# Introduction to the Geometry of the Triangle

Paul Yiu Summer 2001 Department of Mathematics Florida Atlantic University

Version 13.0411 April 2013

Contents
1 The Circumcircle and the Incircle 1.1 Preliminaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 Coordinatization of points on a line . . . . 1.1.2 Centers of similitude of two circles . . . . 1.1.3 Harmonic division . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.4 Menelaus and Ceva Theorems . . . . . . . 1.1.5 The power of a point with respect to a circle 1.2 The circumcircle and the incircle of a triangle . . 1.2.1 The circumcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2 The incircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.3 The centers of similitude of (O) and (I ) . . 1.2.4 The Heron formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Euler’s formula and Steiner’s porism . . . . . . . 1.3.1 Euler’s formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.2 Steiner’s porism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Appendix: Mixtilinear incircles . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 5 6 8 10 10 10 12 15 15 15 15 16 17 17 17 18 19 20 20 20 20 21 21

The Euler Line and the Nine-point Circle 2.1 The Euler line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Homothety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.2 The centroid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.3 The orthocenter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 The nine-point circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 The Euler triangle as a midway triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2 The orthic triangle as a pedal triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.3 The nine-point circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.4 Triangles with nine-point center on the circumcircle . . . . . 2.3 Simson lines and reﬂections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Simson lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.2 Line of reﬂections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.3 Musselman’s Theorem: Point with given line of reﬂections . . 2.3.4 Musselman’s Theorem: Point with given line of reﬂections (Alternative) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5 Blanc’s Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Isotomic conjugates . . 3.2 Line of ortho-intercepts . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Intercept form: tripole and tripolar . . 4. .2 Absolute barycentric coordinates . . . . .1 The Fermat points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Conway’s formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Notation .2 Squares inscribed in a triangle and the Lucas circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . 4. . . .2 Triangle bounded by the outer side lines of the squares erected externally . . . .1 Examples . . . . . . .2 Yff’s analogue of the Brocard points . . 4.2 Perspective triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. .2 Cevians and traces . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . .2 Inﬁnite points and parallel lines . . . . . . 4 Straight Lines 4. . 3. . . . . . 4. 2. . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . .2 Parallel lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Nagel’s Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . .3 More on reﬂections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. .6 Appendices . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .4 Pedal triangle . . . . . .3 Intersection of two lines . . . . . .3. . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Ceva Theorem . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Perpendicular lines . . . .3. . . 4. . . . . 3. . .3 Isosceles triangles erected on the sides and Kiepert perspectors 3. . . . . . . . 3. . . . . 4. . .2 Examples . . . .1 The excentral triangle . .1.1. . . . . .5. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .3. .1 The equation of a line . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . .4 The Napoleon points . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Conway’s formula . . . . . 3. . . . . . . .2 Examples .4 CONTENTS Appendix: Homothety .5. . . . . . .1 Equal-parallelian point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 22 22 23 25 25 25 26 29 29 29 31 31 32 33 33 34 34 35 35 35 36 37 39 41 41 41 41 42 44 44 44 46 46 47 50 50 53 54 55 58 58 3 Homogeneous Barycentric Coordinates 3. . . . .iv 2. . . .5. . .4. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The tangential triangle . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.1 Barycentric coordinates with reference to a triangle . . . . . 4. 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . .3 Examples . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . .4. . . . . . 4. . .5. . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . .1 Homogeneous barycentric coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Three congruent circles with a common point and each tangent to two sides of a triangle . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The inﬁnite point of a line . . . . .1.4. .2. . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . .1 Two-point form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 The Kiepert perspectors . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Intersection of the Euler and Fermat lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B (b). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .6. . . . .3. . 5. . . . . . 5. . . . .5 Equation of a general circle . . .6. . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The power of a point with respect to a circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Isogonal conjugates . .4 The de Longchamps circle . . . . .3. 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Appendix: The circle triad (A(a). . . . .3 Cevian circumcircle . . . . . . . .3 The excircles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Miquel Theorem . . .CONTENTS 4. . . . . . . .2. 6. .3 The excircles . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . .4 The Brocard points . . . 7.4 Equation of the nine-point circle . 5. . . . . . . .1 Examples . . . . .3 Proposition . . 7 .3. . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . .4 The Lucas circles . . . . . . . . Perspectors associated with inscribed squares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Equation of circle with center (u : v : w) and radius ρ: 7. . .1 Radical center . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The excircles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . 5. .2. 7.2. . . . . . . . . . .4 Cyclocevian conjugate . .6. 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Radical axis of (I ) and (N ) .2 4.2 Miquel associate . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. .2 The circumcircle as the isogonal conjugate of the line at inﬁnity 5. . . . . .3 5 Centroid of pedal triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . .6 Appendix: Miquel Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6. . . . . . . .2 The line joining the incenter and the nine-point center 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . C (c)) . . . 7. . . . . . .1 Equation of the incircle . . . . . . . v 59 59 61 61 62 63 65 66 68 69 70 70 70 71 71 75 75 76 77 77 77 81 83 86 87 89 89 91 91 91 91 93 93 93 94 95 96 97 Circles I 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Radical circle . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .5 Appendix: More triads of circles . .1 Simson lines of antipodal points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Intersection of the incircle and the nine-point circle . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Steiner point . . .3 Radical circle of a triad of circles . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . 7. . . . . .3. .6. . .6.1. . . .1 The distance formula . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Simson lines . . . . . . . . Circles III 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . .2 Circle equations . . . . .2. 6. . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . Circles II 6. . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .

. 11 Some Special Conics 11. . . .2 The inﬁnite points of a circum-hyperbola . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Pole and polar . . . . . .1 Locus of Kiepert perspectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . .7. . . 11. . . . . . 10. . . 10. . . . . . . . 10. 10. . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .3.6 The dual conic .3 Cevian quotient . . . . .2 The matrix of a conic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .2. 10. CONTENTS 99 99 100 100 101 102 102 104 106 109 109 113 114 114 116 117 117 117 118 119 119 121 122 122 124 124 124 124 125 125 125 125 125 127 127 127 127 131 131 131 131 132 132 . . . 11. 8. . . . . 9.7 The type. . . . . . 8. . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Barycentric square root . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .1 Superior and inferior triangles 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . 8.4 The dual conic of a circumconic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Line coordinates . . . . . .1. . . . 10. . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. .4 The Brocardians . .2 Condition for a line to be tangent to a conic 10. .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. 9. . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The type of a conic . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Conics parametrized by quadratic functions . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Circumconics 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The adjoint of a matrix . . . . . .2 The Brocard ellipse . . . . . . . . .4. . . .6. . . 10. .3 The dual conic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 The matrix of a conic . .4 The Lemoine ellipse . . . . . . . . .1 Theorem . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .1 Examples . .1. . . . .1 Circumconics as isogonal transforms of lines . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Harmonic associates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The perspector and center of a circumconic .1 The Steiner in-ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . 10. 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . .1 Equation of conics . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . .3 The perspector of a conic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 General Conics 10. . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Appendix: Ruler construction of tangent at A . . .1 Carnot’s Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Inscribed conics . . . . . . . . . . . center and perspector of a conic . . . . .1 Inscribed conic with prescribed foci 11. . . .1. . . . .3 Tangent at a point . . . .2 The center of a conic . .7. .1 Barycentric product . . . . . . . . .vi 8 Some Basic Constructions 8. .3 The de Longchamps ellipse 11.2 Conic through the traces of P and Q . . . . .1 Examples . . . .

4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The second intersection of C and a line ℓ through A 12. . .1 Lemoine’s thorem . . . . . . .4 The tripolars of points on the Euler line . . . . . .1 The Steiner circum-ellipse xy + yz + zx = 0 . . . .2 Envelope of area-bisecting lines . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . .5 Appendix: Constructions with conics . . . . . . . .3. 12. . . . . .5. . .2 11. . =0 . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Principal axes of C . 12.1 Conics associated with parallel intercepts . . . . .1 The Artzt parabolas .5 Vertices of C . . . 12. . 12. . . .1 The Soddy hyperbolas . . . . . . . . . 12. . .3. . .3 12 Some More Conics 12. . . .4. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . Some special conics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 11. .5 The inscribed conic with center N . . . . . . .1. . vii 133 134 135 135 135 135 136 137 137 139 139 139 140 141 143 143 143 144 145 147 149 150 150 150 152 152 152 152 152 152 153 . .5.5. . . . . .4. . . 12. . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Centers of inscribed rectangles . . . 11. 12. . . . .5 The Feuerbach hyperbola . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . 12. . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.1. . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Steiner in-ellipse cyclic x2 − 2yz = 0 . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Lines simultaneously bisecting perimeter and area . . . . . . . .1 The tangent at a point on C . . 11. . . .2 A conic inscribed in the hexagon W (P ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Envelope of perimeter-bisecting lines . . . . . 11. . . . . . . 12. . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . Inscribed parabola . . .4. 11. . . . . . .3 The Kiepert hyperbola cyclic (b2 − c2 )yz = 0 . . . . . . .3 Parabolas with vertices of a triangle as foci and sides as directrices . . . .4 The superior Kiepert hyperbola cyclic (b2 − c2 )x2 11. .2 The Soddy circles . . 12. . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . .5.4 The Soddy hyperbolas and Soddy circles . . . . . . . . . . 11.6 Intersection of C with a line L . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .6 The Jerabek hyperbola . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Envelopes . . . . . . .4. . 11. .3 The center of C . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1 Coordinatization of points on a line Let B and C be two ﬁxed points on a line L.1 Preliminaries 1. Every point X on L can be coordinatized in one of several ways: (1) the ratio of division t = BX BC .Chapter 1 The Circumcircle and the Incircle 1. the vector PX as a linear combination of the vectors PB and PC: PX = (1 − t)PB + tPC.1. (2) the absolute barycentric coordinates: an expression of X as a convex combination of B and C : X = (1 − t)B + tC. which are masses at B and C so that the resulting system (of two particles) has balance point at X. which expresses for an arbitrary point P outside the line L. P B X C (3) the homogeneous barycentric coordinates: the proportion XC : BX . .

3 Harmonic division BX BY =− . Y harmonically. It divides the segment OI in the ratio OQ : QI = R : −r.2 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 1.1. You will ﬁnd that the line XY always intersects the line OI at the same point P . we construct a ray through I directly parallel to the ray OX to intersect the circle I (r) at Y ′ . |BP | |CP | =k . This we call the internal center of similitude of the two circles. the locus of the points P for which (constant) is a circle. It divides the segment OI in the ratio OP : P I = R : r.1. whose centers O and I are at a distance d apart. The absolute barycentric coordinates of P with respect to OI are P = R·I +r·O . 3. Given two ﬁxed points B and C . This is the external center of similitude of the two circles. If X . R+r Y O P I X Y′ Q If. C harmonically. 2. Y divide B . then B . Animate a point X on O(R) and construct a ray through I oppositely parallel to the ray OX to intersect the circle I (r) at a point Y . make use of the notion of the centers of similitude of two circles to construct the harmonic conjugate of X with respect to the segment BC .2 Centers of similitude of two circles Consider two circles O(R) and I (r). C divide X . Distinguish between two cases when X divides BC internally and externally. the line XY ′ always intersects OI at another point Q. XC YC Two points X and Y are said to divide two other points B and C harmonically if They are harmonic conjugates of each other with respect to the segment BC . Exercises 1. Given a point X on the line BC . R−r 1. and has absolute barycentric coordinates Q= R·I −r·O . on the other hand.

A Z Y P B X C X′ (1) Take any point A outside the line BC and construct the lines AB and AC . (2) Mark an arbitrary point P on the line AX and construct the lines BP and CP to intersect respectively the lines CA and AB at Y and Z . Then X and X ′ divide B and C harmonically.1. AB respectively. To construct the harmonic conjugate of X with respect to the segment BC . we proceed as follows. Y .Chapter 1: Circumcircle and Incircle 3 1. XC Y A ZB Ruler construction of harmonic conjugate Let X be a point on the line BC . Z are collinear if and only if BX CY AZ · · = −1. CZ are concurrent if and only if BX CY AZ · · = +1. Menelaus Theorem The points X . XC Y A ZB A A Y Z Z P Y X B C B X C Ceva Theorem The lines AX . . CA. Y . Z on the side lines BC . (3) Construct the line Y Z to intersect BC at X ′ . BY .4 Menelaus and Ceva Theorems Consider a triangle ABC with points X .

4 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 1.1.5 The power of a point with respect to a circle The power of a point P with respect to a circle C = O(R) is the quantity C(P ) := OP 2 − R2 . or inside the circle C. This is positive. the product P X · P Y (of signed lengths) is equal to the power of P with respect to the circle. on. . If it is positive. it is the square of the length of a tangent from P to the circle. zero. or negative according as P is outside. T O X Y P T′ Theorem (Intersecting chords) If a line L through P intersects a circle C at two points X and Y .

the circumcenter O.2 The circumcircle and the incircle of a triangle For a generic triangle ABC . . r = S 2s . The circumradius R is given by the law of sines: 2R = a b c = = . B . c respectively. sin A sin B sin C A A Y O Z I B D C B X C 1.Chapter 1: Circumcircle and Incircle 5 1.2 The incircle The incircle is tangent to each of the three sides BC . BZ = BX = s − b. CA. The symbol S denotes twice the area of the triangle. 1. we shall denote the lengths of the sides BC . The inradius r is related to the area 1 2 S by S = (a + b + c)r. then AY = AZ = b+c−a .2. AB by a. Its center. is the intersection of the perpendicular bisectors of the three sides. CA at Y . the incenter I . C .1 The circumcircle The circumcircle of triangle ABC is the unique circle passing through the three vertices A. 2 BZ = BX = c+a−b . CA. CX = CY = s − c. AB (without extension). 2 1 These expressions are usually simpliﬁed by introducing the semiperimeter s = 2 (a + b + c ): AY = AZ = s − a. Also. Its center. is the intersection of the bisectors of the three angles.2. If the incircle is tangent to the sides BC at X . and AB at Z . 2 CX = CY = a+b−c . b.

B ′ . so that A. (The intersection is called the Gergonne point of the triangle). (2) Construct the tangents from B ′ to the circle A(a). OT ′ : T ′ I = R : −r. with centers at A. and the circle tangent to these two lines and to A(a) internally. The 6 points of tangency lie on a circle. construct three circles. M′ A Y Z T′ I T O B X C M These are points dividing the segment OI harmonically in the ratios OT : T I = R : r. B are between A′ . and the circle tangent to these two lines and to B (b) internally. Given three points A. . B .3 The centers of similitude of (O) and (I ) Denote by T and T ′ respectively the internal and external centers of similitude of the circumcircle and incircle of triangle ABC . construct three circles with these as centers and orthogonal to each other. C not on a line. Two circles are orthogonal to each other if their tangents at an intersection are perpendicular to each other. The line AB intersect the circles at A′ and B ′ respectively. Given three points A. C .6 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 1. (3) The two circles in (1) and (2) are congruent. 3. 4. 5. Use the Ceva theorem to show that the lines AX . (1) Construct the tangents from A′ to the circle B (b). Exercises 1. Construct the three circles each passing through the Gergonne point and tangent to two sides of triangle ABC . 2. C not on the same line. mutually tangent to each other externally. B . BY . CZ are concurrent.2. The centers A and B of two circles A(a) and B (b) are at a distance d apart. B .

(2) Note that AY3 = AZ2 . CA. Crux Math. . (1c) Same in part (a). and touches CX and XB at Y and Z respectively. but the border must be of such a width that the area of the inner rectangle is exactly half that of the sheet. (Paper Folding) The ﬁgure below shows a rectangular sheet of paper containing a border of uniform width. The paper may be any size and shape. How does this circle intersect the circumcircle of triangle ABC ? 9. or even a pencil. Let ABC be a triangle with incenter I . Leversha. You have no ruler or compasses. 25 (1999) 110. and let the tangent intersect AB at Z2 and BC at X2 . and let the tangent intersect BC at X3 and CA at Y3 . Problem 2415 and solution. (1b) Same in part (a). Yiu. Journal of Recreational Mathematics. 30 (1999-2000) 151 – 152. 1 7. G. for the side AB . F respectively. The incircle of △ABC touches the sides BC . X is a point inside △ABC such that the incircle of △XBC touches BC at D also. 26 (2000) 62 – 64. and T. 1 P. Given a point Z on a line segment AB . Seimiya. E . Construct the circle tangent to AC and AB at Y3 and Z2 .Chapter 1: Circumcircle and Incircle 7 A′ A B B′ 6. Let this tangent intersect CA at Y1 and AB at Z1 . AB at D. for the side CA. 2 8. construct a right-angled triangle ABC whose incircle touches the hypotenuse AB at Z . 2 Problem 2519. (1a) Construct a tangent to the incircle at the point diametrically opposite to its point of contact with the side BC . You must determine the inner rectangle purely by paper folding.

F .4 The Heron formula The area of triangle ABC is given by S = s(s − a)(s − b)(s − c). r · ra = (s − b)(s − c). 3 (2) What is the locus of the center of the circle EF ZY ? 4 1. s Mathematical Olympiad 1996. ra s (2) from the similarity of triangles CIY and Ia CY ′ . then A s−a Y s−c r Z I B C X Aa s−b Ba s−c ra Ca Ia (1) from the similarity of triangles AIY and AIa Y ′ . Y are concyclic.2. If the incircle I (r) and this excircle are tangent to the line AC at Y and Y ′ respectively. . Z . Consider the excircle Ia (ra ) whose center is the intersection of the bisector of angle A and the external bisectors of angles B and C . 1996.8 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry (1) The four points E . r s−a = . It follows that r= 3 International 4 IMO (s − a)(s − b)(s − c) . 2 This formula can be easily derived from a computation of the inradius r and the radius of one of the tritangent circles of the triangle.

(3) The lines AP and AQ are symmetric with respect to the bisector of angle A. (1) Let D. 5. These three lines intersect at a point P . . (2) The 6 points of tangency are on a circle. ra = abc 2S . which is orthogonal to each of the excircles. F be the midpoints of the sides BC . Construct the tritangent circles of a triangle ABC . CA. 5 This is called the Spieker point of triangle ABC . S b+ c − a . Construct the incenter S of triangle DEF . AB . and CZ ′ . Y . Let X ′ . Suppose the incircle of triangle ABC touches its sides BC . (2) Join each excenter to the point of tangency of the incircle with the corresponding side.Chapter 1: Circumcircle and Incircle From this we obtain the famous Heron formula for the area of a triangle: S = rs = 2 Exercises 1. E . CA. These three lines are concurrent at another point Q. Z on the incircle. Y ′ . Z respectively. Explain the concurrency of these rays by considering also the points of contact of the excircles of the triangle with the sides. Z ′ be the antipodal points of X . Construct the rays AX ′ . (This is called the Mittenpunkt of the triangle). 9 s(s − a)(s − b)(s − c). R = 2. CQ (with respect to the bisectors of angles B and C ). 3. Construct the excircles of a triangle ABC . BQ and CP . 4. 5 and the tangents from S to each of the three excircles. AB at the points X . (1) Join each excenter to the midpoint of the corresponding side of ABC . Y . BY ′ . so are the lines BP .

