Borneo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coordinates: 01°N 114°E

Borneo (Indonesian: Kalimantan) is the third largest island in the world and the largest island of Asia. It is located north of Java, west of Sulawesi, and east of Sumatra, at the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. The island is divided among three countries: Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia. Approximately 73% of the island is Indonesian territory. The Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak in the north occupy about 26% of the island. The sovereign state of Brunei, located on the north coast, comprises about 1% of Borneo's land area. Borneo is home to one of the oldest rainforests in the world.


1 Geography 2 Ecology 3 History 3.1 Early history 3.2 Dutch and British control 3.3 World War II 3.4 Recent history 4 Demographics 5 Largest cities 6 Administration 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links
Location Coordinates Archipelago Area Area rank

Topography of Borneo Geography South East Asia 01°N 114°E Greater Sunda Islands 743,330 km2 (287,001 sq mi) 3rd

Highest elevation 4,095 m (13,435 ft) Highest point Kinabalu Country Brunei Districts Belait Brunei and Muara Temburong Tutong Indonesia Provinces West Kalimantan Central Kalimantan South Kalimantan East Kalimantan North Kalimantan Malaysia States Sabah

Borneo is surrounded by the South China Sea to the north and northwest, the Sulu Sea to the northeast, the Celebes Sea and the Makassar Strait to the east, and the Java Sea and Karimata Strait to the south. To the west of Borneo are the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra. To the south is Java. To the east is Sulawesi, and to the northeast, the Philippines.


Ethnic groups The largest river system is the Kapuas in West Kalimantan Bugis. Malays. Chinese. Ecology See also: Deforestation in Borneo The Borneo rainforest is 130 million years old.000 sq mi). Clearwater Cave.5 km (349. Deer Cave is home to over three million bats.[4] It is the centre of evolution and radiation of many endemic species of plants and animals. There are about 15. has one of the world's longest underground rivers. Mount Kinabalu Borneo has significant cave systems. the Barito in South Kalimantan (880 km long (550 mi)). which is also the largest island of the largest continent in the world (Asia).52 /km2 (55. the free encyclopedia With an area of 743. The South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand now submerge the former low-lying areas of the peninsula.[1] Sarawak Demographics Population Density 18. Its highest point is Mount Kinabalu in Sabah.[3] There are about 440 freshwater fish species in Borneo (about the same as Sumatra and Java combined). for example. including the Asian elephant. Other major rivers include the Mahakam in East Kalimantan (980 km long (610 mi)).5 mi)).[2] Before sea levels rose at the end of the last Ice Age. It is an important refuge for many endemic forest species.330 square kilometres (287. True-color satellite image of the island of Borneo on 14 May 2012. it is the third-largest island in the world. and Rajang in Sarawak (562.74 /sq mi) Dayak. 221 species of terrestrial mammals and 420 species of resident birds in Borneo. the Bornean clouded leopard.7/7/13 Borneo . Javanese with a length of 1.Wikipedia. forming. as taken by the Terra satellite In 2010 the World Wide Fund for Nature stated that 123 species have been discovered in Borneo since the Heart of Borneo agreement was signed in 2007. Borneo was part of the mainland of Asia. with Java and Sumatra. Malaysia. the Sumatran rhinoceros. with an elevation of 4.143 km (710 mi).[5] en. The Borneo rainforest is one of the only remaining natural habitats for the endangered Bornean orangutan.wikipedia. Deeper waters separating Borneo from neighboring Sulawesi prevented a land connection to that island. the Hose's civet and the dayak fruit bat. creating the divide between Asian and Australia-New Guinea biological regions known as Wallace's Line.000 species of flowering plants with 3. making it one of the oldest rainforests in the world.000 (as of 2009) 21.435 ft). with guano accumulated to over 100 metres (330 ft) deep. Banjar.095 m (13.590. the upland regions of a peninsula that extended east from present day Indochina and Thailand.000 species of trees (267 species are dipterocarps).org/wiki/Borneo 2/11 .

