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International Politics Prof. Aleksius Jemadu, Ph.D. November 2010, Odd Semester/3 THE ENVIRONMENT AND GLOBAL POLITICS For at least the last twenty years, environmental issues have been sipping through the niches of international politics. While the issues of economics and military power are somehow still the reigning kings of the international politics, environment finds itself in an emerging status. Environmental issues create a harsher tension between the strong and the weak, creating a serious global problem experienced by practically all nations, and the impacts are felt by not only the weaker of the fight, but also the strongest. This paper will show you why environment – while in many ways still considered as a minor problem – is actually very important for international politics. To show you everything, we will dive into the background, what the big and small players do, theoretical concepts applicable, the issues themselves, and the international regimes in global environment. The paper itself will be divided into several sections of shorter writings dedicated on special parts of the paper. All the contributors to the specific sections will be noted. Since this is a paper on International Politics, we will not deal a lot on natural science issues on the environment. We will not talk a lot about causes of global warming, what is ozone depletion, or how did the El Niño and La Niña happen. We will talk more on the social science issues, especially from political, economical, and historical perspectives on the environment. This main content of this paper will be divided into several major parts, namely five major parts: • Environment and the political science of the global arena: actors, theories and applications • International regimes of the environment: discussing IOs, NGOs, treaties and agreements on the environment • Indonesia and the environment: problems and how to solve problems the Indonesian way • Cases and problems: how environmental cases shape global politics • The future of international politics of the environment and the problems in years to come
All the discussions will be preceded by a short introduction that will lead you into a more elaborate discussion on the theme environment and global politics. The World Becomes Less Greener: an Introduction1 An environmental issue is often mentioned as a ‘green’ issue, thus the world today is said to be less ‘green’. Many countries are struggling with this environmental issue: from floods to forest burning, from heavy air pollution to possibility of nuclear meltdown. The problem is apparent today, yet many countries prefer to do nothing instead of something. This is where the politics comes in: how states bargain to solve – or not to solve – our common problem of global environment. The historical perspective of environmental problems and 'The State of the Environment' To trace when the first environmental problem occurred in history is quite hard, since it was hard back at the older times, to have a methodological measurement of environmental problem. Unlike now, when human being can measure the level of CO2 emissions, the level of temperature increase on year-by-year basis, or the increase of sea level due to ice melting; it was impossible, say, a hundred years ago – or more. However, let us put a limit on the discussion. There are so many environmental problems, yet we will try to address those problems that are anthropogenic, or human-caused. It is hard to say that most of the current environmental problems are not human-caused (other than, say, earthquakes or volcano eruptions). Most – if not all – air pollutions are clearly human-caused (transportation, industries, etc.). And really, that is not all. After we settle the ‘deal’ that we are going to talk about anthropogenic environmental issues, we can draw a line on the beginning of such issues. I believe that the Industrial Revolution of the 18th-19th centuries as the beginning of the environmental problems – and ironically – the great leap in economic growth of the world. In short, Industrial Revolution can be described in two sentences2: it changed the way we produced goods, and it changed the society from an agricultural to an industrial society. And it is true. Industrial Revolution gave birth to more and more factories and machinerybased industries (rather than human-based); thus the importance of capital became more prominent compared to the value of human in terms of media of production on years before.
This section is written by Matthew Hanzel. Industrial Revolution: Its Affects and Consequences. (n.d.). Retrieved October 31, 2010, from Michigan State University: https://www.msu.edu/user/brownlow/indrev.htm
The creation of more factories created more pollution through emissions of more and more carbon – as resulted by burning process – more than before, added with further depletion of natural resources caused by consumerism – due to the ease of production3. The below chart may give you the impression on how carbon emissions had multiplied ever since the Industrial Revolution.
Total Carbon Emission, 1760-2000
8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1760 1800 1840 1880 1920 1960 2000
Total Carbon Emission
Graph 1: Total Global Carbon Emission, 1760-2000 (in million metric tons of Carbon)4 Since then, the emergence of industries, followed by the rise of fossil fuel-based transportation creates more air pollution, again, due to the emission of carbon (especially carbon dioxide) excessively. The above graph may show us how the global carbon emission in 200 years has multiplied more than 2,000 times! However, the staggering number of carbon emission above is not solely caused by transportation and industries; however made worse by other factors. One is the carbon emission caused by nuclear energy (as included on the above graph); and two, is due to deforestation. Deforestation is a major problem today, since major deforestations currently happening in countries with large areas of forest (typically tropical rainforest). Look at the examples of Brazil (the Amazonian rainforest) and Indonesia (the Indonesian rainforest)5.
Ibid. Counted in a 20-year basis (although the data is on a yearly basis from 1751-2007). Source: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. (n.d.). Global Carbon Emissions. Retrieved October 31, 2010, from Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: http://cdiac.ornl.gov/ftp/ndp030/CSV-FILES/. 5 The Economist. (2010, October 28). Banyan: Where There's Smoke. Retrieved November 1, 2010, from The Economist: http://www.economist.com/node/17361464?story_id=17361464
there will be less 'recyclers' of CO2. It has become an international issue. Greenhouse effect is highly related to the issue of 'global warming'7. As most of us know from K-12 natural science classes. and leading to severe floods around the world (such in Pakistan). which will create imbalances between our excessive emission of carbon dioxide and the number of 'recyclers' we need to make things better. The emission of CO2 and many other so-called 'greenhouse gases' created some sort of 'greenhouse' that prevents sun rays in the form of waves of ultraviolet to not bounced back out of the atmosphere.e. by which CO2 is important for plant for their photosynthesis process. (n. i. national problem of Indonesia. there are problems that are so immense they capture the attention of the whole World. transportations. albeit its small area of effect. one major cause of deforestation is forest fires (which mostly deliberate/anthropogenic).  Some forces of deforestation create direct problems to many other countries. which gives direct effect (i. Now. creating serious increase in temperature. Although serious. Not only problems with air. Why? Air pollution lies on the crossroads between many environmental issues. no longer an isolated.4 Why does deforestation important? Let me highlight two things:  Biological reasons.e. • The global warming creates many other problems. Let me point out some here. smoke) to neighboring countries like Malaysia and Singapore6. fossil fuel burnings. National Geographic.nationalgeographic. and related pollutions have led the World into a period of serious environmental problem. air pollution is only one of the problems – and really the biggest and most considered problem – among many others.d. cit.com/environment/global-warming/gw-causes 7 6 . from National Geographic: http://environment. plants – as those in the forests – are natural 'recycler' for CO2 to become O2 (oxygen).). Had the number of plants decrease time by time. • The general increase of average global temperature creates the problem of global warming. • Greenhouse effect. and O2 is important for as human being for respiration process. Let us see the example of Indonesian forest fire. it is scientifically believed that the excessive carbon emissions due to industries. causing increases in sea levels around the World. such as the melting of permanent ice on both poles of the World. Do not forget extraordinary cases The Economist. As we will discuss later in the following sections. Causes of Global Warming. op. Retrieved November 1. 2010. but re-bounced back to the Earth.