This is the incenter since ∠IBC = 1 1 1 ∠IM C = ∠AM C = ∠ABC.10 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 1.3. and (3) by the theorem of intersecting chords. . then they are the circumcircle and incircle of a continuous family of poristic triangles. Bisect angle A and mark the intersection M of the bisector with the circumcircle. 6 Also known as Poncelet’s porism. Construct the circumcircle O(R) of triangle ABC . r (2) IA = sin A .3. Extend these tangents to intersect the circumcircle again at B ′ and C ′ . Animate a point A′ on the circumcircle.2 6 Steiner’s porism Construct the circumcircle (O) and the incircle (I ) of triangle ABC .1 Euler’s formula The distance between the circumcenter and the incenter of a triangle is given by OI 2 = R2 − 2Rr. and construct the tangents from A′ to the incircle (I ). A A B′ 2 C′ I O Z I O Y B C B X C M A′ 1. The lines B ′ C ′ is always tangent to the incircle. Note that and for the same reason ∠ICB = 2 (1) IM = M B = M C = 2R sin A 2. Construct the circle M (B ) to intersect this bisector at a point I . 2 2 2 1 ∠ACB . This is the famous theorem on Steiner porism: if two given circles are the circumcircle and incircle of one triangle.3 Euler’s formula and Steiner’s porism 1. R2 − OI 2 = the power of I with respect to the circumcircle = IA · IM = 2Rr.

4. 7 7 Hint: OI = r . Suppose OI = d. Show that there is a right-angled triangle whose sides are d. r and R − r. Given a point I inside a circle O(R). Construct an animation picture of a triangle whose circumcenter lies on the incircle. When does equality hold? 11 2. construct a circle I (r) so that O(R) and I (r) are the circumcircle and incircle of a (family of poristic) triangle(s). 5. incenter. . and one vertex of a triangle. Which one of these is the hypotenuse? 3. construct the triangle. Given the circumcenter. r ≤ 2 R.Chapter 1: Circumcircle and Incircle Exercises 1 1.

The intersection of AI and A′ O is the center KA of the mixtilinear incircle in angle A.Yiu. . let P be the external center of similitude of the circumcircle (O) and incircle (I ). Denote by A′ the point of tangency of the mixtilinear incircle K (ρ) in angle A with the circumcircle. R Comparing these two equations. Note that the point on the line OI represented by the left hand side is T ′ . since the circumcircle O(A′ ) and the mixtilinear incircle K (A′ ) touch each other at A′ . where R is the circumradius. Amer. by rearranging terms. Monthly 106 (1999) 952 – 955.4 Appendix: Mixtilinear incircles A mixtilinear incircle of triangle ABC is one that is tangent to two sides of the triangle and to the circumcircle internally. In terms of barycentric coordinates. r Also.12 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 1. R(ρ − r)A + r(R − ρ)A′ RI − rO = . R−r ρ(R − r) We note some interesting consequences of this formula. we obtain. K= 1 [−(ρ − r)A + ρI ]. From this. Extend AP to intersect the circumcircle at A′ . we have OK : KA′ = R − ρ : ρ. Math. A A O I K T− I O KA C B C B A′ A′ M This leads to a simple construction of the mixtilinear incircle: 8 Given a triangle ABC . First of all. The other two mixtilinear incircles can be constructed similarly. Mixtilinear incircles. K= 1 [ρO + (R − ρ)A′ ]. and AK : KI = ρ : −(ρ − r). it gives the intersection of the lines joining AA′ and OI . The center K clearly lies on the bisector of angle A. 8 P.

Let T be the insimilicenter of (O) and (I ). 9 A I T+ O B C 3. 10 A. Yiu. and externally to the incircle. calculate the length of Y ′ Z ′ . preprint. Forum Geom.P.Chapter 1: Circumcircle and Incircle Exercises 13 1. There are three circles each tangent internally to the circumcircle at a vertex. Hatzipolakis and P.. 10 A Y Z I T O B Z′ X Y′ C 9 A. Hatzipolakis and P. with pedals Y and Z on CA and AB respectively. Pedal triangles and their shadows. . Yiu. 1 (2001) 81 – 90. If Y ′ and Z ′ are the pedals of Y and Z on BC . Triads of circles. It is known that the three lines joining the points of tangency of each circle with (O) and (I ) pass through the internal center T of similitude of (O) and (I ). Construct these three circles. Can any of the centers of similitude of (O) and (I ) lie outside triangle ABC ? 2.P.

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1 Homothety The similarity transformation h(T. the centroid G divides the median AD in the ratio AG : GD = 2 : 1.2 The centroid The three medians of a triangle intersect at the centroid. E . A C′ A B′ F N G O E H G N O C B B D C A′ 2.1. If D. CA.1.Chapter 2 The Euler Line and the Nine-point Circle 2. The . AB of triangle ABC . F are the midpoints of the sides BC . r) which carries a point X to the point X ′ which divides T X ′ : T X = r : 1 is called the homothety with center T and ratio r. which divides each median in the ratio 2 : 1.1 The Euler line 2.

(Gossard’s Theorem) Suppose the Euler line of triangle ABC intersects the side lines BC . This divides the segement OG in the ratio OG : GN = 2 : 1 . AB at X . since these points coincide. 1018. The Euler lines of triangles HBC . Its center is the point N = 2 h(G. 2. The Euler lines of triangles IBC . The Euler lines of the triangles AY Z . and is usually denoted by H . The line containing O. This point is called the orthocenter of triangle ABC . Y . centroid. A′ B ′ touch the incircle at X . What is this intersection? 4. HAB intersect at a point on the Euler line of triangle ABC . BZX and CXY bound a triangle homothetic to ABC with ratio −1 and with homothetic center on the Euler line of ABC . HCA. and orthocenter coincide. Exercises 1. ICA. −2).16 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry medial triangle DEF is the image of triangle ABC under the homothety h(G. G. Z respectively. and let the sides of B ′ C ′ . they intersect at the homothetic image of the circumcenter O. − 1 )( O ) . H is called the Euler line of triangle ABC . 6. The circumcircle of the medial triangle has radius 1 R . Crux Mathematicorum. Let A′ B ′ C ′ be a poristic triangle with the same circumcircle and incircle of triangle ABC . A triangle is equilateral if and only if two of its circumcenter. Z. Y . 3. C ′ A′ .3 The orthocenter The dilated triangle A′ B ′ C ′ is the image of ABC under the homothety h(G. (i) What is the locus of the centroid of XY Z ? (ii) What is the locus of the orthocenter of XY Z ? (iii) What can you say about the Euler line of the triangle XY Z ? 1 It 2 Problem is also called the anticomplementary triangle. The Euler line is undeﬁned for the equilateral triangle. Note that OG : GH = 1 : 2. IAB also intersect at a point on the Euler line of triangle ABC . 1 Since the altitudes of triangle ABC are the perpendicular bisectors of the sides of triangle A′ B ′ C ′ .1. − 1 2 ). What is the locus of the centroids of the poristic triangles with the same circumcircle and incircle of triangle ABC ? How about the orthocenter? 7. The circumcenter N of the medial triangle is the midpoint of OH . CA. 2 2. . 2 5.

which is the same as N . The pedal triangle of the orthocenter H is called the orthic triangle of ABC . A A Y Z P F E H B X C B X D C The pedal X of the orthocenter H on the side BC is also the pedal of A on the .2. the circumcenter of the Euler triangle is the midpoint of OH . 1 2 ) is called the midway triangle of P . They form the pedal triangle of P . The midway triangle of the orthocenter H is called the Euler triangle.1 The Euler triangle as a midway triangle The image of ABC under the homothety h(P. A A A′ F O O′ P B B ′ A′ Y E N O C′ Z C ′ H B′ C B X D C 2.Chapter 2: Euler Line and Nine-point Circle 17 2. The circumcenter of the midway triangle of P is the midpoint of OP . The medial triangle and the Euler triangle have the same circumcircle. In particular.2 The nine-point circle 2.2 The orthic triangle as a pedal triangle The pedals of a point are the intersections of the sidelines with the corresponding perpendiculars through P .2.

2. their centers are collinear. the Euler triangle.2.18 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry same line.2 above. CC ′ are collinear.P. It follows that ∠EXF = ∠EAF = ∠EDF. The three nine-point circles intersect at P and its pedal on this line. What is the locus of the midpoint of HP ? Can you give a proof? 3. The three midpoints of AA′ . 4 Gibert. (1) A′ . C ′ . P CC ′ are concurrent at P and another point P ′ . B ′ . 8/5/00. since AEDF is a parallelogram. Equivalently. The perpendiculars at P to P A. 2. 2. the point X lies on the circle DEF . CA. . the medial triangle. Let P be a point on the circumcircle. On the Euler line. 6/27/01. Hatzipolakis. From this. 3 B. is called the nine-point center of triangle ABC . A A′ F N Z B′ B X D H O Y E C′ C Exercises 1.1. similarly for the pedals Y and Z of H on the other two sides CA and AB . the midpoint of OH . 3 (2) The nine-point circles of the (right-angled) triangles P AA′ . Hyacinthos 3166. and can be regarded as the reﬂection of A in the line EF . Hyacinthos 1158. B ′ . BB ′ . 4 A. C ′ are collinear. and the orthic triangle have the same circumcircle. Its center N . OG : GN : N H = 2 : 1 : 3.3 The nine-point circle From §2. This is called the nine-point circle of triangle ABC . P B . P BB ′ . AB respectively at A′ . P C intersect BC . Let ABC be a triangle and P a point.

C ′ be the reﬂections of A. 6 O. Bottema. and construct a family of triangles with (O) as circumcircle and N as nine-point center. (2) Fold the reﬂection A′ of A in the line Y Z . Young. CP are all on the nine-point circle. (1) Fold the perpendicular to AN at N to intersect CA at Y and AB at Z . B ′ . (3) Fold the reﬂections of B in A′ Z and C in A′ Y . must P be the orthocenter of triangle ABC ? 5 5. the three points A′ . center O and a point N on it. Yiu and J. Complete the parallelogram ODXA (by translating the vector DO to X ). 6 5 Yes. BP . (3) Construct the chord BC of the circumcircle with D as midpoint. . 26 (2000) 192. (This is simply the perpendicular to OD at D). B ′ . (Paper folding) Let N be the nine-point center of triangle ABC . (4) Let X be the point on the nine-point circle antipodal to D. Chapter 16. and passes through the midpoint M of ON . i. Here is an curious property of triangles constructed in this way: let A′ . Crux Math.2. The point A lies on the circumcircle and the triangle ABC has nine-point center N on the circumcircle.4 Triangles with nine-point center on the circumcircle We begin with a circle. Problem 2437 and solution. If the midpoints of AP . C in their own opposite sides. Hoofdstukken uit de Elementaire Meetkunde. which has center N . The reﬂection triangle A′ B ′ C ′ degenerates. See P.e. B .. (2) Animate a point D on the minor arc of the nine-point circle inside the circumcircle. 25 (1999) 173. (1) Construct the nine-point circle. What do you observe about these reﬂections? 2. C ′ are collinear.Chapter 2: Euler Line and Nine-point Circle 19 4.

CA. which happens to lie on the circumcircle. AB to obtain the points X . These circumcenters therefore lie on a circle tangent to the circumcircle at P . Q A A N H O H N O B P C B C P 2. Construct the Simson line (P ′ ) and trace the intersection point s(P )∩ (P ′ ). Y . The line containing them is called the Simson line s(P ) of P . CA. AB at X . These reﬂections are always collinear. Y . (1) Choose an arbitrary point Q on the line L and reﬂect it in the side lines BC . Can you identify this locus? (3) Let the Simson line s(P ) intersect the side lines BC . These pedals are always collinear.3.3 Simson lines and reﬂections 2.3 Musselman’s Theorem: Point with given line of reﬂections Let L be a line through the orthocenter H . (1) Construct its pedals on the side lines. Z respectively. The circumcenters of the triangles AY Z . BZX and CXY .2 Line of reﬂections Construct the reﬂections of the P in the side lines.3. 2. and CXY form a triangle 1 homothetic to ABC at P .3. and the line containing them always passes through the orthocenter H . (3) Construct the reﬂections of P in the side lines of triangle ABC . Z .20 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 2. These circles have a common point P . (2) Let P ′ be the point on the cirucmcircle antipodal to P . and is parallel to the Simson line s(P ). (2) Construct the circumcircles of AY Z . .1 Simson lines Let P on the circumcircle of triangle ABC . with ratio 2 . These are on the line L. BZX .

(1) Construct the line P P ′ to intersect the side lines BC . (3) Construct the reﬂections of P in the side lines of triangle ABC . BC ′ A′ and CA′ B ′ intersect at a point Q on the circumcircle. Math. What is this point? (5) Construct the Simson lines of P and P ′ . Z respectively. (1) The circles AB ′ C ′ . Let P be a given point. Z ′ of Q′ . −1) (so that P is the common midpoint of AA′ . which happens to be on the circumcircle. together with its antipodal point P ′ . (1) The reﬂections X .Chapter 2: Euler Line and Nine-point Circle 21 2. BY . 47 (1940) 354 – 361. If P = (u : v : w ). a2 cyclic . CA. One of these is on the circumcircle.3. Z of Q on the side lines BC .3. and A′ B ′ C ′ the homothetic image of ABC under h(P. the intersection of the three circles in (1) is the point 1 : ··· : ··· b 2 (u + v − w )w − c 2 (w + u − v )v on the circumcircle. As such. CA. Y . 2.4 Musselman’s Theorem: Point with given line of reﬂections (Alternative) Animate a point Q on the circumcircle. This is the isogonal conjugate of the inﬁnite point of the line u (v + w − u ) x = 0.5 Blanc’s Theorem Animate a point P on the circumcircle. (2) Construct the circles with diameters AX . so are those X ′ . (3) What is the locus of Q? (4) The line P ∗ Q passes through the orthocenter H . Y ′ . (2) The lines XX ′ . BCA′ and CAB ′ intersect at a point Q′ such that P is the midpoint of QQ′ . Let Q′ be the second intersection of the line HQ with the circumcircle. 7 7 Musselman. ZZ ′ intersect at a point P . AB are collinear. AB at X . it is the line of reﬂection of a point on the circumcircle. Amer. CZ . These three circles have two common points. What is this point? Exercises 1. Monthly. (2) The circles ABC ′ . and the other common point Q. These are on the line HQ. They intersect at a point on the ninepoint circle. BB ′ and CC ′ ). Y Y ′ . Y . Label this point P ∗ .

2 Squares inscribed in a triangle and the Lucas circles Given a triangle ABC . AB . From this. lie on the bisectors IA. Indeed. IC respectively. we see that P is indeed the internal center of similitude of (O) and (I ). where ha is the altitude on BC . IB . I3 . A B C How does this help constructing the circles? Note that the line joining the circumcenters P and O passes through the center of homothety I .1 8 Three congruent circles with a common point and each tangent to two sides of a triangle Given a triangle ABC .4 Appendix: Homothety Two triangles are homothetic if the corresponding sides are parallel. each tangent to two sides of the triangle. The centers of these circles. Note that the lines I2 I3 and BC are parallel. they are in homothetic from their common incenter I . The ratio of the homothety is ha : ha + a. 2. ha + a S + a2 8 Problem 2137. to construct three congruent circles passing through a common point P . Since ha = S a . OI : IP = R : t = R : Rr = R + r : r. The ratio of homothety can be determined in two ways. Since the circumradii are t and R.4. and I1 I2 . we have ha S = . 2. so are the pairs I3 I1 . and the inradii are r − t and r. Crux Mathematicorum. by considering their circumcircles and their incircles. It follows that △I1 I2 I3 and ABC are similar. to construct the inscribed square with a side along BC we contract the square erected externally on the same side by a homothety at vertex A. . Now the construction is easy. t = R+r .22 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 2. r Rr t we have r− r = R .4. I1 . I2 . R+r Rewriting this as OP : P I = R : r. and indeed. Let t be the common radius of these congruent circles. CA.

.P. Math. LonguetHiggins. In this case. Reﬂections on a triangle. The Lucas circles. part 2.S. 108 (2001) 444 – 446. Monthly. part 1.4. S + a2 2S S + a2 2(S + a2 ) 23 and this passes through the two vertices of the inscribed on the sides AB and AC . Yiu. and two corresponding circles. tangent to the circumcircle at B and C respectively. 293 – 296. It is remarkable that these three circles are mutually tangent to each other. as the three circles mutually tangent to each other and each tangent to the circumcircle at a vertex of ABC . Amer. Gazette. Math. we recently learned that Eduoard Lucas (1842 – 1891) wrote about this triad of circles. the intersection is a point on the circumcircle. 10 S. . considered by an anonymous author.Chapter 2: Euler Line and Nine-point Circle The circumcircle is contracted into a circle of radius Ra = R · S abc S abc = · = . there are two other inscribed squares on the sides CA and AB . 10 9 See A. Reﬂections on a triangle. These are called the Lucas circles of the triangle. 57 (1973) 291 – 293.3 More on reﬂections (1) The reﬂections of a line L in the side lines of triangle ABC are concurrent if and only if L passes through the orthocenter.N. 9 A A O B C H O B C 2. The connection with the inscribed squares were found by Victor Th´ ebault (1883 – 1960). Similarly. After the publication of this note. M. Hatzipolakis and P. Collings. ibid.

in Atlanta. Morley related triangles on the nine-point circle. 107 (2000) 941 – 945.24 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry A H B C (2) Construct parallel lines La . van Lamoen. Math. 12 11 This was ﬁrst discovered in May. A proof can be found in F. B . C on their opposite sides. 1 (2001) 69 – 74. A remarkable concurrence. The three reﬂection lines intersect at a point on the nine-point circle. and Lc through the pedals of the vertices A.11 A A F N H E H N Y Z C B X B D C (3) Construct parallel lines La . E . Georgia. Monthly. See also. B. Lb . . CA in Lb . Lb . and AB in Lc .M. and Lc through the D. These three reﬂection lines intersect at a point on the nine-point circle.. AB of triangle ABC . F be the midpoints of the sides BC . Adam Bliss. 12 Ibid. 1999 by a high school student. Forum Geom. Reﬂect the lines BC in La . Amer. CA. Shawyer. Reﬂect these lines in the respective side lines of triangle ABC .