rhinoceros horn. and the Sunda Shelf mangroves. rattan. Half of the annual global tropical timber acquisition comes from Borneo. including many orchids. Sarawak announced a plan for energy production. The Javanese named Borneo Puradvipa. ruled a large part of northern Borneo. Malaysia. Dayaks. western coastal cities of Borneo had become trading ports by the first millennium.500 square kilometres (165. the free encyclopedia The World Wide Fund for Nature divides the island into seven distinct ecoregions. the natives of Borneo in their traditional war dress. an alpine shrubland notable for its numerous endemic species. gold. Dalbergia parviflora). above the 1. edible bird's nests and various spices were among the most valuable items from Borneo. The island historically had extensive rainforest cover. Other lowland ecoregions are the Borneo peat swamp forests. During the 1450s.[10] The Sultanate of Brunei. Indonesia and Singapore.[9] By the 14th century Borneo was under the control of the Majapahit kingdom. the Southwest Borneo freshwater swamp forests. Indian and Japanese manuscripts. Archaeological findings in the Sarawak river delta reveal that the area was once a thriving trading centre between India and China from the 500's until about 1300 AD. he then renamed himself "Paduka Maulana Mahasari Sharif Sultan Hashem Abu Bakr". the Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy. or Diamond Island. an Arab born in Johor. during its golden age from the 15th century to the 17th century. In 1457. hornbill ivory.300 ft) elevation. lakawood (a scented heartwood and root wood of a thick liana. the Sultanate of Sulu received North Borneo from the Sultan of Brunei. Furthermore. camphor. crane crest. Headhunting was an important part of Dayak culture. The rainforest was also greatly destroyed from the forest fires of 1997 to 1998. beeswax. In 1703 (other sources say 1658). dragon's blood.[7] In Chinese manuscripts. During the great fire.wikipedia. arrived in Sulu from Malacca. after Sulu sent aid against a rebellion in Brunei. Shari'ful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr. The Borneo lowland rain forests cover most of the island. hotspots could be seen on satellite images and the haze thus created affected the surrounding countries of Brunei.[8] One of the earliest evidence of Hindu influence in Southeast Asia were stone pillars which bear inscriptions in the Pallava script found in Kutai along the Mahakam River in East Kalimantan. The highest elevations of Mount Kinabalu are home to the Kinabalu mountain alpine meadow. which were started by the locals to clear the forests for crops and perpetuated by an exceptionally dry El Niño season during that period.[6] History Early history According to ancient Chinese.100 sq mi). but the area shrank due to heavy logging for the Malaysian and Indonesian plywood industry. The Borneo montane rain forests lie in the central highlands of the island.Wikipedia.000 metres (3.[8] The Indians named Borneo Suvarnabhumi (the land of gold) and also Karpuradvipa (Camphor Island). with an area of 427. dating to around the second half of the 300s AD. the Kerangas or Sundaland heath forests.7/7/13 Borneo . palm oil plantations are rapidly encroaching on the last remnants of primary rainforest. he founded the Sultanate of Sulu.org/wiki/Borneo 3/11 . tortoise shells. en.

