D 9 29 35 64 29 64 29 35 64 29 64 29 35 Temperature / Suhu °C 80 Rajah di bawah menunjukkan perwakilan piawai atom berillium. V dan W. X. Takat beku bagi Y adalah t2°C. 9 Be 4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Masa (m) Time (m) What is the number of valence electrons of beryllium atom? Apakah bilangan elektron valens bagi atom berillium? Which of the following is true during the fourth minute? A All the molecules are in random motion. Y and Z. The diagram below shows the standard representation of beryllium atom. U. II III IV At PQ. Semua molekul bergerak secara rawak. 8 The diagram below shows standard representation of an atom copper. B . Pada Q. Sebahagian molekul bergetar pada kedudukan tetap dan sebahagian bergerak secara rawak. X.

JMR dan JFR menggunakan formula kimia beberapa bahan MOLE CONCEPT / KONSEP MOL • MOLE AND THE NUMBER OF PARTICLES / MOL DAN BILANGAN ZARAH – To solve numerical problems involving mole and the number of atoms/ ions/ molecules Menyelesaikan masalah pengiraan melibatkan mol dan bilangan atom. RMM and RFM based on carbon-12 scale • RELATIVE MOLECULAR MASS / JISIM MOLEKUL RELATIF (JMR) – To calculate RAM. bilangan zarah dan isipadu gas menggunakan konsep mol • MOLE AND THE VOLUME OF GAS / MOL DAN ISIPADU GAS – To solve numerical problems involving mole and the mass of substances.indd 22 d.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 2 CHEMICAL FORMULA AND EQUATIONS FORMULA DAN PERSAMAAN KIMIA RELATIF MASS / JISIM RELATIF • RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS / JISIM ATOM RELATIF (JAR) – To state the meaning of relative mass and solve numerical problems Menyatakan maksud jisim atom relatif dan menyelesaikan masalah pengiraan • RELATIVE FORMULA MASS / JISIM FORMULA RELATIF (JFR) Menyatakan maksud JAR. jisim bahan. 02-Chem F4 (3P). RMM and RFM using the chemical formulae of various substances Menghitung JAR. Bh 12/9/2011 5:59:05 PM . number of particles and volume of gas using mole concept Menyelesaikan masalah pengiraan melibatkan mol. jisim bahan. ion dan molekul • MOLE AND THE MASS OF SUBSTANCES / MOL DAN JISIM BAHAN – To solve numerical problems involving mole and the mass of substances. JMR dan JFR berdasarkan skala karbon-12 – To state the meaning of RAM. number of particles and volume of gas using mole concept Menyelesaikan masalah pengiraan melibatkan mol. bilangan zarah dan isipadu gas menggunakan konsep mol CHEMICAL FORMULA AND EQUATIONS / FORMULA DAN PERSAMAAN KIMIA • EMPIRICAL FORMULA / FORMULA EMPIRIK – Stating the purpose and describe the empirical formula laboratory activities to determine the formula empirical Menyatakan maksud formula empirik dan menghuraikan aktiviti makmal untuk menentukan formula empirik • MOLECULAR FORMULA / FORMULA MOLEKUL – Solve calculation problems involving empirical formula Menyelesaikan masalah pengiraan melibatkan formula empirik • CHEMICAL FORMULAE / FORMULA KIMIA – To write formula of anion and cation and to write chemical formula for ionic compounds Menulis formula kation dan anion dan menulis formula kimia untuk sebatian ion • CHEMICAL EQUATIONS / PERSAMAAN KIMIA – Write a balanced chemical equation and solve problems arrangements involving the mole concept Menulis persamaan kimia seimbang dan menyelesaikan masalah pengiraan yang melibatkan konsep mol Nil a m Publica tio 22 n Sdn.

1 • RAM based on the carbon-12 scale is the mass of one atom of the element compared with of the mass of an 12 atom of carbon-12: JAR berdasarkan skala atom karbon-12 adalah jisim satu atom unsur berbanding dengan • Relative atomic mass of an element (RAM) / Jisim atom relatif suatu unsur (JAR) The average mass on one atom of the element / Jisim purata satu atom unsur = 1 × The mass of an atom of carbon-12 / Jisim satu atom karbon-12 12 1 jisim satu atom karbon-12: 12 Publicat n io Sdn. Example: Hidrogen adalah unsur pertama dipilih sebagai piawai untuk membandingkan jisim kerana atom hidrogen adalah unsur yang paling ringan dengan jisim 1.u (atomic mass unit). hd 23 Nila 02-Chem F4 (3P). Pada skala hidrogen. Contoh: • The mass of one helium atom is four times larger than one hydrogen atom. Piawai yang digunakan sekarang adalah berdasarkan atom karbon-12.a (unit jisim atom). • RAM for He is 4. Hydrogen was the first element to be chosen as the standard for comparing mass because the hydrogen atom is the lightest atom with a mass of 1. Cara yang paling sesuai untuk menentukan jisim satu atom ialah dengan membandingkan jisimnya dengan jisim suatu atom unsur lain yang dianggap sebagai piawai. A single atom is too small and light and cannot be weighed directly. jisim atom relatif suatu unsur ditakrifkan sebagai jisim satu atom unsur berbanding jisim satu atom hidrogen: On the hydrogen scale.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS (RAM) / JISIM ATOM RELATIF (JAR) 1 2 3 Satu atom adalah terlalu ringan.indd 23 12/9/2011 5:59:05 PM m . 4 JAR untuk He ialah 4. • The new standard used today is the carbon-12 atom. B . The best way to determine the mass of a single atom is to compare its mass to the mass of another atom of an element that is used as a standard. JAR tiada unit.0 u.j.m. Jisim satu atom Helium adalah 4 kali lebih besar daripada satu atom hidrogen.0 a. the relative atomic mass of an element means the mass of one atom of the element compared to the mass of a single hydrogen atom: Relative atomic mass of an element (RAM) / Jism atom relatif suatu unsur (JAR) = The average mass of one atom of the element / Jisim purata satu atom unsur Mass of one hydrogen atom / Jisim satu atom hidrogen • RAM has no unit. kecil dan tidak dapat ditimbang secara langsung.

Cl = 35. Molecular formula Formula molekul Relative molecular mass Jisim molekul relatif Oxygen / Oksigen Water / Air Carbon dioxide / Karbon dioksida Ammonia / Ammonia O2 H2O CO2 NH3 2 × 16 = 32 2 × 1 + 16 = 18 12 + 2 × 16 = 44 14 + 3 × 1 = 17 [Relative atomic mass / Jisim atom relatif : O = 16.5 = 58. Calculate the value of x.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 RELATIVE MOLECULAR MASS (RMM) / RELATIVE FORMULA MASS (RFM) JISIM MOLEKUL RELATIF (JMR) / JISIM FORMULA RELATIF (JFR) 1 RMM / JMR = The average mass on one atom of the element / Jisim purata satu molekul 2 JMR diperoleh dengan menambahkan JAR semua atom yang terdapat dalam satu molekul. Its relative formula mass is 152. K = 39. Molecular substance Bahan molekul 1 × The mass of an atom of carbon-12 / Jisim satu atom karbon-12 12 RMM is obtained by adding up the RAM of all the atoms that are present in the molecule. C = 12. [Relative atomic mass / Jisim atom relatif : P = 31.5 3 35.5 = 208. N = 14.5.5x = 208. H = 1. RMM is replaced with Relative Formula Mass (RFM).5. O = 16. Apakah jisim atom relatif logam M? (ii) Phosphorus forms a chloride with a formula PClx. H = 1. Chemical formula Formula kimia Relative molecular mass Jisim formula relatif Sodium chloride / Natrium klorida Potassium oxide / Kalium oksida Copper(II) sulphate / Kuprum(II) sulfat Ammonium carbonate / Ammonium karbonat Aluminium nitrate / Aluminium nitrat Calcium hydroxide / Kalsium hidroksida Lead(II) hydroxide / Plumbum(II) hidroksida Hydrated copper(II) sulphate / Kuprum(II) sulfat terhidrat NaCl K2O CuSO4 (NH4)2CO3 Al(NO3)3 Ca(OH)2 Pb(OH)2 CuSO45H2O 23 + 35.5 2 × 39 + 16 = 94 64 + 32 + 4 × 16 = 160 2 [14 + 4 × 1] + 12 + 3 × 16 = 96 27 + 3 [14 + 3 × 16] = 213 40 + 2 [16 + 1] = 74 207 + 2 [16 + 1] = 241 64 + 32 + 4 × 16 + 5 [2 × 1 + 16] = 250 [Relative atomic mass / Jisim atom relatif : Na = 23. Its relative molecular mass is 208. Al = 27. C = 12. Pb = 207] (i) The formula of metal oxide of M is M2O3. Cu = 64. JMR digantikan dengan Jisim Formula Relatif (JFR). S = 32. Substance Bahan For ionic substances.5 x = 5 m Publica tio 24 n Sdn. N = 14] 3 Untuk sebatian ion. 02-Chem F4 (3P).5.5 – 31 35. Cl = 35.5] M = RAM for M 2M + 3 × 16 = 152 M = 52 Nil a 1 + x × 35.5x = 177. Ca = 40. Jisim molekul relatifnya adalah 208. Fosforus membentuk sebatian klorida dengan formula PClx.indd 24 d. What is the relative atomic mass of metal M? Oksida logam M mempunyai formula M2O3. Hitungkan nilai x. Bh 12/9/2011 5:59:05 PM . Jisim formula relatif ialah 152.

Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE

MOLE CONCEPT / KONSEP MOL Mole and the Number of Particles / Bilangan Mol dan Bilangan Zarah 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

To describe the amount of atoms, ions or molecules, mole is used. Untuk menyatakan jumlah atom, ion atau molekul, unit mol digunakan.
Satu mol ialah jumlah bahan yang mengandungi bilangan zarah seperti mana yang terdapat dalam 12 g atom karbon-12.

A mole is an amount of substance that contains as many particles as the number of atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12. A mole of a substance is the amount of substance which contains a constant number of particles (atoms, ions, molecules), which is 6.02 × 1023.

Satu mol bahan adalah jumlah bahan yang mengandungi bilangan zarah yang tetap (atom, molekul, ion) iaitu 6.02 × 1023.

The number 6.02 × 1023 is called the Avogadro Constant or Avogadro Number (NA). Nombor 6.02 × 1023 dikenali sebagai Pemalar Avogadro atau Nombor Avogadro (NA ).
Bagi sebatian yang wujud dalam bentuk molekul/ion, bilangan atom/ion dalam sebatian itu mestilah diketahui.

For compounds that exist as molecules/ions, the number of atoms/ions in that compound must be known.

The symbol of mole is mol. Simbol untuk mol ialah mol.
Lengkapkan jadual berikut:
Bahan

Complete the following table:
Substance Formula
Formula

Jenis zarah

Type of particles

Model / Figure
Model / Rajah

Number of atom per molecule/ Number of positive and negative ion
Bilangan atom per molekul/ Bilangan ion positif dan negatif

Chlorine / Klorin Water / Air

Cl2 H2O NH3 SO2 MgCl2 Al2O3

Molecule Molecule

Cl Cl H O H H H N H O S O

Cl : 2 H : 2 O : 1 N : 1 H : 3 S : 1 O : 2 Mg2+ : 1 Cl– : 2 Al3+ : 2 O2– : 3

Ammonia / Ammonia

Molecule

Sulphur dioxide / Sulfur dioksida Magnesium chloride / Magnesium klorida Aluminium oxide / Aluminium oksida 8

Molecule Ion Ion

[Cl]– [Mg]2+ [Cl]– [O]2– [A1]3+ [O]2– [A1]3+ [O]2–

Hubungan bilangan mol dan bilangan zarah (atom/ion/molekul):

Relationship between number of moles and number of particles (atoms/ions/molecules): Number of moles
Bilangan mol

× Avogadro Constant / Pemalar Avogadro ÷ Avogadro Constant / Pemalar Avogadro

Number of particles
Bilangan zarah

9

Lengkapkan yang berikut: [Bezakan antara “mol” dan “molekul”]

Complete the following: [Differentiate between “mole” dan “molecule”] (a) 1 mol of Cl2 [Chlorine gas]

6.02 × 1023

molecules of chlorine, Cl2 / molekul klorin, Cl2

1 mol Cl2 [Gas klorin]

2 × 6.02 × 1023 atoms of chlorine, Cl / atom klorin, Cl 6.02 × 1023 4 molecules of ammonia, NH3 / molekul ammonia, NH3 1 mol of nitrogen atom, N / mol atom nitrogen, N 3 mol of hydrogen atoms, H / mol atom hidrogen, H
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1 mol NH3 [Gas ammonia]

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(c)

1 mol of NH3 4 [Ammonia gas]
1 mol NH3 4 [Gas ammonia]

0.25 × 6.02 × 1023 1
1

mol of atoms
mol atom

molecules of ammonia, NH3 / molekul ammonia, NH3 0.25 mol of N atoms / mol atom N, 23 number of N atoms / bilangan atom N = 0.25 × 6.02 × 10 0.75 mol of H atoms / mol atom H, number of H atoms / bilangan atom H = 2 × 6.02 × 1023

0.75 × 6.02 × 1023

(d) 2 mol of MgCl2 [Magnesium chloride]

2 mol MgCl2 [Magnesium klorida]

2 mol of Mg2+ ions / mol ion Mg2+, number of Mg2+ ions / bilangan ion Mg2+ = 4 mol of Cl– ions / mol ion Cl–, number of Cl- ions / bilangan ion Cl– = 2 × 6.02 × 1023

4 × 6.02 × 1023

(e) 2 mol of SO2 [Sulphur dioxide]

2 mol SO2 [Sulfur dioksida]

molecules of SO2 / molekul SO2 2 mol of S atoms / mol atom S, number of S atoms / bilangan atom S = 3 × 2 = 6 mol of atoms
3×2=6 mol atom

2 × 6.02 × 1023

4 mol of O atoms / mol atom O, number of O atoms / bilangan atom O =

4 × 6.02 × 1023

10 Complete the table below: Lengkapkan jadual berikut: Number of moles
Bilangan mol

Number of particles
Bilangan zarah

0.5
0.5

mole of carbon, C
mol atom karbon, C

3.01 × 1023 atoms of carbon
3.01 × 1023 atom karbon

0.2 moles of hydrogen gas, H2
0.2 mol gas hidrogen, H2

(i) (ii)

0.2 × 6.02 × 1023

molecules of hydrogen / molekul hidrogen

2 × 0.2 × 6.02 × 1023 atoms of hydrogen / atom hidrogen

1
1

mole of carbon dioxide molecules, CO2
mol molekul karbon dioksida, CO2

6.02 × 1023 molecules of carbon dioxide contains:
6.02 × 1023 molekul karbon dioksida mengandungi:

6.02 × 1023
6.02 × 10
23

atoms of C and

2 × 6.02 × 1023

atom C dan

2 × 6.02 × 1023

atoms of O.

atom O.

NUMBER OF MOLES AND MASS OF SUBSTANCE / BILANGAN MOL DAN JISIM BAHAN 1 Molar mass / Jisim molar (a) Molar mass is the mass of one mole of any substance / Jisim molar adalah jisim satu mol sebarang bahan. (b) Molar Mass is the relative atomic mass, relative molecular mass and relative formula mass of a substance in g mol–1.

Jisim molar adalah jisim atom relatif, jisim molekul relatif dan jisim formula relatif suatu bahan dalam g mol–1. (c) Molar mass of any substance is numerically equal to its relative mass (Relative atomic mass/ relative formula Jisim molar sebarang bahan mempunyai nilai yang sama dengan jisim relatif (Jisim atom relatif/ jisim formula relatif/ jisim molekul relatif).

2
Nil a

mass/relative molecular mass).

Jisim molar H2O = 18 g mol–1 Jisim 1 mol H2O = 18 g

Example / Contoh: Molar mass of H2O = 18 g mol–1 Mass of 1 mol of H2O = 18 g Mass of 2 mol of H2O = 2 mol × 18 g mol = 36 g
–1

× RAM/ /RFM/RMM
Bilangan mol

Number of moles

× JAR/JFR/JMR

Jisim 2 mol H2O = 2 mol ×

18

g mol–1 =

36

g

÷ RAM/ /RFM/RMM
÷ JAR/JFR/JMR

Jisim dalam gram

Mass in gram

Mass of
Jisim
tio

2.5

2.5

mol of H2O = 45 g
mol H2O = 45 g

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Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE

3

Lengkapkan jadual berikut: Element/ Compound

Complete the following table:
Chemical formula Cu

RAM/RMM/RFM
JAR/JMR/JFR

Unsur/Sebatian

Formula kimia

Penghitungan
–1 (a) Mass of 1 mol of Cu / Jisim 1 mol Cu : 1 mol × 64 g mol = 64 g 2 mol × 64 g mol–1 = 128 g (b) Jisim 2 mol / Jisim 1 mol : 1 mol × 64 g mol–1 = 32 g 1 1 2 (c) Jisim mol / Jisim mol: 2 2 32 g (d) Mass of 3.01 × 1023 Cu atoms / Jisim 3.01 × 1023 atom Cu:

Calculate

Copper

Kuprum

RAM/JAR = 64

Sodium hydroxide
Natrium hidroksida

NaOH

RFM/JFR = 40

(a) Mass of 3 mol of sodium hydroxide:
Jisim 3 mol natrium hidroksida: 120 g

120 g 0.5 mol

(b) Number of moles in 20 g sodium hydroxide:
Bilangan mol natrium hidroksida dalam 20 g:

0.5 mol

Oxygen gas
Gas oksigen

O2

RMM/JMR =

32

(a) Mass of 2.5 mol of oxygen gas:
Jisim 2.5 mol gas oksigen:

2.5 mol × 32 g mol–1 = 80 g

2.5 mol × 32 g mol–1 = 80 g

(b) Number of moles is 1.5 mol oxygen gas:
Bilangan molekul dalam 1.5 mol gas oksigen:

1.5 mol × 6.02 × 1023 1 (c) Number of molecules in mol of oxygen gas: 2 1 Bilangan molekul dalam mol gas oksigen: 2 0.5 mol × 6.02 × 1023 (d) Number of atoms in 2 mol of oxygen gas:
Bilangan atom dalam 2 mol gas oksigen:

Sodium chloride
Natrium klorida

2 × 2 × 6.02 × 1023

NaCl Zn(NO3)2

RFM/JFR = 58.5 RFM/JFR = 189

Mass of 0.5 mol of NaCl / Jisim bagi 0.5 mol NaCl: 0.5 mol × 58.5 g mol–1 = 29.25 g
Bilangan mol dalam 37.8 g zink nitrat:

Zink nitrat

Zinc nitrate

Number of moles in 37.8 g of zinc nitrate: 37.8 g/189 g mol–1 = 0.2 mol

[Relative atomic mass / Jisim atom relatif: Cu = 64, Na = 23, O = 16, H = 1, Cl = 35.5, Zn = 65, N = 14]

NUMBER OF MOLES AND VOLUME OF GAS / BILANGAN MOL DAN ISI PADU GAS 1 2 3 Molar volume of a gas: Volume occupied by one mole of any gas is 24 dm3 at room conditions and 22.4 dm3 at Isi padu molar gas: Isipadu yang dipenuhi oleh satu mol sebarang gas iaitu 24 dm3 pada keadaan bilik dan 22.4 dm3 pada suhu dan tekanan piawai (STP). Isi padu molar sebarang gas adalah 24 dm3 pada keadaan bilik dan 22.4 dm3 pada STP.

standard temperature and pressure (STP).

The molar volume of any gas is 24 dm3 at room conditions and 22.4 dm3 at STP . Generalisation: One mole of any gas always occupies the same volume under the same temperature and pressure: Example / Contoh: (i) 1 mol of oxygen gas, 1 mol ammonia gas, 1 mol helium gas dan 1 mol sulphur dioxide gas occupy the same volume of 24 dm3 at room conditions.

Umumnya: satu mol sebarang jenis gas menempati isi padu yang sama pada suhu dan tekanan yang sama.

(ii) 2 mol of carbon dioxide gas occupies
2 mol gas karbon dioksida menempati

1 mol gas oksigen, 1 mol gas ammonia, 1 mol gas helium dan 1 mol gas sulfur dioksida menempati isi padu yang sama iaitu 24 dm3 pada keadaan bilik.

44.8

. dm3 pada STP

44.8

dm3 pada STP.
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02-Chem F4 (3P).indd 27

12/9/2011 5:59:06 PM

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Number of moles of gas Bilangan mol gas × 24 dm3 mol–1/ 22.indd 28 d.4 mol 35. Cl = = 0.2 Number of mol of chlorine molecule. Relative atomic mass of calcium is 40 based on the carbon-12 scale. Cl2 = = 0. 16 g gas oksigen menempati isi padu 16 g gas oksigen = [Jisim atom relatif.5 times Relative atomic mass of oxygen 16 Berapakah bilangan atom kalsium yang mempunyai jisim yang sama dengan dua atom bromin? [Jisim atom relatif: Br = 80] (c) How many calcium atoms have the same mass as two atoms of bromine? [RAM Br = 80] 2 Number of calcium atom × 40 = 2 × 80 2 × 80 Number of calcium atom = =4 40 A sampel of chlorine gas weighs 14.5 (b) Number of moles of chlorine molecules (Cl2) / Bilangan mol molekul klorin (Cl2 ). 02-Chem F4 (3P). Oleh itu. [Molar volume of gas = 24 dm3 mol–1 at room temperature and pressure] [Isi padu molar gas = 24 dm3 mol–1 pada suhu dan tekanan piawai] m Publica Volume of chlorine gas = 0. 14. 14. 12 (b) How many times is one calcium atom heavier than one oxygen atom? [Relative atomic mass: O = 16] Berapa kalikah satu atom kalsium lebih berat daripada satu atom oksigen? [JAR: O = 16] Relative atomic mass of calcium 40 = = 2. Calculate / Suatu sampel gas klorin berjisim 14.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 (iii) 16 g of oxygen gas = 0.4 dm3 mol–1 ÷ 24 dm3 mol–1/ 22. Therefore.4 dm3 mol–1 Volume of gas in dm2 Isi padu gas dalam dm3 Formula untuk penukaran unit: Formula for conversion of unit: Volume of gas in dm3 Isi padu gas dalam dm3 ÷ 24 dm3 mol–1/ 22. Bh 12/9/2011 5:59:06 PM .02 × 1023) Mass in gram (g) ÷ (JAR/JFR/JMR) g mol–1 Number of moles Bilangan mol Number of particles Bilangan zarah × (RAM/ /RFM/RMM) g mol–1 × (JAR/JFR/JMR) g mol–1 EXERCISE / LATIHAN 1 Jisim atom relatif kalsium berdasarkan skala karbon-12 ialah 40.8 dm3 Nil a tio 28 n Sdn.2 Number of mol of chlorine atoms. (a) State the meaning of the statement above.2 g. Hitungkan: [Relative atomic mass / Jisim atom relatif : Cl = 35.2 mol 71 (c) Volume of chlorine gas at room conditions / Isi padu gas klorin pada keadaan bilik.5 mol of oxygen gas.02 × 1023) × (6.2 mol × 24 dm3 mol–1 = 4.4 dm3 mol–1 ÷ (RAM/ /RFM/RMM) g mol–1 Jisim dalam gram (g) × 24 dm3 mol–1/ 22. 16 g of oxygen gas occupies a volume of at room conditions [Relative atomic mass: O =16] 0. O = 16] 12 12 dm3 dm3 pada keadaan bilik.4 dm3 mol–1 ÷ (6.5 mol gas oksigen.2 g.5] (a) Number of moles of chlorine atoms / Bilangan mol atom klorin. Nyatakan maksud penyataan di atas. Mass of calcium atom is 4 times greater than 1 mass of carbon-12 atom.

H = 1.01 mol 24 000 [Jisim atom relatif: C = 12. Hitungkan: A gas jar contains 240 cm3 of carbon dioxide gas.6 Number of mol of N atom = = 0. Pemalar Avogadro = 6.02 × 1021 (c) Mass of carbon dioxide gas / Jisim gas karbon dioksida: Mass of CO2 = 0. Cl = 35. Cl2 / 14.indd 29 12/9/2011 5:59:06 PM m . NH3 / 8.02 × 1023] (i) 8. [Relative atomic mass / Jisim atom relatif : C = 12. Avogadro Constant = 6. Cl2 14. Cl = 35. Zn = 65.4 mol 18 Mass of Cl2 = 0.01 mol × [12 + 2 × 16] g mol–1 = 0.02 × 1023] (i) 13 g of zinc / 13 g zink 13 = 0. O = 16.02 × 1023 = 1.02 × 1023 17 = 2.02 × 1023] [Jisim atom relatif: N = 14. Mg = 24] Calculate the mass of carbon that has the same number of atoms as found in 4 g of magnesium.4 × 6.02 × 1023 = 6.01 × 6. Zn = 65. Isi padu molar gas: 24 dm3 mol–1 pada keadaan bilik] (a) Number of moles of carbon dioxide gas / Bilangan mol gas karbon dioksida: Number of moles of CO2 = (b) Number of molecules of carbon dioxide gas / Bilangan molekul gas karbon dioksida: Number of molecules of CO2 = 0.2 × 6.6 g air? [Relative atomic mass / Jisim atom relatif : H = 1.2 g gas klorin. H = 1.5] What is the mass of chlorine molecules (Cl2) that contains twice as many molecules as that found in 3.408 × 1023 (b) Calculate the number of molecules in the following substances / Hitungkan bilangan molekul dalam bahan berikut: [Relative atomic mass: N = 14. Avogadro Constant = 6.408 × 1023 (ii) 14.02 × 1023 71 = 1.6 g gas nitrogen 5.6 =2× = 0.4 × 71= 28.2 mol 65 Number of zinc atom = 0.5 g of ammonia gas.5 g gas ammonia. Calculate: [Relative atomic mass: C = 12. hd 29 Nila 02-Chem F4 (3P). B .02 × 1023 = 2.204 × 1023 Number of mol of zinc atom = (ii) 5.2 × 1023 Suatu balang gas berisi 240 cm3 gas karbon dioksida.6 g of nitrogen gas / 5. Cl = 35. O = 16. O = 16. Molar volume of gas = 24 dm3 mol–1 at room conditions] 240 = 0.5.02 × 1023] 4 [Jisim atom relatif: N = 14.5 × 6. 2g Publicat n io Sdn. NH3 8.6 g of water? Number of moles of chlorine molecule = 2 × no of mol in H2O 3.2 × 6.2 g of chlorine gas.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE 3 (a) Calculate the number of atoms in the following substances / Hitungkan bilangan atom yang terdapat dalam bahan berikut: [Relative atomic mass: N = 14.4 mol 14 Number of N atom = 0.44 g 5 6 Berapakah jisim molekul klorin (Cl2 ) yang mengandungi dua kali ganda bilangan molekul yang terdapat dalam 3. Pemalar Avogadro = 6.4 g Hitungkan jisim karbon yang mempunyai bilangan atom yang sama seperti yang terdapat dalam 4 g magnesium.5.

Compare number of atoms in 1. 02-Chem F4 (3P). 3 atom C bergabung dengan 8 atom H. 3 atom H bergabung dengan 1 atom N.3 g zinc. Number of mol of oxygen atom is 2 times more than zinc atom.3 g zink.28 g of oxygen to the number of atoms in 1.28 = 0. O = 16. 1.28 g oksigen dengan bilangan atom dalam 1. Symbol of elements – use capital letters for the first alphabet and use small letters if there is a second alphabet. Explain your answer. Sodium / Natrium – Na Nitrogen / Nitrogen – N Fluorine / Fluorin – F Example / Contoh: Potassium / Kalium – K. Iron / Ferum – Fe. 3 Nil a m Publica tio 30 n Sdn. Notes Water Air H2O NH3 C3H8 2 atoms of H combines with 1 atom of O.3 g of zinc.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 7 8 Bandingkan bilangan molekul dalam 32 g sulfur dioksida (SO2 ) dengan 7 g gas nitrogen (N2 ). Number of mole in sulphur dioxide molecule is two times more than number of mole of nitrogen molecule.08 mol 16 1. (ii) Number of atoms of each element in the compound / Bilangan atom setiap unsur yang terdapat dalam sebatian. N = 14] Compare the number of molecule in 32 g of sulphur dioxide (SO2) with 7 g of nitrogen gas (N2). [Relative atomic mass / Jisim atom relatif : O = 16.5 mol 64 Number of moles of molecules in 32 g SO2 = Number of moles of molecules in 7 g N2 = 7 = 0. [Relative atomic mass / Jisim atom relatif : S = 32. Bandingkan bilangan atom dalam 1.28 g SO2 = CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND CHEMICAL EQUATIONS / FORMULA KIMIA DAN PERSAMAAN KIMIA 1 Simbol unsur – gunakan huruf besar untuk huruf pertama dan huruf kecil jika ada huruf kedua.30 Number of mol of Zn atoms in 1. (ii) Molecular formula / Formula molekul. (iii) Calculation of RMM/RFM of the compound / Pengiraan JMR/JFR bagi sebatian.04 mol 65 Number of oxygen atoms in 1. Calcium / Kalsium – Ca.3 g Zn = = 0. Formula kimia – Satu set simbol kimia bagi atom-atom unsur dengan gandaan nombor bulat yang mewakili bahan kimia.25 mol 28 Number of molecule in 32 g SO2 is two times more than 7 g N2. Chemical substance Bahan kimia Chemical Formula – A set of chemical symbols for atoms of elements in whole numbers representing chemical substances. Propane 2 Information that can be obtained from the chemical formula / Maklumat yang diperoleh daripada formula kimia: (i) All the elements present in the compound / Jenis unsur yang terdapat dalam sebatian.indd 30 d. Ammonia Ammonia Propana 3 atoms of H combines with 1 atom of N. Two types of chemical formula / Dua jenis formula kimia: (i) Empirical formula / Formula empirik.28 g oxygen is 2 times more than number of zinc atoms in 1. Bh 12/9/2011 5:59:06 PM . Terangkan jawapan anda. Explain your answer. Chemical formula Formula kimia Catatan 2 atom H bergabung dengan 1 atom O. Zn = 65] Number of mol of O atoms in 1. Terangkan jawapan anda. 3 atoms of C combines with 8 atoms of H. 32 = 0.

magnesium oksida: In this experiment. Hydrogen reduces copper(II) oxide to form copper and water. Hidrogen menurunkan kuprum(II) oksida kepada kuprum dan air. magnesium bertindak balas dengan oksigen dalam udara untuk membentuk asap putih. Kaedah ini boleh juga digunakan untuk menentukan formula empirik oksida logam kurang reaktif seperti plumbum(II) oksida and stanum(II) oksida.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE EMPIRICAL FORMULA / Formula empirik 1 2 3 A formula that shows the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in a compound. tripod stand and balance Set-up of apparatus / Susunan radas: Magnesium ribbon Heat Publicat n io Sdn. sand paper Apparatus / Radas: Crucible with lid. Experiments to determine empirical formula of metal oxide / Formula empirik bagi oksida logam diperoleh dengan cara: Empirical formula of magnesium oxide Formula empirik magnesium oksida Empirical formula of copper(II) oxide Formula empirik kuprum(II) oksida Set-up of apparatus / Susunan radas: Set-up of apparatus / Susunan radas: Copper(II) oxide Kuprum(II) oksida Magnesium Magnesium Hydrogen gas Gas hidrogen Panaskan Heat Panaskan Heat Reaction occurs / Tindak balas yang berlaku: Magnesium dipanaskan dengan kuat di dalam mangkuk pijar untuk bertindak balas dengan oksigen membentuk magnesium oksida. magnesium reacts with oxygen in the air to form white fumes. The formula can be determined by calculating the simplest ratio of moles of atoms of each element in the compound. Formula itu boleh ditentukan dengan menghitung nisbah bilangan mol atom bagi setiap unsur yang terdapat dalam sebatian. Reaction occurs / Tindak balas yang berlaku: Gas hidrogen dilalukan melalui kuprum(II) oksida yang dipanaskan. 4 Experiment to Determine Empirical Formula of Magnesium Oxide Eksperimen untuk Menentukan Formula Empirik Magnesium Oksida Semasa eksperimen ini. magnesium oxide: Magnesium + Oxygen → Magnesium oxide Magnesium + Oksigen → Magnesium oksida Material / Bahan: Magnesium ribbon. Balanced equation / Persamaan kimia seimbang: Magnesium is burnt in a crucble to react with oxygen to form magnesium oxide. Bunsen burner. tongs. hd 31 Nila 02-Chem F4 (3P). Kaedah ini boleh juga digunakan untuk menentukan formula empirik oksida logam reaktif seperti aluminium oksida dan zink oksida. Balanced equation / Persamaan kimia seimbang: Hydrogen gas is passed through heated copper(II) oxide. This method can also be used to determine the empirical formulae of less reactive metals such as lead(II) oxide and tin(II) oxide.indd 31 12/9/2011 5:59:07 PM m . B . 2Mg + O2 → 2MgO CuO + H2 → Cu + H2O This method can also be used to determine the empirical formulae of reactive metals such as aluminium oxide and zinc oxide. Formula yang menunjukkan nisbah nombor bulat teringkas bagi bilangan atom setiap unsur yang terdapat dalam sebatian.

Pita magnesium dan diletakkan dalam mangkuk pijar. Bh 12/9/2011 5:59:07 PM . (f) The crucible is heated burn strongly kuat without its tanpa penutup lid lid penutup . lid and its content are . (h) When the magnesium ribbon stops heated strongly for another 2 minutes.. Magnesium bertindak balas dengan dalam udara membentuk magnesium oksida Nil a m Publica tio 32 n Sdn. Magnesium adalah logam yang Magnesium reacts with oxygen in the air to form oksigen magnesium oxide . . mangkuk pijar ditutup dengan (g) The lid Penutup of the crucible is lifted from time to time using a pair of tongs. Apabila pita magnesium mula . . dibuka sekali sekala dengan menggunakan penyepit. . dibersihkan dengan menggunakan kertas pasir (c) The magnesium ribbon is di gulung coiled loosely and placed in the crucible. pita magnesium ditimbang. ditimbang. ditimbang sekali lagi (k) The process of constant Proses tetap pemanasan heating . the penutup lid is removed and the crucible is dibuka dan mangkuk pijar dipanaskan dengan (i) The crucible Mangkuk pijar lid and its content are allowed to cool down to room temperature . berhenti burning terbakar . reaktif . penutup dan kandungannya dibiarkan sejuk ke suhu bilik .indd 32 d. Observation / Pemerhatian: Magnesium burns brightly to release white fumes and white solid is formed. penutup dan kandungannya weighed again . pepejal putih . (d) The crucible Mangkuk pijar together with the lid and bersama dengan penutup dan (e) The apparatus is set up as shown in the diagram.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 Procedure / Langkah: (a) A crucible Mangkuk pijar and its dengan lid penutup are weighed. Magnesium terbakar dengan Inference / Inferens: terang membebaskan wasap putih dan kemudiannya membentuk Magnesium is a reactive metal. magnesium ribbon are weighed again. pita magnesium Apabila kuat selama 2 minit lagi. . . . . (b) 10 cm of 10 cm magnesium ribbon is cleaned with pita magnesium sand paper . . (j) The crucible Mangkuk pijar . dan penimbangan beberapa kali sehingga jisim diperoleh. the crucible is covered with its Mangkuk pijar dipanaskan dengan terbakar . penyejukan cooling and weighing are diulang repeated until a mass is obtained. 02-Chem F4 (3P). Radas disusun seperti dalam gambar rajah. When the magnesium starts to .

from escaping. To remove the ribbon. then replaced quickly. lengkap Untuk memastikan semua magnesium telah bertindak balas oksigen dengan untuk membentuk magnesium oksida . completely with to Result / Keputusan: Description / Penerangan Mass of crucible + lid Jisim mangkuk pijar + penutup Jisim mangkuk pijar + penutup + magnesium Jisim mangkuk pijar + penutup + magnesium oksida Mass (g) / Jisim (g) x y z Mass of crucible + lid + magnesium Mass of crucible + lid + magnesium oxide Calculation / Pengiraan: Element / Unsur Mass (g) / Jisim (g) Number of mole of atoms / Bilangan mol atom Simplest ratio of moles / Nisbah mol teringkas Mg y–x y–x 24 p O z–y z–y 16 q 5 Empirical formula of magnesium oxide is Formula empirik magnesium oksida ialah Mg O p MgpOq q .Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE Precaution steps / Langkah berjaga-jaga: Step taken / Langkah yang diambil Magnesium ribbon is cleaned with Pita magnesium perlu digosok dengan kertas pasir Purpose / Tujuan . Untuk membenarkan oksigen masuk dan bertindak balas dengan magnesium . penyejukan penimbang dan Proses jisim tetap diulang beberapa kali sehingga diperoleh. pemanasan . The The crucible lid crucible lid is lifted from time to time. sand paper . Experiment to Determine Empirical Formula of Copper(II) Oxide Eksperimen untuk Menentukan Formula Empirik Kuprum(II) Oksida Copper(II) Oxide + Hidrogen → Copper + Water Kuprum(II) oksida + Hidrogen → Kuprum + Air Set-up of apparatus / Susunan radas: Copper(II) oxide Burning of hydrogen gas Hydrogen gas Combustion tube Heat Anhydrous calcium chloride. To allow oxide layer on the surface of the magnesium Untuk membuang lapisan oksida pada permukaan magnesium oksida. CaCl2 Publicat n io Sdn. from the air to react with magnesium . hd 33 Nila 02-Chem F4 (3P). . cooling and weighing are repeated until a constant mass is obtained. oxygen To prevent fumes of magnesium oxide Untuk mengelakkan wasap magnesium oksida dari terbebas. The process of heating . B . To ensure magnesium react for magnesium oxide . Penutup mangkuk pijar kemudian ditutup semula dengan cepat. oxygen Penutup mangkuk pijar dibuka sekali sekala.indd 33 12/9/2011 5:59:07 PM m .

Untuk memastikan semua kuprum(II) oksida telah bertukar kepada pemanasan . all the has been removed from the combustion tube. kering dialirkan melalui tabung pembakaran Gas hidrogen selama 5 hingga 10 minit. yang berwarna perang. a lighted wooden splinter is placed Gas yang keluar daripada lubang kecil dikumpul dalam sebuah tabung uji. Dry hydrogen is passed through the combustion tube for 5 to 10 minutes. Kalsium klorida kontang menyerap wap air untuk mengering dry gas hidrogen. The process of heating . penyejukan Proses diulang beberapa kali sehingga jisim Result / Keputusan: Description / Penerangan Mass of combustion tube + porcelain dish Jisim tabung pembakaran + piring tanah liat Mass (g) / Jisim (g) x y z Jisim tabung pembakaran + piring tanah liat + kuprum(II) oksida Jisim tabung pembakaran + piring tanah liat + kuprum Mass of combustion tube + porcelain dish + copper(II) oxide Mass of combustion tube + porcelain dish + copper Calculation / Pengiraan: Element / Unsur Mass (g) / Jisim (g) Number of mole of atoms / Bilangan mol atom Simplest ratio of moles / Nisbah mol teringkas Cu z–x z–x 64 p O y–z y–z 16 q Nil a Empirical formula of copper(II) oxide is Formula empirik kuprum(II) oksida ialah tio CupOq CupOq . If the gas burns quietly without ‘pop’ sound .MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 Observation / Pemerhatian: The Warna black colour of copper(II) oxide turns kuprum(II) oksida menjadi perang brown . semua gas telah air at mouth of the test tube. air explodes when lighted). cooling and weighing are constant mass is obtained. m Publica 34 n Sdn. udara dalam tabung pembakaran. To prevent hot copper from reacting with copper(II) oxide again. oxygen to form Untuk mengelakkan kuprum panas daripada bertindak balas dengan oksigen dan membentuk kuprum(II) oksida . 02-Chem F4 (3P). bunyi ‘pop’ Jika gas terbakar tanpa daripada tabung pembakaran. hitam Inference / Inferens: Copper(II) oxide reacts with hydrogen to produce the brown Kuprum(II) oksida bertindak balas dengan hidrogen untuk menghasilkan Precaution steps / Langkah berjaga-jaga: Step taken / Langkah yang ambil Hydrogen gas is passed through anhydrous calcium chloride. continuous Gas hidrogen dialirkan secara berterusan sepanjang eksperimen. logam kuprum Purpose / Tujuan Anhydrous calcium chloride absorb water vapour to hydrogen gas. copper metal . To remove all the air (The mixture of hydrogen gas and in the combustion tube. . . . kuprum . Then. To ensure all copper(II) oxide has changed to copper . Bh 12/9/2011 5:59:07 PM . repeated until a dan tetap penimbang diperoleh. Untuk mengeluarkan semua udara (Campuran hidrogen dan menghasilkan letupan apabila dinyalakan) The gas that comes out from the small hole is collected in the test tube. dikeluarkan The flow of hydrogen gas must be throughout the experiment.indd 34 d. Gas hidrogen dialirkan melalui kalsium klorida kontang. Kayu uji menyala di letakkan di mulut tabung uji.

95 g oksida logam X diturunkan oleh hidrogen. 2 Empirical formula / Formula empirik: XO2 . O = 31.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE 6 Terangkan mengapa susunan radas untuk menentukan formula empirik dalam kedua-dua eksperimen itu berbeza. (terletak di atas hidrogen dalam siri kereaktifan. B .01 3 Empirical formula / Formula empirik: NaBrO3 . jadual di bawah boleh digunakan sebagai panduan: Element / Unsur Mass of element (g) / Jisim unsur (g) Number of mole of atom / Bilangan mol atom Simplest ratio of moles / Nisbah mol teringkas To calculate the empirical formula of a compound.23%.99 3.66 1 1 O 31. (a) Magnesium is reactive .98 0.6 0. Hitungkan nisbah bilangan mol atom teringkas unsur-unsur tersebut. (c) Calculate the simplest ratio of moles of atom of the elements.indd 35 12/9/2011 5:59:07 PM m . 10.79 % [Relative atomic mass / Jisim atom relatif: O = 16. (b) Convert the mass of each element to number of mole of atom. O = 16] Element / Unsur Mass of element (g) / Jisim unsur (g) Number of mole of atoms / Bilangan mol atom Ratio of moles / Nisbah mol Simplest ratio of moles / Nisbah mol teringkas X 10.95 g of metal X oxide is reduced by hydrogen.79 1. Calculate the empirical formula of metal X oxide. Magnesium reacts easily to form teroksida magnesium oxide reaktif Magnesium adalah logam membentuk magnesium oksida . Kuprum(II) okida boleh reduced/removed hydrogen gas to form copper and water.98%. use the following table: Calculation steps / Langkah pengiraan: (a) Calculate the mass of each element in the compound.35 0. Untuk menghitung formula empirik suatu sebatian. [RAM / JAR: X = 207. 10. Br = 80] (Assume that 100 g of substance is used / Anggap 100 g bahan digunakan) Element / Unsur Mass of element (g) / Jisim unsur (g) Number of mole of atoms / Bilangan mol atom Ratio of moles / Nisbah mol Simplest ratio of moles / Nisbah mol teringkas Na 15.1 2 2 When 11. diturunkan/disingkirkan oleh untuk membentuk kuprum dan air. Na = 23.35 g logam terhasil. hd Publicat 35 Nila 02-Chem F4 (3P). Explain why the set-up of apparatus to determine the empirical formula in both the experiments is different.66 1 1 Br 52. Hitungkan jisim setiap unsur dalam sebatian. n io Sdn.35 g of metal X is produced. EXERCISE / LATIHAN 1 Apabila 11.05 1 1 O 1. Tukar jisim setiap unsur kepada bilangan mol atom. metal (above hidrogen in reactivity series). Br = 52. Magnesium mudah (b) Copper is below by 7 Kuprum di bawah gas hidrogen hydrogen hidrogen in the metal reactivity series. Oxygen in copper(II) oxide can be dalam siri kereaktifan. A certain compound contains the following composition / Satu sebatian mengandungi komposisi unsur seperti berikut: Na = 15. Hitungkan formula empirik bagi oksida logam X.23 0.

Calculate the relative atomic mass of element Z.08 x 1 Y 4.12 3 x = 52 4 2.8 g copper and 0.08 x 1 = 0.07 g unsur Z bertindak balas dengan bromin membentuk 3. Hitung jisim atom relatif bagi unsur Z.26 g of element Y to form a compound with formula XY3.67 g sebatian dengan formula empirik ZBr2. [RAM: Br = 80] 2.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 3 2.26 = 0.26 4.2 mol O. • It is black solid / Merupakan pepejal hitam.02 z = 207 Bilangan mol atom Number of mole of atoms Simplest ratio of moles Nisbah mol teringkas 5 The statement below is about compound J / Pernyataan berikut adalah mengenai sebatian J.08 g of element X combines with 4. Namakan dua bahan yang digunakan untuk menyediakan gas hidrogen.2 mol of oxygen / Mengandungi 12.08 2. [JAR: Br = 80] Element / Unsur Mass of element (g) Jisim unsur (g) Z 2.5] Element / Unsur Mass of element (g) Jisim unsur (g) 2. [RAM: Y = 35. Empirical formula of Compound J is CuO.2 mol Cu : 0.08 z 1 = 2 0.5 3 x = relative atomic mass of X Mol X = 1 Bilangan mol atom Number of mole of atoms Nisbah mol teringkas Simplest ratio of moles Mol Y 3 2. Black solid change to brown (ii) Name two the substances that can be used to prepare hydrogen gas. Nil a tio 36 n Sdn.07 z 1 Br 1.12 35.07 g of element Z reacts with bromine to form 3. Sebatian J bertindak balas lengkap dengan hidrogen menghasilkan kuprum dan sebatian Q. Zinc/magnesium and hydrochloric acid/nitric acid/sulphuric acid.8 g kuprum dan 0.indd 36 d. (c) Compound J reacts completely with hydrogen to produce copper and compound Q. Calculate the relative atomic mass of element X.26 g unsur Y untuk membentuk sebatian dengan formula XY3 . Hitung jisim atom relatif unsur X. Water m Publica (iv) Write a balanced equation for the reaction.67 g of a compound with empirical formula ZBr2. 12. 1 mol Cu : 1 mol O.2 mol oksigen. (b) (i) (ii) Calculate the number of mol of copper atom / Hitung bilangan mol atom kuprum.6 = 0.02 80 2 z = relative atomic mass of Z Mol Z = 1 Mol Br 2 2.2 mol 64 What is the empirical formula of compound J / Apakah formula empirik sebatian J ? 0. Bh 12/9/2011 5:59:08 PM .07 2.6 1. (i) State one observation for the reaction / Nyatakan satu pemerhatian daripada tindak balas tersebut. [JAR: Y = 35. CuO + H2 → Cu + H2O Tuliskan persamaan kimia yang seimbang bagi tindak balas tersebut.08 g unsur X bergabung dengan 4.5] X 2. • Contains 12. [Relative atomic mass / Jisim atom relatif : Cu = 64] (a) What is meant by empirical formula / Apakah maksud formula empirik? A formula that shows the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in a compound. (iii) Name compound Q / Nama sebatian Q.8 = 0. 02-Chem F4 (3P).

Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE

(d) Draw a labelled diagram of the set-up of apparatus for the experiment.
Lukiskan gambar rajah berlabel susunan radas bagi tindak balas tersebut.

Gas hidrogen

Compound J

Heat

(e) (i)

Mengapakah gas hidrogen dilalukan melalui tiub pembakaran selepas pemanasan dihentikan?

Why is hydrogen gas passed through the combustion tube after heating has stpopped?

To avoid copper produced react with oxygen to form copper(II) oxide.

(ii) State how to determine that the reaction between compound J and hydrogen has completed.
Nyatakan bagaimana menentukan tindak balas antara sebatian J dengan hidrogen telah lengkap.

By repeating the process of heating, cooling and weighing until constant mass is obtained.

(f) (i)

Bolehkah formula empirik bagi magnesium oksida ditentukan dengan cara yang sama? Jelaskan jawapan anda.

Can the empirical formula of magnesium oxide be determined by the same method? Explain your answer. Cannot. Magnesium is more reactive than hydrogen. Hydrogen cannot reduce magnesium oxide to form magnesium.

(ii) Magnesium can reduce copper oxide to copper. Explain why the empirical formula of the copper oxide cannot be determined by heating the mixture of copper oxide and magnesium powder.

Magnesium boleh menurunkan kuprum oksida kepada kuprum. Terangkan mengapa formula empirik kuprum oksida tidak boleh ditentukan dengan pemanasan campuran kuprum oksida dengan serbuk magnesium.

Magnesium oxide and copper produced are in solid form, copper cannot be separated from magnesium oxide. The mass of copper cannot be weighed.

MOLECULAR FORMULA / Formula MOLEKUL 1

Formula molekul suatu sebatian menunjukkan bilangan sebenar atom bagi setiap unsur yang terdapat dalam satu molekul sebatian.

Molecular formula of a compound shows the actual number of atoms of each element that are present in a molecule of the compound. Molecular Formula = (empirical formula)n, where n is a integer.
Formula molekul = (Formula empirik)n, di mana n adalah integer.

2

Example / Contoh:
Compound
Sebatian

Molecular formula
Formula molekul

Empirical formula
Formula empirik

Value of n
Nilai n

Water / Air Carbon dioxide / Karbon dioksida Sulphuric acid / Asid sulfurik Ethene / Etena Benzene / Benzena Glucose / Glukosa

H2O CO2 H2SO4 C2H4 C6H6 C6H12O6

H2O CO2 H2SO4 CH2 CH CH2O

1 1 1 2 6 6

The molecular formula and the empirical formula of a compound may be the same if the value of n = 1 but different if the value is n > 1. Formula molekul dan formula empirik suatu sebatian akan sama sekiranya nilai n = 1 tetapi akan berbeza sekiranya nilai n > 1.
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MODULE • Chemistry Form 4

EXERCISE / LATIHAN 1 2

Formula empirik sebatian X adalah CH2 dan JMR adalah 56. Tentukan formula molekul sebatian X. [Jisim atom relatif: H = 1; C = 12]

The empirical formula of compound X is CH2 and relative molecular mass is 56. Determine the molecular formula of compound X. [Relative atomic mass: H = 1; C = 12]

(12 + 2)n = 56 56 n = =4 14 Molecular formula = (CH2)4 = C4H8
2.58 g suatu hidrokarbon mengandungi 2.16 g karbon. Jisim molekul relatif bagi hidrokarbon ini ialah 86. [Relative atomic mass / Jisim atom relatif : H = 1; C = 12] (i) Calculate the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon / Hitungkan formula empirik bagi hidrokarbon ini. Element Mass of element (g) Number of mole of atoms Ratio of moles Simplest ratio of moles C 2.16 0.18 1 3

2.58 g of a hydrocarbon contains 2.16 g of carbon. The relative molecular mass of the hydrocarbon is 86.

H 0.42 0.42 21 = 7 3 3 7

Empirical formula = C3H7

(ii) Determine the molecular formula of the hydrocarbon / Tentukan formula molekul hidrokarbon tersebut. (12 × 3 + 7 × 1)n = 86 86 n = =2 43 Molecular formula = (C3H7)2 = C6H14
3 Rajah di bawah menujukkan formula struktur bagi benzena. H H

The diagram below shows the structural formula for benzene molecule.
H C C C C H C C H H

(a) Name the element that make up benzene / Namakan unsur yang membentuk benzena. Carbon and hydrogen (b) What are the molecular formula and empirical formula for benzene?
Apakah formula molekul dan formula empirik bagi benzena?

Molecular formula / Formula molekul: C6H6 Empirical formula / Formula empirik: CH
Banding dan bezakan formula molekul dan formula empirik bagi benzena.

(c) Compare and contrast the molecular formula and empirical formula for benzene. • Both empirical formula and molecular formula shows benzene is made up of elements.
Kedua-dua fomula molekul dan formula empirik menunjukkan benzena terdiri dari unsur

carbon
karbon

and
dan

hydrogen
hidrogen .

• Molecular formula shows the molecule . Each benzene molecule

actual

number of consists of

carbon

6 carbon
karbon atom

atoms in benzene 6 hydrogen atoms and atoms.
dan atom hidrogen dalam molekul karbon 6 dan atom

atoms and

hydrogen

Formula molekul menunjukkan bilangan bagi atom molekul 6 benzena terdiri daripada benzena. Setiap
Nil a

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Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE

• Empirical formula shows the simplest ratio of number carbon atoms to hydrogen atoms, the simplest carbon hydrogen 1:1 ratio of number of atoms to atoms in benzene is .
Formula empirik benzena menunjukkan Nisbah paling ringkas bilangan atom nisbah paling ringkas karbon kepada karbon bilangan atoms kepada atom hidrogen 1 : 1 adalah . hidrogen .

PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION BY MASS OF AN ELEMENT IN A COMPOUND PERATUS KOMPOSISI UNSUR MENGIKUT JISIM DALAM SEBATIAN

Total RAM of the element in the compound × 100%
1 2 % komposisi unsur mengikut jisim

% composition by mass of an element =

Jumlah JAR unsur dalam suatu sebatian × 100%

RMM/RFM of compound/JMR/JFR sebatian

Hitungkan peratusan nitrogen mengikut jisim dalam sebatian berikut: [Relative atomic mass / Jisim atom relatif : N = 14, H = 1, O = 16, S = 32, K = 39]

Example / Contoh: Calculate the percentage composition by mass of nitrogen in the following compounds:

(i) (NH4)2SO4 %N =

2 × 14 × 100% 132 = 21.2% 14 × 100% 101 = 13.9%

(ii) KNO3

%N =

CHEMICAL FORMULA FOR IONIC COMPOUNDS / formula kimia bagi sebatian ion 1 2

Formula kimia sebatian ion yang mengandungi ion X m+ dan Y n– boleh diperoleh melalui pertukaran bilangan cas setiap ion. Formula yang diperoleh ialah XnYm.

Chemical formula of an ionic compound comprising of the ions Xm+ and Yn– is by exchanging the charges on each ion. The formula obtained will be XmYn. Example / Contoh: (i) Sodium oxide / Natrium oksida
Ion / Ion Charges / Bilangan cas Exchange of charges / Pertukaran bilangan cas Smallest ratio / Nisbah teringkas Number of combining ions / Bilangan ion yang bergabung Formula / Formula Na+ +1 2 2 2 Na+ Na2O O2– –2 1 1 O2–

(ii) Copper(II) nitrate / Kuprum(II) nitrat Cu2+ +2 NO3– –1

(iii) Zinc oxide / Zink oksida Zn2+ +2 O2– –2

1 2 (Ratio / Nisbah) ⇒ Cu(NO3)2

2 1 ⇒ ZnO

2 1 (Ratio / Nisbah)
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Oxide ion Ion karbonat Ion sulfat Ion klorida Ion bromida Ion iodida Ion hidroksida Ion nitrat Ion oksida CO32–.Nil a m 40 ACTIVITY 1: WRITE THE CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND NAMES OF THE FOLLOWING COMMON COMPOUNDS Aktiviti 1: TULIS FORMULA KIMIA DAN NAMA BAGI BAHAN KIMIA BERIKUT Publica d. Nitrate ion K+ Potassium ion K2CO3 Potassium carbonate Na2CO3 Sodium carbonate H2CO3 Carbonic acid Ag2CO3 Silver carbonate Ag2SO4 Silver sulphate AgCl Silver chloride AgBr Silver bromide AgI Silver iodide H2SO4 Sulphuric acid HCl Hydrocloric acid HBr Hydrobromic acid HI Hydroiodic acid AgOH Silver hydroxide Na2SO4 Sodium sulphate NaCl Sodium chloride NaBr Sodium bromide NaI Sodium iodide NaOH Sodium hydroxide K2SO4 KCl KBr Potassium sulphate Potassium chloride Potassium bromide KI Potassium iodide Ion kalium K2O Potassium oxide KOH KNO3 Potassium hydroxide Potassium nitrate NaNO3 Sodium nitrate HNO3 Nitric acid AgNO3 Silver nitrate Na+ Sodium ion Ion natrium Na2O Sodium oxide H+ Hydrogen ion Ion hidrogen Ag+ Silver ion Ion argentum Ag2O Silver oxide NH4 + Ammonium ion Ion ammonium (NH4)2CO3 Ammonium carbonate CaCO3 Calcium carbonate CuCO3 Copper(II) carbonate MgCO3 Magnesium carbonate ZnCO3 Zinc carbonate PbCO3 Lead(II) carbonate PbSO4 Lead(II) sulphate ZnSO4 Zinc sulphate MgSO4 Magnesium sulphate MgCl2 Magnesium chloride ZnCl2 Zinc chloride PbCl2 Lead(II) chloride CuSO4 Copper(II) sulphate CaSO4 Calcium sulphate CaCl2 Calcium chloride CaBr2 Calcium bromide (NH4)2SO4 Ammonium sulphate NH4Cl Ammonium chloride NH4Br Ammonium bromide NH4I Ammonium iodide CaI2 Calcium iodide CuI2 Copper(II) iodide Ca(OH)2 Calcium hydroxide NH4NO3 Ammonium nitrate Ca(NO3 )2 Calcium nitrate Cu(OH)2 Cu(NO3 )2 Copper(II) hydroxide Copper(II) nitrate Ca2+ Calcium ion Ion kalsium CaO Calcium oxide Cu2+ Copper(II) ion Ion kuprum(II) CuO Copper(II) oxide CuCl2 CuBr2 Copper(II) chloride Copper(II) bromide MgBr2 Magnesium bromide ZnBr2 Zinc bromide PbBr2 Lead(II) bromide MgO Mg2+ Magnesium ion Magnesium Ion magnesium oxide Mg(OH)2 MgI2 Magnesium Magnesium iodide hydroxide ZnI2 Zinc iodide PbI2 Lead(II) iodide Zn(OH)2 Zinc hydroxide Pb(OH)2 Lead(II) hydroxide Mg(NO3 )2 Magnesium nitrate Zn(NO3 )2 Zinc nitrate Pb(NO3 )2 Lead(II) nitrate Al(NO3)3 Aluminium nirate Zn2+ Zinc ion Ion zink ZnO Zinc oxide Pb2+ Lead(II) ion Ion plumbum(II) PbO Lead(II) oxide Al 3+ Aluminium ion Ion aluminium Al2(SO4 )3 Al2O3 Al2(CO3 )3 Aluminium Aluminium oxide Aluminium carbonate sulphate AlCl3 Aluminium chloride Al(OH)3 AlBr3 AlI3 Aluminium Aluminium bromide Aluminium iodide hydroxide 12/9/2011 5:59:08 PM . Carbonat ion SO42–. Chloride ion Br–. Bh 02-Chem F4 (3P). O2–.indd 40 MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 tio n Sdn. Sulphate ion Cl–. Hydroxide ion NO3–. Bromide ion I–. Iodide ion OH–.

WRITE THE CHEMICAL FORMULAE OF THE FOLLOWING COMPOUNDS AKTIVITI 2: TANPA MERUJUK KEPADA JADUAL AKTIVITI 1. TULISKAN FORMULA KIMIA BAGI SEBATIAN BERIKUT Oxide ion Ion karbonat Ion sulfat Ion klorida Ion bromida Ion iodida Ion hidroksida Ion nitrat Ion oksida Carbonat ion Sulphate ion Chloride ion Bromide ion Iodide ion Hydroxide ion Nitrate ion Potassium ion Ion kalium K2O K2CO3 K2SO4 KCl KBr KI KOH KNO3 Sodium ion Ion natrium Na2O Na2CO3 Na2SO4 NaCl NaBr NaI NaOH NaNO3 Hydrogen ion Ion hidrogen H2CO3 H2SO4 HCl HBr HI HNO3 Silver ion Ion argentum Ag2O Ag2CO3 Ag2SO4 AgCl AgBr AgI AgOH AgNO3 Ammonium ion Ion ammonium (NH4 )2CO3 (NH4 )2SO4 NH4Cl NH4 Br NH4 I NH4 NO3 Calcium ion Ion kalsium CaO CaCO3 CaSO4 CaCl2 CaBr2 CaI2 Ca(OH)2 Ca(NO3 )2 Copper(II) ion Ion kuprum(II) CuO CuCO3 CuSO4 CuCl2 CuBr2 CuI2 Cu(OH)2 Cu(NO3 )2 Magnesium ion Ion magnesium MgO MgCO3 MgSO4 MgCl2 MgBr2 MgI2 Mg(OH)2 Mg(NO3 )2 Zinc ion Ion zink ZnO ZnCO3 ZnSO4 ZnCl2 ZnBr2 ZnI2 Zn(OH)2 Zn(NO3 )2 Lead(II) ion Ion plumbum(II) PbO PbCO3 PbSO4 PbCl2 PbBr2 PbI2 Pb(OH)2 Pb(NO3 )2 Aluminium ion Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE m Publicat Ion aluminium Al2O3 Al2(CO3)3 Al2(SO4 )3 AlCl3 AlBr3 AlI3 Al(OH)3 Al(NO3 )3 n io 41 Sdn. hd 02-Chem F4 (3P). B .Nila 12/9/2011 5:59:09 PM .indd 41 ACTIVITY 2: WITHOUT REFERRING TO THE TABLE IN ACTIVITY 1.

MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 Activity 3: Write The Chemical Formulae And Type Of Particles For The Following Element/Compound Aktiviti 3: Tulis formula kimia dan jenis zarah untuk unsur/sebatian berikut Compound / Element Sebatian/Unsur Formula Formula Type of particles Jenis zarah Compound / Element Sebatian/Unsur Formula Formula Type of particles Jenis zarah Sodium sulphate Natrium sulfat Na2SO4 (NH4 )2CO3 Mg(NO3 )2 HCl K2O MgO PbCO3 Fe2(SO4)3 MgCl2 ZnSO4 AgNO3 (NH4 )2SO4 ZnO HNO3 NH3 Mg Zn CuSO4 I2 Cl2 Ion Ion Ion Ion Ion Ion Ion Ion Ion Ion Ion Ion Ion Ion Molecule Atom Atom Ion Molecule Molecule Zink karbonat Zinc carbonate Ammonium carbonate ZnCO3 (NH4 )2CO3 AgCl H2SO4 Cu(NO3 )2 H2 CO2 O2 Al2(SO4 )3 PbCl2 KI CuCO3 K2CO3 NaOH NH3(aq) NH4Cl NO2 NaCl Ag Br2 Ion Ion Ion Ion Ion Molecule Molecule Molecule Ion Ion Ion Ion Ion Ion Ion and molecule Ion Molecule Ion Atom Molecule Ammonium carbonate Ammonium karbonat Ammonium karbonat Magnesium nitrate Magnesium nitrat Argentum klorida Silver chloride Hyrochloric acid Asid hidroklorik Asid sulfurik Sulphuric acid Copper(II) nitrate Potassium oxide Kalium oksida Kuprum(II) nitrat Magnesium oxide Magnesium oksida Gas hidrogen Hydrogen gas Plumbum(II) karbonat Lead(II) carbonate Iron(III) sulphate Gas karbon dioksida Carbon dioxide gas Oxygen gas Aluminium sulphate Lead(II) chloride Ferum(III) sulfat Gas oksigen Magnesium klorida Magnesium chloride Aluminium sulfat Zinc sulphate Zink sulfat Plumbun(II) klorida Silver nitrate Argentum nitrat Kalium iodida Potassium iodide Copper(II) carbonate Potasium carbonate Ammonium sulfat Ammonium sulphate Kuprum(II) karbonat Zinc oxide Zink oksida Kalium karbonat Nitric acid Asid nitrik Natrium hidroksida Sodium hydroxide Aqueous ammonia Ammonium chloride Nitrogen dioxide gas Gas ammonia Ammonia gas Ammonia akueus Magnesium Magnesium Ammonium klorida Zinc Zink Gas nitrogen dioksida Kuprum(II) sulfat Copper(II) sulphate Natrium klorida Sodium chloride Silver Iodine Iodin Argentum Klorin Nil a Chlorine Bromin Bromine m Publica tio 42 n Sdn. Bh 12/9/2011 5:59:09 PM .indd 42 d. 02-Chem F4 (3P).