every point P is coordinatized by a triple of numbers (u : v : w) in such a way that the system of masses u at A. The homogeneous barycentric coordinates of P with reference to ABC is a triple of numbers (x : y : z ) such that x : y : z = △P BC : △P CA : △P AB. Allowing the point P to be outside the triangle. ETC. v at B . and w at C will have its balance point at P . [ETC]. These masses can be taken in the proportions of the areas of triangle P BC . the coordinates of the circumcenter O are 3 △OBC : △OCA : △OAB 2 In Kimberling’s Encyclopedia of Triangle Centers. the incenter appears as X1 . 3. If R denotes the circumradius.1 Homogeneous barycentric coordinates The notion of barycentric coordinates dates back to M¨ obius. GCA. ICA and IAB are respectively 1 2 ra. The incenter I has homogeneous barycentric coordinates (a : b : c). Examples 1.Chapter 3 Homogeneous Barycentric Coordinates 3. P CA and P AB . and GAB are equal. 3 In ETC. The centroid G has homogeneous barycentric coordinates (1 : 1 : 1). The circumcenter. The areas of the triangles GBC . 1 2.1. In a given triangle ABC . the circumcenter appears as X . 3 1 In . If r denotes the inradius.1 Barycentric coordinates with reference to a triangle 3. the areas of triangles IBC . we use signed areas of oriented triangles. 1 1 2 2 rb. the centroid appears as X2 . and 2 rc.

where S is twice the area of triangle ABC . Points on the line BC have coordinates of the form (0 : y : z ). P = x+y+z If P and Q are given in absolute barycentric coordinates. Verify that the sum of the coordinates of the circumcenter given above is 4S 2 : a2 (b2 + c2 − a2 ) + b2 (c2 + a2 − b2 ) + c2 (a2 + b2 − c2 ) = 4S 2 . I c = (a : b : − c ). I b = (a : − b : c ). we obtain the absolute barycentric coordinates by scaling the coefﬁcients to have a unit sum: x·A+y·B+z·C . . If x + y + z = 0. 4 3. convenient to perform calculations avoiding denominators of fractions. however.26 = = = = YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 1 2 1 1 R sin 2A : R2 sin 2B : R2 sin 2C 2 2 2 sin A cos A : sin B cos B : sin C cos C a· c 2 + a 2 − b2 a 2 + b2 − c 2 b2 + c 2 − a 2 :b· :c· 2bc 2ca 2ab a 2 ( b 2 + c 2 − a 2 ) : b2 ( c 2 + a 2 − b 2 ) : c 2 ( a 2 + b 2 − c 2 ) . Exercise 1.2 Absolute barycentric coordinates Let P be a point with (homogeneous barycentric) coordinates (x : y : z ).1. 4I a = (− a : b : c ). the point X which divides q·P +p·Q . points on CA and AB have coordinates of the forms (x : 0 : z ) and (x : y : 0) respectively. Find the coordinates of the excenters. 2. Likewise. A A A F G E Z Y I O B D C B X C B D C 4. P Q in the ratio P X : XQ = p : q has absolute barycentric coordinates p+q It is.

b. the point X dividing P Q in the ratio P X : XQ = p : q has homogeneous barycentric coordinates (qu + pu′ : qv + pv ′ : qw + pw′ ). 5 In 6 In ETC. the a-component of its homogeneous barycentric coordinates can be taken as S 2 · sa2 (b2 + c2 − a2 ) + sabc · 2S 2 a. divide the segment OI harmonically in the ratio of the circumS abc S 2 radius R = abc 2S and the inradius r = 2s .Chapter 3: Homogeneous Barycentric Coordinates 27 We therefore adapt this formula in the following way: if P = (u : v : w) and Q = (u′ : v ′ : w′ ) are the homogeneous barycentric coordinates satisfying u + v + w = u′ + v ′ + w′ . the homogeneous barycentric coordinates of the internal center of similitude are 5 (a2 (b + c − a) : b2 (c + a − b) : c2 (a + b − c)). we equalize their sums and work with O I = = (sa2 (b2 + c2 − a2 ) : · · · : · · · ). c. Thus. the internal center of similitude of the circumcircle and the incircle appears as the point X55 . Exercises 1. The internal center of similitude T divides OI in the ratio OT : T I = R : r. Note that R : r = 2S : 2s = sabc : S . ETC. Example: Internal center of similitudes of the circumcircle and the incircle These points. Since O = ( a 2 ( b2 + c 2 − a 2 ) : · · · : · · · ) with coordinates sum 4S 2 and I = (a : b : c) with coordinates sum 2s. The other two components have similar expressions obtained by cyclically permuting a. It is clear that 2s2 S 2 is a factor common to the three components. the external center of similitude of the circumcircle and the incircle appears as the point X56 . (2S 2 a : 2S 2 b : 2S 2 c). . The external center of similitude of (O) and (I ) has homogeneous barycentric coordinates 6 (a2 (a + b − c)(c + a − b) : b2 (b + c − a)(a + b − c) : c2 (c + a − b)(b + c − a)). T and T ′ . The simpliﬁcation turns out to be easier than we would normally expect: = = = = S 2 · sa2 (b2 + c2 − a2 ) + sabc · 2S 2 a sS 2 a2 (b2 + c2 − a2 + 2bc) sS 2 a2 ((b + c)2 − a2 ) sS 2 a2 (b + c + a)(b + c − a) 2s2 S 2 · a2 (b + c − a).

or equivalently. 2. the nine-point center appears as the point X5 . 7 In 8 In ETC. The orthocenter H lies on the Euler line and divides the segment OG externally in the ratio OH : HG = 3 : −2. H= 1 1 1 : : b2 + c 2 − a 2 c 2 + a 2 − b2 a 2 + b 2 − c 2 . the orthocenter appears as the point X4 . ETC. 3.28 which can be taken as YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry b2 c2 a2 : : b+c−a c+a−b a+b−c . Make use of the fact that the nine-point center N divides the segment OG in the ratio ON : N G = 3 : −1 to show that its barycentric coordinates can be written as 8 N = (a cos(B − C ) : b cos(C − A) : c cos(A − B )). 7 Show that its homogeneous barycentric coordinates can be written as H = (tan A : tan B : tan C ). .

BP .Chapter 3: Homogeneous Barycentric Coordinates 29 3. 0. CA. The intersections AP . 1 s− c .2 Cevians and traces Because of the fundamental importance of the Ceva theorem in triangle geometry. y . z. 3. CP = (x : y : 0). CP of these cevians with the side lines are called the traces of P . . 0 1 s− b : : : 1 s− c . z . Z on BC . The coordinates of the traces can be very easily written down: AP = (0 : y : z ). B P = (x : 0 : z ).2. A A = = = 0 x x : : : y 0 y : : : z. Y .2. Z P Y Z Ge I Y B X C B X C 3. 0.1 Ceva Theorem Three points X . 0. AB respectively are the traces of a point if and only if they have coordinates of the form X Y Z for some x.2 Examples The Gergonne point The points of tangency of the incircle with the side lines are X Y Z These can be reorganized as X Y Z = = = 0 1 s− a 1 s− a = = = 0 s−c s−b : : : s−c 0 s−a : : : 1 s− b : : : s − b. we shall follow traditions and call the three lines joining a point P to the vertices of the reference triangle ABC the cevians of P . s − a.

10 Exercises 1. . Nagel point appears in ETC as the point X8 . (s − a : 0 : s − c ). The Nagel point Na lies on the line joining the incenter to the centroid. These are the traces of the point with coordinates (s − a : s − b : s − c ). This is called the Gergonne point Ge of triangle ABC . This is the Nagel point Na of triangle ABC .30 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry It follows that AX . 9 Ib A Ic Z′ Na Y′ C B s−c s−c X′ s − b s−b Ia The Nagel point The points of tangency of the excircles with the corresponding sides have coordinates X′ Y′ Z′ = = = (0 : s − b : s − c). 9 The 10 The Gergonne point appears in ETC as the point X7 . BY . it divides IG in the ratio INa : Na G = 3 : −2. CZ intersect at a point with coordinates 1 1 1 : : s−a s−b s−c . (s − a : s − b : 0).

We shall denote the isotomic conjugate of P by P • . we want to construct a point P the three lines through which parallel to the sides cut out equal intercepts. then P• = ( . The point P is called the equal-parallelian point of triangle ABC .Chapter 3: Homogeneous Barycentric Coordinates 31 3. BAP = AQ C. It follows that the three intercepts parallel to the sides are equal if and only if 1−x:1−y :1−z = 1 1 1 : : . a b c The right hand side clearly gives the homogeneous barycentric coordinates of I • . Thus. 12 A P G I• B 11 The 12 It C isotomic conjugate of the incenter appears in ETC as the point X75 .3 Isotomic conjugates The Gergonne and Nagel points are examples of isotomic conjugates.1 Equal-parallelian point Given triangle ABC .3. and can be easily constructed as the point dividing the segment I • G externally in the ratio I • P : P G = 3 : −2. CBP = BQ A. 2 2 we obtain P = 3G − 2I • . translating into absolute barycentric coordinates: I• = 1 1 [(1 − x)A + (1 − y )B + (1 − z )C ] = (3G − P ). Two points P and Q (not on any of the side lines of the reference triangle) are said to be isotomic conjugates if their respective traces are symmetric with respect to the midpoints of the corresponding sides. appears in ETC as the point X192 . 11 This is a point we can easily construct. If P = (x : y : z ). Now. Let P = xA + yB + zC in absolute barycentric coordinates. The parallel to BC cuts out an intercept of length (1 − x)a. the isotomic conjugate of the incenter I . 1 1 1 : : ) x y z 3. . ACP = CQ B.

In this case. Cb = C ′ A′ ∩ AB. These points are usually called the Yff analogues of the Brocard points. Ab = C ′ A′ ∩ BC. 1815.P. Cb Ab and Ac Bc have equal lengths. Monthly. y . This point is not in the current edition of ETC. Determine P for which the three segments Ba Ca .2 Yff’s analogue of the Brocard points Consider a point P = (x : y : z ) satisfying BAP = CBP = ACP = w. the common length of the segment is ab+ . bc+ca Hatzipolakis. Crelle. 70 (1963) 495 – 501.L. .32 Exercises YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 1. P = (3bc − ca − ab : 3ca − ab − bc : 3ab − bc − ca). The common length of the equal parallelians is ab+ . c−w b−w 1 3 : a−w c−w 1 3 : b−w a−w 1 3 . message 3190. • b−w c−w 1 3 : c−w a−w 1 3 : a−w b−w 1 3 15 They 2abc : ab + bc − ca : bc + ca − ab). y+z z+x x+y Elimination of x. 14 3. It is the reﬂection of the equal-parallelian 2abc point in I • . Bc = A′ B ′ ∩ CA. 16 A. Indeed. Ac = A′ B ′ ∩ BC. 13 2. This gives the point P = The isotomic conjugate P = satisﬁes CAP = ABP = BCP = w. Amer. The line B ′ C ′ intersects CA at Ba = B ′ C ′ ∩ CA. Calculate the homogeneous barycentric coordinates of the equal-parallelian point and the length of the equal parallelians. An analogue of the Brocard points. Math. Hyacinthos. Yff. This means that x y z a= b= c = w. 16 13 (ca + ab − bc 14 A.L.3. Let A′ B ′ C ′ be the midway triangle of a point P . Crelle. Ca = B ′ C ′ ∩ AB. 7/13/01. bc+ca 15 P. were brieﬂy considered by A. w is the unique positive root of the cubic polynomial (a − t)(b − t)(c − t) − t3 . z leads to 0= 0 b−w −w −w 0 c−w a−w −w 0 = (a − w)(b − w)(c − w) − w3 . as in the equal-parallelian case.

Note that in the last expression. For a real number θ. Proof. the point L which divides the segment HO in the ratio HL : LO = 2 : −1. 17 N 18 L 1 SC − 1 SA : · · · : · · · ). Lemma (1) SB + SC = a2 . 2 SC = a 2 + b2 − c 2 . we shall simply write Sθϕ for Sθ · Sϕ . SB . cot(A + B + C ) is inﬁnite. SA + SB = c2 . SA = b2 + c 2 − a 2 . Note that in this form. the coordinate sum is SBC + SCA + SAB = S 2 .e. = (SCA + SAB − SBC : · · · : · · · ) = ( S1 + B point X20 . In particular. the coordinate sum is 2(SAB + SBC + SCA ) = 2S 2 . It appears in ETC as the . (2) The circumcenter. i. 17 2. This is called the de Longchamps point of triangle ABC . SC . 2 SB = c 2 + a 2 − b2 . denote S · cot θ by Sθ . (2) SAB + SBC + SCA = S 2 . (1) is clear.4 Conway’s formula 3. Examples (1) The orthocenter has coordinates 1 1 1 : : SA SB SC = (SBC : SCA : SAB ). is the point O = (a2 SA : b2 SB : c2 SC ) = (SA (SB + SC ) : SB (SC + SA ) : SC (SA + SB )). 18 = (S 2 + SBC : S 2 + SCA : S 2 + SAB ). For (2).4. 2 For arbitrary θ and ϕ.. SC + SA = b2 . Calculate the coordinates of the nine-point center in terms of SA . From this. SAB + SBC + SCA = S 2 (cot A · cot B +cot B · cot C +cot C · cot A) = S 2 . Exercises 1. Calculate the coordinates of the reﬂection of the orthocenter in the circumcenter. We shall mainly make use of the following relations. on the other hand.1 Notation Let S denote twice the area of triangle ABC .Chapter 3: Homogeneous Barycentric Coordinates 33 3. Its denominator cot A · cot B + cot B · cot C + cot C · cot A − 1 = 0. since A + B + C = 180◦ .

4 ∠BCX1 = π . The swing angles of X1 with respect to the side BC are ∠CBX1 = π Since cot π 4 = 1 and cot 2 = 0. Similarly. 2. the coordinates of P are (− a 2 : SC + Sϕ : SB + Sθ ). Exercises 1. P X2 X X1 3. 19 Recall that this can be obtained from applying the homothety h(A. Find the vertices of the inscribed squares with a side along BC . X2 = (− a 2 : SC + S : SB ).3 Examples Squares erected on the sides of a triangle Consider the square BCX1 X2 erected externally on the side BC of triangle ABC . 19 .4. ϕ ≤ 2 . The angle θ is positive or negative according as angles ∠CBP and ∠CBA have different or the same orientation.34 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 3. 2 X1 = (− a 2 : SC : SB + S ). Find the midpoint of X1 X2 . Y1 A Z2 A Z Z1 B B θ ϕ C C Y Y2 If the swing angles of a point P on the side BC are ∠CBP = θ and ∠BCP = ϕ. S ) S +a 2 to the square BCX1 X2 .4.2 Conway’s formula π The swing angles are chosen in the rangle − π 2 ≤ θ. π .

Proof. BY .5 The Kiepert perspectors 3. These are Y = and Z= 1 SA + S √ 3 1 SA + S √ 3 :∗∗∗∗∗: 1 SB + 1 SC + S √ 3 : S √ 3 :∗∗∗∗∗ . .2 Perspective triangles X Y Z = = = ∗∗∗∗∗ : x : x : y ∗∗∗∗∗ y : : : z. We conclude therefore that the apexes of the equilateral triangles erected externally on the sides of a triangle ABC form a triangle perspective with ABC at the point F+ = √ 1 1 :√ :√ 3SA + S 3SB + S 3SC + S 1 . Q. z. Z of the equilateral triangles CAY and ABZ erected externally on the other two sides. These three points are in turn the traces of P = (x : y : z ). CZ are concurrent at the point P = (x : y : z ). ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗. Suppose X . and call the point P the perspector of XY Z .D. Z are points whose coordinates can be written in the form The lines AX .5.1 The Fermat points Consider the equilateral triangle BCX erected externally on the side BC of triangle π 1 √ ABC . (SB + S √ )(SC 3 + S √ ) 3 S √ 3 S √ 3 Similarly.Chapter 3: Homogeneous Barycentric Coordinates 35 3. The intersection of AX and BC is the trace of X on the side BC . 3 . Y . Similarly. 3. Here we simply write ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ in places where the exact values of the coordinates are not important. We say that triangle XY Z is perspective with ABC . This is a particular case of the following general situation. The swing angles are ∠CBX = ∠BCX = π . It is the point (0 : y : z ). the intersections BY ∩ CA and CZ ∩ AB are the points (x : 0 : z ) and (x : y : 0).5.E. we write down the coordinates of the apexes Y . which can be rearranged in the form X= − a2 : 1 SB + : 1 SC + . Since cot 3 = 3 X= S S − a 2 : SC + √ : SB + √ 3 3 .

the apexes again form a triangle with perspector F− = 1 1 1 √ :√ :√ 3SA − S 3SB − S 3SC − S . 22 3. negative Fermat point is also known as the second isogonic center. 20 The 21 The positive Fermat point is also known as the ﬁrst isogonic center. (a) Write down the coordinates of Ba and Ca . consider an isosceles triangle Y CA of base angle ∠Y CA = ∠Y AC = θ. extend the sides AC to Ba and AB to Ca such that CBa = BCa = a. Ab . 21 2. It appears in ETC as the point X14 . The vertex Y has coordinates ( S C + S θ : − b2 : S A + S θ ) . It appears in ETC as the point X13 . 20 Y A Z F+ B C X Exercises 1. If the equilateral triangles are erected “internally” on the sides.5. .36 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry This is called the (positive) Fermat point of triangle ABC . the negative Fermat point of triangle ABC . (b) Similarly deﬁne B ′ and C ′ . and show that A′ B ′ C ′ is perspective with ABC . Ac . and the coordinates of the intersection A′ of BBa and CCa . Similarly deﬁne Cb . 22 The Spieker point. Given triangle ABC . and Bc .3 Isosceles triangles erected on the sides and Kiepert perspectors More generally. Calculate the coordinates of the perspector.

5. BY . These centers are the apexes of similar isosceles triangles of base angle 30◦ erected externally on the sides. and CZ are concurrent at the point K (θ ) = 1 1 1 : : SA + Sθ SB + Sθ SC + Sθ . negative Napoleon point appears in ETC as the point X18 . We call XY Z the Kiepert triangle and K (θ) the Kiepert perspector of parameter θ. positive Napoleon point appears in ETC as the point X17 . A A θ θ Y Y Z Z K (θ ) θ θ B B θ θ C C X X 3. The centers of the three squares erected externally on the sides of triangle ABC form a triangle perspective with ABC . This is called the (positive) Napoleon point of the triangle.Chapter 3: Homogeneous Barycentric Coordinates 37 If similar isosceles triangles XBC and ZAB are erected on the other two sides (with the same orientation). leading to the negative Napoleon point 24 1 1 1 √ √ √ : : SA − 3S SB − 3S SC − 3S Exercises 1. the lines AX . 23 Analogous results hold for equilateral triangles erected internally. They give the Kiepert perspector 1 1 1 √ √ √ : : SA + 3S SB + 3S SC + 3S . The perspector is called the (positive) 23 The 24 The .4 The Napoleon points The famous Napoleon theorem states that the centers of the equilateral triangles erected externally on the sides of a triangle form an equilateral triangle. .