head of the Ot-Danom-Dayaks in Ambalu (Upper-Melawi river).wikipedia. The Sultanate was thereafter suspended and replaced by a Japanese council. Sultan Muhammad Ibrahim Shafi ud-din II of Sambas in Kalimantan was executed in 1944. where headhunting was temporarily revived towards the end of the war. as a result of helping the governor quell a local rebellion. the Dayaks played a role in guerilla warfare against the occupying forces. only six of some 2.[12] The British North Borneo Company controlled the territory of North Borneo (present-day Sabah) from 1882 to 1941.500 prisoners survived. Japanese forces gained control of Borneo (1941–45).[15] Allied Z Special Unit provided assistance to them. Some of the Chinese beads and wares found their way deep into the interior of Borneo. around Sandakan in Borneo. particularly in the Kapit Division. the free encyclopedia Dutch and British control In 1842 James Brooke was granted large parts of Sarawak.7/7/13 Borneo . British and Dutch governments signed the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 to exchange trading ports under their controls and assert spheres of influence. Recent history Borneo was the main site of the confrontation between Indonesia and Malaysia between 1962 and about 1969 in which the British Army was deployed against the Indonesians and against communist revolts to gain control of the whole area. A large log being placed on a railroad car at Batottan. At one of the very worst sites. They decimated many local populations and killed Malay intellectuals.[16] In 1945 the island was liberated from the Japanese. British North Borneo in 1926 Demographics en. Before the formation of Malaysian Federation. Raden Demang Béhé. After the fall of Singapore.[14] During the Japanese occupation.[11] In the early 19th century.Wikipedia. Photographed between 1890 and 1920.[13] World War II See also: Japanese occupation of British Borneo During World War II. China has had historical trading links with the inhabitants of the island. Central-Borneo. the Philippines claimed that the Malaysian state of Sabah is within their territorial rights based on historical facts of the Sultanate of Sulu's leasing agreement with the North Borneo Company. which indirectly set apart the two parts of Borneo into British and Dutch controlled areas. The Malay and Sea Dayak pirates preyed on maritime shipping in the waters between Singapore and Hong Kong from their haven in Borneo.org/wiki/Borneo 4/11 . The Brooke dynasty were to end up ruling Sarawak for a hundred years and became famous as the White Rajahs. several thousand British and Australian prisoners of war were sent to camps in Borneo.

The Chinese.7/7/13 Borneo . In the northwest of Borneo. Most of the population lives in coastal cities. Kalimantan was the focus for an intense transmigration program that financed the relocation of poor landless families from Java.800. a religion introduced by missionaries in the 19th century. nomadic existence.wikipedia.000 inhabitants (in mid-2010).org/wiki/Borneo 5/11 . Madura. en. a population density of 26 inhabitants per square km. Chinese and Dayak ethnic groups. thousands were killed in fighting between Madurese transmigrants and the indigenous Dayak people. In Central Kalimantan there is also a small Hindu minority. some of who still practice a nomadic hunter-gatherer existence. In the interior of Borneo are also the Penan. The population mainly consists of Malays.[17] originally migrated from southeastern China. In some coastal areas of marginal settlements are also found Bajau. and Bali.[18] The majority of the population in Kalimantan is either Muslim or practice animism.Wikipedia. violent conflict has occurred between some transmigrant and indigenous populations. the Dayak ethnic group is represented by the Iban with about 710. boat-dwelling. although the hinterland has small towns and villages along the rivers. who were historically associated with a sea-oriented. Banjar. Approximately 91% of the Dayaks are Christian. In 2001.000 members. who make up 29% of the population of Sarawak and 17% of total population in West Kalimantan. in Kalimantan. the free encyclopedia The demonym for Borneo is Bornean.[20] Largest cities The following is a list of top 20 urban areas in Borneo by population based on 2010 [21] statistic calculations.[citation needed ] Borneo has 19. transmigrants made up 21% of the population in Central Kalimantan.[19] Since the 1990s.

306 156. East Kalimantan Bintulu.804 501. East Kalimantan Pontianak. but not on the island of Borneo itself) The independent country of Brunei (main part and eastern exclave of Temburong) en.193 381.223 509.800 238. Sarawak Kota Kinabalu. East Kalimantan Keningau.608 257.787 120. Sabah Bontang.578 88. Sarawak Tarakan.658 639.org/wiki/Borneo 6/11 . Sabah Putatan. Sarawak Tenggarong.7/7/13 Borneo .Wikipedia.728 651.069 186. North and Central Kalimantan The Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak (the Federal Territory of Labuan is located on nearshore islands of Borneo. West. Sarawak Bandar Seri Begawan Sibu. West Kalimantan Lahad Datu.059 140.437 199. Sabah Miri. East Kalimantan Banjarmasin.709 Country Malaysia Malaysia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Malaysia Malaysia Malaysia Brunei Malaysia Indonesia Indonesia Malaysia Indonesia Indonesia Malaysia Indonesia Malaysia Malaysia Palangkaraya. Sabah Balikpapan. South. the free encyclopedia Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 City/Town Kuching.590 Administration The island of Borneo is divided administratively by three countries.736 280.wikipedia.031 625. Central Kalimantan 213. North Kalimantan Singkawang.395 726.518 276.514 193. Sabah Tawau. West Kalimantan Sandakan. Sabah Population 899. South Kalimantan Samarinda. It is the only island in the world so divided: The Indonesian provinces of East.