• Equation using symbols / Persamaan menggunakan simbol – reactants and products are represented by chemical formulae and have certain meanings menggunakan formula kimia untuk mewakili bahan tindak balas dan hasil tindak balas serta menggunakan pelbagai jenis simbol yang membawa makna tertentu.indd 43 12/9/2011 5:59:09 PM m . Step 2 / Langkah 2 : Detemine the number of atoms for each element / Tentukan bilangan atom setiap unsur. Example / Contoh: Zn (s) + 2HCl (aq) Zn (p) + 2HCl (ak) ZnCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) ZnCl2 (ak) + H2 (g) 1 mol 2 mol 1 mol 1 mol 3 Interpretation / Tafsiran: 1 mol of zinc reacts with 2 mol of hydrochloric acid to produce 1 mol of zinc chloride and 1 mol of hydrogen. Symbol / Simbol + Meaning / Maksud Mengasingkan 2 bahan / hasil Symbol / Simbol (g) (g) Keadaan gas Meaning / Maksud Gaseous state Aqueous state Keadaan akueus Separating 2 reactants / products Produces Menghasilkan (aq) (ak)  (s) (p) Tindak balas berbalik Reversible reaction Gas released Gas terbebas Solid state Keadaan pepejal Precipitation Bahan termendap (ce) (l) Liquid state Keadaan cecair ∆ Heating / Heat energy is given Pemanasan / Haba dibekalkan 2 Information obtained from chemical equation using symbols / Maklumat yang diperoleh daripada persamaan kimia bersimbol: (a) Qualitative aspect / Aspek kualitatif : type of reactants and products involved in the chemical reaction and the state of each reactant and product. Tulis formula kimia bagi setiap bahan dan hasil tindak balas. B . 1 mol zink bertindak balas dengan 2 mol asid hidroklorik menghasilkan 1 mol zink klorida dan 1 mol hidrogen.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE CHEMICAL EQUATIONS / PERSAMAAN KIMIA 1 Two types of equation / Dua jenis persamaan: • Equation in words / Persamaan perkataan – using names of reactants and products / menggunakan nama bahan tindak balas dan hasil tindak balas. Writing balanced chemical equations / Menulis persamaan kimia seimbang: Step 1 / Langkah 1 : Write the correct chemical formulae for each reactant and product. jenis bahan / hasil tindak balas yang terlibat dalam tindak balas dan keadaan fizikal bagi setiap bahan / hasil tindak balas. Imbangkan bilangan atom setiap jenis unsur dengan menambahkan pekali di hadapan setiap formula kimia. (b) Quantitative aspect / Aspek kuantitatif : number of moles of reactants and products involved in the chemical reaction that is the coeffficients involved in a balanced equation of the formulae of reactants and products. hd 43 Nila 02-Chem F4 (3P). Publicat n io Sdn. Step 3 / Langkah 3 : Balance the number of atoms for each element by adjusting the coefficients in front of the chemical formulae. bilangan mol yang bertindak balas dan hasil tindak balas yang terbentuk iaitu pekali bagi setiap formula bahan dan hasil tindak balas.

Bh 12/9/2011 5:59:09 PM . of moles (n) Bilangan mol (n) × 24 dm3 mol–1 / 22. Tukarkan maklumat L2 kepada mol menggunakan carta di bawah.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 EXERCISE / LATIHAN Write a balanced chemical equation for each of the following reactions: Tulis persamaan kimia seimbang bagi setiap tindak balas yang berikut: 1 Zinc carbonate ZnCO3 Zinc oxide + Carbon dioxide / Zink karbonat Zink oksida + Karbon dioksida Natrium sulfat + Air ZnO + CO2 2 Sulphuric acid + Sodium hydroxide H2SO4 + 2NaOH Na2SO4 + 2H2O Sodium sulphate + Water / Asid sulfurik + Natrium hidroksida Silver chloride + Sodium nitrate 3 Silver nitrate + Sodium chloride Argentum nitrat + Natrium klorida AgNO3 + NaCl AgCl + NaNO3 Kuprum(II) oksida + Asid hidroklorik CuO + 2HCl CuCl2 + H2O Argentum klorida + Natrium nitrat 4 Copper(II) oxide + Hydrochloric acid Copper(II) chloride + Water Kuprum(II) klorida + Air Magnesium oksida Natrium hidroksida + Hidrogen Kalium hidroksida Zink nitrat + Air 5 Magnesium + Oxygen 2Mg + O2 2MgO Magnesium oxide / Magnesium + Oksigen 6 Sodium + Water 2Na + 2H2O Sodium hydroxide + Hydrogen / Natrium + Air 2NaOH + H2 7 Potassium oxide + Water K 2O + H 2O 2KOH Potassium hydroxide / Kalium oksida + Air Zinc nitrate + Water / Zink oksida + Asid nitrik 8 Zinc oxide + Nitric acid ZnO + 2HNO3 Zn(NO3 )2 + H2O 9 Plumbum(II) nitrat Plumbum (II) oksida + Nitrogen dioksida + Oksigen 2Pb(NO3 )2 2PbO + 4NO2 + O2 Lead(II) nitrate Lead(II) oxide + Nitrogen dioxide + Oxygen 10 Aluminium nitrate Aluminium oxide + Nitrogen dioxide + Oxygen Aluminium nitrat Aluminium oksida + Nitrogen dioksida + Oksigen 4Al(NO3 )3 2Al2O3 + 12NO2 + 3O2 NUMERICAL PROBLEMS INVOLVING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS / Penghitungan berkaitan persamaan kimia Calculation steps / Langkah perhitungan: S1 / L1 : Write a balanced equation / Tulis persamaan kimia seimbang. S3 / L3 : Write the information from the chemical equation below the equation (information about the number of moles of reactants/products). Tukar maklumat kepada unit yang dikehendaki dengan menggunakan carta di bawah. S6 / L6 : Change the information to the unit required using the chart below.4 dm3 mol–1 ÷ 24 dm3 mol–1 / 22. S4 / L4 : Change the information in S2 into moles by using the method shown in the chart below. Tulis maklumat daripada persamaan kimia di bawah persamaan (Maklumat perhubungan bilangan mol bahan/hasil tindak balas terlibat).4 dm3 mol–1 Volume of gas (dm3) Isipadu gas (dm3) Nil a m Publica tio 44 n Sdn.indd 44 d. 02-Chem F4 (3P). S5 / L5 : Use the relationship between number of moles of substance involved in S3 to find the answer. Gunakan perhubungan bilangan mol bahan terlibat dalam L3 untuk mencari jawapan. S2 / L2 : Write the information from the question above the equation / Tulis maklumat daripada soalan di atas persamaan. Mass (g) Jisim (g) ÷ (RAM/FRM/RMM) g mol–1 × (RAM/FRM/RMM) g mol–1 No.

5 mol of K Mass of K = 0.2 dm3 gas oksigen dikumpulkan pada STP. B . Cl = 35. H2O2 H2O + O2 Balance the equation above. O = 16] Calculate the mass of potassium required to produce 23. 1 mole of gas occupies 24 dm3 at room conditions] Mol of H2 = 6 dm3 = 0.5 g kalium oksida. Hitung bilangan mol H2O2 yang telah terurai sekiranya 11. 1 mol of O2 : 2 mol of H2O2 0.25 × 65 = 16. Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2 Hitungkan jisim zink yang perlu ditindakbalaskan dengan asid hidroklorik berlebihan untuk menghasilkan 6 dm3 gas hidrogen pada keadaan bilik. The equation shows the reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid.5 mol 22.25 mol 24 dm3 mol–1 From the equation. [Relative atomic mass: Zn = 65.2 g 2 Persamaan berikut menunjukkan tindak balas antara kalium dengan oksigen.indd 45 12/9/2011 5:59:09 PM m .5 mol × 39 g mol–1 = 19. O = 16. [Jisim atom relatif: H = 1.25 mol (2 × 39 + 16) 94 From the equation. 4K + O2 2K2O Hitungkan jisim kalium yang diperlukan untuk menghasilkan 23. Calculate the number of moles of H2O2 that decomposes if 11.5 mol of O2 : 1.4 dm3 mol–1 at STP] Seimbangkan persamaan di atas. hd 45 Nila 02-Chem F4 (3P).25 mol of Zn Mass of Zn = 0.25 mol of H2 : 0. [Jisim atom relatif: Zn = 65.0 mol of H2O2 Publicat n io Sdn.25 mol of K2O : 0. The equation shows the reaction between potassium and oxygen.5.5 g 3 Persamaan menunjukkan penguraian hidrogen peroksida. O = 16] Mol of K2O = 23.5 = = 0.4 dm3 mol–1 From the equation.5 23.4 dm3 mol–1 pada STP] Mol of O2 = 11. [Relative Atomic mass: H = 1.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE EXERCISE / LATIHAN 1 Persamaan menunjukkan tindak balas antara zink dengan asid hidroklorik.5.5 g of potassium oxide. molar volume of gas = 22.2 dm3 = 0. 2 mol of K2O : 4 mol of K 0. Cl = 35. isi padu molar gas = 22. The equation shows the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. 1 mol of H2 : 1 mol of Zn 0.2 dm3 oxygen gas is collected at STP . O = 16. [Jisim atom relatif: K = 39. 1 mol gas menempati 24 dm3 pada suhu bilik] Calculate the mass of zinc required to react with excess hydrochloric acid to produce 6 dm3 of hydrogen gas at room conditions. [Relative atomic mass: K = 39.

96 g m Publica tio 46 n Sdn. [Relative atomic mass: Na = 23.3 g of zinc reacts with excess dilute sulphuric acid. Hitungkan isi padu klorin yang diperlukan untuk bertindak balas lengkap. [Jisim atom relatif: N = 14.0 g serbuk kuprum(II) oksida dicampurkan kepada asid nitrik cair yang berlebihan dan dihangatkan.0 g of copper(II) oxide powder is added to excess dilute nitric acid and heated. isi padu molar gas = 24 dm3 mol–1 pada keadaan bilik] Answer/Jawapan: 7 0. Molar volume of gas = 24 dm3 mol–1 at room conditions] 0.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 4 8. Calculate the volume of chlorine gas that has reacted.24 dm3 Persamaan menunjukkan pembakaran gas propana. isipadu molar gas = 22. The equation shows the combustion of propane gas. Cu = 64] CuO + 2HNO3 Mol of CuO = Cu(NO3 )2 + H2O 8g = 0. Molar volume of gas = 22. [Relative atomic mass: N = 14.3 g zink bertindak balas dengan asid sulfurik cair yang berlebihan. Calculate the mass of carbon dioxide formed. C3H8 + 5O2 3CO2 + 4H2O 720 cm3 of propane gas (C3H8) at room conditions burns in excess oxygen. O = 16.4 dm3 mol–1at STP] Answer/Jawapan: 6 448 cm3 0. [Jisim atom relatif: Na = 23. 1 mol of CuO : 1 mol of Cu(NO3)2 0. Hasil tindak balas adalah zink sulfat dan hidrogen.4 dm3 mol–1 pada STP] 1.46 g of sodium burns completely in chlorine gas at room conditions to produce sodium chloride. 02-Chem F4 (3P). O = 16.8 g 5 1.indd 46 d. [Relative atomic mass: C = 12. [Relative atomic mass: Zn = 65. Hitungkan jisim kuprum(II) nitrat yang terhasil.1 of CuO : 0. Cu = 64] 8.46 g natrium terbakar lengkap dalam gas klorin pada keadaan bilik menghasilkan natrium klorida. Hitungkan isi padu hidrogen yang terbebas pada STP. Hitungkan jisim karbon dioksida yang terbentuk. Calculate the volume of hidrogen gas released at STP .1 mol of Cu(NO3)2 Mass of Cu(NO3)2 = 0.1 mol (64 + 16)g mol–1 From the equation. Bh 12/9/2011 5:59:09 PM . [Jisim atom relatif: Zn = 65.4 dm3 mol–1 at room conditions] 720 cm3 gas propana (C3H8) pada keadaan bilik terbakar dalam oksigen berlebihan. isi padu molar gas = 24 dm3 mol–1 pada keadaan bilik] Answer/Jawapan: Nil a 3. O = 16. O = 16.1 mol × 188 g mol–1 = 18. 1 mol of gas occupies 22. The products are zinc sulphate and hydrogen. Calculate the mass of copper(II) nitrate produced. [Jisim atom relatif: C = 12.

karbon. Element/Unsur Relative atomic mass/Jisim atom relatif Neon / Neon Carbon / Karbon Oxygen / Oksigen Calcium / Kalsium 20 12 16 40 The table below shows the relative atomic mass of neon.01 × 1023 zarah gas.8 dm3 O2 Antara gas berikut. II.02 × 1023 mol–1] A Mass of one calcium atom is 40 g Jisim satu atom kalsium ialah 40 g B Mass of 1 mol of neon is 20 g Jisim 1 mol neon ialah 20 g C 16 g of oxygen contains 6. molecule III 1 mol of butane contains a total of 8.01 × 1023 of gas particles. What is the number of moles of the gas in the bottle? C 3. oxygen and calcium.03 × 1021 7 3 Sebuah botol mengandungi 3. Setiap molekul butana terdiri dari 4 atom karbon dan 10 atom hidrogen. Avogadro constant = 6.2 × 1023 C 6.0 × 1023 mol–1] II Each butane molecule is made up of 4 carbon atoms and 10 hydrogen atoms. C =12 and O =16. III and IV only D I.02 × 1022 B 60.8 dm3 CO2 D 4.4 mol of atoms at room temperature and pressure? [Molar volume of gas = 24 dm3 mol–1 at room temperature and pressure] 5 g of element X reacted with 8 g of element Y to form a compound with the formula XY2. Pemalar Avogadro = 6.01 × 1023 8 4 A 4. one carbon atom IV One butane molecule has a mass of 84 times higher than the mass of 1 hydrogen atom. I dan II sahaja B II and III only C II.02 × 1023 mol–1] A bulb is filled with 1 800 cm3 of argon gas at room conditions. III dan IV II dan III sahaja Sebuah belon diisi dengan 1 800 cm3 gas argon pada keadaan bilik.02 × 1023 oxygen 16 g oksigen mengandungi 6.515 × 1022 B 4. Apakah jisim atom relatif unsur X? [Jisim atom relatif: Y = 80] C 4.4 × 1024.515 × 1023 C 8. 2 Formula kimia bagi butana ialah C4H10.02 × 1023 mol–1] II. yang manakah mengandungi 0. What is the relative atomic mass of element Y? [Relative atomic mass: O = 16] Jisim satu atom unsur Y adalah dua kali lebih daripada satu atom oksigen.0 mol D 6.1 mol of water? [Avogadro constant: 6. B . oksigen dan kalsium. Which of the following statements are true about butane? [Relative atomic mass: H = 1.4 mol atom pada suhu dan tekanan bilik? [Isi padu molar gas = 24 dm3 mol–1 pada suhu dan tekanan bilik] Which of the following gases contains 0.0 mol What is the number of hydrogen atom in 0. Jumlah bilangan atom dalam 1 mol butana adalah 8. carbon. hd 47 Nila 02-Chem F4 (3P).8 dm3 NH3 A 25 B 40 C 50 D 100 Publicat n io Sdn.1 mol air? [Pemalar Avogadro = 6. Pemalar Avogadro = 6 × 1023 mol–1] I The empirical formula for butane is CH2. Antara pernyataan berikut. Berapakah bilangan mol zarah gas dalam botol itu? A bottle contains 3. What is the number of argon atom in the bulb? [Molar volume of gas = 24 dm3 mol–1 at room conditions.indd 47 12/9/2011 5:59:10 PM m .03 × 1022 D 8.8 dm3 Ne B 4.02 × 1023 mol–1] Berapakah bilangan atom oksigen dalam 0. III and IV I. Apakah jisim atom relatif bagi unsur Y? [Jisim atom relatif: O = 16] A 12 B 24 C 32 D 36 The chemical formula for butane is C4H10.02 × 1023 D 3. yang manakah adalah benar tentang butana? [Jisim atom relatif: H = 1. yang manakah adalah benar? [Pemalar Avogadro = 6.0 mol A 6. What is the relative atomic mass of element X? [Relative atomic mass: Y = 80] 5 g unsur X bertindak balas dengan 8 g unsur Y membentuk sebatian dengan formula XY2. 6 A I and II only Satu molekul butana mempunyai jisim 84 kali lebih daripada jisim satu atom hidrogen. Avogadro Constant = 6 × 1023 mol–1] 5 Jadual berikut menunujukkan jisim atom relatif bagi neon. Antara pernyataan berikut.4 × 1024 atoms. Berapakah bilangan atom argon dalam belon itu? [Isipadu molar gas = 24 dm3 mol–1 pada keadaan bilik. II. III dan IV sahaja A 4.02 × 1023 mol–1] A 0.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE Objective Questions / Soalan Objektif 1 The mass of one atom of element Y is two times more than an atom of oxygen.02 × 1023 molekul oksigen D Mass of one oxygen atom is 16 times bigger than Jisim satu atom oksigen adalah 16 kali lebih besar daripada satu atom karbon Which of the following statements is true? [Avogadro constant = 6.5 mol B 1. C = 12 dan O = 16. Formula empirik butana ialah CH2.

7% 63. 1 mol of gas occupies 24 dm3 at room condition] I 66. A B C D 1. O = 16.1 mol plumbum(II) nitrat terurai? [Jisim atom relatif: N = 14. 02-Chem F4 (3P).3 g of lead(II) oxide is formed III 2. CO(NH2)2? [Jisim atom relatif: C = 12.8% 46.02 × 1023 mol–1] 10 The following equation shows the decomposition reaction of lead(II) nitrate when heated at room temperature and pressure.1 mol of lead(II) nitrate is decomposed? [Relative atomic mass: N = 14. Pemalar Avogadro = 6. O = 16. yang manakah mungkin bagi logam X? Which of the following is metal X? A Zinc Zink C Tin B Lead Plumbum D Copper Kuprum Stanum Berapakah bilangan molekul oksigen apabila 7.3% 31. CO(NH2)2? [Relative atomic mass: C = 12. O = 16.010 × 1023 12 The equation below shows the chemical equation of the combustion of ethanol in excess oxygen.4 g magnesium nitrat terurai apabila dipanaskan? [Jisim formula relatif Mg(NO3)2 = 148.3 g plumbum(II) oksida terbentuk 2.2 g of lead(II) oxide is formed 66. Avogadro constant = 6. 2Pb(NO3)2 2PbO + 4NO2 + O2 Persamaan di bawah menunjukkan persamaan kimia pembakaran etanol dalam oksigen berlebihan. Persamaan di bawah menunjukkan penguraian nitrat apabila dipanaskan.8 cm3 9.6% Nil a m Publica tio 48 n Sdn.0 cm3 9 600 cm3 13 What is the percentage by mass of nitrogen content in urea. N = 14. [Relative formula mass of Mg(NO3)2 = 148.20 g ethanol burnt completely? [Relative atomic mass of H = 1. Metal X Logam X The diagram below shows the set-up of apparatus to determine the empirical formula of an oxide metal X. N = 14. H = 1 dan O = 16] C II and III only D II and IV only A B C D 23.02 × 1023 mol–1] What is the number of oxygen molecules is produced when 7. 1 mol gas menempati 24 dm3 pada keadaan bilik] What is the volume of carbon dioxide gas released when 9.4 dm3 gas oksigen dibebaskan II 22. Which of the following are true when 0. C = 12. O = 16. 2Mg(NO3)2 2MgO + 4NO2 + O2 Panaskan Heat Antara berikut. Pb = 207 and 1 mol gas occupies the volume of 24 dm3 at room temperature and pressure] Antara berikut. H = 1 and O = 16] Apakah peratus kandungan nitrogen mengikut jisim dalam urea.2 g plumbum(II) oksida terbentuk 22.010 × 1022 1. Pb = 207 dan 1 mol gas menempati isipadu 24 dm3 pada suhu dan tekanan bilik] 2C2H5OH + 6O2 4CO2 + 6H2O Apakah isi padu gas karbon dioksida dibebaskan apabila 9.505 × 1022 3.6 cm3 96.4 g magnesium nitrate decomposed when heated. 11 The equation shows a decomposition of magnesium nitrate when heated.505 × 1023 3.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 9 Rajah di bawah menunjukkan susunan radas bagi menentukan formula empirik oksida logam X.4 dm3 of oxygen gases is given off IV 4 800 cm3 of nitrogen dioxide given off A I and III only B I and IV only 4 800 cm3 nitrogen dioksida dibebaskan I dan III sahaja I dan IV sahaja II dan III sahaja II dan IV sahaja A B C D 4.20 g etanol terbakar lengkap? [Jisim atom relatif: H = 1.indd 48 d. Persamaan tindak balas di bawah menunjukkan penguraian plumbum(II) nitrat apabila dipanaskan pada suhu dan tekanan bilik. C = 12. Bh 12/9/2011 5:59:10 PM . yang manakah adalah benar apabila 0.

–– To get ideas on the arrangement of elements in the Periodic Table based on their proton numbers. sifat kimia yang sama (dengan air. Mengetahui sumbangan ahli sains untuk penyusunan unsur dalam Jadual Berkala. Mendapat idea penyusunan unsur dalam Jadual Berkala berdasarkan nombor proton. keelektronegatifan. • GROUP 1 / KUMPULAN 1 –– To explain physical properties. oxygen and chlorine) and the different reactivities. Menyatakan sifat kelogaman unsur peralihan serta ciri-ciri istimewa unsur peralihan. oksigen dan dengan klorin) serta kereaktifan yang berbeza. PROPERTIES OF ELEMENTS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE / SIFAT-SIFAT UNSUR DALAM JADUAL BERKALA • GROUP 18 / KUMPULAN 18 –– To explain the existence of noble gases as monoatom and their uses. sifat kimia yang sama (dengan air. hd 49 Nila 03-Chem F4 (3P). Menerangkan perubahan saiz atom. Publicat n io Sdn. • TRANSITION ELEMENTS / UNSUR PERALIHAN –– To state metallic properties of transition metals and their special characteristics. similar chemical properties (with water. natrium hidroksida dan ferum) serta kereaktifan yang berbeza. similar chemical properties (with water. metallic properties as well as oxide properties across period 3 from left to right. Menulis susunan elektron bagi atom unsur dengan proton 1 hingga 20. electronegativity. Menerangkan sifat fizik. Menerangkan kewujudan gas adi secara monoatom serta kegunaannya. B . ARRANGEMENT OF ELEMENT IN THE PERIODIC TABLE / PENYUSUNAN UNSUR DALAM JADUAL BERKALA • GROUP / KUMPULAN –– To write the electron arrangement for atoms of elements with proton numbers 1 to 20. • PERIOD 3 / KALA 3 –– To explain changes in atomic size. Menentukan kumpulan dan kala berdasarkan susunan elektron atom dan sebaliknya. sodium hydroxide and iron) and the different reactivities. sifat kelogaman serta sifat oksida merentasi Kala 3 dari kiri ke kanan.indd 49 12/9/2011 5:57:51 PM m .Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE 3 PERIODIC TABLE JADUAL BERKALA HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT / SEJARAH PERKEMBANGAN –– To identify the contribution of scientists in the arrangement of elements in the Periodic Table. Menerangkan sifat fizik. • PERIOD / KALA –– To determine the group and period based on the electron arrangement of atoms or otherwise. • GROUP 17 / KUMPULAN 17 –– To explain physical properties.

Bh 12/9/2011 5:57:52 PM . –– This system was inaccurate because there were some elements with wrong mass numbers. Unsur disusun mengikut pertambahan jisim atom.W Dobereiner Discoveries / Penemuan –– Substances were classified into 4 groups with similar chemical properties.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 ADVANTAGES OF CLASSIFYING THE ELEMENTS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE KEBAIKAN PENGELASAN UNSUR DALAM JADUAL BERKALA 1 Unsur disusun secara sistematik dalam Jadual Berkala mengikut tertib pertambahan nombor proton yang membolehkan: Elements are arranged systematically in the Periodic Table in an increasing order of proton number which enables: (a) Chemists to study. –– Groups with similar chemical properties were called Triads. (b) Properties of elements and their compounds to be predicted based on the position of elements in the Periodic Table. memahami dan mengingat sifat kimia dan sifat fizik semua unsur dan sebatian secara teratur. Perhubungan unsur dari kumpulan yang berlainan diketahui. –– Empty spaces were allocated for elements yet to be discovered. Lothar Meyer Mass of 1 mol (g) / Jisim 1 mol (g) Density (g cm–3) / Ketumpatan (g cm–3) –– Plotted graph for the atomic volume against atomic mass / Memplotkan graf isi padu atom melawan jisim atom. Sistem ini tidak tepat kerana ada unsur dengan nombor jisim salah. Hukum Oktaf kerana sifat sama berulang pada setiap unsur kelapan. (c) Relationship between elements from different groups to be known. –– Contributor to the formation of the modern Periodic Table. –– Law of Octaves because similar chemical properties were repeated at every eighth element. –– The atomic volume / Isipadu atom = Mendapati unsur dengan sifat kimia sama menduduki tempat setara dalam lengkungan. Mengelaskan unsur berdasarkan konsep nombor proton dan menyusun unsur-unsur mengikut turutan nombor proton menaik. Mendeleev –– Elements were arranged in ascending order of increasing atomic mass. Penyumbang kepada pambentukan Jadual Berkala Moden. Bahan dikelaskan kepada empat kumpulan dengan sifat kimia sama. Ahli kimia mempelajari. John Newlands –– Elements were arranged in ascending atomic mass / Unsur disusun mengikut pertambahan jisim atom. Penyumbang kepada pembentukan Jadual Berkala moden. 03-Chem F4 (3P). Ruang kosong disediakan untuk unsur yang belum ditemui. –– Found that elements with similar chemical properties were positioned at equivalent places along the curve. –– Substances were arranged in 3 groups / Bahan disusun dalam tiga kumpulan.indd 50 d. –– Elements with similar chemical properties were in the same group. understand and remember the chemical and physical properties of all the elements and compounds in an orderly manner. Kumpulan dengan sifat kimia sama dinamakan triad. CONTRIBUTION OF SCIENTIST TO THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE PERIODIC TABLE SUMBANGAN AHLI SAINS DALAM SEJARAH PERKEMBANGAN JADUAL BERKALA Scientists / Saintis Antoine Lavoisier J. –– Triad system was confined to some elements only / Sistem triad terhad kepada beberapa unsur sahaja. –– Contributor to the formation of the modern Periodic Table. Sifat unsur dan sebatiannya diramal berdasarkan kedudukan unsur dalam Jadual Berkala. Nil a m Publica tio 50 n Sdn. Unsur dengan sifat kimia sama berada dalam kumpulan sama. Henry Moseley –– Classified concepts of proton number and elements in ascending order of increasing proton number.

6 F 2. . nombor kumpulan ialah: 10 + bilangan elektron valens. B .Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE THE ARRANGEMENT OF ELEMENTS IN THE MODERN PERIODIC TABLE SUSUNAN UNSUR DALAM JADUAL BERKALA MODEN 1 Tuliskan susunan elektron untuk setiap atom unsur dalam Jadual Berkala di bawah.1 Na 2. 3 Specific name of groups / Nama-nama khas kumpulan: (a) Group 1: Alkali metals # / Kumpulan 1: Logam alkali # (b) Group 2: Alkali-earth metals / Kumpulan 2: Logam alkali bumi (c) Group 3 to 12: Transition elements # / Kumpulan 3 to 12: Unsur peralihan # (d) Group 17: Halogens # / Kumpulan 17: Halogen # Publicat n io Sdn. Group 2.5 32 16 S 2. Bagi atom unsur dengan 3 hingga 8 elektron valens.5 O 2. hd 51 Nila 03-Chem F4 (3P).8 23 24 12 3 11 Mg 2.8. elektron valens yang terdapat pada petala terluar 2 Terdapat 18 lajur disusun secara menegak disebut Kumpulan 1.8. Kumpulan 3 hingga Kumpulan18.2 2 Elements in the Periodic Table are arranged horizontally in increasing order of Unsur-unsur dalam Jadual Berkala disusun secara mendatar mengikut tertib pertambahan proton number nombor proton .8.7 40 18 Ar 2.6 35 17 Cl 2. the group number is: 10 + number of valence electrons. Kumpulan 2.8.3 C 2. Number of valence electrons Bilangan elektron valens There are 18 vertical columns. Lajur menegak dalam Jadual Berkala yang disusun mengikut bilangan bagi atom dipanggil kumpulan.7 20 10 Ne 2. 3 Two main components of the Periodic Table / Dua komponen utama Jadual Berkala: (a) Group / Kumpulan (b) Period / Kala GROUP / KUMPULAN 1 The vertical column of elements in the Periodic Table arranged according to the number of valance electron in the outermost shell of atoms is called groups.8.8 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 39 4 19 K 40 20 Ca 80 35 Br 2.1 2.8.8.2 3 4 5 27 13 Al 2.8.8. and Group 3 until Group 18.indd 51 12/9/2011 5:57:52 PM m .8. A Z X Symbol of an element / Simbol unsur 18 4 2 P E R I O D / K A L A 1 1 H* 1 2 8 4 He 2 13 11 5 14 12 6 15 14 7 16 16 8 17 19 9 7 2 3 Li 2.1 Be 2. called Group 1.4 N 2.2 TRANSITION METALS LOGAM PERALIHAN B 2. 1 1 2 2 3 13 4 14 5 15 6 16 7 17 8 (except Helium) 8 (kecuali Helium) Group Kumpulan 18 For atoms of elements with 3 to 8 valence electrons.8.4 31 15 P 2. Nucleon number / Nombor nukleon Proton number / Nombor proton GROUP / KUMPULAN 1 1 Write the electron arrangement for each atom of element in the Periodic Table below.8.3 28 14 Si 2.

8.. 7 [Rujuk Jadual Berkala] There are seven horizontal rows of elements known as Period 1.. # Kala 3 akan dipelajari Long periods / Kala panjang dengan terperinci dari segi sifat fizik dan sifat kimia EXERCISE / LATIHAN 1 Complete the table below / Lengkapkan jadual berikut.. # Period 3 will be studied in detail with respect to physical and chemical properties / Kala pendek. 2 and 13 – atoms of each element have 1. 15. 2 and 3 valence electrons respectively are metals. Element Unsur Proton number Nombor proton Electron arrangement Susunan elektron Number of valence electrons Bilangan elektron valens Kumpulan Group Number of shell Bilangan petala Period Kala H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Nil a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1 2 2.. .1 2. PERIOD / KALA 1 The horizontal row of elements in the Periodic Table. (c) The elements of Group 14. 2 dan 3 elektron valens adalah logam.indd 52 d. shell elektron occupied with yang sama di 2 Terdapat tujuh baris unsur secara mendatar disebut Kala 1.5 2. 16..8.. # Kumpulan penting yang akan dipelajari dari segi sifat fizik dan sifat kimia.2 2.1 2.8 2. Bh 12/9/2011 5:57:52 PM . 6.8. Unsur Kumpulan 14. Unsur Kumpulan 1.. 7 [Refer to the Periodic Table] (a) Period 1 has 2 elements / Kala 1 mengandungi 2 unsur (b) Period 2 and 3 have 8 elements # / Kala 2 dan 3 mengandungi 8 unsur # (c) Period 4 and 5 have 18 elements / Kala 4 dan 5 mengandungi 18 unsur (d) Period 6 has 32 elements / Kala 6 mengandungi 32 unsur (e) Period 7 has 23 elements / Kala 7 mengandungi 23 unsur Short periods. 2.4 2... 5. 17 and 18 – atoms of each element have 4. .3 2.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 (e) Group 18: Noble gases # / Kumpulan 18: Gas adi # #The important groups that will be studied with respect to chemical and physical properties. 15. 03-Chem F4 (3P).3 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 1 18 1 2 13 14 15 16 17 18 1 2 13 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 m Publica tio 52 n Sdn. 4 Types of substances according to the groups / Jenis bahan mengikut kumpulan: (a) Elements of group 1. 17 dan 18 – atom setiap unsur mempunyai 4. consists of the same number of electrons in an atom called period. 7 dan 8 elektron valens adalah bukan logam. 6.6 2. 5. (b) The elements of group 3 to 12 – transition elements are metals. mempunyai bilangan petala berisi disebut sebagai kala. Baris unsur secara dalam atom mendatar dalam Jadual Berkala. 16. 7 and 8 valence electrons respectively are non-metals. Unsur Kumpulan 3 hingga 12 – unsur peralihan yang merupakan logam..7 2.2 2. 2. 2 dan 13 – atom setiap unsur mempunyai 1.

– The proton number of element Y is 6 and the number of proton in atom Y is 6.8 2. Electron arrangement / Susunan elektron 2 2. petala (b) (i) State the position of element Y in the Periodic Table. (c) Which of the above elements show the same chemical properties? Explain your answer. Xenon (Xe) and Radon (Rn).8. Argon (Ar). Bilangan elektron dalam atom Nombor proton unsur X adalah 11 dan bilangan proton dalam 11 . (ii) Explain how to determine the position of element Y in the Periodic Table.8 2. / Nyatakan kedudukan unsur Y dalam Jadual Berkala. atau berkongsi elektron). Terangkan bagaimana anda menentukan kedudukan unsur Y dalam Jadual Berkala. Atoms X and Z have the same number of valence electron.1. Xenon (Xe) dan Radon (Rn). Gas ini wujud sebagai atom tunggal iaitu sebagai gas monoatom.8. Neon (Ne). GROUP 18 (NOBLE GASES) / KUMPULAN 18 (GAS ADI) 1 Terdiri dari Helium (He).8.indd 53 12/9/2011 5:57:52 PM m . These gases exist as single uncombined atoms and are said to be monatomic gases. hd 53 Nila 03-Chem F4 (3P). Elements / Unsur Helium / Helium Neon / Neon Argon / Argon Krypton / Kripton Consist of Helium (He).8.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE 2 Rajah di bawah menunjukkan simbol kimia yang mewakili unsur X.8. yang manakah mempunyai sifat kimia yang sama? Terangkan jawapan anda.1 and electron arrangement of atom Z is 2. Noble gases are chemically inert because the outermost shell of the atom has achieved duplet electron arrangement for helium and octet electron arrangement for others. Noble gases do not react with other elements (the atom does not lose.1 1 because atom X has one valence electron . Unsur X berada dalam kala kerana X mempunyai berisi elektron dengan . Krypton (Kr).8. menerima. – Element Y is located in Group 14 because atom Y has 4 valance electron. Y and Z. Argon (Ar).4. – The electron arrangement of atom Y is 2. Unsur X terletak dalam kumpulan 1 X adalah kerana X adalah atom satu elektron valens 3 atom tiga X mempunyai . – Element Y is in Period 2 because atom Y has 2 shells occupied/filled with electrons.8. Element Y is located in Group 14 and Period 2. Kripton (Kr). Element X is in period three shells occupied with electrons . gain or share electrons). – Element X and element Z. Neon (Ne). Y dan Z.8 2 Unsur Kumpulan 18 adalah lengai secara kimia kerana petala terluar atomnya telah mencapai susunan elektron duplet untuk helium dan susunan elektron oktet untuk yang lain. 3 4 Publicat n io Sdn. – Electron arrangement of atom X is 2. The number of electrons in atom X is 11 . . Unsur Kumpulan ini tidak bergabung dengan unsur lain (atomnya tidak akan menderma. X 12 6 Y 39 19 Z (a) Explain how to determine the position of element X in the Periodic Table. The electron arrangement of atom X is 2. Element X is located in Group 3 because atom X has atom X adalah 11 .1 . Susunan elektron bagi atom 2. Antara unsur di atas. B . 23 11 The diagram below shows the chemical symbols which represent elements X.18. The proton number of element X is 11 and the number of proton in atom X is 11 . Terangkan bagaimana menentukan kedudukan unsur X dalam Jadual Berkala.

Takat lebur dan takat didih lebih rendah berbanding dengan logam lain. Sesium (Cs) dan Fransium (Fr). less energy is required to overcome these forces. tio 54 n Sdn. Ketumpatan rendah dan semakin meningkat kerana jisim bertambah dengan banyak berbanding dengan isi padu menuruni kumpulan. All noble gases are insoluble in water and cannot conduct electricity in all conditions. To fill neon light (for advertisement board).8. takat lebur dan takat didih bertambah menuruni kumpulan kerana pertambahan saiz atom menyebabkan daya tarikan Van der Waals semakin bertambah. Takat lebur dan takat didih sangat rendah kerana atom-atom gas adi ditarik oleh daya Van der Waals yang lemah . To fill photographic flash lamp.1 2 3 4 2 Physical properties / Sifat fizik: (a) Grey solid with shiny surface / Pepejal kelabu dengan permukaan berkilat. (c) The density is low and increases gradually because the mass increases greatly compared to the volume going down the group. shells increases. Rubidium (Rb). Noble gases / Gas adi Helium / Helium Neon / Neon Argon / Argon Krypton / Kripton Radon / Radon To fill weather balloons and airship. Natrium (Na). Bh 12/9/2011 5:57:53 PM . Takat didih dan takat lebur berkurang kerana apabila saiz atom bertambah.8. sedikit tenaga diperlukan untuk mengatasi daya tersebut.indd 54 d. Kalium (K). Cesium (Cs) and Francium (Fr). semakin banyak tenaga diperlukan untuk mengatasinya. Walau bagaimanapun. 3 Lebih lembut dan ketumpatan yang lebih rendah berbanding dengan logam lain. causing the Van der Waal forces to more increase and energy is required to overcome these forces. (c) Melting and boiling points decrease because when the atomic size increases. 03-Chem F4 (3P). (b) The melting point and boiling points are very low because atoms of noble gases atoms are attracted by weak Van der Waals forces.1 2. To treat cancer. ikatan logam semakin lemah.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 5 Going down Group 18 / Menuruni Kumpulan 18: (a) The atomic size is increasing because the number of Saiz atom bertambah kerana bilangan petala bertambah. Rubidium (Rb). Symbol Simbol Proton number Nombor proton Electron arrangement Susunan elektron Number of shells Bilangan petala Lithium / Litium Sodium / Natrium Potassium / Kalium Li Na K 3 11 19 2. Sodium (Na). Ketumpatan bertambah kerana pertambahan jisim lebih cepat dari pertambahan jejari 4 Chemical properties of Group 1 elements / Sifat kimia unsur Kumpulan 1: atoms 1 (a) All of elements in Group 1 have valence electron and achieve a stable duplet/octet electron arrangement by releasing Semua melepaskan atom one 1 electron to form +1 charged ions: Nil a m Publica unsur mempunyai elektron valens dan mencapai susunan elektron oktet/duplet yang stabil dengan satu +1 elektron valens membentuk ion bercas . (c) Lower melting and boiling points compared to other metals. the metal bonds get weaker. Changes in physical properties going down the group / Perubahan sifat fizik menuruni kumpulan: (a) Atomic size increases because the number of shells increases / Saiz atom bertambah kerana bilangan petala bertambah. the melting and boiling points increase going down the group because atomic size increases. 6 Semua gas adi tidak larut dalam air dan tidak dapat mengkonduksikan elektrik dalam semua keadaan. (b) Softer and the density is lower compared to other metals. Potassium (K). 7 Complete the uses of noble gases in the table below / Lengkapkan jadual kegunaan gas adi.8. Uses / Kegunaan GROUP 1 (ALKALI METALS) / KUMPULAN 1 (LOGAM ALKALI) 1 Terdiri dari Litium (Li).1 2. Elements Unsur Consist of Lithium (Li). (b) Density increases because mass increases faster than the increase in radius. To fill electrical bulb. However.

Ion litium bercas . Positively charges lithium ion.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE Example / Contoh: (i) Atom releases one electron to achieve stable duplet electron arrangement: Atom litium melepaskan satu elektron untuk mencapai susunan elektron duplet yang stabil: Li Electron arrangement / Susunan elektron : 2.8 Number of protons = 11. Number of electrons = 2. Ion natrium bercas atoms (b) All elements in Group 1 have similar chemical properties because all in Group 1 have one valence electron releasing electron and achieve the stable duplet/octet arrangement by its valence electron to form a positively charged ions. Bilangan elektron = 10. Elektron valens ditarik dengan lemah dan ia makin easier senang for the electron to dilepaskan. positif . jumlah cas: –3 jumlah cas: +3 Electron arrangement / Susunan elektron : 2 Number of protons = 3. Li+ +e Number of electrons = 3. total charge: +11 Bilangan proton = 11. Li terbentuk. Na+ is formed. the atomic size further increases and the valence electron in the outer most shell gets away from the nucleus. jumlah cas: jumlah cas: +11 Number of electrons = 10. shells menurun Kumpulan 1 down Group 1 –– The strength of attraction from the proton in the nucleus to the valence weaker . total charge: –2 Bilangan elektron = 2. –– The reactivity of Group 1 metals depends on the tendency for atoms to lose electrons. Na+ terbentuk. Kereaktifan logam Kumpulan 1 bergantung pada kesenangan atom melepaskan elektron. bilangan petala bertambah. jumlah cas: –2 + jumlah cas: +3 Lithium atom is neutral neutral . total charge: +3 Bilangan proton = 3. total charge: –3 Bilangan elektron = 3. kereaktifan logam semakin bertambah .1 Number of protons = 11. B .indd 55 12/9/2011 5:57:53 PM m . charges sodium ion. Atom logam Kumpulan 1 mencapai susunan elektron gas adi yang stabil dengan satu melepaskan elektron valens membentuk ion bercas +1. Kereaktifan Kereaktifan unsur logam alkali bertambah menuruni Kumpulan 1: The reactivity of alkali metals increases going down the Group 1: Li Reactivity increases bertambah Na –– Going down Group 1. Na+ +e Number of electrons = 11. the easier it loses an electron.1 Number of protons = 3. elektron valens pada petala terluar semakin K –– The valence electron is loosely held and it is be released. total charge: Positively –10 –10 Sodium atom is Atom natrium adalah neutral neutral . saiz atom bertambah dan jauh dari nukleus. the number of increases. Publicat n io Sdn. atom unsur Kumpulan 1 mempunyai bilangan Semua unsur Kumpulan 1 mempunyai sifat kimia yang sama kerana semua elektron yang stabil dengan melepaskan satu elektron valensnya elektron valens yang sama iaitu satu dan mencapai susunan untuk membentuk ion bercas positif . 5 –– Atoms of Group 1 metals achieve a stable duplet/octet electron arrangement one by releasing valence electron to form +1 charged ion. Li+ is formed. total charge: +11 Bilangan proton = 11. hd 55 Nila 03-Chem F4 (3P).8. Menuruni Kumpulan 1. jumlah cas: –11 jumlah cas: +11 Electron arrangement / Susunan elektron : 2. Atom litium adalah (ii) Sodium atom releases one electron to achieve stable octet electron arrangement: Atom natrium melepaskan satu elektron untuk mencapai susunan elektron oktet yang stabil: Na Electron arrangement / Susunan elektron : 2. positif . total charge: +3 Bilangan proton = 3. semakin senang elektron dilepaskan. . elecron gets Kekuatan tarikan nukleus kepada elektron valens semakin lemah . total charge: –11 Bilangan elektron = 11. the reactivity of the metal increases .

to dengan nyalaan Kalium bergerak kuning di atas permukaan air. Observation / Pemerhatian: Element Unsur Ulang langkah (i) – (v) dengan menggunakan natrium dan kalium menggantikan litium satu demi satu. Logam Kumpulan 1 bertindak balas dengan air menghasilkan alkali dan gas hidrogen. dengan nyalaan Litium bergerak merah di atas permukaan air. Keringkan minyak pada permukaan litium menggunakan kertas turas. 03-Chem F4 (3P). litium hidroksida. uji larutan yang terhasil dengan kertas litmus merah. Potong sepotong litium menggunakan pisau dan forsep. (iv) When the reactions stop. Apabila tindak balas berhenti. test the solution produced with red litmus paper. Balanced equation / Persamaan kimia seimbang: 2Na + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2 metal alkaline reacts with water to produce solution. natrium hidroksida. potassium hydroxide. The Natrium bergerak cepat dengan nyalaan kuning di atas permukaan air. (iii) Place the lithium slowly onto the water surface in a water trough. Na Sodium moves quickly surface and produces on the water yellow flame. colourless solution formed turns red litmus to blue . sangat cepat Kalium adalah logam yang paling reaktif bertindak balas dengan air membentuk larutan beralkali . Letakkan litium dengan perlahan di atas permukaan air di dalam bekas. Kereaktifan bertambah menuruni Kumpulan 1 Reactivity increases down Group 1 Balanced equation / Persamaan kimia seimbang: 2Li + 2H2O 2LiOH + H2 Sodium is reactive metal reacts with water to produce alkaline solution. The colourless solution formed turns red litmus to blue . reaktif bertindak Natrium adalah logam yang balas dengan air membentuk larutan beralkali . X adalah logam Kumpulan 1 Lithium / Litium Water / Air 2XOH + H2. Balanced equation / Persamaan kimia seimbang: 2K + 2H2O 2KOH + H2 Nil a m Publica tio 56 n Sdn. 2X + 2H2O 2X + 2H2O 2XOH + H2 .indd 56 d. Larutan tidak berwarna menukarkan kertas litmus merah kepada biru . Larutan tidak berwarna menukarkan kertas litmus merah kepada biru .MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 6 Chemical reactions of Group 1 elements / Tindak balas kimia unsur Kumpulan 1: (a) Metal Group 1 reacts with water to produce alkali and hydrogen gas. Potassium is the most reactive K Potassium moves very quickly yellow on the flame. (v) Record the observation / Catatkan semua pemerhatian. water surface and produce The colourless solution formed turns red litmus blue . Observation Pemerhatian Inference Inferens Reactivity Kereaktifan Li Lithium moves slowly on the water red surface and produces flame. perlahan Lithium is the least reactive metal reacts with water to produce alkaline solution. (ii) Dry the oil on the surface of the lithium with filter paper. kalium hidroksida. Bh 12/9/2011 5:57:53 PM . (vi) Repeat steps (i) – (v) using sodium and potassium to replace lithium one by one. sodium hydroxide. X is the metal of Group 1 Procedure / Kaedah: (i) Cut a small piece of lithium using a knife and forceps. lithium hydroxide: Litium adalah logam yang paling kurang reaktif bertindak balas dengan air membentuk larutan beralkali . Larutan tidak berwarna menukarkan kertas litmus merah kepada biru .

(v) When the reaction stop. Kereaktifan bertambah menuruni Kumpulan 1 Reactivity increases down Group 1 Litium terbakar perlahan dengan nyalaan merah menghasilkan pepejal putih . Tambahkan beberapa titis penunjuk universal kepada larutan yang terbentuk. Pepejal putih larut dalam air membentuk tidak berwarna . Observation / Pemerhatian: Element Unsur Ulang langkah (i) – (vii) menggunakan natrium dan kalium untuk menggantikan litium satu demi satu.indd 57 12/9/2011 5:57:53 PM m . add water to dissolve the compound formed. Balanced equation / Persamaan kimia seimbang: Li2O + H2O 2LiOH Publicat n io Sdn. Larutan itu menukarkan warna penunjuk hijau kepada ungu universal dari –– Lithium reacts with water to form alkaline solution. (ii) Dry the oil on the surface of the lithium with filter paper. Logam Kumpulan 1 bertindak balas dengan oksigen membentuk oksida logam. Litium adalah paling kurang reaktif terhadap oksigen. X is a metal element of Group 1 (Li. litium hidroksida . Observation Pemerhatian Inference Inferen Reactivity Kereaktifan Li –– Lithium burns slowly with a red flame to produce white solid .Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE (b) Metal Group 1 reacts with oxygen or air to form metal oxide. X adalah logam unsur Kumpulan 1 (Li. B . –– Lithium is the least reactive metal towards oxygen. lithium hydroxide. tambahkan air untuk melarutkan sebatian yang terbentuk. (iii) Place the lithium in a combustion spoon and heat lithium until it start to burn. Oksida logam larut dalam air menghasilkan larutan berakali. Keringkan minyak pada permukaan litium dengan kertas turas. larutan –– The solution turns green indicator to purple . (vi) Add a few drops of universal to the solution formed. hd 57 Nila 03-Chem F4 (3P). X2O + H2O 4X + O2 2X2O 2XOH. Litium oksida bertindak balas dengan air membentuk larutan beralkali. universal Balanced equation / Persamaan kimia seimbang: 4Li + O2 2Li2O . The metal oxide dissolves in water to produce alkaline solution. Apabila tindak balas berhenti. (viii) Repeat steps (i) – (vii) using sodium and potassium to replace lithium one by one. Litium bertindak balas dengan oksigen membentuk litium oksida . –– Lithium reacts with oxygen to produce lithium oxide . (iv) Put the burning lithium into a gas jar of oxygen / Letakkan litium yang menyala dalam balang gas berisi oksigen. (vii) Record the observation / Catatkan pemerhatian. Na dan K) Combustion spoon / Sudu pembakaran Gas jar / Balang gas Chlorine gas / Gas klorin Burning lithium / Litium menyala X2O + H2O Procedure / Kaedah: (i) Cut a small piece of lithium using a knife and forceps / Potong secebis kecil litium menggunakan pisau dan forsep. Letakkan litium pada sudu pembakaraan dan panaskan litium dengan kuat hingga ia menyala. Na and K) 2XOH. –– The form white solid colourless soluble in water to solution.

–– Sodium is reactive metal towards oxygen. potassium hydroxide. –– Potassium is the most reactive towards oxygen. Balanced equation / Persamaan kimia seimbang: K2O + H2O 2KOH (c) Metal Group 1 reacts with with chlorine to produce metal chloride.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 Na –– Sodium burns brightly with a yellow flame to produce white solid . larutan –– The solution turns green indicator to purple . Kalium oksida bertindak balas dengan air membentuk larutan beralkali . universal Balanced equation / Persamaan kimia seimbang: 4K + O2 2K2O –– Potassium reacts with water to form alkaline solution. with oxygen to produce –– The form white solid colourless soluble in water to solution. Natrium adalah logam –– Sodium sodium oxide reacts . larutan Kalium bertindak balas dengan oksigen membentuk kalium oksida . paling reaktif metal terhadap white solid . Larutan itu menukarkan warna penunjuk universal dari hijau kepada ungu . terang Natrium terbakar kuning menghasilkan dengan nyalaan pepejal putih . Kalium adalah logam oksigen. Pepejal putih larut dalam air membentuk tidak berwarna . –– The form white solid colourless soluble in water to solution. kalium hidroksida. Balanced equation / Persamaan kimia seimbang: Na2O + H2O 2NaOH K –– Potassium burns very brightly with a purple flame to produce Kalium terbakar sangat terang dengan nyalaan ungu menghasilkan pepejal putih . Bh 12/9/2011 5:57:54 PM . sodium hydroxide. Logam Kumpulan 1 bertindak balas dengan klorin menghasilkan logam klorida. Pepejal putih larut dalam air membentuk tidak berwarna .indd 58 d. Na and K) 2XCl . Na dan K) Combustion spoon / Sudu pembakaran Gas jar / Balang gas Chlorine gas / Gas klorin Burning of metal Group 1 Pembakaran logam Kumpulan 1 Nil a m Publica tio 58 n Sdn. Natrium bertindak balas dengan air membentuk larutan beralkali . universal Larutan itu menukarkan warna penunjuk universal dari hijau kepada ungu . –– The solution turns green indicator to purple . 2X + Cl2 + 2H2O 2X + Cl2 X is a metal element of Group 1 (Li. Balanced equation / Persamaan kimia seimbang: 4Na + O2 2Na2O –– Sodium reacts with water to form alkaline solution. natrium hidroksida. 03-Chem F4 (3P). X adalah logam unsur Kumpulan 1 (Li. reaktif terhadap oksigen. –– Potassium reacts with oxygen to produce potassium oxide . Natrium bertindak balas dengan oksigen membentuk natrium oksida .

B . Bromin (Br2 ). Chlorine (Cl2). sangat terang –– Potassium is the most reactive metal towards chlorine. dengan klorin membentuk Balanced equation / Persamaan kimia seimbang: 2Li + Cl2 2LiCl Kereaktifan bertambah menuruni Kumpulan 1 Reactivity increases down Group 1 Na Sodium burns brightly with a yellow flame to produce white solid. natrium klorida . reaktif terhadap klorin. Sifat fizik: Halogen tidak boleh mengkonduksi elektrik dan haba dalam semua keadaan. dengan nyalaan Kalium terbakar ungu menghasilkan pepejal putih .18. Elements Unsur Terdiri dari Fluorin (F2 ).8.indd 59 12/9/2011 5:57:54 PM m . Klorin (Cl2 ).18. Symbol Simbol Proton number Nombor proton Electron arrangement Susunan elektron Number of shells Bilangan petala Fluorine / Fluorin Chlorine / Klorin Bromine / Bromin Iodine / Iodin F2 Cl2 Br2 I2 19 17 35 53 2. Publicat n io Sdn. Natrium adalah logam with chlorine to produce –– Sodium sodium chloride .Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE Observation / Pemerhatian: Element Unsur Observation Pemerhatian Inference Inferen Reactivity Kereaktifan Li Lithium burns flame to produce slowly white with a solid. Kalium bertindak balas .7 2. red –– Lithium is chlorine. Kalium adalah logam klorin. .8. Litium adalah klorin. Iodin (I2 ) dan Astatin (At2 ). dengan klorin membentuk kalium klorida Balanced equation / Persamaan kimia seimbang: 2K + Cl2 2KCl GROUP 17 (HALOGENS) / KUMPULAN 17 (HALOGEN) 1 Consist of Fluorine (F2).18. Litium bertindak balas litium klorida . hd 59 Nila 03-Chem F4 (3P). paling reaktif terhadap –– Potassium reacts with chlorine to produce sodium chloride . reacts Natrium bertindak balas dengan klorin membentuk Balanced equation / Persamaan kimia seimbang: 2Na + Cl2 2NaCl K very brightly with Potassium burns a purple flame to produce white solid. Bromine (Br2).8.7 2. dengan nyalaan Natrium terbakar kuning menghasilkan pepejal putih . Iodine (I2) and Astatine (At2).7 2 3 4 5 2 Physical properties: Halogens cannot conduct heat and electricity in all state.7 2. least reactive metal towards terhadap Litium terbakar perlahan dengan nyalaan merah putih menghasilkan pepejal paling kurang reaktif –– Lithium reacts with chlorin to produce lithium chloride . terang –– Sodium is reactive metal towards chlorine.

. total charge: –18 Bilangan elektron = 18. total charge: –17 Bilangan elektron = 17. and small amount of energy is required to overcome these forces. Atom flourin adalah Ion flourida. Explanation / Penerangan: –– The atomic size increases molecules get larger. 03-Chem F4 (3P). klorin (kuning kehijauan). jumlah cas: +17 Chlorine atom is neutral neutral . jumlah cas: –18 terbentuk. sedikit tenaga diperlukan untuk mengatasi daya itu. (b) Physical properties change from gas (fluorine and chlorine) to liquid (bromine) and to solid (iodine) at room temperature due to increase in the strength of inter molecular forces from fluorine to iodine. (c) The density is low and increases going down the group. chlorine (greenish yellow). menuruni kumpulan kerana dengan pertambahan bilangan . Saiz atom bertambah going down the Group 17 because of increasing in number of petala shell . Ketumpatan adalah rendah dan semakin meningkat apabila menuruni kumpulan. Nil a m Publica tio 60 n Sdn. Takat didih dan takat lebur adalah rendah kerana molekul ditarik oleh tarikan Van der Waals yang lemah. takat lebur dan takat didih meningkat menuruni kumpulan. jumlah cas: –17 jumlah cas: +17 Number of electrons = 18. total charge: +17 Bilangan proton = 17. Bh 12/9/2011 5:57:54 PM . Cl– bercas (b) All elements in Group 17 have similar chemical properties because atoms in Group 17 have seven valence electron and achieve the stable octet electron arrangement by receiving one electron to form a negatively charged ion. saiz molekul semakin besar. negatif Atom klorin adalah Ion klorida. Example / Contoh: (i) Fluorine atom Atom receives one electron to achieve stable duplet electron arrangement: F +e F– Electron arrangement / Susunan elektron : 2. Cl– is formed. jumlah cas: –9 jumlah cas: +9 Number of electrons = 10.8. F– is formed. Number of electrons = 17.indd 60 d. flourin menerima satu elektron untuk mencapai susunan elektron oktet yang stabil: Electron arrangement / Susunan elektron : 2. gelap menuruni kumpulan iaitu flourin (kuning muda). total charge: +9 Bilangan proton = 9.7 Number of protons = 9. total charge: +17 Bilangan proton = 17. F bercas (ii) Chlorine atom receives one electron to achieve stable octet electron arrangement: Atom klorin menerima satu elektron untuk mencapai susunan elektron oktet yang stabil: Cl Electron arrangement / Susunan elektron : 2. the size –– The inter molecular forces of attraction (Van der Waals forces) between molecules become stronger. terbentuk. jumlah cas: –10 jumlah cas: +9 Fluorine atom is neutral neutral . Warna unsur semakin iodin (ungu kehitaman). +e Cl– Electron arrangement / Susunan elektron : 2. Daya tarikan antara molekul (daya Van der Waals) antara molekul semakin kuat. Negatively – charged fluoride ion. bromine (brown) and iodine (purplish black). darker (d) The colour of the elements becomes going down the group: fluorine (light yellow). Number of electrons = 9. Negatively charged chloride ion.7 Number of protons = 17. total charge: –9 Bilangan elektron = 9. Walau bagaimanapun. Keadaan fizik berubah dari gas (flourin dan klorin) kepada cecair (bromin) dan kepada pepejal (iodin) pada suhu bilik kerana pertambahan kekuatan tarikan antara molekul dari flourin kepada iodin. Lebih banyak tenaga diperlukan untuk mengatasi daya antara molekul yang lebih kuat semasa peleburan atau pendidihan. total charge: +9 Bilangan proton = 9.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 3 Changes in physical properties going down the group / Perubahan sifat fizik menuruni kumpulan: (a) The melting and boiling points are low because the molecules are attracted by weak Van der Waals forces. bromin (perang) dan 4 Chemical properties of Group 17 elements / Sifat kimia unsur Kumpulan 17: atoms seven (a) All of elements in Group 17 have valence electrons and achieve a stable octet electron one negatively arrangement by accepting electron to form charged ions. total charge: –10 Bilangan elektron = 10. –– More heat is needed to overcome the stronger forces between molecules during melting or boiling. However the melting and boiling points increase going down the group. Semua menerima atom satu unsur Kumpulan 17 mempunyai elektron membentuk ion bercas tujuh elektron valens. negatif .8 Number of protons = 17.8.8 Number of protons = 9. mencapai susunan elektron oktet yang stabil dengan negatif .

–– The strength of attraction from the proton in the nucleus to attract one electron into the outermost occupied shell becomes weaker . Gas klorin dilalukan melalui air dalam tabung uji. dari nukleus. (Cl2 . atomic bertambah. –– The strength of a halogen atom to attract electron astatine (electronegativity decreases). Klorin water Water air Air Water Water / Air Procedure / Kaedah: –– A few drops of bromine water are added to water in a test tube. bromine diatomic molecules. hd 61 Nila 03-Chem F4 (3P). menurun Kumpulan 17 Br decreases from fluorine to berkurang dari fluorin ke astatin 6 Unsur Kumpulan 17 wujud sebagai molekul dwiatom.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE atom tujuh unsur Kumpulan 17 mempunyai Semua unsur Kumpulan 17 mempunyai sifat kimia yang sama kerana menerima elektron valens sama dalam atom. Procedure / Kaedah: –– Some iodine crystals are added to water in a test tube. saiz size increases. Atom flourin. (Cl2. bercas 5 Reactivity of halogens decreases going down the group / Kereaktifan halogen berkurang menuruni kumpulan: –– All the atoms of Group 17 have seven valence electrons and achieve a stable octet electron arrangement by accepting one electron to form negatively charged ion. Publicat n io Sdn. Two atoms of element sharing one pair of valence electrons to achieve stable octet electron arrangement. mencapai susunan elektron oktet yang stabil dengan satu elektron membentuk ion negatif . Reactivity decreases down Group 17 Kereaktifan bertambah menuruni kumpulan 1 Semua atom unsur Kumpulan 17 mempunyai tujuh elektron valens dan mencapai susunan elektron oktet yang stabil dengan menerima satu elektron membentuk ion bercas negatif . blue litmus paper. X is halogen. Kereaktifan F –– The reactivity of a halogen atom depends on the electron. kecenderungan berkurang –– Going down Group 17. Br2 and I2) F and iodine F exists as F F Chemical properties reactions of Group 17 elements / Tindak balas kimia unsur Kumpulan 17: (a) Halogen reacts with water with different reactivity / Halogen bertindak balas dengan air dengan kereaktifan berbeza: X2 + H2O HX + HOX. bromin dan iodin wujud sebagai molekul dwiatom (Cl2 . –– The solution produced tested with Larutan yang terhasil diuji dengan kertas Heat litmus biru. Kekuatan atom halogen untuk menarik elektron (keelektronegatifan berkurang). bilangan Petala luar semakin jauh tendency of the atom to receive atom menerima elektron. Chlorine Bromine water / Air Bromin Bromine Bromin Chlorine Gas klorin Florin. Kereaktifan unsur Kumpulan 17 bergantung pada Apabila menuruni Kumpulan 17. B . Iodine Beberapa titis air bromin ditambah kepada air Iodin dalam tabung uji. Dua atom unsur berkongsi sepasang elektron valens untuk mencapai susunan elektron oktet yang stabil.indd 61 12/9/2011 5:57:55 PM m . Contoh: Dua atom fluorin berkongsi sepasang elektron untuk membentuk molekul fluorin: Elements in group 17 exist as diatomic molecules. NaOH to absorb Sedikit hablur iodin ditambah kepada air dalam tabung uji. Kekuatan tarikan daripada proton dalam nukleus untuk menarik satu elektron ke dalam petala luar semakin lemah . Atom flourin. –– The test tube is shaken. Larutan yang terhasil diuji dengan kertas litmus biru. Br2 dan I2 ) Iodine crystals / Hablur Iodin Fluorine atom / Atom fluorin Fluorine atom / Atom fluorin Atom flourin. Br2 and I2) / X2 + H2O HX + HOX. Example: Two fluorine atoms share one pair of electron to form one fluorine molecule: Share / Kongsi kongsi kongsi F F F F F F F F Klorin. Haba blue litmus paper. Cl atom bertambah. Iron –– The solution produced testedChlorine with / bromine Wul Besi NaOH untuk menyerap Haba klorin / bromin Tabung uji digoncang. the number of shells petala increases. Br2 dan I2 ) Chlorine. (Cl2. –– The solution produced tested with blue litmus paper. Tabung uji digoncang. Molekul florin Molekul Fluorine moleculeflorin / Molekul fluorin 7 Chlorine gas / Gas Klorin Fluorine. –– Outer shell becomes further from the nucleus. Air Iodine cystals Hablur iodin Chlorine or Bromine Klorin atau Bromin Procedure / Kaedah: –– Chlorine gas is passed through water in a test tube. X adalah halogen. Atom flourin. wool Heat –– The test tube is shaken. Larutan yang terhasil diuji dengan kertas litmus biru.

(Cl2. Br2 and I2) Complete the following / Lengkapkan yang berikut: (i) Cl2 + 2NaOH NaCl + NaOCl + H2O NaBr + NaOBr + H2O NaI + NaOI + H2O (ii) Br2 + 2NaOH (iii) I2 + 2NaOH Reactivity decreases Kereaktifan berkurang (c) Halogens react with hot iron to form brown solid. kepada merah dan dengan cepat. Inference / Inferens: –– Chlorine. (Cl2. Iron wool / Wul besi Halogen bertindak balas dengan besi panas membentuk pepejal perang. bromin dan iodin bertindak balas dengan air membentuk larutan berasid. (Cl2 . X2 adalah halogen.indd 62 d. Wul besi berbara dengan apabila sejuk. Kertas litmus tidak dilunturkan . Klorin. –– The solution changes red litmus paper to qucikly decolourises it. (b) Halogens react with sodium hydroxide solution / Halogen bertindak balas dengan larutan natrium hidroksida: X2 + 2NaOH X2 + 2NaOH NaX + NaOX + H2O. Br2 or I2) Halogen Halogen Observation Pemerhatian Chemical equation Persamaan kimia Chlorine Klorin Iron wool burns when cooled. Iodine Chlorine or Bromine Klorin atau Bromin Iodin Haba Heat Iron wool NaOH to absorb chlorine/bromine NaOH untuk menyerap klorin/bromin Wul besi 2Fe + 3X2 2Fe + 3X2 Heat / Haba 2FeX3. sangat terang dan membentuk pepejal 2Fe + 3Br2 2FeBr3 Iodine Iodin Iron wools glows slowly brown solid when cooled. Wul besi berbara dengan perang apabila sejuk. –– Solubility decreases from chlorine to iodine / Keterlarutan berkurang dari klorin kepada iodin. Larutan menukarkan kertas litmus biru kepada merah . The litmus paper is not decolourises . Larutan menukarkan kertas litmus biru melunturkannya Larutan menukarkan kertas litmus biru melunturkannya . Br2 dan I2 ) NaX + NaOX + H2O. with a dull glow and forms a dan membentuk pepejal perang perlahan 2Fe + 3I2 2FeI3 Nil a m Publica tio 62 n Sdn. (Cl2 . iron(III) halide. Bh 12/9/2011 5:57:55 PM . 2Fe + 3Cl2 2FeCl3 Bromine Bromin Iron wool burns brightly and forms a brown solid when cooled. ferum(III) halida.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 Observation / Pemerhatian: –– Chlorine dissolves rapidly in water to form light yellow solution: Klorin larut dengan cepat dalam air menghasilkan larutan berwarna kuning muda: Observation / Pemerhatian: –– Bromine dissolves slowly in water to form brown solution: Bromin larut dengan perlahan dalam air menghasilkan larutan berwarna perang: Observation / Pemerhatian: –– Iodine dissolves slightly in water to form brown solution: sedikit dalam Iodin larut dengan air menghasilkan larutan berwarna perang: Cl2 + H2O HCl + HOCl blue and Br2 + H2O HBr + HOBr blue and I2 + H2O HI + HOI blue –– The solution changes red litmus paper to –– The solution changes red litmus paper to slowly decolourises it. very brightly terang and forms a brown solid dan membentuk pepejal perang Wul besi terbakar dengan apabila sejuk. X2 represents any halogen. kepada merah dan dengan perlahan. Br2 atau I2 ) 2FeX3. X2 is halogen. bromine and iodine react water to form acidic solution. 03-Chem F4 (3P). X2 mewakili sebarang halogen.