Business-as-usual could lead to temperature increases of 5°C or more this century. is a large battlefield between countries around the world. We will see in further elaboration how developing countries are the most impacted victims of climate change issue. D. A. Climate change cannot be controlled unless growth in both rich and poor countries becomes less greenhouse-gas-intensive.com/2008/01/volcano-culture/drowning-in-mud-text 10 The World Bank. Washington. the mudflow disaster at Sidoarjo. Drowning in Mud.C. Allow me to quote a passage from the World Development Report 2010: Development and Climate Change: Development goals are threatened by climate change. (2010. 54. And the above list is merely some of many other environmental problems faced by our contemporary world. We must act now: country development decisions lock the world into a particular carbon intensity and determine future warming. the incremental costs of keeping warming around 2°C are modest and can be justified given the likely dangers of greater climate change10. climate change) is closely related to development. Bourne. World Development Report 2010: Development and Climate Change.nationalgeographic. why is it so important to even consider the problem of environment – why don’t we just leave it alone? Feeling the niche of environmental issue in the international politics Why environment becomes a major part in international politics. United States of America: The World Bank. especially in the 21st century? The answer lies on mainly two reasons: st • In the 21 century. The question is now. or the one that is closest to us. October). (2010). and that could well happen unless substantial financing is mobilized. and the developing countries that become the victims of the result of excessive climate change caused Joel K. J. 2010. January). We are still looking for the best and most plausible solution to tackle all the issues. and the other way around. East Java9. on the other hand. The Deep Dilemma. National Geographic .5 such as the oil spills in the Gulf of Mexico (2010)8. 9 8 . To sum up. from National Geographic: http://ngm. the issue of environment is closely related to ‘development’. (2008. environmental issue (in this context. And we must act together: postponing mitigation in developing countries could double mitigation costs. But if we act now and act together. Marshall. Retrieved November 1. with the heaviest impacts on poor countries and poor people. • Environmental issue.. It will be a very exhaustive list to sum up all the environmental problems that we are facing today. The ‘battle’ occurs between mainly the industrialized countries that establish many factories and machinery-based industries.
no detailed elaboration will be made.6 by industrialization. It is hard also to determine which parties confront which other parties. We can summarize this point into the phrase “politicization and economization of environmental issues”. However. often to draw it in the form of a matrix is the best form of description. let us see three things that will define the influence of environment in global politics: the actors. Theories and Applications11 Before we enter a more detailed and thorough explanations on environment and global politics. the international relations theories and its applications. the introduction here should be adequate to lead you to deeper and further discussion on how significant the environment in shaping the global politics. Actors: parties to the conflict Environment is a real battlefield for interests. since there are so numerous parties involved sometimes the ‘line of fire’ is hard to determine. Let us see one by one. 11 This section is written by Matthew Hanzel. Figure 1: The United Nations Climate Change Conference in Bali (2007). which will be seen under the explanations below. one of the 'battlefields' of environmental issues in global politics Since this is nothing more than an introductory section. *** Environment and the Political Science of the Global Arena: Actors. .
e. often these countries are the hardest to comprehend.e. (2007. dan among Detik-detik di UNFCCC. 2010. hardest to convince.7 In short. to protect their industrialized economy by putting less measures to prevent more carbon emissions12. S. They will.e. from Okezone. December 15). Developed Countries) STATE ACTORS the world are the greatest emitters of carbon. parties in agreements relating to environmental issues. .).okezone. i. cit.com: http://news. and often the harshest victims in conflicts over environmental issues13. P. see how developing countries are waiting for countries like the US to sign the Bali Roadmap at the UNFCCC Bali 200714. Oxford. cit. the United 12 How? In creations of agreement for environmental issues. & B. op. NONSTATE ACTORS International Organizations (e.com/read/2007/12/15/1/68480/sby-dan-detik-detikmenegangkan-di-unfccc 13 The World Bank. They are the most vocal Developing countries Less-Industrialized Countries (i. 15 Thatcher. International Organizations such as One of the ways is through the creation of the “United Nations Framework Seputar Indonesia. They do have the interest of protecting the industries and putting less precautionary measures against excessive carbon emissions. at the best they can do. Hurrell. Developing Countries) are poorer in terms of economy. United Kingdom: Clarendon Press. op. Among all the non-state actors. (1992). The Role of the United Nations. In A.g. these are the actors on the conflicts over the environment in the international politics: What? Who? Why? Most industrialized countries. For example. developed countries that have built some of the largest industries of Industrialized Countries (i. The International Politics of the Environment. Kingsbury (Eds. 14 Seputar Indonesia. Retrieved Nations15 ) the SBY UN are the Menegangkan Conference on Climate November 1. and hardest to compel.
g. While many organizations work through civil societies (campaigns. in such process of reaching a consensus between the parties. some of the organizations. 17 16 . pp. Retrieved November 1. Sustaining the Institutional Environment. Their capability to approach practically all states of the world make them strategic enough to push agendas of environmental issues. This theory believes upon the role of the states as very important in dealing with economic matters.g. New York. 470-471 19 Otherwise known as the world system theory. industrialized countries are hard to compel. (2005). Kyoto Protocol is one such example18.com/p/articles/mi_m4339/is_2000_Annual/ai_63543389/ 18 Baylis. fundraisings). from Bnet: http://findarticles. The Globalization of World Politics. Kyoto Protocol) many agreements in order to find solution for a better environment. United States of America: Oxford University Press. throughout the years. Greenpeace is one such example . S. like Greenpeace. for example. bargains are everywhere. Countries. F. Greenpeace) most active. that is Ibid.8 biggest in terms of scope of work. H. Mintzberg. while the developing countries are trying hard to press the agenda. Inc. the case of Rainbow Warriors. Again. Applicable theory I believe that we can apply the class system theory19 on the discussion of environment in the international politics.. Some of these organizations are the Nongovernmental Organizations (e. 17 Change” (UNFCCC) which creates roadmaps for further development of the environment through the agreed proposition made in each particular conference16. J. & Smith. most vocal and the most seen in terms of tackling environmental issues.. 2010. acts more than what other organizations do. as far as creation of the international class structure. As usual. (2000). & Westley.. New York City. Look at. have done Agreements and Frameworks (e.