(c) Reﬂect AZ in the bisector of angle A. (e) What is the locus of P as T traverses the semicircle? 3. . Label the intersection of these two reﬂections Y . (d) Construct the perspector P of the triangle XY Z .38 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry Vecten point. This rectangle can be constructed as the image under the r homothety h(I. intersecting the side BC . and to CA and AB respectively. Animate a point T on this semicircle. 27 This divides ID (D = midpoint of BC ) in the ratio 2r : a and has coordinates (a2 : ab + S : ac + S ). is K ( π 4 − c2 )2 : (c2 − a2 )2 : (a2 − b2 )2 ). It appears in ETC as X485 . (b) Calculate the homogeneous barycentric coordinates of the point of tangency of the two circles. consider two congruent circles Iab (r1 ) and Iac (r1 ) tangent to each other (externally). Calculate the coordinates of the midpoint of the segment F+ F− . (b) Reﬂect the ray BT in the bisector of angle B . together with their pedals on BC . and reﬂect CX in the bisector of angle C . and write down its coordinates? 25 2. A I Iab Iac B C (a) Make use of these to construct the two circles. the positive Vecten point. 2 a ) of a similar rectangle erected externally on the side BC . form a rectangle of sides 2 : 1. 26 4. (a) Construct the ray BT and let it intersect the perpendicular bisector of BC at X. Note that the centers Iab and Iac . This points appears in ETC as X115 . both to the side BC . Why is this a Kiepert perspector? Identify its Kiepert parameter. Let ABC be a given triangle. and construct the perpendicular bisector of AB to intersect this reﬂection at Z . It lies on the nine-point circle. Construct a small semicircle with B as center and a diameter perpendicular to BC . 27 25 This 26 ((b2 ). Inside triangle ABC . and hide the semicircle.

30 point is not in the current edition of ETC. Y on CA. BY . Y Z ϕ ψ B ϕ ψ C X Exercises 1. Z are such that ∠CAY = ∠BAZ = θ. The points of tangency of the three pairs have a perspector 28 1 1 1 : : bc + S ca + S ab + S . Let X ′ . and Z on AB .Chapter 3: Homogeneous Barycentric Coordinates 39 (c) Similarly. 29 This 28 This . 3. Y .5. Show that X ′ Y ′ Z ′ is a cevian triangle. point is not in the current edition of ETC. Y ′ . The lines AX . Z ′ be respectively the pedals of X on BC . ∠ABZ = ∠CBX = ϕ. there are two other pairs of congruent circles on the sides CA and AB . ∠BCX = ∠ACY = ψ.5 Nagel’s Theorem Suppose X . CZ are concurrent at the point 1 1 1 : : SA + Sθ SB + Sϕ SC + Sψ A θ θ . 30 Floor van Lamoen. (d) Show that the pedals of the points of tangency on the respective side lines of ABC are the traces of 29 1 1 1 : : bc + S + SA ca + S + SB ab + S + SC .

let Xi Yi Zi be the triangle formed with given angles θi . 31 Y = Y1 Y2 ∩ CA. 2. Z = Z1 Z2 ∩ AB 31 Floor van Lamoen. For i = 1.40 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 2. Show that the intersections X = X1 X2 ∩ BC. ϕi and ψi . . form a cevian triangle. X = (0 : Sψ1 − Sψ2 : Sϕ1 − Sϕ2 ).

CA. 2. The perpendicular bisector of BC is the line joining the circumcenter O = (a2 SA : b2 SB : c2 SC ) to the midpoint of BC . Since b2 SB − c2 SC = · · · = SA (SB − SC ) = −SA (b2 − c2 ). . 4. The equations of the side lines BC . which has coordinates (0 : 1 : 1). z = 0.1 Two-point form The equation of the line joining two points with coordinates (x1 : y1 : z1 ) and (x2 : y2 : z2 ) is x 1 y 1 z1 x2 y2 z2 = 0. By the two point form.1. this equation can be rewritten as (b2 − c2 )x + a2 (y − z ) = 0. it has equation (b2 SB − c2 SC )x − a2 SA y + a2 SA z = 0. The equation of the Euler line. x y z or (y1 z2 − y2 z1 )x + (z1 x2 − z2 x1 )y + (x1 y2 − x2 y1 )z = 0.1 The equation of a line 4.Chapter 4 Straight Lines 4. y = 0.1. 3. as the line joining the centroid (1 : 1 : 1) to the orthocenter (SBC : SCA : SAB ) is (SAB − SCA )x + (SBC − SAB )y + (SCA − SBC )z = 0.2 Examples 1. AB are respectively x = 0.

42 or cyclic YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry SA (SB − SC )x = 0. The equation of the OI -line joining the circumcenter (a2 SA : b2 SB : c2 SC ) to and the incenter (a : b : c) is 0= cyclic ( b2 S B c − c 2 S C b) x = cyclic bc(bSB − cSC )x. Since bSB − cSC = · · · = −2(b − c)s(s − a) (exercise). u v w We shall call the point P = (u : v : w) the tripole of L.1. and the line L the tripolar of P. the equation of the line L is . Z = (u : −v : 0). a 5. we obtain cyclic 4. If the intersections of a line L with the side lines are x y z + + = 0. this equation can be rewritten as bc(b − c)s(s − a)x = 0. 4. Clearing denominators. The line joining the two Fermat points F± has equation 0 = cyclic = = 1 1 1 √ :√ :√ 3SC ± S √ 3SA ± S √ 3SB ± S (( 3SB ± S )( 3SC ± S ) : · · · : · · · ) = cyclic = cyclic 1 1 √ √ x − √ ( 3SB + S )( 3SC − S ) ( 3SB − S )( 3SC + S ) √ √ √ √ ( 3SB − S )( 3SC + S ) − ( 3SB + S )( 3SC − S ) x (3SBB − S 2 )(3SCC − S 2 ) √ 2 3(SB − SC )S x. cyclic or cyclic (b − c)(s − a) x = 0. Y = (− u : 0 : w ). (3SBB − S 2 )(3SCC − S 2 ) √ (SB − SC )(3SAA − S 2 )x = 0.3 Intercept form: tripole and tripolar X = (0 : v : −w).

Z respectively. Find the equations of the cevians of a point P = (u : v : w). Y . CA. 1 2. . C ′ = AX ∩ BY. and CP on the side lines. 3. These points X .Chapter 4: Straight Lines Construction of tripole Given a line L intersecting BC . Exercises 1. Y = CP AP ∩ CA. BP . The lines AA′ . AB at X . Z lie on the tripolar of P . BB ′ and CC ′ intersect at the tripole P of L. Y 43 B ′ = CZ ∩ AX. Y . 1 Equation: (v − w)x + (w − u)y + (u − v )z = 0. Z = AP BP ∩ AB. Find the equation of the line joining the centroid to a given point P = (u : v : w). let A′ = BY ∩ CZ. A BP CP P X B AP C Z Construction of tripolar Given P with traces AP . let X = BP CP ∩ BC. Find the equations of the angle bisectors.

AB are (0 : −1 : 1). the inﬁnite point of the line px + qy + rz = 0 is (q − r : r − p : p − q ). (1 : 0 : −1).44 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 4. The line through P = (u : v : w) parallel to L : px + qy + rz = 0 has equation q−r u x r−p v y p−q w z = 0. The inﬁnite point of the A−altitude has homogeneous coordinates (0 : SC : SB ) − a2 (1 : 0 : 0) = (−a2 : SC : SB ).2 Inﬁnite points and parallel lines 4.2 Parallel lines Parallel lines have the same inﬁnite point. More generally. the coordinate sum of an inﬁnite point is zero.2. L∞ . The inﬁnite point of the Euler line is the point 3(SBC : SCA : SAB )−SS (1 : 1 : 1) ∼ (3SBC −SS : 3SCA −SS : 3SAB −SS ). We think of all inﬁnite points constituting the line at inﬁnity. As such. ∼ 4. (−1 : 1 : 0) respectively. 5. . 3.1 The inﬁnite point of a line The inﬁnite point of a line L has homogeneous coordinates given by the difference of the absolute barycentric coordinates of two distinct points on the line. The inﬁnite points of the side lines BC . which has equation x + y + z = 0.2. 4. CA. 2. The inﬁnite point of the OI -line is (ca(c − a)(s − b) − ab(a − b)(s − c) : · · · : · · · ) (a(a2 (b + c) − 2abc − (b + c)(b − c)2 ) : · · · : · · · ). Examples 1.

message 3677. Hyacinthos. . 2. F Z are parallel to the internal bisectors of angles A.Chapter 4: Straight Lines Exercises 45 1. Find the equations of the lines through P = (u : v : w) parallel to the side lines. C respectively. EY . Let DEF be the medial triangle of ABC . 2 2 The Nagel point P = (b + c − a : c + a − b : a + b − c). Find P such that the lines DX . 8/31/01. and P a point with cevian triangle XY Z (with respect to ABC . B . N. Dergiades.

4.3 Intersection of two lines The intersection of the two lines p1 x + q1 y + r1 z = 0. 3. 2. cyclic and cyclic (SB − SC )(3SAA − S 2 )x = 0. Since (3SBC : 3SCA : 3SAB ) and (S 2 : S 2 : S 2 ) represent H and G. are concurrent if and only if p1 p2 p3 q1 q2 q3 r1 r2 r3 = 0.3. Theorem Three lines pi x + qi y + ri z = 0. The A-coordinate of their intersection = = = = SB (SC − SA )(SA − SB )(3SCC − S 2 ) −SC (SA − SB )(SC − SA )(3SBB − S 2 ) (SC − SA )(SA − SB )(SB (3SCC − S 2 ) − SC (3SBB − S 2 )) (SC − SA )(SA − SB )(3SBC (SC − SB ) − S 2 (SB − SC )) −(SB − SC )(SC − SA )(SA − SB )(3SBC + S 2 ). The inﬁnite point of a line L can be regarded as the intersection of L with the line at inﬁnity L∞ : x + y + z = 0. This intersection is the point (3SBC + S 2 : 3SCA + S 2 : 3SAB + S 2 ). this point is the midpoint of GH . 3 3 This point appears in ETC as X381 . i = 1.46 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 4.1 Intersection of the Euler and Fermat lines Recall that these lines have equations SA (SB − SC )x = 0. p2 x + q2 y + r2 z = 0 is the point (q1 r2 − q2 r1 : r1 p2 − r2 p1 : p1 q2 − p2 q1 ). with equal coordinate sums. .

2000. Similarly. this can be rewritten as a2 (x + y + z ) + Sx = 0. and the line Xb Xc . It has coordinates ((b2 − c2 )2 : (c2 − a2 )2 : ( a 2 − b2 ) 2 ) . Lester. 53 (1997) 4–35.. whose center is the intersection of the Fermat and Euler line as we have shown above. 6 This point appears as X 115 in ETC. message 1258. 5 P. August 21. III: complex centre functions and Ceva’s theorem. Hyacinthos. Yiu. 5 It is also interesting to note that the midpoint between the Fermat points is a point on the nine-point circle.Chapter 4: Straight Lines F− 47 A F+ G N O H B C Remark Lester has discovered that there is a circle passing the two Fermat points. Aequationes Math. the circumcenter. 4 The circle with GH as diameter. if CAYa Yc and ABZb Za are squares erected externally on the other two sides.2 Triangle bounded by the outer side lines of the squares erected externally Consider the square BCXc Xb erected externally on BC .3. and the nine-point center. has inﬁnite point (0 : −1 : 1). being parallel to BC . 6 4. Triangles. Since SB + SC = a2 . is orthogonal to the Lester circle. Since Xc = (−a2 : SC : SB + S ). the lines Yc Ya and Za Zb have equations b2 (x + y + z ) + Sy = 0 and c2 (x + y + z ) + Sz = 0 4 J. this line has equation (SC + SB + S )x + a2 y + a2 z = 0. .A.

4. 8 3. The triangle A∗ B ∗ C ∗ is perspective with ABC at the point K = ( a 2 : b2 : c 2 ) . the lines Za Zb and Xb Xc intersect at B ∗ = (a2 : − (c 2 + a2 + S ) : c 2 ). and appears in ETC as the point X6 . 9 This was ﬁrst discovered by Lemoine in 1883. Show that this line passes through a ﬁxed point. Construct the parallels to the side lines through the symmedian point.48 A∗ YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry Ya Za A Yc Zb B K C B∗ Xb Xc C∗ respectively. and the lines Xb Xc and Yc Ya intersect at C ∗ = (a2 : b2 : −(a2 + b2 + S )). Show that triangle Aθ B θ C θ has the same centroid as triangle ABC . These two latter lines intersect at the point A∗ = (−(b2 + c2 + S ) : b2 : c2 ). The symmedian point lies on the line joining the Fermat points. symmedian point. This is called the symmedian point of triangle ABC . The line joining the two Kiepert perspectors K (±θ) has equation cyclic (SB − SC )(SAA − S 2 cot2 θ)x = 0. Similarly. The symmedian point is the unique point with this property. 8 The 7 It . 2. 9 is also known as the Grebe point. The 6 intersections on the side lines lie on a circle. 7 Exercises 1.

Z be the midpoints of BP CP . Find the equation of the line joining D to the excenter Ia = (−a : b : c). BP . Show that these three lines are concurrent by working out the coordinates of their common point. Ac . 11 7. Let DEF be the medial triangle of ABC . 65 b+c−a . This point appears as X40 in ETC. let X . Find the equations of the lines DX . This appears in ETC as X . The perpendiculars from the excenters to the corresponding sides are concurrent. Let D. AB of triangle ABC . Y . F be the midpoints of the sides of BC . What are the coordinates of their intersection? 12 8. Find the coordinates of the intersection by noting how it is related to the circumcenter and the incenter. extend the sides AC to Ba and AB to Ca such that CBa = BCa = a. Cb Ab . Given triangle ABC . For a point P with traces AP . Let D. it appears in ETC as X9 . and has coordinates (a(a3 + a2 (b + c) − a(b + c)2 − (b + c)(b − c)2 ) : · · · : · · · ).Chapter 4: Straight Lines 49 5. CA. C respeectively. CP . AP BP respectively. and show that they are concurrent. E . and Bc . it is the point 2O − I . As such. F be the midpoints of the sides BC . 14 10 This 11 This is the Mittenpunkt (a(s − a) : · · · : · · · ). and Ac Bc bound a triangle perspective with ABC . E . F Z . What are the coordinates of their intersection? 13 9. 12 The intersection is the point dividing the segment P G in the ratio 3 : 1. 10 6. 14 ( a(b+c) : · · · : · · · ). Z the midpoints of the altitudes from A. 13 This intersection is the symmedian point K = (a2 : b2 : c2 ). AB of triangle ABC . Find the equations of the lines DX . Similarly write down the equation of the lines joining to E to Ib and F to Ic . and X . EY . and show that they are concurrent. Ab . CA. The lines Ba Ca . Similarly deﬁne Cb . EY . Y . is the reﬂection of I in O. CP AP . Calculate the coordinate of the perspector. B . F Z .

This is called the de Longchamps point.4. . namely. Its vertices are clearly the traces of H . The pedal triangle of the circumcenter is clearly the medial triangle. (SC : 0 : SA ). The A−altitude has inﬁnite point AH − A = (0 : SC : SB ) − (SB + SC : 0 : 0) = (−a2 : SC : SB ). the points (0 : SC : SB ). It appears in ETC as the point X69 . 2. What are the coordinates of P ? 16 15 The 16 P de Longchamps point appears as X20 in ETC. Let L be the reﬂection of the orthocenter H in the circumcenter O. The pedal triangle of the orthocenter is called the orthic triangle. = (SA : SB : SC ) is the isotomic conjugate of the orthocenter.4 Pedal triangle The pedals of a point P = (u : v : w) are the intersections of the side lines with the corresponding perpendiculars through P . x y z or −(SB v − SC w)x + (SB u + a2 w)y − (SC u + a2 v )z = 0. Similarly the coordinates of the pedals on CA and AB can be written down. and (SB : SA : 0).50 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 4. 15 Show that the pedal triangle of L is the cevian triangle of some point P . The triangle A[P ] B[P ] C[P ] is called the pedal triangle of triangle ABC :     0 SC u + a2 v SB u + a2 w A[P ] B[P ]  =  SC v + b2 u 0 S A v + b2 w  2 2 SB w + c u SA w + c v 0 C[P ] 4. A B[ P ] C[ P ] P B A[P ] C This intersects BC at the point A[P ] = (0 : SC u + a2 v : SB u + a2 w). 3. The perpendicular through P to BC is the line − a2 SC SB u v w = 0.1 Examples 1.

Let L be the de Longchamps point again. AB . and ﬁnd the coordinates of the intersection. Show that these are concurrent. Show that X = EC ′ ∩ F B ′ . Let D. 24 (1998) 303. Similarly. Hyacinthos. CA. 19 1078 . E . Conway calls this point the logarithm of the de Longchamps point. and Z = DB ′ ∩ EC ′ are collinear. The three perpendiculars intersect at the point 17 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a2 (SC SA + SA SB − SB SC ) : · · · : · · · ). Hatzipolakis. we write down the equations of the perpendiculars at the other two traces. B ′ . C ′ the pedals of A. The perpendicular to BC at AL = (0 : SAB + SBC − SCA : SBC + SCA − SAB ) is the line − (SB + SC ) 0 x This is S 2 (SB − SC )x − a2 (SBC + SCA − SAB )y + a2 (SBC − SCA + SAB )z = 0. Complete the squares AXXb Ab and AXXc Ac with Xb and Xc on the line BC . message 3370. are all on the Euler line. Crux Mathematicorum. Problem 2358 and solution. Exercises 1. 8/7/01. 25 (1999) 371 –372. Y = F A′ ∩ DC ′ . B . F be the midpoints of the sides BC . SC SAB + SBC − SCA y SB SBC + SCA − SAB z = 0. and A′ .P. Leversha. 19 A. 18 These 17 This point appears in ETC as X . C on their opposite sides. Find the equations of the perpendiculars to the side lines at the corresponding traces of L. Let X be the pedal of A on the side BC of triangle ABC .Chapter 4: Straight Lines 51 A Z′ Y O Y′ Z H H • L A O H L B X X′ C B C 4. with homogeneous barycentric coordinates (SCA + SAB − SBC : SAB + SBC − SCA : SBC + SCA − SAB ). See G. 18 2.