8.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE Experiment (a).8.3 +14 2.5 S 16 p +16 P 2. The number of period of an element represents the number of shells occupy with electrons in each atom of element.3 12 p 13 p 14 p +14 Al 2.3 3 +13 0.130 Si 14 2. B .8. 7 / Terdapat 7 kala ditulis sebagai Kala 1.110 S 16 2.8.118 P 15 2.1 3 +11 0.7 16 p Positive charge / Cas positif Electron arrangement / Susunan elektron +12 2. 4. 5.8 3 +18 0.8.6 3 +16 0.1 Number of proton / Bilangan proton 12 p +12 2. 7.8.indd 63 12/9/2011 5:57:55 PM m . 6.2 +13 2.8.2 Na 11 p +11 2. 5.102 Cl 17 2.1 13 p +13 Mg 2. Publicat n io Sdn. 3.6 –– All the atoms of elements have Semua atom unsur mempunyai 3 3 shells occupied with electrons .7 Cl 17 p +17 2.8. Nombor kala suatu unsur mewakili bilangan petala yang diisi oleh elektron di dalam setiap atom unsur.191 Mg 12 2.8. Reactivity decreases / Kereaktifan berkurang F2.4 3 +14 0.160 Al 13 2.8.095 Electron arrangement Susunan elektron Bilangan petala Number of shells Positive charge in the nucleus Bilangan cas positif dalam nukleus Jejari (nm) Radius (nm) 5 Physical changes across the Period 3 (from left to right) / Perubahan fizik merentasi Kala 3(dari kiri ke kanan): (a) Change in atomic radius across Period 3 / Perubahan jejari atom merentasi Kala 3: The atomic radius of the atoms decreases from sodium to chlorine Jejari atom berkurang dari natrium kepada klorin Na Mg Al Si P 15 p +15 Si 2. petala berisi elektron.8.8.8.8. 6. 2. There are seven periods known as Period 1.8. 2.8.8.8. (b) dan (c) show that all halogens have decreases going down the group: similar chemical properties but their reactivity sama tetapi kereaktifannya Eksperimen (a). 3.4 14 p 15 p 17 p +17 S 2.7 Cl Bilangan proton : Cas positif : Atom 11 p / Atom +11 Susunan electron : 2.8.2 3 +12 0.1 2. Elements Unsur Proton number Nombor proton Electron arrangement Susunan elektron Number of shells Bilangan petala Period Kala Li Na K 3 11 19 2.1 2.7 3 +17 0. 4.5 +16 2.8.8. Br2 dan I2 PERIOD / KALA 1 2 3 Horizontal rows in the periodic table / Baris mendatar dalam Jadual Berkala.5 3 +15 0.8. (b) dan (c) menunjukkan semua halogen menunjukkan sifat kimia yang berkurang apabila menuruni kumpulan.8.8. Cl2.8.4 +15 2.1 2 3 4 2 3 4 4 Period 3 elements (complete the following table): / Unsur Kala 3 (lengkapkan jadual berikut): Elements / Unsur Proton number Nombor proton Na 11 2. Cl2 . Br2 and I2 / F2 .099 Ar 18 2. hd 63 Nila 03-Chem F4 (3P).

Jejari atom klorin. Cannot conduct electricity Tidak boleh mengkonduksi elektrik Konduktor elektrik yang lemah tetapi bertambah dengan kehadiran boron atau fosforus. Saiz atom berkurang Kelektronegatifan: Kekuatan suatu atom dalam molekul menarik electron towards its nucleus. Weak conductor of electric but it increases with the presence of boron or phosphorous. elektron due to the increasing nuclei attraction on the electrons in the shells from bertambah dari natrium kepada ke arah nukleusnya. Konduktor elektrik yang baik. Uses: semi-conductor / Kegunaan: semi konduktor 6 Changes in properties of oxide of elements Period 3 / Sifat oksida unsur Kala 3: Na Mg Al Amphoteric oxide / Oksida amfoterik Amphoteric oxide + Acid Oksida amfoterik + Asid Oksida amfoterik + Alkali Garam + Air Si P S Cl Basic oxide / Oksida bes Basic oxide + Water Oksida bes + Air Alkali Acidic oxide / Oksida asid Oksida asid + Air Alkali Salt + Water Salt + Water Acidic oxide + Water Example / Contoh: Na2O + H2O 2NaOH Basic oxide + Acid Oksida bes + Asid Garam + Air Amphoteric oxide + Alkali Asid Acid Garam +Air Salt + Water Example / Contoh: MgO + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2O Example / Contoh: Al2O3 + 6HNO3 2Al(NO3)3 +3H2O Al2O3 + 2NaOH 2NaAlO2 + H2O Example / Contoh: SO2 + H2O H2SO3 Oksida asid + Alkali Acidic oxide + Alkali Garam + Air Salt + Water Example / Contoh: SiO2 + 2NaOH Na2SiO3 + H2O (a) Elements in Period 3 can be classified as metals and non-metals based on basic and acidic properties of their oxides / Unsur Kala 3 boleh dikelaskan sebagai logam dan bukan logam berdasarkan sifat kebesan dan keasidan oksidanya.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 –– The proton number increases by one unit from sodium to chlorine. m Publica tio 64 n Sdn. acid salt (i) Basic oxide is metal oxide that can react with to form and water . increase increases . Bh 12/9/2011 5:57:55 PM . berkurang dari natrium kepada klorin. across period 3 / Jejari atom unsur berkurang merentasi Kala 3. –– Tendency of atoms to attract electron to the outermost shells Kekuatan nukleus menarik elektron kepada petala paling luar –– The electronegativity Keelektonegatifan increases across Period 3 from sodium to chlorine. . positive positif Nombor proton bertambah satu unit dari natrium kepada klorin. (ii) Metals on the left are solid while non-metals on the right are usually gases. (c) Physical state / Keadaan fizik: (i) The physical state of elements in a period changes from solid to gas from left to right.indd 64 d. bertambah merentasi Kala 3 dari natrium kepada klorin. Logam di sebelah kiri adalah pepejal dan bukan logam di sebelah kanan kebanyakannya adalah gas. bertambah dari natrium kepada klorin. –– Increase in proton number causes the number of Pertambahan nombor proton menyebabkan bilangan cas charge in the nucleus to pada nukleus bertambah . 03-Chem F4 (3P). Nil a Oksida bes adalah oksida logam yang boleh bertindak balas dengan asid membentuk garam dan air . –– The strength of attraction from the proton in the nucleus to the electrons in the shells –– The size of atom decreases (b) Change in electronegativity / Perubahan keelektronegatifan: Daya tarikan proton dalam nukleus terhadap elektron dalam petala bertambah . Keadaan fizik unsur-unsur dalam suatu kala berubah dari pepejal kepada gas dari kiri ke kanan. increases from sodium to chlorine. –– Electronegativity: The strength of an atom in a molecule to attract –– The atomic radius decreases sodium to chlorine. Na Metal Logam (d) Changes in metallic properties and electrical conductivity / Perubahan sifat kelogaman dan kekonduksian elektrik: Element / Unsur Metallic properties Sifat kelogaman Mg Al Semi metal Separa logam Si P S Cl Ar Non-metal Bukan logam Electrical conductivity Kekonduksian elektrik Good conductors of electric. kerana daya tarikan nukleus terhadap elektron dalam petala –– The size of atom decreases from sodium to chlorine.

Na2O Natrium oksida. Al2O3 No change. Al2O3 Aluminium oksida. MgO No change. Acidic oxide Publicat n io Sdn. Basic oxide Aluminium oxide. SiO2 No change. Pepejal putih larut membentuk larutan tanpa warna. Tiada perubahan. P4O10 Sulfur dioksida. The white solid does not dissolve. Na2O White solid dissolve in water Pepejal putih larut dalam air 14 9 – – 3 3 Basic oxide Basic oxide – – Acidic oxide Acidic oxide Magnesium oksida. SO2 White solid dissolve in water Pepejal putih larut dalam air (ii) Reaction between the oxide of elements Period 3 with nitric acid and sodium hydroxide solution: Tindak balas antara oksida unsur Kala 3 dengan asid nitrik dan larutan natrium hidroksida: Observation / Pemerhatian Oxide Oksida Reaction with dilute nitric acid The white solid dissolve to form colourless solution.indd 65 12/9/2011 5:57:56 PM m . dan untuk membentuk (b) Complete the following table / Lengkapkan jadual berikut: (i) Reaction with water / Tindak balas dengan air: Oxide Oksida Solubility in water Keterlarutan dalam air pH pH larutan Type of oxide Jenis oksida Sodium oxide. Pepejal putih larut membentuk larutan tanpa warna. Pepejal putih larut membentuk larutan tanpa warna. SiO2 Phosphorous oxide. garam dan Oksida asid adalah oksida bukan logam yang boleh bertindak balas dengan air . Al2O3 Silikon oksida. MgO White solid slightly dissolve in water Pepejal putih larut separa dalam air Aluminium oxide. SO2 Tidak larut White solid dissolve in water Pepejal putih larut dalam air Sulphur dioxide. membentuk (iii) Amphoteric oxide is oxide that can react with both acid and asid alkali dan to form alkali salt and water . B . SiO2 Silicon oxide. MgO Magnesium oksida. garam Oksida amfoterik adalah oksida yang boleh bertindak balas dengan air . Pepejal putih tidak larut. P4O10 Fosforus oksida. SiO2 Insoluble Insoluble Tidak larut Silicon oxide. Pepejal putih tidak larut. The white solid does not dissolve. Tindak balas dengan asid nitrik cair Reaction with sodium hydroxide solution Type of oxide Jenis oksida Tindak balas dengan natrium hidroksida Magnesium oxide. Tiada perubahan. MgO Magnesium oksida.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE (ii) Acidic oxide is non-metal oxide that can react with alkali to form alkali salt and water . Al2O3 Aluminium oksida. Pepejal putih tidak larut. The white solid does not dissolve. hd 65 Nila 03-Chem F4 (3P). The white solid dissolve to form colourless solution. Tiada perubahan. Amphoteric oxide Silikon oksida. The white solid dissolve to form colourless solution.

Example / Contoh: Iron: Haber Process in the manufacture of ammonia / Ferum: Proses Haber dalam penghasilan ammonia. Fe. Co.8. (ii) Compare number of proton in the nucleus. reactivity down Group 1 and Group 17: Bilangan proton Cas positif +16 +15 sodium +14 3 from : +17 Atomic radius of the atoms +12decreases +13across Period to chlorine. kekuatan tegangan yang tinggi. electron to the outermost shells (Group 17). Bandingkan kecenderungan atom untuk melepaskan elektron (Kumpulan 1) // menerima elektron (Kumpulan 17). Bh 12/9/2011 5:57:56 PM .8. Iron(III) chloride is brown. (c) Form complex ions: MnO4–. Show metal properties: Shiny. Platinum: Ostwald Process in the manufacture of nitric acid / Platinum: Proses Ostwald dalam penghasilan asid nitrik. Bandingkan kekuatan proton dalam nukleus menarik elektron valens (Kumpulan 1) // menarik elektron ke petala paling luar (Kumpulan 17). +11 2. N2 + 3H2 Fe 2NH3 Vanadium(V) Oksida: Proses Sentuh dalam penghasilan asid sulfurik. The examples of transition element are Sc.4 2. tio 66 03-Chem F4 (3P). kereaktifan menuruni Kumpulan 1 dan Kumpulan 17: Steps to compare and explain the change in atomic size/ radius/ electronegativity across Period 3. V.8. Cr. Vanadium(V) Oxide: Contact Process in the manufacture of sulphuric acid. iron(II) chloride is green and copper(II) sulphate is blue.indd 66 d. Jejari atom : 11 p 12 p 13 p 14 p 15 p 16 p 17 p Reactivity decreases down Group 17/Kereaktifan berkurang menurun Kumpulan 17 Reactivity increases down Group 1/Kereaktifan bertambah menurun Kumpulan 1 (a) To Compare Atomic Size/ Radius and Electronegativity Across Period 3: Membanding Jejari/ Saiz Atom dan Keelektronegatifan Merentasi Kala 3: (i) Compare number of shells in each atom. high tensile strength. Fe. Contoh unsur peralihan adalah Sc. CrO42–. 2 3 Mempunyai sifat logam: Permukaan berkilat.5 2. Cl K (i) Br (ii) Compare the strength of proton in the nucleus to attract valence electron (Group 1)// to attract (iii) Compare tendency of the atom to release electron (Group 1)// receive electron (Group 17). Special characteristics / Ciri istimewa: (a) Form coloured compound / Membentuk sebatian berwarna. Bandingkan bilangan petala dalam setiap atom. Kereaktifan bertambah menuruni kumpulan 1 Li F Na (iii) Compare the strength of attraction from the nucleus to the electrons in the shells . dan sebagainya. conducts heat and electricity. takat lebur dan ketumpatan tinggi. Mn. Ti. 2SO2 + O2 2SO3 Nil a m Publica n Sdn. (b) To Compare Reactivity Down Group 1 and Group 17: Membanding Kereaktifan Menuruni Kumpulan 1 dan Kumpulan 17: Compare number of shells in each atom.8. Ni. Ni. high melting point and density. CrO42–. Example / Contoh: Ferum(III) klorida adalah perang. (d) Useful as a catalyst in industries / Berguna sebagai mangkin dalam industri. (b) Form different oxidation numbers / Membentuk nombor pengoksidaan berbeza. Situated between Group 2 and 13. V. Ti. Co. Cr. Cr2O72–.8. etc / Membentuk ion kompleks: MnO4–.3 2. Cu dan Zn. konduktor haba dan elektrik. Bandingkan bilangan petala dalam setiap atom. TRANSITION ELEMENT / UNSUR PERALIHAN 1 Terletak antara Kumpulan 2 dan 13.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 7 Langkah-langkah untuk membanding dan menerangkan perubahan saiz atom/ jejari/ keelekronegatifan merentasi Kala 3. bersifat mulur.7 2. Mn. (iv) Compare the atomic size/ Compare the electronegativity. Cu and Zn.1 berkurang merentasi Kala 3 dari natrium kepada klorin. Cr2O72–.8. Bandingkan bilangan proton dalam nukleus. Bandingkan saiz atom/ Bandingkan keelektronegatifan.7 Susunan electron : 2.8.2 2. boleh ditempa. ferum(II) klorida adalah hijau dan kuprum(II) sulfat adalah biru. Bandingkan kekuatan tarikan dari proton dalam nukleus kepada elektron dalam petala . malleable.

(c) (i) Tuliskan persamaan kimia untuk tindak balas antara unsur P dengan air.7 Atom W / Atom W : Atom X / Atom X : (ii) State the position of elements W and X in the Periodic Table. Period 3 Elements W and X have the same chemical property. Nyatakan kumpulan itu. hd 67 Nila 03-Chem F4 (3P). (d) Name one element that has the same chemical properties as P and Q. (iii) Do elements W and X show the same chemical property? Explain your answer. Unsur P dan Q terletak dalam kumpulan yang sama dalam Jadual Berkala. The solution formed is alkaline. Apakah perubahan warna yang dijangkakan apabila beberapa titik fenolftalein dititiskan ke dalam larutan akueus yang terhasil? Terangkan jawapan anda. (iv) Explain your answer in (c)(iii) / Terangkan jawapan anda dalam (c)(iii). Atoms W and X have the same number of valence electrons. Group 1 (b) How is elements P and Q kept in the laboratory? Give reason for your answer.7 2. The valence electron of atom Q is further away from the nucleus compared to atom P . Bagaimanakah unsur P dan Q disimpan di dalam makmal? Berikan sebab bagi jawapan anda. Adakah unsur W dan X menunjukkan sifat kimia yang serupa? Terangkan jawapan anda. Atom Q is easier to release the valence electron compared to atom P . Colourless to purple/ pink. Element W / Unsur W : Group 17. (iii) Between element P and element Q. Period 2 Element X / Unsur X : Group 17. The size of atom Q is larger than atom P . Rajah di bawah menunjukkan maklumat mengenai unsur W dan X yang terletak di kumpulan yang sama dalam Jadual Berkala. 2. To prevent them from reacting with oxygen or water vapour in the atmosphere. 19 9 W 35 17 X (a) (i) Write the electron arrangement of atom of elements W and X / Tuliskan susunan elektron bagi atom unsur W dan X. Q (a) Elements P and Q are placed in the same group in Periodic Table. 2 The diagram below shows the information regarding elements W and X which are from the same group in the Periodic Table. Potassium Namakan satu elemen yang mempunyai ciri-ciri kimia yang sama dengan P dan Q. yang manakah lebih reaktif apabila bertindak balas dengan air? Element Q is more reactive than P . State the group.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE EXERCISE / LATIHAN 1 Rajah di bawah menunjukkan susunan elektron bagi atom P dan Q. (b) State the type of particles of substances W and X / Nyatakan jenis zarah yang terdapat pada W dan X. Molecule Publicat n io Sdn. 2P + 2H2O 2POH + H2 (ii) What is the expected change of colour when a few drops of phenolphthalein are added into the aqueous solution of the product? Explain your answer. The attraction forces between proton in the nucleus to the valence electron of atom Q is weaker than atom P . B . In paraffin oil. Write chemical equation for the reaction between elements P with water.8. which is more reactive in the reaction with water? Antara unsur P dan Q.indd 67 12/9/2011 5:57:56 PM m . P P The diagram below shows the electron arrangement for atoms P and Q. Nyatakan kedudukan unsur W dan X dalam Jadual Berkala.

(b) (i) State the period of element P – W in the Periodic Table. Element X can react with sodium element to form a compound. The forces of attraction between molecules X2 is stronger than molecule W2. Nyatakan kala manakah unsur P – W terletak dalam Jadual Berkala? Terangkan jawapan anda. 3/19 (c) Write the standard representation for element Q / Tuliskan simbol perwakilan piawai untuk unsur Q.6 V 18 35 17 2.1 Q 12 24 12 2.8.8. Atom / Unsur Number of neutron Bilangan neutron dalam atom The table below shows the number of neutron and relative atomic mass of eight elements represented as P .8 Relative atomic mass Jisim atom relatif Number of proton Bilangan proton dalam atom Susunan elektron dalam atom Electron arrangement (a) Complete the above table by writing the number of proton and electron arrangement for the atom of each element. Period 3 because P – W atoms have three shells occupied with electrons. U. Write the chemical equation for the reaction. The size of molecule X2 is bigger than molecule W2 . Explain your answer. The size of atom W is smaller than atom X. Compare the boiling point of elements W and X. R. S. 3 Jadual di bawah menunjukkan bilangan neutron dan jisim atom relatif bagi lapan unsur yang diwakili oleh huruf P.8.8.indd 68 d.5 U 16 32 16 2. R. 2NaX X2 + 2Na (ii) How does the reactivity of element W and element X differ? Explain your answer. The outermost occupied shell of atom W is nearer to the nucleus compare to atom X.4 T 16 31 15 2.3 S 14 28 14 2.8. The boiling point of element X is higher than element W. Bh 12/9/2011 5:57:56 PM . Element W is more reactive than element X. Tulis persamaan kimia untuk tindak balas tersebut. V dan W.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 (c) (i) Bandingkan takat didih unsur W dan X. More heat energy is needed to overcome the stronger forces between molecules. Q. Bagaimanakah kereaktifan unsur W dan X berbeza? Terangkan jawapan anda. P 12 23 11 2.2 R 14 27 13 2. Lengkapkan jadual di atas dengan menulis bilangan proton dan susunan elektron bagi atom setiap unsur. U and W.7 W 22 40 18 2.8. Explain the difference. T. 03-Chem F4 (3P). 2P + 2H2O 2POH + H2 Nil a m Publica tio 68 n Sdn. (d) (i) Unsur X boleh bertindak balas dengan unsur natrium untuk membentuk sebatian. (ii) What is the proton number of another element that is in the same group as P? Nyatakan bilangan proton bagi unsur lain yang sama kumpulan dengan P.8. Q. T. The strength of the nucleus of atom W to attract electron to the outermost shell is stronger than atom X. S. Terangkan perbezaan itu. 24 Q 12 (d) Which element exist as / Unsur yang manakah wujud sebagai W diatomic gas / gas dwiatom? monoatomic gas / gas monoatom? T/ U/ V (e) (i) Unsur yang manakah bertindak balas cergas dengan air untuk menghasilkan gas hidrogen? Which element can react vigorously with water to produce hydrogen gas? P (ii) Write the balanced equation for the reaction in (e)(i) / Tuliskan persamaan seimbang untuk tindak balas (e)(i).8.

The number of proton in the nucleus of atom E is more than atom D. Period 3. D and E according to the order of increasing atomic size. The proton number // positive charges in the nucleus increases from T to V. A. Atom B has three shells occupied with electrons. B . element B is in Group 13. F dan G tidak mewakili simbol yang sebenar. Y. Atoms E and D have the same number of shells occupied with electrons. U and T. Nyatakan susunan unsur T. Group 13 (ii) Explain your answer in (a)(i) / Terangkan jawapan anda dalam (a)(i). X. 4 The diagram below shows part of the Periodic Table of Elements. Atom B has three valence electrons. A (e) (i) Write the electron arrangement for an atom of element / Tulis susunan elektron bagi atom unsur: 2. D.5 2.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE (f) State the arrangement of elements T. D. Atoms of T. F and G do not represent the actual symbols. The shells filled with electrons are pulled nearer to the nucleus from T to V. The strength of proton in nucleus to attract electrons to the outermost shells in atom E is stronger than of atom D. X Y A F G B D E Rajah di bawah menunjukkan sebahagian daripada Jadual Berkala Unsur. The forces of attraction between proton in the nucleus and the electrons in the shells increase from T to V. B.7 D: E: (ii) Compare electronegativity of elements D and E / Bandingkan keelektronegatifan unsur D dan E. Explain your answer. (a) (i) State the position of element B in the Periodic Table / Nyatakan kedudukan unsur B dalam Jadual Berkala. D dan E mengikut tertib pertambahan saiz atom.3. Atom Y has achieved octet electron arrangement // has electron arrangement 2. U dan V dalam tertib pertambahan jejari atom. Y. and V have three shells occupied with electrons. hd 69 Nila 03-Chem F4 (3P). Element E is more electronegative than element D. Which element is monatomic gas / Unsur yang manakah adalah gas monoatom? Element Y (b) (i) (ii) Explain your answer in (b)(i) / Terangkan jawapan anda dalam (b)(i).8. E. A.8.indd 69 12/9/2011 5:57:57 PM m . U and V in the order of increasing atomic radius. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) exists in the form of molecule / wujud dalam bentuk molekul forms acidic oxide / membentuk oksida asid has atoms that have no neutron / atom yang tiada neutron is an alkali metal / logam alkali forms amphoteric oxide / membentuk oksida amfoterik has a proton number of 15 / mempunyai nombor proton 15 X/D/E D/E X A/F B C F A/F G (c) Choose an element that / Pilih unsur yang: (vii) is most electropositive / paling elektropositif (viii) forms basic oxide / membentuk oksida bes (ix) forms coloured compound / membentuk sebatian berwarna (d) Arrange Y. Electron arrangement atom B is 2. E. (iii) Explain your answer in (e)(ii) / Terangkan jawapan anda dalam (e)(ii). Terangkan jawapan anda. B. element B is in Period 3. A.8.8. V. E. B. Y. A. B. Susun Y. D. U. B. Publicat n io Sdn. X.

Membentuk ion atau sebatian berwarna./Oksida X tidak bertindak balas dengan larutan natrium hidroksida. Z. 3 The diagram below shows the position of elements X. Y dan Z dalam Jadual Berkala Unsur. Oksida X bertindak balas dengan asid nitrik.indd 70 d. C The boiling points of the elements increase from X Y Z. Oksida Y bertindak balas dengan larutan natrium hidroksida. Y 7 C X.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 Objective Questions / Soalan Objektif 1 Nombor proton unsur P adalah 8. Y dan Z dari kiri ke kanan Kala 3 Jadual Berkala Unsur? A Z. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan simbol unsur X. Menunjukkan numbor pengoksidaan yang berbeza. Y and Z which are located in Period 3 of the Periodic Table. Y dan Z yang berada dalam Kala 3 Jadual Berkala Unsur. –– Oxide of X does not react with sodium hydroxide solution. Y B X. 27 13 Antara berikut. Ketumpatan unsur berkurang dari X → Y → Z. Y and Z in the Periodic Table. Element Unsur Property of the oxide formed Sifat oksida yang terbentuk A K + Q KQ B K+ + Q – KQ C 2K + Q2 2KQ D K + Q2 KQ2 X –– Oxide of X reacts with nitric acid. Bh 12/9/2011 5:57:57 PM . –– Oxide of Z reacts with nitric acid. Y –– Oxide of Y reacts with sodium hydroxide solution. D The density of the elements decreases going down from X Y Z. Oksida Z bertindak balas dengan larutan natrium hidroksida. yang manakah dapat membentuk oksida asid? I II A B C D 5 Calcium / Kalsium III Potassium / Kalium Sulphur / Sulfur IV Nitrogen / Nitrogen I and II only / I dan II sahaja I and III only / I dan III sahaja II and IV only / II dan IV sahaja III and IV only / III dan IV sahaja –– Used as a catalyst / Digunakan sebagai mangkin. Y and Z? Apakah jenis oksida terbentuk dari X. 03-Chem F4 (3P). Y and Z. Apakah kedudukan unsur P dalam Jadual Berkala Unsur? Proton number of element P is 8. yang manakah betul? Potassium reacts with element Q from Group 17 in Periodic Table. B All the elements exist as gas at room temperature. –– Forms coloured ions or compound. Jadual di bawah menunjukkan sifat oksida unsur X. Oksida Z bertindak balas dengan asid nitrik. What is the position of this element in the Periodic Table of Elements? X oxide Oksida X Y oxide Oksida Y Z oxide Oksida Z A B C D 6 Amphoteric Amfoterik Amfoterik Acidic Asid Bes Basic Bes Group/Kumpulan Period / Kala 2 3 2 3 A B C D 2 16 16 18 18 Amphoteric Acidic Asid Asid Basic Amphoteric Amfoterik Acidic Asid Bes Bes Basic Basic Acidic Acidic Asid Kalium bertindak balas dengan unsur Q dalam Kumpulan 17 dalam Jadual Berkala Unsur. A All the elements can conduct electricity. Y dan Z? tio m Publica 70 n Sdn. yang manakah adalah kedudukan unsur tersebut dalam Jadual Berkala Unsur? X 32 16 Y 23 11 Z A B C D Nil a What type of oxides are formed by X. Z D Y. Takat didih unsur bertambah dari X → Y → Z. Antara persamaan kimia berikut. yang manakah benar? Semua unsur boleh mengkonduksi elektrik. X Y Z Z –– Oxide of Y does not react with nitric acid Oksida Y tidak bertindak balas dengan asid nitrik. Which of the following chemical equations is correct? The table below shows the properties of the oxide of elements X. Y dan Z. –– Oxide of Z reacts with sodium hydroxide solution. 4 Which of the following elements can form acidic oxide? Antara berikut. Y. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan kedudukan unsur X. Z. Y and Z from left to right in Period 3 of the Periodic Table? Apakah susunan yang betul bagi unsur X. Which of the following statements is true? Antara pernyataan berikut. X The following statements describe the characteristic of an element: Pernyataan berikut menerangkan sifat suatu unsur. –– Shows different oxidation number in its compound. X. What is the correct arrangement of elements X. Semua unsur wujud dalam bentuk gas pada suhu bilik. Which of the following is the position of the element in the Periodic Table of Element? The diagram below shows the standard representation for elements X.

099 0.160 0.191 0. III dan IV II. Unsur X lebih reaktif daripada unsur Y. II dan III I. Elements X and Y are in the same group in the Periodic Table.095 Which statements are true about elements X and Y? I II III IV Antara pernyataan berikut. Q and R. P and R have similar chemical properties.130 0. Atom X dan Y mempunyai satu elektron valens. yang manakah benar tentang unsur X dan Y? Why does the atomic radius of the atoms decrease from sodium to argon in the period? Mengapakah saiz atom berkurang dari natrium ke argon dalam kala? Bilangan elektron valens bertambah. Size of atom R is bigger than size of atom Q. I and III only / I dan III sahaja I and IV only / I dan IV sahaja II and III only / II dan III sahaja II and IV only / II dan IV sahaja The table below shows proton number for elements P . 9 A The number of valence electrons increases. Element R is more electronegative than element Q. II dan IV I. Elements Unsur Proton number Nombor proton Radius (nm) Jejari (nm) Elements / Unsur X Y Proton number / Nombor proton 11 19 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 0. Jadual di bawah menunjukkan nombor proton bagi unsur P. Jadual di bawah menunjukkan nombor proton unsur X dan Y. Unsur X dan Y berada dalam kumpulan sama dalam Jadual Berkala. Q dan R. B The electronegativity of the elements increases. Keelektronegatifan unsur bertambah. Saiz atom X lebih besar daripada saiz atom Y. yang manakah benar tentang unsur-unsur tersebut? I II III IV A B C D P and R has the lowest number of valence electrons. Y. III dan IV Publicat n io Sdn. II dan IV / I.indd 71 12/9/2011 5:57:57 PM m . III dan IV / II. A B C D Atoms X and Y have one valence electron.118 0. Atom X has a bigger atomic size than atom Y. III dan IV / I. I. Elements X is more reactive than element Y. 10 The table below shows the proton numbers of elements X and Jadual di bawah menunjukkan nombor proton unsur dalam Kala 3 Jadual Berkala Unsur. Saiz atom R lebih besar daripada saiz atom Q. D The strength of attraction of the nucleus to the electrons in the shells increases.110 0. P dan R mempunyai bilangan elektron valens paling rendah. Unsur R lebih elektronegatif daripada unsur Q. hd 71 Nila 03-Chem F4 (3P). Elements / Unsur P Q R Proton number / Nombor proton 11 17 19 Which of the following statements about these elements are true? Antara pernyataan berikut. P dan R mempunyai sifat kimia yang sama. II and III / I.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE 8 The table below shows the proton number of elements in Period 3 of the Periodic Table of Elements. Sifat unsur berubah dari logam kepada bukan logam. C The properties of the elements change from metallic to non-metallic.102 0. Kekuatan tarikan nukleus kepada elektron dalam petala bertambah. B .

Atom unsur yang melepaskan elektron membentuk ion positif dan atom yang menerima elektron membentuk ion negatif untuk mencapai susunan elektron oktet atau duplet yang stabil. • COVALENT COMPOUNDS / SEBATIAN KOVALEN –– To state the solubility in water and organic solvents / Menyatakan keterlarutan dalam air dan pelarut organik. Terdapat dua jenis ikatan kimia iaitu Ikatan Ion dan Ikatan Kovalen. Atom-atom membentuk ikatan kimia untuk mencapai susunan elektron yang stabil iaitu susunan elektron duplet atau oktet. Atoms of elements that release the electrons form positive ions and atoms that receive the electrons form negative ions to achieve a stable octet or duplet electron arrangement: Nil a m Publica tio 72 n Sdn. Menyatakan dan menerangkan sifat dari segi takat lebur. CHEMICAL BONDS BETWEEN ATOMS / IKATAN KIMIA ANTARA ATOM 1 Ikatan kimia dibentuk apabila dua atau lebih atom-atom unsur berpadu. –– To draw the diagram of the formation of ionic bond / Melukis rajah pembentukan ikatan ion. Meramal formula molekul unsur atau molekul sebatian kovalen serta jenis ikatan kovalen. There are two types of chemical bond. • COVALENT BONDS / IKATAN KOVALEN –– To predict the formulae of molecules of elements or covalent compounds as well as the types of covalent bond. that is Ionic Bond and Covalent Bond. kekonduksian elektrik dalam keadaan pepejal dan leburan. 04-Chem F4 (3P). Ionic bond is formed between atoms of metal elements that release electrons to atoms of non-metal elements.indd 72 d. 1 2 3 Ikatan ion terbentuk antara atom unsur logam yang melepaskan elektron kepada atom unsur bukan logam yang menerima elektron. Bh 12/9/2011 5:57:09 PM . –– To differentiate between ionic and covalent compounds / Membezakan sebatian ion dengan sebatian kovalen. Atom suatu unsur adalah neutral kerana bilangan proton adalah sama dan dengan bilangan elektron. Atoms form chemical bonds to achieve a stable duplet or octet electron arrangement. –– To draw the diagram of the formation of covalent bonds / Melukis rajah pembentukan ikatan kovalen. IONIC BOND / IKATAN ION Chemical bonds are formed when two or more atoms of elements bond together. –– To describe the formation of covalent bonds / Menghuraikan pembentukan ikatan kovalen. –– To describe the formation of ionic bond / Menghuraikan pembentukan ikatan ion. Atom of an element is neutral because the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons. Meramal formula sebatian ion berdasarkan susunan elektron. PROPERTIES OF IONIC AND COVALENT COMPOUNDS / SIFAT SEBATIAN ION DAN KOVALEN • IONIC COMPOUNDS / SEBATIAN ION –– To state and explain the properties from the aspect of melting point and electrical conductivity in solid and molten state.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 4 CHEMICAL BOND IKATAN KIMIA TYPE OF CHEMICAL BOND / JENIS IKATAN KIMIA • IONIC BOND / IKATAN ION –– To predict the formulae of ionic compounds based on the electron arrangement.

(b) Atoms of elements in Groups 15. Ionic bond is usually formed between atoms from Groups 1. 16 dan 17 masing-masing menerima 3.7 Total of positive charges (From number of proton) Jumlah cas positf (Dari bilangan proton) +11 +11 +12 +12 +8 +8 +17 +17 Total of negative charges (From number of proton) Jumlah cas negaitf (Dari bilangan proton) –11 –10 –12 –10 –8 –10 –17 –18 Total changes Jumlah cas Jenis zarah 0 Sodium atom +1 Sodium ion 0 Calcium atom +2 Calcium ion 0 Oxygen atom –2 Oxide ion 0 Chlorine atom –1 Chlorine ion Type of particles Atom natrium Atom kalsium Atom oksigen Atom klorin 3 4 5 Ion positif dan ion negatif tertarik antara satu sama lain dengan daya elekrostatik yang kuat. 2 dan 3 elektron membentuk ion bercas positif (+1.8. The positive ions and negative ions are attracted to one another with strong electrostatic forces. hd 73 Nila 04-Chem F4 (3P).7 Na Cl + e Na+ + e Cl– Na+ 1 Cl– 1 NaCl Lukiskan susunan elektron bagi setiap sebatian yang terbentuk.8. Ikatan ion biasanya dibentuk antara atom-atom daripada Kumpulan 1. Examples / Contoh-contoh: (i) Sodium chloride / Natrium klorida Predict the formula / Ramal formula: Element Unsur Proton number Nombor proton Electron arrangement Susunan elektron Na Cl 11 17 2.8. The maximum number of electrons transferred in the formation of ionic bond is usually three: (a) Atoms of elements in Groups 1. –2 and –1) 6 Atom unsur Kumpulan 15. 2 and 3 electrons respectively to form positively charged ions (+1.8. 2 and 1 electrons respectively to form negatively charged ions (–3. 16 and 17 (non-metal). Sodium ion.8.8 Electron arrangement Susunan elektron 2.2 Ca2+ + 2e O + 2e O2– 2. Na Ion natrium.8 Cl + e Cl– 2.8. +2 dan +3).Cl Cl Atom klorin. 2 and 13 release 1.1 Na+ + e Ca 2. 16 and 17 receive 3. B . Na Chlorine atom. 2 dan 13 (logam) dengan atom-atom dari Kumpulan 15. –2 dan –1).6 2. Atom unsur Kumpulan 1. 2 dan 13 masing masing melepaskan 1.8 2. 16 dan 17 (bukan logam). Daya elektrostatik antara ion positif dan ion negatif membentuk ikatan ion.Cl Cl– Ion klorida.1 2. Na + + Chloride ion. Na Na Transfer Pindah C1 Cl Na Na C1 Cl Sodium atom. 2 dan 1 elektron membentuk ion bercas negatif (–3. The electrostatic force between the positive and negative ions forms ionic bond. Bilangan maksimum elektron yang berpindah dalam pembentukan ikatan ion biasanya tiga. Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed. Na Atom natrium. +2 and +3). – Publicat n io Sdn.8 2.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE Complete the following table / Lengkapkan jadual di bawah: Changes Perubahan Na 2. 2 and 13 (metal) with atoms from Groups 15.indd 73 12/9/2011 5:57:09 PM m .

Atom magnesium mempunyai dua elektron di petala terluar. 2.2 .8 . Sodium atom has one . Mg Atom magnesium. OO Ion oksida. 04-Chem F4 (3P). Cl– with an octet arrangement of electron 2. Sodium atom releases 2.8 . Maka atom Susunan elektron atom magnesium stabil dua .8.1 one valence electron. untuk mencapai susunan elektron oktet yang stabil membentuk . Atom klorin satu elektron membentuk ion klorida . two 2 2+ valence valence magnesium ion . atom oksigen ion oksida 2– Susunan elektron atom oksigen ialah menerima dua elektron 2.8.8 . Mg Mg 2+ Ion magnesium. Mg Explanation / Penerangan: Oxygen atom. Atom natrium melepaskan satu elektron ini untuk mencapai susunan elektron oktet yang natrium tidak stabil membentuk ion natrium .8 .8. Ion natrium .1 . Atom magnesium melepaskan elektron valens untuk mencapai susunan elektron oktet magnesium tidak yang stabil membentuk ion magnesium . Oxygen atom is also unstable. Atom natrium mempunyai satu elektron valens.8. 2. Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed. 2.8 . Atom klorin mempunyai elektron valens. Cl– dengan (c) Sodium ions . 2+ 2− Mg Mg Pindah Transfer O O Mg Mg O O Magnesium atom. octet electron arrangement to form sodium ion . Na+ and chloride ions . Na+ with electron arrangement electron to achieve a stable 2.8.7 ion. Na+ dan ikatan ion. OO Atom oksigen. Magnesium ion. one Chlorine atom receives electron to achieve stable octet electron arrangement to form chlorine 2.8 .indd 74 d. electrostatic force.6 (b) The electron arrangement of oxygen atom is . O dengan susunan elektron Nil a m Publica tio 74 n Sdn. Bh 12/9/2011 5:57:10 PM . Magnesium atom has stable electrons.8 arrangement . seven (b) Electron arrangement of chlorine atom is .2 (a) The electron arrangement of magnesium atom is . Atom oksigen juga tidak stabil. Na+ dengan susunan elektron 2.8.8.2 2.8.8 .8. susunan elektron . Oxygen atom receives two electrons to achieve a stable octet electron arrangement to form oxide ion . Chlorine atom has valence electrons. Magnesium atom releases electrons to achieve a stable octet electron arrangement to form 2.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 Explanation / Penerangan: (a) Electron arrangement of sodium atom is stable Therefore sodium atom is not .6 Mg Mg+ + 2e O + 2e O2– Mg2+ 2 1 O2– 2 1 MgO Lukiskan susunan elektron bagi setiap sebatian yang terbentuk. tujuh Susunan elektron bagi atom klorin ialah mencapai susunan elektron oktet yang stabil dengan menerima 2. Dengan itu atom Susunan elektron atom natrium ialah stabil . 2. Cl– ditarik dengan daya elektrostastik yang kuat. Mg with electron 2. Cl– ions are attracted with strong bond formed is called ionic bond. 2+ 2– 2− Oxide ion. Mg2+ dengan susunan elektron 2. O2– with electron arrangement 2.7 2.6 . Ikatan yang terbentuk dinamakan (ii) Magnesium oxide / Magnesium oksida Predict the formula / Ramal formula: Element Unsur Proton number Nombor proton Electron arrangement Susunan elektron Mg O 12 8 2. The ion klorida . Therefore magnesium atom is not .

Magnesium atom releases electrons 2 valence electrons to achieve a stable octet electron arrangement to form 2. atom klorin. Mg Atom magnesium. Cl– with electron arrangement 2. 2. Ikatan ini biasanya terbentuk apabila atom-atom bukan logam berpadu. magnesium ion . Mg2+ dan ion klorida . Cl– Ion Magnesium ion. Ion klorida. Mg chloride ion . Mg2+ with 2. Ikatan yang terbentuk (iii) Magnesium chloride /Magnesium klorida Predict the formula / Ramal formula: Element Unsur Proton number Nombor proton Electron arrangement Susunan elektron Mg Cl 12 17 2.8 electron arrangement .7 . one satu magnesium atom releases atom magnesium melepaskan 2 2 electrons to 2 2+ 2 and chlorine atoms.indd 75 12/9/2011 5:57:10 PM m . mencapai susunan elektron oktet yang stabil membentuk ion klorida . Mg Chlorine atom.8. Cl Cl Magnesium atom. 2+ Transfer Pindah C1 Mg Transfer Pindah C1 C1 Mg C1 Chlorine atom.2 2 . [Atom-atom dari Kumpulan 14.2 2. magnesium atom is not 2.8. This bond is formed when two or more similar or different atoms share valence electrons between them. Maka atom Susunan elektron atom magnesium stabil 2 . Oleh itu.8. Atom klorin – Susunan elektron atom klorin ialah menerima satu elektron untuk 2. Atom magnesium mempunyai 2 elektron di petala terluar. O2– ditarik dengan daya elektrostatik yang kuat. Mg2+ dengan susunan elektron 2. elektron kepada (d) Strong electrostatic ionic bond. Cl– to form yang kuat terbentuk antara ion magnesium . Atom klorin juga tidak stabil.8. Atom magnesium melepaskan elektron valens untuk mencapai susunan elektron oktet magnesium tidak yang stabil membentuk ion magnesium . Mg2+ and formed is called ionic bond. this bond is formed when similar or different non-metal atoms bond together. 2.8 . The bond ion oksida . Cl magnesium. Therefore. B . Mg2+ dan dinamakan ikatan ion. so that each atom achieves the octet or duplet electron arrangement that is a stable electron arrangement for noble gases. Cl– membentuk ikatan ionik. Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed.8. Daya elektrostatik force is formed between magnesium ion . Chlorine atom receives one electron to achieve a stable octet electron arrangement to form chloride ion . Ion magnesium .8 . Cl Cl 2+2+ Chlorine ion.8. hd 75 Nila 04-Chem F4 (3P). Atom klorin.7 (b) The electron arrangement of chlorine atom is . Cl dengan susunan elektron (c) As such.8 . ClCl– Explanation / Penerangan: (a) The electron arrangement of magnesium atom is in the outer shell. [Atoms from Groups 14. 16 dan 17] Normally.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE (c) Magnesium ion . 15.8.2 .7 Mg Cl + e Mg2+ + 2e Cl– Mg2+ 1 Cl– 2 MgCl2 Lukiskan susunan elektron bagi setiap sebatian yang terbentuk. Mg Ion klorida. 15.8. oxide ion . 16 and 17] Publicat n io Sdn. Mg Chlorine ion. O2– are attracted by strong electrostatic force. Atom klorin. Chlorine atom is also unstable. COVALENT BONDS / IKATAN KOVALEN 1 2 Ikatan ini terbentuk apabila dua atau lebih atom yang sama atau berlainan berkongsi elektron valens antara satu sama lain supaya setiap atom mencapai susunan elektron oktet atau duplet iaitu susunan elektron gas adi yang stabil. Magnesium atom has stable .

(b) Two oxygen atoms share Dua atom oksigen berkongsi pairs of electrons to achieve a stable octet arrangement of electron. Ikatan kovalen tunggal terbentuk. Setiap atom oksigen mencapai susunan elektron Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed / Lukiskan susunan elektron bagi sebatian yang terbentuk. (c) Dua atom hidrogen berkongsi sepasang elektron membentuk satu molekul hidrogen. form an oxygen molecule. These forces become stronger when the molecule size increases.6 needs two electrons to achieve a stable arrangement. molekul oksigen. Kedua-dua atom hidrogen mencapai susunan elektron duplet yang stabil. Single covalent bond is formed. H H Kongsi Kongsi Share H one satu H H H The number of electron pairs shared is Bilangan pasangan elektron dikongsi adalah pair. m Publica tio 76 n Sdn.6 memerlukan dua elektron untuk mencapai susunan elektron octet oktet electron yang stabil. Both hydrogen atoms achieve a stable duplet arrangement of electron. pasang. Bilangan elektron yang dikongsi boleh jadi sepasang. covalent bonds are formed. Daya yang wujud antara molekul adalah daya Van der Waals yang lemah. ikatan kovalen terbentuk. Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed / Lukiskan susunan elektron bagi sebatian yang terbentuk. pasang. Atom oksigen dengan susunan elektron 2. two pairs or three pairs. 4 The molecules are neutral as there is no electron transfer involved. Bh 12/9/2011 5:57:10 PM . each atom contributes same number of electrons for sharing. O 2 The number of electron pairs shared is Bilangan pasangan elektron dikongsi adalah 2 2 pairs. The product of the of electrons between is called molecule . Ikatan kovalen ganda dua terbentuk. During the formation of covalent bonding . O O O O Nil a Oxygen molecule. Apabila atom-atom bukan logam berkongsi elektron pada petala terluar untuk mencapai susunan elektron duplet atau oktet yang stabil. O2 Molekul oksigen. 04-Chem F4 (3P). Share Atom hidrogen mempunyai satu elektron pada petala pertama dengan susunan elektron 1 memerlukan satu elektron untuk mencapai susunan elektron duplet yang stabil. neutral kerana tidak melibatkan pemindahan elektron. Examples / Contoh: (i) Hydrogen molecule / Molekul hidrogen: (a) Hydrogen atom has one electron in the first shell. with an electron arrangement of 1 needs one electron to achieve a stable duplet electron arrangement. O Atom oksigen. Semasa pembentukan ikatan kovalen . Each oxygen atom achieves stable octet electron arrangement. Daya ini semakin kuat apabila saiz molekul bertambah. setiap atom akan Molekul adalah menyumbang bilangan elektron yang sama untuk dikongsi. The number of electrons shared can be one pair.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 3 When atoms of non-metals share their valence electrons from their outermost shells to achieve stable duplet or octet sharing atoms electron arrangement. 5 6 The forces that exist between molecules are Van der Waals forces that are weak. dua two pasang elektron untuk mencapai susunan elektron oktet yang stabil. O Kongsi Share O O Oxygen atom.indd 76 d. O Atom oksigen. dua pasang atau tiga pasang. O O Oxygen atom. (b) Two hydrogen atoms share a pair of electrons to form a hydrogen molecule. Hasil daripada perkongsian elektron antara atom-atom ini membentuk molekul . membentuk satu oktet yang stabil. Double covalent bond is formed. (ii) Oxygen molecule / Molekul oksigen: (a) Oxygen atom with an electron arrangement 2.

hd Publicat 77 Nila 04-Chem F4 (3P). Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed.7 memerlukan yang stabil.indd 77 12/9/2011 5:57:10 PM m . (iv) Hydrogen chloride molecule /Molekul hidrogen klorida Predict the formula / Ramal formula: Element Unsur Proton number Nombor proton Electron arrangement Susunan elektron H Cl needs perlu perlu 1 elektron 1 elektron 1 electron H Cl 1 17 1 2. N N Atom nitrogen. Atom nitrogen dengan susunan elektron 2. Setiap atom nitrogen mencapai susunan elektron Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed / Lukiskan susunan elektron bagi sebatian yang terbentuk. pasang elektron dengan one satu hydrogen atom to form hydrogen atom hidrogen membentuk molekul n io hidrogen klorida dengan formula Sdn.7 needs electron arrangement. Each nitrogen atom achieves stable octet electron arrangement.8.8.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE (iii) Nitrogen molecule / Molekul nitrogen: (a) Nitrogen atom with an electron arrangement 2. Triple covalent bond is formed. satu molekul nitrogen. Ikatan kovalen ganda tiga terbentuk. ClCl Hydrogen chloride molecule.N N 22 The number of electron pairs shared is Bilangan pasangan elektron dikongsi adalah 3 3 pairs. HCl Molekul hidrogen klorida.7 needs 1 electron Cross the number of electrons each atom needs: HCl Silangkan bilangan elektron yang diperlukan oleh setiap atom: HCl Lukiskan susunan elektron bagi setiap sebatian yang terbentuk. B .5 needs arrangement. H H Atom hidrogen. 3 yang stabil membentuk 3 oktet pasang elektron untuk mencapai susunan elektron oktet yang stabil. Atom hidrogen dengan susunan elektron 1 duplet yang stabil. HCl (a) Hydrogen atom with an electron arrangement duplet electron arrangement. pasang. N Nitrogen Molekulmolecule. N N N N N N Nitrogen atom. 3 3 electrons to achieve stable octet oktet yang elektron untuk mencapai susunan elektron (b) Two nitrogen atoms share Dua atom nitrogen berkongsi pairs of electrons to achieve a stable octet arrangement. 1 needs satu one electron to achieve a stable memerlukan elektron untuk mencapai susunan elektron (b) Chlorine atom with an electron arrangement 2. Atom satu one electron to achieve stable octet oktet elektron untuk mencapai susunan elektron (c) One chloride Satu one chlorine atom share molecule with the formula atom klorin berkongsi satu HCl . pair of electrons with HCl . N Atom nitrogen.8. Atom klorin. klorin dengan susunan elektron 2. Share Kongsi N Nitrogen atom. H Share Kongsi Cl C1 H H Cl C1 Hydrogen atom. Explanation / Penerangan: Chlorine atom. form a nitrogen molecule. nitrogen.5 memerlukan stabil.

H H Atom hidrogen. Atom duplet yang stabil. O Hydrogen atom.indd 78 d. memerlukan elektron untuk mencapai susunan elektron (c) oxygen atom share molecule with the formula atom oksigen berkongsi air dengan formula H2O . Oxygen duplet Atom atom achieves stable octet electron arrangement and hydrogen yang stabil dan atom atom achieves electron arrangement. oksigen mencapai susunan elektron Nil a oktet m Publica duplet yang stabil. Water molecule. Chlorine duplet Atom duplet atom achieves stable octet oktet electron arrangement and hydrogen yang stabil dan atom atom achieves stable electron arrangement. Silangkan bilangan elektron yang diperlukan oleh setiap atom: H2O H H Kongsi Share O O Kongsi Share H H H H O O H H Hydrogen atom. atom hidrogen. 04-Chem F4 (3P). H H Atom hidrogen. oksigen dengan susunan elektron yang stabil. Explanation / Penerangan: Oxygen atom. elektron untuk (e) (f) One Satu oxygen atom forms atom oksigen membentuk two dua single covalent bonds with ikatan kovalen tunggal dengan two dua hydrogen atoms. HO O Molekul air. Bh 12/9/2011 5:57:11 PM .MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 (d) One chlorine atom contributes electron for sharing. atom klorin menyumbang dikongsi bersama. Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed. H 2 2 (a) Hydrogen atom with an electron arrangement electron arrangement. O Atom oksigen. hidrogen mencapai susunan elektron tio 78 n Sdn.6 2. hidrogen mencapai susunan elektron (v) Water molecule /Molekul air Predict the formula / Ramal formula: Element Unsur Proton number Nombor proton Electron arrangement Susunan elektron H O needs perlu perlu 1 electron 1 elektron 2 elektron H O 1 8 1 2.6 needs 2 electrons Cross the number of electrons each atom needs: H2O Lukiskan susunan elektron bagi setiap sebatian yang terbentuk. atom oksigen menyumbang elektron dan setiap satu daripada dua atom hidrogen menyumbang satu dikongsi bersama membentuk ikatan kovalen tunggal.6 needs dua two electrons to achieve stable electron arrangement. klorin mencapai susunan elektron yang stabil. Satu satu one electron and satu one hydrogen atom contributes one elektron dan atom hidrogen menyumbang satu elektron untuk (e) (f) One Satu chlorine atom forms atom klorin membentuk one satu single covalent bond with ikatan kovalen tunggal dengan one satu hydrogen atom. Satu One two H2O dua pairs of electrons with . hidrogen dengan susunan elektron 1 1 needs electron to achieve a stable satu duplet memerlukan elektron untuk mencapai susunan elektron (b) Oxygen octet Atom oktet atom with an electron arrangement 2. pasang elektron dengan two dua hydrogen atoms form water atom hidrogen membentuk molekul (d) oxygen atom contributes electron for sharing to form single Satu One two dua electrons and each of the two hydrogen atoms contributes one covalent bond. atom hidrogen.

memerlukan elektron untuk mencapai susunan elektron (c) four carbon atom share pairs of electrons with CCl4 .8. memerlukan elektron untuk mencapai susunan elektron (b) Chlorine octet Atom oktet atom with an electron arrangement 2. four chlorine atoms contributes atom klorin satu atom karbon menyumbang empat elektron dan setiap daripada empat satu elektron untuk dikongsi bersama membentuk ikatan kovalen tunggal .4 2.7 4 elektron 1 elektron 4 electrons Cross the number of electrons each atom needs: CCl4 Silangkan bilangan elektron yang diperlukan oleh setiap atom: CCl4 needs 1 electron Lukiskan susunan elektron bagi setiap sebatian yang terbentuk. tetrachloromethane molecule with the formula atom karbon berkongsi empat tetraklorometana berformula CCl4 .8.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE (vi) The molecule formed between carbon and chlorine /Molekul yang terbentuk antara karbon dan klorin Predict the formula / Ramal formula: Element Unsur Proton number Nombor proton Electron arrangement Susunan elektron C Cl needs perlu perlu C Cl 6 17 2. menyumbang (e) (f) One Satu Atom carbon atom forms atom karbon membentuk four empat single covalent bonds with ikatan kovalen tunggal dengan four empat chlorine atoms. atom klorin. klorin dengan susunan elektron yang stabil.7 2. Satu pasang elektron dengan One four empat chlorine atoms to form atom klorin membentuk molekul (d) One four Satu four carbon atom contributes electrons and each of the electron for sharing to form single covalent bond. karbon dan atom klorin mencapai susunan elektron Publicat n io Sdn.4 needs empat four electrons to achieve a stable electron arrangement. oktet yang stabil.4 2.indd 79 12/9/2011 5:57:11 PM m . hd 79 Nila 04-Chem F4 (3P). karbon dengan susunan elektron yang stabil. Carbon and chlorine atoms achieve stable octet electron arrangement. Cl Cl Cl Cl Explanation / Penerangan: (a) Carbon octet Atom oktet atom with an electron arrangement 2..8.7 needs satu one electron to achieve a stable electron arrangement. Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed. B .

PbBr2 Sodium chloride. 16 and 17). CH3CONH2 Hexane. CuSO4 Naphthalene. of electrons are shared non-metal atoms. Jenis zarah yang dihasilkan How to predict the formulae Bagaimana meramal formula Determine the coefficient of the charge of the ions and criss cross. and dengan non-metals bukan logam (Groups (Kumpulan Jenis unsur terlibat Antara bukan logam 14. Molekul yang neutral. Tentukan pekali cas pada ion dan silangkan. Tentukan bilangan elektron yang diperlukan untuk mencapai susunan elektron duplet atau oktet yang stabil dan silangkan. Example of electron arrangement in the particles + 2– + A E A Contoh susunan elektron dalam zarah Strong electrostatic forces between ions Daya elektrostatik yang kuat antara ion Strong covalent bond between atoms in the molecules # Ionic bond is the strong electrostatic force of attraction between positively charged ion and negatively charged ion. 2 dan 13) dengan Antara bukan logam (Kumpulan 15. Ikatan kovalen yang kuat antara atom dalam molekul # Covalent bond is the shared pairs of electrons between atoms in a molecule. Covalent Bond / Ikatan Kovalen Between non-metal 14. 15. 16 and 17). logam (Kumpulan 1. Atom logam membentuk ion negatif Atom bukan logam membentuk ion . Elektron dilepaskan oleh atom logam dan atom bukan logam (elektron berpindah). 16 dan 17). Determine the number of electrons is needed to achieve stable duplet or octet electron arrangement and criss cross. positif . Electron Elektron Electron is released by metal atoms and received by non-metal atoms (electron transfer). Neutral molecule . 04-Chem F4 (3P).indd 80 d. Example of ionic and covalent compounds Lead(II) bromide. C6H14 Contoh sebatian ion dan kovalen Nil a m Publica tio 80 n Sdn. # Ikatan kovalen terhasil daripada perkongsian pasangan elektron antara atom-atom dalam molekul. by the same or oleh atom-atom bukan logam Type of particle produced Metal atom forms positive ion. 2 and 13) and non-metals (Groups 15. # Ikatan ion terhasil daripada daya tarikan elektrostatik yang kuat antara ion bercas positif dan ion bercas negatif. C8H10 Acetamide.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 7 Comparing the Formation of Ionic and Covalent Bonds / Perbandingan Pembentukan Ikatan Ion dan Kovalen Ionic Bond / Ikatan Ion Type of element involved Between metals (Groups 1. 16 dan 17). NaCl Copper(II) sulphate. diterima oleh Pairs different Pasangan elektron dikongsi sama atau berlainan. Bh 12/9/2011 5:57:11 PM . Non-metal atom forms negative ion. 15.

NaCl / Natrium klorida. ion-ion tidak bergerak . Sedikit tenaga haba diperlukan untuk Small mengatasinya . hd 81 Nila 04-Chem F4 (3P). –– Covalent compound is made up of neutral molecules . Banyak tenaga haba diperlukan untuk amount of energy is needed to overcome it. Jenis daya antara zarah Melting and boiling points Takat lebur dan takat didih –– Takat lebur dan takat didih tinggi kerana ion positif dan ion negatif ditarik oleh daya tarikan elektrostatik yang kuat. the ions are free to move to be attracted to the anode or cathode. Takat lebur/takat didih rendah kerana daya "Van der Waals" yang lemah antara molekul. B . ion-ion bergerak untuk ditarik ke anod atau katod. –– Giant molecules such as silicon dioxide have very high melting and boiling points. –– In solid form. CO2 / Karbon dioksida.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF IONIC AND COVALENT COMPOUND SIFAT FIZIK SEBATIAN ION DAN KOVALEN Ionic compound / Sebatian ion Example Contoh Covalent compound / Sebatian kovalen Carbon dioxide. CO2 Sodium chloride. Sebatian kovalen terdiri daripada molekul yang neutral. Dalam keadaan leburan atau akueus. untuk –– No free moving ions in molten or aqueous state. Molekul raksaksa seperti silikon dioksida mempunyai takat didih dan lebur yang amat tinggi. form molten –– Cannot Tidak boleh keadaan. conduct electricity in all state. bebas Publicat n io Sdn. melting and boiling points because positive ions and negative ions are attracted by strong electrostatic force . NaCl Weak Van der Waals forces between molecules Strong electrostatic forces between positive and negative ions Daya elektrostatik yang kuat antara ion Daya Van der Waals yang lemah antara molekul Strong covalent bond between atoms in the molecules Ikatan kovalen yang kuat antara atom dalam molekul Type of forces between particles Strong electrostatic force between ions. Electrical conductivity Kekonduksian elektrik –– Cannot conduct electricity when in solid but is able to conduct electricity when in or aqueous form. mengatasinya . –– In molten or aqueous state.indd 81 12/9/2011 5:57:11 PM m . the ions are not Dalam bentuk pepejal. –– –– Large amount of energy is needed to overcome it. Weak Van der walls forces (intermolecular force) between molecule. Daya Van der Waals yang lemah antara molekul. High –– Low melting and boiling points because of the weak “Van der Waals” force between molecules. Daya elekrostatik yang kuat antara ion. free bebas to move . Tidak ada ion bebas bergerak dalam keadaan leburan atau akueus. mengkonduksi elektrik dalam semua Tidak boleh mengkonduksi elektrik dalam keadaan pepejal tetapi boleh mengkonduksi elektrik dalam keadaan leburan atau akueus .

J dan L. alkohol. (i) State the type of bond present in this compound / Nyatakan jenis ikatan yang wujud dalam sebatian ini. Ini kerana air adalah molekul yang berkutub. – One E atom forms two double covalent bond with two L atoms. alcohol. – E atom with electron arrangement 2. Bh 12/9/2011 5:57:11 PM . the atom has achieved stable octet electron arrangement. tetraklorometana dan propanon).6 needs two electrons to achieve octet electron arrangement. tio 82 04-Chem F4 (3P). Molekul air mempunyai bahagian bercas separa positif (bahagian hidrogen) dan bahagian bercas separa negatif (bahagian oksigen). * Organic solvents are covalent compounds that exist as liquid at room temperature. tetrachloromethane and propanone). L (b) State an element that exists as monoatomic gas. Ini kerana molekul kovalen dan pelarut organik ditarik oleh daya tarikan Van der Waals yang lemah.indd 82 d. –– Most are soluble organic solvent*. Element / Unsur Proton number / Nombor proton D 1 E 6 The Table below shows the proton number of elements D. (c) Write the formula for the ion formed from an atom of element L. E. in water and insoluble in dalam air tetapi tidak larut –– This is because the polarisation of water molecule.8. E. EXERCISE / LATIHAN 1 Jadual di bawah menunjukkan nombor proton bagi unsur D. Kebanyakannya larut dalam pelarut organik* Tidak larut dalam air tetapi larut dalam pelarut organik* (contoh: eter. – L atom with an electron arrangement 2. * Pelarut organik adalah sebatian kovalen yang wujud dalam bentuk cecair pada suhu bilik. – One E atom share four pairs of electrons with two L atoms to form a molecule with the formula EL2. Jelaskan dari segi susunan elektron bagaimana unsur E dan unsur L bergabung membentuk sebatian. (e) (i) Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed / Lukiskan susunan elektron bagi sebatian yang terbentuk. Nyatakan unsur yang wujud sebagai gas monoatom.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 Ionic compound / Sebatian ion Solubility Keterlarutan Covalent compound / Sebatian kovalen –– Insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents* (example: ether. Atom J has 8 electrons in the outermost shell. Water molecules have partially positive end (the hydrogen end) and partially negative end (the oxygen end). Terangkan jawapan anda.4 needs four electrons to achieve stable octet electron arrangement. Explain your answer. F. F. EL2 (iii) Explain how a compound is formed between element E and element L based on their electron arrangement. G. L2– (d) Element E reacts with element L to form a compound / Unsur E bertindak balas dengan unsur L untuk membentuk sebatian. Element J. – One E atom contributes four electrons and each of the two L atoms contributes two electrons for sharing to form double covalent bond. J and L. benzena. This is because covalent molecules and organic solvents are both held together by weak Van der Waals forces. G. F 17 G 11 J 18 L 8 (a) Which element in the table are metal and non-metal / Unsur yang manakah merupakan logam dan bukan logam? (i) Metal / Logam : G (ii) Non-metals / Bukan logam : D. – E atom and L atom achieve stable octet electron arrangement that is 2. F. benzene. Tuliskan formula ion yang terbentuk daripada atom unsur L. E. J. L E L Nil a m Publica n Sdn. Covalent bond (ii) Write the formula of the compound formed / Tuliskan formula bagi sebatian yang terbentuk.