Wikipedia.7/7/13 Borneo . the free encyclopedia Political divisions of Borneo en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borneo 7/11 .

543 19.924 Population Censuses of 2010[22][23] 3) Population % Bandar Seri Begawan Kuching Kota Kinabalu Victoria 5.420.009 3.393.4 28.177 548.1 9.616 2.46 72.2 11.200 (2009 est)[24] 2.239 2.5 100.455.6 9.626.161 146.034.772. geologically part of Borneo.586 525.01 26.804.202.005 751.760 152.5 20.389 70.4 22.321 4.449.120 (no data) 11.000 13.985 71.198 1.272 5. independent estimate for Brunei. See also Endemic birds of Borneo Fauna of Borneo Flora of Borneo Hikayat Banjar en.org/wiki/Borneo 8/11 . the free encyclopedia Federal State or Province Brunei Sarawak Sabah Labuan 2) Malaysian Borneo West Kalimantan Central Kalimantan South Kalimantan East Kalimantan North Kalimantan Kalimantan Borneo – Capital Part of country Independent Sultanate Malaysia Malaysia Malaysia Federal territory Malaysia Area km2 Area % Population Censuses of 2000 1) 320.Wikipedia.7/7/13 Borneo .532.619 92 198.196.9 2.5 km off the main island of Borneo) 3) Citypopulation.de reports on Official Decennial Censuses in 2010 for both Indonesia and Malaysia.wikipedia.064 Pontianak Indonesia Palangkaraya Indonesia Banjarmasin Samarinda Tarakan Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia 3 countries 1) Brunei: Census of Population 2001 2) islands administered as Borneo.1 18.65 69.328.2 15.026 2.9 100.012.517 4.522 4.984.625.936 0.600 37.0 2.473 2.7 0.000 2.119 3.0 406.450 73.550.4 19.8 0.855.3 5.660 210.0 28.120.770 124.77 16.1 12.3 17.040 85. on nearshore islands (2.599 3.817 16.