One billion people lack access to clean water. Griffiths. In Sub-Saharan Africa a woman is 100% more likely to die in childbirth than women in high-income OECD countries. 23 Baylis. 22 Immanuel Wallerstein was born in 1930. (1999). J. He believes in the presence of the market as a medium of resource distribution. and graduated from Columbia University in 1951 and completing his PhD in 1959. cit.9 the domination of the advanced industrialized countries over the poorer (developing) countries20. More than 30. as the mechanism of transfer of resources from the periphery to the core23. World Bank. in which a two-tiered structure of economy had developed within the structure of the world-economy: a dominant core and a less-dominant periphery. M. In Marx’s book Capital in 1967. op. The core is the manufacturing regions which able to use its power Baylis. One of the most apparent characteristics of this theory is the idea of inequalities. 70% of the World’s poor and two-thirds of the World’s illiterates are women. New York City.. New York. In Africa only one child in three completes primary education. J. Wallerstein believes that the modern world system is an example of a world-economy. op. S.. Average incomes in the richest 20 countries are 37 times higher than in the poorest 20 – the ratio has doubled in the last 20 years. Ibid. which is based in part on radical dependency theories of underdevelopment in the 1950s. The concept of core and periphery is highly derived from ideas of Leninism and Marxism. Jubilee Research.. cit. 21 20 Box 1: Indicators of World Inequality21 . Wallerstein is the pioneer of world-systems theory. Fifty Key Thinkers in International Relations.. & Smith. United States of America: Routledge. Some of the examples of the inequalities can be seen under the statements below: Indicators of World Inequality • • • • • • • • • • • One-fifth of the World’s population are living in extreme poverty. Marx believed that the Capitalism had entered the highest and final stage of monopoly capitalism. African countries pay out US$40 million every day on debt repayment. In the developed world subsidies to agricultural producers are six times higher than overseas development aid. United Nations Development Programme.. & Smith. In 34 countries in the World life expectancy is now lower than it was in 1990.000 children die everyday from easily preventable diseases. Tariffs on manufactured goods from the developing world are four times higher than those on manufactured goods from other OECD countries. S. The most prominent figure of the theory is Immanuel Wallerstein22.
(2009). raw materials • Import: manufactures. i. J.10 (derived from wealth) to concentrate surplus from the periphery. Eight Edition: 2008-2009 Update. When actually environment is a matter of life preservation. 25 Baylis.. United States of America: Pearson Higher Education. cit. S. J. & Pevehouse. Wallerstein later added the concept of semi-periphery25.. The interrelationships between the core. the semi-peripheral zone has an intermediate role within the world-system displaying certain features characteristic of the core and others characteristic of the periphery. 24 . According to Wallerstein. the periphery is the extraction regions that is exploited24. C.. how to preserve the Goldstein. New Jersey. op. raw materials • Low wages • Low welfare services PERIPHERY • Non-democratic governments • Export: raw materials • Import: manufactures • Below subsistence wages • No welfare services Figure 2: The Interrelationships in the Global Economy26 Why I believe this theory to be the most appropriate? The one single reason to show how this theory is appropriate is the politicization and the economization of environmental issues. and the periphery can later be simplified into the below cycle: CORE • Democratic governments • High wages • Import raw materials • Export manufactures • High level of investments • Welfare services SEMI-PERIPHERY • Authoritarian governments • Export: 'mature' manufactures. S. J. Upper Saddle River.e. & Smith. semi-periphery. 26 Ibid. International Relations.
There are the democracy-embracing states that are considerably more developed. the ‘cores’ and the ‘peripheries’. today environmental issues is the ‘battlefield’ of the rich and the poor. there is the more impression of tug-of-war between the industrialized countries and the less-industrialized countries in negotiating on the environmental issues. and as the scheme above describes. Industrialized countries have more emissions by multiplication compared to less-industrialized countries. It is true at best. In this sense.11 environmental condition for ‘the better future’. while the peripheries do the contrary. The below statistics may give us the impression how his has became the conflict between the two groups. The applicability of the theory Now the question is: how to apply the above theory into the real situation of the environmental issues? The answer lies on the tensions itself: the tensions between the industrialized countries (borrowing the above term: the ‘cores’) and the less-developed countries/non-industrialized countries (borrowing the above term: the ‘peripheries’). One of the most apparent parameter of comparing the industrialized and lessindustrialized countries is CO2 emissions. it imports raw materials and exports manufactures. And the ‘cores’ and ‘peripheries’ presence in the world-system is actually apparent. it cares of the labor with high wages. We can see the huge differences from the graph below: . and that is why the description provided by this theory is the best in describing environmental issue in the global politics.
Korea Republic. 2007 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 396 573 64 369 798 1236 1324 377 71 346 347 6028 5769 Carbon Emissions 489 Graph 2: Level of Carbon Emissions by Fuel Combustion in 2007 (in million of tons)27 While the industrialized countries need to defend the industries28 (because of the economical value of the industries). (2010). the US manufactures cars and other manufacturing industries. and United States are industrialized countries (most of the left-hand side of the graph).12 Level of Carbon Emissions by Fuel Combustion. 27 . Finland. France: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. and the other developed/industrialized countries with lower carbon emissions rely also on the prominence of service.g.000 mark. China. The process can be seen under the simplified diagram below: It is interesting that although countries like Australia. and these countries rely heavily on manufacturing (e. Paris. Data: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Japan. The non-industrialized countries (or the peripheries and the semi-peripheries) are victims of the impact of climate change as result of the damaged environment. 28 See how the United States was initially very reluctant to sign the Bali Roadmap in 2007. Japan manufactures cars and electronic products. non-industrialized countries are considered victims. OECD Factbook 2010. China practically produces anything). apparently only four countries achieved the above 1.
such as the oceans.g. such as the release of CFCs. 2005): • Some of the problems are inherently global. is one such example. there is the increase of global temperature in the whole world. The problems such as: • Flood due to the increase of sea level (caused by the melting of polar ice due to global warming) or due to the alteration of global climate (e. but has been a major issue in international politics in the last few decades. As the GHGs create the greenhouse effect. atmosphere.13 Global warming Heavy industrialization Large number of carbon emissions caused by industries in the 'core' countries contribute to the increase of the amount of the 'greenhouse gases' (GHGs).g. . Singapore and other countries. Pakistan in 2010) • Forest fires (e. which causes problems with Malaysia. We can also see that the politicization of the environmental issues in the global politics actually gives the sense why environment is no longer merely filling the niche of international politics.e. the prolonged time of phenomenons El Niño and La Niña or heavy monsoon (e. There are at least five senses why the environment is now a global politicized issue (Baylis & Smith. causing the 'global warming' phenomenon. • Some of the problems relate to the exploitation of global commons.g. cross state boundaries. etc. in Russia in 2010) • Harvest failures. i. The forest fire of Indonesia. destructions in the agriculture sector Figure 3: The process of how environmental destructions lead to negative impacts especially for developing countries. Effects The global warming creates further issues that especially affect the semi-peripheries and the peripheries. • Many environmental problems are intrinsically transnational.