8. G atom releases one valence electron to form G+ ion and achieve stable octet electron arrangement 2. – The electron arrangement of G atom is 2. hd 83 Nila 04-Chem F4 (3P). (ii) Explain how a compound is formed between elements G and L based on their electron arrangement. Write the equation for the reaction between element G and gas L.1. Explain your answer. – Atom Y is smaller than atom X. G terbakar cergas dengan nyalaan kuning terang dan menghasilkan wasap putih. + X Y – (a) (i) Write the electron arrangement for atom of elements X and Y / Tuliskan susunan elektron bagi atom unsur X dan Y. G atom is not stable. Publicat n io Sdn. X: 2.6.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE (ii) State one physical property of the compound / Nyatakan satu sifat fizik sebatian tersebut. small amount of energy is needed to overcome it. Low melting/boiling point // does not dissolve in water // dissolves in organic solvents // does not conduct electricity in aqueous solution or molten state. Sebatian A terbentuk dari tindak balas antara unsur X dan unsur Y. a strong electrostatic force is formed between G+ and L2– ions.8. (f) When element G is burnt in L gas. Apabila unsur G dibakar dalam gas L. Bandingkan takat didih sebatian yang terbentuk di 1(d) dan 1(e). Jelaskan jawapan anda. (ii) Compare the size of atoms of elements X and Y.8.1 Y: 2. + 2– + G L G (g) Compare the boiling point of the compounds formed in 1(d) and 1(e). 4G + L2 2G2L . (i) Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas antara unsur G dan gas L. – Therefore two G atoms release two electrons to one L atom. – The electron arrangement of L atom is 2. – Atom X and atom Y have the same number of shells occupied with electrons.7 Bandingkan saiz atom unsur X dan unsur Y. – The boiling point of compound G2L is high and EL2 is low. L atom receives 2 electrons to form L2– ion and achieves a stable octet electron arrangement 2. Large amount of energy is needed to overcome it.8. Jelaskan jawapan anda. The diagram below shows the electron arrangement of compound A.indd 83 12/9/2011 5:57:11 PM m . L atom is also unstable. – The boiling point of compound G2L is high because positive ions and negative ions are attracted by strong electrostatic force. Explain your answer. Compound A is formed from the reaction between element X and element Y. 2 Rajah di bawah menunjukkan susunan elektron bagi sebatian A.8. (iii) Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed / Lukiskan susunan elektron bagi sebatian yang terbentuk. B . – The boiling point of EL2 is low because the molecules are attracted by weak Van der Waals forces.8. Jelaskan dari segi susunan elektron bagaimana unsur G dan L bergabung membentuk sebatian. G burns rapidly and brightly with a yellow flame and produces white fumes.

Lengkapkan bilangan proton bagi zarah dalam jadual di atas. Particles / Zarah Nucleon number / Nombor nukleon Number of proton / Bilangan proton Number of neutron / Bilangan neutron Number of electron / Bilangan elektron X 20 10 10 10 Y 24 12 12 10 Z 23 11 12 11 Q 16 8 8 10 R 12 6 6 6 T 27 13 14 10 The table below shows the nucleon number. Q. Draw the electron arrangement for the compound formed. Ionic compound (iii) Write the chemical equation for the reaction between element X and element Y to form compound A. [Diberi nombor proton karbon ialah 6] 3 Jadual di bawah menunjukkan nombor nukleon. Q. Y. 2X + Y2 2XY . R. T and U. Lukiskan susunan elektron bagi sebatian yang terbentuk. the number of neutrons and number of electrons in particles X. (b) How are X ion and Y ion formed from their respective atoms? Bagaimana ion X dan ion Y terbentuk daripada atom masing-masing? X ion / Ion X : Atom X releases one electron Y ion / Ion Y : Atom Y receives one electron Write the formula for compound A / Tuliskan formula sebatian A. (d) Y can react with carbon to form a compound. Z. Tuliskan persamaan kimia untuk tindak balas antara unsur X dan unsur Y untuk membentuk sebatian A. [Given that proton number for carbon is 6] Y bertindak balas dengan karbon untuk membentuk suatu sebatian. XY (c) (i) (ii) Name type of bond in compound A / Namakan jenis ikatan dalam sebatian A. T dan U. Bh 12/9/2011 5:57:12 PM . (c) State a particle which is / Nyatakan zarah yang merupakan (i) (ii) an atom of a non-metal / atom bukan logam an atom of a metal / atom logam X/R Z Y/T Q T X (iii) a positive ion / ion positif (iv) a negative ion / ion negatif (v) Nil a a positive ion with charge 3+ / ion positif dengan cas 3+ m Publica (vi) an atom of a noble gas / atom gas adi n Sdn. Y. Z. bilangan neutron dan bilangan elektron bagi zarah X. R.indd 84 d.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 – The number of proton in the nucleus of atom Y is more than X. U 35 17 18 17 (a) What is meant by nucleon number / Apakah maksud nombor nukleon? The total number of proton and neutron in the nucleus of an atom. – The strength nuclei attraction to the electrons in the shells of atom Y is stronger than X. tio 84 04-Chem F4 (3P). (b) Complete the number of proton of the particles in the table above.

X . It can conduct electricity in solid and molten state. Publicat n io Sdn. Ionic compound (ii) Write chemical formula for the compound formed / Tuliskan formula kimia bagi sebatian yang terbentuk. Substances V and W are made up of neutral molecules. Melting point (°C) Takat Lebur (°C) Electrical conductivity / Kekonduksian elektrik Solid / Pepejal Cannot conduct electricity Tidak mengkonduksi elektrik Tidak mengkonduksi elektrik Tidak mengkonduksi elektrik Mengkonduksi elektrik Molten / Leburan Cannot conduct electricity Tidak mengkonduksi elektrik Tidak mengkonduksi elektrik V W X Y –7 80 808 1 080 Cannot conduct electricity Cannot conduct electricity Conduct electricity Cannot conduct electricity Conduct electricity Conduct electricity Mengkonduksi elektrik Mengkonduksi elektrik (a) Which of the substance is copper? Give reason for your answer. – Compound in YQ cannot conduct electricity in solid state but can conduct electricity in molten or aqueous solution. B . X. Antara bahan di atas. (i) State the type of compound formed / Nyatakan jenis sebatian yang terbentuk.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE (d) Particle Y combines with particle Q to form a compound / Zarah Y bergabung dengan zarah Q untuk membentuk sebatian. Y and Z. (f) Compare the electrical conductivity of the compounds formed in 3(d) and 3(e). Y dan Z. Compound RU4 cannot conduct electricity in molten and aqueous states. hd 85 Nila 04-Chem F4 (3P). 2+ 2– Y Q (e) Particle R combines with particle U to form a compound. YQ (iii) Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed / Lukiskan susunan elektron bagi sebatian yang terbentuk. (b) (i) State the type of particles in substances V and W / Nyatakan jenis zarah dalam bahan V dan W. Substance Bahan The table below shows the melting point and electrical conductivity of substances W. there are no free moving ions in molten or aqueous state. No free moving ions in molten state. Molecule (ii) Explain why substances V and W cannot conduct electricity in solid and molten state. – In solid form the ions in compound YQ are not free to move but in molten and aqueous state. Covalent compound (ii) Write a chemical formula for the compound formed / Tuliskan formula kimia bagi sebatian yang terbentuk. Y. Zarah R bergabung dengan zarah U untuk menghasilkan suatu sebatian. – Compound RU4 only consists of neutral molecules. Explain your answer. yang manakah kuprum? Beri sebab bagi jawapan anda. the ions are free to move to be attracted to the anode and cathode. (i) State the type of compound formed / Nyatakan jenis sebatian yang terbentuk. RU4 Bandingkan kekonduksian elektrik bagi sebatian yang terbentuk di 3(d) dan di 3(e).indd 85 12/9/2011 5:57:12 PM m . 4 Jadual di bawah menunjukkan takat lebur dan kekonduksian elektrik bagi bahan W. Jelaskan mengapa bahan V dan W tidak boleh mengkonduksi elektrik dalam keadaan pepejal dan leburan. Jelaskan jawapan anda.

Nil a m Publica tio 86 n Sdn.8. Jadual di bawah menunjukkan susunan elektron atom P.8. Sebatian itu boleh mengkonduksi elektrik. R and S. Sebatian itu mempunyai takat lebur yang tinggi. Rajah menunjukkan simbol unsur T. C3H7OH / Propanol. Q.8 2. B The compound has high melting point. Sebatian terbentuk secara perkongsian elektron.4 2.8.8.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 (c) The boiling point of substance V is 59°C.7 Rajah di bawah menunjukkan susunan elektron dalam sebatian yang terbentuk antara atom X and atom Y. – Small amount of heat energy is required to overcome it.8. Ions are not freely moving // ions are in a fixed position in solid state. (ii) Explain why substance X cannot conduct electricity in solid but can conduct electricity in molten state. R dan S. D The compound is formed by sharing of electrons. Ion can move freely in molten state. Apakah keadaan fizikal bahan V pada suhu bilik? Liquid (d) Draw the arrangement of particle V at room temperature / Lukiskan susunan zarah V pada suhu bilik.indd 86 d. C3H7OH Copper(II) oxide. Antara pernyataan berikut. CO2 Propanol. Objective Questions / Soalan Objektif 1 Which substance is an ionic compound? A B C D Antara bahan berikut. CH4 / Metana. yang manakah membentuk sebatian secara perpindahan elektron? Which pair of atoms forms a compound by transferring of electrons? P and S / P dan S P and R / P dan R Q and S / Q dan S Q and R / Q dan R A B C D C The compound conducts electricity. Bh 12/9/2011 5:57:12 PM . CO2 / Karbon dioksida. Ion . 04-Chem F4 (3P). (f) (i) State the type of particle in substance X / Nyatakan jenis zarah dalam sebatian X. yang manakah adalah sebatian ion? 4 The diagram shows symbol of an element T.8 Mengalirkan arus elektrik dalam keadaan leburan 5 The table below shows the electron arrangements of atoms P . (e) Explain why the melting and boiling points of substances V and W are low? Jelaskan mengapa takat lebur dan takat didih bahan V dan W rendah? – Van der Waals / intermolecular forces between molecules are weak. yang manakah adalah sifat zink klorida? Which of the following is a property of zinc chloride? A Volatile / Mudah meruap B Has a low melting point C Insoluble in water / Tidak larut dalam air D Conducts electricity in the molten state Mempunyai takat lebur rendah A B C D 2. Q. Atom / Atom P Q R S Electron arrangement / Susunan elektron 2.8. yang manakah adalah benar tentang sebatian itu? Antara pasangan berikut.8.1 2. CH4 Carbon dioxide. CuO / Kuprum(II) oksida. 24 12 Methane.2 2. Y Y X Y Y Which of the following statements is true about the compound? A It is an ionic compound / Ia adalah sebatian ion.8 2. CuO T 2 What is the electron arrangement of ion formed by an atom of T? Apakah susunan elektron bagi ion yang terbentuk dari atom T? Antara berikut. 3 The diagram below shows the electron arrangement of a compound formed between atoms X and Y.2 2. Jelaskan mengapa bahan X tidak boleh mengkonduksi elektrik dalam keadaan pepejal tetapi boleh mengkonduksi elektrik dalam keadaan leburan. What is the physical state of substance V at room temperature? Takat didih bahan V adalah 59°C.

yang manakah membentuk sebatian dengan takat lebur dan takat didih yang tinggi? Which of the following pairs will form a compound with high melting and boiling points? C P and R / P dan R D Q and R / Q dan R The table below shows the proton number of elements X and Y. 2– Element / Unsur Proton number / Nombor proton P 6 Q 8 R 17 S 20 Q A P and Q / P dan Q B Q and S / Q dan S 7 Antara pasangan berikut. R and S. What are the number of protons and electrons in an atom of element Q? Apakah bilangan proton dan elektron dalam atom unsur Q? Number of protons Bilangan proton Number of electrons Bilangan elektron Element / Unsur Proton number / Nombor proton X 6 Y 8 A B C D 20 20 16 18 20 18 16 18 What type of bond and the chemical formula of the compound formed between atoms X and Y? Apakah jenis ikatan dan formula kimia bagi sebatian yang terbentuk antara atom X dan Y ? Type of bond Jenis ikatan Chemical formula Formula kimia A B C D 8 Ion / Ion Ion / Ion Covalent / Kovalen Covalent / Kovalen YX2 XY2 XY2 YX2 10 The table below shows the proton number of elements P . B . R dan S. II and III only Antara berikut. II dan III sahaja Q P Q+ R2+ I.indd 87 12/9/2011 5:57:12 PM m . Jadual di bawah menunjukkan nombor proton unsur P. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan susunan elektron ion unsur Q. II dan IV sahaja I. yang manakah adalah kedudukan unsur X dalam Jadual Berkala? Which of the following is the position of element X in the Periodic Table? D II. Q dan R. yang manakah adalah zarah yang mengandungi 10 elektron? X B I. III dan IV sahaja Group / Kumpulan A B C D 1 18 1 18 Period / Kala 3 3 4 4 Publicat n io Sdn. Antara berikut. III and IV only I. III and IV only II. II and IV only C I. Q. III dan IV sahaja I. hd 87 Nila 04-Chem F4 (3P). Element / Unsur Proton number / Nombor proton P 10 Q 11 R 12 Which of the following particles contain 10 electrons? I II III IV A The diagram below shows the electron arrangement of ion X+. 9 The diagram below shows the electron arrangement for an ion of element Q. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan susunan elektron ion X +. Q. Q and R.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE 6 The table below shows the proton number of four elements P . Jadual berikut menunjukkan nombor proton unsur X dan Y. Jadual di bawah menunjukkan nombor proton unsur P.

• IONIC THEORY / TEORI ION Mengaitkan kewujudan ion-ion yang bebas bergerak dalam elektrolit dengan proses pengaliran elektron dalam litar luar. Membezakan elektrolit dan konduktor dari segi kebolehan mengkonduksikan elektrik dan sebarang perubahan kimia yang berlaku. 05-Chem F4 (3P). Fokus adalah kepada ion-ion yang biasa terpilih untuk nyahcas seperti ion klorida. ion kuprum(II) dan ion argentum. –– To write the equation of displacement reaction and to state the observations. • FORMATION OF FREE MOVING IONS / PEMBENTUKAN ION BEBAS BERGERAK –– To differentiate molten and aqueous electrolytes / Membezakan elektrolit lebur dan akueus. VOLTAIC CELL / SEL KIMIA • ELECTROCHEMICAL SERIES / SIRI ELEKTROKIMIA –– To define and memorise the sequence of metal including hydrogen in the Electrochemical Series. Menulis persamaan di anod yang melibatkan anion melepaskan elektron. • ELECTROLYSIS IN INDUSTRY / KEGUNAAN ELEKTROLISIS DALAM INDUSTRI –– Electrolysis in electroplating. Menulis persamaan tindak balas penyesaran dan menyatakan pemerhatian. penulenan dan pengekstrakan logam. Membuat kesimpulan proses elektrolisis sebagai perubahan tenaga elektrik kepada tenaga kimia. –– To conclude that electrolysis process involve changes from electrical to chemical energy. • ELECTROLYSIS CELL / SEL ELEKTROLISIS –– To draw and label the electrolytic cell / Melukis dan melabelkan sel elektrolisis.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 5 ELECTROCHEMISTRY ELEKTROKIMIA ELECTROLYSIS / ELEKTROLISIS • CONDUCTOR AND ELECTROLYTE / KONDUKTOR DAN ELEKTROLIT –– To differentiate between electrolyte and conductor with regard to electrical conductivity and any chemical changes that may occur. • REACTION AT ELECTRODE / TINDAK BALAS DI ELEKTROD –– To list examples of substances which are classified as electrolytes and conductors. (iii) The types of electrode – for diluted solutions and reactive electrodes / Jenis elektrod – bagi larutan cair dan elektrod tak lengai. • FACTORS THAT AFFECT REACTIONS AT THE ELECTRODES FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI TINDAK BALAS DI ELEKTROD (i) The position of ions in the electrochemical series – for dilute solutions and inert electrodes. –– To write the discharge equation at the anode. Focus on ions that are normally selected for discharge. hydroxide and bromide ions. Focus on ions that are normally selected for discharge. where the cation receives electron.indd 88 d. –– To explain the electrolysis process / Menerangkan proses elektrolisis. –– To write the discharge equation at the cathode. copper(II) and silver ions. Menyenaraikan contoh-contoh bahan yang dikelaskan sebagai elektrolit dan konduktor. Fokus adalah kepada ion yang biasa terpilih untuk nyahcas seperti ion hidrogen. –– To relate the existence of free moving ions in an electrolyte with the electron flow in an external circuit. –– To determine the direction of electron flow / Menentukan arah pengaliran elektron. –– To describe the metal displacement experiment to construct the Electrochemical Series. Nil a m Publica tio 88 n Sdn. Menulis persamaan pengionan untuk elektrolit lebur dan akueus. Menakrif dan menghafal siri logam termasuk hidrogen dalam Siri Elektrokimia. ion hidroksida dan ion bromida. such as chloride. –– To identify anode and cathode in the electrolytic cell diagram / Mengenali anod dan katod dalam rajah sel elektrolisis. where the anion releases electron. Menghuraikan eksperimen penyesaran logam bagi membina Siri Elektrokimia. –– To write the ionisation equation of molten and aqueous electrolytes. Bh 12/9/2011 5:56:27 PM . Kedudukan ion dalam siri elektrokimia – bagi larutan cair dan elektrod lengai (ii) The concentration – for concentrated solutions and inert electrodes / Kepekatan – bagi larutan pekat dan elektrod lengai. • APPLICATION OF ELECTROCHEMICAL SERIES IN VOLTAIC CELL APLIKASI SIRI ELEKTROKIMIA DALAM SEL KIMIA –– To determine the negative and positive terminals of a voltaic cell / Menentukan terminal negatif dan positif suatu sel kimia. Menulis persamaan di katod yang melibatkan kation menerima elektron. –– To predict the voltage of voltaic cell / Meramal voltan sel kimia. purifying and extracting metals / Elektrolisis dalam penyaduran. such as hydrogen. • APPLICATION OF ELECTROCHEMICAL SERIES IN DISPLACEMENT OF METALS APLIKASI SIRI ELEKTROKIMIA DALAM PENYESARAN LOGAM –– To predict the displacement of metal reactions based on the positions of metals in the Electrochemical Series. Meramal tindak balas penyesaran logam berdasarkan kedudukan logam dalam Siri Elektrokimia.

exist in form of molecule without water but ionised in water. Unsur yang boleh mengkonduksi arus elektrik dalam keadaan pepejal atau leburan tanpa perubahan kimia . hd 89 Nila 05-Chem F4 (3P). Konduktor yang dicelup dalam elektrolit yang mengalirkan arus elektrik ke dalam dan keluar daripada elektrolit dipanggil Elektrod lengai biasanya terdiri daripada bahan seperti karbon. kovalen contohnya naftalena. stanum. elektrod . Type of substance Jenis bahan Three types of substances that can be classified based on electrical conductivity. ion contohnya leburan plumbum(II) Leburan sebatian bromida. through it. Molten covalent compound such as naphthalene. biasanya logam dan karbon. –– Aqueous solution of *acid or alkali such as hydrochloric acid (HCl) and ammonia solution (NH3). electrolyte Bukan elektrolit Compounds that cannot conduct electricity in molten and aqueous solution. Copper. sulfur lebur dan cecair 2 3 4 Electrolysis is a current passes Elektrolisis adalah process proses whereby an electrolyte is decomposed to its constituent elements when electric penguraian elektrolit kepada unsur juzuknya apabila arus elektrik dialirkan melaluinya. ionic compounds such as molten lead(II) –– Molten bromide. molten sodium chloride and molten aluminium oxide. Larutan akueus bagi sebatian ion contohnya larutan kuprum(II) sulfat dan larutan natrium klorida. Energy change in electrolysis process is electric energy to Perubahan tenaga dalam proses elekrolisis adalah dari tenaga elektrik kepada tenaga kimia Conductor which is dipped into electrolyte which carries electric current in and out of electrolyte is called an electrode .indd 89 12/9/2011 5:56:27 PM m . * Akueus: pepejal yang larut di dalam air. * Aqueous solution: a solid that is dissolved in water. Sebatian kimia yang tidak boleh mengkonduksikan elektrik dalam keadaan lebur dan akueus. normally metals and carbon. leburan natrium klorida dan leburan aluminium oksida. * Lebur: pepejal yang dipanaskan sehingga cair. chemical energy . Definition Definisi Example Contoh Conductor Konduktor Element that can conduct electricity at solid or molten state without any chemical changes . 5 electrodes An electrolytic cell is a set-up of apparatus that contains two which are dipped in an battery and produce a chemical reaction when connected to a (source of electricity). yang terdiri daripada molekul dalam keadaan tanpa air tetapi ianya terion dalam air (akan dijelaskan dalam tajuk seterusnya iaitu dalam asid dan bes) Non. silver and carbon Kuprum. Leburan sebatian bromin. tindak balas kimia apabila disambungkan kepada elektrolit electrolyte dan menghasilkan Publicat n io Sdn. (Explanation is in the next topic i. * HCl and NH3 are covalent compounds. molten sulphur and liquid bromine. elektrod yang dicelup ke dalam Sel elektrolisis adalah susunan radas yang terdiri daripada dua bateri . B . argentum dan karbon Electrolyte Elektrolit Compounds that can conduct electricity in *molten state or *aqueous solution and undergo chemical changes .e acid and base) * HCl dan NH3 adalah sebatian kovalen. . Electrode is normally made up of inert substance such as carbon. (sumber arus elektrik). Larutan akueus *asid atau alkali contohnya asid hidroklorik (HCl) dan larutan ammonia (NH3 ). Sebatian yang boleh mengkonduksikan arus elektrik dalam keadaan *lebur atau *akueus serta mengalami perubahan kimia . lead.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE ELECTROLYSIS / elektrolisis 1 Bahan boleh dibahagikan kepada tiga jenis berdasarkan kekonduksian elektrik. * Molten state: a solid that is heated until it melts. tin. –– Aqueous solution of ionic compound such as copper(II) sulphate solution and sodium chloride solution. plumbum.

The stages in electrolysis process are: anode (a) Anions (negative ions) are attracted and move to the Anion (ion negatif) akan tertarik dan bergerak ke arah menjadi atom/molekul. Anion melepaskan elektron pada permukaan anod dan (b) Electrons flow from the Elektron mengalir dari anode anod ke to the katod cathode through the connecting wire in the litar luar . . melalui wayar penyambung dalam (c) Cations (positive ions) are attracted and move to the katod Kation (ion positif) akan tertarik dan bergerak ke arah menjadi atom/molekul. –– Chemical changes occur at the anode and cathode / Perubahan kimia berlaku di anod dan katod. There are two types of electrode in the electrolytic cell: (a) Anode: An electrode that is connected to the Anod: Elektrod yang disambung kepada Katod: Elektrod yang disambung kepada positive terminal negative terminal of the battery. . anode cathode . Bh 12/9/2011 5:56:28 PM . The anions are . Peringkat dalam proses elektrolisis adalah seperti berikut: Electrolysis occurs at the electrode when electric current flows in the electrolytic cell. Setiap ion bergerak kepada elektrod yang bertentangan cas. The cations are .indd 90 d. The cations receive electrons at the surface discharged at the cathode. terminal positif terminal negatif bateri dalam sel elektrolisis. yang bercas yang bercas positif negatif . Nil a m Publica tio 90 n Sdn. (b) Cations: Positive positif ions which are attracted and move to the negatively charged electrode. Terdapat dua jenis elektrod dalam sel elektrolisis: Electric current from the battery flows into the electrolyte through the electrode. anod of anode and become neutral atoms or molecule. cathode of cathode and become neutral atoms or molecules. Terdapat dua jenis ion dalam elektrolit: An electrolyte consists of free moving ions because it is in a molten or aqueous state. Kation dinyahcaskan pada katod. Kation menerima elektron pada permukaan katod dan –– Electrons flow through the external circuit / Elektron mengalir melalui litar luar. external circuit . 05-Chem F4 (3P). Anion dinyahcaskan pada anod. . elektrolit terdiri daripada ion-ion yang bergerak bebas.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 Example of electrolytic cell / Contoh sel elektrolisis: (i) Electrodes Elektrod (ii) A A (iii) A Electrolyte Elektrolit Electrolyte Elektrolit Electrode Elektrod Electrode Elektrod Electrolyte Elektrolit Electrodes A A Elektrod Electrolysis of molten electrolyte Elektrolisis elektrolit lebur Panaskan Heat A Electrolysis of aqueous electrolyte (No gas released) Elektrolisis elektrolit dalam bentuk akueus (Tiada gas dibebaskan) Electrolysis of aqueous electrolyte (Gas is released) Elektrolisis elektrolit dalam bentuk larutan (Gas dibebaskan) 6 Arus elektrik dari bateri mengalir ke dalam elektrolit melalui elektrod. (b) Cathode: An electrode that is connected to the 7 Dalam keadaan lebur atau akueus. Each ion moves to the opposite charge electrode. . bateri dalam sel elektrolisis. of the battery. There are two types of ions in electrolyte: Negative negatif (a) Anions: 8 Anion: Ion Kation: Ion ions which are attracted and move to the akan tertarik dan bergerak ke arah elektrod akan tertarik dan bergerak ke arah elektrod positively anod katod charged electrode. The anions release electrons to the surface discharged at the anode. Proses elektrolisis berlaku di elektrod apabila arus elektrik mengalir melalui sel elektrolisis.

(b) An anion is (c) When ions are Apabila ion discharged . yang neutral.indd 91 12/9/2011 5:56:28 PM m . B . natrium klorida menghasilkan Na+ dan Cl– sahaja. elektron di anod. H+.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE FORMATION OF FREE MOVING IONS IN THE ELECTROLYTE PEMBENTUKAN ION BERGERAK BEBAS DALAM ELEKTROLIT 1 Persamaan pengionan adalah persamaan yang menunjukkan ion yang hadir dalam elektrolit sama ada dalam keadaan leburan atau akueus. The ionic equation that occurs at the anode and cathode to produce neutral ‘half equation’. (ii) Ionisation of aqueous akueus sodium chloride produces Na+. ianya akan menjadi molekul Persamaan ion yang berlaku di anod dan di katod untuk menghasilkan setengah’. dinyahcaskan . electrons at the anode. Example / Contoh: (i) Ionisation of Pengionan molten leburan sodium chloride produces Na+ and Cl– only. Ionisation equation is an equation to determine the ions present in molten or aqueous electrolyte. hd 91 Nila 05-Chem F4 (3P). H+. Pengionan larutan REACTIONS AT THE ELECTRODES / TINDAK BALAS DI ELEKTROD 1 The process of cation gaining electron at the cathode or anion losing electrons at the anode is called discharged : Proses apabila kation menerima elektron di katod atau anion melepaskan elektron di anod dipanggil nyahcas : (a) A cation is 2 Kation Anion discharged discharged when it when it receives releases electrons at the cathode. Cl– dan OH–. Cl– and OH–. Ionisation of molten electrolyte produces cation and anion of the compound only. (a) Example of ionisation of molten electrolyte (a compound that is heated until it melts) Contoh pengionan elektrolit dalam keadaan leburan (sebatian yang dipanaskan sehingga lebur) (i) Molten sodium chloride / Natrium klorida lebur: NaCl (s) Na2O (s) Al2O3 (s) Na+(l) + Cl–(l) Pb2+(l) + 2Br –(l) 2Na+(l) + O2–(l) 2Al3+(l) + 3O2–(l) (ii) Molten lead (II) bromide / Plumbum (II) bromida lebur: PbBr2 (s) (iii) Molten sodium oxide / Natrium oksida lebur: (iv) Molten aluminium oxide / Aluminium oksida lebur: (b) Example of the ionisation on an aqueous electrolyte (a compound that is dissolved in water): Contoh pengionan elektrolit dalam keadaan akueus (sebatian yang dilarutkan dalam air): Na+(aq) + Cl+(aq) (i) Sodium chloride solution / Larutan natrium klorida: NaCl(aq / ak ) 2 H2O H2O H2SO4(aq / ak ) H2O H+(aq) + OH–(aq) Cu2+ + SO42– H+ + OH– 2H+ + SO42– H+ + OH– (ii) Copper(II) sulphate solution / Larutan kuprum(II) sulfat: CuSO4(aq / ak ) (iii) Sulphuric acid / Asid sulfurik: Pengionan elektrolit dalam keadaan lebur hanya menghasilkan kation dan anion dari sebatian itu sahaja. they become neutral atom or molecule . natrium klorida menghasilkan Na+. atom atau dinyahcaskan dinyahcaskan apabila apabila menerima melepaskan elektron di katod. However the ionisation of an aqueous electrolyte produces cation and anion from the ionisation of the compound and water. Pengionan elektrolit dalam keadaan akueus menghasilkan kation dan anion daripada sebatian dan air. atom atom molekul or molecule is called atau neutral dipanggil ‘persamaan Publicat n io Sdn.

kuprum. lukiskan satu rajah susunan radas berlabel dan tunjukkan dengan anak panah pergerakan zarah yang berlaku dalam plumbum(II) bromida serta arah aliran elektron dalam litar luar. Empat ion hidroksida release melepaskan four electrons to form two water molecules and one oxygen empat elektron membentuk dua molekul air dan satu molekul oksigen. 05-Chem F4 (3P). Ag+ + e Ag Silver ion Ion argentum receive menerima one electron to form one silver satu elektron membentuk satu atom atom . Dalam penerangan anda. draw a labeled diagram for the set up of apparatus and show the movement of particles by using arrows that occur in lead(II) bromide and the direction of electron flow in the external circuit. . Bh 12/9/2011 5:56:28 PM . Cu2+ + 2e Cu Copper(II) ion Ion kuprum(II) receives menerima two electrons to form one copper dua elektron membentuk satu atom . 5 Write the equation of discharge of ion Tuliskan persamaan setengah untuk nyahcas ion yang berikut: (i) Lead(II) ion to lead atom Ion plumbum(II) kepada atom plumbum Ion argentum kepada atom argentum Ion iodida kepada molekul iodin : : : Pb2+ + 2e Ag++ e 2I– Pb Ag (ii) Silver ion to silver atom / (iii) Iodide ion to iodine molecule I2 + 2e EXERCISE / LATIHAN Using lead(II) bromide as an example.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 3 Persamaan setengah yang biasa di anod (anion/atom logam melepaskan elektron): Persamaan setengah Common half equation at the anode (anion/metal atom releases electrons): Half equation Explanation Penerangan 4OH– 2H2O + O2 + 4e Four hydroxide ions molecule . Dengan menggunakan plumbum(II) bromida sebagai contoh. 2Cl– Cl2 + 2e Br2 + 2e Two chloride ions Dua ion klorida release melepaskan two electrons to form one chlorine molekul molecule . Ag Ag+ + e Silver atom Atom argentum releases melepaskan one electron to form satu elektron membentuk silver ion ion argentum . dua elektron membentuk satu klorin. atom argentum. explain the electrolysis of molten lead(II) bromide. 4 Persamaan setengah yang biasa di katod (kation menerima elektron): Half equation Common half equation at the cathode (cation receives electrons): Explanation Penerangan Persamaan setengah 2H+ + 2e H2 Two hydrogen ions Dua ion hidrogen receive menerima two electrons to form one hydrogen molekul molecule . 2Br– Two bromide ions Dua ion bromida release melepaskan two electrons to form one bromine molekul molecule . jelaskan elektrolisis leburan plumbum(II) bromida. . In your explanation. Nil a m Publica tio 92 n Sdn.indd 92 d. dua elektron membentuk satu hidrogen. dua elektron membentuk satu bromin. Cu Cu2+ + 2e Copper atom Atom kuprum releases melepaskan two electrons to form dua elektron membentuk copper(II) ion ion kuprum(II) .

the lower position of cation in the Electrochemical Series. Mg2+. Al3+. Cl–. kation yang lebih rendah kedudukan dalam Siri Elektrokimia atau anion yang lebih rendah kedudukan dalam siri discas anion akan dinyahcas. Br –. (b) The concentration of electrolyte (normally in concentrated solution and inert electrode). – Bromide ion/ Br – move to the anode. 3 The position of ions in the Electrochemical Series / Kedudukan ion dalam Siri Elektrokimia: Kepekatan elektrolit (biasanya dalam larutan pekat dan elektrod lengai).indd 93 12/9/2011 5:56:28 PM m . Fe2+. hanya satu jenis ion sahaja yang akan dipilih untuk dinyahcas pada setiap elektrod. Fe2+. SO4 . dan OH– Publicat n io Sdn. Zn2+. Al3+. Jenis elektrod (apabila elektrod logam reaktif digunakan). Cu2+. Cu2+. Apabila lebih dari satu jenis ion bergerak ke elektrod semasa elektrolisis. – Pb2+ + 2e Pb FACTOR THAT AFFECT THE ELECTROLYSIS OF AN AQUEOUS SOLUTION FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI ELEKTROLISIS LARUTAN AKUEUS 1 When more than one type of ion are attracted towards the electrodes during electrolysis. Ca2+. H+. dan Au+ Cation: K+. Pb2+. H+.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE Set-up of apparatus / Rajah susunan radas: Carbon electrodes Lead(II) bromide Heat Explanation / Penerangan: – The ions present are lead(II) ions/ Pb2+ and bromide ions/ Br –. NO3–. only one type of ion is selected to be discharged at each electrode. and Au+ Increasing ease of discharge of ion from left to right Ion semakin mudah dinyahcas dari kiri ke kanan – 2– – Anion: F . and OH– Anion: F–. or anions in the lower position of the anion discharge series will be selected to be discharged. Zn2+. Br –. B . Pemilihan nyahcas ion hanya berlaku di dalam larutan akueus sahaja kerana ia biasanya mempunyai lebih dari satu jenis ion yang tertarik ke anod atau katod. Selective discharge only occurs in aqueous solution because it usually has more than one type of ion attracted to the anode or cathode. Ag+. SO42–. I–. (a) When electrolysis is conducted on dilute solution and inert electrodes. Na+. hd 93 Nila 05-Chem F4 (3P). Mg2+. – Lead(II) ions/Pb2+ receive two electrons to form lead atom at the cathode. – 2Br – Br2 + 2e – Lead(II) ions/Pb2+ move to the cathode. – Two bromine atoms combine to form bromine molecule. Kedudukan ion dalam siri elektrokimia (biasanya dalam larutan cair dan elektrod lengai). Sn2+. Na+. Sn2+. 2 The selection of ion for discharge depends on three factors / Pemilihan ion untuk nyahcas bergantung pada tiga faktor: (a) The position of ions in the electrochemical series (normally in dilute solution and inert electrode). Ag+. Pb2+. NO3 . Apabila elektrolisis dijalankan ke atas larutan cair dan elektrod lengai. (c) The types of electrode (when reactive metal electrode is used). Kation: K+. – Bromide ion/ Br – releases one electron to form bromine atom at the anode. Ca2+. I–. Cl–.

Ujian pengesahan (kaedah dan pemerhatian) Confirmatory test (method and observations) – Insert a glowing wooden splinter into – When a lighted wooden splinter is test tube. State the electrode where it occurs and write the half equation for the discharge of ion: Pilih ion yang akan dinyahcas dari pasangan ion berikut.indd 94 d. . Set-up of apparatus Susunan radas Carbon electrodes Sodium nitrate Persamaan pengionan elektrolit Equation of electrolyte ionisation NaNO3 H2O Anode / Anod NO3–. . Ag + e + (c) Complete the following table for the electrolysis of 0. : Persamaan setengah: 4OH – 2H2O + O2 + 4e di anod (ii) Hydroxide & nitrate ions Ion hidroksida & ion nitrat : Half equation: : Persamaan setengah: 4OH– 4OH – 2H2O + O2 + 4e 2H2O + O2 + 4e 2+ at the di anode anod .1 mol dm–3 sodium nitrate solution using carbon electrode. 2H+ + 2e (v) Hydrogen & silver ions Ion hidrogen & ion argentum : Half equation: : Persamaan setengah: Ag + e + Ag Ag at the di cathode katod . . 05-Chem F4 (3P). H+ Electrode / Elektrod Ions that are attracted to the anode and cathode Ion yang ditarik ke anod dan katod Half equation Persamaan setengah 2H+ + 2e H2 Name of the products Nama hasil Oxygen Hydrogen Pemerhatian Observations Gas bubbles are released. Bh 12/9/2011 5:56:29 PM . OH– 4OH– 2H2O + O2 + 4e Na+ + NO3– H+ + OH– Cathode / Katod Na+.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 (b) Choose the ion to be discharged from the following pairs of ions. Cu2+ + 2e (iv) Hydrogen & potassium ions : Half equation: Ion hidrogen & ion kalium : Persamaan setengah: 2H + 2e + H2 H2 at the di cathode katod . – A ‘pop’ sound is produced. Gas bubbles are released. Nil a m Publica tio 94 n Sdn. Lengkapkan jadual berikut bagi elektrolisis larutan natrium nitrat 0. . (iii) Hydrogen & copper(II) ions : Half equation: Ion hidrogen & ion kuprum(II) : Persamaan setengah: Cu + 2e Cu Cu at the di cathode katod . placed near the mouth of the test tube. – Glowing wooden splinter is lighted up.1 mol dm–3 menggunakan elektrod karbon. . nyatakan di elektrod mana ia berlaku dan tulis persamaan setengah untuk nyahcas ion: (i) Hydroxide & sulphate ions : Half equation: Ion hidroksida & ion sulfat 4OH– 2H2O + O2 + 4e at the anode .

1 mol dm–3 sulphuric acid using carbon electrodes. Nyatakan ion yang terpilih untuk dinyahcaskan di anod dan di katod bagi larutan pekat di bawah. 2H2O + O2 + 4e 2H+ + SO42– H+ + OH– Cathode / Katod Cu2+. placed near the mouth of the test tube. Br – and I–. – 4 Concentration of electrolyte / Kepekatan elektrolit: (a) When electrolysis is carried out using inert electrodes and concentrated solutions.1 mol dm–3 menggunakan elektrod karbon. Lengkapkan jadual berikut bagi elektrolisis larutan kuprum(II) sulfat 0. H2 Electrode / Elektrod Ions that are attracted to the anode and cathode Ion yang ditarik ke anod dan katod Half equation Persamaan setengah Name of the products Nama hasil Observations Pemerhatian Confirmatory test (method and observations) Ujian pengesahan (kaedah dan pemerhatian) – Insert a glowing wooden splinter into – When a lighted wooden splinter is test tube. Publicat n io Sdn. hd 95 Nila 05-Chem F4 (3P). 2H2O + O2 + 4e 2H+ + SO42– H+ + OH– Cathode / Katod H+ 2H+ + 2e Hydrogen Gas bubbles are released. Lengkapkan jadual berikut bagi elektrolisis asid sulfurik 0. – Glowing wooden splinter is lighted up.indd 95 12/9/2011 5:56:29 PM m . (e) Complete the following table for the electrolysis of 0. – A ‘pop’ sound is produced. Apabila elektrolisis dijalankan menggunakan elektrod lengai dan larutan pekat. H+ Cu2+ + 2e Copper Brown solid deposited Cu Electrode / Elektrod Ions that are attracted to the anode and cathode Ion yang ditarik ke anod dan katod Half equation Persamaan setengah Nama hasil Name of the products Pemerhatian Observations Confirmatory test (method and observations) Ujian pengesahan (kaedah dan pemerhatian) – Insert a glowing wooden splinter into test tube. Set-up of apparatus Susunan radas Carbon electrodes Copper(II) sulphate Equation of electrolyte ionisation Persamaan pengionan elektrolit H2SO4 H2O Anode / Anod SO42–. ion yang lebih pekat akan dinyahcas tetapi ia benar untuk ion-ion halida sahaja iaitu Cl–. OH– 4OH– Oxygen Gas bubbles are released. OH– 4OH– Oxygen Gas bubbles are released. (b) State the selected ions to be discharged at the anode and cathode for the following concentrated solutions. B .1 mol dm–3 menggunakan elektrod karbon. – Glowing wooden splinter is lighted up. ions that are more concentrated will be discharged but this is only true for halide ions. Set-up of apparatus Susunan radas Carbon electrodes Sulphuric acid Equation of electrolyte ionisation Persamaan pengionan elektrolit H2SO4 H2O Anode / Anod SO42–.1 mol dm–3 copper(II) sulphate solution using carbon electrodes.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE (d) Complete the following table for the electrolysis of 0. Br– dan I–. which are Cl–.

Kepekatan asid hidroklorik Gas hidrogen dibebaskan di katod dan gas oksigen dibebaskan di anod. Bh 12/9/2011 5:56:29 PM .0 mol dm-3 of HCl HCl 2.0 mol dm–3 menggunakan elektrod karbon. using carbon electrodes H+ K+ Anode / Anod: Cl– Cathode / Katod: H+ (c) Complete the following table for the electrolysis of 0. Nil a the cathode and oxygen gas is released the cathode and chlorine gas released at at the anode. – A ‘Pop’ sound is produced. the mouth of the test tube. – A ‘pop’ sound is produced.001 mol dm–3 dan asid hidroklorik 2. OH– 4OH– 2H2O + O2 + 4e Hydrogen gas Cl– . Ujian pengesahan (kaedah dan pemerhatian) – Insert a glowing wooden splinter into – A damp blue litmus paper placed near the test tube. – The gas changed the damp blue litmus paper to red and then bleached it. . Air terurai kepada gas oksigen dan gas hidrogen .001 mol dm–3 hydrochloric acid and 2.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 (i) Cl– Anode / Anod: Cathode / Katod: (ii) Concentrated potassium iodide solution. Concentration of chloride oxygen gas and hydrogen gas. Hydrogen gas is released at Chlorine gas Concentration of hydrochloric acid decreases . 05-Chem F4 (3P).001 mol dm–3 H+ + Cl– H+ + OH– 2. Confirmatory test at cathode (method and observations) Name the products at the cathode Nama hasil di katod Ujian pengesahan (kaedah dan pemerhatian) – Insert a burning wooden splinter into – Insert a burning wooden splinter into the test tube.0 mol dm–3 hydrochloric acid.001 mol dm-3 of HCl HCl 0. berkurang Kepekatan asid hidroklorik Gas hidrogen dibebaskan di katod dan gas klorin dibebaskan di anod. Set-up of apparatus Susunan radas Carbon electrodes Hydrochloric acid Equation of electrolyte ionisation Persamaan pengionan elektrolit HCl H2O 0. Lengkapkan jadual berikut bagi elektrolisis asid hidroklorik 0. using carbon electrodes Larutan natrium klorida pekat menggunakan elektrod karbon Larutan kalium iodida pekat menggunakan elektrod karbon Larutan asid hidroklorik pekat menggunakan elektrod karbon Concentrated hydrochloric acid solution. Oxygen gas Concentration of hydrochloric acid increases . Hydrogen gas released at Name the product at the anode Nama hasil di anod The concentration of hydrochloric acid after a while and explanation Kepekatan elektrolit selepas beberapa ketika dan terangkan bertambah . Water decomposed to the anode.indd 96 d. OH– 2Cl– Cl2 + 2e Ions that are attracted to the anode Ion bergerak ke anod Half equation at the anode Persamaan setengah di anod Observations at anode / Pemerhatian Confirmatory test at anode (method and observations) Gas bubbles are released. Greenish yellow gas is released. ions decreases. m Publica tio 96 n Sdn. using carbon electrodes l– Anode / Anod: Cathode / Katod: (iii) Concentrated sodium chloride solution.0 mol dm–3 Electrolyte Elektrolit Ions that are attracted to the cathode Ion bergerak ke katod H+ 2H+ + 2e H2 H+ 2H+ + 2e H2 Half equation at the cathode Persamaan setengah di katod Observation at cathode Pemerhatian di katod Gas bubbles are released. using carbon electrodes. Kepekatan ion klorida berkurang. – Glowing wooden splinter is lighted up. the test tube. Hydrogen gas Cl– . Gas bubbles are released.

atom logam pada anod melepaskan elektron menjadi ion logam. I2 + 2e Na+ + I– H+ + OH– Cathode / Katod Na+. – Starch solution turns to dark blue. OH– 2I– Iodine Brown solution is formed. Biasanya diperbuat daripada karbon atau platinum.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE (d) Complete the following table for the electrolysis of 2.indd 97 12/9/2011 5:56:29 PM m . Set-up of apparatus Susunan radas Carbon electrodes Sodium iodide Equation of electrolyte ionisation Persamaan pengionan elektrolit NaI H2O Anode / Anod I–. argentum dan nikel. – A few drops of starch solution added. (ii) Reactive electrode – An electrode that not only acts as a conductor but also undergoes chemical changes.0 mol dm–3 sodium iodide solution using carbon electrodes. Semasa proses elektrolisis berlaku.0 mol dm–3 menggunakan elektrod karbon. – A ‘pop’ sound is produced. During the electrolysis. H2 Electrode / Elektrod Ions that are attracted to the anode and cathode Ion yang ditarik ke anod dan katod Half equation Persamaan setengah Name of the products Nama hasil Observations Pemerhatian Confirmatory test (method and observations) Ujian pengesahan (kaedah dan pemerhatian) 5 Types of electrode Jenis elektrod: (a) There are two types of electrode Terdapat dua jenis elektrod: (i) Inert electrode – An electrode that acts as a conductor only and does not undergo any chemical changes. H+ 2H+ + 2e Hydrogen Gas bubbles are released. Lengkapkan jadual berikut bagi elektrolisis larutan natrium iodida 2. the metal atom at the anode releases electron to form metal ion. Publicat n io Sdn. silver and nickel. hd 97 Nila 05-Chem F4 (3P). electrodes such as copper. metal anode becomes thinner while the less electropositive cation will be selected at the cathode which consist of metal Elektrod reaktif – Elektrod yang bertindak bukan sahaja sebagai pengalir arus tetapi juga mengalami perubahan kimia. B . Normally they are made of carbon or platinum. – When a lighted wooden splinter is placed near the mouth of the test tube. Elektrod lengai – Elektrod yang bertindak sebagai pengalir arus sahaja dan tidak mengalami perubahan kimia. anod logam menjadi nipis manakala ion yang kurang elektropositif akan menyahcas di katod yang terdiri daripada logam seperti kuprum.

Nil a m Publica tio 98 n Sdn. 05-Chem F4 (3P). – Concentration of copper(II) sulphate solution remains unchanged. – Copper(II) ions discharge as copper atoms and deposited the cathode. – Intensity of blue colour remains unchanged.indd 98 d. H+ Half equation at the cathode Persamaan setengah di katod Cu2+ + 2e Cu Cu2+ + 2e Cu Name the product at the cathode Nama hasil di katod Copper Copper Pemerhatian di katod Observation at cathode Brown solid deposited Brown solid deposited Ion bergerak ke anod The ions that move to the anode SO42–. H+ Cu2+. Bh 12/9/2011 5:56:29 PM . – Kepekatan elektrolit selepas beberapa ketika dan terangkan The concentration of copper(II) solution after a while and explanation – Concentration of copper(II) sulphate solution decreases. Copper(II) sulphate Carbon electrodes Copper electrodes Copper(II) sulphate Equation of electrolyte ionisation Persamaan pengionan elektrolit CuSO4 (aq / ak ) Cu2+ + SO42– H2O H+ + OH– Carbon electrode Elektrod karbon Type of electrode Jenis elektrod Copper electrode Elektrod kuprum The ions that move to the cathode Ion bergerak ke katod Cu2+.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 (b) Complete the following table for the electrolysis of 1 mol dm–3 copper(II) sulphate solution with carbon electrode and copper electrode. – Intensity of blue colour decreases. – The number of copper atoms form copper(II) ions at the anode is equal to the number of copper(II) ions form copper atoms at the cathode. OH– Cu Cu2+ + 2e Half equation at the anode Persamaan setengah di anod Nama hasil di anod Name the product at anode Oxygen gas – Gas bubbles are released. Pemerhatian di anod Observations at the anode Ujian pengesahan (kaedah dan pemerhatian ) Confirmatory test (method and observations) – Insert a glowing wooden splinter into the test tube. Set-up of apparatus Susunan radas Lengkapkan jadual berikut bagi elektrolisis larutan kuprum(II) sulfat 1 mol dm–3 menggunakan elektrod karbon dan elektrod kuprum. OH– 4OH– 2H2O + O2 + 4e SO42–. Copper(II) ion – Copper electrode becomes thinner. – Glowing wooden splinter is lighted up.

OH– 4OH– 2H2O + O2 + 4e 2H+ + 2e H2 Gas bubbles are released. H+. SO42–. Larutan kalium sulfat cair Dilute potassium sulphate solution Carbon Karbon Position of ion in the electrochemical series K+. Larutan argentum nitrat Silver nitrate solution Carbon Karbon Position of ion in the electrochemical series Type of electrode Gas bubbles are released. Ag Ag+ + e Anode becomes thinner. H+. H+. B . I–. H+. H+. OH– 2I– I2 + 2e 2H+ + 2e H2 Brown solution formed. OH– 4OH– 2H2O + O2 +4e 2H+ + 2e H2 Gas bubbles are released.indd 99 12/9/2011 5:56:30 PM m . Gunakan gambar rajah berlabel untuk menerangkan jawapan anda. NO3–. OH– Ag+ + e Ag Grey shiny solid deposited. OH– 4OH– 2H2O + O2 + 4e 2H+ + 2e H2 Gas bubbles are released. Carbon electrode Dilute potassium chloride solution Carbon electrode Publicat n io Sdn. 2H+ + 2e H2 Carbon Karbon Asid hidroklorik pekat Greenish yellow gas is released. Use a labelled diagram to explain your answer. Gas bubbles are released. SO42–. Larutan argentum nitrat Silver nitrate solution Silver Argentum Ag+. Ag+. H+. OH– 2Cl– Cl2 + 2e Gas bubbles are released. Larutan kalium iodida cair Carbon Dilute Karbon potassium iodide solution Position of ion in the electrochemical series K+.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE EXERCISE / LATIHAN 1 Complete the table below / Lengkapkan jadual di bawah: Electrolyte Elektrolit Electrode Factor that affects Elektrod electrolysis Faktor yang mempengaruhi elektrolisis Ions present Ion yang hadir Persamaan setengah di anod dan pemerhatian Half equation at the anode and observation Half equation at the cathode and observation Persamaan setengah di katod dan pemerhatian Dilute sulphuric acid Concentrated hydrochloric acid Carbon Karbon Asid sulfurik cair Position of ion in the electrochemical series Concentration of electrolyte H+. Set-up of apparatus / Susunan radas: Electrolysis is carried out on a dilute potassium chloride solution using carbon electrodes. OH– 4OH– 2H2O + O2 + 4e Gas bubbles are released. I–. NO3–. Larutan kalium iodida pekat Carbon Concentrated Karbon potassium iodide solution Concentration of electrolyte K+. Gas bubbles are released. Jelaskan bagaimana proses elektrolisis ini berlaku. Explain how this electrolysis occurs. 2 Proses elektrolisis dijalankan ke atas larutan kalium klorida cair menggunakan elektrod karbon. Gas bubbles are released. Ag+ + e Ag Grey shiny solid deposited. Cl–. hd 99 Nila 05-Chem F4 (3P).

carbon electrodes. test tube. –– OH– ion Ion OH – is selectively discharged by releasing electrons to form 4OH– 2H2O + O2 + 4e Ion K + oxygen . dalam siri elektrokimia H+ ion Ion H + is selectively discharged by receiving electrons to form 2H + + 2e H2 . anode . dipilih untuk dinyahcaskan dengan melepaskan elektron membentuk molekul –– Half equation / Persamaan setengah: K+ ion H+ ion –– and move to the cathode / –– –– H+ ion Ion H + bergerak ke katod. Cl + – and dan OH OH– – ions that move freely. (d) Collect the gas produced at the anode (e) Gas produced at the Nil a anod / Kumpulkan gas yang terhasil di glowing wooden splinter is tested with a . .MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 Explanation / Penerangan: –– Potassium chloride solution consist of Larutan kalium klorida mengandungi ion + K+. yang bergerak bebas. Material / Bahan labelled diagram] –3 : 1 mol dm copper(II) sulphate solution Carbon electrodes Copper(II) sulphate solution Procedure / Langkah: –3 (a) Pour 1 mol dm copper(II) sulphate solution 1 mol dm–3 in the electrolytic cell until it is ke dalam sel elektrolitik sehingga half full . wire. Masukkan larutan kuprum(II) sulfat separuh penuh (b) The apparatus is set up as shown in the diagram. hidrogen . m Publica tio 100 n Sdn. 05-Chem F4 (3P). Ammeter [from a Your answer should include the observation. confirmatory test for the product at the anode and half equation at the electrode.indd 100 d. uji itu pada tabung uji test tube dengan with copper(II) sulphate solution and larutan kuprum(II) sulfat dan terbalikkan tabung (c) Turn on the switch / Hidupkan suis. H+. Dalam jawapan anda perlu disertakan pemerhatian. Answer / Jawapan: Apparatus / Radas : Battery / power supply. Huraikan satu eksperimen untuk menentukan hasil elektrolisis larutan kuprum(II) sulfat menggunakan elektrod karbon. electrolytic cell. dipilih untuk dinyahcaskan dengan menerima elektron membentuk molekul –– Half equation / Persamaan setengah: 3 Describe an experiment to determine the product of electrolysis copper(II) sulphate solution with carbon electrode. Isi anod . Gas yang terhasil di anod diuji dengan kayu uji berbara . Bh 12/9/2011 5:56:30 PM . dan ion H + and oksigen water dan molecule. Radas disusunkan seperti dalam gambar rajah. bergerak ke anod. hydrogen molecules. –– Ion Cl– Cl – ion and dan ion OH– OH – ions move to the anode. ujian pengesahan untuk hasil yang terbentuk di anod dan persamaan setengah bagi tindak balas yang berlaku di elektrod. Cl– K . –– Ion OH– OH – ion is lower than terletak di bawah ion Cl– Cl – ion in the electrochemical series. Fill the anode invert the test tube on the . dalam siri elektrokimia. is lower than terletak di bawah K+ ion ion K + in the electrochemical series. H . air .

what happen to the intensity of the blue colour of the copper(II) sulphate solution during electrolysis? Daripada pemerhatian anda. The number of copper(II) ions become copper atoms at the cathode is equal to the number of copper atoms become copper(II) ions at the anode. H+ and OH– . (a) Write the formula of all the anions present in the solution / Tuliskan formula semua anion yang terdapat dalam larutan itu. The diagram below shows the set-up of apparatus of an electrolytic cell. (ii) Explain your answer / Jelaskan jawapan anda. Tuliskan formula semua ion yang hadir dalam larutan kuprum(II) nitrat. (b) Write half equation for the reaction at / Tuliskan persamaan setengah di: 2+ Cu electrode P / elektrod P : Cu + 2e – 2H2O + O2 + 4e electrode Q / elektrod Q : 4OH (c) (i) What is the colour of copper(II) nitrate / Apakah warna larutan kuprum(II) nitrat? Blue (ii) What happens to the intensity of the colour of copper(II) nitrate solution? Explain your answer. NO3–. SO42–. – The glowing wooden splinter is lighted up.indd 101 12/9/2011 5:56:30 PM m .Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE Observation and half equation / Pemerhatian dan persamaan setengah: Electrodes Elektrod Observation Pemerhatian Confirmatory test Ujian pengesahan – Persamaan setengah Half equation Cu Cathode Anode Brown solid deposited Gas bubbles are released Cu2+ + 2e 4OH– – Insert the glowing wooden splinter into the test tube. 2H2O + O2 + 4e 4 Larutan kuprum(II) sulfat dielektrolisis dengan menggunakan elektrod kuprum. nyatakan apakah yang berlaku ke atas keamatan warna biru larutan kuprum(II) sulfat semasa proses elektrolisis? The intensity of the blue colour of copper(II) sulphate remains unchanged. hd 101 Nila 05-Chem F4 (3P). B . Copper(II) sulphate solution is electrolysed using copper electrodes. state the name of the products formed at the Jika eksperimen diulangi dengan menggantikan elektrod kuprum dengan elektrod karbon. Publicat n io Sdn. Cu2+. Apakah yang berlaku kepada keamatan warna larutan kuprum(II) nitrat? Jelaskan jawapan anda. The concentration of Cu2+ decreases because copper(II) ions receive electrons to form copper atom at the cathode. (d) If the experiment is repeated with the copper electrodes being replaced by carbon electrodes. namakan hasil yang terbentuk di 5 (i) anode / anod: Oxygen (ii) cathode / katod: Copper Rajah di bawah menunjukkan susunan radas bagi sel elektrolisis. Carbon electrode P Elektrod karbon P Carbon electrode Q Elektrod karbon Q Larutan kuprum(II) nitrat Copper(II) nitrate solution (a) Write the formula of all ions present in copper(II) nitrate solution. OH– (b) Write the half equation for the reaction at the / Tuliskan persamaan setengah untuk tindak balas di Cu2+ + 2e (i) anode / anod : Cu 2+ Cu (ii) cathode / katod : Cu + 2e (c) (i) From your observations. The intensity of the blue colour of copper(II) nitrate decreases.

The diagram below shows the set-up of apparatus used in the purification of copper. Electrode X Elektrod X Electrode Y Elektrod Y Electrode Z Elektrod Z m Publica Nil a tio 102 n Sdn. Substance Z / Bahan Z Substance Y Bahan Y Substance X + cryolite Substance W Bahan W Bahan X + kriolit (a) State the name of the following substances / Nyatakan nama bahan-bahan berikut: W : Liquid aluminium X : Molten aluminium oxide Y : Carbon Z : Carbon (b) Which substance acts as anode and cathode / Bahan yang manakah bertindak sebagai anod dan katod? Anode / Anod : Z Cathode / Katod : Y (c) State the name of the product at anode and cathode / Namakan hasil yang diperoleh di anod dan katod. Bh 12/9/2011 5:56:30 PM .MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 ELECTROLYSIS IN INDUSTRY / ELEKTROLISIS DALAM INDUSTRI 1 Three uses of electrolysis in industries are / Tiga kegunaan elektrolisis dalam industri ialah: Application Aplikasi Example Contoh Electrolyte Elektrolit Anode / Half equation Anod / Persamaan setengah Cathode / Half equation Katod / Persamaan setengah (a) Electroplating Penyaduran logam Silver electroplating Penyaduran perak Silver nitrate solution Anode / Anod: Silver metal Half equation / Persamaan setengah: Ag Ag+ + e Cathode / Katod: Metal to be electroplated Half equation / Persamaan setengah: Ag+ + e Ag Cathode / Katod: Pure copper Half equation / Persamaan setengah: Cu2+ + 2e Cu Cathode / Katod: Carbon Half equation / Persamaan setengah: Al3+ + 3e Al (b) Purification of metal Penulenan logam Purification of copper Penulenan kuprum Copper(II) Anode / Anod: sulphate solution Impure copper Half equation / Persamaan setengah: Cu Cu2+ + 2e Molten aluminium oxide Anode / Anod: Carbon Half equation / Persamaan setengah: 2O2– O2 + 4e (c) Metal extraction Pengekstrakan logam Extraction of aluminium Pengekstrakan aluminium 2 Rajah di bawah menunjukkan proses pengekstrakan aluminium. Anode / Anod : Oxygen Cathode / Katod : Aluminium (d) Write the ionic equation for the reactions at / Tuliskan persamaan ion bagi tindak balas yang berlaku di 2– 3+ O2 + 4e Al anode / anod : 2O cathode / katod : Al + 3e (e) Why is cryolite added to X / Mengapakan kriolit ditambah ke dalam X ? To lower down the melting point of aluminium oxide (from 2 045°C to 900°C ). The following diagram shows the aluminium extraction process. 3 Rajah di bawah menunjukkan susunan radas yang digunakan untuk proses penulenan kuprum. 05-Chem F4 (3P).indd 102 d.

–– Half equation for the reactions at both electrodes / Persamaan setengah untuk tindak balas di kedua-dua elektrod. . Huraikan satu eksperimen di dalam makmal untuk menyadur sebatang sudu besi.indd 103 12/9/2011 5:56:30 PM m . (b) Copper(II) nitrate solution Larutan kuprum(II) nitrat is poured into a beaker until half full . Your answer should involve the following: Copper Iron spoon Procedure / Kaedah: Copper(II) nitrate solution (a) Copper plate and iron spoon are cleaned with Kepingan kuprum dan sudu besi dibersihkan dengan sand paper kertas pasir . Sudu besi bateri// disambungkan kepada terminal negatif bateri dan Sudu besi dijadikan katod dan kepingan kuprum dicelup ke dalam / Litar dilengkapkan . dituangkan ke dalam bikar sehingga separuh penuh . hd 103 Nila 05-Chem F4 (3P). larutan kuprum(II) nitrat seperti ditunjukkan dalam rajah. –– Procedure / Kaedah. terenap. –– Observation at both electrodes / Pemerhatian di kedua-dua elektrod. (e) The circuit is completed Cu2+ + 2e Cu . To purify metal an impure metal / Untuk menulenkan logam tak tulen: Logam tak tulen impure metal (a) The is used as the anode / (b) The pure metal Logam tulen dijadikan sebagai katod. Copper plate becomes thinner (i) Observation of the anode / Pemerhatian di anod : Cu Cu2+ + 2e . (c) is then connected to the negative terminal of battery while the copper plate is connected to the positive terminal of the battery// Iron spoon is made as cathode while copper plate is made as anode. (f) Half equation at the cathode / Persamaan setengah di katod : (g) Observation of the cathode: Brown solid is deposited / Pemerhatian di katod: pepejal perang (h) Half equation at the anode / Persamaan setengah di anod : . Publicat n io Sdn. disambungkan kepada terminal positif Iron spoon (d) The iron spoon and the copper plate are dipped in the Sudu besi dan plat kuprum copper(II) nitrate solution as shown in the diagram. is used as the cathode / salt solution (c) The electrolyte used is an containing the ions of the purifying metal. Answer / Jawapan: A student intends to electroplate an iron spoon with copper. kepingan kuprum dijadikan anod.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE (a) State the name of the substance used as / Nyatakan nama bahan yang dijadikan sebagai: electrode X / elektrod X : Impure copper : Pure copper electrolyte Z / elektrolit Z : Copper(II) sulphate solution electrode Y / elektrod Y Cu2+ + 2e Cu (b) Write the half equation that occur at the / Tuliskan persamaan setengah yang berlaku di Cu Cu2+ + 2e electrode X / elektrod X : electrode Y / elektrod Y : (c) What are the observations at the / Apakah pemerhatian di electrode X / elektrod X : Electrode becomes thinner 4 electrode Y / elektrod Y : Brown solid deposited dijadikan sebagai anod. 5 Elektrolit adalah larutan garam yang mengandungi ion logam yang hendak ditulenkan. Describe a laboratory experiment to electroplate the iron ring. B . Jawapan anda perlu mengandungi: –– A labelled diagram showing the set-up of apparatus / Rajah berlabel menunjukkan susunan radas. Seorang pelajar bercadang untuk menyadurkan sebatang sudu besi dengan kuprum.

Zn2+. ELECTROCHEMICAL SERIES / SIRI ELEKTROKIMIA 1 2 Electrochemical Series is an arrangement of positive ion. Kepingan kuprum menipis . Ag Kecenderungan untuk atom logam melepaskan/menderma elektron bertambah (keelektropositifan bertambah) Tendency of metal atom to release/donate electrons increases (electropositivity increases) 3 The position of metal ions (cation) in the Electrochemical Series / Kedudukan ion logam (kation) dalam Siri Elektrokimia: K+. dari larutan argentum nitrat. katod . Kuprum Explanation / Penerangan: Silver ion receives electrons to form –– Ion argentum silver menerima elektron membentuk atom argentum . Zn . . solid –– The blue solution is Larutan biru adalah copper(II) nitrate kuprum(II) nitrat . Copper Larutan tidak berwarna bertukar menjadi biru. Fe2+. . Siri Elektrokimia ialah susunan logam metals according to their tendency to release electrons to form a positif . Ca.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 6 To electroplate an object with metal / Untuk menyadur sesuatu objek dengan logam: (a) The metal object to be electroplated is made to be cathode / Objek yang hendak disadur dijadikan anod anode . Cu + 2AgNO3 –– Copper is above more Cu(NO3)2 + 2Ag . Mg2+.Pb. Sn2+. –– The colourless solution turns blue. Na. grey –– A deposited. Mg. Example / Contoh: Experiment / Eksperimen Silver nitrate solution Larutan argentum nitrat Observation / Pemerhatian –– Copper strip becomes thinner . Al. Pepejal kelabu terenap. Nil a silver in the Electrochemical Series of metal. 05-Chem F4 (3P). Bh 12/9/2011 5:56:31 PM . Remark / Catatan Inference / Inferens: grey solid is –– The Pepejal kelabu adalah silver argentum . Cu2+ Kecenderungan untuk ion logam (kation) untuk menerima elektron bertambah Tendency of metal ion (cation) to receive/gain electrons increases *H+ is also in the series of ion because it is present in aqueous solution of any electrolyte (salt solution/acid/alkali) * H+ juga terdapat dalam siri ion kerana kehadiran ion H+ dalam elektrolit larutan akueus (larutan garam/asid/alkali) METAL DISPLACEMENT REACTION / TINDAK BALAS PENYESARAN LOGAM 1 2 Logam yang berada di kedudukan atas (kecenderungan melepaskan elektron yang tinggi) dalam Siri Elektrokimia dapat menyesarkan logam yang di bawahnya daripada larutan garam logam tersebut. atom. mengikut kecenderungan melepaskan elektron membentuk ion bercas The position of metal atoms in Electrochemical Series / Kedudukan atom logam dalam Siri Elektrokimia: K. Pb2+. Elektrolit yang digunakan adalah larutan akueus garam yang mengandungi ion logam penyadur. Al3+. The metal which is situated at a higher position (higher tendency to release electron) in the Electrochemical Series is metals able to displace below it from its salt solution . Ca2+. *H+. Fe. –– Copper atom releases electrons to form Atom kuprum melepaskan elektron membentuk copper(II) ion ion kuprum(II) –– Copper has displaced Kuprum telah menyesarkan silver argentum from silver nitrate solution. electropositive than silver// Copper is lebih elektropositif daripada argentum //Kuprum Kuprum adalah di atas terletak argentum dalam Siri Elektrokimia logam. Sn .indd 104 d. . Cu.. . m Publica tio 104 n Sdn.. Na+. (b) The electroplating metal is made to be / Logam penyadur dijadikan (c) The electrolyte used is an aqueous salt solution containing the ions of the electroplating metal.