edu.Majapahit Empire" (http://www. 16.htm).uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/3811219. Retrieved 11 November 2012. ^ a b Jan O. ^ "Province of West Kalimantan. K et al (1998). Retrieved 20 April 2013. 2006.doi.Wikipedia. WWF.id/index. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 3 April 2007. ^ "British North Borneo Papers" (http://archiveshub. Biodiversity & Conservation 15(11): 3543-3568 5. T.org/10. Eyes on Sarawak" (http://www.org/edens/borneo/awesome. JSTOR 1150309 (http://www. Earth Island Institute. Broek (1962). ^ "An Awesome Island" (http://www.gdfao. ISBN 1-85285-192-9 17.php?id=63).htm#. PBS.uk/news/648273/)". 7. Continuum International Publishing Group.org/stable/1150309). The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (E Press. BBC.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/1186401.id/aboutus. Retrieved 13 August 2008. Retrieved 20 April 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013. M.go.1017/S0022463401000066 (http://dx.pbs.org. "Place Names in 16th and 17th Century Borneo".id. London: Oxford University Press.au/austronesians/austronesians/mobile_devices/ch15s02. ^ "The world's successful diasporas (http://www. Live Trading News.go.kalbar.uk/data/gb102-ms283792).bbc. Freshwater finfish biodiversity and conservation: an asian perspective. Retrieved 13 August 2008. Archives hub.The Brooke Era" (http://borneo.com/economy-malaysia-eyes-on-sarawak-25474. ^ BBC-TV: Planet Earth 3.html). "The Trade in Lakawood Products Between South China and the Malay World from the Twelfth to Fifteenth Centuries AD".managementtoday. doi:10. School of Oriental and African Studies. the free encyclopedia Maphilindo Islands of Indonesia Mammals of Borneo References 1. ^ MacKinnon. 14. and S. Management Today. Military.7/7/13 Borneo . Margaret Kosuge. Bps.uk/wwf_articles..livetradingnews.1017%2FS0022463401000066). Retrieved 20 April 2013. 6.T. Retrieved 1 October 2009.UXJPZpG9KK0). 10.html).1080%2F03085696208592208). 18. ^ "Scientists discover new species in Heart of Borneo" (http://www.co. Kalimantan" (http://news.doi.org/article. Guangdong Foreign Affairs Office. Imago Mundi 16: 129–148.com/articles/2007/11/09/opinion/edheiman.org/military/world/malaysia/history-majapahit. ^ "(Chapter 15) The Earliest Indic State: Kutai" (http://epress.wikipedia.google.php?id_subyek=12&tabel=1&fl=1). De Silva (2006). GlobalSecurity. Philip Towle. 19.1080/03085696208592208 (http://dx. 9 November 2007. Borneo: Island in the Clouds. ^ "'Guests' can succeed where occupiers fail (http://www.stm).ac.globalsecurity.co. 22 April 2010.gov.cfm? unewsid=3858). 12.fullbooks.php?op=deskripsi&u1=1&u2=1&idkt=4 15.47–48.htm)". Indonesia (http://www. Wilfrid Walker" (http://www. Retrieved 11 November 2012.iht. The Australian National University).radicaldesigns. 13.com/Wanderings-Among-South-Sea-Savages-And-in3. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 32 (2): 133–149. ^ "Japanese prisoners of war (http://books.bps. ^ "Indonesia flashpoints:. Yōichi Kibata (2000). 2. ^ "Beheading: A Dayak ritual" (http://news.org/wiki/Borneo 9/11 . ^ Shayne Heffernan (21 October 2010). 8.html). The ecology of Kalimantan. ^ http://pariwisata.cn/english/relationship/fcp/200610130127. en. 28 June 2004. 21. pp. Cities & Municipalities – Statistics on City Population" (http://www. ^ "1350-1400 . 4.stm).co. "Economy Malaysia. ^ "Part 2 . 20. BBC.live. 23 February 2001. S. The Borneo Project.go.anu.jstor.wwf.bbc.T.php)".org. 9. ^ Nguyen. 11. ^ "Indonesia Statistic on 2010: Provinces. doi:10. ^ "Wanderings Among South Sea Savages And in Borneo and the Philippines by H.com/books? id=ktCv32ysz0AC&pg=PA47&dq&hl=en#v=onepage&q=&f=false)". ^ Derek Heng Thiam Soon (June 2001). The New York Times.org/10.