29 This section is written by Priscilla Elizabeth. population growth. when the humanitarian field has the regime of the Hague and Geneva. industrialization. and power. yet experienced by many localities that it can be considered as global problem. and to patterns of energy consumption. The MDGs aim to spur development by improving social and economic conditions in the world poorest countries. affluence. knowledge. problems. *** The International Regime of the Environment: Does it even exist?29 Unlike many other factors in international politics. • The process of over-exploitation and environmental degradation leads to broader political and socio-economic process.14 • Many processes of over-exploitation or environmental degradation are actually local. no clear regime on the environment. For example. and poverty (which actually confirms the application of the world-system theory in relation to the environmental issues). thus it is widely recognized that the causes of most environmental problems are closely related to the generation and distribution of wealth. called the Millennium Summit. the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Environment Millennium Development Goals (or commonly abbreviated as the MDGs) are eight goals that sought to be achieved by 2015. and conflicts related to the field. During the summit it was noted that more than a billion people in the world still in acute poverty and suffer grossly due to inadequate resources and insufficient services such as education and health. the monetary field has the World Bank and the IMF. However. the environment seems does not have any international regime(s) that clearly put a certain foundation on dealing with issues. This is a challenge for the countries that participate in them in achieving development worldwide. to approve the goals of the world's development challenges. All United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations gathered together in 2001 in a summit. . we can try to elaborate some of the institutions and agreements that may come very close to the presence of regime in the environment field. relations. The United Nations.
Environmental management is the field of study. micro organisms. land. Environment includes physical factors of surroundings of human beings including air. improve health and address educational and environmental concerns around the world’s most pressing development problems. conservation and sustainable use of various elements or components of the environment. Figure 4: The eight goals of the Millenium Development Goals Environment is one crucial element of development. bottom-up. water. cultural resources and the socioeconomic factors of aesthetics and include both the natural and built environment and the way the interact. This is the real role of the United Nations in underlying the ideas of the MDGs to start the creation of a better environment from the smaller role of civil society. Bringing together United Nations agencies.15 The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) established a unifying set of developmental objectives for the global community. the MDGs foster collaborative action to reduce poverty. instead of using a top-down approach. . countries are urge to micromanage the citizen of their own state so that the civil society can create a better environment. The MDGs are strategically located in its relations to environmental issues: it creates the micromanagement of environment. climate sound light. governments and civil society around eight key development issues. The MDGs are specifically designed to address the needs of the world’s poorest citizens and the world’s most marginalized populations. instead of urging countries to act in terms of political environment of economic environment. biological factors of animals and plants. odor taste. which includes the protection.
People do not have enough income to meet the needs of everyday life. Before the MDGs formed. in order to obtain sufficient income. Reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. They engaged in . the poverty rate was very high. As a result.16 The global environment • An accumulation of the national environment The national environment • An accumulation of the local environment • Better condition of environment in local level will create a better environment in national level The local environment • The empowerment of the civil society to create a better environment • The creation of a well-preserved environment locally where later will be accumulated into a national condition of environment • The role of MDGs is to create a better society in order to create a better environment Figure 5: The bottom-up approach (inverted pyramid seen from the lowest to highest) The following are the brief explanation about the 8 goals of MDGs and its connection to the environmental management: Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Target: Reduce by half the proportion of people living on less than a dollar a day. they often engage in illegal things that can cause environmental damage.
building materials. Lack of education causes some things that cause environmental damage. The program is expected to help provide early education to children about how to preserve the environment. electrification of rural development and creating more employment opportunities. such activities as deforestation so as to obtain fuel woods. . providing the necessary facilities to carry out education. Like. expanding agricultural land and grazing areas. resulting in many children. This leads to increased poverty of women. forestation re-forestation and soil conservation measures programs. Previously. women empowerment. Before the MDGs is formed. burning charcoal and others. ‘she’ was an isolated group. as many as 113 million children worldwide not attending school. such as by providing free schooling. they actually work collecting firewood and so forth. MDGs have prepared a number of agenda to fight poverty. Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower women. opening Such money lending institutions as co-operatives to improve among small businesses and education people to fight ignorance. Women are required to stay at home. and all levels of education no later than 2015. especially in terms of making decisions about the environment and property. these together lead to the improvement of living standards of the people at the Same time managing our environment. the establishment of agro-forestry. by introducing environmental programs such as reforestation. MDGs have been setting up programs to address this problem. namely by requiring a primary school education. rural industrialization. Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education (UPE) Target: To ensure that by 2015 that children everywhere will complete a full course of primary schooling. fair trade for agricultural products. Education is also expected that children can be more creative and innovative in creating a workforce that does not depend on the environment.17 environmentally unfriendly. soil conservation. the which together Destroyed the environment. Women are not allowed to participate. Activities such as these can cause the scarcity of natural resources resulting from deforestation for example. preferably by 2005. and also at the same time maintaining environmental sustainability for present and future use. This is because due to poverty and a few other things. and others. because when the kids are not in school. Target: Eliminate gender disparities in primary and secondary education.
child mortality rates in some countries were so high. Goal 4: Reduce child mortality Target: Reduce under-five mortality rate by two thirds between 1990 and 2015. and so forth. maternal mortality is high due to health problems. This could be achieved by providing sex education. This health problem is related to environmental issues. After the MDGs. But lately. can lead to lack of health during childbearing. education. destroying the habitat of the animals are like mosquitoes that cause disease.18 which leads to poverty due to high demand for food that leads to the empowerment of unfriendly environmental activities. Before the establishment of the MDGs. Providing education about a healthy environment is also given to the local community. Promoting gender equality and empowerment of women will of help in managing our environment because in most cases women are the ones interacting directly with the environment. such as how to make good sanitation. At first. MDGs and countries are trying to combat this by providing clinics for pregnant women. and heavy work. treat waste properly. Some are because of the influence of a dirty environment that causes the disease. the introduction of condoms. like lifting wood for example. . Another thing is the result of poor nutrition and lack of health facilities in the local area. They also provide education for local communities on how to treat the environment well. Pregnant mothers are required to perform here. MDGs and build some health facilities. Target: Halt by 2015 and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS. it has become less and less because the mass media programs which help to make aware and prevent this disease. Goal 5: Improve maternal health Target: Reduce the maternity mortality ratio by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. MDG target the reduction of the level of people who are infected with this virus. Before the establishment of the MDGs. the Government supports the position of women. so as to obtain a higher education. the death rate from malaria and HIV is very high due to poverty and environmental factors. inhaling the polluted air. Because maybe the mother lived in a dirty area. in order to combat the deaths of children under the age of five years. Goal 6: Combating HIV/AIDS Malaria and other diseases.