Kepingan magnesium menipis . zink daripada larutan zink sulfat. A cell that produces electrical energy when chemical reactions occur in it. antara dua logam dalam Siri Elektrokimia di mana semakin jauh dua logam dalam Siri 5 A more electropositive metal becomes the positive terminal: negative terminal of the cell. Inference / Inferens: –– No reaction occur. Tiada tindak balas berlaku. Ion kuprum(II) menerima elektron membentuk atom kuprum. Inference / Inferens: –– The brown solid is Pepejal perang adalah copper . B . Explanation / Penerangan: –– Copper cannot displace Kuprum tidak boleh zinc from zinc sulphate solution. VOLTAIC CELL (CHEMICAL CELL) / SEL RINGKAS (SEL KIMIA) 1 2 3 4 Sel yang menghasilkan tenaga elektrik apabila berlaku tindak balas kimia di dalamnya. the Voltan sel kimia bergantung pada tinggi Elektrokimia. electropositive than copper// Magnesium –– Magnesium is above copper in the Electrochemical Series of metal. A less electropositive metal becomes the sel.indd 105 12/9/2011 5:56:31 PM m . –– The brown deposited. . solid –– The colourless solution is Larutan tidak berwarna adalah magnesium sulphate magnesium sulfat . Logam yang kurang elektropositif akan menjadi terminal Logam yang lebih elektropositif akan menjadi terminal positif sel: negatif Publicat n io Sdn. . Larutan biru bertukar menjadi tidak berwarna. hd 105 Nila 05-Chem F4 (3P). kuprum . Explanation / Penerangan: –– Copper(II) ion receives electrons to form copper atom. Magnesium Magnesium –– Magnesium has displaced solution. distance higher between the two metals in the Electrochemical Series. –– The blue solution turn colourless. –– Magnesium atom releases electrons to form Atom magnesium melepaskan elektron membentuk magnesium ion ion magnesium . is Magnesium adalah di atas terletak elektropositif daripada kuprum// magnesium kuprum dalam Siri Elektrokimia logam. Magnesium telah menyesarkan copper kuprum from copper(II) sulphate dari larutan kuprum(II) sulfat. Mg + Cu SO4 more MgSO4 + Cu . Copper / Kuprum below Kuprum adalah kurang elektropositif daripada zink // kuprum terletak di bawah zink dalam Siri Elektrokimia logam. menyesarkan more electropositive than zinc// Copper is –– Copper is zinc in the Electrochemical Series of metal. Energy change in voltaic cell is chemical energy to Produced when two different electrical energy . . Pepejal perang terenap. where is the voltage.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE Larutan kuprum (II) sulfat Copper(II) sulphate solution –– Magnesium strip becomes thinner . Terhasil apabila dua logam The voltage of chemical cell depends on the the further the distance between them. Tiada perubahan yang dapat diperhatikan. Perubahan tenaga dalam sel ringkas ialah dari tenaga kimia kepada berlainan elektrolit tenaga elektrik metals are dipped in an electrolyte and are connected by an dicelup dalam dan disambung dengan litar luar . lebih Zinc nitrate solution Larutan zink sulfat No observable changes. external circuit . semakin jarak voltannya.

Bh 12/9/2011 5:56:31 PM .indd 106 d. Mg2+. Cu + 2e Cu –– Half equation / Persamaan setengah : . Keamatan (d) If the magnesium metal is replaced with a zinc metal. The intensity of blue colour of copper(II) sulphate decreases. : • Metal atom will release electrons that will flow through the external circuit. Logam kurang elektropositif. 05-Chem F4 (3P). • The electrons that flow from the external circuit are received by the positive ion in the electrolyte through this terminal. Atom logam menjadi ion logam (semakin nipis). Metal atom becomes metal ion (becomes thinner). 6 Atom logam akan melepaskan elektron yang akan mengalir di litar luar. Jika logam magnesium digantikan dengan logam zink. –– Pepejal perang terenap di permukaan elektrod kuprum. kerana ion kuprum(II) dinyahcaskan kepada atom kuprum. –– Electron flows through external circuit to the Elektron mengalir melalui litar luar ke elektrod electrode.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 Electrical current produced is detected by the galvanometer Electrical energy) (Chemical energy Arus elektrik terhasil dikesan oleh galvanometer (Tenaga kimia Tenaga elektrik) G Negative terminal / Terminal negatif • More electropositive metal. . Elektron yang akan mengalir dari litar luar diterima oleh ion positif dalam elektrolit melalui terminal ini. the voltage reading copper in the electrochemical series. –– Copper(II) Ion ion in the electrolyte dalam elektrolit receives + electron to form copper atom. Logam lebih elektropositif. : _ _ G _ _ + + + + Positive terminal / Terminal positif • Less electropositive metal. Elektron dari magnesium mengalir melalui litar luar ke elektrod kuprum. (c) The concentration of copper(II) sulphate decreases because copper(II) ions discharged to copper atom at the positive terminal. bacaan voltan akan dalam siri elektrokimia. nipis thinner / Elektrod magnesium menjadi copper . Kepekatan larutan kuprum(II) sulfat berkurang warna biru larutan kuprum(II) sulfat berkurang. elektron untuk membentuk ion magnesium. kuprum(II) menerima elektron untuk membentuk atom kuprum. electropositive elektropositif kuprum (b) Copper electrode is a positive terminal because copper is less positif kerana kuprum kurang than magnesium magnesium : : Elektrod kuprum adalah terminal daripada –– Electrons from magnesium flow through external circuit to copper electrode. Brown solid is deposited on the surface of copper electrode. Mg2+. Example of simple voltaic cell / Contoh voltan sel ringkas: V V Copper Magnesium Magnesium Kuprum Copper(II) sulphate solution Larutan kuprum(II) sulfat (a) Magnesium electrode is a negative terminal because magnesium is more kerana magnesium lebih elektropositif electropositive daripada than copper : Elektrod magnesium adalah terminal negatif kuprum : –– Magnesium atom Atom magnesium releases electrons to form magnesium ion. melepaskan –– Half equation / Persamaan setengah : –– Magnesium electrode becomes Mg Mg2+ + 2e . decreases because zinc is nearer to berkurang kerana zink lebih dekat dengan kuprum Nil a m Publica tio 106 n Sdn.

Zn / ZnSO4 // CuSO4 / Cu (b) The function of porous pot or salt bridge is to allow the flow of ions through it so that the electric circuit is completed. terenap di permukaan elektrod kuprum. kerana ion kuprum(II) telah dinyahcaskan kepada atom kuprum. copper electrode dipped in copper(II) sulphate solution and connected by a salt bridge or porous pot. The intensity of blue colour of copper(II) sulphate decreases. Cu . Keamatan (g) If zinc metal is replaced with a magnesium metal. lebih Publicat n io Sdn. Kepekatan larutan kuprum(II) sulfat berkurang warna biru kuprum(II) sulfat berkurang. electropositive elektropositif (e) Copper electrode is a positive terminal because copper is less positif kerana kuprum kurang than zinc zink : : Elektrod kuprum adalah terminal daripada –– Electrons from zinc electrode flow through external circuit to copper electrode. kuprum(II) menerima elektron untuk membentuk atom kuprum. nipis . –– Half equation / Persamaan setengah : –– Brown solid Pepejal perang + 2e is deposited on the surface of copper electrode.indd 107 12/9/2011 5:56:31 PM m . kuprum –– Electrons flow through external circuit to the Elektron mengalir melalui litar luar ke elektrod electrode. bacaan voltan bertambah kerana jarak antara magnesium dengan kuprum jauh daripada jarak antara zink dengan kuprum dalam Siri Elektrokimia. elektron untuk membentuk ion zink.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE 7 Daniell cell / Sel Daniell (a) It is an example of voltaic cell which consists of zinc electrode dipped in zinc sulphate solution. elektrod kuprum dicelupkan ke dalam larutan kuprum(II) sulfat dan dihubungkan dengan titian garam atau pasu berliang.. B . Sulphuric acid Asid sulfurik Copper Copper Zinc Zinc sulphate Zink sulfat Zink Kuprum Kuprum Zinc / Zink Zinc sulphate Zink sulfat Larutan kuprum(II) sulfat Copper(II) sulphate solution Larutan kuprum(II) sulfat Copper(II) sulphate solution Porous pot Pasu berliang (d) Zinc electrode is a negative terminal because zinc is more negatif kerana zink adalah lebih 2+ electropositive elektropositif than daripada copper kuprum : : Elektrod zink adalah terminal –– Zinc atom Atom zink releases melepaskan electron to form zinc ion. (f) The concentration of copper(II) sulphate decreases because copper(II) ions are discharged to copper atoms. (c) The diagram below shows the set-up of apparatus of Daniell cell. increases because magnesium is Jika logam zink digantikan dengan logam magnesium. Elektron dari zink mengalir melalui litar luar ke elektrod kuprum. Merupakan satu contoh sel kimia yang terdiri daripada elektrod zink yang dicelup ke dalam larutan zink sulfat. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan susunan radas bagi sel Daniell. –– Half equation / Persamaan setengah : –– Zinc electrode becomes thinner Zn Zn2+ + 2e . Fungsi pasu berliang atau titian garam adalah untuk membenarkan ion-ion mengalir melaluinya dan melengkapkan litar. Zn . / Elektrod zink menjadi copper . the voltage reading further from copper in the Electrochemical Series. –– Copper(II) Ion ion in the electrolyte dalam elektrolit receives Cu 2+ electron to form copper atom. hd 107 Nila 05-Chem F4 (3P). Zn2+.

Logam yang kurang elektropositif ialah terminal positif sel. Tiada tindak balas. Copper .MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 8 Four main uses of the Electrochemical Series / Kegunaan utama Siri Elektrokimia: (a) To predict the terminal of chemical cell / Untuk meramalkan terminal sel kimia –– The more electropositive metal is the negative terminal of the cell. (a) Based on the results in the table. Experiment I / Eksperimen I Experiment II / Eksperimen II The table below shows the results of an experiment to construct the Electrochemical Series through the ability of metals to displace other metals from their salt solution. (iii) write the chemical equation for the reaction / tuliskan persamaan kimia untuk tindak balas. zink dan R dalam tertib menurun keelektropositifan. 05-Chem F4 (3P). –– The less electropositive metal is the positive terminal of the cell.indd 108 d. R. the higher is the voltage of the chemical cell. semakin tinggi bacaan voltan sel kimia. Berdasarkan keputusan dalam jadual. susunkan logam P. zinc and R in descending order of electropositivity. Zinc is more electropositive than P . (d) To predict the selected ion to be discharged at the electrode in an electrolysis Untuk meramalkan pemilihan ion untuk dinyahcas di elektrod dalam proses elektrolisis Semakin jauh jarak antara dua logam dalam Siri Elektrokimia. larutan biru bertukar menjadi tanpa warna. Logam yang lebih elektropositif dapat menyesarkan logam yang kurang elektropositif daripada larutan garamnya. P (b) Based on the observation in Experiment I / Berdasarkan pemerhatian dalam Eksperimen I. (c) To predict the metal displacement reactions / Untuk meramalkan tindak balas penyesaran logam –– The more electropositive metal can displace a less electropositive metal from its salt solution. (ii) zinc can displace metal P from P nitrate solution. Terangkan. Logam P disesarkan. Logam yang lebih elektropositif ialah terminal negatif sel. Zn. . arrange metal P . Explain. (b) To predict the voltage of chemical cell / Untuk meramalkan voltan sel kimia –– The further the distance between two metals in the Electrochemical Series. Bh 12/9/2011 5:56:32 PM . No reaction. (i) state the name the suitable metal P / namakan logam yang sesuai bagi P. Zn + Cu(NO3 )2 Zn(NO3 )2 + Cu Nil a m Publica tio 108 n Sdn. EXERCISE / LATIHAN 1 Jadual di bawah menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen untuk membina Siri Elektrokimia berdasarkan keupayaan suatu logam untuk menyesarkan logam lain dari larutan garamnya. P nitrate solution Larutan P nitrat R nitrate solution Larutan R nitrat Zinc / Zink Zinc / Zink Metal P is displaced. zink boleh menyesarkan logam P daripada larutan P nitrat. blue colour solution turn colourless.

50 0. Nyatakan logam yang manakah akan bertindak sebagai terminal positif. X. X. Metal X is less electropositive than metal Z. Susunkan logam W. (b) (i) Logam X dan Z digunakan sebagai terminal dalam rajah. Y. hd 109 Nila 05-Chem F4 (3P). Y and Z based on the potential difference of the metals. X.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE 2 Rajah di bawah menunjukkan susunan radas bagi eksperimen untuk menentukan kedudukan logam W. W . Z. X. (c) Predict the voltage of the cell in (b)(i) / Ramalkan nilai voltan dalam sel di (b)(i). Metals X and Z are used as electrodes in the diagram. State which metal acts as positive terminal. Y dan Z berdasarkan beza upaya logam. Copper Kuprum Kuprum Copper Zinc Zink Copper(II) sulphate solution Cell X / Sel X Larutan kuprum(II) sulfat Cell Y / Sel Y Publicat n io Sdn. The diagram below shows the set-up of apparatus for two types of cell.indd 109 12/9/2011 5:56:32 PM m . B . Metal X (ii) Give reason for your answer in (b)(i) / Berikan sebab untuk jawapan anda di (b)(i). 0. . Pair of metals Pasangan logam The table below shows the results of the experiment. Y and Z in descending order of the electropositivity of metal. Y dan Z dalam tertib menurun keelektropositifan logam.10 X Y Z X and Y W and Z W dan Z (a) Arrange metals W. The diagram below shows the set-up of the apparatus to arrange metals W. X.6 V 3 Rajah di bawah menunjukkan susunan radas untuk dua jenis sel. V Metal electrode Metal electrode Elektrod logam Elektrod logam Electrolyte / Elektrolit Jadual di bawah menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen. Potential difference (V) Beza keupayaan (V) Negative terminal Terminal negatif W and X W dan X X dan Y 0.30 1.

The diagram below shows the set-up of apparatus for an experiment. anod dan katod bagi Sel B.indd 110 d.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 Lengkapkan jadual berikut untuk membandingkan sel X dan sel Y : Description Perkara Complete the following table to compare cell X and cell Y : Cell X Sel X Cell Y Sel Y Type of cell Jenis sel Electrolytic cell Electrical energy Chemical energy Chemical cell Chemical energy Electrical energy The energy change Perubahan tenaga Ion hadir dalam elektrolit Ion presence in the electrolyte Cu2+. terminal positif dan terminal negatif bagi Sel A. H+. label Dalam gambar rajah di atas. Bh 12/9/2011 5:56:32 PM . SO42–. OH– Anode / Anod: Copper Cathode / Katod: Copper Anode / Anod: Cu Cu2+ + 2e Cu 2+ Cathode / Katod: Cu + 2e Cu2+. label (i) (ii) the positive terminal and negative terminal Cell A. (b) What is the energy change in Cell A and Cell B? Apakah perubahan tenaga dalam Sel A dan Sel B? Nil a Cell A / Sel A : Chemical energy to electrical energy Cell B / Sel B : Electrical energy to chemical energy m Publica tio 110 n Sdn. SO42–. OH– Negative terminal / Terminal negatif : Zinc Positive terminal / Terminal positif : Copper Negative terminal / Terminal negatif : Zn Zn2+ + 2e Cu 2+ Positive terminal / Terminal positif : Cu + 2e Electrode Elektrod Persamaan setengah Half equation Observation Pemerhatian Anode / Anod: Copper electrode becomes thinner Cathode / Katod: Brown solid deposited Electrolyte / Elektrolit: Intensity blue colour of copper(II) sulphate remains unchanged Negative terminal / Terminal negatif : Zinc electrode becomes thinner Positive terminal / Terminal positif : Brown solid deposited Electrolyte / Elektrolit: Intensity blue colour of copper(II) sulphate decreases 4 Rajah di bawah menunjukkan susunan radas bagi suatu eksperimen. 05-Chem F4 (3P). H+. V Zinc / Zink – + Copper Kuprum Anode Cathode Copper Kuprum Zinc sulphate solution Larutan zink sulfat Copper(II) sulphate solution Porous pot Cell A / Set A Larutan kuprum(II) sulfat Pasu berliang Copper(II) sulphate solution Larutan kuprum(II) sulfat Cell B / Set B (a) In the above diagram. anode and cathode in Cell B.

Tuliskan persamaan setengah untuk tindak balas di anod. (e) Referring to Cell B. Explain why. – The intensity of blue colour decreases. B . Cu2+ + 2e Cu . Zn Zn2+ + 2e (iii) What is the observation at copper electrode / Apakah pemerhatian di elektrod kuprum? Brown solid deposited. (i) Apakah pemerhatian di anod? What is the observation at the anode? Copper electrode becomes thinner. Merujuk kepada Sel A. – The concentration of copper(II) sulphate remain unchanged. Jelaskan mengapa.indd 111 12/9/2011 5:56:32 PM m . – The rate of copper(II) ions discharged to copper atom at the cathode equals to the rate of copper atoms form copper(II) ions at the anode. Tuliskan persamaan setengah untuk tindak balas di elektrod zink. Selepas 30 minit. (iv) Write the half equation for the reaction at copper electrode. apakah perubahan warna larutan kuprum(II) sulfat? Jelaskan mengapa. Tuliskan persamaan setengah untuk tindak balas di katod. Tuliskan persamaan setengah untuk tindak balas di elektrod kuprum. – Concentration of copper(II) ions in copper(II) sulphate decreases. what is the colour change of the copper(II) sulphate solution? Explain why. (v) After 30 minutes. Apakah pemerhatian di elektrod zink? (i) What is the observation at zinc electrode? Zinc electrode becomes thinner. Keamatan warna biru larutan kuprum(II) sulfat dalam Sel B tidak berubah semasa eksperimen. (d) Referring to Cell A. (ii) Write the half equation for the reaction at zinc electrode. (ii) Write the half equation for the reaction at the anode. hd 111 Nila 05-Chem F4 (3P). Publicat n io Sdn.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE (c) What is the function of the porous pot in cell A? Apakah fungsi pasu berliang dalam Sel A? To allow the movement of ions through it. Cu2+ + 2e Cu (f) The intensity of blue colour of copper(II) sulphate solution in the Cell B remains unchanged during the experiment. (iv) Write the half equation for the reaction at copper electrode. – Copper(II) ions are discharged to form copper atoms. Merujuk kepada Sel B. Cu Cu2+ + 2e (iii) What is the observation at the cathode? Apakah pemerhatian di katod? Brown solid deposited.

yang manakah boleh menyalakan mentol apabila digunakan sebagai bahan X? A Copper(II) nitrate / Kuprum(II) nitrat B Lead(II) iodide / Plumbum(II) iodida C Zinc carbonate / Zink karbonat D Sodium carbonate / Natrium karbonat III 1.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 Objective Questions / Soalan Objektif 1 Antara berikut. Asid hidroklorik 1.indd 112 d. Electrode Elektrod Observation Pemerhatian Copper electrode X Elektrod kuprum X Copper electrode Y Elektrod kuprum Y Anode Anod A greenish-yellow gas released Gas kuning kehijauan terbebas Copper(II) sulphate solution Larutan kuprum(II) sulfat Cathode Katod A colorless gas which burns with a ‘pop’ sound is released Gas tanpa warna terbakar dengan bunyi ‘pop’ dibebaskan What can be observed at the electrodes X and Y after 30 minutes? Apakah yang dapat diperhatikan pada elektrod X dan Y selepas 30 minit? What is substance Q? Apakah bahan Q? A 1.0 mol dm–3 of copper(II) chloride solution. D 1. 05-Chem F4 (3P).0 mol dm–3 potassium iodide solution Asid nitrik 1.0 mol dm–3 nitric acid 3 The diagram below shows the set-up of apparatus for electrolysis of copper(II) sulphate solution. yang manakah adalah elektrolit? Which of the following is an electrolyte? A Glacial ethanoic acid Asid etanoik glasial Naftalena lebur C Copper electrode becomes thicker Gas bubbles are released Gelembung gas dibebaskan Elektrod kuprum semakin tebal Copper electrode becomes thinner Copper electrode becomes thicker Elektrod kuprum semakin nipis B Molten naphthalene C Aqueous solution of zinc chloride D Hydrogen chloride in methylbenzene Hidrogen klorida dalam metilbenzena Larutan akueus zink klorida 4 D Elektrod kuprum semakin tebal The diagram below shows the set-up of apparatus of an electrolysis process.0 mol dm–3 Asid sulfurik 1.0 mol dm–3 Which of the following compounds can light up the bulb when used as substance X? Antara berikut. Larutan kuprum(II) klorida 1.0 mol dm–3 hydrochloric acid II 1.0 mol dm–3 sulphuric acid Larutan kalium iodida 1. B 1.0 mol dm–3 of magnesium bromide solution. yang manakah membebaskan gas oksigen pada elektrod Q? Asid hidroklorik 1. Bh 12/9/2011 5:56:33 PM .0 mol dm–3.0 mol dm–3. C 1. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan susunan radas untuk elektrolisis bahan X.0 mol dm–3.0 mol dm–3 A I and II only / I dan II sahaja B II and III only / II dan III sahaja C II and IV only / II dan IV sahaja D II.0 mol dm–3 Heat 1. 2 The diagram below shows the set-up of apparatus used to electrolyse substance X.0 mol dm–3 of hydrochloric acid. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan susunan radas untuk elektrolisis larutan kuprum(II) sulfat.0 mol dm–3 of potassium nitrate solution. Larutan natrium nitrat 1.0 mol dm–3. Larutan magnesium bromida 1. Carbon electrode Elektrod karbon Electrolyte Elektrolit P Q Carbon electrode Elektrod karbon Elektrod karbon Carbon electrodes Substance X Bahan X Panaskan Which of the following electrolytes produce oxygen gas at electrode Q? I Antara elektrolit berikut. 5 The table below shows the observation of electrolysis of a substance Q using carbon electrode. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan sususnan radas untuk proses elektrolisis. III dan IV sahaja IV 1. III and IV only / II. Jadual di bawah menunjukkan pemerhatian bagi elektrolisis bahan Q menggunakan elektrod karbon. X A Copper electrode becomes thinner Copper electrode becomes thinner Y Copper electrode becomes thicker Gas bubbles are released Gelembung gas dibebaskan Elektrod kuprum semakin nipis Elektrod kuprum semakin tebal B Publica Elektrod kuprum semakin nipis Nil a m tio 112 n Sdn.

Q and R in ascending order of the tendency of the metals to form ions? A P .1 0. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan susunan radas yang digunakan untuk menulenkan kuprum tak tulen dengan menggunakan kaedah elektrolisis.0 V B 1.8 V Apakah beza upaya sel kimia apabila logam Y dipasangkan dengan logam Z? What is metal Q? Apakah logam Q? A Copper B Iron Kuprum Besi 9 The diagram below shows the set-up of apparatus in a chemical cell and electrolytic cell.Q D S. 8 The table below shows the information about three voltaic cells.3 1. Q B Q.1 V D 2. Jadual di bawah menunjukkan maklumat tentang tiga sel kimia. P Publicat n io Sdn.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE 6 The diagram below shows the set-up of apparatus of a Rajah di bawah menunjukkan susunan radas sel kimia yang menunjukkan arah pengaliran elektron ke logam Q. Pepejal perang terenap Gas tanpa warna terbebas Elektrod R semakin tebal Elektrod R semakin nipis Which of the following shows the correct position of pure copper and impure copper? Antara berikut. B Pure copper Kuprum tulen Impure copper Kuprum tak tulen Copper(II) sulphate solution Larutan kuprum(II) sulfat Metal Logam Nitrate of Q Nitrat bagi Q Nitrate of S Nitrat bagi S P Q – C D Impure copper Pure copper Kuprum tulen Kuprum tak tulen Pure copper Kuprum tulen Sulphuric acid Asid sulfurik Asid sulfurik Impure copper Kuprum tak tulen Sulphuric acid – reaction occur / tindak balas berlaku – no reaction / tiada tindak balas Which of the following is the arrangement of metals P . yang manakah merupakan pemerhatian pada elektrod R? Elektrolit Z B Electrode R becomes thicker C A colourless gas is released D A brown solid is deposited 10 The table below shows the results of an experiment to study the displacement of metal from its solution using other metals. S. Zinc Zink P Q Kuprum Copper R S Copper Zinc sulphate solution Kuprum Larutan zink sulfat Copper(II) sulphate solution Larutan kuprum(II) sulfat X Y Electrolyte Z Which of the following is the observation at electrode R? A Electrode R becomes thinner Antara berikut.3 V C 2.indd 113 12/9/2011 5:56:33 PM m . Q. P Antara berikut. yang manakah adalah susunan logam P. X Zink Dilute sodium chloride solution Larutan natrium klorida cair What is the potential difference of the voltaic cell when metal Y is paired with metal Z? A 1. Pair of metals Pasangan logam Terminal positif Positive terminal Z Y X Potential difference (V) Beza upaya (V) W. chemical cell that shows the direction of electron flow from zinc to metal Q. Y W.8 X. S. P . Q dan R dalam susunan menaik kecenderungan logam membentuk ion? C S. C Aluminium D Magnesium Magnesium 7 Aluminium The diagram below shows the set-up of apparatus used to purify impure copper by using electrolysis method. Z Q Zinc 3. yang manakah adalah kedudukan yang betul untuk kuprum tulen dan kuprum tak tulen? Electrode X Elektrod X Electrode Y Elektrod Y Electrolyte Z Elektrolit Z A Impure copper Kuprum tak tulen Pure copper Kuprum tulen Copper(II) sulphate solution Larutan kuprum(II) sulfat Jadual di bawah menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen untuk mengkaji penyesaran logam daripada larutan garamnya menggunakan logam lain. B . hd 113 Nila 05-Chem F4 (3P). Rajah di bawah menunjukkan susunan radas bagi sel kimia dan sel elekrolisis.

–– To explain why the acid and alkali properties do not show in the absence of water or in non-water solvent. Mengaitkan nilai pH dengan kepekatan ion H+ bagi asid dan ion OH– bagi alkali. Menghuraikan titratan asid dengan alkali dan menghitung kepekatan asid / alkali jika satu larutan piawai diberikan. Menyatakan maksud kebesan asid dan menulis persamaan pengionan asid monoprotik dan diprotik. –– To write chemical equations involving alkalis with acids and ammonium salts. Menerangkan mengapa sifat asid dan alkali tidak ditunjukkan tanpa kehadiran air atau dalam pelarut bukan air. Menyenaraikan contoh dan menulis persamaan pengionan bagi asid kuat / lemah dan alkali kuat / lemah. ACID AND ALKALI CONCENTRATION / KEPEKATAN ASID DAN ALKALI –– To state the meaning of concentration in g dm–3 and mol dm–3 / Menyatakan maksud kepekatan dalam unit g dm–3 dan mol dm–3. ROLE OF WATER IN ACIDS AND ALKALI / PERANAN AIR DALAM ASID DAN ALKALI –– To explain why the acid and alkali properties are shown in the presence of water. 06-Chem F4 (3P). Menulis persamaan tindak balas kimia alkali dengan asid dan dengan garam ammonium. –– To relate the basicity of acid/alkali with pH values / Mengaitkan kebesan asid /alkali dengan nilai pH. –– To solve numerical problems involving neutralisation / Menyelesaikan masalah pengiraan berkaitan peneutralan.indd 114 d. Bh 12/9/2011 5:55:53 PM . • STRONG / WEAK ACID AND STRONG / WEAK ALKALI / ASID KUAT / LEMAH DAN ALKALI KUAT / LEMAH –– To list examples and equations for the ionisation of strong / weak acid and strong / weak alkali. Nil a m Publica tio 114 n Sdn. –– To state the meaning of standard solution and to describe the preparation of standard solution. 1 000 • NEUTRALISATION OF ACID AND ALKALI / TINDAK BALAS PENEUTRALAN ASID DAN ALKALI –– To describe the titration of acid with alkali and to calculate acid / alkali concentrations if a standard solution are given. –– To describe the type of indicators used and the colour changes at the end-point. give examples and write chemical equations and observations for the reaction of acids: Menyatakan maksud asid. • BASE / ALKALI / BES / ALKALI –– To state the meaning of base and to correlate base with alkali / Menyatakan maksud bes dan mengaitkan bes dengan alkali.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 6 ACID AND BASES ASID DAN BES ACID AND BASES / ACID DAN BES • ACID / ASID –– To state the meaning of acid. Menyatakan jenis penunjuk yang digunakan dan perubahan warna penunjuk pada takat akhir. –– To relate the pH value with the concentration of H+ ion for the acids and OH– ions for alkalis. Menerangkan mengapa sifat asid dan alkali ditunjukkan dengan kehadiran air. –– To solve various problems with calculations related to the preparation of standard solution using n = 1 000 Menyelesaikan pelbagai masalah pengiraan berkaitan penyediaan larutan piawai menggunakan formula n = MV . MV . –– To relate the pH value with the strength of acid / alkali / Mengaitkan nilai pH dengan kekuatan asid / alkali. pH SCALE / SKALA pH –– To state the meaning of pH / Menyatakan maksud pH. memberi contoh dan menulis persamaan tindak balas kimia dan pemerhatian bagi tindak balas asid: (i) with carbonates / dengan karbonat (ii) with metals / dengan logam (iii) with bases / dengan bes • BASICITY OF AN ACID / KEBESAN ASID –– To state the meaning of basicity of an acid and to write equations for the ionisation of monoprotic and diprotic acids. Menyatakan maksud larutan piawai dan menghuraikan eksperimen penyediaan larutan piawai.

Hydrochloric is monoprotic acid because one molecule of hydrochloric acid ionises to Asid hidroklorik ialah sejenis asid monoprotik kerana satu molekul asid hidroklorik mengion kepada one satu hydrogen ion. However this ion can be written as H+. H3O+. –– Triprotic: One acid molecule ionises to Triprotik: Satu molekul asid mengion kepada 5 three tiga hydrogen ion. –– Monoprotic: One acid molecule ionises to Monoprotik: Satu molekul asid mengion kepada one satu hydrogen ion. ion hidrogen. molekul hidrogen klorida mengion kepada ion hidrogen dan ion klorida dalam larutan akueus. ion ini boleh ditulis sebagai H+. Examples of acid and their basicity / Contoh-contoh asid dan kebesannya: Ionisation of acid Pengionan asid Bilangan ion hidrogen dihasilkan bagi setiap molekul asid Number of hydrogens ion produce per molecule of acid Basicity of acid Kebesan asid HNO3 (aq/ak ) Nitric acid Asid nitrik Ion hidrogen – + NO3 (aq) Hydrogen ion Nitrate ion H+(aq) One Monoprotic Ion nitrat Asid sulfurik H2SO4 (aq/ak ) Sulphuric acid Ion hidrogen 2– + SO4 (aq) Hydrogen ion Sulphate ion 2H+(aq) Two Diprotic Ion sulfat H3PO4 (aq/ak ) Phosphoric acid Asid fosforik 3H+(aq) Hydrogen ion Ion hidrogen 3– + PO4 (aq) Phosphate ion Three Triprotic Ion fosfat *CH3COOH (aq/ak ) Ethanoic acid Asid etanoik Ion etanoat CH3COO–(aq) + H+(aq) Ethanoate ion Hydrogen ion Ion hidrogen One Monoprotic *Not all hydrogen atoms in ethanoic acid are ionisable / *Bukan semua ion hidrogen dalam asid etanoik boleh mengion Publicat n io Sdn. hydrogen chloride molecule ionises to hydrogen ion and chloride ion in aqueous solution. ion hidrogen. ion hidrogen. H3O+. HCl (aq / ak ) Hydrochloric acid / Asid hidroklorik H+ (aq / ak ) Hydrogen ion / Ion hidrogen + Cl– (aq / ak ) Chloride ion / Ion klorida (c) An aqueous hydrogen ion. –– Diprotic: One acid molecule ionises to Diprotik: Satu molekul asid mengion kepada two dua hydrogen ion. Gas hidrogen klorida ialah *sebatian kovalen wujud dalam bentuk molekul. H+(ak) ialah ion hidrogen yang bergabung dengan molekul air membentuk ion hidroksonium. Asid mempunyai rasa yang masam dan menukar kertas litmus biru lembap menjadi merah. Acid tastes sour and turns moist blue litmus to red. Walau bagaimanapun. Apabila hidrogen klorida melarut dalam air. This aqueous solution is called hydrochloric acid.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE ACID / ASID 1 2 3 Acid is a chemical substance which ionises in water to produce hydrogen ion. hd 115 Nila 06-Chem F4 (3P).indd 115 12/9/2011 5:55:53 PM m . (b) As hydrogen chloride dissolves in water. B . H+(aq) is actually the hydrogen ion combined with water molecule to form hydroxonium ion. Example of acid is hydrochloric acid / Contoh asid ialah asid hidroklorik : (a) Hydrogen chloride gas is a *covalent compound exist in the form of molecule. Asid ialah bahan kimia yang mengion dalam air menghasilkan ion hidrogen. Ion hidrogen akueus. ion hidrogen. HCl (g) + H2O(l/ce) H3O+ (aq/ak ) + Cl– (aq/ak ) Hidrogen klorida Hydrogen chloride Ion hidroksonium Ion hydroxonium Ion klorida Ion klorida The ionisation of hydrochloric acid is represented as: H3O+ Ion hydroxonium 4 Ion hidroksonium H+(aq/ak ) Ion hidrogen Ion hidrogen + H2O Pengionan asid hidroklorik diwakili oleh: HCl (aq/ak) H+ (aq/ak) + Cl– (aq/ak) Basicity of an acid is the number of ionisable of hydrogen atom per molecule of an acid molecule in an aqueous solution / Kebesan asid ialah bilangan atom hidrogen yang boleh mengion bagi setiap molekul asid dalam larutan akueus. Larutan akueus itu dipanggil asid hidroklorik.

The bases that can dissolve in water (soluble bases) are known as alkali. (c) Other examples of alkalis are barium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide. – NH3 (g) + H2O (l/ce ) NH+ 4 (aq/ak ) + OH (aq/ak ) Alkali mempunyai rasa yang pahit. Kuprum(II) oksida (bes) bertindak balas dengan asid sulfurik menghasilkan kuprum(II) sulfat (garam) dan air. pengionan berlaku menghasilkan ion hidroksida. slippery and turns moist red litmus to blue. ionisation occur to produce a hydroxide ion. Alkali is a base that is soluble in water and ionises to hydroxide ion. Contohnya. Natrium hidroksida dan kalium hidroksida larut dalam air dan dipanggil sebagai alkali manakala magnesium oksida dan zink oksida dipanggil sebagai bes kerana tidak terlarut dalam air. licin dan menukarkan kertas litmus merah lembap kepada biru. Kebanyakan bes ialah oksida logam atau hidroksida logam yang merupakan sebatian ion. For example. Larutan ammonia diperoleh dengan melarutkan molekul ammonia dalam air. Bh 12/9/2011 5:55:53 PM . zinc oxide. Alkali tastes bitter. OH–. sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide. Bes ialah sejenis bahan kimia yang bertindak balas dengan asid menghasilkan garam dan air sahaja.indd 116 d. Natrium hidroksida terlarut dalam air dan mengion kepada ion hidroksida. Bes yang boleh melarut dalam air (bes larut) dikenali sebagai alkali. Zink hidroksida (bes) bertindak balas dengan asid hidroklorik menghasilkan zink klorida (garam) dan air. 2 3 4 5 CuO + H2SO4 CuSO4 + H2O (b) Zinc hydroxide (a base) reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce zinc chloride (a salt) and water. Sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide are soluble in water and they are called alkali whereas magnesium oxide and zinc oxide are called bases as they are insoluble in water. natrium hidroksida dan kalium hidroksida. ZnCl2 H2O Zn(OH)2 + 2HCl + Most bases are metal oxide or metal hydroxide which are ionic compound. Contoh-contoh bes ialah magnesium oksida. (a) Copper(II) oxide (a base) reacts with sulphuric acid to produce copper(II) sulphate (a salt) and water.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 BASES / BES 1 Bases is a chemical substance that reacts with acid to produce salt and water only. For example. 6 Contoh alkali lain adalah barium hidroksida dan kalsium hidroksida. 06-Chem F4 (3P). EXERCISE / LATIHAN Complete the following table / Lengkapkan jadual berikut : Soluble base (alkali) / Bes terlarut (alkali) Name / Nama Sodium oxide Natrium oksida Kalium oksida Insoluble base / Bes tak terlarut Name / Nama Kuprum(II) oksida Formula / Formula Na2O K2O NH3 NaOH KOH Ba(OH)2 Ionisation equation / Persamaan pengionan Na2O(s) + H2O 2NaOH(aq) NaOH(aq) Na+ (aq) + OH– (aq) K2O(s) + H2O 2KOH(aq) KOH(aq) K+ (aq) + OH– (aq) NH3(g)+ H2O NaOH(aq) KOH(aq) Ba(OH)2(aq) NH4+(aq) + OH–(aq) Na+ (aq) + OH– (aq) K+ (aq) + OH– (aq) Ba2+(aq) + 2OH– (aq) Formula / Formula CuO Cu(OH)2 Zn(OH)2 Al2O3 Pb(OH)2 Mg(OH)2 Copper(II) oxide Potassium oxide Copper(II) hydroxide Kuprum(II) hidroksida Zink hidroksida Ammonia Ammonia Zinc hydroxide Sodium hydroxide Natrium hidroksida Kalium hidroksida Aluminium oksida Aluminium oxide Potassium hydroxide Barium hydroxide Barium hidroksida Lead(II) hydroxide Plumbum(II) hidroksida Magnesium hidroksida Magnesium hydroxide Bases that can dissolve in water (soluble bases) are known as alkali / Bes yang larut dalam air (bes larut) dipanggil alkali Nil a m Publica tio 116 n Sdn. Alkali ialah bes yang larut dalam air dan mengion kepada ion hidroksida. Example of bases are magnesium oxide. OH–. Contohnya. zink oksida. (a) Sodium hydroxide dissolves in water and ionises to hydroxide ion. NaOH (aq/ak ) Na+ (aq/ak ) + OH– (aq/ak ) (b) Ammonia solution is obtained by dissolving ammonia molecule in water.

B . (d) The observations are recorded. n io Sdn. CaCO3 + 2HCl (c) The gas released is passed through lime water as shown in the diagram. hd Publicat 117 Nila 06-Chem F4 (3P). Satu spatula serbuk magnesium ditambah kepada asid.indd 117 12/9/2011 5:55:53 PM m . Inference / Inferens : When the –– Calcium carbonate gas passed reacts with nitric acid. logam-logam di atas hidrogen dalam Siri Elektrokimia boleh menyesarkan hidrogen daripada asid) Serbuk magnesium Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2 Inference / Inferens : –– Magnesium reacts with hydrochloric acid. –– Hydrogen gas is released. Magnesium bertindak balas dengan asid hidroklorik. through lime Kalsium karbonat water. bunyi ‘pop’ dihasilkan. Semua pemerhatian direkodkan. Pepejal putih terlarut. Apabila kayu uji menyala didekatkan pada mulut tabung uji. gas tersebut dilalukan melalui air kapur. –– Gas bubbles are released. Sebanyak 5 cm3 asid hidroklorik cair dimasukkan ke dalam tabung uji. Gas yang dibebaskan dilalukan melalui air kapur seperti ditunjukkan dalam rajah.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACID / SIFAT-SIFAT KIMIA ASID 1 Acid react with metal. Gas karbon dioksida terbebas. Sebanyak 5 cm3 asid hidroklorik cair dimasukkan ke dalam tabung uji. Gelembung gas dibebaskan. Pepejal kelabu terlarut. dalam analisis kualitatif garam (Tajuk Garam) (b) One spatula of calcium carbonate powder is added into the test tube. bes/alkali dan karbonat logam: Chemical properties Sifat-sifat kimia Example of experiment Contoh eksperimen Observation Pemerhatian Remark Catatan 1 Acid + Metal Asid + Logam Garam + Hidrogen Salt + Hydrogen Zinc + Hydrochloric acid Zink + Asid hidroklorik –– The grey solid dissolves. acids do not Kayu uji menyala react with copper and silver (type of Hydrochloric acid reaction is displacement. Penyediaan gas hidrogen dalam menentukan formula empirik kuprum(II) oksida (Tajuk Formula dan Persamaan Kimia) (d) The observations are recorded. asid tidak bertindak balas dengan kuprum dan argentum (jenis tindak balas ialah penyesaran. CaCl2 + H2O + CO2 –– Gas bubbles are released. Chemical equation: Persamaan kimia: *Application of the reaction: –– Preparation of soluble salt (Topic Salt) Penyediaan garam terlarut (Tajuk –– Confirmatory test for anion carbonate ion in qualitative analysis of salt (Topic Salt) Ujian pengesahan bagi ion karbonat Garam) Calcium carbonate / Kalsium karbonat (a) About 5 cm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid is poured into a test tube. ‘pop sound’ is produced. the lime bertindak balas dengan water turns asid hidroklorik. Semua pemerhatian direkodkan. (a) About 5 cm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid is poured into a test tube. Apabila is released. base / alkali and metal carbonate / Asid bertindak balas dengan logam. * Application of the reaction: * Aplikasi tindak balas: Penyediaan garam terlarut (Tajuk Garam) –– Preparation of soluble salt (Topic Salt) –– Preparation of hydrogen gas in determination of the empirical formula of copper(II) oxide (Topic Chemical Formula and Equation) (b) One spatula of magnesium powder is added to the acid. chalky. (c) A burning wooden splinter is placed at the mouth of the test tube. air kapur menjadi keruh. Chemical equation: Persamaan kimia: * Acid react with the metals that are Lighted wooden more electropositive than hydrogen splinter in electrochemical series. 2 Acid + Metal carbonate Water + Carbon dioxide Asid + Karbonat logam Karbon dioksida *Aplikasi tindak balas: Salt + Calcium carbonate + Nitric acid Kalsium karbonat + Asid nitrik Hydrochloric acid Asid hidroklorik Garam + Air + Lime water Air kapur –– The white solid dissolves. Satu spatula serbuk kalsium karbonat dimasukkan ke dalam asid. the metals Asid hidroklorik that are placed above hydrogen in Electrochemical Series can displace Magnesium powder hydrogen from acid) * Asid bertindak balas dengan logam-logam yang lebih elektropositif daripada hidrogen dalam Siri Elektrokimia. Gas hidrogen terbebas. When a burning wooden splinter is placed at the mouth of the test tube. Kayu uji menyala diletakkan pada mulut tabung uji. Gelembung gas –– Carbon dioxide gas terbebas.

MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 3 Acid + Base / Alkali Asid + Bes / Alkali Garam + Air Salt + Water Copper(II) oxide + Sulphuric acid Kuprum(II) oksida + Asid sulfurik Sulphuric acid / Asid sulfurik *Acid neutralises base/alkali * Asid meneutralkan bes/alkali *Aplikasi tindak balas: –– The black solid dissolves. 06-Chem F4 (3P).indd 118 d. Satu spatula serbuk kuprum(II) oksida ditambahkan kepda asid tersebut. (a) Dilute hydrochloric acid is poured into a beaker until half full. Larutan tanpa warna bertukar menjadi biru. Kuprum(II) oksida bertindak balas dengan asid sulfurik. CuO + H2SO4 CuSO4 + H2O Inference / Inferens : –– Copper(II) oxide reacts with sulphuric acid. (c) One spatula of copper(II) oxide powders added to the acid. (e) The observations are recorded. –– The blue solution is copper(II) sulphate . Larutan biru tersebut ialah kuprum(II) sulfat . (b) The acid is warmed gently. 2 Write the chemical formulae for the following compounds / Tuliskan formula kimia bagi sebatian berikut: Compound / Sebatian Hydrochloric acid Asid hidroklorik Asid nitrik Chemical formulae / Formula kimia HCl HNO3 H2 SO4 CH3COOH NaOH KOH Ca(OH)2 Na2CO3 Mg(OH)2 (NH4 )2SO4 OH– Na2 SO4 CO2 CuCO3 H2O Compound / Sebatian Magnesium oxide Magnesium oksida Chemical formulae / Formula kimia MgO CaO CuO PbO NaNO3 K2 SO4 Ba(OH)2 NaCl Mg Zn Na CaCO3 H2 Na2O Mg(NO3 )2 Nitric acid Sulphuric acid Calcium oxide Kalsium oksida Asid sulfurik Asid etanoik Copper(II) oxide Lead(II) oxide Kuprum(II) oksida Plumbum(II) oksida Natrium nitrat Kalium sulfat Ethanoic acid Sodium hydroxide Natrium hidroksida Kalium hidroksida Sodium nitrate Potassium sulphate Potassium hydroxide Calcium hydroxide Kalsium hidroksida Natrium karbonat Barium hydroxide Barium hidroksida Natrium klorida Sodium carbonate Magnesium hydroxide Magnesium hidroksida Ammonium sulfat Ion hidroksida Natrium sulfat Sodium chloride Magnesium Magnesium Ammonium sulphate Hydroxide ion Sodium sulphate Zinc Zink Sodium Natrium Calcium carbonate Kalsium karbonat Carbon dioxide Karbon dioksida Hydrogen gas Gas hidrogen Copper(II) carbonate Kuprum(II) karbonat Air Nil a Sodium oxide Natrium oksida Water Magnesium nitrate Magnesium nitrat m Publica tio 118 n Sdn. Asid dihangatkan. Copper(II) oxide / Kuprum(II) oksida Pepejal hitam terlarut. Asid hidroklorik cair dimasukkan dalam bikar hingga separuh penuh. Campuran dikacau dengan rod kaca. Chemical equation: Persamaan kimia: *Application of the reaction: –– Preparation of soluble salt (Topic Salt) Penyediaan garam terlarut (Tajuk Garam) –– The colourless solution turns blue. Semua pemerhatian direkodkan. (d) The mixture is stirred with a glass rod. Bh 12/9/2011 5:55:54 PM .

zinc oxide. Ionic equation shows particles that change during chemical reaction. zink karbonat dan kuprum(II) oksida tidak boleh diasingkan kerana sebatian tersebut tidak larut dalam air dan ion-ionnya tidak mengion. zinc carbonate and copper(II) oxide cannot be separated because the compounds are insoluble in water and the ions do not ionise.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE 3 Ionic equation / Persamaan ion : Persamaan ion menunjukkan zarah yang berubah semasa tindak balas kimia. Publicat n io Sdn.indd 119 12/9/2011 5:55:54 PM m . kasium karbonat. # Ion dalam magnesium oksida. calcium carbonate. B . Example / Contoh : (i) Reaction between sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide solution: Tindak balas antara asid sulfurik dengan larutan natrium hidroksida: Write balanced equation / Tulis persamaan seimbang : H2SO4 + 2NaOH Na2SO4 + 2H2O Write the formula of all the particles in the reactants and products: Tulis formula bagi semua zarah dalam bahan tindak balas dan hasil tindak balas: 2H+ + SO42– + 2Na+ + 2OH– 2Na+ + SO42– + 2H2O Remove all the particles in the reactants and products which remain unchanged: Keluarkan semua zarah dalam bahan dan hasil tindak balas yang tidak berubah: 2H+ + SO42– + 2Na+ + 2OH– Ionic equation / Persamaan ion : 2Na+ + SO42– + 2H2O H2O 2H+ + 2OH– 2H2O ⇒ H+ + OH– (ii) Reaction between zinc oxide and hydrochloric acid / Tindak balas antara zink dengan asid hidroklorik : Write balanced equation / Tulis persamaan seimbang : 2HCl + Zn ZnCl2 + H2 Write the formula of all the particles in the reactants and products: Tulis formula bagi semua zarah dalam bahan tindak balas dan hasil tindak balas: 2H+ + 2Cl– + Zn Zn2+ + 2Cl– + H2 Remove all the particles in the reactants and products which remain unchanged: Keluarkan semua zarah dalam bahan dan hasil tindak balas yang tidak berubah: 4 2H+ + 2Cl– + Zn 2H+ + Zn Zn2+ + 2Cl– + H2 Ionic equation / Persamaan ion : Zn2+ + H2 Tulis persamaan kimia dan persamaan ion untuk tindak balas berikut: Reactant / Bahan tindak balas Hydrochloric acid and #magnesium oxide Asid hidroklorik dan #magnesium oksida Asid hidroklorik dan natrium hidroksida Asid hidroklorik dan magnesium Write the chemical equations and ionic equation for the following reactions: Chemical equations / Persamaan kimia MgO + 2HCl HCl + NaOH 2HCl + Mg 2HCl + CaCO3 H2SO4 + Zn H2SO4 + ZnO H2SO4 +ZnCO3 2HNO3 + CuO HNO3 + NaOH MgCl2 + H2O NaCl + H2O MgCl2 + H2 CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O ZnSO4 + H2 ZnSO4 +H2O ZnSO4 + CO2 + H2O Cu(NO3)2 + H2O NaNO3 + H2O Ionic equation / Persamaan ion 2H+ + MgO H+ + OH– 2H+ + Mg 2H+ + CaCO3 2H+ + Zn 2H+ + ZnO 2H+ + ZnCO3 2H+ + CuO H+ + OH– Mg2+ + H2O H2O Mg2+ + H2 Ca2+ + CO2 + H2O Zn2+ + H2 Zn2+ + H2O Zn2+ + CO2 + H2O Cu2+ + H2O H2O Hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide Hydrochloric acid and magnesium Hydrochloric acid and #calcium carbonate Asid hidroklorik dan #kalsium karbonat Asid sulfurik dan zink Sulphuric acid and zinc Sulphuric acid and #zinc oxide Asid sulfurik dan #zink oksida Asid sulfurik dan #zink karbonat Sulphuric acid and #zinc carbonate Asid nitrik dan #kuprum(II) oksida Nitric acid and #copper(II) oxide Nitric acid and sodium hydroxide Asid nitrik dan natrium hidroksida # Ions in magnesium oxide. hd 119 Nila 06-Chem F4 (3P). zink oksida.

Asid dilarutkan dalam *pelarut organik seperti larutan hidrogen klorida dalam metilbenzena dan asid etanoik dalam propanon. * Pelarut organik ialah sebatian kovalen yang wujud dalam bentuk cecair pada suhu bilik seperti propanon. * Organic solvent is covalent compound that exist as liquid at room temperature such as propanone. The presence of hydrogen ions is needed for the acid to show its acidic properties. Acid will remain in the form of molecules in two conditions / Asid akan kekal dalam bentuk molekul dengan dua keadaan: (a) Without the presence of water for example dry hydrogen chloride gas and *glacial ethanoic acid. *Application of the reaction / Aplikasi tindak balas : Garam + Air + Gas ammonia (c) Ammonium chloride and potassium hydroxide: Ammonium klorida dan kalium hidroksida: KOH + NH4Cl KCl + H2O + NH3 (d) Ammonium sulphate and sodium hydroxide: Ammonium sulfat dan natrium hidroksida: 2NaOH + (NH4)2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2H2O + 2NH3 Ujian pengesahan kation ammonium dalam analisis kualitatif garam (Tajuk Garam) –– Confirmatory test for cations ammonium in qualitative analysis of salt (Topic Salt) 3 Alkali + Metal ion Alkali + Ion logam Logam hidroksida tak larut Insoluble metal hydroxide *Most of the metal hydroxides are insoluble. –– Confirmatory test for cations in qualitative analysis of salt (Topic Salt) Ujian pengesahan bagi kation dalam analisis kualitatif garam (Tajuk Garam) *Hidroksida bagi logam peralihan adalah berwarna. Acid molecules ionise in aqueous solution to form hydrogen ions. metilbenzena dan triklorometana. * Glacial ethanoic acid is pure ethanoic acid / Asid etanoik glasial ialah asid etanoik tulen. methylbenzene and trichloromethane. Ammonia gas has pungent smell and turn moist red litmus paper to blue. Bh 12/9/2011 5:55:54 PM .MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ALKALIS / SIFAT kimia alkali Chemical properties Sifat-sifat kimia Write the balance chemical equation for the reaction Tuliskan persamaan kimia seimbang bagi tindak balas 1 Alkali + Acid Alkali + Asid *Alkali neutralises acid / Alkali meneutralkan asid.indd 120 d. *Hydroxides of transition element metals are coloured. Gas ammonia mempunyai bau yang sengit dan menukar kertas litmus merah lembap kepada biru. (b) Acid is dissolved in *organic solvent for example solution of hydrogen chloride in methylbenzene and ethanoic acid in propanone. 06-Chem F4 (3P). *Application of the reaction / Aplikasi tindak balas : –– Preparation of soluble salt (Topic Salt) Penyediaan garam terlarut (Tajuk Garam) Salt + Water + Ammonia gas Garam + Air Salt + Water (a) Potassium hydroxide and sulphuric acid Kalium hidroksida dan asid sulfurik : H2SO4 + 2KOH Barium hidroksida dan asid hidroklorik: K2SO4 + 2H2O (b) Barium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid: 2HCl + Ba(OH)2 BaCl2 + H2O 2 Alkali + Ammonium salt Alkali + Garam Ammonium *Ammonia gas is released when alkali is heated with ammonium salt. An acid shows its acidic properties when it is dissolved in water. Kehadiran ion hidrogen diperlukan oleh asid untuk menunjukkan sifat keasidannya. (e) 2OH–(aq/ak) + Mg2+(aq/ak) Mg(OH)2(p) Magnesium hydroxide (white precipitate) Cu(OH)2(p) Copper(II) hydroxide (blue precipitate) Magnesium hidroksida (mendakan putih) (f) 2OH–(aq/ak) + Cu2+(aq/ak) Kuprum(II) hidroksida (mendakan biru) ROLE OF WATER AND THE PROPERTIES OF ACID / PERANAN AIR DAN SIFAT ASID 1 2 3 Asid menunjukkan sifat keasidannya apabila terlarut dalam air. *Application of the reaction / Aplikasi tindak balas : *Kebanyakan logam hidroksida tak terlarut. *Gas ammonia dibebaskan apabila alkali dipanaskan dengan garam ammonium. Tanpa kehadiran air seperti gas hidrogen klorida kering dan *asid etanoik glasial Nil a m Publica tio 120 n Sdn. Molekul asid mengion dalam larutan akueus membentuk ion hidrogen.

alkali melarut dan mengion menghasilkan ion hidroksida. base or metal carbonate. electricity (electrolyte). asid dapat hidroklorik mengkonduksikan elektrik (elektrolit). asid etanoik glasial dan hidrogen klorida dalam metilbenzena tidak dapat mengkonduksikan elektrik (bukan elektrolit). Without water or in organic solvents. litmus • There are free moving ions. Cl- • Glacial H+ ethanoic H+ exist as only. tidak molecule • Hydrogen chloride molecules in HCl HCl methylbenzene do not ionise . no hydrogen ions present. Hidrogen klorida wujud sebagai sahaja. • Hydrogen chloride in water • Glacial ethanoic acid and hydrogen chloride in methylbenzene does not show acidic (hydrochloric acid) shows acidic properties: properties: Asid etanoik glasial dan hidrogen klorida dalam metilbenzena tidak menunjukkan sifat asid: (i) They do not do not react with metal. litmus paper to Ion hidrogen menukarkan warna kertas biru kepada merah . Ion hidrogen dan ion klorida hadir. KOH(aq/ak ) K+(aq/ak ) + OH–(aq/ak ) NH3(g) + H2O(l/ce) NH4+(aq/ak ) + OH–(aq/ak ) 2 Tanpa air atau dalam pelarut organik. tidak bertindak balas dengan logam. tiada ion hidrogen hadir. react with (i) Hydrochloric acid metal. ROLE OF WATER AND THE PROPERTIES OF ALKALI / PERANAN AIR DAN SIFAT ALKALI 1 Dengan kehadiran air. tiada ion hidrogen hadir. Contohnya larutan kalium hidroksida dan larutan ammonia: In the presence of water. bes dan karbonat logam. bes dan karbonat logam. Tidak wujud ion bebas bergerak . kepada menukarkan warna kertas litmus merah . H+ ClClklorida dalam metilbenzena Molekul asid etanoik glasial tidak mengion . • There are no free moving ions. so the alkaline properties are not shown. hd 121 Nila 06-Chem F4 (3P). Hidrogen klorida dalam air (asid hidroklorik) menunjukkan sifat asid: Sebatian tersebut Sebatian tersebut (ii) They turn blue tidak litmus paper to red biru . For example potassium hydroxide solution and ammonia solution. • Hydrogen chloride molecule in water ionises : Molekul hidrogen klorida dalam air mengion : Etanoik glasial hanya terdiri daripada ClCl. an alkali dissolves and ionises to produce hydroxide ions. Publicat n io Sdn. tiada ion hidroksida yang dihasilkan. there are no hydrogen ions present. base or metal carbonate. HCl Molekul hidrogen HCl HCl mengion HCl . B . Asid hidroklorik bertindak balas dengan logam. can conduct hydrochloric acid Terdapat ion yang bebas bergerak .molekul H+ CH3COOH sahaja. no hydroxide ions are produced. molekul HCl (aq/ak) H+ (aq/ak) + Cl– (aq/ak) • Hydrogen ions and chloride ions present.indd 121 12/9/2011 5:55:55 PM m . (ii) Hydrogen ions turn blue red . maka sifat-sifat alkali tidak ditunjukkan. hydrogen chloride in methylbenzene and glacial ethanoic acid cannot conduct electricity (non-electrolyte). • Hydrogen chloride exist as molecule only.CH3COOH CH3COOH CH3COOH Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE CH3COOH 4 Example / Contoh : CH3COOH CH3COOH CH COOH CH3COOH CH3COOH CH3COOH CH3COOH Glacial ethanoic acid 3 Asid etanoik glasial CH3COOH CH3COOH CH3COOH Larutan hidrogen klorida dalam metilbenzena Solution of hydrogen chloride in methylbenzene Solution of hydrogen chloride in water (hydrochloric acid) Larutan hidrogen klorida dalam air (asid hidroklorik) HC CH3COOH CH3COOH CH3COOH H+ ClCH3COOH ClClCOOH CH 3 HCl CH3COOH HCl HCl HCl HCl HCl HCl HCl HCl H+ ClH+ ClH+ Cl- Cl- HCl CH COOH + H+ 3 H H+ ClClHCl HCl H+ Cl- H+ H+ Methylbenzene / HCl Metilbenzena HCl HCl Water / Air H+ • Glacial ethanoic acid molecules do not ionise .

Tulis persamaan ion untuk persamaan kimia dalam (b)(ii).MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 EXERCISE / LATIHAN 1 Rajah di bawah menunjukkan susunan radas untuk mengkaji peranan air atau pelarut lain dalam menunjukkan sifat asid serta pemerhatian yang dibuat. Mg + 2H+ Mg2+ + H2 (c) Compare observation in Experiment I and Experiment II. Tulis persamaan kimia untuk pembentukan gelembung gas dalam Eksperimen I. –– Hydrochloric acid in water in Experiment I Asid hidroklorik dalam air dalam Eksperimen I Bandingkan pemerhatian dalam Eksperimen I dan Eksperimen II. tidak bertindak balas dengan magnesium. Hydrogen gas (ii) Write the chemical equation for the formation of the bubbles in Experiment I. Explain your answer. Asid hidroklorik dalam tetraklorometana dalam Eksperimen II –– Hydrochloric acid in water –– H+ ions react with ionises to H+ / Asid hidroklorik dalam air HCl H+ + Cl– to produce hydrogen molecule: Mg2+ + H2 molekul magnesium atom Ion H+ bertindak balas dengan atom magnesium untuk menghasilkan molekul hidrogen: Mg + 2H+ –– Hydrochloric acid in tetrachloromethane remains in the form of Asid hidroklorik dalam tetraklorometana kekal dalam bentuk molecule . Bh 12/9/2011 5:55:55 PM . Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2 (iii) Write the ionic equation for the chemical equation in (b)(ii). hidrogen Nil a m Publica tio 122 n Sdn.indd 122 d. ion present. Experiment / Eksperimen Set-up of apparatus Susunan radas The diagram below shows the apparatus set-up to investigate the role of water and other solvent in showing the properties of acid and the observations made from the investigation. (b) (i) Name the bubble of gas released in Experiment I / Namakan gas yang terbebas dalam Eksperimen I. 06-Chem F4 (3P). No . Terangkan jawapan anda. dengan magnesium. Tiada ion hydrogen hadir. reacts bertindak balas with magnesium. I II Hydrochloric acid in water Asid hidroklorik dalam air Pita magnesium Hydrochloric acid in tetrachloromethane Magnesium ribbon Pita magnesium Magnesium ribbon Asid hidroklorik dalam tetraklorometana Observation Pemerhatian • Bubbles of gas are released • Magnesium ribbon dissolves Pita magnesium larut Gelembung gas dibebaskan • No bubble of gas Tiada gelembung gas (a) What is meant by acid / Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan asid ? Acid is a chemical substance which ionises in water to produce hydrogen ion. mengion kepada ion H+: –– Hydrochloric acid in tetrachloromethane in Experiment I do not react with magnesium.

B . yang manakah elektrolit dan bukan elektrolit? Terangkan jawapan anda. Namakan bahan-bahan yang mungkin bagi pelarut X dan pelarut Y. an electrolyte –– Solution in beaker A is . free moving ions from the daripada elektrolit . menukar kertas litmus merah kepada biru. No visible change in the colour of red litmus paper. which one is an electrolyte and non-electrolyte? Explain your answer. . bukan elektrolit Larutan dalam bikar B propanon / metilbenzena / triklorometana . ia mengandungi ion-ion yang Larutan dalam bikar A ialah pengionan molekul ammonia dalam air. ammonia dalam . Kertas litmus merah bertukar menjadi biru. the red litmus paper remains unchanged. molekul ammonia kepada ion NH3 (g) + H2O (l/ce) NH 4+ (ak) + OH– (ak) –– The presence of Kehadiran ion-ion hydroxide hidroksida ions change the red litmus paper to blue. Ammonia Ammonia Solvent X Pelarut X Solvent Y Pelarut Y Beaker A / Bikar A Beaker B / Bikar B Jadual di bawah menunjukkan pemerhatian ke atas kertas litmus merah dalam pelarut X dan pelarut Y. Ammonia Ammonia The diagram below shows the set-up of apparatus to prepare two solutions of ammonia in solvent X and solvent Y. Gas ammonia dalam bikar B mengion . do not ionise dalam in tidak mengion Publicat n io Sdn. ammonia molecules mengion ionise to ammonium ion and ammonium dan dalam air.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE 2 Gambar rajah di bawah menunjukkan susunan radas bagi menyediakan dua larutan ammonia dalam pelarut X dan pelarut Y. Sekeping kertas litmus merah dimasukkan ke dalam setiap bikar. ammonia molecules –– Solution in beaker B is propanone / methylbenzene / trichloromethane . Tiada ion hidroksida Antara larutan dalam bikar A dangan bikar B.indd 123 12/9/2011 5:55:55 PM m . warna merah kertas litmus tidak berubah. Solution / Larutan Ammonia in solvent X in beaker A Ammonia in solvent Y in beaker B Ammonia dalam pelarut X dalam bikar A Ammonia dalam pelarut Y dalam bikar B The table below shows the observation on the red litmus paper in solvent X and solvent Y. (a) Name possible substances that can be solvent X and solvent Y. Between solution in beakers A and B. dissolved larut in propanone / methylbenzene / trichloromethane propanon / metilbenzena / triklorometana . Terangkan perbezaan antara pemerhatian dalam bikar A dengan bikar B. A piece of red litmus paper is dropped into each beaker. Observation / Pemerhatian The red litmus paper turns blue. Tiada perubahan yang nyata pada warna kertas litmus merah. –– Ammonia gas in beaker B is molecules do not ionise . it contains ionisation of ammonia molecules in water. bebas bergerak a non-electrolyte . molekul ammonia tidak –– No (c) (i) hydroxide ions present. hd 123 Nila 06-Chem F4 (3P). Solvent X / Pelarut X : Water Solvent Y / Pelarut Y : Propanone / methylbenzene / trichloromethane –– Ammonia gas in beaker A is hydroxide ions: Gas ammonia dalam bikar A ion hidroksida : dissolved larut in water. (b) Explain the difference in the observation on the beakers A and B. molekul ammonia .