52 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry (a) Calculate the coordinates of Ab and Ac . 21 (c) Similarly deﬁne B ′ and C ′ . S C +S This is called the ﬁrst Vecten point. What is the perspector? 22 (d) Let A′′ be the pedal of A′ on the side BC . Show that A′′ B ′′ C ′′ is perspective with ABC by calculating the coordinates of the perspector. Similarly deﬁne B ′′ and C ′′ . it appears as X485 in ETC. Triangle A′ B ′ C ′ is perspective with ABC . . centroid. 22 The 23 ( 1 S A +S and Ac = (a2 : S : −S ). 23 20 A = (a2 : −S : S ) b 21 A′ = (a2 : S : S ). : S 1 : +S B 1 ). 20 (b) Calculate the coordinates of A′ = BAc ∩ CAb .

we ﬁrst ﬁnd the equations of the perpendiculars from Y to AB and from Z to CA. we determine the inﬁnite point of lines perpendicular to it. =0 Y′ Z′ X′ Z Y B C These two perpendiculars intersect at the orthocenter of triangle AY Z . 24 The line L intersects the side lines CA and AB at the points Y = (−r : 0 : p) and Z = (q : −p : 0). which has equation 1 0 ∗ ∗ ∗ SC (p − q ) − SA (q − r ) x y or This has inﬁnite point = 0. 0 − S A ( q − r ) + S B ( r − p) z The perpendicular from A to L is the line AX ′ .Chapter 4: Straight Lines 53 4. We summarize this in the following theorem.5 Perpendicular lines Given a line L : px + qy + rz = 0. −(SA (q − r) − SB (r − p))y + (SC (p − q ) − SA (q − r))z = 0. which is the point X′ = ∼ ( ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ : S A p( S A r − b2 q + S C p) : S A p( S A q + S B p − c 2 r ) (∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ : SC (p − q ) − SA (q − r) : SA (q − r) − SB (r − p)). . 0. Note that the inﬁnite point of L is (q − r : r − p : p − q ). To ﬁnd the perpendicular from A to L. (SB (r − p) − SC (p − q ) : SC (p − q ) − SA (q − r) : SA (q − r) − SB (r − p)). 24 I learned of this method from Floor van Lamoen. These are SB −r x These are SA px + (c2 r − SB p)y + SA rz SA px + SA qy + (b2 q − SC p)z A SA 0 y −c2 p z = 0 and SC q x − b2 −p y = = SA 0 z 0.

4. B′ A A C′ C′ B B C O C A′ A′ B′ Similarly. the lines perpendicular to L have inﬁnite points ( f ′ : g ′ : h′ ) = ( SB g − SC h : SC h − SA f : SA f − SB g ) . two lines with inﬁnite points (f : g : h) and (f ′ : g ′ : h′ ) are perpendicular to each other if and only if SA ﬀ ′ + SB gg ′ + SC hh′ = 0.1 The tangential triangle Consider the tangents to the circumcircle at the vertices.54 Theorem YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry If a line L has inﬁnite point (f : g : h). . and the tangent at A is the line 2 1 − ( b2 − c 2 ) x 0 b2 y 0 −c2 z = 0. Consider the B -coordinate: c2 SCC + SA (b2 SB + c2 SC ) = c2 SC (SC + SA ) + b2 SAB = b2 (c2 SC + SAB ) = b2 S 2 . It follows that this inﬁnite point is (−(b2 − c ) : b2 : −c2 ). Equivalently. The radius OA has inﬁnite point (a2 SA : b2 SB : c2 SC ) − (2S 2 : 0 : 0) = (−(b2 SB + c2 SC ) : b2 SB : c2 SC ). the C -coordinate = −c2 S 2 . The inﬁnite point of the tangent at A is (b2 SBB − c2 SCC : c2 SCC + SA (b2 SB + c2 SC ) : −SA (b2 SB + c2 SC ) − b2 SBB ).5.

Since the line AP has equation wy − vz = 0 and inﬁnite point (−(v + w) : v : w). Hyacinthos. message 1158. The other two tangents are c2 x + a2 z = 0. C ′ = ( a 2 : b2 : − c 2 ) . August 5.5. It is the line u SB v − SC w x v S A v + b2 w y w − SA w − c 2 v z = 0. the perpendicular to BP at P intersects CA at (−((−SA u + SB v + SC w)u + a2 vw) : 0 : (SA u + SB v − SC w)w + c2 uv ) 25 B. It is perspective with ABC at the point (a2 : b2 : c2 ). These three tangents bound a triangle with vertices A′ = (−a2 : b2 : c2 ). 2000. the perpendicular has inﬁnite point (SB v − SC w : SC w + SA (v + w) : −SA (v + w) − SB v ) ∼ (SB v − SC w : SA v + b2 w : −SA w − c2 v ). .2 25 Line of ortho-intercepts Let P = (u : v : w). 4. This is called the tangential triangle of ABC . ∼ A P B C Similarly.Chapter 4: Straight Lines 55 or simply c2 y + b2 z = 0. B ′ = ( a 2 : − b2 : c 2 ) . This perpendicular line intersects the side line BC at the point (0 : u(SA v + b2 w) − v (SB v − SC w) : −u(SA w + c2 v ) − w(SB v − SC w)) (0 : (SA u − SB v + SC w)v + b2 wu : −((SA u + SB v − SC w)w + c2 uv )). the symmedian point. and b2 x + a2 y = 0. Gibert. We consider the line perpendicular to AP at P .

If triangle ABC is acute-angled. 7. B . Y . construct the two points each having L as its line of orthointercepts. This point divides OI in the ratio OX57 : OI = 2R + r : 2R − r . 26 a 3. The tripole of the line of ortho-intercepts of the incenter is the point ( s− a : c 27 ) . (a) Construct a circle Xb (ρb ) tangent to BC at B . This orthopole lies on the nine-point circle. 29 of these points lies on the circumcircle. and also externally to the incircle. Calculate the coordinates of the pedal A′ of the intersection BXc ∩ CXb on the line BC . This point is not in the current edition of ETC. Calculate the coordinates of the tripole of the line of ortho-intercepts of the ninepoint center. and determine the coordinates of the common point. (3) Show that these three perpendiculars are concurrent. 28 5. Contruct the orthopole of the diameter OP . and the other on the nine-point circle. (c) Let Xc (ρc ) be the circle tangent to BC at C . (1) Calculate the coordinates of the pedals of A. Consider a line L : px + qy + rz = 0. Consider triangle ABC with its incircle I (r). Y . the symmedian point is the Gergonne point of the tangential triangle. 29 (0 : (s − c)2 : (s − b)2 ). is a point on the OI -line of triangle ABC . Label these points X . These three points are collinear. The line containing them has equation x = 0. (2) Find the equations of the perpendiculars from X . s− c b s− b : 4. Animate a point P on the circumcircle. C on the line L. 27 This 26 One . and also externally to the incircle. Z to the corresponding side lines. (−SA u + SB v + SC w)u + a2 vw cyclic Exercises 1. (b) Show that the radius of the circle (Xb ) is ρb = (−sb)2 4r . Given a line L. 28 (a2 (3S 2 − S AA ) : · · · : · · · ). 6. Z . It appears in ETC as X57 .56 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry and the perpendicular to CP at P intersects AB at ((−SA u + SB v + SC w)u + a2 vw : −((SA u − SB v + SC w)v + b2 wu) : 0). This is called the orthopole of L. 2.

See P. Show that A′ B ′ C ′ is perspective with ABC and ﬁnd the perspector. message 3359. 30 30 ( 1 ( s− a ) 2 : 1 ( s− b ) 2 : 1 ). Yiu. . Hyacinthos.Chapter 4: Straight Lines 57 A P B C (d) Deﬁne B ′ and C ′ . 8/6/01. (s−c)2 This point appears in ETC as X279 .

6 Appendices 4. Ic . ′ Since Y Y = 2R. Note that Y is the midpoint of Ic Ia . The line Y O intersects CA at its midpoint E and the circumcircle again at its antipode Y ′ . Amer. The centroid of the excentral triangle is also the centroid of LINa .6. 31 (2) Let Y be the intersection of the circumcircle (O) with the line Ic Ia (other than B ). Ib M′ A Ic O I X C Ab I′ Ac B D Aa M Ia (1) Identify the following elements of the excentral triangle in terms of the elements of triangle ABC . 31 Problem 10763 and solution. Excentral triangle Ia Ib Ic Triangle ABC Orthocenter I Orthic triangle Triangle ABC Nine-point circle Circumcircle Euler line OI -line Circumradius 2R Circumcenter I ′ = Reﬂection of I in O Centroid divides OI in the ratio −1 : 4. Math. Ib . Monthly 108 (2001) 671.1 The excentral triangle The vertices of the excentral triangle of ABC are the excenters Ia . . we obtain the relation ra + rb + rc = 4R + r.58 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 4. 1 (ii) EY ′ = 2 (ra − r). (i) Y E = 1 2 (rc + ra ). Since E is the common midpoint of the segments Qc Qa and QQb .

0.6.Chapter 4: Straight Lines 59 4. with Ab . This is the same point as P if and only if 2a2 b2 c2 u + b2 c 2 S C u + b2 c 2 S B u + a2 c 2 SC v 2a2 b2 c2 v c 2 a2 SA v + + + a 2 b2 S B w a 2 b2 S A w 2a2 b2 c2 w = ku. + − + a2 c 2 SC v a 2 b2 c 2 v c 2 a2 SA v + + − a 2 b2 S B w a 2 b2 S A w a 2 b2 c 2 w = = = 0. 2 A′ c = (a : 0 : S ). Adding these equations. The centroid is the point (2a2 b2 c2 u+a2 c2 SC v +a2 b2 SB w : b2 c2 SC u+2a2 b2 c2 v +a2 b2 SA w : b2 c2 SB u+ca a2 SA v +2a2 b2 c2 w). 4. If P = (u : v : w) is a ﬁnite point. Theorem (Lemoine) The symmedian point is the only point which is the centroid of its own pedal triangle. and P is the symmedian point. 2 A′ b = (a : S : 0). . Ac = (0 : SC : SB + S ).2 Centroid of pedal triangle We determine the centroid of the pedal triangle of P by ﬁrst equalizing the coordinate sums of the pedals: A[P ] B [P ] C[P ] = = = (0 : SC u + a2 v : SB u + a2 w) ∼ (0 : b2 c2 (SC u + a2 v ) : b2 c2 (SB u + a2 w)) (SC v + b2 u : 0 : SA v + b2 w) ∼ (c2 a2 (SC v + b2 u) : 0 : c2 a2 (SA v + b2 w)) (SB w + c2 u : SA w + c2 v : 0) ∼ (a2 b2 (SB w + c2 u) : a2 b2 (SA w + c2 v ) : 0). These have coordinates Ab = (0 : SC + S : SB ). It follows that u : v : w = a2 : b2 : c2 . we must have k = 3a2 b2 c2 . we obtain 3a2 b2 c2 (u + v + w) = k (u + v + w).3 Perspectors associated with inscribed squares ′ Consider the square Ab Ac A′ c Ab inscribed in triangle ABC .6. 0. = kv. = kw for some k . Ac on BC . The system of equations becomes − a 2 b2 c 2 u b2 c 2 S C u b2 c 2 S B u Now it it easy to see that b2 c 2 u : c 2 a 2 v : a 2 b2 w = = = = − b2 S A SC SA S C − b2 :− : 2 2 SB SA SA − c SB − c b2 c2 − SAA : c2 SC + SAB : SCA + b2 SB S2 : S2 : S2 1 : 1 : 1.

R. n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ′′ ′′ ′′ ′′ ′′ For A4 . An BBc ∩ CCb ′ BA′ c ∩ CAb ′ ′ BCa ∩ CBa ′′ ′′ ′′ ′′ B c B a ∩ Ca Cb ′ ′ ′ ′ Bc B a ∩ Ca Cb Cb Ab ∩ Ac Bc Ca Ac ∩ Ab Ba ′ Ca A′ c ∩ Ba Ab ′ ′ ′ ′ Ca Ab ∩ Ba Ac Perspector of An Bn Cn orthocenter circumcenter symmedian point symmedian point a2 X493 = ( S + b2 : · · · : · · · ) Kiepert perspector K (arctan 2) Kiepert perspector K (arctan 2) +S ( SA SA : · · · : · · · ) X394 = (a2 SAA : b2 SBB : c2 SCC ) 32 K. there are inscribed squares Bc Ba Ba Bc and Ca Cb Cb Ca on the other two sides. CABa Bc and ABCb Ca are the squares constructed externally on the sides of triangle ABC . 32 In each case.60 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry ′ ′ ′ ′ Similarly. 2001. July 18. Hyacinthos. message 3247. we give the deﬁnition of An only. . Dean. Here is a number of perspective triangles associated with these squares. BCA′′ c Ab .

Y ′ . P is the isogonal conjugate of P ∗ . we have X ′ = 2 2 (0 : −b2 : SA − Sθ ) = (0 : −b2 c2 : c2 (SA − Sθ )) = (0 : b2 z : c2 y ) = (0 : by : cz ). Let X be the A-trace of P .Chapter 5 Circles I 5. . This is the point X = (0 : y : z ) = (0 : SA − Sθ : −c2 ) in Conway’s notation. It follows that SA − Sθ : −c2 = y : z . If the reﬂection of AX (in the bisector of angle A) intersects BC at X ′ . the reﬂections of the cevians BP and CP in the respective angle 2 c2 a2 b2 ′ bisectors intersect CA at Y ′ = ( a x : 0 : z ) and AB at Z = ( x : y : 0). Z ′ are the traces of P∗ = a 2 b2 c 2 : : x y z = (a2 yz : b2 zx : c2 xy ). (3) These points X ′ . (1) The reﬂection of the cevian AP in the bisector of angle A intersects the line 2 2 BC at the point X ′ = (0 : by : cz ). The point P ∗ is called the isogonal conjugate of P . with ∠BAP = θ. Proof. Clearly. A A θ θ Z′ Z P Y Y′ Q B X X′ C B X X′ C (2) Similarly.1 Isogonal conjugates Let P be a point with homogeneous barycentric coordinates (x : y : z ).

62 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 5. Let A′ . Construct the circumcircles of the pedal triangles of P and of P ∗ . OAB . B ′ . 5. OCA. 1 2. The isogonal conjugate of the orthocenter H = ( S1 : A b2 SB : c2 SC ). . 1 SB : 1 SC ) is (a2 SA : 1 1 1 4. The isogonal conjugate of the Nagel point is the external center of similitude of (O) and (I ). C ′ be the circumcenters of the triangles OBC . What can you say about these circles and their centers? 3. The incenter is its own isogonal conjugate. The isodynamic points are the isogonal conjugates of the Fermat points. 1 This 2 These is also known as the Kosnita point. The perpendiculars from the vertices of ABC to the corresponding sides of the pedal triangle of a point P concur at the isogonal conjugate of P . the internal center of similitude of the circumcircle and the incircle. so are the excenters. 3. How does this point divide the segment OK ? ∗ (b) Construct the pedal triangle of F+ .1 Examples 1. Exercises 1. the circumcenter. 2 ∗ . How does this point divide the S B +S θ S C +S θ segment OK ? 5. The triangle A′ B ′ C ′ has perspector the isogonal conjugate of the nine-point center. What can you say about this triangle? 1 4. This is a point on the line joining (a) Construct the positive isodynamic point F+ O and K .1. and appears in ETC as the point X54 . Let P be a given point. The isogonal conjugate of the Gergonne point Ge = ( s− a : s−b : s−c ) is the point (a2 (s − a) : b2 (s − b) : c2 (s − c)). 2. appear in ETC as the points X15 and X16 . Show that the isogonal conjugate of the Kiepert perspector K (θ) = ( SA + Sθ : 1 1 : ) is always on the line OK . The isogonal conjugate of the centroid G is the symmedian point K = (a2 : b2 : c 2 ).

2. Animate a point P on the circumcircle. Note that θ + ϕ = C . then AX and BY are parallel. then CZ is parallel to AX and BY . the circumcircle has equation a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy = 0. Suppose ∠P AB = θ and ∠P BA = ϕ. BY are parallel. Find the locus of the isotomic conjugate P •. (2) Similarly. As such. and conversely. We may therefore regard the circumcircle as the isogonal conjugate of the line at inﬁnity. A I O B C P Proof.Chapter 5: Circles I 63 5. BP symmetric with respect to the bisector of angle B . (1) Construct the locus of isogonal conjugates of points on the line OP . 3 3 The line a2 x + b2 y + c2 z = 0. we have ∠XAB + ∠Y BA = 180◦ and AX . if CZ and CP are symmetric with respect to the bisector of angle C . and BY . (2) Construct the isogonal conjugate Q of the inﬁnite point of the line OP . (1) If AX and AP are symmetric with respect to the bisector of angle A. Exercises 1. It follows that the isogonal conjugate of a point on the circumcircle is an inﬁnite point. . Since ∠XAB = A + θ and ∠Y BA = B + ϕ. The point lies on the locus in (1).2 The circumcircle as the isogonal conjugate of the line at inﬁnity Let P be a point on the circumcircle. Animate a point P on the circumcircle.

b u + a2 v c2 v These form the vertices of the Circumcevian triangle of P . (a) The circumcevian triangle of P is always similar to the pedal triangle. Let P and Q be antipodal points on the circumcircle. What is the perspector? 5 4 The 5 (a 2 (− a4 u2 external center of similitude of the circumcircle and the incircle. + b2 w −b2 wu :w . . Let P = (u : v : w). u: 2 a w + c2 u −c2 uv u:v: 2 . The lines AP . What is the locus of the intersection of P P • and QQ• ? 5. CP intersect the circumcircle again at the points A(P ) B (P ) C (P ) = = = −a2 vw :v:w . The lines P Q• and QP • joining each of these points to the isotomic conjugate of the other intersect orthogonally on the circumcircle. BP .64 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 3. A O P B C (b) The circumcevian triangle of the incenter is perspective with the intouch triangle. What is the perspector? 4 (c) The circumcevian triangle of P is always perspective with the tangential triangle. Let P and Q be antipodal points on the circumcircle. 4. b4 c4 +v 2 + w 2 ) : · · · : · · · ).

(SB w + c2 u : SA w + c2 v : 0). ( S C v + b2 u : 0 : S A v + b2 w ) . The equation of the Simson line is f g h x + ′ y + ′ z = 0.3 Simson lines Consider the pedals of a point P = (u : v : w): A[P ] B [P ] C[P ] = = = (0 : SC u + a2 v : SB u + a2 w). = (u + v + w ) SC u + a2 v SB u + a2 w 0 S A v + b2 w SA w + c 2 v 0 2 2 a SC u + a v SB u + a 2 w b2 0 S A v + b2 w 2 2 c SA w + c v 0 ··· (u + v + w)(SAB + SBC + SCA )(a2 vw + b2 wu + c2 uv ). . Similarly. P A O B C These pedals of P are collinear if and only if P lies on the circumcircle. If P lies on the circumcircle.Chapter 5: Circles I 65 5. the line containing the pedals is called the Simson line 2 b2 c2 2 s(P ) of P . then A[P ] = ∼ ∼ (0 : a2 SC gh + a2 b2 hf : a2 SB gh + a2 c2 f g ) (0 : h(−SC (h + f ) + (SC + SA )f ) : g (−SB (f + g ) + (SA + SB )f )) (0 : −h(SC h − SA f ) : g (SA f − SB g )). B[P ] = (hf ′ : 0 : −f h′ ) and C[P ] = (−gf ′ : f g ′ : 0). ′ f g h . . since 0 S C v + b2 u SB w + c 2 u = . If we write the coordinates of P in the form ( a f : g : h ) = (a gh : 2 2 b hf : c f g ) for an inﬁnite point (f : g : h). This becomes A[P ] = (0 : −hg ′ : gh′ ) if we write (f ′ : g ′ : h′ ) = (SB g − SC h : SC h − SA f : SA f − SB g ) for the inﬁnite point of lines in the direction perpendicular to (f : g : h).

as we have noted. = = c2 (SC v + b2 u : 0 : SA v + b2 w) − b2 (SB w + c2 u : SA w + c2 v : 0) (∗ ∗ ∗ : −b2 (SA w + c2 v ) : c2 (SA v + b2 w)) ··· (∗ ∗ ∗ : SC h − SA f : SA f − SB g ) ( f ′ : g ′ : h′ ) . . It passes through. the two Simson lines intersect on the nine-point circle. which lies on the ninepoint circle. 5. The Simson line s(P ) is therefore perpendicular to the line deﬁning P .1 Simson lines of antipodal points Let P and Q be antipodal points on the circumcircle. Since the midpoints of HP and HQ are antipodal on the nine-point circle. Q A A Q Q′ N O H O B P′ P C B P C Therefore. They are isogonal conjugates of the inﬁnite points of perpendicular lines.3. .66 P A YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry O H B C It is easy to determine the inﬁnite point of the Simson line: B P ] − C[P ] = = . . the midpoint between H and P . the Simson lines s(P ) and s(Q) are perpendicular to each other.