water pollution. MDG7 is the direct relevance of some of the work undertaken by UNEP. and eco talk show. ozone layer depletion. water. land fragmentation. The education program was put in some higher education institutions.19 environmental health. such as forests and minerals. Environment is an important factor. Land Reclamation. nitrogen cycle. And is expected to reduce the exploitation of environmental resources.Ensure environmental sustainability Target: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs. Countries have strengthen the ministry of environment in each country which work together with other ministries like tourism. "Environment for Development". Extinction of species (rhino. Underlying the achievement of environmental sustainability of other purposes. after the MDGs. and diseases. UNEP has a partner who had the same thought and purpose to eradicate poverty and preserve the environment. put our environment in resulting into grave side. over exploitation of mineral resources. loss of habitat for wild animals. which has the slogan. Environmental sustainability is the heart than the other MDGs. . Achieve significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers by 2020. soil Erosion. water pollution. so that natural resources are not damaged and can still be used by future generations. bush burning over fishing. not only in MDG7 but also in other MDGs. Together. over population. almost all human activities impact damage to the environment. Today. so as to produce graduates who understand and environmentally conscious. Environmental Education and awareness at this time were being encouraged in these countries. desertification. Goal 7 . acid rain. Reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water. Land Degradation. poor agricultural methods. the countries trying to adhere to the principles of sustainable development that emphasizes the use of appropriate resources. tigers. loss of ecological services (carbon cycle. due to deforestation. Lions perform certain types of fish. global warming. they tried to revive the political attention to the challenges that exist to achieve the MDGs. namely PEP (Poverty and Environmental Partnership). reverse loss of environmental resources. water cycle). In total. plants). harnessing of energy research and others.
In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies. enhanced program of debt relief for heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) and cancellation of official bilateral debt. In cooperation with the private sector. fisheries to ensure that the environment is used in sustainable way so that it can support live on earth. and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction. visible social gap between rich and poor countries are very prominent. Tanzania there is NEMC (National Environment Management Council). Previously. Goal 8 . In cooperation with developing countries. such as their involvement with activities that are not environmentally friendly. develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for youth. Includes a commitment to good governance. rule-based. due to low global partnership between the countries. make available the benefits of new technologies.20 energy. start interwoven cooperation among countries around the . After MDGs were formed. This influence of the increasing poverty that lead to exploitation of the environment by the people for the sake of making money.both nationally and internationally. Final goal of the MDGs is the achievement of the first seven goals. forest. Includes: tariff and quotafree access for least developed countries' exports. provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries. for example in Uganda we have NEMA (National Environment Management Authority). non-discriminatory trading and financial system. especially information and communications. and minerals. Agriculture. Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small islands developing States (through the Program of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the twenty-second special session of the General Assembly) Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term.Developing a Global Partnership for development Target: Develop further an open. development and poverty reduction . predictable. Also countries have formulated environmental councils to deal with environmental issues. and These Councils have duty to ensure the environment is kept in a good health state. Address the special needs of the least developed countries.
and to inspire people to work for positive change. Developed countries provide assistance to developing countries. and so forth. from Greenpeace International: http://www. What we do. from Naturfreunde International: http://www.). Retrieved November 1. political. to protect Israel’s environment and support its environmental movement. research and restoration of the environment.org/what_we_do/ 30 . such as: • The Green Zionist Alliance (GZA) works to educate and mobilize a Jewish Diaspora voice for Israel’s environment. formerly named the World Wildlife Fund. from The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF): http://wwf.at/ 33 The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF).greenpeace. All this is expected to achieve the MDGs goals that lead to the development of global partnerships and the achievement of the principles of environmentally sound sustainable development. free medicine donations.). Retrieved November 1. until the environmental issue.d. and environmental sustainability. (n.d.org/international/about/worldwide/ 32 Naturfreunde International.d. through debt relief.21 world to address social problems.d. About. which aims to make nature accessible to the wider community by providing appropriate recreational and travel facilities. About.).nfi. are the world's largest grassroots environmental network and they campaign on today's most urgent environmental and social issues.panda.33 • Friends of the Earth International (FOEI) is an international network of environmental organizations in 77 countries. aid education. economic.org/about-us/mission 31 Greenpeace International. 2010. (n.31 • Friends of Nature is an international movement with a background in the Social Democratic movement. 2010. which remains its official name in Canada and the United States.32 • The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization working on issues regarding the conservation.). 2010. overfishing. from Green Zionist Alliance: http://www. (n. to improve environmental practices within the World Zionist Organization and its constituent agencies. They challenge the current model of economic and corporate Green Zionist Alliance. deforestation.30 • Greenpeace states its goal is to "ensure the ability of the Earth to nurture life in all its diversity” and focuses its work on world wide issues such as global warming. commercial whaling and anti-nuclear issues. 2010. Retrieved November 1. Retrieved November 2. International Nongovernmental Organizations on Environment There are many international organizations that involved in overcome the environmental issues. (n.greenzionism.
d. it was only until 1985 that an international agreement was reached. the Vienna Convention. Therefore. the international system will become profoundly different in the future. to cut the consumption of five types of CFCs by 50% in 1999. If current trends continue.foei. International environmental organizations are part of the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). NGOs deliver a lot of human development assistance. Only after the United Nations Environment Programme showed bargains in the negotiation than the Convention moved on. with chlorofluorocarbon is one of them. It was started under The Montreal Protocol in 1987. Today. But those mentioned are among the most popular worldwide. NGOs have risen to greater prominence in almost every region of the world. International Agreements on the Environment Throughout history. which consist of nonofficial groups in different countries. the Montreal Protocol was agreed by 24 main industrialized countries and the European Community. 2010.). There are still a lot of international environmental organizations. to comprehend roles of NGOs in international relations is very important and significant. 2005). Before the Protocol was signed. Losses of the ozone layer were tremendous: in 1995 the stratospheric ozone level over Europe and North America were about 10-percent lower than in the 1970s. from Friends of Earth International: http://www. there are some international agreements on the environment. About.34 And so forth. and there are places with 20 to 50-percent lower. In 1987.22 globalization. The process was politically painstaking: the United States under the Reagan administration was initially skeptical and had little enthusiasm. there was the increase on consumption and production of ozone-depleting substances (ODS). Retrieved November 1. have come together to promote common interests through international actions. Ozone Regime is one of the successful example (Baylis & Smith. However. some countries started to ban nonessential uses of CFCs. and promote solutions that will help to create environmentally sustainable and socially just societies. (n. the issues being touched by the agreements are often miniscule Friends of Earth International. The development and implementation of the Ozone Regime Among all the regimes and regimes-to-be in environmental issues. While it involves a lot of states.org/en/who-we-are/about 34 . As awareness of the risk of ozone depletion grew. Most NGOs.