Lukiskan gambar rajah berlabel yang menunjukkan susunan radas yang digunakan untuk menunjukkan kekonduksian arus elektrik bagi sesuatu elektrolit. The pH of an aqueous solution can be measured by / Nilai pH bagi sesuatu larutan akueus boleh diukur dengan menggunakan: (a) pH meter / Meter pH (b) Acid-base indicator / Penunjuk asid-bes Complete the following table / Lengkapkan jadual berikut : Indicator Penunjuk Colour / Warna Acid / Asid Red Red Colourless Red Neutral / Neutral Purple Orange Colourless Green Alkali / Alkali Blue Yellow Pink Purple Litmus solution / Larutan litmus Methyl orange / Metil jingga Phenolphthalein / Fenolftalein Universal indicator / Penunjuk universal THE STRENGTH OF ACID AND ALKALI / KEKUATAN ASID DAN ALKALI 1 Kekuatan asid dan alkali bergantung pada darjah pengionan asid dan alkali dalam air. H+ atau ion hidroksida. H+. • The higher the pH value. H+ or hydroxide ions. H+. • The lower the pH value. pH = 7 Neutral Neutral pH > 7: • Alkaline solution / Larutan beralkali.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 (ii) Draw a labelled diagram to show the set-up of apparatus used to show the electrical conductivity of an electrolyte. OH–. OH– yang rendah. semakin tinggi kepekatan ion hidrogen. Semakin tinggi nilai pH. OH–. Nil a m Publica 124 n Sdn. Carbon electrode Elektrod karbon Carbon Elektrodelectrode karbon Elektrolit Electrolyte THE pH SCALE / SKALA pH 1 2 Skala pH ialah skala bernombor untuk mengukur darjah keasidan dan kealkalian suatu larutan akueus berdasarkan kepekatan ion hidrogen. Alkali kuat ialah alkali yang mengion sepenuhnya dalam air menghasilkan kepekatan ion hidroksida. tio The strength of acid and alkali depend on the degree of ionisation or dissociation of the acid and alkali in water. 06-Chem F4 (3P). Asid kuat ialah asid yang mengion sepenuhnya dalam air menghasilkan kepekatan ion hidrogen. Asid lemah ialah asid yang mengion separa dalam air menghasilkan kepekatan ion hidrogen. OH–. H+ yang tinggi. OH–. OH–. Bh 12/9/2011 5:55:55 PM .indd 124 d. The pH is a scale of numbers to measure the degree of acidity and alkalinity of an aqueous solution based on the concentration of hydrogen ions. the higher is the concentration of hydroxide ion. H+ yang rendah. H+. (c) A strong alkali is an alkali that ionises completely in water to produce high concentration of hydroxide ion. (d) A weak alkali is an alkali that partially ionises completely in water to produce low concentration of hydroxide ion. Alkali lemah ialah alkali yang mengion separa dalam air menghasilkan kepekatan ion hidroksida. H+. (b) A weak acid is an acid that partially ionises in water to produce low concentration of hydrogen ion. OH–. The pH scale has the range of number from 0 to 14 / Skala pH bernombor dari 0 hingga 14 : pH 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 pH < 7: • Acidic solution / Larutan berasid. (a) A strong acid is an acid that ionises completely in water to produce high concentration of hydrogen ion. OH– yang tinggi. 3 Semakin rendah nilai pH. semakin tinggi kepekatan ion hidroksida. the higher is the concentration of hydrogen ion.

+ separa kepada ion Asid etanoik mengion etanoat dan ion hidrogen . Weak alkali Alkali lemah Ammonia solution. Nitric acid. Sebahagian lagi kekal dalam bentuk molekul CH3COOH. hd 125 Nila 06-Chem F4 (3P). Ba(OH)2 Barium hidroksida. H2CO3 H2CO3 (aq/ak ) 2H+ (aq/ak ) + CO32– (aq/ak ) Asid karbonik. All sulphuric acid ionises completely into hydrogen ions and sulphate ions. H+ and NO3– H+ dan NO3– ions. CH3COOH Ethanoic acid partially ionises in water CH3COO (aq/ak ) + H (aq/ak ) into etahnoate ions and hydrogen ions. Sulphuric acid. Ba(OH)2 Ba(OH)2 (aq/ak ) Ba (aq) + 2OH (aq) 2+ – Barium hydroxide ionises completely in water into barium ions and hydroxide Barium hidroksida mengion sepenuhnya dalam air kepada ion barium dan ion hidroksida . NH3. separa dalam air kepada Ammonia mengion ion ammonium dan ion hidroksida . HNO3 Asid nitrik. H2CO3 Sebahagian asid karbonik mengion dalam air kepada ion karbonat dan ion hidrogen. Some remain in the form of CH3COOH molecules . 3 some remain in the form of NH3 molecules . sebahagian lagi kekal dalam bentuk molekul NH .Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE 2 Example of different strength of acid and alkali / Contoh asid dan alkali dengan kekuatan yang berbeza. CH3COOH. NaOH NaOH (aq/ak ) Na (aq) + OH (aq) + – Natrium hidroksida mengion sepenuhnya dalam air kepada ion natrium dan ion hidroksida . CH3COO– dan H+ CH3COOH. H2SO4 Asid sulfurik. NH4+ dan OH– NH3. Sebahagian lagi kekal dalam bentuk molekul H2CO3. ions and chloride ions. KOH KOH (aq/ak ) K+ (aq) + OH– (aq) Kalium hidroksida mengion sepenuhnya dalam air kalium dan ion hidroksida . H+ dan CO32– H2CO3. NaOH Natrium hidroksida. Na+ and OH– Na+ dan OH– Potassium hydroxide. NH3(ak) NH3 (g)+ H2 O(l/ce) + NH4 (aq/ak ) + OH–(aq/ak ) Ammonia partially ionises in water into ammonium ions and hydroxide ions. Carbonic acid partially ionises in water into carbonate ions and hydrogen ion. Some molecules . HCl H+ (aq/ak ) + Cl– (aq/ak ) Asid hidroklorik. H+ and CO32– Strong alkali Alkali kuat Sodium hydroxide. H2SO4 H2SO4 (aq/ak ) 2H+ (aq/ak ) + SO42– (aq/ak ) Semua asid sulfurik mengion sepenuhnya dalam air kepada ion hidrogen dan ion sulfat . Acid / Alkali Asid / Alkali Example Contoh Ionisation equation Persamaan ion Explanation Penerangan Zarah-zarah yang hadir Particles present Strong acid Asid kuat Hydrochloric HCl (aq/ak ) acid. Sodium hydroxide ionises completely in water into sodium ions and hydroxide ions. CH3COO– and H+ Carbonic acid. remain in the form of H CO 2 3 H2CO3. Ba2+ and OH– Ba2+ dan OH– ions. H+ and SO42– H+ dan SO42– Weak acid Asid lemah Ethanoic acid. NH4+ and OH– Publicat n io Sdn. HCl All hydrogen chloride molecules that H+ and Cl– + – dissolve in water ionises completely into H dan Cl hydrogen Semua molekul hidrogen klorida melarut dalam air dan mengion sepenuhnya kepada ion hidrogen dan ion klorida . B . K+ and OH– K+ dan OH– Barium hydroxide. HNO3 HNO3(aq/ak ) H+ (aq/ak ) + NO3– (aq/ak ) All nitric acid ionises completely in water into hydrogen ions and nitrate Semua asid nitrik mengion sepenuhnya dalam air kepada ion hidrogen dan ion nitrat .indd 125 12/9/2011 5:55:55 PM m . KOH Kalium hidroksida. kepada ion Potassium hydroxide ionises completely potassium ions and in water into hydroxide ions. NH3(aq) Larutan ammonia. CH3COOH CH3COOH (aq/ak ) – Asid etanoik.

Kepekatan sesuatu larutan ialah kuantiti bahan terlarut dalam isi padu larutan yang tertentu. Bh 12/9/2011 5:55:56 PM . The pH value of an acid or an alkali is depends on / Nilai pH bagi asid atau alkali bergantung pada: (a) The strength of acid or alkali / Kekuatan asid atau alkali –– the degree of ionisation or dissociation of the acid and alkali in water / darjah pengionan asid atau alkali dalam air. the lower the pH value. Concentration of a solution the quantity of solute in a given volume of solution which is usually 1 dm3 of solution. Contohnya larutan kuprum(II) sulfat disediakan dengan melarutkan serbuk kuprum(II) sulfat (bahan larut) di dalam air (pelarut). (c) Basicity of an acid / Kebesan asid –– the number ionisable of hydrogen atom per molecule of an acid molecule in an aqueous solution.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 CONCENTRATION OF ACID AND ALKALI / KEPEKATAN ASID DAN ALKALI 1 2 3 Larutan adalah campuran homogen yang terbentuk apabila bahan larut dilarutkan dalam pelarut. mol dm–3. Volume of solution (dm3) / Isi padu larutan (dm3) Kepekatan larutan (mol dm–3) The concentration in mol dm–3 is called molarity or molar concentration.indd 126 d. The unit mol dm–3 can be represented by ‘M’. The concentration of a solution can be converted from mol dm to g dm and vice versa. g dm–3. Unit mol dm–3 boleh diwakili dengan‘M’. (b) Molarity of acid or alkali / Kemolaran asid atau alkali –– the concentration of acid or alkali in mol dm–3 / kepekatan bahan terlarut dalam mol dm–3. 06-Chem F4 (3P). the higher the pH value. Number of mole of solute (mol) / Bilangan mol bahan larut (mol) Volume of solution (dm3) / Isi padu larutan (dm3) Kemolaran × Isi padu (dm3) Concentration of solution (g dm–3) = Mass of solute in gram (g) / Jisim bahan larut dalam gram (g) Concentration of solution (mol dm–3) = Number of mole of solute (mol) / Bilangan mol bahan larut (mol) 4 Kepekatan dalam mol dm–3 dipanggil sebagai kemolaran atau kepekatan molar. semakin tinggi nilai pH. n = Number of moles of solute M = Concentration in mol dm–3 (molarity) V = Volume of solution in dm3 Isi padu larutan dalam dm3 Isi padu larutan dalam cm3 Kepekatan dalam mol dm–3 (kemolaran) Bilangan mol bahan terlarut Molarity = Kemolaran Number of mole of solute (mol) = Molarity × Volume (dm3) Bilangan mol bahan larut (mol) 5 n = MV Mv n = 1 000 –3 –3 v = Volume of solution in cm3 Kepekatan larutan boleh ditukar daripada mol dm–3 kepada g dm–3 dan sebaliknya. Semakin tinggi kepekatan ion hidroksida dalam larutan beralkali. For example copper(II) sulphate solution is prepared by dissolving copper(II) sulphate powder (solute) in water (solvent). semakin rendah nilai pH. Semakin tinggi kepekatan ion hidrogen dalam larutan berasid. × molar mass of the solute / jisim molar bahan terlarut mol dm–3 ÷ molar mass of the solute / jisim molar bahan terlarut 6 7 Nilai pH bagi asid atau alkali bergantung pada kepekatan ion hidrogen atau ion hidroksida: g dm–3 The pH value of an acid or an alkali depends on the concentration of hydrogen ions or hydroxide ions: The higher the concentration of hydrogen ions in acidic solution. bilangan atom hidrogen per molekul asid yang terion dalam larutan akueus. biasanya isi padu 1 dm3 larutan. mol dm–3 / Bilangan mol bahan larut dalam 1 dm3 larutan. The higher the concentration of hydroxide ions in alkaline solution. Nil a m Publica tio 126 n Sdn. Concentration can be expressed in two ways / Kepekatan boleh diwakili dengan dua cara : (a) Mass of solute in gram per 1 dm3 solution. Volume of solution (dm3) / Isi padu larutan (dm3) Kepekatan larutan (g dm–3) (b) Number of moles of solute in 1 dm3 solution. g dm–3/ Jisim bahan larut dalam gram bagi setiap 1 dm3 larutan. A solution is a homogeneous mixture formed when a solute is dissolved in a solvent.

05 mol dm hydrogen ion: Asid hidroklorik adalah asid kuat monoprotik . –– 0.1 mol dm HCl H+ + Cl– –3 0.05 mol dm–3 H2SO4 0.05 mol dm–3 HCl 0. Kepekatan ion hidrogen dalam asid hidroklorik 0.01 mol dm–3 of CH3COOH(aq/ak ) H+ + CH3COO–(aq/ak ) kurang dari less than/ –– Concentration hydrogen ion in 0.1 mol dm weak acid ionises partially in –– Ethanoic acid is a water to produce lower concentration hydrogen ion.05 mol dm-3 of sulphuric acid ionises –3 completely in water to form 0.1 mol dm–3 of 0.01 mol dm–3 of hydrochloric acid ionises to –3 form 0. Explain your answer.1 mol dm hydrogen ion: H2SO4 2H+ + SO42– –3 0.1 mol dm of hydrochloric acid is higher than HCl H+ + Cl– –3 0.1 mol dm–3 hydrogen ion: Asid hidroklorik 0.01 mol dm hydrogen ion: Asid hidroklorik 0. Kepekatan ion hidrogen dalam asid hidroklorik tinggi daripada asid 0.1 mol dm–3 of hydrochloric acid than of 0.05 mol dm–3.05 mol dm of sulphuric acid is lower than 0.01 mol dm–3 ion hidrogen: HCl H+ + Cl– –3 0.1 mol dm–3 mengion kepada 0. 0.05 mol dm–3 0.05 mol dm–3 of ionises completely in water –3 to form 0. –– The pH value of 0.1 mol dm–3 HCl –– Sulphuric acid is a strong Asid sulfurik adalah asid kuat diprotik .01 mol dm–3.1 mol dm –– Hydrochloric acid is a strong monoprotic acid.15 2.01 mol dm –3 Asid hidroklorik 0.1 mol dm–3 lebih rendah daripada asid etanoik 0.01 mol dm–3 0.1 mol dm–3 CH3COOH –– Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid ionises completely in water to hydrogen ion.05 mol dm–3. –– 0.1 mol dm–3 of hydrochloric acid ionises to form 0.05 mol dm–3 mengion lengkap dalam –3 air menghasilkan 0.1 mol dm–3 of hydrochloric acid is lower than 0.05 mol dm–3 0. n io 127 Sdn. Bandingkan kepekatan ion hidrogen dan nilai pH –– 0. daripada asid hidroklorik 0.1 mol dm hydrogen ion: Asid sulfurik 0. Tujuan eksperimen adalah untuk mengkaji hubungan antara kepekatan ion hidrogen dengan nilai pH. Kepekatan ion hidrogen dalam asid sulfurik hydrochloric acid is higher than of 0.21 Bacaan pH meter 0. –– Concentration hydrogen ion in 0.1 mol dm–3 0.1 mol dm–3 ion hidrogen: –3 Asid hidroklorik 0. Nilai pH bagi asid sulfurik 0. –– The pH value of 0.1 mol dm–3 of hydrochloric acid ionises to –3 form 0.98 1.05 mol dm–3 adalah dua kali ganda (lebih tinggi) ethanoic acid.1 mol dm–3 HCl 0.1 mol dm–3 0. I 2.1 mol dm–3 0.01 mol dm–3 mengion kepada 0.01 mol dm–3.1 mol dm–3 mengion lengkap kepada 0. lower Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE m Publicat Nilai pH bagi asid hidroklorik 0. Nilai pH bagi asid hidroklorik 0.1 mol dm–3 hydrogen ion: Asid etanoik adalah asid lemah mengion separa dalam air menghasilkan kepekatan ion hidrogen yang lebih rendah .05 mol dm–3 0.05 mol dm–3 mengion lengkap kepada 0. Terangkan jawapan anda. –– The pH value of 0.1 mol dm–3 of ethanoic acid ionises to less than 0.1 mol dm–3 mengion kurang daripada ion hidrogen: 0. –– 0.1 mol dm–3 lebih hidroklorik 0. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan bacaan pH meter untuk pelbagai jenis dan kepekatan asid.05 mol dm–3 of hydrochloric acid.05 mol dm–3 lebih rendah daripada asid hidroklorik 0. hd 06-Chem F4 (3P). The aim of the experiment is to investigate the relationship between concentration of hydrogen ions with the pH value.01 mol dm–3 of hydrochloric acid. kuat yang mengion lengkap dalam Compare concentration of H+ and pH value kuat yang Asid hidroklorik adalah asid mengion lengkap dalam air kepada ion hidrogen. Bandingkan kepekatan ion hidrogen dan nilai pH untuk asid-asid yang berikut.25 3.21 1.1 mol dm–3 0.1 mol dm–3. –3 hydrochloric acid.1 mol dm–3 lebih tinggi daripada asid etanoik 0.indd 127 Example / Contoh: The diagram below shows the reading of pH meter for different types and concentration of acids.1 mol dm–3 of ethanoic acid.1 mol dm–3 double of (higher than) of sulphuric acid is –– Concentration hydrogen ion in 0.05 mol dm Asid etanoik 0.Nila 12/9/2011 5:55:56 PM .1 mol dm–3 of 0. Asid hidroklorik adalah asid air kepada ion hidrogen. B .05 mol dm–3 of hydrochloric acid.05 mol dm ion hidrogen: –– 0.1 mol dm ion hidrogen: HCl H+ + Cl– –3 0. Compare the concentration of hydrogen ions and the pH value of the following acids.1 mol dm–3 lebih rendah daripada asid hidroklorik 0.1 mol dm–3 ion hidrogen: –– Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid ionises completely in water to hydrogen ion.01 mol dm–3 HCl diprotic acid.45 II III Experiment Eksperimen pH meter reading 1. 0.1 mol dm–3. –– 0.

Since no solute is added.indd 128 d. (b) The solute is weighed / Bahan larut ditimbang.0 g NaOH dengan tepat menggunakan botol penimbang tio 128 06-Chem F4 (3P).MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 PREPARATION OF STANDARD SOLUTION / PENYEDIAAN LARUTAN PIAWAI 1 2 Larutan piawai ialah larutan yang kepekatannya diketahui dengan tepat. Standard solution is a solution in which its concentration is accurately known. Oleh kerana tiada bahan terlarut yang ditambah.0 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide solution. Na = 23] Calculate the mass of sodium hydroxide / Hitung jisim natrium hidroksida : –– Molar mass of NaOH / Jisim molar NaOH = 23 + 16 + 1 = 40 g mol –– Mol NaOH / Bilangan mol NaOH = 500 × 1. O = 16. Bahan larut dilarutkan sepenuhnya dalam air suling dan dipindahkan kepada kelalang volumetrik yang sebahagiannya sudah diisi dengan air suling. kandungan bahan terlarut dalam larutan sebelum dan selepas pencairan tidak berubah: Number of mol of solute before dilution = Number of mole of solute after dilution M1V1 1 000 = M2V2 1 000 Bilangan mol bahan terlarut sebelum pencairan Bilangan mol bahan terlarut selepas pencairan Therefore / Oleh itu. M1V1 = M2V2 M1 = Initial concentration of the solute / Kemolaran larutan awal V1 = Initial volume of the solution in cm3 / Isipadu larutan awal dalam cm3 M2 = Final concentration of the solute / Kemolaran larutan akhir V2 = Final volume of the solution in cm3 / Isipadu larutan akhir dalam cm3 Example / Contoh : 1 (a) What is meant by a standard solution / Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan larutan piawai ? Standard solution is a solution in which its concentration is accurately known. The steps taken in preparing a standard solution are: Langkah-langkah yang diambil dalam menyediakan larutan piawai adalah: (a) Calculate the mass of solute needed to give the required volume and molarity.0/1 000 = 0. (d) Distilled water is added to the calibration mark of the volumetric flask and the flask is inverted to make sure thorough mixing. Bh 12/9/2011 5:55:56 PM .0 g of NaOH accurately using a weighing bottle . [Relative atomic mass: H = 1.0 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide: Penyediaan 500 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida 1. Huraikan kaedah untuk menyediakan 500 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida 1. Na = 23] Anda diberi pepejal natrium hidroksida. (c) The solute is completely dissolved in distilled water and then transferred to a volumetric flask partially filled with distilled water. Timbang 20. Air suling ditambah ke dalam kelalang volumetrik hingga tanda senggatan dan kelalang volumetrik ditelangkupkan beberapa kali untuk memastikan campuran sekata.0 mol dm–3. .5 mol × 40 g mol = 20. Describe the procedure to prepare 500 cm3 of 1. O = 16. m Publica n Sdn.0 mol dm–3: –– Weigh exactly Nil a 20. [Jisim atom relatif: H = 1. PREPARATION OF A SOLUTION BY DILUTION / PENYEDIAAN LARUTAN SECARA PENCAIRAN Adding water to the standard solution lowered the concentration of the solution. the amount of solute in the solution before and after dilution remains unchanged: Penambahan air kepada larutan piawai merendahkan kepekatan larutan tersebut. Hitung jisim bahan larut yang diperlukan untuk menghasilkan isi padu dan kemolaran yang dikehendaki.0 g Preparation of 500 cm3 1. (b) (i) You are given solid sodium hydroxide.5 mol –1 –– Mass of NaOH / Jisim NaOH = mol / Bilangan mol × molar mass / Jisim molar –1 = 0.

.0 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide solution.1 mol dm–3 daripada larutan di atas. di dalam bikar.0 g 20.indd 129 12/9/2011 5:55:56 PM m . larutan natrium hidroksida 1. Substance / Bahan Ethanoic acid 0. yang homogen. Calculate the volume of 1 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide used: Hitung isi padu natrium hidroksida 1 mol dm–3 yang digunakan: –– M1 × V1 = M2 × V2 –– V1 = M2 × V2 = 0.0 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide solution: Penyediaan 250 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida 1. Kelalang volumetrik ditutup dengan penutup inverted a few times to get ditelangkupkan beberapa kali untuk mendapatkan larutan EXERCISE / LATIHAN 1 The table below shows the pH value of a few substances / Jadual di bawah menunjukkan nilai pH bagi beberapa bahan. Kelalang volumetrik ditutup dengan penutup inverted a few times to get ditelangkupkan beberapa kali untuk mendapatkan larutan (ii) Describe how you would prepare 250 cm3 of 0. + H . Rinse Bilas the beaker with distilled water and transfer all the contents into the volumetric flask .0 mol dm dipindahkan kepada kelalang volumetrik 250 cm3. H . Huraikan bagaimana anda menyediakan 250 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida 0. hd 129 Nila 06-Chem F4 (3P).Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE –– Dissolve Larutkan 20.1 mol dm / Asid etanoik 0. . bikar dengan air suling dan pindahkan semua kandungan ke dalam kelalang volumetrik . –– Distilled water is added to the volumetric flask stopper dan until the and Air suling ditambah kepada kelalang volumetrik hingga tanda senggatan –– The volumetric flask is closed tightly with homogeneous solution. Pindahkan kandungan ke dalam kelalang volumetrik 500 cm3.1 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide from the above solution. –– Distilled water is added to the volumetric flask stopper dan until the and calibration mark . Air suling ditambah kepada kelalang volumetrik hingga tanda senggatan –– The volumetric flask is closed tightly with homogeneous solution. Strong acid / Asid kuat : An acid that completely ionises in water to produce high concentration of hydrogen + ion. B .1 × 250 = 25 cm3 M1 1 Preparation of 250 cm3 1. NaOH 1.1 mol dm–3 Glacial ethanoic acid / Asid etanoik glasial (a) (i) What is meant by weak acid and strong acid / Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan asid lemah dan asid kuat ? Weak acid / Asid lemah : An acid that partially ionises in water to produce low concentration of hydrogen ion. Publicat n io Sdn.0 mol dm–3 NaOH is transferred into 250 cm3 –3 volumetric flask .1 mol dm –3 –3 pH value / Nilai pH 3 1 7 Hydrochloric acid 0.0 mol dm–3: –– A pipette is filled with Sebuah pipet diisi dengan 25 cm3 25 cm3 of 1. yang homogen. –– 25 cm3 25 cm3 of 1.1 mol dm–3 / Asid hidroklorik 0.0 g of NaOH in NaOH dalam 3 distilled water air suling in a beaker. –– Transfer the content into a 500 cm –– volumetric flask . calibration mark .0 mol dm–3.

Explain the observation.01 mol dm–3 of ethanoic acid / 0. Asid hidroklorik mempunyai kepekatan ion H+ yang lebih –– Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid which ionises completely in water to produce concentration of H+: Asid hidroklorik ialah tinggi yang lebih asid kuat : yang mengion sepenuhnya higher dalam air untuk menghasilkan kepekatan ion H+ HCl (aq/ak ) H+(aq/ak ) + Cl–(aq/ak ) partially separa –– Ethanoic acid is a weak acid which ionises H+: Asid etanoik ialah asid rendah yang lebih lemah yang mengion : in water to produce lower concentration of dalam air untuk menghasilkan kepekatan ion H+ CH3COOH (aq/ak ) CH3COO– (aq/ak ) + H+ (aq/ak ) (iii) Why do ethanoic acid and hydrochloric acid have different pH value? –– The concentration H+ in hydrochloric acid is Kepekatan H dalam asid hidroklorik + Mengapakah asid etanoik dan asid hidroklorik mempunyai nilai pH yang berbeza? higher . nilai pH lebih –– The concentration H in ehanoic acid is + lower .1 mol dm–3 larutan ammonia ? m Publica tio 130 n Sdn. sahaja. Tiada ion hadir. hydrogen ions causes the yang menyebabkan etanoat hidrogen dan ion Asid etanoik mengion separa dalam air untuk menghasilkan ion asid .01 mol dm–3 of hydrochloric acid / 0.01 mol dm–3 asid etanoik ? (iii) 0. 06-Chem F4 (3P). Asid etanoik glasial hanya terdiri daripada molekul CH3COOH Molekul asid etanoik glasial tidak Molekul hidrogen CH COOH adalah neutral. Glacial ethanoic acid consists of only CH3COOH molecules .MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 (ii) Between ethanoic acid and hydrochloric acid. Nilai pH bagi larutan tersebut adalah kurang daripada 7. lower . larutan mempunyai sifat 2 The table shows the pH value of a few solution / Jadual berikut menunjukkan nilai pH bagi beberapa jenis larutan berbeza.01 mol dm–3 asid hidroklorik ? Q R T (ii) 0. Antara asid etanoik dengan asid hidroklorik. which acid has the higher concentration of H+ ion? Explain your answer. The CH COOH molecules are neutral . higher (b) Glacial ethanoic acid has a pH value of 7 but a solution of ethanoic acid has a pH value less than 7. 3 –– Ethanoic acid ionises partially in water to produce ethanoate ions and solution to have acidic property. –– Glacial ethanoic acid molecules do not ionise . The pH value of the solution is less than 7. –– Hydrochloric acid has higher concentration of H+ than ethanoic acid. nilai pH lebih Asid etanoik glasial mempunyai nilai pH 7 tetapi asid etanoik mempunyai nilai pH yang kurang daripada 7. mengion .1 mol dm–3 ammonia aqueous / 0. The pH value of 3 glacial ethanoic acid is 7. Solution / Larutan pH P 1 Q 3 R 5 S 7 T 11 U 14 (a) (i) Larutan manakah yang mempunyai kepekatan ion hidrogen yang paling tinggi? Which solution has the highest concentration of hydrogen ion? Solution P (ii) Which solution has the highest concentration of hydroxide ion? Solution U Larutan yang manakah mempunyai kepekatan ion hidroksida yang paling tinggi? (b) Which is the following solution could be / Larutan manakah yang mungkin Nil a (i) 0. asid manakah mempunyai kepekatan ion H+ yang lebih tinggi? Terangkan jawapan anda. tinggi rendah . the pH value is . tinggi berbanding dengan asid etanoik. Kepekatan H dalam asid etanoik + . Nilai pH asid etanoik glasial adalah 7. Bh 12/9/2011 5:55:57 PM . No hydrogen ions present. . the pH value is rendah tinggi .indd 130 d. Terangkan pemerhatian tersebut.

[JAR: K = 39. O = 16] Answer / Jawapan : 5 0. O = 16. O = 16. H = 1. H = 1] Answer / Jawapan : 7 Jika 300 cm3 air ditambah kepada 200 cm3 asid hidroklorik 1 mol dm–3.5 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide solution? [RAM: Na = 23. HCl in distilled water to make up 250 cm3 solution. P/Q/R and T/U // Hydrochloric acid/ethanoic acid with ammonia aqueous/sodium hydroxide solution. HCl dalam air suling untuk menyediakan larutan yang berisi padu 250 cm3. What is the resulting molarity of the solution? Answer / Jawapan : 0. Apakah kepekatan larutan tersebut dalam g dm–3? [JAR: Na = 23. H = 1] Answer / Jawapan : 4 80 g dm–3 Hitung kemolaran larutan yang diperoleh apabila 14 g kalium hidroksida dilarutkan dalam air suling untuk menyediakan larutan yang berisi padu 500 cm3.5 mol hidrogen klorida. 1 mol dm–3.5 mol dm–3 Hitung kemolaran larutan yang disediakan dengan melarutkan 0. P U S (c) (i) State two solutions which react to form neutral solution.4 mol dm–3 Publicat n io Sdn. H = 1.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE (iv) 1 mol dm–3 of hydrochloric acid / 1 mol dm–3 asid hidroklorik ? (v) 1 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide solution / 1 mol dm–3 larutan natrium hidroksida ? (vi) 1 mol dm–3 potassium sulphate solution / 1 mol dm–3 larutan kalium sulfat ? Nyatakan dua larutan yang bertindak balas untuk membentuk larutan neutral.5 mol of hydrogen chloride. O = 16] Calculate the molarity of the solution obtained when 14 g potassium hydroxide is dissolved in distilled water to make up 500 cm3 solution. (ii) Which solutions will produce carbon dioxide gas when calcium carbonate powder is added? Larutan manakah menghasilkan gas karbon dioksida apabila ditambah serbuk kalsium karbonat? P/Q // Hydrochloric acid/ethanoic acid 3 Kemolaran larutan natrium hidroksida ialah 2 mol dm–3. Answer / Jawapan : 6 2 mol dm–3 Berapakah jisim natrium hidroksida dalam gram yang patut dilarutkan dalam air untuk menyediakan 500 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida 0. apakah kemolaran bagi larutan yang dihasilkan? 10 g 300 cm3 water is added to 200 cm3 hydrochloric acid. [RAM: K = 39. H = 1] The molarity of sodium hydroxide solution is 2 mol dm–3. What is the concentration of the solution in g dm–3? [RAM: Na = 23. B . Calculate the molarity of a solution which is prepared by dissolving 0. 0 = 16.5 mol dm–3? [JAR: Na = 23. O = 16. hd 131 Nila 06-Chem F4 (3P). H = 1] How much of sodium hydroxide in gram should be dissolved in water to prepare 500 cm3 of 0.indd 131 12/9/2011 5:55:57 PM m .

1 mol of H2SO4 : 2 mol of H + 1 mol of HCl : 1 mol of H+ 0.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 8 Calculate the volume of nitric acid. Answer / Jawapan : 9 50 cm3 (a) Compare the number of mol of H+ ions which are present in 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm–3 of sulphuric acid and 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm–3 of hydrochloric acid. The hydrogen ions in the acid react with hydroxide ions in the alkali to produce water: H+ (aq/ak ) + OH– (aq/ak ) H2O (l/ce) Nil a m Publica tio 132 n Sdn.05 mol From the equation. Bh 12/9/2011 5:55:57 PM . kealkalian alkali dineutralkan oleh asid. 100 cm3 NEUTRALISATION / PENEUTRALAN 1 Neutralisation is the reaction between an acid and a base to form only salt and water: Peneutralan ialah tindak balas antara asid dan bes untuk membentuk garam dan air sahaja: Acid / Asid + Base / Bes Example / Contoh : HCl (aq/ak ) + NaOH (aq/ak ) 2HNO3 (aq/ak ) + MgO (s/p) Salt / Garam + Water / Air NaCl (aq/ak ) + H2O (l/ce) Mg(NO3)2 (aq/ak ) + H2O (l/ce) 2 Dalam peneutralan. Terangkan jawapan anda. At the same time the alkalinity of an alkali is neutralised by an acid. Pada masa yang sama. H+ Number of mol of sulphuric acid = H2SO4 2H + SO4 + 2– 50 × 1 1 000 = 0. Ion hidrogen dalam asid bertindak balas dengan ion hidroksida dalam alkali: In neutralisation. keasidan asid dineutralkan oleh alkali. the acidity of an acid is neutralised by an alkali. (b) Suggest the volume of 1 mol dm–3 of hydrochloric acid that has the same number of H+ with 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm–3 of sulphuric acid. 1 mol dm–3 needed to be diluted by distilled water to obtain 500 cm3 of nitric acid. The number of H+ in the same volume and concentration of both acids is doubled in sulphuric acid compared to hydrochloric acid. Hitung isi padu asid nitrik 1 mol dm–3 yang diperlukan untuk dilarutkan oleh air suling bagi menghasilkan 500 cm3 asid nitrik 0. H+ Hitung bilangan mol ion hidrogen.05 mol of H+ 0. Explain your answer. Acid Asid 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm–3 of sulphuric acid 50 cm3 asid sulfurik 1 mol dm–3 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm–3 of hydrochloric acid 50 cm3 asid hidroklorik 1 mol dm–3 Calculate number of hydrogen ion.05 mol of HCl : 0.1 mol dm–3. 1 mol of sulphuric ionises to 2 mol of H+ whereas 1 mol of hydrochloric acid ionises to 1 mol of H+. Bandingkan bilangan mol ion H+ yang hadir dalam 50 cm3 asid sulfurik 1 mol dm–3 dengan 50 cm3 asid hidroklorik 1 mol dm–3. 0. 50 × 1 1 000 = 0.1 mol of H+ Compare the number The number of H+ in 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm–3 of sulphuric acid is twice of the number of H+ in of hydrogen ions 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm–3 of hydrochloric acid. Cadangkan isi padu asid hidroklorik 1 mol dm–3 yang mempunyai bilangan ion H+ yang sama dengan 50 cm3 asid sulfurik 1 mol dm–3.indd 132 d. 06-Chem F4 (3P).05 mol Number of mol of hydrochloric acid = HCl H+ + Cl– From the equation. Bandingkan bilangan ion hidrogen Penerangan Explanation Sulphuric acid is diprotic acid whereas hydrochloric acid is monoprotic acid.05 mol of H2SO4 : 0.1 mol dm–3.

Anti-asid mengandungi bes seperti aluminium hidroksida . Asid ditambah setitik demi setitik kepada alkali dalam kelalang kon sehingga warna penunjuk bertukar. meneutralkan asid berlebihan dalam perut. Health Kesihatan 1 Excess acid in the stomach is neutralised with its anti-acids that contain bases such as aluminium hydroxide . Ianya adalah teknik yang digunakan untuk menentukan isi padu asid yang diperlukan untuk meneutralkan isi padu tertentu alkali dengan bantuan penunjuk asid-bes.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE 3 Application of neutralisation in daily life / Aplikasi peneutralan dalam kehidupan seharian : Application Aplikasi Example Contoh Agriculture Agrikultur 1 Acidic soil is treated with powdered CaCO3)or ashes of burnt wood. CaO) before the gases Gas-gas berasid yang dibebaskan oleh kilang dineutralkan dengan kapur tohor (kalsium oksida. Gas dalam tanah berbes. 4 An acid-base titration / Pentitratan asid-bes : (a) It is a technique used to determine the volume of an acid required to neutralise a fixed volume of an alkali with the help of acid-base indicator. 2 Basic soil is treated with compost. (e) The commonly used indicators are phenolphthalein and methyl orange. (c) When the acid has completely neutralised the given volume of an alkali. Penunjuk yang biasa digunakan adalah fenolftalein dan metil jingga.indd 133 12/9/2011 5:55:57 PM m . (calcium oxide. . (d) The end point is the point in the titration at which the indicator changes colour. (calcium oxide. 4 Vinegar Cuka (Ethanoic acid) is used to cure acidic wasp sting. Tanah berasid dirawat dengan serbuk kapur tohor (kalsium oksida. and prevents coagulation. (natrium hidrogen karbonat) digunakan untuk merawat sengatan lebah yang beralkali. Takat akhir ialah takat dalam pentitratan di mana penunjuk bertukar warna. (iii) A burette is filled with an acid. CaO). acidic berasid gas from the decomposition of compost yang terbebas daripada penguraian kompos neutralises the meneutralkan alkali 3 The acidity of water farming is controlled by adding soda lime Keasidan air dalam pertanian dikawal dengan menambah kapur tohor (kalsium oksida. CaO). An acid is added drop by drop into the alkali in the conical flask until the indicator changes colour. Industries Industri 1 Acidic gases emitted by industries are neutralised with are released into air. pentitratan telah mencapai takat akhir. hd 133 Nila 06-Chem F4 (3P). Penunjuk yang biasa digunakan adalah fenolftalein dan metil jingga. sebelum gas-gas tersebut dibebaskan ke udara. bases bes (such as magnesium hydroxide) to neutralise the acid produced by bacteria in (seperti magnesium hidroksida) untuk meneutralkan asid yang dihasilkan oleh bakteria dalam 3 Baking powder Serbuk penaik (sodium hydrogen carbonate) is used to cure alkaline bee stings. CaO). soda lime . B . CaO). (asid etanoik) digunakan untuk merawat sengatan tebuan yang berasid. limestone (calcium carbonate. (i) An exact volume of alkali is measured with a pipette and poured into a conical flask. 2 Organic acid produced by bacteria in latex neutralises by ammonia Ammonia meneutralkan asid organik yang dihasilkan oleh bakteria dalam lateks dan mencegah penggumpalan. Apabila asid sudah lengkap meneutralkan isi padu alkali yang diberi. soda lime (calcium oxide. CaCO3) atau abu daripada kayu api. CaO). Tanah berbes dirawat dengan kompos. the titration has reached the end point. menunjukkan pH larutan neutral telah dihasilkan. (b) Steps taken are / Langkah-langkah yang diambil adalah : Buret diisi dengan asid. indicating the pH of neutral solution produced. kalsium karbonat dan magnesium hidroksida untuk 2 Toothpastes contain mouth. Isi padu alkali yang tepat diukur dengan pipet dan dituang ke dalam kelalang kon. Ubat gigi mengandungi mulut. (ii) A few drops of indicator are added to the alkali / Beberapa titik penunjuk ditambah kepada alkali. calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide . Publicat n io Sdn. batu kapur (kalsium karbonat. The alkalis in basic soil.

06-Chem F4 (3P). Bh 12/9/2011 5:55:57 PM . 1 mol of HCl : 1 mol of mol NaOH 0.05 mol 1 000 Concentration of H2SO4 = Number of mol of NaOH = 1 × n mol V dm3 0.025 mol of H2SO4 2 Concentration of H2SO4 = 1 mol dm–3 × (2 × 1 + 32 + 16 × 4) g mol–1 = 98 g dm–3 Hitung isi padu larutan natrium hidroksida 2 mol dm–3 yang diperlukan untuk meneutralkan 100 cm3 asid hidroklorik 1 mol dm–3. O = 16] 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide solution is neutralised by 25 cm3 of sulphuric acid.1 mol 1 000 M = 2 mol dm–3 V = ? cm3 NaOH + Number of mol of HCl = 1 × From the equation.1 mol = 2 mol dm–3 = 0.1 mol of HCl : 0. Use the relationship between the number of moles of the substances in Step 3. Change the information to mole / Tukar maklumat kepada mol. Step / Langkah 3 : Write the information from the chemical equation below the equation (number of moles of substance Step / Langkah 4 : Step / Langkah 5 : Step / Langkah 6 : Tulis maklumat daripada persamaan kimia di bawah persamaan (bilangan mol bahan yang terlibat). [JAR: H = 1. Tulis maklumat daripada soalan di atas persamaan.1 mol of mol NaOH n mol Volume of NaOH = M mol dm–3 0.05 dm–3 = 50 cm3 tio Nil a m Publica 134 n Sdn. Hitung kepekatan asid sulfurik dalam mol dm–3 dan g dm–3.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 5 Langkah umum dalam penghitungan yang melibatkan peneutralan: The general steps used in any calculation involving neutralisation: Step / Langkah 1 : Write the balanced equation / Tulis persamaan yang seimbang. Tukar bilangan mol kepada unit yang diperlukan dengan menggunakan formula: n= atau n = MV n = Number of moles of solute / Bilangan mol bahan terlarut M = Concentration in mol dm–3 (molarity) / Kepekatan dalam mol dm–3 (kemolaran) V = Volume of solution in dm3 / Isi padu larutan dalam dm3 v = Volume of solution in cm3 / Isi padu larutan dalam cm3 EXERCISE / LATIHAN 1 50 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida 1 mol dm–3 dineutralkan oleh 25 cm3 asid sulfurik. Step / Langkah 2 : Write the information from the question above the equation. 2 mol of NaOH : 1 mol of H2SO4 0. Calculate the volume of 2 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide needed to neutralise 100 cm3 of 1 mol dm–3 hydrochloric acid. S = 32. involved).05 mol of NaOH : 0.indd 134 d. M = 1 mol dm–3 V = 100 cm3 HCl NaCl + H2O 100 = 0. Convert the number of mol to the required unit with the formula: Mv 1 000 Guna hubungan di antara bilangan mol bahan-bahan dalam Langkah 3. O = 16] M = 1 mol dm–3 V = 50 cm3 2NaOH + H2SO4 M=? V = 25 cm3 Na2SO4 + 2H2O 50 = 0.025 mol = = 1 mol dm–3 25 dm3 1 000 From the equation. [RAM: H = 1. Calculate the concentration of sulphuric acid in mol dm–3 and g dm–3. S = 32.

Asid sulfurik adalah asid manakala asid nitrik adalah asid + monoprotik .indd 135 12/9/2011 5:55:58 PM m . Explain your answer. Asid nitrik 1 mol dm–3 digunakan untuk meneutralkan 100 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida 1 mol dm–3.1 2 mol NaOH / NaOH : 0.5 mol dm–3 sulphuric acid is titrated to 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm3 potassium hydroxide solution and methyl orange is used as indicator. satu mol Satu mol asid sulfurik mengion kepada ion H+. 4 Gambar rajah di bawah menunjukkan susunan radas bagi pentitratan larutan kalium hidroksida dengan asid sulfurik.5 mol dm–3 sulphuric acid Asid sulfurik 0.05 mol H2SO4 Mv Mol of H2SO4 / Bilangan mol H2SO4 = 1 000 M = Concentration of H2SO4 / Kepekatan H2SO4 v = Volume of H2SO4 in cm3 / Isi padu H2SO4 dalam cm3 1 mol dm–3 × v = 0. –– Sulphuric acid is diprotic diprotik Isi padu asid nitrik yang diperlukan adalah dua kali ganda dalam Eksperimen I dibandingkan dengan Eksperimen II. 0.5 mol dm–3 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm3 potassium hydroxide solution + methyl orange 50 cm3 larutan kalium hidroksida 1 mol dm3 + metil jingga Asid sulfurik 0.1 mol NaOH : 0.1 mol From the equation / Daripada persamaan : 1 mol NaOH : 1 mol HNO Mol of KOH / Bilangan mol NaOH = 1 × mol HNO3 Mv Mol of HCl / Bilangan mol HNO3 = 1 000 M = Concentration of HNO3 / Kepekatan HNO3 v = Volume of HNO3 in cm3 / Isi padu HNO3 dalam cm3 1 mol dm–3 × v = 0. Experiment II / Eksperimen II 1 mol dm–3 of sulphuric acid is used to neutralise 100 cm3 of 1 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide solution. one mol nitric acid ionises to one mol of H+. Terangkan jawapan anda.1 mol From the equation / Daripada persamaan : 2 mol NaOH / NaOH : 1 mol H SO Mol of KOH / Bilangan mol NaOH = 1 × 0. Answer / Jawapan: Experiment Eksperimen Compare the volume of acids needed to neutralise 100 cm3 of 1 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide solution in Experiment I and Experiment II. Bandingkan isi padu asid yang diperlukan untuk meneutralkan 100 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida 1 mol dm–3 dalam Eksperimen I dan Eksperimen II. Publicat n io Sdn. Experiment I Eksperimen I Experiment II Eksperimen II Balanced equation Persamaan kimia NaOH + HNO3 NaNO3 + H2O 2NaOH + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2H2O Calculation Pengiraan 100 1 000 = 0. Bilangan ion H+ dalam isi padu dan kepekatan yang sama bagi kedua-dua asid adalah dua kali ganda dalam asid sulfurik dibandingkan dengan asid nitrik. Asid sulfurik 1 mol dm–3 digunakan untuk meneutralkan 100 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida 1 mol dm–3.1 mol 1 000 3 v = 100 cm 0. Diagram below shows the apparatus set-up for the titration of potassium hydroxide solution with sulphuric acid. –– One mol of sulphuric ionises mol of H .5 mol dm–3 ditambahkan kepada 50 cm3 larutan kalium hidroksida 1 mol dm3 dan metil jingga digunakan sebagai penunjuk. mol ion H manakala satu mol asid nitrik mengion kepada –– The number of H+ in the same volume and concentration of both acids is doubled in sulphuric acid compared to hydrochloric acid. hd 135 Nila 06-Chem F4 (3P). 0. acid while nitric acid is two dua + monoprotic .1 3 100 1 000 = 0. B .1 mol 1 000 3 v = 50 cm 4 Comparison and explanation Perbandingan dan penerangan –– The volume of acid needed in Experiment II is doubled of Experiment I.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE 3 Experiment I / Eksperimen I 1 mol dm–3 of nitric acid is used to neutralise 100 cm3 of 1 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide solution.

Potassium sulphate (b) Suggest an apparatus that can be used to measure 25.1 mol dm–3 yang diperlukan untuk bertindak balas dengan lengkap dengan 50 cm3 larutan kalium hidroksida 1 mol dm–3. hydrochloric acid contains of mole of H+ ions as in sulphuric acid. Number of mol KOH = 1 × From the equation. asid hidroklorik mengandungi mol ion H+ daripada asid sulfurik.0 cm3 potassium hydroxide solution.0 cm3 of potassium hydroxide solution accurately.05 mol of KOH : 0. –3 n mol M mol dm–3 0. Predict the volume of hydrochloric acid needed to neutralise 50. Name the reaction between sulphuric acid and potassium hydroxide. Neutralisation (ii) Name the salt formed in the reaction / Namakan garam yang terbentuk dalam tindak balas tersebut. 06-Chem F4 (3P).MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 (a) (i) Namakan tindak balas antara asid sulfurik dengan kalium hidroksida. Volume of H2SO4 = (e) (i) 50 = 0. Bh 12/9/2011 5:55:58 PM . 2KOH + H2SO4 K2SO4 + 2H2O (ii) Calculate the volume of the 0.025 mol of H2SO4 Eksperimen diulang dengan menggunakan asid hidroklorik 0. Pipette (c) What is the colour of methyl orange / Apakah warna metil jingga dalam (i) in potassium hydroxide solution / larutan kalium hidroksida? Red (ii) in sulphuric acid / asid sulfurik? Yellow (iii) at the end point of the titration / pada titik akhir pentitratan? Orange (d) (i) Write a balanced equation for the reaction that occurs / Tuliskan persamaan seimbang bagi tindak balas yang berlaku. half separuh Nil a m Publica tio 136 n Sdn. the number bilangan –– The same volume and concentration of both acids.1 mol dm–3 sulphuric acid needed to completely react with 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm3 potassium hydroxide.indd 136 d.1 mol dm hydrochloric acid to replace sulphuric acid.05 mol 1 000 2 mol of KOH : 1 mol of H2SO4 0. Pada isi padu dan kepekatan yang sama untuk kedua-dua asid.025 dm3 = 25 cm3 50 cm3 // double the volume of sulphuric acid (ii) Explain your answer in (e)(i) / Terangkan jawapan anda di (e)(i).0 cm3 larutan kalium hidroksida.0 cm3 larutan kalum hidroksida dengan tepat.025 mol = 1 mol dm–3 = 0. Ramalkan isipadu asid hidroklorik yang diperlukan untuk meneutralkan 50. acid. Hitung isi padu asid sulfurik 0. Cadangkan radas yang boleh digunakan untuk mengukur 25. –– Hydrochloric acid is a monoprotic acid whereas sulphuric acid is a Asid hidroklorik ialah asid monoprotik manakala asid sulfurik ialah asid diprotic diprotik .1 mol dm–3 untuk menggantikan asid sulfurik. The experiment is repeated with 0.

yang manakah adalah betul tentang kedua-dua asid? B Both acids are strong electrolyte Kedua-duanya adalah asid kuat C The pH value of both acid are equal Nilai pH kedua-dua asid adalah sama Kedua-duanya adalah elektrolit yang kuat D 50 cm3 of each acid need 50 cm3 of 0. yang manakah mempunyai kepekatan ion hidroksida paling tinggi? 6 C R D S 3 Which of the following pairs of reactants would result in a reaction? Antara pasangan bahan tindak balas berikut. B . O =16. H+ yang sama dengan asid sulfurik 0. Na = 23] The molarity of sodium hydroxide solution 0.1 mol dm–3 potassium hydroxide solution? A 100 cm3 B 150 cm3 C 200 cm3 D 250 cm3 4 Antara tindak balas berikut. O =16.1 mol dm–3 of sodium hydroxide to be neutralised 50 cm3 setiap asid memerlukan 50 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida 0. What is the concentration of the solution in g dm–3? [Relative atomic mass: H = 1. yang manakah mempunyai kepekatan ion hidrogen.1 Sodium carbonate Natrium karbonat Ethanoic acid Asid etanoik 2 The table below shows the pH value of four acids which have the same concentration. hd 137 Nila 06-Chem F4 (3P). as in 0.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE Objective Questions / Soalan objektif 1 Which of the following substances changes blue litmus paper to red when dissolved in water? A Sulphur dioxide Sulfur dioksida B Carbon dioxide C D Karbon dioksida 5 Antara bahan berikut.2 mol dm–3 Asid etanoik 0. Apakah kepekatan larutan itu dalam g dm–3? [Jisim atom relatif: H = 1. H2SO4? Antara asid berikut.1 mol dm–3? A Copper metal with sulphuric acid Logam kuprum dengan asid sulfurik Logam zink dengan asid hidroklorik A 0.1 mol dm–3 sulphuric acid. yang manakah tidak akan membebaskan sebarang gas? Which of the following reactions will not produce any gas? 8 Which of the following solutions have the same concentration of hydrogen ions.5 mol dm–3.1 mol dm–3 carbonic acid Asid karbonik 0.1 mol dm–3 untuk dineutralkan Which of the following solutions has the highest concentration of hydroxide ion? A P B Q Antara larutan berikut.1 mol dm–3 hydrochloric acid B 0. Solution / Larutan P Q R S pH value / Nilai pH 2 7 12 13 Which of the following statements is true about both acids? A Both are strong acids Antara berikut.0 mol dm–3 diperlukan untuk menyediakan 500 cm3 larutan kalium hidroksida 1 mol dm–3? What is the volume of 2.1 mol dm–3 B Zinc metal with hydrochloride acid C Ammonium chloride with calcium hydroxide D Sodium carbonate hydrochloric acid Ammonium klorida dengan kalsium hidroksida Natrium karbonat dengan asid hidroklorik D 0.indd 137 12/9/2011 5:55:58 PM m .0 mol dm–3 potassium hydroxide solution needed to prepare 500 cm3 of 0. H+. Acid Asid Concentration / mol dm–3 Kepekatan / mol dm–3 Lithium oxide Litium oksida Hydrochloric acid Asid hidroklorik 0.1 mol dm–3 C 0. Jadual di bawah menunjukkan nilai pH empat larutan yang mempunyai kepekatan yang sama.2 mol dm–3 Publicat n io Sdn.1 0. yang manakah akan menghasilkan tindak balas? Kemolaran larutan natrium hidroksida adalah 0. Na = 23] A 20 B 40 C 80 D 120 A Sulphuric acid and copper(II) sulphate solution 7 B Nitric acid and magnesium oxide Asid nitrik dan magnesium oksida Asid sulfurik dan larutan kuprum(II) sulfat C Hydrochloric acid and sodium nitrate solution D Ethanoic acid and sodium sulphate solution Asid etanoik dan larutan natrium sulfat Asid hidroklorik dan larutan natrium nitrat Berapakah isi padu larutan kalium hidroksida 2. yang manakah menukarkan warna kertas litmus merah kepada biru apabila dilarutkan dalam air? The table below shows the concentration of hydrochloric acid and ethanoic acid.5 mol dm–3.2 mol dm–3 ethanoic acid Asid hidroklorik 0. Jadual di bawah menunjukkan kepekatan asid hidroklorik dan asid etanoik.2 mol dm–3 nitric acid Asid nitrik 0.

5 g natrium hidroksida dilarutkan dalam air suling menjadikan 250 cm3 larutan. O=16. III and IV Nil a m Publica tio 138 n Sdn. II. –3 25 cm3 asid sulfrik 2. III dan IV II dan III sahaja II dan IV sahaja D The solution will react with zinc to produce hydrogen gas Larutan itu bertindak balas dengan zink untuk menghasilkan gas hidrogen D I. Bh 12/9/2011 5:55:58 PM . 06-Chem F4 (3P).0 mol dm–3? [JAR: H = 1. 25 cm3 of 2. I 5 g of sodium hydroxide dissolved in distilled water to make 250 cm3 of solution.0 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm–3 dan 50.0 cm3 asid sulfurik 1.0 mol dm–3? [Relative atomic mass: H=1. II. O = 16.0 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida 1.0 mol dm–3 sulphuric acid IV 500 cm3 of 2 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide solution is added to distilled water to make 1 dm3 of solution.0 mol dm–3 of sodium are added hydroxide solution to form solution A.0 mol dm–3 of sulphuric acid and 50. Na =23] Antara larutan natrium hidroksida berikut.0 cm3 of 1. 3 –3 20 g natrium hidroksida dilarutkan dalam air suling menjadikan 500 cm3 larutan. I dan III sahaja B The solution will react with any acid C The solution turns a red litmus paper blue Larutan itu boleh bertindak balas dengan sebarang asid Larutan itu menukarkan warna kertas litmus merah kepada biru B II and III only C II and IV only I.indd 138 d. Na = 23] 10 The diagram below shows 25.0 mol dm–3 ditambah bersama untuk menghasilkan larutan A. III 250 cm of 2 mol dm sodium hydroxide solution is added to distilled water to make 1 dm3 of solution. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan 25. 250 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida 2 mol dm ditambah air suling menjadikan 1 dm3 larutan.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 9 Which of the following sodium hydroxide solutions have concentration of 1. yang manakah mempunyai kepekatan 1. 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm–3 of hydroxide solution 50 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida 1 mol dm–3 II 20 g of sodium hydroxide dissolved in distilled water to make 500 cm3 of solution. yang manakah adalah benar tentang larutan A? A I and III only 500 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida 2 mol dm–3 ditambah air suling menjadikan 1 dm3 larutan.0 mol dm–3 Solution A / Larutan A Which of the following is true about the solution A? A The solution has a pH value of 7 Larutan itu menpunyai nilai pH 7 Antara berikut.

nitrat. n = MV 1 000 ii. Menghuraikan eksperimen bagi setiap jenis kaedah penyediaan serta menerangkan rasional setiap langkah. Menyatakan warna baki bagi plumbum(II) oksida. zinc oxide and copper(II) oxide. Double decomposition reaction / Tindak balas penguraian ganda dua To describe the experiments for each method of preparation and explain the rationale for each step. Menghuraikan ujian pengesahan anion sulfat. karbonat dan klorida.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE 7 GARAM PREPARATION OF SALTS / PENYEDIAAN GARAM SALT • THE MEANING OF SALTS / MAKSUD GARAM – To write the meaning of salts and the formulae for all types of salt that are commonly found in this topic. karbonat dan klorida. EKSPERIMEN PENYEDIAAN GARAM BERDASARKAN KETERLARUTAN Menyatakan maksud garam dan menulis formula semua jenis garam yang biasa ditemui dalam tajuk ini. Menghuraikan eksperimen bagi kaedah penentuan formula garam tak larut. Menghuraikan ujian pengesahan semua kation menggunakan natrium hidroksida dan larutan ammonia. LIQUID AND GAS FORMS MENYELESAIKAN PELBAGAI MASALAH BERKAITAN KUANTITI BAHAN DALAM BENTUK PEPEJAL. – To state the confirmatory tests for anions of sulphate. LARUTAN DAN GAS – Using the formula / Menggunakan formula: i. • EXPERIMENTS FOR THE PREPARATION OF SALTS BASED ON SOLUBILITY – To determine the suitable methods for the preparation of salts based on solubility: – Menentukan kaedah yang sesuai bagi penyediaan garam berdasarkan keterlarutan: i. Acid + alkali / Asid + alkali iv.p / Isi padu molar gas pada suhu bilik dan s. Menyatakan ujian pengesahan bagi gas karbon dioksida dan nitrogen dioksida. hd 139 Nila 07-Chem F4 (3p). Menghuraikan ujian untuk membezakan Al3+ dan Pb2+. carbonate and chloride salts.t. Mole / Mol = Mass / Jisim RAM/RMM/RFM / JAR/JMR/JFR iii. zink oksida dan kuprum(II) oksida. – To state the confirmatory tests to differentiate Al3+ and Pb2+. carbonate and chloride. • CONFIRMATORY TEST CATIONS AND ANIONS / UJIAN PENGESAHAN KATION DAN ANION – To state the confirmatory tests for all cations using sodium hydroxide and ammonia solution. nitrate. sulphate. – To state the confirmatory tests for carbon dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. Acid + metal / Asid + logam ii. Publicat n io Sdn. CALCULATION ON QUANTITY OF REACTANTS/PRODUCTS [ QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS ] PENGHITUNGAN KUANTITI BAHAN/HASIL [ ANALISIS KUANTITATIF] • CONTINUOUS VARIATIONS METHODS / KAEDAH PERUBAHAN BERTERUSAN – To describe the methods of experiment to determine the formulae of insoluble salts. Menulis persamaan penguraian semua garam karbonat dan nitrat.p IDENTIFICATION OF IONS [ QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS ] / MENGENAL ION [ ANALISIS KUALITATIF ] • ACTION OF HEAT ON SALTS / KESAN HABA KE ATAS GARAM – To state the colour of the residue of lead(II) oxide. Menentukan keterlarutan semua garam nitrat. Acid + metal oxides / Asid + oksida logam iii. The molar volume of gas at room temperature and s. B .indd 139 12/9/2011 5:55:19 PM m .t. • SOLVING VARIOUS PROBLEMS RELATING TO QUANTITY OF REACTANTS/PRODUCTS IN SOLID. Acid + metal carbonate / Asid + karbonat logam v. • THE SOLUBILITY OF SALTS / KETERLARUTAN GARAM – To determine the solubility of nitrate. – To write the equations of the decomposition of carbonate and nitrate salts. sulfat.

(d) All sulphate salts are soluble except CaSO4. K2O. NaOH dan KOH. potassium nitrate and ammonium sulphate. Contoh: natrium klorida. nitric acid and carbonic acid with metal ions or ammonium ion. (b) All nitrate salts are soluble. NaOH and KOH. Publica Semua oksida logam dan hidroksida logam tidak larut dalam air kecuali Na2O. Semua garam karbonat tak larut kecuali K2CO3. kuprum(II) sulfat. asid nitrik dan asid karbonik dengan ion logam atau ion ammonium: Metal ion Ion logam Sulphate salt (from H2SO4) Garam sulfat (dari H2SO4 ) Chloride salt (from HCl) Garam klorida (dari HCl) Nitrate salt (from HNO3) Garam nitrat (dari HNO3 ) Carbonate salt (from H2CO3) Garam karbonat (dari H2CO3 ) Write the formulae of the salts in the table below by replacing hydrogen ion in sulphuric acid. * All metal oxides and hydroxides are insoluble in water except Na2O. shade the insoluble salts in the above table. Garam ialah sebatian ion yang terhasil apabila ion hidrogen daripada asid diganti oleh ion logam termasuk ion ammonium. Na+ dan NH4+ larut. * Based on the solubility of the salts in water. / Semua garam K+. hydrochloric acid.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 PREPARATION OF SALT / Penyediaan Garam 1 2 A salt is a compound formed when the hydrogen ion in an acid is replaced with metal ion or ammonium ion. Alkali ialah bes yang larut dalam air dan mengion menjadi ion hidroksida. * Berdasarkan keterlarutan garam dalam air. Tuliskan formula kimia garam berikut dengan menggantikan ion hidrogen dalam asid sulfurik. / Semua garam klorida larut kecuali PbCl2 dan AgCl. / Semua garam nitrat larut. Example: Sodium chloride. 4 Kaedah penyediaan garam bergantung pada keterlarutan garam tersebut. Acid + metal oxide / Asid + oksida logam salt + water / garam + air Asid + *bes garam + air iii. * Alkali is a base that soluble in water and ionises to hydroxide ion. copper(II) sulphate. PbSO4 and BaSO4. Soluble salts are prepared from the reactions between an acid with a metal/ base/ metal carbonate: Garam terlarut disediakan melalui tindak balas antara asid dengan logam/bes/karbonat logam: i. kalium nitrat dan ammonium sulfat. Acid + metal carbonate / Asid + karbonat logam salt + water + carbon dioxide / garam + air + karbon dioksida Method used to prepare salt depends on the solubility of the salt. Na+ and NH4+ salts are soluble. PbSO4 dan BaSO4. 07-Chem F4 (3p). K2O. Bh 12/9/2011 5:55:19 PM . (e) All chloride salts are soluble except PbCl2 and AgCl. Nil a m tio 140 n Sdn. / Kebanyakan bes adalah oksida logam atau hidroksida logam. Acid + alkali / Asid + alkali salt + water / garam + air iv. * Most bases are metal oxide or metal hydroxide. Semua garam sulfat larut kecuali CaSO4.indd 140 d. lorekkan garam yang tak larut dalam jadual di atas. (c) All carbonate salts are insoluble except K2CO3. Na2CO3 and (NH4)2CO3. Na2CO3 dan (NH4 )2CO3. Na+ K+ Mg2+ Ca2+ Al3+ Zn2+ Fe2+ Pb2+ Cu2+ Ag+ NH4+ Ba2+ 3 Na2SO4 K2SO4 MgSO4 CaSO4 Al2(SO4 )3 ZnSO4 FeSO4 PbSO4 CuSO4 Ag2SO4 (NH4 )2SO4 BaSO4 NaCl KCl MgCl2 CaCl2 AlCl3 ZnCl2 FeCl2 PbCl2 CuCl2 AgCl NH4Cl BaCl2 NaNO3 KNO3 Mg(NO3 )2 Ca(NO3 )2 Al(NO3 )3 Zn(NO3 )2 Fe(NO3 )2 Pb(NO3 )2 Cu(NO3 )2 AgNO3 NH4NO3 Ba(NO3 )2 Na2CO3 K2CO3 MgCO3 CaCO3 Al2(CO3 )3 ZnCO3 FeCO3 PbCO3 CuCO3 Ag2CO3 (NH4 )2CO3 BaCO3 Solubility of salts in water: / Keterlarutan garam dalam air: (a) All K+. asid hidroklorik. Acid + metal / Asid + logam salt + hydrogen / garam + hidrogen Acid + *base salt + water ii.