8 (d) Show that the Simson line of the point P is parallel to L. CA. CA. 8P = a2 −a2 vw+SB uv +SC uw : ··· : ··· . AB of triangle ABC at U . Let H be the orthocenter of triangle ABC . V . and P a point on the circumcircle. W respectively. Let L be the line u +y v + w = 0. intersecting the side lines BC . 6 (S v + S w )x + a2 wy + a2 vz = 0. 7 (c) Show that this triangle is perspective with ABC at a point P on the circumcircle. x z 3. B C 7 (− S 2 u 2 + S 2 2 AB uv + SBC vw + SCA wu : b (c uv − SA uw − SB vw ) : c2 (b2 uw − SA uv − SC vw).Chapter 5: Circles I Exercises 67 1. Show that the midpoint of HP lies on the Simson line s(P ) and on the nine-point circle of triangle ABC . 2. . AB at U . etc. (a) Find the equation of the perpendiculars to BC . etc. V . Animate a point P on the circumcircle of triangle ABC and trace its Simson line. 6 (b) Find the coordinates of the vertices of the triangle bounded by these three perpendiculars. W respectively.

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YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry

5.4 Equation of the nine-point circle
To ﬁnd the equation of the nine-point circle, we make use of the fact that it is obtained from the circumcircle by applying the homothety h(G, − 1 2 ). If P = (x : y : z ) is a point on the nine-point circle, then the point Q = 3G − 2P = (x + y + z )(1 : 1 : 1) − 2(x : y : z ) = (y + z − x : z + x − y : x + y − z ) is on the circumcircle. From the equation of the circumcircle, we obtain a2 (z + x − y )(x + y − z ) + b2 (x + y − z )(y + z − x) + c2 (y + z − x)(z + x − y ) = 0. Simplifying this equation, we have 0=
cyclic

a2 (x2 − y 2 + 2yz − z 2 ) =

cyclic

(a2 − c2 − b2 )x2 + 2a2 yz,

or
cyclic

SA x2 − a2 yz = 0.

Exercises 1. Verify that the midpoint between the Fermat points, namely, the point with coordinates ((b2 − c2 )2 : (c2 − a2 )2 : (a2 − b2 )2 ), lies on the nine-point circle.

Chapter 5: Circles I

69

5.5 Equation of a general circle
Every circle C is homothetic to the circumcircle by a homothety, say h(T, k ), where T = uA + vB + wC (in absolute barycentric coordinate) is a center of similitude of C and the circumcircle. This means that if P (x : y : z ) is a point on the circle C, then h(T, k )(P ) = kP +(1−k )T ∼ (x+tu(x+y +z ) : y +tv (x+y +z ) : z +tw(x+y +z )), where t =
1− k k ,

lies on the circumcircle. In other words, a2 (ty + v (x + y + z ))(tz + w(x + y + z ))
cyclic

0 = =
cyclic

a2 (yz + t(wy + vz )(x + y + z ) + t2 vw(x + y + z )2 ) (a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy ) + t(
cyclic

=

a2 (wy + vz ))(x + y + z )

+t2 (a2 vw + b2 wu + c2 uv )(x + y + z )2 Note that the last two terms factor as the product of x + y + z and another linear form. It follows that every circle can be represented by an equation of the form a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy + (x + y + z )(px + qy + rz ) = 0. The line px + qy + rz = 0 is the radical axis of C and the circumcircle. Exercises 1. The radical axis of the circumcircle and the nine-point circle is the line SA x + SB y + SC z = 0.

2. The circle through the excenters has center at the reﬂection of I in O, and radius 2R. Find its equation. 9

9 a2 yz

+ b2 zx + c2 xy + (x + y + z )(bcx + cay + abz ) = 0.

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YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry

5.6 Appendix: Miquel Theory
5.6.1 Miquel Theorem
Let X , Y , Z be points on the lines BC , CA, and AB respectively. The three circles AY Z , BZX , and CXY pass through a common point.
A

Z Y

B

X

C

5.6.2

Miquel associate

Suppose X , Y , Z are the traces of P = (u : v : w). We determine the equation of the circle AY Z . 10 Writing it in the form a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy + (x + y + z )(px + qy + rz ) = 0 we note that p = 0 since it passes through A = (1 : 0 : 0). Also, with (x : y : z ) = b2 u (u : 0 : w), we obtain r = − w +u . Similarly, with (x : y : z ) = (u : v : 0), we obtain
2

c u q = −u +v . The equation of the circle

CAY Z :

a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy − (x + y + z )

c2 u u+v y

+

b2 u w +u z

= 0.

Likewise, the equations of the other two circles are CBZX :
c v a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy − (x + y + z )( u +v x +
2

a2 v v +w z )

= 0,

and the one through C , X , and Y has equation CCXY :
b w a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy − (x + y + z )( w +u x +
2

a2 w v +w y )

= 0.

By Miquel’s Theorem, the three circles intersect at a point P ′ , which we call the Miquel associate of P . The coordinates of P ′ satisfy the equations c2 u b2 u c2 v a2 v b2 w a2 w y+ z= x+ z= x+ y. u+v w+u u+v v+w w+u v+w
10 For the case when X , Y , Z are the intercepts of a line, see J.P. Ehrmann, Steiner’s theorems on the complete quadrilateral, Forum Geometricorum, forthcoming.

− + : w+u v+w w+u u+v 2 2 2 2 c a vw b wu c uv : . + + v+w v+w w+u u+v a2 vw b2 wu c2 uv b2 . v+w up + wr = b2 wu . + − u+v v+w w+u u+v 71 Examples P centroid orthocenter Gergonne point incenter Nagel Point Miquel associate P ′ circumcenter orthocenter incenter +bc+c )−(b+c)(b +c )) : ··· : ···) ( a ( a + a ( b+ c ) − a ( b b +c (a(a3 + a2 (b + c) − a(b + c)2 − (b + c)(b − c)2 ) : · · · : · · · ) 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 5. we have p q r = = = a2 vw b2 wu c2 uv 1 − .6. The cevian circumcircle intersects the line BC at the points given by This can be rearranged as qy 2 + (q + r − a2 )yz + rz 2 = 0.4 Cyclocevian conjugate a2 yz − (y + z )(qy + rz ) = 0. − + 2v v + w w + u u + v a2 vw b2 wu c2 uv 1 . we have P′ = a2 a2 vw b2 wu c2 uv − . w+u up + vq = c2 uv .Chapter 5: Circles I Solving these equations. This has equation where vq + wr = a2 vw . . + − 2w v + w w + u u + v 5.6.3 Cevian circumcircle (a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy ) − (x + y + z )(px + qy + rz ) = 0. u+v Solving these equations. The cevian circumcircle of P is the circle through its traces. + + 2u v+w w+u u+v 1 a2 vw b2 wu c2 uv .

BY ′ .72 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry The product of the two roots of y : z is r q . The second intersection is therefore the point qv X ′ = 0 : rw : qv = 0 : 1 1 : . (b) The lines P Q and P ′ Q′ are parallel. and CZ ′ intersect at the point ( pu : qv : rw ). BZX . let P ′ be its Miquel associate and Q its cyclocevian conjugate. Since one of the roots y : z = v : w . BZ ′ X ′ . AY ′ Z ′ . The centroid and the orthocenter are cyclocevian conjugates. the “second” intersections of the circle XY Z with the other two sides can 1 1 1 be found. (c) The “second intersections” of the pairs of circles AY Z . c(P ) = 1 vw −a v +w + 2 b2 wu w +u + c2 uv u+v : 1 a2 vw v +w − b2 wu w +u + c2 uv u+v : 1 a2 vw v +w + b2 wu w +u − c2 uv u+v . 2. the other root is rw . The cyclocevian conjugate of the incenter is the point a3 Theorem Given a point P . . Explicitly. qv rw Similarly. CX ′ Y ′ form a triangle A′ B ′ C ′ perspective with ABC . their common cevian circumcircle being the nine-point circle. A + a2 (b + c) − a ( b2 1 : ··· : ··· + bc + c2 ) − (b + c)(b2 + c2 ) . (d) The “Miquel perspector” in (c) is the intersection of the trilinear polars of P and Q with respect to triangle ABC . with Miquel associate Q′ . Y Z Z′ P Q′ Q P ′ Y′ B X X′ C (a) P ′ and Q′ are isogonal conjugates. The cevians AX ′ . and CXY . Examples 1. We denote this by c(P ) and call it the cyclocevian conjugate of P .

. Y t = (t : 0 : 1 − t). . BZt Xt and CXt Yt intersect at the point Mt = (a2 (−a2 t(1 − t) + b2 t2 + c2 (1 − t)2 ) : b2 (a2 (1 − t)2 − b2 t(1 − t) + c2 t2 ) : c2 (a2 t2 + b2 (1 − t)2 − c2 t(1 − t))). (d) Verify that this circle contains the circumcenter. Zt = (1 − t : t : 0) 73 on the sides of the reference triangle. and the two Brocard points Ω← = and Ω→ = 1 1 1 : : b2 c 2 a 2 1 1 1 : 2 : 2 2 c a b . (c) Show that the locus of Mt is a circle. we consider the triad of points Xt = (0 : 1 − t : t). the symmedian point. For a real number t. eliminate t to obtain the following equation in x.Chapter 5: Circles I Exercises 1. y. (b) Writing Mt = (x : y : z ). (a) The circles AYt Zt . z: b2 c2 x2 + c2 a2 y 2 + a2 b2 z 2 − c4 xy − b4 zx − a4 yz = 0.

.

1 Equation of the incircle Write the equation of the incircle in the form a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy − (x + y + z )(px + qy + rz ) = 0 for some undetermined coefﬁcients p. we obtain p = (s − a)2 and (consistently) . r. by considering the tangency with the line CA. y : z = s − c : s − b is the only root of the quadratic equation a2 yz + (y + z )(qy + rz ) = 0. q . Since the incircle touches the side BC at the point (0 : s − c : s − b). Similarly. r = (s−c)2 .Chapter 6 Circles II 6. Cb Ib Bc A Ic Cc Bb Ac B Aa C Ba Ab Ca Comparison of coefﬁcients gives k = 1 and q = (s−b)2 . This means that qy 2 + (q + r − a2 )yz + rz 2 = k ((s − b)y − (s − c)z )2 for some scalar k .

radius half that of the incirle of ABC . (b) Let ABC be an equilateral triangle with center O. 6. Make use of this to design an animation picture showing a triangle with its Nagel point on the incircle. It follows that the equation of the incircle is a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy − (x + y + z )((s − a)2 x + (s − b)2 y + (s − c)2 z ) = 0. 2. a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy − (x + y + z )((s − c)2 x + s2 y + (s − a)2 z ) = 0. a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy − (x + y + z )((s − b)2 x + (s − a)2 y + s2 z ) = 0. . Show that the distances from an arbitrary point P on C to the sidelines of ABC are the lengths of the sides of a triangle whose centroid is on the incircle. The radical axis with the circumcircle is the line (s − a)2 x + (s − b)2 y + (s − c)2 z = 0.1 The excircles The same method gives the equations of the excircles: a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy − (x + y + z )(s2 x + (s − c)2 y + (s − b)2 z ) = 0. (a) Show that the centroid of triangle ABC lies on the incircle if and only if 5(a2 + b2 + c2 ) = 6(ab + bc + ca). Show that the Nagel point of triangle ABC lies on its incircle if and only if one s of its sides is equal to 2 .1. center O.76 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry r = (s − c)2 . and C the circle. Exercises 1.

N = ( a 2 ( b2 + c 2 ) − ( b2 − c 2 ) 2 : b2 ( c 2 + a 2 ) − ( c 2 − a 2 ) 2 : c 2 ( a 2 + b2 ) − ( a 2 − b2 ) 2 ) with coordinate sum 8S 2 . 2 6.2 Intersection of the incircle and the nine-point circle We consider how the incircle and the nine-point circle intersect. y z x + + = 0. 2 4 2 2 Subtracting the two equations we obtain the equation of the radical axis of the two circles: L: (a − b)(a − c)x + (b − a)(b − c)y + (c − a)(c − b)z = 0. . c. b. The intersections of the two circles can be found by solving their equations simultaneously: a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy − (x + y + z )((s − a)2 x + (s − b)2 y + (s − c)2 z ) = 0. b−c c−a a−b There are two points with simple coordinates on this line: P = ((b − c)2 : (c − a)2 : (a − b)2 ).1 Radical axis of (I ) and (N ) Note that 1 1 1 1 (s−a)2 − SA = ((b+c−a)2 −(b2 +c2 −a2 )) = (a2 −a(b+c)+bc) = (a−b)(a−c). except P : (x : y : z ) = ((a + t)(b − c)2 : (b + t)(c − a)2 : (c + t)(a − b)2 ) for some t. and Q = ( a ( b − c ) 2 : b( c − a ) 2 : c ( a − b) 2 ) .1 1 (a 2 (b 2 2 1 Start with N = (S 2 + SBC : · · · : · · · ) (with coordinate sum 4S 2 ) and rewrite S 2 + SBC = · · · = + c 2 ) − (b 2 − c 2 )2 ).2. 1 a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy − (x + y + z )(SA x + SB y + SC z ) = 0.2. It is convenient to write the coordinates of the nine-point center in terms of a. Thus.2 The line joining the incenter and the nine-point center We ﬁnd the intersection of the radical axis L and the line joining the centers I and N . Making use of these points we obtain a very simple parametrization of points on the radical axis L.Chapter 6: Circles II 77 6. We rewrite this as 6.

. and we conclude that the two lines intersect at the Feuerbach point F = ((s − a)(b − c)2 : (s − b)(c − a)2 : (s − c)(a − b)2 ). (p + q )(d2 − (p − q )2 ) = 0. With k = −2abc. the circles must be tangent to each other (at that center). We proceed to determine the ratio of division IF : F N . b. if a center of similitude of two circles lies on their radical axis. If this is equal to p : −q . The division ratio is x2 − p2 = (d − x)2 − q 2 . then p(d2 −p2 +q 2 )+q (d2 +p2 −q 2 ) = 0. However. These give the coordinates of a point on L with t = −s. From this d = |p − q |. c. Suppose the intersection of the radical axis and the center line is at a distance x from the center of the circle of radius p. then 2 2 2 p 2 +q 2 −q 2 . This means that N F : F I = −4sabc : 8S 2 = −8sRS : 8S 2 = −sR : S = R : −2r = R : −r. and two analogous expressions by cyclic permutations of a. From this. centers at a distance d apart.78 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry We seek a real number k for which the point (a2 (b2 + c2 ) − (b2 − c2 )2 + ka b2 (c2 + a2 ) − (c2 − a2 )2 + kb c2 (a2 + b2 ) − (a2 − b2 )2 + kc) : : on the line IN also lies on the radical axis L. we have F ∼ 8S 2 · N − 2abc · 2s · I = 8S 2 · N − 4sabc · I. x = d +p 2d d x : d−x = d2 +p2 −q 2 : d2 −p2 +q 2 . and d − x = d −2 . 2 The point F is the external center of similitude of the nine-point circle and the incircle. we have a2 (b2 + c2 ) − (b2 − c2 )2 − 2a2 bc = a 2 ( b − c ) 2 − ( b2 − c 2 ) 2 = (b − c )2 (a2 − (b + c )2 ) = 4s(a − s)(b − c)2 . and the circles are tangent internally. 2 I T′ F N 2 Proof: Consider two circles of radii p and q . From the choice of k .

b−c c−a a−b The nine-point circle is tangent to each of the excircles externally. the nine-point circle and the A-excircle have another pair of common tangents. the common tangent being the line x y z + + = 0. Ib A A′ Ic F Fb Fc N C′ C B Fa B′ Ia Exercises 1. intersecting at their external center of 3 Tangent to the A-excircle: x b− c + y c+a − z a +b = 0. Apart from their common tangent at Fa .Chapter 6: Circles II Feuerbach’s Theorem 79 The nine-point circle and the incircle are tangent internally to each other at the point F . 3 3. 2. Show that F and F ′ divide I and N harmonically. Find the equations of the common tangent of the nine-point circle and the excircles. . The points of tangency form a triangle perspective with ABC at the point F′ = ( b + c ) 2 ( c + a ) 2 ( a + b) 2 : : s−a s−b s−c .

Similarly deﬁne B ′ and C ′ . Animate a point P on ℓ and construct its pedal circle. The pedal circle always passes through a ﬁxed point on the nine-point circle. What is the perspector? 4 4.80 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry similitude A′ . . Let ℓ be a diameter of the circumcircle of triangle ABC . the circle through the pedals of P on the side lines. What is this ﬁxed point if the diameter passes through the incenter? 4 The Feuerbach point. The triangle A′ B ′ C ′ is perspective with ABC .

(a(c2 + a2 − b2 ) : b(b2 + c2 − a2 ) : −(a + b)(c2 + (a + b)2 )). 0.3 The excircles Consider the radical axes of the excircles with the circumcircle. X A Cw B Y C Z The triangle A′ B ′ C ′ is perspective with ABC at the Clawson point 5 b c a : : SA SB SC Exercises 1. = = = 0. (a(a2 + b2 − c2 ) : −(c + a)(b2 + (c + a)2 ) : c(b2 + c2 − a2 )). Let AH be the pedal of A on the opposite side BC of triangle ABC . These are the lines s 2 x + ( s − c ) 2 y + ( s − b) 2 z (s − c )2 x + s 2 y + (s − a)2 z ( s − b) 2 x + ( s − a ) 2 y + s 2 z These three lines bound a triangle with vertices A′ B′ C′ = = = (−(b + c)(a2 + (b + c)2 ) : b(a2 + b2 − c2 ) : c(c2 + a2 − b2 )). and circle C (AH ) to intersect AC at and Bc and Bc extension of AC ). Construct ′ ′ circle B (AH ) to intersect AB at Cb and Cb (so that Cb in on the extension of ′ ′ in on the (so that Bc AB ). point appears in ETC as the point X19 . 5 This . 0. .Chapter 6: Circles II 81 6.