Looking back at history.e. signed in response to the dramatic increase in international environmental concerns in the 1960s. The UNCED established the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). & Smith.. This Conference – otherwise known as the Stockholm Conference – led to the creation of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) as one of its lasting impacts. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC) is an international environmental treaty.23 compared to the real problems in environment. S. held in Rio de Janeiro from June 3 to 14. justifying our application of the World-System Theory. The Stockholm Conference was the start of dozens of other international environmental agreements and programs. It is also the start of the understanding of the general relationship between environment and development in the context of North-South Relations36. the cores and the peripheries). we can see several agreements – albeit minor in scope – related to the environment35: • The Treaty of Berne (1889). again. the 1972 London Dumping Convention as a framework for restricting the dumping of toxic wastes at sea. leading to the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro. 1992. The objective of the treaty is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic Baylis. also known as the Earth Summit. pp. J. and also the tensions between industrialized and the less-industrialized countries. 453-456 Thus. The pinnacle of the follow up was when the United Nations convened the Earth Summit in 1989 (as a twenty-year follow up to the Stockholm Conference). preventing the spread of the Phylloxera disease (destructive to European vineyards) • 1902 Convention for the Protection of Birds useful to Agriculture • 1991 Convention for the Protection of Fur Seals • The creation of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in 1945 • 1946 International Whaling Convention The most significant start to the agreements related to environment is the 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment. which produced at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED).. For example. the presence of the North-South tensions (i. 36 35 .
php 38 United Nations Framework Conference on Climate Change.”38 The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto. The principal update is the Kyoto Protocol. Full text of the convention. or engage in emissions trading if they maintain or increase emissions of these gases. 2010. Kyoto Protocol.24 interference with the climate system.int/essential_background/convention/background/items/1353. from UNFCCC: http://unfccc.37 UNFCCC is a framework convention.php 37 . Japan.d. The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC). which has become much better known. The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. this target represents a 29% cut). (n. Countries that ratify this protocol commit to reduce their emissions of carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases. Retrieved November 1. (n. aimed at fighting global warming. aims. The major distinction between the Protocol and the Convention is that while the Convention encouraged industrialized countries to stabilize GHG emissions. 2010. from UNFCCC: http://unfccc. According to a press release from the United Nations Environment Programme: "The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement under which industrialized countries will reduce their collective emissions of greenhouse gases by 5. These amount to an average of five per cent against 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008-2012.d.). emissions projections. the Protocol commits them to do so. and procedures that should subsequently be developed. Retrieved November 1. compared to the emissions levels that would be expected by 2010 without the Protocol. Recognizing that developed countries are principally responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere as a result of more than 150 years of industrial activity. which establishes principles. the Protocol places a heavier burden on developed nations under the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830. and policies and measures to limit such emissions. The goal is to lower overall emissions United Nations Framework Conference on Climate Change. The treaty provides for updates (called "protocols") that would set mandatory emission limits. One of its first tasks was to establish national greenhouse gas inventories of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals. on 11 December 1997 and entered in to force on 16 February 2005. institutions. The most important obligation in the FCCC is that parties must provide regular reports on national greenhouse gas emissions.).2% compared to the year 1990 (but note that.
Tay. In S. which make easier to be burnt.int/cop3/fccc/info/indust. Singapore.25 of six greenhouse gases . Global warming and environment are connected.calculated as an average over the fiveyear period of 2008-12. HFCs. methane.. and PFCs . & H. The smoke has been disturbing for flights in Malaysia. 150). (2000). The smoke from forest fire has spread into the Malaysia. Also. Indonesia.htm This section is written in two parts. National targets range from 8% reductions for the European Union and some others to 7% for the US. Susatro. Singapore: ISEAS. Sumatera are interfering the neighbor countries. Contemporary issues In 1998. Smoke pollution from burning forests in Kalimantan and Sumatra. Reinventing ASEAN (p. poverty. nitrous oxide. P. and so Malaysia protest to Indonesia. K. Estanislo. J. & Bunbongkarn. New Security Issues and Their Impact on ASEAN. S. The forest fire cause by the dry season and the forest become a peat land. sulfur hexafluoride. the forest had turned into palm oil plantation. Thailand. We take a case from Center and West Kalimantan as an example. The authors of each part will be mentioned in its subsequent sections. The smoke pollution that occurred in 1997 is the highest point so that the worst conditions for approximately seven months of smoke covered the sky of Singapore. Australia."39 *** Indonesia and the Environment: Where Are We Standing Now40 When global warming became a hot topic. and permitted increases of 8% for Australia and 10% for Iceland. and The http://unfccc.carbon dioxide. 0% for Russia. 40 39 . Indonesia as an independent country should be determines the direction of foreign policy. Malaysia. Indonesia. Environment and global warming have a very close relationship. Environment issue is still connected with high population. Smoke from Indonesia forest fire especially in Kalimantan. creating a security threat to the population in the ASEAN region41. In Indonesia there are so many forest fires that disturb not only Indonesia but also the neighboring country. industrialization and lack of knowledge. 6% for Japan. Environment also discussed. 41 Snitwongse. there are forest fire and the smoke been spread everyone and interfere the activity not only in Indonesia but also neighboring countries like Malaysia. S. Samarinda.