– Add metal/metal oxide/metal carbonate powder until excess into a fixed Tambah serbuk logam/oksida logam/karbonat logam ke dalam isi padu tetap asid yang dihangatkan sehingga berlebihan. Campur dua larutan yang mengandungi kation dan anion garam tak larut. – Dip in a glass rod. – Acid + Alkali Salt + Water (Neutralisation Reaction) – Acid + Metal Asid + Alkali Garam + Air (Tindak balas Peneutralan) – Acid + Metal oxide Asid + Logam Garam + Hidrogen (Tindak balas penyesaran) Salt + Hydrogen (Displacement reaction) – Stir with glass rod. (Double decomposition reaction) The salt is prepared by titration method of acid and alkali using an indicator. Celupkan dengan rod kaca. NH4+ Method I / Kaedah I The salt is prepared by precipitation method. Kacau dengan rod kaca. Turas campuran tersebut untuk mengeluarkan pepejal logam/oksida logam/karbonat logam yang berlebihan. – A titration is conducted to determine the volume of acid needed to neutralise a fixed volume of an alkali with the aid of an indicator. – Evaporate the filtrate until it becomes a saturated solution/ Sejatkan hasil turasan hingga larutan tepu.Nila 12/9/2011 5:55:20 PM . – Mix two solutions containing cations and anions of insoluble salts. Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE m Publicat Turas dan keringkan hablur garam dengan menekan antara kertas turas. the solution is saturated. NH4+ Method II / Kaedah II The salt is prepared by reacting acid with insoluble metal/metal oxide/ metal carbonate: Garam ini disediakan melalui tindak balas antara asid dengan logam/oksida logam/ karbonat logam yang tak larut: Garam disediakan berdasarkan keterlarutannya sebagaimana yang ditunjukkan pada carta aliran di bawah: Salts are prepared based on their solubility as shown in the flow chart below: Insoluble salt Garam tak larut Salts / Garam K+. Keringkan baki dengan menekankan antara kertas turas. Pentitratan dijalankan dengan menentukan isi padu asid yang diperlukan untuk meneutralkan alkali yang isi padunya sudah ditetapkan dengan menggunakan penunjuk. Turas dengan corong turas. Bilas baki dengan air suling. Na+. – Cooled at room temperature / Biarkan sejuk pada suhu bilik. volume of the heated acid – The same volume of acid is then added to the same volume of alkali without any indicator to obtain pure and neutral salt solution. if crystals are formed. – Filter and dry the salt crystals by pressing them between filter papers. Garam ini disediakan melalui kaedah pentitratan di antara asid dan alkali dengan menggunakan penunjuk. hd 07-Chem F4 (3p). jika hablur terbentuk dengan serta merta. n io 141 Sdn. – Acid + Metal carbonate Asid + Karbonat logam Asid + Oksida bes Garam + Air (Tindak balas Peneutralan) Salt + Water (Neutralisation Reaction) – Filter using filter funnel. (Tindak balas penguraian ganda dua). Garam + Air + Karbon dioksida Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide – Dry the residue by pressing it between filter papers. – Rinse the residue with distilled water. B . – Filter the mixture to remove excess metal/metal oxide/metal carbonate Isi padu asid yang sama juga ditambah kepada isi padu alkali yang sama tanpa penunjuk untuk mendapatkan garam yang tulen dan neutral.indd 141 PREPARATION OF SOLUBLE AND INSOLUBLE SALT / Penyediaan Garam Larut dan Garam Tak Larut 1 Preparation of salt / Penyediaan garam Soluble salt Garam larut Method III / Kaedah III Other than / Garam selain K+. larutan adalah tepu. Garam ini disediakan melalui kaedah pemendakan. Na+.

• Filter the mixture to separate the salt crystals . The volume of acid used is recorded. serbuk logam/ oksida logam/ karbonat logam pada isi padu asid yang Tambahkan tetap sambil dihangatkan perlahan-lahan .5 – 2 –3 • Cool it at room temperature until formed. • Measure and pour 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm–3 any alkali into a conical flask. Tambah beberapa titis fenolftalein. Bh 2 Steps to Prepare Soluble Salt/Langkah Penyediaan Garam Larut 07-Chem F4 (3p). Heat Hasil turasan ialah larutan garam yang berlebihan. campuran dengan Kacau rod kaca menggunakan . Panaskan Heat mol dm–3 of any acid is titrated to the alkali until neutral by using an indicator. Alkali Alkali Panaskan Heat Salt crystals 12/9/2011 5:55:21 PM . 50 – 100 Sukat dan tuangkan cm3 sebarang asid berkepekatan –3 0. • The Larutan garam dituangkan dalam mangkuk penyejat . • Add metal/metal oxide / metal powder carbonate to the acid excess until . Na+ and NH4+ Method I:/Kaedah I: • Stir the mixture with a glass rod . 50 – 100 3 0. Saturated salt solutions Larutan garam The residue is metal /metal oxide /metal carbonate . Salt crystals Hablur garam cm of mol dm of any acid • Measure and pour and pour into a beaker. larutan tepu salt solution is poured into evaporating dish . Tambah serbuk logam / oksida logam / karbonat logam kepada asid sehingga berlebihan . The filtrate is salt solution . logam/ Baki adalah logam oksida/ logam karbonat • 1 Excess of metal/ metal oxide/ metal carbonate tepu . crystals salts hablur garam are terbentuk. Na+ dan NH4+ Garam larut K+.indd 142 MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 tio n Sdn. Sukat dan tuangkan 50 cm3 sebarang alkali berkepekatan 1 mol dm–3 ke dalam kelalang. Na+ dan NH4+ Publica d. salt crystals • Dry the between pressing them papers. Sejatkan larutan sehingga terbentuk. Isi padu asid yang digunakan dicatat. Na+ and NH4+ / Garam larut selain K+. Turas campuran tersebut untuk mengasingkan bahan berlebihan iaitu logam/oksida logam/karbonat logam larutan garam dengan .5 – 2 mol dm dan tuangkan ke dalam bikar. Logam/oksida logam/ karbonat logam Panaskan . Acid Asid Residue is salt crystals Baki adalah hablur garam Acid Asid hablur garam dengan Keringkan menekan antara kertas turas. Ulang titratan tanpa penunjuk untuk mendapatkan larutan garam yang tulen dan neutral . Soluble salt of K+. by filter Turaskan campuran tersebut untuk mengasingkan hablur garam .Nil a m 142 Method II:/Kaedah II: Soluble salt except K+. Add a few drops of phenolphthalein. 1 mol dm–3 sebarang asid dititratkan kepada alkali sehingga neutral menggunakan penunjuk. • Evaporate the salt solution until saturated solution is formed. • Filter the mixture to separate metal /metal oxide excess /metal carbonate with the salt solution . Sejukkan pada suhu bilik sehingga • Repeat the titration without the indicator to get pure and neutral salt solution. • Add metal/metal oxide/ metal carbonate powder into the acid and heat gently .

the precipitate of insoluble salt is formed when two different solutions that contain the cation and anion of the insoluble salt are mixed. campuran menggunakan The residue is salt. mendakan garam tak larut terbentuk apabila dua larutan berbeza yang mengandungi kation dan anion garam tak terlarut dicampurkan. hd 143 Nila 07-Chem F4 (3p). XnYm 4) Filter the mixture distilled water Mendakan adalah garam XnYm . XnYm XnYm 3) Mix both solutions and stir the glass rod .5 – 2 mol dm–3 larutan berkepekatan mengandungi kation Xm+ ke dalam bikar. Garam tak terlarut tersebut diperoleh daripada baki penurasan. (ii) The insoluble salt is obtained as a residue of a filtration. and rinse the precipitate XnYm Turas campuran dan bilas mendakan itu menggunakan air suling.5 – 2 of mol dm–3 of aqueous solution contains X m+ cation. Sukat dan tuangkan 50 – 100 cm3 0. Garam tak larut disediakan dengan cara pemendakan melalui tindak balas penguraian ganda dua. Dalam tindak balas ini. Sukat dan tuangkan 50 – 100 cm3 0. mixture with Mendakan garam terbentuk. Tekankan mendakan antara kertas turas untuk mengeringkannya. Precipitate of salt is formed. Publicat n io Sdn. with salt. (i) In this reaction. Baki ialah garam XnYm. The residue is Salt Garam XnYm XnYm 5) Press the precipitate between filter papers to dry it. B . 2) Measure and pour 50 – 100 cm3 0.5 – 2 larutan berkepekatan mol dm–3 mengandungi anion Yn– ke dalam bikar yang lain. .indd 143 12/9/2011 5:55:21 PM m .Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE 3 Steps to Prepare Insoluble Salt / Penyediaan Garam Tak Larut Insoluble salts are prepared by the precipitation method through double decomposition reactions.5 – 2 mol dm–3 of of aqueous solution contains Yn– anion into another beaker. Method III: Preparation of Insoluble XnYm Salt by Double Decomposition Reaction Kaedah III: Penyediaan Garam Tak Larut XnYm Melalui Tindak balas Penguraian Ganda Dua 1) Measure and pour 50 – 100 cm3 0. Campur dan kacaukan rod kaca .

Tuliskan semua persamaan kimia dalam penyediaan garam larut dan dua persamaan kimia bagi garam tak larut. Write all the possible chemical equations to prepare soluble salts and two chemical equations for insoluble salts. 07-Chem F4 (3p).indd 144 d. Salt “S” / “IS” “L” / “TL” Chemical equations Persamaan kimia Zinc chloride Zink klorida Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2 ZnCl2 + CO2 + H2O ZnCl2 + H2O NaNO3 + H2O AgCl + HNO3 AgCl + NaNO3 CuSO4 + H2O CuSO4 + CO2 + H2O PbSO4 + 2HNO3 PbSO4 + 2NaNO3 S ZnCO3 + 2HCl ZnO + 2HCl Natrium nitrat Sodium nitrate S IS NaOH + HNO3 AgNO3 + HCl AgNO3 + NaCl CuO + H2SO4 CuCO3 + H2SO4 Pb(NO3)2 + H2SO4 Pb(NO3)2 + Na2SO4 2Al + 6HNO3 Argentum klorida Silver chloride Copper(II) sulphate Kuprum(II) sulfat S Lead(II) sulphate Plumbum(II) sulfat IS Aluminium nitrate Aluminium nitrat 2Al(NO3)3 + 3H2 2Al(NO3)3 + 3H2O 2Al(NO3)3 + 3CO2 + 3H2O PbCl2 + 2HNO3 PbCl2 + 2NaNO3 Mg(NO3)2 + H2 Mg(NO3)2 + H2O Mg(NO3)2 + CO2 + H2O S Al2O3 + 6HNO3 Al2(CO3)3 + 6HNO3 Plumbum(II) klorida Lead(II) chloride IS Pb(NO3)2 + 2HCl Pb(NO3)2 + 2NaCl Mg + 2HNO3 Magnesium nitrate Magnesium nitrat S MgO + 2HNO3 MgCO3 + 2HNO3 Potassium chloride Kalium klorida S S KOH + HCl PbO + 2HNO3 PbCO3 + 2HNO3 BaCl2 + H2SO4 BaCl2 + Na2SO4 KCl + H2O Pb(NO3)2 + H2O Pb(NO3)2 + CO2 + H2O BaSO4 + 2HCl BaSO4 + 2NaCl Plumbum(II) nitrat Lead(II) nitrate Barium sulfat m Publica Barium sulphate IS Nil a tio 144 n Sdn. Garam Complete the following table by writing “S” for soluble salts and “IS” for insoluble salts.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 Complete the following table: Lengkapkan jadual berikut: X m+ Yn– XnYm Ion equation/Persamaan ion Pb2+ [Pb(NO3)2] Ba2+[ BaCl2 ] Ag+ [AgNO3] Ca2+ [Ca(NO3)2] 4 I– [KI] SO4 [ Na2SO4 ] Cl– [NaCl] CO32– [Na2CO3] 2– PbI2 BaSO4 AgCl CaCO3 Pb2+ + I– Ba2+ + SO42– Ag+ + Cl– Ca2+ + CO32– PbI2 BaSO4 AgCl CaCO3 Lengkapkan jadual berikut dengan menulis “L” bagi garam larut dan “TL” bagi garam tak larut. Bh 12/9/2011 5:55:21 PM .

HNO3 + KOH KNO3 + H2O (c) Calculate the concentration of nitric acid. Hitungkan kepekatan asid nitrik tersebut.025 mol of KOH : 0. Potassium/sodium/ammonium salt. The experiment is repeated by reacting 25 cm3 of 1 mol dm–3 potassium hydroxide solution with 25 cm3 nitric acid without phenolphthalein. – The saturated solution is allowed to cool until salt crystals Y are formed. 1 = 0. 25 cm3 of nitric acid completely neutralises 25 cm3 of 1 mol dm–3 potassium hydroxide solution. Tuliskan persamaan seimbang bagi tindak balas yang berlaku. B . Salt Y is formed from the reaction. hd 145 Nila 07-Chem F4 (3p). (f) Name two other salts that can be prepared with the same method.025 mol of HNO3 Concentration of HNO3. Phenolphthalein is used as an indicator in a titration between nitric acid and sodium hydroxide solution. sodium sulphate. – The salt solution is poured into an evaporating dish. Nitric acid Asid nitrik 25 cm3 of 1 mol dm–3 potassium hydroxide solution + phenolphthalein 25 cm3 larutan kalium hidroksida 1 mol dm-3 + fenolftalein Fenolftalein digunakan sebagai penunjuk dalam pentitratan antara asid nitrik dengan larutan kalium hidroksida. Neutralisation Publicat n io Sdn. Potassium nitrate (b) Write a balanced equation for the reaction that occurs. Nyatakan jenis tindak balas dalam penyediaan garam ini. 25 cm3 asid nitrik meneutralkan 25 cm3 larutan kalium hidroksida 1 mol dm–3. Eksperimen ini diulang dengan menindakbalaskan 25 cm3 larutan kalium hidroksida 1 mol dm–3 dengan 25 cm3 asid nitrik tanpa fenolftalein. (a) Name salt Y. (g) State the type of reaction in the preparation of the salts. Huraikan secara ringkas bagaimana hablur garam Y diperoleh daripada larutan garamnya. – The crystals are filtered and dried by pressing them between filter papers.025 = M × 1 000 M = 1 mol dm–3 Mol of NaOH = 1 × (d) Why is the experiment is repeated without phenolphthalein? Mengapakah eksperimen ini diulang tanpa menggunakan fenolftalein? To get pure and neutral salt solution Y. Namakan dua garam lain yang boleh disediakan dengan kaedah yang sama. Garam Y terbentuk daripada tindak balas ini.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE EXERCISE / LATIHAN 1 Rajah di bawah menunjukkan susunan radas bagi menyediakan garam larut Y.025 mol 1 000 From the equation. Nyatakan nama garam Y. 1 mol of KOH : 1 mol of HNO3 0. M 25 0. The diagram below shows the set-up of apparatus to prepare soluble salt Y. Example: potassium nitrate. (e) Describe briefly how a crystal of salt Y is obtained from the salt solution.indd 145 12/9/2011 5:55:21 PM m . – The solution is heated to evaporate the solution until one third its original volume// a saturated solution formed.

– Black solid dissolve – Colourless solution turns black Nyatakan dua pemerhatian pada Langkah I. (a) (i) State two observations during Step I. (c) What is the purpose of heating in Step III? Apakah tujuan pemanasan dalam Langkah III? To evaporate the water and copper(II) sulphate solution becomes saturated (d) What is the colour of copper(II) sulphate? Apakah warna kuprum(II) sulfat? Blue (e) What is the purpose of filtration in Apakah tujuan penurasan dalam (i) Step II? / Langkah II? – To remove the excess copper(II) oxide. Bh 12/9/2011 5:55:22 PM . Langkah V: Hablur yang terbentuk dituraskan dan dikeringkan dengan menekan antara kertas turas. (iii) State the type of reaction in the preparation of the salts.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 2 Berikut adalah langkah-langkah dalam penyediaan hablur garam kuprum(II) sulfat kering. (b) Why is copper(II) oxide powder added until some of it no longer dissolve in Step I? Mengapakah serbuk kuprum(II) oksida ditambah pada larutan tersebut sehingga ia tidak boleh melarut lagi dalam Langkah I? To make sure that all sulphuric acid has reacted. Step IV: Langkah IV: Hasil turasan itu dibiarkan sejuk ke suhu bilik sehingga penghabluran berlaku.indd 146 d. CuO + H2SO4 CuSO4 +H2O Tuliskan persamaan kimia seimbang bagi tindak balas yang berlaku dalam Langkah I. 07-Chem F4 (3p). Step II: Langkah II: Campuran dituras. sedikit demi sedikit sambil dikacau ke dalam 50 cm3 asid sulfurik 1 mol dm-3 yang dipanaskan sehingga serbuk itu tidak boleh larut lagi. Step III: The filtrate is poured into an evaporating dish and heated to evaporate the solution until one third of its original. Neutralisation Nyatakan jenis tindak balas yang berlaku dalam penyediaan garam. Langkah III: Hasil turasan dipanaskan di dalam mangkuk penyejat sehingga isi padunya menjadi satu pertiga daripada isi padu asal. The following is the steps in the preparation of dry copper(II) sulphate crystals. Step V: The crystals formed are filtered and dried by pressing them between filter papers. The mixture is filtered. Step I: Copper(II) oxide powder is added a little at a time with constant stirring to the heated 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm–3 sulphuric acid until some of it no longer dissolve. Nil a tio 146 n Sdn. (ii) Write a balance chemical equation for the reaction that occur in Step I. Langkah I: Serbuk kuprum(II) oksida ditambahkan. – To obtain copper(II) sulphate solution as a filtrate m Publica (ii) Step V? / Langkah V? To obtain copper(II) sulphate crystals as a residue. The salt solution is allowed to cool at room temperature for the crystallisation to take place.

Cannot. Namakan sebatian lain yang dapat menggantikan kuprum(II) oksida dalam penyediaan garam yang sama. Lukiskan gambar rajah berlabel untuk menunjukkan susunan alat radas yang digunakan dalam Langkah II dan Langkah III. Sdn. Copper is less electropositive than hydrogen in the electrochemical series. excess . Write a balance chemical equation for the reaction that occur. kelaskan garam-garam tersebut kepada garam larut dan garam tak larut. Reaction I Tindak balas I Reaction II Tindak balas II Plumbum(II) karbonat Lead(II) carbonate Lead(II) nitrate Plumbum(II) nitrat Lead(II) sulphate Plumbum(II) sulfat (a) (i) What is meant by salt? Apakah maksud garam? Salts are ionic compounds produced when hydrogen ion from acid is replaced with metal ion including ammonium ion. – Terangkan bagaimana larutan plumbum(II) nitrat diperoleh daripada tindak balas I. Berdasarkan carta aliran di atas. classify the above salt to soluble salt and insoluble salt. Campuran – The filtrate is lead(II) nitrate Hasil turasan ialah solution larutan . (h) Name other substance that can replace copper(II) oxide to prepare the same salt. tersebut dikacau dengan rod kaca. 1 mol dm dan tuangkan ke dalam bikar. hd 147 Nila 07-Chem F4 (3p). copper cannot displace hydrogen from the acid. in the beaker is filtered. Soluble salt / Garam larut : Lead(II) nitrate Insoluble salt / Garam tak larut : Lead(II) carbonate.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE (f) Draw the a labelled diagram to show the set-up of apparatus used Step II and Step III. Publicat n io plumbum(II) nitrat.indd 147 12/9/2011 5:55:22 PM m . Lead(II) sulphate Describe how lead(II) nitrate solution is obtained in reaction I. (b) (i) Measure Sukat Serbuk Campuran and pour sebanyak 50 50 3 cm3 of 1 mol dm–3 cm asid nitrik nitric -3 acid in a beaker. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan carta aliran bagi penyediaan plumbum(II) nitrat dan plumbum(II) sulfat melalui tindak balas I dan II. (ii) Based on the flow chart above. Excess of copper(II) oxide Filter paper Copper(II) sulphate solution Heat Copper(II) sulphate solution (g) Can copper powder replace copper(II) oxide in the experiment? Explain your answer. Bolehkah serbuk kuprum digunakan untuk menggantikan kuprum(II) oksida dalam eksperimen ini? Terangkan jawapan anda. 3 Substance / Garam larut : Balance equation / Persamaan seimbang : Copper(II) carbonate CuCO3 + H2SO4 CuSO4 + H2O + CO2 The diagram below shows the flow chart for the preparation of lead(II) nitrate and lead(II) sulphate through reaction I and II. berlebihan – Lead(II) carbonate – Stir the – The powder is added to the acid in the beaker until plumbum(II) karbonat ditambahkan kepada asid di dalam bikar sehingga mixture mixture with a glass rod. . B . Tuliskan persamaan kimia yang seimbang bagi tindak balas yang berlaku. dituraskan.

(ii) Can lead(II) sulphate be prepared by adding excess of lead(II) oxide to sulphuric acid. (ii) Write an ionic equation the reaction that occur. Apakah langkah yang diambil untuk memastikan plumbum(II) sulfat dalam tindak balas II tulen? (iv) What is the step taken to make sure that pure lead(II) sulphate in reaction II is pure? The precipitate is rinsed with distilled water. – The insoluble lead(II) sulphate will prevent lead(II) oxide to undergo further reaction with sulphuric acid. Bolehkah plumbum(II) sulfat disediakan dengan menambahkan plumbum(II) oksida berlebihan kepada asid sulfurik? Terangkan jawapan anda. 50 cm3 larutan plumbum(II) nitrat 1 mol dm–3 ke dalam bikar.indd 148 d. Mendakan putih plumbum(II) sulfat dikumpulkan sebagai baki. 1 mol dm–3 lead(II) nitrate solution is added to of sodium sulphate solution in a beaker. – The precipitate is Mendakan tersebut pressed ditekan between sheets of kertas turas to dry it. Can lead(II) sulphate be prepared by adding excess of lead(II) nitrate to calcium(II) sulphate followed by filtration. Bh 12/9/2011 5:55:22 PM . Explain your answer. (d) (i) – Cannot. – Huraikan bagaimana cara menyediakan plumbum(II) sulfat yang tulen dan kering dalam tindak balas II. – Double decomposition reaction cannot occur. The white precipitate of lead(II) sulphate is collected as the residue. . Explain your answer. both cannot be separated by filtration. tersebut dikacau dengan rod kaca. (c) (i) Describe how to prepare pure and dry lead(II) sulphate in reaction II. – The precipitate is rinsed with Mendakan tersebut dibilas dengan distilled water air suling antara . PbCO3 + HNO3 Pb(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2 Tuliskan persamaan kimia yang seimbang bagi tindak balas yang berlaku. Nil a m Publica tio 148 n Sdn. – Calcium sulphate is insoluble salt. 1 mol dm–3 ditambahkan kepada 50 cm3 50 cm3 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm–3 larutan natrium sulfat – The mixture Campuran is stirred with glass rod. PbSO4 (iii) Name the type of reaction that occur in reaction II. dituraskan. it cannot form a solution and there are no free moving ions. 2+ 2– Pb + SO4 Tuliskan persamaan ion bagi tindak balas yang berlaku. – The mixture Campuran is filtered. Bolehkah plumbum(II) sulfat disediakan dengan menambahkan plumbum(II) nitrat berlebihan kepada kalsium(II) sulfat dan diikuti dengan penurasan? Terangkan jawapan anda. Double decomposition reaction Namakan jenis tindak balas yang berlaku dalam tindak balas II. 07-Chem F4 (3p). – Cannot.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 (ii) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction that occur. – Lead(II) sulphate and lead(II) oxide are insoluble. filter papers .

– The mixture is filtered and the residue is rinsed with distilled water. – The crystals formed are filtered and dried by pressing it between sheets of filter papers. – The hot saturated salt solution is allowed to cool for crystals to form. – The mixture is stirred with a glass rod and a white solid. ZnCO3 is formed. – The salt solution is gently heated until saturated. zinc sulphate Insoluble salt / Garam tak larut : Zinc carbonate State the reactant for the preparation of zinc carbonate from zinc nitrate in reaction I. (iv) Write the chemical equation for the reaction in (b)(iii). hd 149 Nila 07-Chem F4 (3p).Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE 4 Rajah di bawah menunjukkan carta aliran bagi penyediaan garam zink karbonat dan zink sulfat melalui tindak balas I dan tindak balas II. Double decomposition Nyatakan jenis tindak balas yang berlaku dalam tindak balas I. – The white precipitate is dried by pressing it between filter papers. Tuliskan persamaan kimia untuk tindak balas yang berlaku dalam (c)(ii). Berdasarkan carta aliran di atas. (iii) Write the chemical equation for the reaction in (c)(ii). Soluble salt / Garam larut : Zinc nitrate. ZnCO3 + H2SO4 ZnSO4 + H2O + CO2 Publicat n io Sdn. classify the above salt to soluble salt and insoluble salt. The diagram below shows the flow chart for the preparation of zinc carbonate and zinc sulphate through reactions I and II. Huraikan eksperimen dalam makmal untuk menyediakan zink sulfat dari zink karbonat melalui tindak balas II. – The filtrate is poured into an evaporating dish. – The white precipitate from reaction I/ zinc carbonate powder is added to the acid until in excess. – The excess white precipitate is filter out. (b) (i) Sodium carbonate solution / potassium carbonate solution / ammonium carbonate solution (ii) State the type of reaction the occurs in reaction I. Sulphuric acid (ii) Describe laboratory experiment to prepare zinc sulphate from zinc carbonate through reaction II. – 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm–3 of sulphuric is measured and poured into acid in a beaker. Huraikan penyediaan zink karbonat dari zink nitrat melalui tindak balas I. State the reactant for the preparation of zinc sulphate from zinc carbonate in reaction II. Reaction I Tindak balas I Reaction II Tindak balas II Zinc nitrate Zink nitrat Zinc carbonate Zink karbonat Zinc sulphate Zink sulfat (a) Based on the flow chart above. Nyatakan bahan tindak balas untuk penyediaan zink karbonat dalam tindak balas I. kelaskan garam di atas kepada garam larut dan garam tak larut. B . – The mixture is stirred with a glass rod. Zn(NO3)2 + Na2CO3 ZnCO3 + 2NaNO3 (c) (i) Nyatakan bahan tindak balas bagi penyediaan zink sulfat dari zink karbonat dalam tindak balas II.indd 149 12/9/2011 5:55:22 PM m . (iii) Describe the preparation zinc carbonate from zinc nitrate in the laboratory through reaction I. Tuliskan persamaan kimia untuk tindak balas yang berlaku dalam (b)(iii). – 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm–3 zinc nitrate solution is added to 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm–3 sodium carbonate solution in a beaker.

MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 Constructing Ionic Equation for the Formation of Insoluble Salt Membina Persamaan Ion bagi Pembentukan Garam Tak Larut 1 2 The ionic equation for the formation of insoluble salt can be constructed if the number of moles of anion and cation to form 1 mol of insoluble salt are known. Larutan kalium hidroksida 1.0 cm³ of 0. 5. what is the volume of potassium hydroxide solution needed to completely react with copper(II) sulphate solution? Berdasarkan graf di atas.0 mol dm–3 yang berlainan isi padu ditambah kepada setiap tabung uji.indd 150 d. (ii) What is the colour of the precipitate? Apakah warna mendakan? Blue (b) Based on the above graph.0 cm³ larutan kuprum(II) sulfat 0. Persamaan kimia untuk pembentukan garam tak terlarut dapat ditulis jika bilangan mol anion dan kation untuk membentuk 1 mol garam tak larut diketahui. Y n– daripada garam tak terlarut. Bh 12/9/2011 5:55:22 PM . Bilangan mol kation dan anion yang bergabung untuk membentuk 1 mol garam tak terlarut dapat ditentukan secara eksperimen menggunakan kaedah perubahan berterusan: (b) The volume of solution B needed to completely react with fixed volume of solution A is determined. Graf di bawah diperoleh apabila ketinggian mendakan diplot melawan isi padu larutan kalium hidroksida. (d) The simplest ration of mol of Xm+: mol of Yn– is calculated.5 mol dm–3 copper(II) sulphate solution is poured to 8 test tubes with the same size. apakah isi padu larutan kalium hidroksida yang diperlukan untuk bertindak balas dengan larutan kuprum(II) sulfat secara lengkap? 5 cm3 Nil a m Publica tio 150 n Sdn.5 mol dm–3 dituang ke dalam setiap 8 tabung uji yang mempunyai saiz yang sama. Isi padu larutan B yang diperlukan untuk bertindak balas dengan isi padu larutan A yang ditetapkan ditentukan. Tabung uji tersebut digoncangkan dan dibiarkan selama 30 minit. Copper(II) hydroxide Nyatakan nama mendakan yang terbentuk. Tinggi mendakan yang terbentuk dalam setiap tabung uji diukur. (e) Use the ratio to construct ionic equation. The height of precipitate formed in each test tube is measured. Bilangan mol X m+ yang bertindak balas dengan Y n– dihitung berdasarkan keputusan eksperimen. Yn– of the insoluble salt. Different volume of 1. 07-Chem F4 (3p). X m+ daripada garam tak terlarut bertindak balas dengan isi padu yang meningkat larutan B yang mengandungi anion.0 mol dm–3 potassium hydroxide solution are added to each test tube. 5 0 (a) (i) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Volume of potassium hydroxide /cm3 Isi padu kalium hidroksida /cm3 Name the precipitate formed. Height of precipitate (cm) / Tinggi mendakan (cm) Example: / Contoh: 5. Isi padu tetap larutan A mengandungi kation. The test tubes are left for 30 minutes. Gunakan nisbah tersebut untuk membina persamaan ion. The test tubes are stoppered and shaken well. (c) The number of mol of Xm+ react with Yn– is calculated based on the result of the experiment. The number mol of cation and anion which combined to form 1 mol of insoluble salt is determined experimentally by a continuous method: (a) A fixed volume of a solution A contains cations. The graph below is obtained when the height of precipitate is plotted against the volume of potassium hydroxide solution. Xm+ of the insoluble salt reacts with increasing volume of another solution B contains the anions. 3 Nisbah di antara bilangan mol X m+: bilangan mol Y n– dihitung.

4 dm3 pada s.0 cm³ of 0.0025 mol Cu2+ : 0.4 dm3 at s.0 = 0.0025 mol CuSO4 : 0. Tuliskan persamaan ion bagi pembentukan mendakan.p (suhu dan tekanan piawai). S4 Change the information in S2 into moles by using the method shown in the chart below.0 cm³ larutan kuprum(II) sulfat 0. L5 Gunakan perhubungan bilangan mol bahan terlibat dalam L3 untuk mendapatkan jawapan.0 cm³ of 0.005 mol OH– 1 mol Cu2+ : 2 mol of OH– (d) Calculate the number of mol of hydroxide ions needed to react with 5.005 mol KOH : 0. 1 mol sebarang gas menempati isipadu 24 dm3 pada suhu bilik dan 22. L3 Tuliskan maklumat daripada soalan di atas persamaan tersebut.5 = 0.5 mol dm–3 copper (II) sulphate solution. L4 Tukar maklumat dalam L2 menjadi mol dengan menggunakan kaedah yang ditunjukkan dalam carta di atas.0 cm³ of 0.t. S5 Use the relationship between number of moles of substance involved in S3 to find the answer.0 cm³ larutan kuprum(II) sulfat 0. S2 Write the information from the question above the equation. Hitung bilangan mol ion kuprum(II) dalam 5. Hitung bilangan mol ion hidroksida yang diperlukan untuk bertindak balas dengan 5. Cu2+ + SO42– 5 × 0.0025 mol Cu2+ (ii) Calculate the number of mol of hydroxide ions needed to react with 5.0025 mol Mol of CuSO4 = 1 000 From the equation. 1 mol CuSO4 : 1 mol Cu2+ 0. hd 151 Nila 07-Chem F4 (3p).t. S6 Change the information to the unit required using the chart below. L1 Tuliskan persamaan seimbang.005 mol 1 000 From the equation.4 dm mol 3 –1 3 –1 Volume of gas in dm3 Isi padu gas dalam dm3 Gas occupies the volume of 24 dm3 at room temperature and 22.5 mol dm–3 copper(II) sulphate solution.4 dm3 mol–1 Number of mol (n) Bilangan mol (n) ÷ 24 dm mol /22.5 mol dm–3 copper(II) sulphate solution. Calculation steps: / Langkah-langkah pengiraan: S1 Write a balanced equation.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE (c) (i) Calculate the number of moles of copper(II) ions in 5.005 mol OH– (iii) How many moles of hydroxide ions react with one mole of copper(II) ions to form a precipitate? Berapakah bilangan mol ion hidroksida yang bertindak balas dengan satu mol ion kuprum(II) untuk membentuk mendakan? 0.5 mol dm–3. Cu2+ + 2OH– Cu(OH)2 Solving Numerical Problems Involving the Salt Preparation Penghitungan Pelbagai Masalah Melibatkan Penyediaan Garam Jisim dalam gram Mass in gram ÷ (RAM/RMM/RFM) g mol–1 ÷ (JAR/JMR/JFR) g mol–1 MV n = 1000 × (RAM/RMM/RFM) g mol–1 × (JAR/JMR/JFR) g mol–1 Solution concentration in mol dm–3 (M) and volume in cm3 (V) Kepekatan larutan dalam mol dm–3 (M) dan isi padu dalam cm3 (V) × 24 dm3 mol–1/22. Publicat n io Sdn. CuSO4 KOH K+ + OH– Mol of KOH = 5 × 1. 1 mol KOH : 1 mol OH– 0. B . L6 Tukar maklumat tersebut kepada unit yang dikehendaki mengikut carta di atas.p (standard temperature and pressure).indd 151 12/9/2011 5:55:22 PM m . S3 Write the information from the chemical equation below the equation (the number of moles of reactants/products). L3 Tuliskan maklumat daripada persamaan kimia di bawah persamaan tersebut (bilangan mol bagi bahan/hasil tindak balas).5 mol dm–3.

1 mol CuSO4 Mass of CuSO4 = 0.03 dm3 = 30 cm3 Volume of Pb(NO3)2 = M mol dm–3 2 mol dm–3 Serbuk zink oksida ditambahkan kepada 100 cm3 asid nitrik 2 mol dm–3 untuk membentuk zink nitrat.1 mol of Zn(NO3)2 Mass of Zn(NO3)2 = 0. jisim zink oksida yang bertindak balas.2 mol 1 000 From the equation. O = 16. Cu = 64. Cl = 35. S = 32] 2 ?g CuSO4(ak) + 2H2O(l) 2 × 50 Number of moles of sulpuric acid = = 0.2 mol of HNO3 : 0. [Jisim atom relatif: H = 1. Pb = 207] 3 M = 2 mol dm–3 V = ? cm3 Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KI(aq) Mol of PbI2 = 25 g PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq) 27. O = 16. O = 16.0 mol dm–3 larutan plumbum(II) nitrat akueus ditambahkan kepada larutan kalium iodida akueus berlebihan. [Relative atomic mass: I = 127. Cu = 64. Zn = 65] (i) 2HNO3(aq) + ZnO(s) Zn(NO3)2(aq) + H2O(l) 100 × 2 = 0.5. Zn = 65] jisim zink nitrat yang terhasil. Calculate (i) the mass of zinc oxide that has reacted. 07-Chem F4 (3p). S = 32] 50 cm3 asid sulfurik 2 mol dm–3 ditambah kepada serbuk kuprum(II) oksida berlebihan.66 = 0.66 g of lead(II) iodide is precipitated when 2.06 mol = = 0. 2 mol of HNO3 : 1 mol of ZnO 0.06 mol (207 + 2 × 127) 1 mol PbI2 : 1 mol Pb(NO3)2 0. n mol 0. [Relative atomic mass: H = 1. Bh 12/9/2011 5:55:22 PM . [Jisim atom relatif: I = 127. [Jisim atom relatif: H = 1.06 mol Pb(NO3)2 From the equation.1 mol of ZnO Mass of ZnO = 0.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 EXERCISE / LATIHAN 1 50 cm3 of 2 mol dm–3 sulphuric acid is added to an excess of copper(II) oxide powder. Pb = 207] M = 2 mol dm–3 V = 50 cm3 CuO(aq) + H2SO4(aq) 27.1 mol 1 000 From the equation. 2 mol of HNO3 : 1 mol of Zn(NO3)2 0.5. Hitungkan jisim kuprum(II) sulfat yang terbentuk dalam tindak balas itu.0 mol dm–3 of aqueous lead(II) nitrate solution is added to an excess of aqueous potassium iodide solution.1 mol CuO : 0.1 × [65 + 16] = 8.2 mol of HNO3 : 0. Hitungkan Zinc oxide powder is added to 100 cm3 of 2 mol dm–3 nitric acid to form zinc nitrate.1 mol × [65 +[14 + (16 × 3)] × 2] g mol–1 = 0.66 g plumbum(II) iodida termendak apabila 2.1 mol × [64 + 32 + (16 × 4)] g mol–1 = 16 g 27. Hitungkan isi padu plumbum(II) nitrat yang digunakan. (ii) the mass of zinc nitrate produced.1 g Number of moles of HNO3 = (ii) From the equation. Calculate the volume of aqueous lead(II) nitrate solution used. [Relative atomic mass: H = 1. Cl = 35.1 × 189 = 18.indd 152 d.06 mol PbI2 : 0.9 g Nil a m Publica tio 152 n Sdn. Calculate the mass of copper(II) sulphate formed in the reaction. 1 mol CuO : 1 mol CuSO4 0. O = 16.

Cl = 35. Sediakan larutan akueus garam dan menjalankan ujian pengesahan untuk kation dan anion yang hadir. Zn2+. Kesan haba ke atas garam.1 mol × [108 + 35. Analisis kualitatif terdiri daripada langkah-langkah berikut: (a) Observe the physical properties on salt. Pepejal White Putih Green Hijau Light green Hijau muda Blue Biru Brown Perang Black Hitam Yellow when hot. kuning apabila sejuk Solid Larutan akueus Colourless Tanpa warna Insoluble Tak larut Light Green Hijau muda Blue Biru Brown Perang Insoluble Tak larut Insoluble Tak larut Insoluble Tak larut Aqueous Salts/ Cation/Metal oxide Garam/Kation/Oksida logam K+. Fe(NO3)2 CuSO4. anions or metal oxide. anion atau oksida logam tertentu.5] g mol–1 = 14.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE 4 200 cm3 of 1 mol dm–3 barium chloride solution reacts 100 cm3 of 1 mol dm–3 silver nitrate solution. 1 mol of BaCl2 : 2 mol of AgNO3 : 2 mol of AgCl 0. Hitungkan jisim mendakan yang terbentuk. white when cold Kuning apabila panas. Qualitative analysis of a salt is a chemical technique to identify the ions present in a salt. yellow when cold Perang apabila panas. Pb2+. Ca2+.5] 200 cm3 larutan barium klorida 1 mol dm–3 bertindak balas dengan 100 cm3 larutan argentum nitrat 1 mol dm–3.1 mol of AgNO3 : 0. Sifat-sifat fizikal seperti warna dan keterlarutan menunjukkan kemungkinan kehadiran kation. [Relative atomic mass Ag = 108. Mg2+. The qualitative analysis consists of the following steps: Physical Properties of Salt Sifat-Sifat Fizik Garam 1 Physical properties such as colour and solubility indicate the possibility of the presence of certain cations. Cl = 35. Na+. Cu(NO3 )2 dan CuCl2 Fe3+ CuO ZnO PbO Publicat n io Sdn.1 mol Mol of silver nitrate = 1 000 From the equation. FeCl2.1 mol dm–3 V = 100 cm3 BaCl2 + M = 0.2 mol of BaCl2 (lebih) : 0. B . Perhatikan sifat-sifat fizik garam. contoh: FeSO4. hd 153 Nila 07-Chem F4 (3p). Calculate the mass of precipitate produced.5] M = 0. ? g 2AgNO3 2AgCl + Ba(NO3)2 1 × 200 Mol of barium chloride = = 0.35 g Qualitative Analysis of Salts / Analisis Kualitatif Garam 1 2 Analisis kualitatif garam ialah suatu teknik dalam kimia yang digunakan untu mengenal pasti ion-ion yang hadir dalam garam.1 mol of AgCl Mass of AgCl = 0. putih apabila sejuk Brown when hot. [Jisim atom relatif: Ag = 108. (c) Prepare aqueous solution of salts and conduct confirmatory test for cation and anion present. NH4+ CuCO3 Fe2+.2 mol (excess) 1 000 1 × 100 = 0. (b) The action of heat on salts. Al3+.indd 153 12/9/2011 5:55:23 PM m .2 mol dm–3 V = 100 cm3.

Dekatkan kayu uji berbara ke mulut tabung didih. – Place a moist red litmus paper at the mouth of the boiling. CO3– hadir. Ion nitrat. Nitrogen dioksida terhasil apabila garam nitrat dipanaskan. Draw the set-up of apparatus to conduct the test: Lukiskan susunan radas untuk menjalankan ujian: Calcium carbonate Heat Lime water – Colourless gas with pungent smell. NO3– present or ClO3– ion present. Lalukan gas pada air kapur. NO3– atau ion ClO3– hadir. Pass the gas through lime water. – Put a glowing wooden splinter near to the mouth of a boiling tube. the glowing wooden splinter is relighted. Bh 12/9/2011 5:55:23 PM . NO2 Observation/ Test Pemerhatian/Ujian – Brown gas. Nitrate (NO3–) / Nitrat ( NO3–) Decompose to oxygen gas and metal nitrite when heated Terurai kepada gas oksigen dan logam nitrit apabila dipanaskan K+ 2KNO3 2KNO2 + O2 White solid White solid Pepejal putih Pepejal putih 2NaNO3 2NaNO2 + O2 White solid White solid Pepejal putih Pepejal putih Carbonate (CO32–) / Karbonat (CO32–) Does not decompose when heated Tidak diuraikan apabila dipanaskan – Na+ m Publica – Nil a tio 154 n Sdn. Gas tanpa warna. Letakkan kertas litmus merah lembap pada mulut tabung didih. – Produced by heating carbonate salt.O2 Carbon dioxide. – Produced by heating ammonium salt with alkali. kertas litmus biru bertukar menjadi merah. CO3– present. red litmus paper turns blue. NH3 Ammonia. Gas tanpa warna. Ion ammonium NH4+ hadir. 07-Chem F4 (3p). Terhasil apabila garam ammonium dipanaskan dengan alkali. Ion nitrat. – Oxygen gas is produced by heating nitrate or chlorate(V) salt. Wasap perang. Letakkan kertas litmus biru lembap pada mulut tabung didih. air kapur menjadi keruh.indd 154 d. – Ammonium ion NH4+ present. – Nitrate ion. NO2 Nitrogen dioksida. Gas oksigen terhasil apabila garam nitrat atau klorat(V) dipanaskan. 2 Common Gas Identification: / Pengesahan Gas yang biasa: Gas Gas Nitrogen dioxide. blue litmus paper turns red. Ion karbonat. Oxygen. lime water turns chalky. Gas tanpa warna dengan bau yang sengit. – Place a moist blue litmus paper at the mouth of the boiling tube. Cation Kation Action of heat on nitrate and carbonate salts. NO3– hadir. – – – Colourless gas.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 Action of Heat on Salt / Kesan Haba ke atas Garam 1 Beberapa jenis garam terurai apabila dipanaskan: Garam Some salts decompose when they are heated: Salt metal oxide oksida logam + gas gas Inference Inferens – Nitrogen dioxide gas is produced by heating nitrate salt. CO2 Ammonia. Terhasil apabila garam karbonat dipanaskan. kertas litmus merah bertukar menjadi biru. – Colourless gas. NH3 3 Kesan haba ke atas garam nitrat dan garam karbonat. tube. CO2 Karbon dioksida.O2 Oksigen. kayu uji berbara menyala. – Carbonate ion. – Nitrate ion. NO3– present.

the gas turns lime water chalky. dibebaskan. Nitrogen dioxide nitrogen dioksida gas released. Baki berwarna kuning apabila panas dan putih apabila sejuk zinc nitrate zink nitrat . gas nitrogen dioksida dan oksida logam apabila dipanaskan Ca2+ 2Ca(NO3)2 2CaO + 4NO2 + O2 White solid White pepejal Brown fume Pepejal putih Pepejal putih Wasap perang 2Mg(NO3)2 2MgO + 4NO2 + O2 White solid White pepejal Brown fume Pepejal putih Pepejal putih Wasap perang 4Al(NO3 )3 2Al2O3 + 12NO2 + O2 White solid White pepejal Brown fume Pepejal putih Pepejal putih Wasap perang 2Zn(NO3)2 Zn2+ 2ZnO + 4NO2 + O2 White solid Yellow when hot Brown gas Pepejal white when cold Gas perang putih Kuning apabila panas. kuning apabila sejuk Cu2+ 2Cu(NO3)2 2CuO + 4NO2 + O2 Blue solid Black solid Brown fume Pepejal biru Pepejal hitam Wasap perang CuO + CO2 CuCO3 Green solid Black solid Turn lime water chalky Pepejal hitam Air kapur menjadi keruh Pepejal hijau 4 5 6 Garam sulfat lebih stabil kerana ia tidak terurai dengan mudah apabila dipanaskan. dibebaskan. Garam berwarna hijau dipanaskan. hadir. Ion nitrat hadir. karbon dioksida – Colourless gas released. copper(II) carbonate kuprum(II) karbonat Publicat n io Sdn. – The residue is – The white salt is zinc zink oxide. hd 155 Nila 07-Chem F4 (3p). – Brown gas is released. Ion Carbonate Copper(II) . ion present karbonat hadir.indd 155 12/9/2011 5:55:23 PM m . oksida. hadir. Ion Zinc . Baki berwarna hitam. ion present. – Residue is black Gelembung gas dibebaskan. A green salt is heated. Ion – The residue is – The green salt is Garam hijau ialah copper(II) kuprum(II) ion present. they are not easily decompose when heated. B . ia menukar air kapur menjadi keruh. Garam berwarna putih dipanaskan. Gas perang dibebaskan. kuprum(II) . nitrogen dioxide gas and metal oxide when heated Terurai kepada gas oksigen.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE Decompose to oxygen gas. the gas turns moist blue litmus paper red. Garam klorida tidak terurai kecuali NH4Cl: NH4Cl(p) Lengkapkan jadual berikut: Sulphate salts are more stable. zink – Residue is yellow when hot and white when cold. oksida. Chloride salts do not decompose except NH4Cl: NH4Cl(s) NH3(g) + HCl(g) NH3(g) + HCl(g) Complete the following table: Observation Pemerhatian Inference/conclusion Inferens/kesimpulan – Gas Baki ialah Garam putih ialah A white salt is heated. menukar kertas litmus biru lembap kepada merah. Nitrate ion present. Putih kuning apabila sejuk PbCO3 PbO + CO2 White solid Brown when hot Turn lime water chalky Pepejal Yellow when cold Air kapur menjadi keruh Putih Perang apabila panas. oxide. – Carbon dioxide Gas Baki ialah gas released. putih apabila sejuk Mg2+ Al3+ 2Pb(NO3)2 Pb2+ 2PbO + 4NO2 + O2 White solid Brown when hot Brown fume Pepejal yellow when cold Wasap perang Perang bila panas. putih apabila sejuk Decompose to carbon dioxide gas and metal oxide when heated Terurai kepada gas karbon dioksida dan oksida logam apabila dipanaskan CaCO3 CaO + CO2 White solid White solid Turn lime water chalky Pepejal putih Pepejal putih Air kapur menjadi keruh MgCO3 MgO + CO2 White solid White solid Turn lime water chalky Pepejal putih Pepejal putih Air kapur menjadi keruh 2Al2 (CO3)3 2Al2O3 + 6CO2 White solid White solid Turn lime water chalky Pepejal putih Pepejal putih Air kapur menjadi keruh ZnCO3 ZnO + CO2 White solid Yellow when hot Turn lime water chalky Pepejal white when cold Air kapur menjadi keruh Putih Kuning apabila panas.

Baki berwarna perang apabila panas dan kuning apabila sejuk. . zink karbonat . Ion Carbonate Lead(II) ion present karbonat hadir. the gas turns lime water chalky. hadir. Baki berwarna hitam. Baki ialah kuprum(II) oksida. – Carbon dioxide Gas Baki ialah gas released. hadir. A blue salt is heated. Ion plumbum(II) hadir. Ion nitrat hadir. Garam berwarna putih dipanaskan. Ion – Residue is brown when hot and yellow when cold. Bh 12/9/2011 5:55:23 PM . – From the above table. Nil a m Publica tio 156 n Sdn. Gas perang terbebas menukar warna kertas limus biru menjadi merah. – Colourless gas released. karbonat hadir. . ia menukar air kapur menjadi keruh. Ujian pengesahan dijalankan dengan menambah sedikit larutan natrium hidroksida / larutan ammonia diikuti dengan larutan natrium hidroksida / larutan ammonia berlebihan kepada larutan yang mengandungi kation. lead(II) nitrate . – Colourless gas released. – The possible residue are ZnO/PbO/MgO/Al2O3 Baki yang mungkin adalah CaOl/MgO/Al2O3. Baki berwarna putih. – The residue is lead(II) oxide. A white salt is heated. lead(II) oxide. Garam berwarna putih dipanaskan. 07-Chem F4 (3p). – The residue is Baki ialah Garam putih ialah zink zinc oxide. Nitrate ion present.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 A white salt is heated. plumbum(II) lead(II) carbonate plumbum(II) karbonat . . Baki ialah plumbum(II) oksida. – Colourles gas released. Gas perang terbebas menukar warna kertas limus biru menjadi merah. A white salt is heated. Ion zinc zink ion present. A white salt is heated. plumbum(II) karbonat . karbon dioksida plumbum(II) dibebaskan. Gas karbon dioksida Carbonate dibebaskan. – The blue salt is Garam biru ialah copper(II) nitrate kuprum(II) nitrat . Gas nitrogen dioksida dibebaskan. . the gas turns moist blue litmus paper red. ia menukar air kapur menjadi keruh. – Residue is brown when hot and yellow when cold. Garam berwarna putih dipanaskan. – Residue is white Gelembung gas dibebaskan. – The white salt is zinc carbonate zink karbonat . – Residue is black. – Confirmatory test for other cations and anions is carried out by Confirmatory Tests for Anions and Cations Ujian pengesahan untuk kation dan anion lain boleh dijalankan dengan menggunakan Ujian Pengesahan Anion dan Kation. – The blue salt is Garam putih ialah lead(II) nitrate plumbum(II) nitrat . and Daripada jadual di atas. kuprum(II) nitrat dan kuprum(II) karbonat . Nitrate ion present. . – Residue is yellow when hot and white when cold. Ion nitrat hadir.indd 156 d. . Garam berwarna putih dipanaskan. the gas turns moist blue litmus paper red. ia menukar air kapur menjadi keruh. Copper(II) ion present. the gas turns lime water chalky. – Brown gas is released. the gas turns lime water chalky. Ion ion present. – The residue is copper(II) oxide. Garam berwarna biru dipanaskan. kesan haba ke atas garam boleh digunakan untuk mengenal garam zink nitrat plumbum(II) nitrat lead(II) carbonate . . oksida. Baki berwarna perang apabila panas dan kuning apabila sejuk. Lead(II) ion present. – The residue is – The white salt is Garam putih ialah ion present. Confirmatory Tests for Cations Ujian Pengesahan bagi Kation 1 2 Ujian-ujian kimia dijalankan bagi pengesahan kation dalam bentuk akueus. Gas nitrogen dioksida dibebaskan. Chemical tests is conducted for confirmation of cations in aqueous form. Baki berwarna kuning apabila panas dan putih apabila sejuk. – Carbon dioxide gas released. Confirmatory test is carried out by adding a small amount of sodium hydroxide solution / ammonia solution followed by excess sodium hydroxide / ammonia solution to the solution contains the cation. – Nitrogen dioxide gas released. Gelembung gas dibebaskan. – Brown gas is released. Gelembung gas dibebaskan. action of heat on heat on salt can be used to identify zinc nitrate zinc carbonate copper(II) nitrate copper(II) carbonate . – Nitrogen dioxide gas released. oksida. Ion kuprum(II) hadir. .

Zn2+. B . moist red litmus paper turn to blue Bau sengit. Cu2+. hd 157 Nila 07-Chem F4 (3p).indd 157 12/9/2011 5:55:23 PM m . Ca2+. Mg2+. Al3+. NH4 + + Panaskan Heat Tiada mendakan No precipitate Fe2+. Fe3+ (brown) Coloured precipitate Mendakan berwarna Add excess sodium hydroxide solution White precipitate Soluble Larut Mendakan putih Pb2+. Al . 3+ 2+ 2+ Add a little sodium hydroxide solution Tambahkan sedikit larutan natrium hidroksida K . Zn . Mg2+ Publicat n io Sdn. NH4+ Tiada perubahan No changes K+ Precipitate formed Mendakan terbentuk Cu2+ (blue). Al3+. menukarkan kertas litmus merah lembap kepada biru NH4+ Solution contains: Larutan mengandungi: K+. Mg2+ Tambahkan larutan natrium hidroksida berlebihan Zn2+. Pb2+ Insoluble Tak larut Ca2+. Fe2+ (green). Pb .Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE Sodium hydroxide solution Larutan natrium hidroksida small amount sedikit Tiada perubahan Tiada perubahan excess berlebihan Tiada perubahan Tiada perubahan Tak larut dalam berlebihan Tak larut dalam berlebihan Larut dalam berlebihan Larut dalam berlebihan Larut dalam berlebihan Tak larut dalam berlebihan Tak larut dalam berlebihan Tak larut dalam berlebihan Tiada perubahan small amount sedikit Tiada perubahan Tiada perubahan Tiada perubahan Ammonia solution Larutan ammonia excess berlebihan Tiada perubahan Tiada perubahan Tiada perubahan Tak larut dalam berlebihan Larut dalam berlebihan Larut dalam berlebihan Larut dalam berlebihan Larut dalam berlebihan Larut dalam berlebihan Larut dalam berlebihan Tiada perubahan Cations Kation K+ Na+ Ca2+ Mg2+ Zn2+ Al3+ Pb2+ Fe2+ Fe3+ Cu2+ NH4+ No change No change No change No change No change No change No change No change No change No change White precipitate Mendakan putih Mendakan putih Mendakan putih Insoluble in excess White precipitate White precipitate White precipitate Mendakan putih Mendakan putih Mendakan hijau Insoluble in excess Soluble in excess Soluble in excess Soluble in excess White precipitate Mendakan putih Mendakan putih Insoluble in excess Soluble in excess Soluble in excess Soluble in excess Soluble in excess Soluble in excess Soluble in excess No change White precipitate White precipitate Mendakan putih Mendakan putih Mendakan hijau White precipitate Green precipitate Brown precipitate Mendakan perang Mendakan biru White precipitate Green precipitate Brown precipitate Mendakan perang Mendakan biru Insoluble in excess Insoluble in excess Insoluble in excess No change Blue precipitate Tiada perubahan Blue precipitate Tiada perubahan No change No change (a) Reaction with small amount until excess of sodium hydroxide solution: (refer to the above table) Tindak balas dengan larutan natrium hidroksida sedikit demi sedikit sehingga berlebihan: (rujuk jadual di atas) Pungent smell. Ca2+. Fe3+.

– No precipitate when solution containing SO42–/ Cl– / I– added to Al3+. Mendakan terbentuk apabila larutan mengandungi SO42–/ Cl–/ I– ditambah kepada Pb2+. soluble in excess of sodium hydroxide and insoluble in excess ammonia solution (iv) Ca2+: White precipitate insoluble in excess of sodium hydroxide and no precipitate with ammonia solution (v) NH4+: No precipitate with sodium hydroxide solution and pungent smell released when heated (d) Conclusion of the confirmatory test for coloured cations. Al . Nil a m Publica tio 158 n Sdn. insoluble in excess of sodium hydroxide and ammonia solution (iii) Fe3+: Brown precipitate. 07-Chem F4 (3p). K+. Fe2+. Fe3+ Precipitate formed Mendakan terbentuk Insoluble Add excess aqueous ammonia 3+ Tak larut Soluble Larut White precipitate Mendakan putih Pb . Al3+ dan Pb2+ boleh dibezakan dengan menggunakan tindak balas pernguraian ganda dua. Pb2+. Bh 12/9/2011 5:55:24 PM . Semua kation boleh dikenal pasti dengan ujian pengesahan menggunakan larutan natrium hidroksida dan larutan ammonia kecuali Al3+ dan Pb2+. Mg2+. insoluble in excess of sodium hydroxide and ammonia solution (e) All cations can be identified with confirmatory test using sodium hydroxide solution and ammonia solution except Al3+ and Pb2+. insoluble in excess of sodium hydroxide and ammonia solution (iii) Al3+: White precipitate.indd 158 d. Pb3+ Insoluble Tak larut (c) Conclusion of the confirmatory test for colourless/white cations: Kesimpulan ujian pengesahan bagi kation tanpa warna/putih: (i) Zn2+: White precipitqte. Na+ No precipitate Solution contains: Larutan mengandungi: K+. Fe2+ (green). Al3+. Mg2+ 2+ Tambahkan larutan ammonia berlebihan Zn2+ Mg2+. – Precipitate is formed when solution containing SO42–/ Cl–/ I– added to Pb2+. An aqueous solution containing SO42–/ Cl–/ I– anion is used to detect the presence of Al3+ and Pb2+.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 (b) Reaction with small amount until excess of ammonia solution: Tindak balas dengan larutan ammonia sedikit demi sedikit sehingga berlebihan: Add a little solution of ammonia Ca2+. (i) Cu2+: Blue precipitate insoluble in excess of sodium hydroxide solution and soluble in excess ammonia solution (ii) Fe2+: Green precipitate. Na+. Tiada mendakan terbentuk apabila larutan mengandungi SO42–/ Cl–/ I– ditambah keepada Al3+. Untuk membezakan Al3+ dengan Pb2+: (f) To differentiate between Al3+ and Pb2+: – Al3+ and Pb2+ are differentiated by double decomposition reaction. Zn2+. Ca2+. Fe3+ (brown) Coloured precipitate Mendakan berwarna Tambahkan larutan ammonia berlebihan Soluble Larut Cu2+ Fe2+. Kesimpulan untuk ujian pengesahan bagi kation berwarna. soluble in excess of sodium hydroxide and ammonia solution (ii) Mg2+: White precipitate. Fe3+. Zn2+. Al3+. Larutan akueus yang mengandungi anion SO42–/ Cl– / I– digunakan untuk mengesan kehadiran Al3+ dan Pb2+. Cu2+ Add excess aqueous ammonia Tambah sedikit larutan ammonia Tiada mendakan Cu2+ (blue).

Mendakan putih terbentuk. – The gas given off is passed through lime water: Carbonate ion. hd 159 Nila 07-Chem F4 (3p). Inference: / Inferens: The gas is carbon dioxide. Inference: / Inferens: The precipitate is silver chloride Mendakan ialah argentum klorida. CO32– Lukiskan gambar rajah berlabel untuk menjalankan ujian: Gas tersebut ialah karbon dioksida. Acid Carbonate salt Lime water Ionic equation: / Persamaan ion: H2O + CO2 CO32– + 2H+ – 2 cm3 of dilute nitric acid is added to 2 cm3 solution of chloride ions followed by 2 cm3 of silver nitrate solution. 2– 2 cm3 asid sulfurik asid/asid nitrik cair ditambah kepada 2 cm3 larutan sulfat diikuti dengan 2 cm3 larutan barium klorida/larutan barium nitrat. Mendakan putih terbentuk. 2 cm3 asid nitrik/asid sulfurik cair ditambah kepada 2 cm3 garam karbonat.indd 159 12/9/2011 5:55:24 PM m . Inference: / Inferens: The precipitate is barium sulphate Mendakan tersebut ialah barium sulfat. Ionic equation: / Persamaan ion: AgCl Ag+ + Cl– – 2 cm3 of dilute hydrochloric / nitric acid is added to 2 cm3 of sulphate solution followed by 2 cm3 of barium chloride solution / barium nitrate solution. Sulphate ion. CO32– Draw a labelled diagram to conduct the test: Gas yang terbebas dilalukan air kapur. Cl– Ion klorida. Ion karbonat. Remark/Catatan Observation: / Pemerhatian: Effervescence occurs and lime water turns chalky. Pembuakan berlaku dan air kapur menjadi keruh. SO4 Ion sulfat SO4 2– Observation: / Pemerhatian: A white precipitate is formed. Ionic equation: / Persamaan ion: BaSO4 Ba2+ + SO42– Publicat n io Sdn. Cl– 2 cm3 asid nitrik cair ditambah kepada 2 cm3 larutan ion klorida diikuti dengan 2 cm3 larutan argentum nitrat.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE (g) Write the ionic equations for the formation of precipitates: Tuliskan persamaan ion bagi pembentukan mendakan: Al3+ and Pb2+ Al3+ dan Pb2+ Add sodium sulphate solution Tambahkan larutan natrium sulfat Add potassium iodide solution Add sodium chloride solution Tambahkan larutan natrium klorida Tambahkan larutan kalium iodida No changes Tiada perubahan White precipitate Mendakan putih No changes Tiada perubahan Yellow precipitate Mendakan kuning Al3+ Pb2+ Pb2+ + SO42– PbSO4 Al3+ Pb2+ + 2I– White precipitate Mendakan putih Pb2+ PbI2 No changes Tiada perubahan Al3+ Pb2+ Pb2+ + 2Cl– PbCl2 Confirmatory tests for Anions Ujian Pengesahan untuk Anion Anion/Anion Procedure/Prosedur – 2 cm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid / nitric acid /sulphuric acid is added to 2 cm3 of carbonate salt. B . Observation: / Pemerhatian: A white precipitate is formed. Chloride ion.

Bh 12/9/2011 5:55:24 PM . 2+ Ion present /Ion hadir : Pb Ionic equation/Persamaan ion : Pb2+ + 2I– PbI2 Nil a m Publica tio 160 n Sdn. 07-Chem F4 (3p). a white precipitate is formed. B. Baki D yang berwarna kuning apabila sejuk dan putih apabila sejuk terbentuk. a white precipitate is formed. a yellow precipitate F. NO3 Ion nitrat. The precipitate is soluble in excess sodium hydroxide solution. NO3– – – – – The mixture is shaken. (i) Name substances A. Al3+ and Zn2+ (ii) What are the possible cations present in solution E as a result from S1 and S2 tests? Apakah kation yang mungkin hadir dalam larutan E hasil ujian L1 dan L2? Pb2+ and Al3+ (iii) What is the ion present in E after S3 test has been done? Write an ionic equation for the formation of substance F. S2 – Add ammonia solution. Campuran digoncang. Bahan A berwarna putih. 2Zn(NO3)2 2ZnO + 4NO2 + O2 (b) Write the chemical equation when substance E is heated. Inference: / Inferens: Nitrate ion present. C and D.indd 160 d. The precipitate is insoluble in excess ammonia solution. These gases lighted a glowing wooden splinter. A: Zinc nitrate B: Nitrogen dioxide C: Oxygen D: Zinc oxide (ii) Write the chemical equation when substance A is heated. Ion nitrat hadir. Cincin perang terbentuk di antara dua lapisan. Tuliskan persamaan kimia apabila bahan A dipanaskan. is formed. L1 – Apabila ditambah dengan larutan natrium hidroksida. Namakan bahan A. A few drops of concentrated H2SO4 acid is dropped along the wall of the test tube and is held upright. mendakan putih terbentuk. Apakah ion yang disahkan hadir dalam E setelah dilakukan ujian L3? Tulis persamaan ion bagi pembentukan bahan F.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 – 2 cm3 of dilute sulphuric acid is added to 2 cm3 solution of nitrate ions followed by 2 cm3 of iron(II) sulphate solution. EXERCISE / LATIHAN 1 (a) Substance A is white in colour. The test tube is slanted and held with a test tube holder. C dan D. Nitrate ion. (i) L2 – Apabila ditambah larutan ammonia. B. Larutan tanpa warna E memberi keputusan berikut apabila dijalankan beberapa siri ujian: S1 – Add sodium hydroxide solution. Observation: / Pemerhatian: A brown ring is formed between two layers. Residue D which is yellow in colour when hot and white when cold is formed. Mendakan ini larut apabila ditambah natrium hidroksida berlebihan. L3 – Apabila ditambah dengan larutan kalium iodida. Beberapa titis H2SO4 pekat dititiskan melalui dinding tabung uji dan ditegakkan. mendakan putih terbentuk dan mendakan ini tidak larut dalam larutan ammonia berlebihan. Apabila A dipanaskan dengan kuat. a brown gas. Gas C menyalakan kayu uji berbara. Tabung uji dicondongkan dan diapit dengan pemegang tabung uji. mendakan kuning F terbentuk. When A is strongly heated. S3 – Add potassium iodide solution. 2 cm3 larutan ion nitrat ditambah kepada 2 cm3 asid sulfurik cair diikuti dengan 2 cm3 larutan ferum(II) sulfat. B and gas C are released. What are the possible cations present in substance E as a result of S1 test? Apakah kation-kation yang mungkin hadir dalam bahan E hasil ujian L1? Pb2+. gas berwarna perang B dan gas C dibebaskan.

indd 161 12/9/2011 5:55:24 PM m . hd 161 Nila 07-Chem F4 (3p). Kenal pasti gas Q dan nyatakan sifat kimia yang ditunjukkan oleh gas Q. Add sodium hydroxide solution. C. B . Pass the gas through lime water. B. Ujian I Test I Larutan tanpa warna P Colourless solution P Ujian II Test II Effervescence occurs and gas S is released Pembuakan berlaku dan membebaskan gas S. (c) (i) Name gas S and write the ionic equation that occurred in Test II: Gas S/Gas S : Carbon dioxide + 2– Ionic equation/Persamaan ion: CO3 + 2H Namakan gas S dan tuliskan persamaan ion bagi tindak balas yang berlaku dalam ujian II: H2O + CO2 (ii) Explain how you confirmed gas S. Ammonium carbonate 3 Jadual di bawah menunjukkan warna lima larutan berlabel A. Gas Q berbau sengit terbebas dan menukarkan warna kertas litmus merah lembap kepada biru. Gas Q with a pungent smell is released and turns moist red litmus paper blue. C.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE 2 The diagram below shows the flow chart for Test I and Test II on colourless solution P. Solution Larutan The table below shows the colour of five solutions labelled A. (iii) Name salt P based on the results of tests I and II. Namakan garam P berdasarkan keputusan ujian I dan II. heat it. lime water turns chalky. Ammonia. Terangkan bagaimana anda mengesahkan gas S. Add dilute hydrochloric acid Tambah asid hidroklorik cair (a) Identify gas Q and state its chemical properties. D and E added with small amount until excess of ammonia solution and sodium hydroxide solution. alkaline gas (b) State the reagent used in test I and state how the test is carried out. D dan E yang ditambah dengan larutan natrium hidroksida dan larutan ammonia sedikit demi sedikit sehingga berlebihan. Colour Warna With sodium hydroxide solution Dengan larutan natrium hidroksida With ammonia solution Dengan larutan ammonia A B C D E Blue Biru Blue precipitate insoluble in excess Mendakan biru tidak larut dalam berlebihan Blue precipitate soluble in excess Mendakan biru larut dalam berlebihan Tanpa warna Colourless White precipitate soluble in excess Mendakan putih larut dalam berlebihan White precipitate soluble in excess Mendakan putih larut dalam berlebihan Light green Hijau muda Green precipitate Mendakan hijau kotor Dirty green precipitate Mendakan hijau kotor Tanpa warna Colourless White precipitate soluble in excess Mendakan putih larut dalam berlebihan White precipitate insoluble in excess Mendakan putih tidak larut dalam berlebihan Tanpa warna Colourless White precipitate insoluble in excess Mendakan putih tidak larut dalam berlebihan White precipitate insoluble in excess Mendakan putih tidak larut dalam berlebihan (a) What are the cations present in Apakah kation yang terdapat dalam 2+ A: Cu 2+ B: Zn 2+ C: Fe 2+ E: Mg Publicat n io Sdn. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan carta aliran bagi ujian I dan ujian II ke atas larutan tanpa warna P. Nyatakan bahan uji yang digunakan dalam ujian I serta huraikan bagaimana ujian dilakukan. B.