Malaysia. "Biogeography and variation of Cynopterus brachyotis in Southeast Asia. & Gumal. J. Seed Series No.php?id_subyek=12&tabel=1&fl=1).np&c=hdl&sib=1&dt=&ec=&et=&p. Craig Moritz. 1998. Redmond O'Hanlon.com/images/G/01/ciu/05/5c/473f225b9da075a531691110. 45. Universiti Malaysia Sarawak. Australia. A Photographic Guide to Mammals of South-east Asia.8. Espresso with the Headhunters: A Journey Through the Jungles of Borneo. Besar Ketol. The mammals of the Indomalayan region: a systematic review. Mathai.de/Brunei. Sarawak.html). 24. the free encyclopedia Further reading Bowen. 2010." Sarawak Museum Journal LX(81):191–284. Abdullah. L.citypopulation. The University of Queensland. Adam and Charles Black.de/Malaysia. Retrieved 25 July 2011. Stephen Holley. 2004. John Wassner. Chew Yen Fook." Sarawak Museum Journal Special Issue No. Charles M. A Photographic Guide to Birds of Borneo. * Gudgeon. Acacia mangium: updated information on seed collection and handling and germination testing. Oxford University Press. 1992.greenstone.html). British North Borneo. Kota Samarahan. Cities & Municipalities – Statistics & Maps on City Population" (http://www. "Small carnivores in a logging concession in the Upper Baram. Borneo". R. No.. GB. ^ "Indonesia (Urban Municipality Population): Provinces.W.de/Indonesia-MU. White Headhunter in Borneo. Mel White: " Borneo's moment of truth".._AA240_. Stranger in the Forest: On Foot Across Borneo..de.a=b&p. Tuen and M.org/wiki/Borneo 10/11 .fao.. Bps.T.id.H. 1913. London (an early well-illustrated book on "British North Borneo". (eds. * Robert Young Pelton Borneo. A. Karim.) Scientific Journey Through Borneo Series. Kota Kinabalu.7/7/13 (http://www. Major Cities & Conurbations – Statistics & Maps on City Population" (http://www. "Biogeography of fruit bats in Southeast Asia. Mathai. Corbet. Hon.jpg) Eric Hansen.org/greenstone3/nzdl. National Geographic Magazine. 1996–2001. Isa Sait. 2010.html). Francis. M. Wahab Marni and MT Abdullah. Oxford. Major Cities.htm) (1982): Seed handling practices: four fast-growing hardwoods for humid tropical plantations in the eighties. 5. 22. (http://www. W. Hill JE. 23. M." Natural History Publications. 1982. Dennis Lau. Sandakan..L. Hall LS. J. MT. "Hose's Civet: Borneo's mysterious carnivore". Cede Prudente. J.R. November 2008. 6. Citypopulation. V. now known as Sabah). W. Peter. Retrieved 25 July 2011.org/docrep/006/ad232e/AD232E21. Into the Heart of Borneo: An Account of a Journey Made in 1983 to the Mountains of Batu Tiban with James Fenton.citypopulation. St Lucia. Territories. M. Abdullah. Wild Borneo: The Wildlife and Scenery of Sabah. Citypopulation. Garbutt. 80: 221–234. ^ "Brunei: Districts. N. and J. Citypopulation. A. Robert Young Pelton.s=ClassifierBro wse&p. 2004..go. K M Wong & C L Chan. Retrieved 27 May 2012. Malaysian Forester Vol. C. 4: 534–547 Ghazally Ismail et al.jsessionid=31AD50E542D8523F7B281E90BC41BFC2? a=d&d=HASHb537cee56a984d77007bbf. Nick. Sabah.go. Nature Watch 18/4: 2–8. Grigg. Borneo: A Photographic Journey. T.id/aboutus. and Eusebio.de. "Mt Kinabalu: Borneo's Magic Mountain.Wikipedia. Gordon G. FAO/UNDP-MAL/78/009 (http://www." PhD thesis. Sarawak.V. Borneo . Small Carnivore Conservation 42: 1–9. Fielding's Borneo[1] (http://g-ecx. ^ "Malaysia: Federal States. G.imagesamazon.A. 2003. Bowen.bps. and T.de. Eusebio.wikipedia. "Mammals. Juat. Retrieved 25 July 2011.citypopulation.sa=). Forest Research Centre. Davison. Towns & Agglomeration – Statistics & Maps on City Population" (http://www. en.

"Diversity. including natural and social history. Inc. deforestation statistics. Kartono. and conservation news. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. Abdullah MT. 2007.html) – Background on Borneo." Sarawak Museum Journal.wikipedia. Relative Abundance and Conservation of Chiropterans in Kayan Mentarang National Park.php?title=Borneo&oldid=562741409" Categories: Borneo Divided regions Greater Sunda Islands International islands Islands of Brunei Islands of Malaysia Kalimantan This page was last modified on 3 July 2013 at 20:28.org/w/index. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.Wikipedia. 2002. By using this site.wikipedia.7/7/13 Borneo . 78: 255–282. and MT Abdullah." Sarawak Museum Journal 79: 251–265. the free encyclopedia Brunei. Ibnu Maryanto. External links Environmental Profile of Borneo (http://www. Agus P. "The bats of Niah National Park.org/wiki/Borneo 11/11 .. East Kalimantan.com/borneo. you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy..mongabay. a non-profit organization. Hall LS. Azlan J. en. and Kalimantan. Richards GC. Indonesia. Mohd. 2003. Retrieved from "http://en. additional terms may apply. Sarawak.