June 10). 44 Al-Jazeera. from AlJazeera: http://english. East Java. the five countries agreed after holding a meeting on haze in Palembang and signed the ASEAN Transboundary Haze Agreement. Retrieved November 1. In 2010 the smoke problem returned.html 43 42 . Indonesia known as the most often contributor to the smoke pollution because the uncontrolled burning of forest. Air-pollution indices in Singapore and the south of the Malaysian peninsula had reached their highest levels since 200642. Drilling 'caused Java mud volcano'. Ibid. Smoke pollution is very harmful to human health because it disrupts the eyes and lungs. The burning of forest was done by traditional way by burning the rest of the illegal logging. The Economist. Let us not forget also about the mudflow that flooded several villages in the region of Sidoarjo. cit.net/news/asia-pacific/2008/06/200861517024264237. op. the five ASEAN countries agreed to assist Indonesia in tackling the smog that happens. (2008.26 Philippines. 2010. Caused by drilling of the Lapindo Brantas Company. Indonesia still not ratified the agreement because they said that they did not ready to ratify the agreement about the handle of smoke pollution43. It is unquestionable that the NGOs urged the Indonesian Government to immediately ratify the treaty. In June 2006 however. scientists for now concluded that the incident is due to the presence of a mud volcano at the incident site44.aljazeera.
As an international organization Greenpeace believe that just by step reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The problems are: • Deforestation • Water pollution from industrial wastes • Sewage • Air pollution in urban areas • Smoke and haze from forest fires Indonesia and the solution46 Climate change caused by human activities. petroleum and natural gas.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ 46 This section is written by Christanty Gunawan 45 . the spread of dangerous disease outbreaks. September 17). In terms of environmental concerns about air pollution. rising ocean temperatures. what needs to be addressed by the Indonesian state in solving global environmental problems emerging-proliferation? What are Indonesia's roles in solving global environmental problems? The following will discuss about Indonesia's role in addressing global environmental problems. illegal wildlife trade. © NASA One reference45 currently notes several environmental-related problems for Indonesia. the volcanic Central Intelligence Agency. factory police. we already know most of this global warming is melting polar ice caps. Besides. of course. waste management. To solve a problem. Humans sometimes are not aware of the changes that happened is that the man's own actions such as creating air pollution. which was hit by natural disasters such as ash rains from volcanic eruptions. illegal logging. prolonged drought. Examples of human actions that caused environmental problems are human consumption are like continuing the ongoing use of fossil fuels such as coal.cia. circa 2009. 2010. (2010. but the others are global/collective in nature. even traffic jams became Indonesia's environmental problems. Retrieved September 27. Global climate change is a material adverse impact on us all as inhabitants of the earth. from CIA World Factbook: https://www. So. coral bleaching and large storm waves.27 Figure 6: The area impacted by the Lumpur Sidoarjo can be seen in greyish color on this false-color map. and radical climate change that could result in further damage to the ecosystems of the world and the people living therein. Some of the problems are generally localized. must be resolved as a result of its root causes. massive flooding. is now part of the problems in Indonesia. which may prevent the systematic.
in the year 2007. deforestation.d. Ambon and Ujung Pandang. as quoted : The World Wide Fund for Nature. and others which tend to have negative effects for related aspects in the country and abroad. improve access to energy. 2010. causing the decline of many reef areas especially those near growing cities such as Jakarta. Indonesia does give a good mark in terms of solving global environmental issues. However. In this context. They must be seen as paths toward the same goal. particularly around major population centers results in large amounts of sewage and industrial pollution.28 gases. These rules must be hard and can bring people of Indonesia on the importance of the purpose of making this order. Because of pollution in Indonesia nowadays. from British Broadcasting Corporation: http://news. December 15). “rapid economic development. At a glance: Bali climate deal. Indonesia should be able to play its role to decrease the pollution problem. The Conference resulted in the Bali Roadmap.). vanishing natural resources and many others that effect to the poor governance. increase economic growth and aid our adaptation efforts.bbc.”47 To maintain this problem.stm 47 . Indonesia has some problems in the global environment such as pollution. (2007. Economic development goals and climate change policy goals must not be seen as opposite ends of a spectrum. Finally. which laid a framework for further negotiations in a two-year period for the next Climate Change 48 Conference in Copenhagen (2009). However. Retrieved November 3. Retrieved November 2. Indonesia must also take into account the impact of climate change on national development. we need to rethink spending money on subsidizing fossil fuels.co. (n. 2010.org/who_we_are/wwf_offices/indonesia/environmental_problems_indonesia/ 48 British Broadcasting Corporation. Highlights from the Bali Roadmap.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7146132.panda. from The World Wide Fund for Nature: http://wwf. We think that needs to be increased again is how the government implemented a code of conduct that must be the Indonesian community in improving the climate for the good of future generations. over fishing. One of the highlights would be the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Bali. Indonesia. Economic development is necessary to alleviate poverty. As mentioned above. the government has to integrate climate change policy into development plans for inclusive and sustainable development. if the Indonesian people themselves are not aware of the natural circumstances surrounding the occupant earth. then the government will attempt to no avail and global environmental problems will still occur and result in a bleak future for this nation. Environmental Problems in Indonesia. a practice that may be inconsistent with GHG reductions. The Indonesian government is still seeking efforts in tackling global environmental problems.
Recognises that "deep cuts in global emissions will be required to achieve the ultimate objective" of the UN climate convention. "measurable. supported by technology and enabled by financing and capacity-building" – i. namely "avoiding dangerous climate change". reportable and verifiable" actions "in the context of sustainable development. • Decides to re-instate an expert group on technology transfer to advise developing countries. Resolves to consider ways of reducing the occurrence or damage from natural disasters. Views of parties to be sought by late February. and that delays in reducing emissions increase the risks of "severe climate change impacts". May or may not include quantified. and the first meeting in March or April. and the provision of financial and other incentives for. and "nationally appropriate". On Forests • • Pledges to consider "policy approaches and positive incentives" to reduce deforestation and conserve forest cover.29 On Cutting Emissions • • Acknowledges that evidence for the planet warming is "unequivocal".e. . Developed nations to take on commitments that are "measurable. On Technological Transfer • Will consider how to “remove obstacles to. • • Decides to look at "a long-term global goal for emission reductions". Funds pledged to World Bank to initiate pilot projects under the banner of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing countries (REDD). On Adaptation • • • Enhanced co-operation to “support urgent implementation” of measures to protect poorer countries against climate change impacts. On Timeline • A subsidiary body will begin work on the Bali roadmap as soon as possible. Acknowledges that economic diversification can “build resilience”. reportable and verifiable". only with Western support. • For developing nations. binding targets for all or some. scaling up” the transfer of clean energy technologies from ndustrialized nations to the developing world.