Hatzipolakis. Veldkamp. 9 (1983) 23 – 24. message 1663. and write down the equations of the fourth common tangents of the other two pairs of excircles. Show that A1 B1 C1 is perspective with ABC at the Clawson point. B3 = CCa (c) Let A3 = BBc c . 6 (b) Let A2 = BBc ∩ CCb . See R. 8 2. Similarly deﬁne B1 and C1 . and determine the homothetic center.P. and C3 = AAb ∩ BBa . 2000. and C2 = AAb ∩ BBa . Consider the B . Show that A2 B2 C2 is perspective with ABC . Crux Math. Calculate the coordinates of the perspector. Three of their common tangents are the side lines of triangle ABC . 7X 278 6 A. . Problem 682 and solution. October 25. Show that A3 B3 C3 is perspective with ABC . Lyness and G.R. 7 ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ∩ AA′ ∩ CCb .82 A YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry Bc Cb A′ B ′ Cb Cw C ′ Bc ′ ′ (a) Let A1 be the intersection of the lines Bc Cb and Cb Bc .and C -excircles of triangle ABC . (a) Find the equation of this fourth common tangent. The fourth common tangent is the reﬂection of the line BC in the line joining the excenters Ib and Ic . Calculate the coordinates of the perspector. B2 = CCa ∩ AAc . (b) Show that the triangle bounded by these 3 fourth common tangents is homothetic to the orthic triangle. 9 Hyacinthos. 1 : ··· : ···) = ( ( s− a )S A s− a 8X : ··· : ···) 281 = ( S A 9 The Clawson point.

a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy − a2 y (x + y + z ) = 0.4 The Brocard points Consider the circle through the vertices A and B and tangent to the side AC at the vertex A. the equation should reduce to z 2 = 0. a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy − c2 x(x + y + z ) = 0. CBCC . This means that r = b2 and the circle is CAAB : a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy − b2 z (x + y + z ) = 0. and CCAA intersecting at the backward Brocard point Ω← = satisfying ∠BAΩ← = ∠CB Ω← = ∠AC Ω← . 1 1 1 : : c 2 a 2 b2 Similarly. A ω Ω→ A ω Ω← ω ω B C B ω ω C In reverse orientations there are three circles CABB .Chapter 6: Circles II 83 6. . Since the circle passes through A and B . Since it is tangent to AC at A. when we set y = 0. 1 1 1 : : b2 c 2 a 2 . . its equation is of the form a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy − rz (x + y + z ) = 0 for some constant r. we consider the analogous circles CBBC : and CCCA : These three circles intersect at the forward Brocard point Ω→ = This point has the property that ∠AB Ω→ = ∠BC Ω→ = ∠CAΩ→ .

it is easy to see that 1 (SA + SB + SC ). Show that this is a point on the line OK . and the symmedian point.84 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry Note from their coordinates that the two Brocard points are isogonal conjugates. The midpoint of the segment Ω→ Ω← is the Brocard midpoint 11 (a2 (b2 + c2 ) : b2 (c2 + a2 ) : c2 (a2 + b2 )). we have B−ω = C Ω← ∩ AΩ→ . It appears as the point X76 in ETC. and C−ω . By writing the coordinates of Ω→ in Conway’s notation. Similarly. which is the isotomic conjugate of the symmedian point. 10 This 11 The is also known as the third Brocard point. the circumcenter. Brocard midpoint appears in ETC as the point X39 . We denote the common value by ω and call this the Brocard angle of triangle ABC . and C−ω = AΩ← ∩ B Ω→ . . B−ω . 2 The lines B Ω← and C Ω→ intersect at A−ω . Show that this circle also contains the two Brocard point Ω→ and Ω← . 10 Ω→ Z X Ω← Y K (− ω ) B C Exercises 1. Clearly the triangle A−ω B−ω C−ω is perspective to ABC at the point cot ω = K (− ω ) = 1 : ··· : ··· SA − Sω A ∼ ··· ∼ 1 : ··· : ··· a2 . This means that the 6 angles listed above are all equal. 2. The Brocard circle is the circle through the three points A−ω . It has equation a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy − a 2 b2 c 2 y z x (x + y + z ) 2 + 2 + 2 2 2 2 a +b +c a b c = 0.

(c) The triangle bounded by the three lines Y ′ Z .Chapter 6: Circles II 3. (b) Show that Y ′ Z is parallel to BC . 12 The symmedian point. A 85 Y Z Ω→ Y′ Z′ Ω← B XX ′ C (a) Find the coordinates of these pedals. What is the homothetic center? 12 (d) The triangles XY Z and Y ′ Z ′ X ′ are congruent. Z ′ X and X ′ Y is homothetic to triangle ABC . . Let XY Z be the pedal triangle of Ω→ and X ′ Y ′ Z ′ be that of Ω← .

B (b). Show that the intersections of Cb and Cc are the reﬂections of A (i) in the midpoint of BC . This circle intersects the line AB at the two points (c + a : −a : 0). and (ii) in the perpendicular bisector of BC . Forming the pairwise sums of these expressions we obtain SA (y + z ) = SB (z + x ) = SC (x + y ). Similarly. and triangle A′ B ′ C ′ is the orthic triangle.. 13 The 14 (−1 1 1 1 : : = SBC : SCA : SAB . . a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy + (x + y + z )((c2 − b2 )x + (c2 − a2 )y + c2 z ) = 0. (c − a : a : 0). SA SB SC 13 It is the reﬂection of the de Longchamps point appears as the point X20 in ETC. a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy + (x + y + z )((b2 − c2 )x + b2 y + (b2 − a2 )z ) = 0.5 Appendix: The circle triad (A(a). The circle Ca intersects the circumcircle at B ′ and C ′ . The de Longchamps point L is the orthocenter of the anticomplementary triangle. : 1 : 1) and A′ = (−a2 : b2 − c2 : c2 − b2 ). From these. Exercises 1. The radical center L of the circles is the point (x : y : z ) given by a2 x+(a2 −c2 )y +(a2 −b2 )z = (b2 −c2 )x+b2 y +(b2 −a2 )z = (c2 −b2 )x+(c2 −a2 )y +c2 z.e. and AC at (a + b : 0 : −a) and (b − a : 0 : a). 3. C (c)) Consider the circle A(a). orthocenter in the circumcenter. This is called the de Longchamps point of the triangle. y+z :z+x:x+y = and x : y : z = SCA + SAB − SBC : SAB + SBC − SCA : SBC + SCA − SAB . It has equation Ca : a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy + (x + y + z )(a2 x + (a2 − c2 )y + (a2 − b2 )z ) = 0. What are the coordinates of these points? 14 2. i. L = 2 · O − H . the circles B (b) and C (c) have equations Cb : and Cc : These are called the de Longchamps circles of triangle ABC .86 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 6.

B . Use the ﬁve-point conic command to construct the conic through A. the radical axis of Cb has b-intercept B′ = and that of Cc has c-intercept C′ = 1 1 : :0 . Use the ﬁve-point conic command to construct the conic through the vertices of triangle ABC . B ′ . B ′ . Similarly. Apart from the vertices. This is a point on the circumcircle. Calculate its coordinates. b2 − c 2 c 2 − a 2 1 1 :0: 2 b2 − c 2 a − b2 . A′ . apart from the vertices.C ”. These three points A′ . . C in the centroid G to form the points A′ . B . 16 2. at the Tarry point. This is a rectangular hyperbola called the Kiepert hyperbola which intersect the circumcircle. 1 : · · · : · · · ). its centroid. C . and orthocenter. 15 This 16 ( a2 (b2 +c2 )−(b4 +c4 ) point appears as X99 in ETC. The radical axis of the circumcircle and the circle Ca is the line This line intersects the side line BC at point A′ = 0: c2 1 1 : 2 2 −a a − b2 . Reﬂect the vertices A. This is the Steiner circum-ellipse. C ′ respectively. The Tarry point appears the point X98 in ETC. C ′ are the traces of the point with coordinates 1 1 1 : : b2 − c 2 c 2 − a 2 a 2 − b2 . it intersects the circumcircle at the Steiner point.1 The Steiner point a2 x + (a2 − c2 )y + (a2 − b2 )z = 0. called the Steiner point. The antipode of the Steiner point on the circumcircle is called the Tarry point. 3.5.Chapter 6: Circles II 87 6. B ′ . 15 Exercises 1.

Chapter 7

Circles III
7.1 The distance formula
Let P = uA + vB + wC and Q = u′ A + v ′ B + w′ C be given in absolute barycentric coordinates. The distance between them is given by P Q2 = SA (u − u ′ )2 + SB (v − v ′ )2 + SC (w − w ′ )2
A

R

Q P B C

Proof. Through P and Q draw lines parallel to AB and AC respectively, intersecting at R. The barycentric coordinates of R can be determined in two ways. R = P + h(B − C ) = Q + k (A − C ) for some h and k . It follows that R = uA +(v + h)B +(w − h)C = (u′ + k )A + v ′ B + (w′ − k )C , from which h = −(v − v ′ ) and k = u − u′ . Applying the law of cosines to triangle P QR, we have P Q2 = = = = (ha)2 + (kb)2 − 2(ha)(kb) cos C h2 a2 + k 2 b2 − 2hkSC (SB + SC )(v − v ′ )2 + (SC + SA )(u − u′ )2 + 2(u − u′ )(v − v ′ )SC SA (u − u ′ )2 + SB (v − v ′ )2 +SC [(u − u′ )2 + 2(u − u′ )(v − v ′ ) + (v − v ′ )2 ].

The result follows since (u − u′ ) + (v − v ′ ) = (u + v ) − (u′ + v ′ ) = (1 − w) − (1 − w′ ) = −(w − w′ ).

90

YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry

The distance formula in homogeneous coordinates If P = (x : y : z ) and Q = (u : v : w), the distance between P and Q is given by |P Q |2 = Exercises 1. The distance from P = (x : y : z ) to the vertices of triangle ABC are given by AP 2 BP 2 CP 2 = = = c2 y 2 + 2SA yz + b2 z 2 , (x + y + z )2 a2 z 2 + 2SB zx + c2 x2 , (x + y + z )2 b2 x2 + 2SC xy + a2 y 2 . (x + y + z )2 1 (u + v + w )2 (x + y + z )2 SA ((v + w)x − u(y + z ))2 .

cyclic

2. The distance between P = (x : y : z ) and Q = (u : v : w) can be written as   2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 c v + 2 S vw + b w A − a yz + b zx + c xy . |P Q |2 = · x x+y+z (u + v + w )2 (x + y + z )2
cyclic

3. Compute the distance between the incenter and the nine-point center N = (S 2 + SA : S 2 + SB : S 2 + SC ). Deduce Feuerbach’s theorem by showing that this is R 2 − r . Find the coordinates of the Feuerbach point F as the point dividing N I externally in the ratio R : −2r.

7. By considering the diameter through P . Let X . We call this product the power of P with respect to C.3 Proposition Let p. 4R2 2. BC . (3) The radius ρ of the circle is given by ρ2 = a2 b2 c2 − 2(a2 SA p + b2 SB q + c2 SC r) + SA (q − r)2 + SB (r − p)2 + SC (p − q )2 . C with respect to a circle C. Y . By the theorem on intersecting chords. the product |P X ||P Y | of signed lengths is constant. The pedals of X on CA and AB . BC are on a circle. (1) The equation of the circle is a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy − (x + y + z )(px + qy + rz ) = 0.2 Circle equations 7. This point is also the intersection of the three lines through the midpoint of each side of the orthic triangle perpendicular to the corresponding side of ABC .Chapter 7: Circles III 91 7.2. r be the powers of A.2 The power of a point with respect to a circle Consider a circle C := O(ρ) and a point P . Let P = (u : v : w) with cevian triangle XY Z . and the coordinates of their second intersection A′ . C on their opposite sides. Z be the pedals of A. (a) Find the equations of the circles ABY and ACZ . 1 This is called the Taylor circle of triangle ABC . (2) The center of the circle is the point ( a 2 S A + S B ( r − p) − S C ( p− q ) : b2 S B + S C ( p− q ) − S A ( r − p) : c 2 S C + S A ( q − r ) − S B ( r − p) . Show that the equation of the circle is 1 a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy − 1 (x + y + z )(SAA x + SBB y + SCC z ) = 0.1 Equation of circle with center (u : v : w) and radius ρ: c2 v 2 + 2SA vw + b2 w2 − ρ2 x = 0. 4S 2 Exercises 1. Its center is the point X 389 in ETC. B . (u + v + w )2 a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy − (x + y + z ) cyclic 7. and Z on CA.2.2. B . for any line through P intersecting C at two points X and Y . Y on AB . we obtain |OP |2 − ρ2 for the power of a point P with respect to O(ρ). . q .

.92 A YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry H B C (b) Similarly deﬁne B ′ and C ′ . 7/27/01. 2 2 ( a2 v +w : · · · : · · · ). message 3309. Identify the perspector. See Tatiana Emelyanov. Hyacinthos. Show that triangle A′ B ′ C ′ is perspective with ABC .

2. 2.3. Explicitly. and its square radius is the negative of the common power of P with respect to the circles. 3. cyclic In standard form. if we write p1 M =  p2 p3 p1 v = p2 p3  q1 q2 q3  r1 r2  .Chapter 7: Circles III 93 7. i = 1. 3. (u + v + w )2 u+v+w This circle. 1 r3 7. 3 Proof: p1 u + q1 v + r1 w = p2 u + q2 v + r2 w = p3 u + q3 v + r3 w = det M .1 Radical center The radical center P is the point with equal powers with respect to the three circles. 2. The center is the radical center P above. P = (u : v : w) with 3 1 u= 1 1 q1 q2 q3 r1 r2 . 7. det M a2 vw + b2 wu + c2 uv − . i.e. i = 1. 3. cyclic The radical circle is real if and only if (u + v + w)(pi u + qi v + ri w) − (a2 vw + b2 wu + c2 uv ) ≥ 0 for any i = 1. r3 1 r1 1 r2 . which we call the radical circle of the given triad. Its coordinates are given by the solutions of the system of equations. . p1 x + q1 y + r1 z = p2 x + q2 y + r2 z = p3 x + q3 y + r3 z.2 Radical circle There is a circle orthogonal to each of the circles Ci .3 Radical circle of a triad of circles Consider three circles with equations a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy − (x + y + z )(pi x + qi y + ri z ) = 0.3. it is a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy − 1 · (x + y + z )( u+v+w (c2 v + b2 w − det(M ))x) = 0. has equation (c2 v + b2 w)x2 + 2SA uyz − det(M )(x + y + z )2 = 0. r3 p1 w = p2 p3 q1 q2 q3 1 1 . 1 then..

. This is the point (b + c : c + a : a + b). with (u. It is the incenter of the medial triangle. c + a. a+b+c 4 The equation of the radical circle can be written as cyclic (s − b)(s − c)x2 + asyz = 0.94 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 7. v = 2abc(c + a) and w = 2abc(a + b).3 The excircles The radical center of the excircles is the point P = (u : v : w) given by     1 (s − c )2 (s − a)2 1 ( s − c ) 2 ( s − b) 2 s2 ( s − a ) 2  =  0 c ( a + b) − c ( a − b)  u =  1 2 0 b( c − a ) b( c + a ) 1 (s − a) s2 = bc(a + b)(c + a) + bc(a − b)(c − a) = 2abc(b + c). w) = (b + c. v.3. (a + b + c)(abc + the square radius of the orthogonal circle is 1 abc + a2 (b + c) = · · · = (r 2 + s 2 ). Ib A Ic Mc Sp Mb B Ma C Ia Since. a + b). likewise. = = (u + v + w)(s2 u + (s − c)2 v + (s − b)2 w) − (a2 vw + b2 wu + c2 uv ) (a + b + c)(2abc + a3 + a2 (b + c)) − (a + b + c)(abc + a3 ) a2 (b + c)). and. called the Spieker center.

This is called the de Longchamps point of the triangle. F (C )). 5 G. de Longchamps. The de Longchamps circle is the radical circle of the triad A(a).. 4 The . C (c)) is the point (x : y : z ) given by a2 x+(a2 −c2 )y +(a2 −b2 )z = (b2 −c2 )x+b2 y +(b2 −a2 )z = (c2 −b2 )x+(c2 −a2 )y +c2 z. It has equation a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy − (x + y + z )(a2 x + b2 y + c2 z ) = 0. B (Rb ). and C (Rc ) is the point 2 2 2 2S 2 · O − a2 Ra (A − AH ) − b2 Rb (B − B H ) − c 2 R c (C − C H ).angled. Forming the pairwise sums of these expressions we obtain SA (y + z ) = SB (z + x ) = SC (x + y ). 1886. L = 2 · O − H . pp. Journal de Math. SA SB SC de Longchamps point appears as the point X20 in ETC.3. E (B ). Sp´ eciales. This circle is real if and only if triangle ABC is obtuse . y+z :z+x:x+y = and x : y : z = SCA + SAB − SBC : SAB + SBC − SCA : SBC + SCA − SAB . 100 – 104.e. 85 – 87. 1 1 1 : : = SBC : SCA : SAB . B (b) and C (c). Sur un nouveau cercle remarquable du plan d’un triangle. 57 – 60.Chapter 7: Circles III 95 7. From these. It is also orthogonal to the triad of circles (D(A). 4 It is the reﬂection of the orthocenter in the circumcenter. 5 Exercises 1. i.4 The de Longchamps circle The radical center L of the circle triad (A(a). The radical center of the triad of circles A(Ra ). 126 – 134. B (b).

a2S +S ). Yiu. 7 Hatzipolakis and P. +S a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy − c2 The coordinates of the radical center satisfy the equations a 2 ( c 2 y + b2 z ) b2 ( a 2 z + c 2 x ) c 2 ( b2 x + a 2 y ) = = . + S ) : b2 (SB + S ) : c2 (SC + S )). Amer. Monthly.4 The Lucas circles 6 ′ Consider the square Ab Ac A′ c Ab inscribed in triangle ABC . . This point appears in ETC as X371 . a 2 b2 c 2 and the radical center is the point (a2 (2SA + S ) : b2 (2SB + S ) : c2 (2SC + S )). These point of tangency form a triangle perspective with ABC .P. It is the isogonal conjugate of the Vecten point ( S 1 +S +S +S 7 (a 2 (S A A B C = = = (a2 SA : b2 (SB + S ) : c2 (SC + S )). a2 + S b2 + S c2 + S Since this can be rewritten as z z x x y y + 2 : 2 + 2 : 2 + 2 = a2 + S : b2 + S : c2 + S. +S ′ ′ ′ ′ Ca on the other Bc and Ca Cb Cb Likewise if we construct inscribed squares Bc Ba Ba two sides. with Ab . (a2 (SA + S ) : b2 SB : c2 (SC + S )). Calculate the coordinates of the perspector. the corresponding Lucas circles are CB : and CC : a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy − b2 · (x + y + z )(c2 x + a2 z ) = 0. ( a 2 ( S A + S ) : b2 ( S B + S ) : c 2 S C ) . the points of tangency being A′ B′ C′ Exercises 1. and is called the : S 1 : S 1 ). Ab and Ac can be easily written down: CA : a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy − a2 a2 · (x + y + z )(c2 y + b2 z ) = 0. 108 (2001) 444 – 446. 2 b c c a a b it follows that x y z : : = b2 + c2 − a2 + S : c2 + a2 − b2 + S : a2 + b2 − c2 + S. Ac on BC . b2 + S c2 · (x + y + z )(b2 x + a2 y ) = 0. Math. Kenmotu point. 6 A. the equation of the circle CA through A.96 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 7. Since this square can be obtained from the square erected externally on BC via the ′ ′ homothety h(A. The three Lucas circles are mutually tangent to each other. The Lucas circles.

construct the two other circles. What is this point? 4. Show that the circles AYa ZA . 9 2. Hatzipolakis and P. and Xc . Hyacinthos. What is the radical center of the triad of circles? 11 5. Xb . + b2 zx + c2 xy − (b+ c)2 9 (a2 (a2 + a(b + c) − bc) : · · · : · · · ). A. message 214. Find the equations of the three circles each through a vertex and the traces of the incenter and the Gergonne point on the opposite side. Find the equations of the three circles with the cevian segments AAP . Similarly deﬁne Zb . (c) The radical center of these three circles is a point independent of P . (e) Find the coordinates of the radical center of the three circles. 2 2 a2 13 If P = (u : v : w ). Yc . Given a point P . 12 Floor van Lamoen. AB of triangle ABC . Hyacinthos. Let P = (u : v : w). (b) Find the equations of these three circles. CA. 10 3. external center of similitude of the circumcircle and incircle. (c) Find the equation of the circle. BBP . 1215. (a) Construct the three circles. Yiu.Chapter 7: Circles III 97 7. Let X . which is a point on the circumcircle. 1214. Identify the radical center. each passing through a vertex of ABC and tangent to opposite side at the trace of P . 1/24/00.P. messages 1213. 8 (d) Similarly. Y . . Construct the three circles each tangent to the circumcircle externally at a vertex and also to the opposite side. it is the inﬁnite point vSB −wSC C −uSA A −vSB of the line perpendicular to HP . This point appears as X 595 in ETC. BZb Xb and CXc Yc intersect at a point on the circumcircle of ABC . Z be the traces of a point P on the side lines BC .5 Appendix: More triads of circles 1. (a) Construct the circle tangent to the circumcircle internally at A and also to the side BC . each tangent internally to the circumcircle at a vertex and also to the opposite side. 8/17/00. The perpendicular from P to BC intersects CA at Ya and AB at Za . 13 a (x + y + z )(c2 y + b2 z ) = 0. CCP as diameters. (b) Find the coordinates of the point of tangency with the side BC . this intersection is ( : wS b : uS c ). 8 a2 yz 10 11 The a2 b− c 2 : b2 c−a : c2 a− b . What is the radical center of the triad ? 12 6. This point appears as X110 in ETC.