Passed the gas through lime water. The salt is copper(II) carbonate . terbentuk. tersebut adalah lead(II) oxide plumbum(II) oksida formed. describe how you can differentiate the three substances in the laboratory. Solid M is a zinc salt. – If the residue is brown when hot and yellow when cold. Pb2+ (d) Describe briefly a test that can differentiate the cations present in solution D. Nyatakan satu lagi ujian bagi mengenali C. zinc(II) carbonate and copper(II) carbonate. Terangkan secara ringkas satu ujian yang boleh digunakan untuk membezakan kation-kation yang hadir dalam larutan D. lead(II) ion / Pb2+ present – No precipitate. Jika baki berwarna perang apabila panas dan kuning apabila sejuk. terangkan bagaimana anda membezakan ketiga-tiga bahan tersebut di dalam makmal. The salt is terbentuk. then zinc oxide is formed. – Add a few drops of potassium iodide / sodium chloride / sodium sulpahte solution into 1 cm3 of solution D. Reaction I The diagram below shows the flow chart of changes that took place beginning from solid M. You are given lead(II) carbonate. maka plumbum(II) karbonat . • Heat strongly one spatula of each salt in a kuat boiling tube and observe the residue: tabung didih dan perhatikan baki- Panaskan dengan bakinya: satu spatula setiap jenis garam dalam – If the residue is yellow when hot and white when cold. light blue precipitate formed (c) What are the possible cations present in solution D? Apakah kation-kation yang mungkin terdapat dalam larutan D? Al3+. Jika baki berwarna kuning apabila panas dan putih apabila sejuk. When solid M is heated strongly. then lead(II) carbonate . Tindak balas I Pepejal M Solid M Tindak balas II Reaction II Panaskan Heat Add dilute nitric acid/Tambah asid nitrik cair Solid Q + carbon dioxide gas Pepejal Q + gas karbon dioksida Solution S Larutan S + Carbon dioxide gas Gas karbon dioksida + Water Air Reaction III + Magnesium Tindak balas III + Magnesium Zinc metal + Magnesium nitrate solution / Logam zink + Larutan magnesium nitrat (a) (i) Berikan satu ujian kimia bagi gas karbon dioksida. maka copper(II) oxide kuprum(II) oksida is formed. Garam tersebut – If the residue is black. aluminium ion / Al3+ present. then Jika baki berwarna hitam. Add potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) solution.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 (b) State another test to identify C. – Yellow/white precipitate formed. it decomposes into solid Q which is yellow when hot and white when cold. Apabila pepejal M dipanaskan dengan kuat.indd 162 d. Tanpa menggunakan sebarang bahan uji. Without using any reagents. ia terurai kepada suatu pepejal Q yang berwarna kuning apabila panas dan putih apabila sejuk. 4 Anda diberi plumbum(II) karbonat. lime water turns chalky Nil a m Publica tio 162 n Sdn. Garam 5 Rajah di bawah menunjukkan carta aliran bagi perubahan yang berlaku bermula daripada pepejal M. Pepejal M adalah suatu garam bagi zink. Bh 12/9/2011 5:55:24 PM . zink(II) karbonat dan kuprum(II) karbonat. The salt is zinc carbonate . maka zink karbonat . 07-Chem F4 (3p). adalah zink oksida terbentuk. Garam tersebut adalah kuprum(II) karbonat .

5 g pepejal M terurai dengan lengkap. Lukiskan gambar rajah susunan radas untuk menjalankan tindak balas I. Bagi tindak balas II. White precipitate. 1 mol gas menempati 24 dm3 pada suhu bilik] Displacement reaction (f) Describe a chemical test to determine the presence of anion in the magnesium nitrate solution. Zn = 65. cm3 larutan magnesium nitrat ke dalam tabung uji.1 mol 125 From the equation.1 mol M : 0. pekat dititiskan melalui dinding tabung uji dan ditegakkan.1 mol CO2 Volume of CO2 = 0. Beberapa titis asid sulfurik brown ring Gelang perang – Anion present is nitrate Anion yang hadir adalah ion nitrat ion. iron(II) sulphate . O =16. O = 16.indd 163 12/9/2011 5:55:24 PM m . Write the chemical equation for reaction II. Nyatakan pemerhatian yang dibuat apabila larutan ammonia berlebihan ditambahkan kepada larutan S. 1 mol M : 1 mol CO2 0.5 = 0. Namakan tindak balas III. asid sulfurik cair ditambah kepada larutan diikuti dengan larutan ferum(II) sulfat – The mixture is Campuran Tabung uji – The test tube is – A few drops of – A slanted dicondongkan dan dipegang dengan pemegang tabung uji. 1 mole of gas occupies 24 dm3 at room condition] 12. Nyatakan nama pepejal M dan Q. terbentuk antara dua lapisan. . soluble in excess of ammonia solution (d) (i) Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas II. Huraikan ujian kimia untuk menentukan kehadiran anion dalam larutan magnesium nitrat. B .5 g solid M decomposes completely. calculate the volume of carbon dioxide gas released at room condition if 12. jika 12. hitungkan isi padu gas karbon dioksida yang dibebaskan pada keadaan bilik. Publicat n io Sdn. – 2 cm3 of dilute 3 sulphuric acid shaken digoncang .4 dm3 Mol of solid M = (e) Name reaction III. solution. – About Masukkan 2 cm 2 2 cm3 of magnesium nitrate solution is poured into a test tube.1 mol × 24 dm3 mol–1 = 2. M : Zinc carbonate Q: Zinc oxide (c) State the observations made when excess ammonia solution is added to solution S. is added to the solution followed by 2 cm3 of . is formed between two layers. concentrated sulphuric acid is dropped along the wall of the test tube and is held upright. [Relative atomic mass: C =12. and held with a test tube holder. ZnCO3 + 2HNO3 Zn(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2 (ii) For reaction II. Zn = 65. [Jisim atom relatif: C = 12. hd 163 Nila 07-Chem F4 (3p). Solid M Heat Lime water (b) Name solids M and Q.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE (ii) Draw a diagram of the apparatus set-up to carry out reaction I.

Ba2+ + SO42– BaSO4 Huraikan bagaimana anda mendapatkan pepejal garam tulen yang terhasil.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 6 Rajah di bawah menunjukkan senarai bahan-bahan kimia. Tulis persamaan ion bagi penghasilan garam di (a)(i).0 mol dm–3 Larutan barium klorida.indd 164 d. CaCO3 + 2HCl 7 CaCl2 + H2O + CO2 You are given zinc chloride crystals.0 mol dm–3 Iron(II) sulphate solution. Nil a ke dalam ammonia zink klorida yang lain sehingga ion zink berlebihan. Choose two chemical substances that can react to produce carbon dioxide gas. 1 spatula zinc chloride crystals in 10 cm3 of 2 distilled water. 1. White precipitate formed. Huraikan bagaimana anda boleh menjalankan ujian kimia di dalam makmal untuk mengenal pasti ion-ion yang hadir dalam hablur zink klorida. asid nitrik 2 cm3 cair ditambahkan kepada 2 cm3 larutan ion klorida diikuti dengan 2 cm3 larutan Mendakan putih terbentuk. sodium hydroxide solution are added to zinc chloride – Add a few drops sodium hydroxide precipitate soluble in excess of solution. Ions present are . Filter the mixture and rinse with distilled water (b) State the observations when sodium hydroxide solution is added in small amount until in excess into iron(II) sulphate solution. 1. A white berlebihan ./ tersebut dituang ke dalam tiga tabung uji. argentum nitrat m Publica tio 164 n Sdn. solution until excess. Ion yang hadir adalah ion klorida. Barium chloride solution. 1. Ion yang hadir adalah larutan berlebihan . – Dissolve Larutkan – The 1 spatula hablur zink klorida di dalam 10 cm3 air suling . Describe how you would conduct a chemical test in the laboratory to identify the ions presence ions in zinc chloride crystals. Choose two solutions that can be used to prepare insoluble salts. natrium hidroksida Tambahkan beberapa titik larutan ke dalam Mendakan putih natrium hidroksida larut dalam larutan larutan berlebihan. Ions present are chloride ions. 1. A white – Add a few drops excess ammonia zinc ions precipitate soluble in of solution.0 mol dm–3 Larutan asid hidroklorik.0 mol dm –3 The diagram below shows list of chemical substances. Green precipitate formed. . Barium chloride and iron(II) sulpahate (ii) What is the type of reaction for the preparation of the salt in (a)(i)? Apakah jenis tindak balas bagi penyediaan garam di (a)(i)? Double decomposition reaction (iii) Write the ionic equation for the production of the salt in (a)(i). 07-Chem F4 (3p). 2 Larutan solution is poured in three test tubes. 1. silver nitrate . Calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid (ii) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction in (c)(i). Hydrochloric acid. Tulis persamaan kimia seimbang bagi tindak balas di (c)(i). ammonia Tambahkan beberapa titik larutan Mendakan putih larut dalam larutan nitric acid is added to 2 cm3 solution of chloride ions followed by 2 cm3 of – About 2 cm3 of dilute solution.0 mol dm–3 Solid copper(II) oxide Pepejal kuprum(II) oksida Solid calcium carbonate Pepejal kalsium karbonat (a) (i) Pilih dua larutan yang digunakan untuk menyediakan garam tak terlarutkan./ Anda diberi hablur zink klorida. zink klorida sehingga ammonia solution solution are added to another zinc chloride until excess. (iv) Describe how to collect the pure salt produced./ Nyatakan pemerhatian anda apabila larutan natrium hidroksida ditambah sedikit sehingga berlebihan kepada larutan ferum(II) sulfat. Bh 12/9/2011 5:55:25 PM .0 mol dm–3 Larutan ferum(II) sulfat. 1. insoluble in excess of sodium hydroxide solution (c) (i) Pilih dua bahan yang boleh bertindak balas untuk menghasilkan gas karbon dioksida.

Hitungkan jisim zink karbonat yang terbentuk.1 mol × 125 g mol–1 = 12. O = 16] Zn(NO3)2 + K2CO3 → ZnCO3 + 2KNO3 100 Mol of K2CO3 = 1× = 0. precipitate Z and potassium nitrate formed. Publicat n io Sdn.indd 165 12/9/2011 5:55:25 PM m .Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE 8 Rajah berikut menunjukkan pembentukan zink nitrat dan perubahannya kepada sebatian lain. Nitrogen dioxide (ii) Write the chemical equation for the reaction in (b)(i). hd 165 Nila 07-Chem F4 (3p). Heat Zinc nitrate Zink nitrat Panaskan Brown gas Gas perang + Potassium carbonate solution/ + Larutan kalium karbonat Precipitate Z + Potassium nitrate Mendakan Z Kalium nitrat (a) (i) Zink oksida bertindak balas dengan bahan X untuk membentuk zink nitrat.5 g Larutan natrium hidroksida ditambah sedikit demi sedikit hingga berlebihan kepada larutan zink nitrat. Calculate the mass of zinc carbonate formed. [Jisim atom relatif: Zn = 65. (e) Sodium hydroxide solution is added until excess to zinc nitrate solution. State the type of reaction occurs. Zinc oxide reacts with substance X to form zinc nitrate. Nitric acid (ii) Write the chemical equation for the reaction in (a)(i). (d) Excess of zinc nitrate solution is added to 100 cm3 of 1 mol dm–3 potassium carbonate.1 mol 1 000 From the equation. State the name of substance X. Zn2+ + CO32– → ZnCO3 (iii) State how the precipitate Z separated from potassium nitrate. 2Zn(NO3)2 → 2ZnO + 2NO2 + O2 (c) When potassium carbonate solution added to zinc nitrate solution. B .1 mol K2CO3 : 0. C = 12. State the observation that can be made. Precipitation (ii) Write the ionic equation for the formation of compound Z. 1 mol K2CO3 : 1 mol ZnCO3 0. Nyatakan pemerhatian yang dapat dibuat. (b) (i) Namakan gas perang yang terbentuk. White precipitate soluble in excess of sodium hydroxide solution. Tuliskan persamaan kimia untuk tindak balas dalam (b)(i). Tulis persamaan ion untuk pembentukan sebatian Z. + Substance X Zinc oxide Zink oksida + Bahan X The diagram below shows the formation of zinc nitrate and the changes to other compounds. Apabila larutan kalium karbonat ditambah kepada larutan zink nitrat. Namakan sebatian X. O = 16] Larutan zink nitrat berlebihan ditambah kepada 100 cm3 larutan kalium karbonat 1 mol dm–3. ZnO + HNO3 → Zn(NO3)2 + H2O State the name of the brown gas formed. (i) Namakan jenis tindak balas yang berlaku. [Relative atomic mass: Zn = 65. mendakan Z dan kalium nitrat terbentuk.1 mol ZnCO3 Mass of ZnCO3 = 0. Tuliskan persamaan kimia untuk tindak balas dalam (a)(i). Filtration Nyatakan bagaimana mendakan Z diasingkan daripada kalium nitrat. C = 12.

O=16. Ca = 40] A 5. II. yang manakah boleh disediakan dengan kaedah pemendakan? A Copper(II) chloride Kuprum(II) klorida B Lead(II) nitrate Plumbum(II) nitrat C Barium sulphate Barium sulfat D Zinc sulphate Zink sulfat Which of the following salts can be prepared by double decomposition reaction? 6 If 0. I II III IV I and IV only I dan II sahaja I. III and IV I. II and IV only I.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 Objective Questions / Soalan Objektif 1 Which of the following is a salt? 5 Antara berikut.2 mol kalsium karbonat dipanaskan sehingga tiada perubahan. III and IV I. White solid X / Pepejal putih X Heat strongly/Panaskan dengan kuat – Brown gas is released/ Gas perang terbebas – Residue is a solid which is yellow when hot and white when cold/ Baki perang apabila panas dan kuning apabila sejuk. berapakah jisim kalsium oksida. III dan IV II dan III sahaja III dan IV sahaja 3 Antara garam berikut. yang manakah dapat bertindak balas menghasilkan garam? Which pair of substances represented by the following formulae react to produce salt? HNO3(aq) + NaOH(aq) HCl(aq) + NaCl(aq) H2SO4(aq) + MgSO4(aq) H2CO3(aq) + KOH(aq) A I and II only B C D Rajah di bawah menunjukkan pemerhatian apabila pepejal X dipanaskan dengan kuat. yang manakah larut dalam air? A Iron(II) sulphate Ferum(II) sulfat B Silver chloride Argentum klorida C Calcium carbonate Kalsium karbonat D Lead(II) bromide Plumbum(II) bromida Antara tindak balas berikut. what is the mass of calcium oxide produced? [Relative atomic mass of C=12. O = 16. yang manakah adalah garam? A Lead(II) oxide Plumbum(II) oksida B Calcium hydroxide Kalsium hidroksida C Barium sulphate Barium sulfat D Tetrachloromethane Tetraklorometana Antara garam berikut.8 g D 22. Bh 12/9/2011 5:55:25 PM . 07-Chem F4 (3p).2 mole of calcium carbonate is heated until no further change. yang manakah adalah bahan X? A Zinc nitrate Zink nitrat B Zinc carbonate Zink karbonat C Lead(II) nitrate Plumbum(II) nitrat D Lead(II) carbonate Plumbum(II) karbonat Which of the following substance is X? Nil a m Publica tio 166 n Sdn. II dan IV sahaja I dan IV sahaja I. Ca=40] Jika 0. II.6 g B 11. II.2 g C 16. CaO yang terhasil? [Jisim atom relatif: C = 12.4 g 7 4 The diagram below shows observations when white solid X heated strongly. Antara pasangan bahan tindak balas berikut.indd 166 d. II. yang manakah akan menghasilkan kuprum(II) klorida? Which of the following reactions will produce copper(II) chloride? I Copper and hydrochloric acid Kuprum dan asid hidroklorik II Copper(II) oxide and hydrochloric acid Kuprum(II) oksida dan asid hidroklorik III Copper(II) carbonate and hydrochloric acid Kuprum(II) karbonat dan asid hidroklorik Kuprum(II) sulfat dan natrium klorida I dan II sahaja 2 Which of the following salts is soluble in water? IV Copper(II) sulphate and sodium chloride A B C D I and II only II and III only III and IV only I. III dan IV Antara berikut.

Silver chloride precipitate Mendakan argentum klorida Larutan aluminium nitrat Larutan plumbum(II) nitrat I II III IV B C D Antara ion berikut.0 moldm–3 silver to produce silver chloride precipitate and solution X. II dan IV sahaja I. B . hd 167 Nila 07-Chem F4 (3p). Aluminium nitrate solution Lead(II) nitrate solution The diagram below shows two bottles of aqueous solutions.5 moldm–3 of sodium chloride solution Solution X Larutan X 9 Rajah di bawah menunjukkan dua botol mengandungi larutan garam aluminium nitrat dan larutan plumbum(II) nitrat. II. yang manakah adalah bahan Y? A Iron(II) chloride C Copper(II) chloride Ferum(II) klorida Kuprum(II) klorida B Iron(II) sulphate D Copper(II) carbonate Ferum(II) sulfat Kuprum(II) karbonat Which of the following is solution Y? 20 cm3 larutan natrium klorida 0. Solution Larutan 10 The diagram below shows the reaction between 20 cm3 of 0. Sodium hydroxide solution Larutan natrium hidroksida Green precipitate Mendakan hijau Y Rajah di bawah menunjukkan tindak balas antara 20 cm3 larutan natrium klorida 0. II dan III sahaja Antara bahan berikut. and IV only I.5 moldm–3 of sodium chloride solution is and to 20 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm–3 Dilute nitric acid followed by silver nitrate solution Asid nitrik cair diikuti dengan larutan argentum nitrat White precipitate/Mendakan putih Antara berikut. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan satu siri ujian kimia ke atas larutan Y.5 mol dm–3 20 cm3 of 0. yang manakah yang hadir dalam larutan X? Which of the following ions are present in the solution X? Na+ Ag+ NO3– Cl– A I and III only Which of the following substances can be used to differentiate between and aluminium nitrate solution and lead(II) nitrate solution? A B C D II and III only I dan III sahaja II dan III sahaja I.0 moldm–3 silver nitrate solution 20 cm3 argentum nitrat 1. II and III only I.0 mol dm–3 untuk menghasilkan mendakan argentum klorida dan larutan X. 20 cm3 of 1. yang manakah dapat digunakan untuk membezakan larutan aluminium nitrat dan larutan plumbum(II) nitrat? Sodium hydroxide solution Ammonia solution Larutan ammonia Larutan natrium hidroksida Potassium chloride solution Barium nitrate solution Larutan barium nitrat Larutan kalium klorida Publicat n io Sdn.5 mol dm–3 dengan 20 cm3 larutan argentum nitrat 1.indd 167 12/9/2011 5:55:25 PM m .Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE 8 The diagram below shows a series of tests carried out on solution Y.

Draw the arrangement of atoms in metals and alloys. / Menerangkan mengapa aloi lebih kuat daripada logam tulennya. stating the temperature. • COMPOSITE MATERIALS/BAHAN KOMPOSIT –– State the meaning of composite materials. / Menyenaraikan sifat-sifat seramik. –– List the examples of alloys. • –– –– –– –– ALLOY/ALOI State the meaning of an alloy. Menyenaraikan contoh-contoh bahan komposit dan komponen dan kegunaannya. Bh 12/9/2011 5:54:30 PM . Mereka bentuk eksperimen untuk menghasilkan bahan komposit. pressure and catalyst required. Membanding dan membezakan sifat bahan komposit dengan bahan asalnya. / Menyatakan kegunaan polimer sintetik. / Menyenaraikan contoh aloi. Menghuraikan kesan pembuangan polimer sintetik ke atas pencemaran alam sekitar.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 8 MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY BAHAN KIMIA DALAM INDUSTRI • SULPHURIC ACID/ASID SULFURIK –– Write an equation for Contact process and Haber process. Menulis persamaan untuk Proses Sentuh dan Proses Haber. State properties of ceramics. / Melukis susunan atom di dalam aloi dan logam. / Menyatakan maksud bahan komposit. tekanan dan mangkin yang diperlukan. / Mengaitkan sifat aloi dengan kegunaannya. –– List examples of composite materials and their components and uses. / Menyatakan maksud aloi. • AMMONIA/AMMONIA –– List the uses of sulphuric acid and ammonia. Menerangkan bagaimana sulfur dioksida menyebabkan pencemaran alam. / Menyatakan maksud polimer. / Menyenaraikan polimer semula jadi dan polimer sintetik. / Menyenaraikan kegunaan kaca dan seramik. • –– –– –– GLASS AND CERAMICS/KACA DAN SERAMIK List uses of glass and ceramics. 08-Chem F4 (3p). –– Relate properties of alloys to their uses. menyatakan suhu. Nil a m Publica tio 168 n Sdn. –– Explain how sulphur dioxide causes environmental pollution. –– Compare and contrast properties of composite materials with those of their original component –– Design an experiment to produce composite materials. Design an experiment to investigate the hardness of a material and its alloy. Mereka bentuk eksperimen untuk mengkaji kekerasan aloi dan logam tulennya. / Cara-cara mengurangkan pencemaran yang disebabkan polimer sintetik.indd 168 d. Menyenaraikan kegunaan asid sulfurik dan ammonia. komposisi dan sifat aloi. Explain the effect of environmental pollution caused by the disposal of synthetic polymers. List types of glass and their properties. / Menyenaraikan jenis-jenis kaca dan kegunaannya. Explain why an alloy is stronger than its pure metal. • –– –– –– –– POLYMERS/POLIMER Sate the meaning of polymers. State the uses of synthetic polymers. compositions and properties of alloys. List naturally occurring polymers and synthetic polymers. –– Ways to reduce pollution caused by synthetic polymers.

B . hd 169 Nila 08-Chem F4 (3p). sulphur dioxide and excess oxygen are passed through vanadium(V) oxide . This process consists of three stages. Di dalam bekas mangkin. Stage Penerangan/Persamaan kimia Explanation/Equation Stage I: / Peringkat I: sulphur dioxide Production of Penghasilan sulfur dioksida –– Molten sulphur is burnt in dry air to produce sulphur dioxide. terangkan setiap peringkat serta keadaan yang diperlukan. Sertakan semua persamaan kimia yang seimbang yang terlibat dalam setiap peringkat. sulfur dioksida dan oksigen dialirkan melalui Balanced equation: / Persamaan seimbang: vanadium(V) oksida . Proses ini terdiri daripada tiga peringkat. Include all the balanced chemical equations involve in each stage.indd 169 12/9/2011 5:54:30 PM m . Balanced equation: / Persamaan seimbang: S + O2 SO2 Stage II: / Peringkat II: sulphur trioxide Production of Penghasilan sulfur trioksida –– In a converter.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE Sulphuric Acid / Asid Sulfurik 1 Asid sulfurik dihasilkan melalui Proses Sentuh. Sulfur lebur dibakar dalam udara kering untuk menghasilkan sulfur dioksida. 2SO2 + O2 2SO3 –– Optimum conditions for maximum amount of product are: Keadaan optimum untuk penghasilan sulfur trioksida yang maksimum adalah: Temperature / Suhu: Pressure / Tekanan: Catalyst / Mangkin: 450 – 500 °C 2 – 3 atm vanadium(V) oxide. explain each stage and state the conditions required. Sulphur Sulfur Sulfuric acid is manufactured through the Contact Process. Oxygen Oksigen Sulfur dioksida SO2 Sulphur dioxide SO2 Sulfur trioksida SO3 Sulphur trioxide SO3 Oleum H 2 S2 O7 Oleum H2 S2 O7 Sulphuric acid H2SO4 Asid sulfurik H2SO4 Stage I/Peringkat I Stage II/Peringkat II Stage III/Peringkat III Concentrated sulphuric acid Asid sulfurik pekat Waste gas Molten sulphur Sulfur lebur Gas terbuang Udara kering Pembakar Dry air SO3 Burner SO2 + O2 Catalytic converter Bekas mangkin H2S2O7 (Oleum) H2S2O7 (Oleum) Water/Air H2SO4 Stage III/Peringkat III Stage I/Peringkat I 2 Stage II/Peringkat II Berdasarkan rajah di atas. V2O5 Publicat n io Sdn. Peringkat Based on the above diagram.

Melarutkan sulfur dioksida dalam air secara terus tidak dapat dilakukan kerana pembebasan haba yang sangat banyak. monuments and statues made from marble (calcium carbonate) because – Acid rain calcium carbonate react with acid to produce salt. Menambahkan kapur ( kalsium oksida Nil a m tio 170 n Sdn. dilarutkan dalam asid sulfurik pekat untuk menghasilkan Balanced equation: / Persamaan seimbang: –– Oleum Oleum SO3 + H2SO4 H2S2O7 asid sulfurik pekat is diluted in water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid.indd 170 d. persamaan seimbang: CaCO3 + H2SO4 CaSO4 + H2O + CO2 metal . air dan karbon dioksida. (d) Ways to reduce production of sulphur dioxide and effect of acid rain: Cara-cara mengurangkan penghasilan sulfur dioksida dan kesan-kesan hujan asid: – Gas released from power station and factories are sprayed with powdered limestone ( calcium carbonate ). dilarutkan dalam air untuk menghasilkan Balanced equation: / Persamaan seimbang: H2O + H2S2O7 2H2SO4 * Note that directly dissolving SO3 in water is impractical due to the highly exothermic nature of the reaction. keasidan tanah. Acidic soil is not suitable for the growth of plants. Acidic vapour or mists are formed instead of a liquid. Punca utama kehadiran sulfur dioksida di udara adalah pembakaran bahan bakar di stesen janakuasa dan kilang. water and carbon dioxide. (c) Effect of acid rain: corrodes building. State five main uses of sulphuric acid. Bh 12/9/2011 5:54:30 PM .MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 Stage III: / Peringkat III: sulphuric acid Production of Penghasilan asid sulfurik –– Sulphur trioxide Sulfur trioksida is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid to form oleum. persamaan seimbang: (b) Sulphur dioxide dissolve in rainwater to form sulphurous acid which will cause acid rain. balanced equation: SO2 + H2O H2SO3 Pengoksidaan asid sulfurus di udara akan menghasilkan asid sulfurik yang juga merupakan penyebab kepada hujan asid. – Acid rain increases meningkatkan the acidity of soil. (i) To manufacture detergents (iv) As electrolyte in car batteries (v) To manufacture synthtetic fibers (ii) To manufacture fertilizers (iii) To manufacture paints 4 Sulfur dioksida dan pencemaran alam: Sulphur dioxide and environmental pollution: (a) Major sources of sulphur dioxide in the air is combustion of fuel in power station or factories. The corrodes structures of the buildings or bridges which are made from – Acid rain iron rusts faster with the presence of sulphuric acid. – Add lime ( calcium oxide ) and limestone ( calcium carbonate ) to the lake or river. Tanah yang berasid tidak sesuai untuk pertumbuhan tanam-tanaman. keasidan tasik-tasik dan sungai-sungai yang menyebabkan kematian hidupan akuatik. 3 Nyatakan lima kegunaan utama asid sulfurik. balanced equation: mengkakis Hujan asid bangunan. ) dan batu kapur ( kalsium karbonat ) ke tasik atau sungai. . Asid yang terhasil adalah dalam bentuk wap air dan bukannya cecair. Besi berkarat lebih cepat dengan kehadiran asid sulfurik. Ini kerana tindak balas tersebut adalah eksotermik. monumen dan tugu yang diperbuat daripada marmar (kalsium karbonat) kerana kalsium karbonat bertindak balas dengan asid menghasilkan garam. oleum . Sulfur dioksida larut dalam air hujan untuk membentuk asid sulfurus yang menghasilkan hujan asid. Publica Gas yang dilepaskan dari stesen janakuasa dan kilang boleh disembur dengan serbuk batu kapur ( kalsium karbonat ). Kesan hujan asid: Oxidation of sulphurous acid in the air will produce sulphuric acid which will also cause acid rain. 08-Chem F4 (3p). mengkakis Hujan asid struktur bangunan-bangunan dan jambatan-jambatan yang diperbuat daripada logam. – Acid rain Hujan asid Hujan asid increases meningkatkan the acidity of lakes and river that causes aquatic organism to die.

The major component in the mixture is a metal. ammonium phosphate and urea (b) Nitric acid in Ostwald Process. ammonia dihasilkan melalui Proses Haber. (c) Synthetic fiber and nylon. Effect on moist red litmus paper Kesan ke atas kertas litmus merah Turn moist red litmus paper to blue Ammonia reacts with sulphuric acid to form ammonium sulphate salt. Mencegah penggumpalan lateks. Catalyst / Mangkin : 2 In industry.indd 171 12/9/2011 5:54:31 PM m . 3 4 Cecair ammonia digunakan sebagai penyejuk dalam peti sejuk. Neutralise any acid to form ammonium salt Meneutralkan asid untuk membentuk garam ammonium Ammonia bertindak balas dengan asid sulfurik untuk membentuk garam ammonium sulfat. ammonia is manufactured through the Haber Process: Balanced equation of reaction / Persamaan seimbang tindak balas: Ferum 400 – 500°C 200 atm Temperature / Suhu : Pressure / Tekanan : N2 + 3H2 2NH3 Ammonia digunakan dalam pembuatan: Ammonia is used in the manufacture of: (a) Synthetic fertilizer such as ammonium sulphate. Publicat n io Sdn. B .Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE Ammonia / Ammonia 1 Dalam industri. ammonium nitrate. Balanced equation: / Persamaan seimbang: 2NH3 + H2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Alloy / Aloi 1 Lengkapkan jadual di bawah: Questions Soalan Complete the following table: Facts / Elaboration / Drawing Fakta / Penerangan / Lukisan 1 What is the meaning of alloy? Apakah maksud aloi? campuran unsur dua atau lebih dengan komposisi yang Aloi ialah logam Komponen utama dalam campuran tersebut ialah . Chemical properties of ammonia: Chemical equation / Observation Persamaan kimia / Pemerhatian Dissolve in water to form weak alkali Larut di dalam air membentuk alkali lemah NH3(g) + H2O(ce) NH4+(ak) + OH –(ak) The presence of hydroxide ions causes aqueous solution of ammonia to become alkaline. Ammonia adalah gas yang tidak berwarna dengan bau yang sengit dan sangat larut di dalam air. (e) Prevent coagulation of latex. tetap . Sifat-sifat kimia ammonia: Property Sifat Ammonia is a colourless gas with pungent smell and very soluble in water. Baja sintetik seperti ammonium sulfat. Asid nitrik dalam Proses Ostwald. mixture elements of two or more with a certain Alloy is a fixed/specific composition. Gentian kaca sintetik dan nilon. ammonium nitrat. ammonium fosfat dan urea. (d) Liquid form of ammonia is used as cooling agent in refrigerators. hd 171 Nila 08-Chem F4 (3p). Kehadiran ion hidroksida menyebabkan larutan ammonia akueus menjadi alkali.

yang Terangkan mengapa aloi lebih kuat daripada logam tulen dari segi susunan atom dalam logam dan aloi. Sn = 119. yang sama. Experiment to compare the hardness of brass and pure copper. C = 12] Carbon Gangsa (90% kuprum dan 10% timah) Keluli (99% besi dan 1% karbon) [Jisim atom relatif: Cu = 64. daya dikenakan ke atas aloi. kehadiran atom-atom asing ini Apabila menggelongsor atom-atom ini daripada . logam tulen. Atoms in pure metals are all the same Atom-atom dalam logam tulen mempunyai layers saiz . Atoms of other element added to the pure metal to make an alloy are in size.indd 172 d. Fe = 56. 5 Eksperimen untuk membandingkan kekerasan loyang dengan kuprum tulen. force is applied to the pure metal. logam tulen. (a) To increase the Meningkatkan Mencegah Membaiki strength kekuatan and dan hardness kekerasan of pure metals. 08-Chem F4 (3p). lapisan atom slide di antara satu menggelongsor 3 Draw the arrangement of atoms in (a) (b) Lukiskan susunan atom dalam (a) Bronze / Gangsa (b) Steel / Keluli Bronze (90% copper and 10% tin) Steel (99% iron and 1% of carbon) [Relative atomic mass: Cu = 64. Pure metal is made up of one type of Logam tulen terbentuk daripada satu jenis Pure metals/Logam tulen atoms atom .MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 2 Relate the arrangement of atoms in pure metals to their ductile and malleable properties. the presence of added other atoms When prevent sliding layers of atoms from . These atoms Atom-atom ini disrupts the orderly arrangement of atoms in pure metal. The same size atoms are orderly arranged in layers. (c) To improve the appearance of a pure metal. layers of atoms When easily over one another. C = 12] Tin Copper Iron different 4 Explain why an alloy is stronger than its pure metal in terms of the arrangement of atoms in metals and alloys. Sn = 119. mengganggu force is applied to an alloy. Fe = 56. menghalang lapisan 5 State three reason why pure metals are alloyed before used. logam tulen. Force/Daya Nyatakan hubungan antara susunan atom dalam logam tulen dengan sifat mulur dan mudah ditempa. susunan atom yang teratur dalam logam tulen. lapisan . Atom-atom unsur lain yang ditambah dalam logam tulen membentuk aloi yang terdiri daripada atom-atom berlainan saiz. Nyatakan tiga sebab mengapa logam tulen dialoikan sebelum digunakan. (a) Hypothesis: / Hipotesis: Brass is harder than copper (b) Manipulated variable: / Pemboleh ubah dimanipulasi: Copper and brass block (c) Responding variable: / Pemboleh ubah bergerak balas: Hardness of the copper and brass block (d) Fixed variable: / Pemboleh ubah dimalarkan: 1 kg weight Nil a m Publica tio 172 n Sdn. . (b) To increase the resistance to kakisan rupa corrosion of a pure metals. dikenakan ke atas logam tulen. Bh 12/9/2011 5:54:31 PM . saiz yang sama ini tersusun dalam Atom-atom yang mempunyai daya Apabila sama lain.

Langkah 1 hingga 5 diulang dengan menggunakan bongkah loyang. Eksperimen diulang tiga kali. 2. Copper block (g) Results: / Keputusan: Experiment Eksperimen 1 2 3 Average diameter/cm Diameter purata / cm Diameter of dent on copper block/cm a b c a+b+c =x 3 Diameter of dent on brass block/cm d e f d+e+f =y 3 (h) Discussion: / Perbincangan: The average diameter of dent on copper. y. Materials: / Bahan-bahan: Steel ball. brass block (f) Procedure: / Prosedur: 1. A steel ball bearing is tapped onto a copper block. x is larger than the average diameter of dent on brass. Diameter lekuk yang terbentuk di atas bongkah kuprum diukur dengan pembaris. Publicat n io Sdn. Measure the diameter of the dent formed on the copper block with a ruler. metre ruler. copper block. A 1 kg weight is hung at a height of 50 cm above the copper block as shown in the diagram. Repeat the experiment three times on the other part of the copper block. Set-up of the apparatus: / Susunan alat radas: 3. Steps 1 to 5 are repeated using a brass block to replace the copper block. Satu bola keluli dilekatkan di atas sebuah bongkah kuprum. Steel ball Cellophane tape 6. 1 kg weight. Pemberat 1 kg dijatuhkan ke atas bebola keluli. (i) Conclusion: / Kesimpulan: Brass is harder than copper// alloy is harder than pure metal. pada ruang berbeza pada bongkah kuprum yang sama. menggantikan bongkah kuprum. Retort stand 4. B . Sebiji pemberat 1 kg digantung setinggi 50 cm di atas bongkah kuprum seperti yang ditunjukkan.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE (e) Apparatus: / Alat radas: Retort stand and clamp. String 1 kg weight 5.indd 173 12/9/2011 5:54:31 PM m . hd 173 Nila 08-Chem F4 (3p). Drop the 1 kg weight on the steel ball. string.

Ringan dan kuat. 8% C. Uses: / Kegunaan: Membuat duit syiling DURALUMIN DURALUMIN not corrode (93% Al. Keras dan kuat. – Making souvenirs. Nil a m Publica tio 174 n Sdn. PEWTER / PEWTER (96% Sn. 30% Zn) – Hard and strong. (shiny surface) BRASS/LOYANG (70% Cu. Berkilau. bersinar dan kuat. pedang dan bahan hiasan ALUMINIUM / ALUMINIUM Type of alloy Jenis aloi TIN / TIMAH Type of alloy Jenis aloi CUPRONICKEL KUPRONIKEL (75% Cu. 1% Sb) – Luster.indd 174 d. 3% Cu. swords and artistic materials Keras dan kuat. Uses: / Kegunaan: not rust – Making cutlery and surgical instrument Membuat sudu. – Musical instrument and Kitchenware Keras dan kuat. STAINLESS STEEL KELULI TAHAN KARAT Alat muzik dan perkakas dapur – Construction of building and bridge and railway tracks Pembinaan bangunan dan jambatan serta landasan keretapi. sifat-sifat dan kegunaan aloi-aloi. dalam polimer. keras dan tidak berkarat. 3% Cu & 1% Mn) – Light and strong – Making coins – Uses: / Kegunaan: Building body of aeroplane and bullet train.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 Flow chart shows the composition. strong SYNTHETIC POLYMERS / POLIMER SINTETIK 1 2 3 Polimer ialah molekul berantai panjang yang terbentuk daripada gabungan monomer. ALLOY / ALOI Major component / Komponen utama COPPER / KUPRUM Type of alloy/Jenis aloi IRON / FERUM Type of alloy/Jenis aloi BRONZE/GANGSA (90% Cu. 08-Chem F4 (3p). Tidak berkarat (permukaan bersinar) Uses: / Kegunaan: does not corrode. hard and does Bersinar. Monomer is small identical repeating berulang large number of small repeating banyak unit kecil yang identical sama unit of dipanggil units in the polymer. kuat dan tidak berkarat. 1% C) – Hard and strong. 25% Ni) – Shiny. shiny and Membuat rangka kapal terbang dan keretapi laju. – Building statue or monuments. Uses: / Kegunaan: (74% Fe. medal. 18% Cr) – Shiny. garpu dan alat-alat pembedahan. Monomer adalah unit kecil yang Polimer boleh didapati secara semula jadi atau sintetik. properties and uses of some alloys. Uses: / Kegunaan: STEEL/KELULI (99% Fe. 10% Sn) – Hard and strong. Pembuatan tugu atau monumen pingat. strong and does Bersinar. Polymer is a long chain molecules made up of a monomer. Bh 12/9/2011 5:54:31 PM . Uses: / Kegunaan: Membuat cenderamata. Polymers can be naturally occurring or synthetic. Carta aliran di bawah menunjukkan komposisi.

beg membeli belah. kain layar. Making water pipes because it does not rust. shoes. Bahan penebat pendawaian wayar elektrik. Polyvinylchloride (PVC) Polivinil klorida (PVC) Kloroetena. Polystyrene Polistirena Styrene. Contoh polimer sintetik. car batteries casing and ropes Waterproof materials such as rain clothes. bekas bateri kereta dan tali Bahan kalis air seperti baju hujan. C2H4 Etena. penggabungan Example: / Contoh: (a) Polymerisation of ethene: Pempolimeran etena: n H C H H = C H H – C H H – C – H n. beg. n is large number up to a few thousands Ethene / Etena Polythene Publicat n io Sdn. Packaging materials. C2H3Cl Insulation for electric wiring. artificial leather. bags. car lamps and lens Kaca keselamatan. their monomers and uses: Monomer Monomer Example of uses Contoh kegunaan Polythene Politena Ethene. monomer-monomer untuk membentuk polimer. C2H3C6H5 Metil metakrilat Perspex Perspeks Methylmetacrylate Hexane-1. shopping bags. C3H6 Plastic bottles. C2H4 Plastic bags.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE 4 Contoh polimer semula jadi dan monomernya: Example of naturally occurring polymers and their monomers are: Synthetic Polymer / Polimer Monomer / Monomer Protein / Protein Starch / Kanji Rubber / Getah 5 6 Amino Acid / Asid amino Glucose / Glukosa Isoprene / Isoprena Polimer sintetik adalah polimer buatan. Monomer biasanya adalah daripada petroleum yang telah mengalami penyulingan dan peretakan. disposable cups and plates Bahan pembungkus. 4-dicarboxylic acid Clothing. Polypropene Polipropena Propene. C3H6 Propena. plastic containers and plastic toys Beg plastik. C2H3Cl Chloroethene. 6-diol Safety glass. 4-dikarboksilik asid 7 Polymerisation is the process of Pempolimeran ialah proses joining together the large number of monomers to form a polymer.indd 175 12/9/2011 5:54:31 PM m . C2H3C6H5 Stirena. hd 175 Nila 08-Chem F4 (3p). kasut dan kulit tiruan. Paip air sebab ia tidak berkarat. B . ropes and fishing net Pakaian. Example of synthetic polymers. The monomers are usually obtained from petroleum after refining and cracking process. monomernya dan kegunaannya: Synthetic polymer Polimer sintetik Synthetic polymers are made polymers. plastic tables and chairs. sleeping bags. meja dan kerusi plastik. cawan dan pinggan pakai buang. 6-diol Benzene-1. tali dan jala Benzena-1. lampu kereta dan kanta Terylene (polyester) Terilena (poliester) Heksana-1. sails. bekas plastik dan permainan plastik Botol plastik.

MODULE • Chemistry Form 4

(b) Polymerisation of propene:

Pempolimeran propena:

(c) Polymerisation of chloroethene:
Pempolimeran kloroetena:

n

H C H

CH3 = C H

H – C H

CH3 – C – H n

n

H C H

H = C Cl

H – C H

H – C – Cl n

8

Lengkapkan jadual di bawah berkaitan isu penggunaan polimer sintetik dalam kehidupan seharian. Advantages of synthetic polymers Environmental pollution from synthetic polymers
Pencemaran alam sekitar dari penggunaan polimer sintetik

Complete the following table related to issues of the use of polymers in everyday life.

Propene / Propena

Polypropene

Chloroethene / Kloroetena

Polyvinylchloride

Kebaikan polimer sintetik

Pengurangan pencemaran dari polimer sintetik

Reducing pollution of synthetic polymers recycle

(a) Very stable and do not corrode .
Sangat stabil dan tidak berkarat .

(a) Disposal of synthetic polymers such as plastic bottles and blockage containers cause of drainage systems and river thus causing flash floods .
Pembuangan polimer sintetik seperti botol plastik dan bekas tersekat yang menyebabkan sistem saliran dan sungai banjir kilat mengakibatkan .

(a) Reduce, reuse polymers.

and the synthetic

chemical (b) Inert to reaction.

Mengurangkan, mengitar semula dan mengguna semula polimer sintetik.

biodegradable Lengai terhadap tindak balas (b) Open burning of polymers will release acidic and poisonous (b) Using polimer. kimia gas that will cause air pollution: . Menggunakan polimer Pembakaran polimer sintetik secara terbuka membebaskan gas strong . (c) Light and berasid dan beracun yang menyebabkan pencemaran udara: terbiodegradasi . kuat . Ringan dan – Burning most of the synthetic polymers will produce: Pembakaran kebanyakan polimer sintetik menghasilkan: (c) On-going research to produce (d) Cheap.

shaped (e) Easily and coloured.
dibentuk Mudah dan diwarnakan.

Murah.

cheap biodegradable polymers. (i) carbon dioxide gas which cause green house effect . Penyelidikan berterusan kesan rumah hijau . karbon dioksida yang menyebabkan untuk menghasilkan polimer (ii) carbon monoxide which is poisonous . terbiodegradasi yang murah. beracun . karbon monoksida yang (d) Disintegrate plastics by – Burning of PVC will release hydrogen chloride gas which pyrolysis : Plastic can acid rain . will cause be disintegrated by heating at – Burning of synthetic polymers contains carbon and nitrogen such as nylon will produce highly poisonous hydrogen cynide . gas such as
Pembakaran PVC membebaskan gas hidrogen klorida yang hujan asid . menyebabkan Penguraian plastik secara pirolisis : Plastik boleh diuraikan dengan pemanasan pada suhu antara 400 – 800 °C tanpa oksigen.

temperature between 400 – 800°C without oxygen.

Pembakaran polimer sintetik mengandungi karbon dan nitrogen seperti nilon membebaskan gas sangat beracun seperti hidrogen sianida .

(c) Plastic containers that are left in open area collect rain water will become breeding ground for mosquito which will cause diseases such as dengue fever.

Bekas plastik yang ditinggalkan di tempat terbuka menakung air nyamuk yang menyebabkan hujan menjadi tempat pembiakan penyebaran penyakit seperti demam denggi.

Glass / Kaca
1 Name the element which forms the major component of glass. Namakan unsur yang membentuk
komponen utama kaca.

Silicon dioxide
Silikon dioksida

, SiO2 which exist naturally in

sand

.
pasir .

, SiO2 yang boleh didapati secara semula jadi di dalam

2 List the property of glass.
Senaraikan sifat-sifat kaca.

Properties: / Sifat-sifat: Transparent, hard but brittle, non-porous, heat insulator, electric insulator, resistant to chemical, easy to clean, can withstand compression

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Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE

Complete the table below.
Types of glass Jenis kaca

Lengkapkan jadual di bawah. Composition Komposisi Silicon dioxide, sodium carbonate or calcium calcium carbonate
Silikon dioksida, natrium karbonat, kalsium karbonat

Special properties Sifat istimewa –– Good

Uses Kegunaan

chemical

durability
kimia .

Soda-lime glass
Kaca soda kapur

Tahan kakisan bahan

––

High withstand

termal expansion but does not heat .
tinggi .

Making flat glass, electrical bulbs, mirrors, glass containers

Pekali pengembangan haba haba Tidak tahan .

Kaca borosilikat

Borosilicate glass

Silicion dioxide, boron dioxide, sodium oxide, aluminum oxide

–– Good

chemical Low

durability
kimia . .

Tahan kakisan bahan Pekali pengembangan haba

––

thermal expansion.
rendah

Making cookware and laboratory glassware such as boiling tube and beakers.

Silikon dioksida, boron dioksida, natrium oksida, aluminium oksida

–– Resistant to high temperature.
Tahan tinggi. haba

heat

when heated to

apabila dipanaskan pada suhu

–– Optically transparent.
Lut sinar.

–– Good
Kaca silika terlakur

chemical

durability
kimia . .

Fused glass

Tahan kakisan bahan Pekali pengembangan haba

Silicon dioxide
Silikon dioksida

–– Low thermal expansion

Laboratory glassware, lenses, telescope mirrors, optical fibres.

rendah

high temperature –– Can be heated to and resistance to thermal shock.
tinggi Boleh dipanaskan pada suhu yang tahan terhadap pertukaran suhu yang cepat. ,

Kaca plumbum

Lead glass

Silicon dioxide, sodium oxide, lead(II) oxide

–– High
Indeks

refractive
biasan berkilat

index and
dan .

density

ketumpatan

.

yang tinggi

Tableware, crystal glass ware and decorative glassware.

Silikon dioksida, natrium oksida, plumbum(II) oksida

––

Glittering
Kelihatan

appearance.

Ceramics / Seramik
1 2

Namakan unsur-unsur yang terkandung dalam seramik.

Name the elements found in ceramic.

Aluminium, silicon, oxygen and hydrogen
Seramik dibuat daripada tanah liat. Namakan komponen utama tanah liat.

Ceramics are made from clay. Name the main component of clay. Kaolin
Kaolin

which is rich in
yang mengandungi

hydrated aluminium silicate
aluminium silikat terhidrat

, Al2O32SiO2.2H2O.
, Al2O32SiO2.2H2O.

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MODULE • Chemistry Form 4

3

Lengkapkan jadual berikut untuk menunjukkan sifat-sifat dan kegunaan seramik. Property/Sifat Hard and strong.
Keras dan kuat.

Complete the following table for the properties and uses of ceramic.

Uses/Kegunaan Building materials such as
Bahan binaan seperti Perkakas dapur seperti simen periuk

cement
,

,
jubin dan

tiles

, bricks, roof and toilet bowl.

, batu-bata, atap dan tandas. pinggan .

Chemically inert and non-corrosive.

–– Kitchenware such as cooking pots and plates. –– Decorative items such as vases and pottery.
Barang hiasan seperti pasu dan lain-lain.

Tidak reaktif secara kimia dan tidak mudah menghakis.

Have high melting point and good insulator of heat, remain stable under high temperature.
Mempunyai takat lebur yang tinggi dan penebat haba yang baik serta stabil dalam suhu yang tinggi.

Insulation such as parts.
Penebat haba seperti enjin bahagian

lining
melapik .

of furnace, wall of
dinding relau,

nuclear reactor

and

engine

dinding

bagi reaktor nuklear dan

Good insulator electric.
Penebat elektrik yang baik.

Electric insulator in electrical items such as electric cables .
Penebat elektrik bagi alat-alat elektrik seperti kabel elektrik .

electric plugs
plug elektrik ,

,

oven
ketuhar

and
dan

Non compressible.

Tidak boleh dimampatkan.

perubatan Alat-alat palsu dan pemindahan tulang.

Medical dental and apparatus such as orthopedic joint replacement, dental restoration and bone implants.
dan pergigian seperti penukaran sendi ortopedik, gigi

Composite Materials / Bahan Komposit
1

(a) Composite materials are structural materials that are formed by combining two or more different substances such as metal alloys ceramic glass polymer , , , and .
Bahan-bahan komposit adalah bahan yang diperbuat daripada gabungan dua atau lebih bahan berbeza seperti aloi seramik kaca polimer , , dan . logam ,

(b) Composite materials have properties that are
2 Bahan-bahan komposit mempunyai sifat-sifat yang

superior
lebih baik

than those of the original components.
berbanding dengan komponen-komponen asal.

Lengkapkan jadual di bawah: Types of composite materials

Complete the table below:

Components
Komponen

Special properties
Sifat istimewa

Example of uses
Contoh kegunaan

Jenis bahan komposit

Superconductors
Super konduktor

Copper(II) oxide, barium carbonate and Yttrium oxide heated to form a type of ceramic known as perovoskyte
Kuprum(II) oksida, barium karbonat dan natrium oksida dipanaskan membentuk sejenis seramik dipanggil perovoskit

Conduct electricity with no resistance when it is cooled at low temperature.

Used in medical magnetic-imaging devices(MRI), generators, transformers, computer parts and bullet train

Boleh mengalirkan arus elektrik tanpa rintangan pada suhu yang

amat rendah.

Konkrit yang diperkukuhkan

Reinforced concrete

Concrete ( cement , sand and pebbles) reinforced with steel and polymer fibers
Konkrit ( simen , pasir dan batu kerikil) diperkukuhkan dengan keluli dan polimer gentian.

Very

strong

and can be

Construction of building, bridges and oil platforms

moulded

into any shape.

kuat dan boleh Sangat dibentuk menjadi pelbagai bentuk.

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The diagram below shows the reaction involve in the production of fertilizer Z in industry. (ii) What is the type of reaction that takes place? Apakah jenis tindak balas yang berlaku? Neutralisation (iii) State one important use of compound Z. Ammonia bertindak balas dengan asid sulfurik melalui tindak balas P menghasilkan sebatian Z. (i) Write a balance equation for reaction P. Lengkapkan jadual berikut yang berkaitan dengan proses X dan Y. B . Plastik yang diperkukuhkan dengan gentian kaca . helmets Photochromic glass Kaca fotokromik Photochromic substance like silver chloride embedded in glass/transparent polymers dengan kaca atau polimer lut sinar. gelap apabila dikenakan Menjadi cerah cahaya cerah dan menjadi dalam cahaya malap. Namakan Proses X dan Proses Y. low density. Bahan fotokromik seperti argentum klorida digabungkan when exposed to bright clear when light and becomes exposed to dim light. easily moulded in thin layers. NH3 + H2SO4 (NH4 )2SO4 Tuliskan persamaan seimbang bagi tindak balas P. ketumpatan Daya rendah . Nyatakan satu kegunaan penting sebatian Z. car wind shield light intensity meters EXERCISE / LATIHAN 1 Rajah berikut menunjukkan tindak balas yang terlibat dalam pembuatan baja Z dalam industri. Darken Making optical lens. Process Proses Catalyst Mangkin Temperature/°C Suhu/°C Tekanan / atm Pressure/ atm Persamaan kimia tindak balas yang melibatkan mangkin Balanced equation for the reaction that Involve a catalyst Process X Proses X Proses Y Iron Besi 400 – 500 450 – 500 200 2–3 N2 + 3H2 2SO2 + O2 2NH3 2SO3 Process Y Vandaium(V) oxide Vanadium(V) oksida (b) Ammonia react with sulphuric acid through reaction P to produce compound Z. Process X / Proses X: Haber process Process Y / Proses Y: Contact process (ii) Complete the following table related to process X and Y.Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE Fibre glass Plastik yang diperkukuhkan dengan kaca Plastic reinforced with glass fiber . mudah dibentuk menjadi lapisan nipis . Process X Proses X Ammonia Ammonia Tindak balas P Reaction P Compound Z Sebatian Z Process Y Proses Y Sulphuric acid Asid sulfurik (a) (i) Name Process X and Process Y. Fertiliser Publicat n io Sdn. regangan tinggi. Making water storage tanks. High tensile strength. hd 179 Nila 08-Chem F4 (3p). boats.indd 179 12/9/2011 5:54:32 PM m .

H = 1] Hitungkan peratusan jisim nitrogen dalam sebatian Z.indd 180 d. [Relative atomic mass: N = 14. 08-Chem F4 (3p). R and S. – Layers of metal atoms are prevented from sliding each other when external force is applied. small pebbles and steel Simen.2% 2(14 + 4 × 1) + 32 + 4 × 16 Jadual berikut menunjukkan contoh-contoh dan komponen bagi empat jenis bahan buatan dalam industri. they arranged orderly in layers. Example Contoh Component Komponen P Q Polymer / Polimer Glass / Kaca Konkrit yang diperkukuhkan Reinforced concrete Bronze / Gangsa R S Cement. H = 1] 2 %N = 2 × 14 × 100% = 21. (c) (i) Draw the arrangement of particles in Lukis susunan atom dalam Pure copper / Kuprum tulen Bronze / Gangsa Copper Copper Tin (ii) Bronze is harder than pure copper. S = 32. Nyatakan dua kegunaan konkrit yang diperkukuhkan. Type of manufactured substances Jenis bahan buatan The table shows the examples and component of four types of manufactured substances in industry. sodium carbonate. sand. calcium carbonate (a) State the name of P. O = 16. O = 16.MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 (iv) Calculate the percentage by mass of nitrogen in compound Z. S = 32. batu kecil dan keluli Copper and tin / Kuprum dan stanum Chloroethene / Kloroetena Silikon dioksida. P: Composite materials R: Polyvinyl chloride State two uses of reinforced concrete. – The size of tin atoms which are bigger than copper in bronze disrupt the orderly arrangement of copper atoms. pasir. Q. [Jisim atom relatif: N = 14. (ii) What is the advantage of using reinforced concrete compared to concrete? Apakah kelebihan konkrit yang diperkukuhkan berbanding dengan konkrit? Reinforced concrete can withstand higher pressure/support heavier loads/ stronger/ higher tensile strength than concrete. m Publica Nil a tio 180 n Sdn. Explain. Q: Alloy S: Soda-lime glass (b) (i) To make framework of buildings and bridges. Q. – Atoms of pure copper metal are the of same size. Gangsa lebih keras daripada kuprum. Namakan P. Terangkan. kalsium karbonat Silicon dioxide. Bh 12/9/2011 5:54:32 PM . – Layers of atoms are easily slide over each other when external force is applied on them. natrium karbonat. R dan S.

D To increase the percentage of production of ammonia. II. Kaca soda kapur tidak tahan suhu yang tinggi. Nyatakan satu kegunaan polimer R. S I SO2 II SO3 III H2S2O7 IV H2SO4 Which of the following stages requires the use of a catalyst? Antara peringkat berikut. III and IV in the Contact Process. hd 181 Nila 08-Chem F4 (3p). H C H H – C C1 (i) n Draw the structural formula for monomer R. B .Chemistry Form 4 • MODULE (d) The diagram shows the structure of R. (ii) Soda-lime glass cannot withstand high temperature. III and IV I. – Burning of R produces hydrogen chloride gas which is poisonous and acidic. yang manakah adalah fungsi besi. Fe dalam proses itu? The diagram below shows the stages I. / Lukiskan formula struktur bagi monomer R. II. Merendahkan suhu yang diperlukan untuk proses itu. Pipe / wire cables / bags / footwear (iii) State two ways how R causes environmental pollution. Namakan jenis kaca lain yang lebih tahan haba. II. B To lower the temperature required for the process. Untuk meningkatkan kadar pengeluaran ammonia. Merendahkan tekanan yang diperlukan untuk proses itu. II and IV only Gentian sintetik A I and II only N2 + 3H2 Fe 2NH3 B III and IV only 2 III dan IV sahaja D I. II dan IV sahaja Which of the following is the function of iron. The equation below shows chemical equation to produce ammonia in Haber Process. State the name of another type of glass that is more heat resistant. H H C = C H C1 (ii) State one use of polymer R. it can cause blockage of drainage system and flash flood. Nyatakan dua cara R menyebabkan pencemaran alam. Untuk meningkatkan peratus penghasilan ammonia. II. Glass is chemically inert/ glass is non-reactive Terangkan mengapa bekas kaca lebih sesuai digunakan untuk menyimpan asid di dalam makmal.indd 181 12/9/2011 5:54:32 PM m . Borosilicate glass Objective Questions / Soalan Objektif 1 Which of the following are the uses of sulphuric acid? Antara berikut. Antara berikut. III dan IV dalam Proses Sentuh. yang manakah memerlukan mangkin? A I B II C III D IV Publicat n io Sdn. – R is non biodegradable. Fe in the process? A To lower the pressure required for the process. / Rajah berikut merupakan struktur bagi R. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan peringkat I. C To increase the rate of production of ammonia. (e) (i) Explain why glass containers are more suitable for storing acid in the laboratory. II Fertiliser IV Synthetic fiber C I. yang manakah adalah kegunaan asid sulfurik? 3 I Detergent Detergen Baja I dan II sahaja III Paint Cat Persamaan tindak balas berikut menunjukkan persamaan kimia untuk menghasilkan ammonia dalam Proses Haber. III dan IV I.

MODULE • Chemistry Form 4 4 The diagram below shows the arrangement of atoms in alloy X. Antara berikut. What is substance Z? Apakah bahan Z? Duralumin Mengkonduksi elektrik tanpa rintangan pada suhu rendah. kaca itu tidak pecah. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan susunan atom dalam aloi X. the glass does not crack. Maklumat di bawah menunjukkan sifat kaca X.indd 182 d. Which of the following is the characteristic of ceramic for the usage? A Hard and strong Keras dan kuat A B C D 6 Duralumin Duralumin Duralumin Magnesium Magnesium Aluminium Kuprum Kuprum Seramik digunakan untuk membuat dinding reaktor nuklear. yang manakah adalah ciri-ciri polimer sintetik yang menyebabkan pencemaran alam sekitar? Polimer adalah tidak terbiodegradasi Polimer larut dalam air dan meningkatkan pH air Pembakaran polimer membebaskan gas beracun Pembuangan polimer meningkatkan pertumbuhan alga berlebihan I dan III sahaja Polymers are non biodegradable II Polymers dissolve in water and increase pH of water III Burning of polymers release toxic gas What is alloy X? Apakah aloi X? IV Disposal of polymers promote excessive growth of algae C Cupronickel A Brass B Bronze Gangsa Loyang D Duralumin Duralumin Kupronikel A I and III only B II and III only 5 An alloy Y is used to make a body of an aeroplane. III and IV only D II. Kaca yang manakah adalah sesuai untuk membuat bikar dan tabung uji yang boleh digunakan untuk pemanasan? Maklumat berikut adalah berkaitan dengan bahan Z yang digunakan dalam keretapi laju. Apabila kaca X dipanaskan dengan kuat dan seterusnya dimasukkan ke dalam air sejuk. yang manakah adalah ciri seramik untuk penggunaan itu? Duralumin Bronze Gangsa Aluminium Copper Copper B Good insulator electric C Remain stable under high temperature D Chemically inert and non corrosive Kekal stabil pada suhu tinggi Lengai terhadap bahan kimia dan tidak terkakis Penebat elektrik yang baik Cupronickel Kupronikel Which type of glass is suitable for making beakers and test tubes that can be used for heating? A Lead glass 10 The following information is about substance Z which is used in bullet train. 7 The information below shows the property of a glass X. B Soda-lime glass Kaca soda kapur Kaca plumbum C Borosilicate glass Kaca borosilikat Kaca fotokromik D Photochromic glass Conducts electricity with no resistance at low temperature. III dan IV sahaja II dan III sahaja Aloi Y digunakan untuk membuat badan kapal terbang. 08-Chem F4 (3p). Antara berikut. Copper/Kuprum Zinc/Zink 8 Which of the following are the characteristics of synthetic polymers that causes environmental pollution? I Antara berikut. What is glass X? Apakah kaca X? A Lead crystal glass B Soda-lime glass Kaca soda kapur Kaca plumbum C Fused glass D Borosilicate glass Kaca borosilikat Kaca silika terlakur Nil a m Publica tio 182 n Sdn. A Fiber glass B Superconductors C Polyvinylchloride D Fibre glass Polivinil klorida Plastik yang diperkukuhkan dengan kaca Super konduktor When the glass X is heated to a high temperature and plunged into cold water. III and IV only II. Which of the following is alloy Y and its major component? C I. III dan IV sahaja I. yang manakah adalah aloi Y dan komponen utamanya? Alloy Y Aloi Y Major component Komponen utama 9 Ceramic is used to make wall of reactor nuclear. Bh 12/9/2011 5:54:33 PM .

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