. What? Where? Why? How?51 It is particularly interesting because the oil Gulf of Mexico. cit. that is the Government of the United States versus the British Petroleum (who did the exploration at the Gulf) Due to global warming. Ice Island Breaks off Greenland. 2010. J. (2010. and contains the highlights of each problems. 51 How it becomes an international issue? 52 Joel K. op. not about general issues of the environment. The 2010 Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill52 in between the United States and Mexico territory The spill happened after the explosion of one of the oilrigs. Bigger Than Manhattan. C. Box 2: Excerpts from the Bali Roadmap *** The Contemporary Environmental Problems49 In this part we will see some of the recent major environmental issues50 that have gross impact on not only the country being problematic but also many other countries of the world.nationalgeographic. process to complete at 2009 UN summit in Copenhagen. August 6). Deepwater Horizon disaster is a problem between a state and a nonstate entity. there is an The 2010 Greenland Ice Breaks Greenland ice break (a block of ice separating from the main Greenland) at a size four times than the Island of Manhattan53 The danger it poses. from National Geographic: http://news. Retrieved November 3. and how it brings problem to the World. This is one of the indicators that the climate change brings negative impact: had the global temperature rises to an alarming rate from 23oC to 27oC then the whole Greenland will This section is written by Marsha Susetyo and Matthew Hanzel This is a list of case-per-case basis. The list will be concise. 53 Dell'Amore. Bourne.30 • Further review meetings scheduled.com/news/2010/08/100806-icechunk-island-greenland-glacier-petermann-biggest-science/ 50 49 . how does it happen.
from The Telegraph: http://www.com. 2010. August 13). from CIA World Factbook: https://www. US$15 2010 billion in damages55 And to complete the list we will provide the list of major environmental issues that are happening in the world right now (and that are threatening to the global environment)56: Acidification of soil and water Drift-net fishing Ozone depletion Soil erosion Oil pollution on sea Acid rain Effluents (waste materials) Poaching of animals (esp. Retrieved November 3.).theage.Current Issues. Ice sheet in Greenland melting at record rate. the endangered) UV radiation Mudflows Deforestation Emissions of greenhouse gases Slash-and-burn agriculture Inadequacy of potable water Excessive usage of pesticides *** The Future of the International Politics of the Environment: The Question of the Sustainable Development57 Excessive coral harvesting Animal overgrazing Soil degradation Endangered marine species (sharks.co. etc. L.html 55 Kramer. August 8).uk/earth/earthnews/7941035/Ice-sheet-in-Greenland-melting-at-recordrate.au/world/a-smoky-curtain-falls-on-moscow-20100807-11pcw.telegraph. combined with severe fire had costed severe drought in mid. (2010.html 56 Central Intelligence Agency.d. (2010. 2010. Retrieved November 3.html?countryName=Indonesia&countryCode=id®ionCode=eas&#id 54 . Environment . (n.31 melt and there will be a 27-feet rise of the sea level around the world (around 9 meters)54 Occurred due to the highest temperature 2010 Russian Wildfires Russian forests ever happened in President Dmitry Medvedev had declared a state of emergency.Russia approx. Retrieved November 3. from The Age: http://www.gov/library/publications/the-worldfactbook/fields/2032. the Russia. A smoky curtain falls on Moscow.) Toxic materials Gray. A.cia. 2010.
debates increasingly focused on the challenges of developing international mechanism to shape broader patterns of trade and investment in line with environmental goals.  Reviewing national reports on aspects of sustainable development. J. and hazardous waste management. Agreements. There are much too many things to be discussed only a short paper of about 30 pages. In recent decades. excessive fishing. combating deforestation.  Follow-up on unfinished business of United Nations on Environment and Development (1992). The Commission for Sustainable Development works in three ways:  Promoting coordinated approaches towards sustainable development. the peripheries are pressing the issue of climate change and other environmental issues. 469-474 59 Ibid. Then comes the issue of sustainable development. op. the MDGs and the environment. there are still much issues to cover. & Smith.32 This paper is never intended to be a very exhaustive elaboration and writings about the environment and global politics. such as the ozone depletion. The Agenda 21 also established the Commission for Sustainable Development as part of the UN system58. .. This issue of sustainable development can be achieved through efforts. S.. economic. and is written as the conclusion of this paper.. the cores. The problem with this issue of sustainable development is that the concept is a contested one: there are differing political. Some people believe than trade and environment regimes can be complementary and even mutually reinforcing59. The Agenda 21 aims to provide a program of action for sustainable development. and many other things. social. are trying to protect their industries and often reluctant to put into force agreements that obliged them to reduce carbon emissions (or to comply on certain mechanism of environmental controls). It was first heard at the 400-page document of Agenda 21 as part of the Rio Declaration (1992). namely the ‘cores’ and the ‘peripheries’.e. We have seen how the environment has become a ‘battlefield’ between the industrialized countries and the less industrialized. i. industrialization. While the industrialized countries. are the factual representation of such conflict. in practice. pp. such as: promoting sustainable urban development. managing fragile mountain ecosystems. to make progress walks hand in hand with the preservation of the environment. While we have covered some issues about air pollution. biotechnology management. the regimes and agreements upon environmental issues. and environmental perspectives 57 58 This section is written by Matthew Hanzel. cit. Baylis.
(2007. *** Bibliography Al-Jazeera. There are also debates about the real purpose of sustainable development. 2010.). 2010. & Smith. to conclude the whole paper. . Retrieved September 27.html Baylis. Inc. 2010. from Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: http://cdiac. J. At a glance: Bali climate deal.co. Retrieved November 1. from British Broadcasting Corporation: http://news.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7146132. (2010. The Globalization of World Politics.33 in disagreement about its exact meaning60. S. before its too late.cia. (n.ornl. from Al-Jazeera: http://english. environment is a prominent issue now since many people – and many states – are now thinking on the continuity of the Planet Earth in many years to come. (2008. from CIA World Factbook: https://www.bbc.gov/ftp/ndp030/CSV-FILES/ Central Intelligence Agency. Drilling 'caused Java mud volcano'. 2010. If today’s development is destructive to the environment it will fall useless in the future since the environment is already damaged so as to give no use to the human being. United States of America: Oxford University Press. Retrieved October 31. December 15).net/news/asiapacific/2008/06/200861517024264237. so far into an argument that the issue of sustainable development is one way to prohibit industrialization of many developing countries that are yet to be industrialized. Retrieved November 3. (2005). June 10). The only thing left.stm Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. New York City. Global Carbon Emissions. New York.. or ‘to gain or not to gain’. September 17). But still.d.aljazeera. British Broadcasting Corporation.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ 60 Ibid. is whether the whole World – including the industrialized states – will realize the importance of the environment and its protection. The politicization and economization of environmental issues are now at a new level where countries are playing tug-of-war with ‘to protect or not to protect’.
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