15 a2 yz Hatzipolakis. 17 b −c − a2 : : bRb − cRc Rb Rc 6. Rb = b. Hyacinthos. If the three circles A(Ra ). and C (Rc ). 15 3. Similarly. C (Rc ) intersects AC at Ya+ = (Rc : 0 : b − Rc ) and Ya− = (−Rc : 0 : b + Rc ). This point appears as X 22 in ETC. 2 2 2 2 19 ( a (a −2a(b+c)+(b +c )) s− a 20 ( a2 : b2 : c2 ). If W is the radical center of the three circles A(Ra ). 2. B (Rb ). The circle B (Rb ) intersects AB at Za+ = (Rb : c − Rb : 0) and Za− = (−Rb : c + Rb : 0). 18 8. . and C (Rc ) intersect at W = (u : v : w). If W = (u : v : w) is on the circumcircle. 8/10/01. + b2 zx + c2 xy − ǫ(x + y + z )(c · Rb y + b · Rc z ) = 0 for ǫ = ±1. B (Rb ). then P = Q = Q′ = W . 20 11. Find the equations of the circles AYa+ Za− and AYa− Za+ and show that they intersect at b c − a2 : : Q′ = bRb + cRc Rb Rc on the circumcircle. and Rc = c. 4. Find P if W is the incenter. and C (Rc ). s− a s− b s− c : · · · : · · · ). Rb = s − b. 16 a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy − ǫ(x + y + z )(c · R y − b · R z ) = 0 for ǫ = ±1. and Rc = s − c. then P = (a2 (b2 c2 u2 − a2 SA vw + b2 SB wu + c2 SC uv ) : · · · : · · · ). then P = (1 − t)O + t · W for t= 2a2 b2 c2 . Find P if Ra = s − a. 1. 16 5. Find P if Ra = a. B (Rb ). Show that the line QQ′ passes through the points (−a2 : b2 : c2 ) and 2 2 2 P = (a2 (− a2 R a + b2 R b + c2 Rc ) : · · · : · · · ). message 3408. 14 A. c c b b 18 (a2 (b4 + c4 − a4 ) : b2 (c4 + a4 − b4 ) : c2 (a4 + b4 − c4 )). 10. 19 9. c b 17 QQ′ : (b2 R2 − c2 R2 )x + a2 (R2 y − R2 z ) = 0.P. Find the equations of the circles AYa+ Za+ and AYa− Za− . Show that these two circles intersect at Q= on the circumcircle.98 Exercises YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 14 Consider triangle ABC with three circles A(Ra ). Show that the centers of the circles AYa+ Za+ and AYa− Za− are symmetric with respect to the circumcenter O. This point does not appear in the current edition of ETC. 2 a 2 S + R 2 b2 S + R 2 c 2 S Ra A B C c b 7.

H2 = ( y 2 : 0 : z 2 ) . Ki are A H2 K1 H1 K2 B X1 X X2 C H1 = ( y 1 : 0 : z 1 ) . ( y 2 z1 : y 1 y 2 : z1 z2 ) . the above construction (applied to the traces on each side line) gives the traces of the point with coordinates (xu : yv : zw). and denote it by P · Q. complete parallelograms AKi Xi Hi with Ki on AB and Hi on AC . distinct from the vertices B . .1 Barycentric product Let X1 . This means that the line joining these intersections passes through A. For i = 1. with homogeneous coordinates (0 : y1 : z1 ) and (0 : y2 : z2 ). 2. Given two points P = (x : y : z ) and Q = (u : v : w). The coordinates of the points Hi . Both of these points have A-trace (0 : y1 y2 : z1 z2 ).Chapter 8 Some Basic Constructions 8. ( y 1 z2 : y 1 y 2 : z1 z2 ) . From these. X2 be two points on the line BC . BH1 ∩ CK2 BH2 ∩ CK1 = = K1 = (z1 : y1 : 0). We shall call this point the barycentric product of P and Q. C . K2 = (z2 : y2 : 0).

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In particular, the barycentric square of a point P = (u : v : w), with coordinates (u2 : v 2 : w2 ) can be constructed as follows: (1) Complete a parallelogram ABa AP Ca with Ba on CA and Ca on AB . (2) Construct BBa ∩ CCa , and join it to A to intersect BC at X . (3) Repeat the same constructions using the traces on CA and AB respectively to obtain Y on CA and Z on AB . Then, X , Y , Z are the traces of the barycentric square of P .

8.1.1

Examples

: Sb : Sc ) can be constructed as the barycentric product (1) The Clawson point ( Sa A B C of the incenter and the orthocenter. (2) The symmedian point can be constructed as the barycentric square of the incenter. (3) If P = (u + v + w) is an inﬁnite point, its barycentric square can also be constructed as the barycentric product of P and its inferior (v + w : w + u : u + v ): P2 = = = (u 2 : v 2 : w 2 ) (−u(v + w) : −v (w + u) : −w(u + v )) (u : v : w ) · (v + w : w + u : u + v ).

8.1.2

Barycentric square root

Let P √= (u : v : w) be a point in the interior of triangle ABC , the barycentric square root P is the point Q in the interior such that Q2 = P . This can be constructed as follows.
A A Y

Z

Z′ CP P

BP √

Y′ P H[C ] H √

H[B ]

AP B X′ C

H

B X

H[A] X

C

(1) Construct the circle with BC as diameter. (2) Construct the perpendicular to BC at the trace AP to intersect the circle at X . 1 Bisect angle BXC to intersect BC at X ′ . (3) Similarly obtain Y ′ on CA and Z ′ on AB . The points X ′ , Y ′ , Z ′ are the traces of the barycentric square root of P .
1 It

does not matter which of the two intersections is chosen.

Chapter 8: Some Basic Constructions
The square root of the orthocenter

101

Let ABC be an acute angled triangle so that the orthocenter H is an interior point. Let √ X be the A-trace of H . The circle through the pedals B[H ] , C[H ] and X is tangent to the side BC .

8.1.3

Exercises

1. Construct a point whose distances from the side lines are proportional to the radii of the excircles. 2 2. Find the equation of the circle through B and C , tangent (internally) to incircle. Show that the point of tangency has coordinates ( s − c ) 2 ( s − b) 2 a2 : : s−a s−b s−c .

Construct this circle by making use of the barycentric “third power” of the Gergonne point. 3. Construct the square of an inﬁnite point. 4. A circle is tangent to the side BC of triangle ABC at the A−trace of a point P = (u : v : w) and internally to the circumcircle at A′ . Show that the line AA′ passes through the point (au : bv : vw). Make use of this to construct the three circles each tangent internally to the circumcircle and to the side lines at the traces of P . 5. Two circles each passing through the incenter I are tangent to BC at B and C respectively. A circle (Ja ) is tangent externally to each of these, and to BC at X . Similarly deﬁne Y and Z . Show that XY Z is perspective with ABC , and ﬁnd the perspector. 3 6. Let P1 = (f1 : g1 : h1 ) and P2 = (f2 : g2 : h2 ) be two given points. Denote by Xi , Yi , Zi the traces of these points on the sides of the reference triangle ABC . (a) Find the coordinates of the intersections X+ = BY1 ∩ CZ2 and X− = BY2 ∩ CZ1 . 4

(b) Find the equation of the line X+ X− . 5

(c) Similarly deﬁne points Y+ , Y− , Z+ and Z− . Show that the three lines X+ X− , Y+ Y− , and Z+ Z− intersect at the point (f1 f2 (g1 h2 + h1 g2 ) : g1 g2 (h1 f2 + f1 h2 ) : h1 h2 (f1 g2 + g1 f2 )).

2 This has coordindates ( a : · · · : · · · ) and can be constructed as the barycentric product of the s− a incenter and the Gergonne point. 3 The barycentric square root of ( a : b : c ). See Hyacinthos, message 3394, 8/9/01. s− a s− b s− c 4X = f f : f g : h f ; X = f f : g f : f h . + − 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 5 (f 2 g h − f 2 g h )x − f f (f h − h f )y + f f (g f − f g )z = 0.. 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1

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8.2 Harmonic associates
The harmonic associates of a point P = (u : v : w) are the points AP = (−u : v : w), B P = (u : − v : w ), C P = (u : v : − w ).

The point AP is the harmonic conjugate of P with respect to the cevian segment AAP , i.e., AP : P AP = −AAP : AP AP ; similarly for B P and C P . The triangle AP C P C P is called the precevian triangle of P . This terminology is justiﬁed by the fact that ABC is the cevian triangle P in AP B P C P . It is also convenient to regard P , AP , B P , C P as a harmonic quadruple in the sense that any three of the points constitute the harmonic associates of the remaining point.
BP

A

CP P B C

AP

Examples (1) The harmonic associates of the centroid, can be constructed as the intersection of the parallels to the side lines through their opposite vertices. They form the superior triangle of ABC . (2) The harmonic associates of the incenter are the excenters. (3) If P is an interior point with square root Q. The harmonic associates of Q can also be regarded as square roots of the same point.

8.2.1

Superior and inferior triangles

The precevian triangle of the centroid is called the superior triangle of ABC . If P = (u : v : w), the point (−u + v + w : u − v + w : u + v − w), which divides P G in the

The point (v + w : w + u : u + v ). each one of them is the orthocenter of the triangle formed by the remaining three points. . and is called the superior of P .. 2. show that P is the centroid of triangle ABC . has coordinates (u : v : w) relative to the superior triangle. we also consider the cevian triangle of G as the inferior triangle. If P is the centroid of its precevian triangle. has coordinates (u : v : w) relative to the inferior triangle.e.Chapter 8: Some Basic Constructions 103 ratio 3 : −2. and is called the inferior of P . i. Along with the superior triangle. Exercises 1. The incenter and the excenters form the only harmonic quadruple which is also orthocentric. which divides P G in the ratio 3 : −1.

If P = (u : v : w) and Q = (x : y : z ). Identify the following cevian quotients. Direct veriﬁcation. Y′ A Z′ Y M Z B P X C Q X′ Proposition P/(P/Q) = Q. . This means that if P/Q = Q′ . the perspector is the point P/Q = x − x y z + + u v w :y x y z − + u v w :z x y z + − u v w . 2. Proof. Exercises 1.3 Cevian quotient Theorem For any two points P and Q not on the side lines of ABC . then P/Q′ = Q.104 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 8. Show that P/(P · P ) = P · (G/P ). the cevian triangle of P and precevian triangle Q are perspective.

O. H. Une construction par rapport a ibid. IV 5 (1957) 68 – 70. Let P = (u : v : w) and Q = (u′ : v ′ : w′ ) be two given points. Y = CP AP ∩ BBQ . Tummers. Archief voor Wiskunde IV 4 (1956) 132 – 139. BP Y and CP Z are concurrent. has subsequently shown that this is the pole of the line P Q with respect to the circumconic through P and Q. 6 6 (uu′ (vw ′ + wv ′ ) : · · · : · · · ). Z = AP BP ∩ CCQ . see J.Chapter 8: Some Basic Constructions P incenter incenter incenter centroid centroid centroid orthocenter orthocenter Gergonne point Q centroid symmedian point Feuerbach point circumcenter symmedian point Feuerbach point symmedian point (a(b − c ) : · · · : · · · ) incenter P/Q 105 3. Calculate the coordinates of the intersection. associ´ ` un triangle.. show that AP X . Bottema. Points remarquables. If X = BP CP ∩ AAQ . . Nieuw es a ` un triangle.

Construction of Brocardian points A A Pba Pc Pb Pc P P→ Pac Pab P← P Pb Pca B Pa Pcb C B Pbc Pa C Examples (1) The Brocard points Ω→ and Ω← are the Brocardians of the symmedian point K . AB intersect the sides CA. AB . . Z . BC at Y . CA. The oriented parallels through I→ to BC .4 The Brocardians The Brocardians of a point P = (u : v : w) are the points P→ = 1 1 1 : : w u v and P← = 1 1 1 : : v w u .106 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 8. X such that I→ Y = I→ Z = I→ X . A A Z Y′ I→ Y Z + F→ Y′ Y Z′ I I← Z′ F+ + F← B X X′ C B X X′ C (2) The Brocardians of the incenter are called the Jerabek points: I→ = 1 1 1 : : c a b and I← = 1 1 1 : : b c a . Likewise. the parallels through I← to BC .

7 7 S. Equilateral triangles formed by oriented parallelians. AB .Chapter 8: Some Basic Constructions 107 CA. BC . 1 1 1 These 6 segments have length ℓ satisfying 1 ℓ = a + b + c . BC at X . X . Bier. . and intersect the sides CA. Y . Z respectively. then the triangle XY Z is equilateral. (3) If oriented parallels are drawn through the forward Brocardian point of the (positive) Fermat point F+ . 1 (2001) 25 – 32. CA at Z . one half of the length of the 1 1 1 equal parallelians drawn through (− a + b + c : · · · : · · · ). Forum Geometricorum. AB intersect the sides AB . Y such that I← Z = I← X = I← Y .

.

2 a b c Its isogonal transform is the Steiner circum-ellipse yz + zx + xy = 0. As such it is represented by an equation of the form C: pyz + qzx + rxy = 0. . Therefore. the line with equation x y z + 2 + 2 = 0. the circumconic intersects the circumcircle at the isogonal conjugate of the inﬁnite point of the line L: b2 r 1 1 1 : 2 : 2 2 2 − c q c p − a r a q − b2 p . a circumconic is an ellipse. and can be regarded as the isogonal transform of the line L: p q r x + 2 y + 2 z = 0. We call this the fourth intersection of the circumconic with the circumcircle. or a hyperbola according as its isogonal transform intersects the circumcircle at 0. a2 b c The circumcircle is the isogonal transform of the line at inﬁnity.1 Circumconics as isogonal transforms of lines A circumconic is one that passes through the vertices of the reference triangle. 1. Examples (1) The Lemoine axis is the tripolar of the Lemoine (symmedian) point. or 2 real points. a parabola. Apart from the three vertices.Chapter 9 Circumconics 9.

cyclic Since the Euler inﬁnity point = (SS − 3SBC : SS − 3SCA : SS − 3SAB ) = (SCA + SAB − 2SBC : · · · : · · · ). . A O B C 1 The 2 This Steiner point appears as X99 in ETC.110 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 1 The fourth intersection with the circumcircle at the Steiner point 1 1 1 : : b2 − c 2 c 2 − a 2 a 2 − b2 T A . the fourth intersection with the circumcircle is the point 2 a2 SCA + SAB − 2SBC : ··· : ··· . is the point X74 in ETC. G O B C S (2) The Euler line cyclic (b 2 − c2 )SA x = 0 transforms into the Jerabek hyperbola a2 (b2 − c2 )SA yz = 0.

Chapter 9: Circumconics (3) The Brocard axis OK has equation b2 c2 (b2 − c2 )x + c2 a2 (c2 − a2 )y + a2 b2 (a2 − b2 )z = 0. Tarry point appears as the point X98 in ETC.. AA′ : A′ AP = 1 : 2. 4 The 3 The . 5 This point appears as X 100 in ETC. The ﬁrst trisection point of the cevian AP is the point A′ dividing AAP in the ratio 1 : 2. This is antipodal to the Steiner point. since the Euler line and the Lemoine axis are perpendicular to each other. Find the locus of P for which the ﬁrst trisection points of the three cevians are collinear. The isogonal transform of this line is the parabola 5 a2 (b − c)2 yz + b2 (c − a)2 zx + c2 (a − b)2 xy = 0. Show that the Tarry point as a Kiepert perspector is K (−( π 2 − ω )).e. Show that the circumconic pyz + qzx + rxy = 0 is a parabola if and only if p2 + q 2 + r2 − 2qr − 2rp − 2pq = 0. The fourth intersection with the circumcircle is the Tarry point 1 1 1 : : SBC − SAA SCA − SBB SAB − SCC 3 111 . Lemoine axis is the radical axis of the circumcircle and the nine-point. 2. Let P be a point. i. we obtain the line ( b − c ) 2 x + ( c − a ) 2 y + ( a − b) 2 z = 0 a b c tangent to the point ( b− c : c−a : a−b ) at the circumcircle. 3. Its isogonal transform is the Kiepert hyperbola (b2 − c2 )yz + (c2 − a2 )zx + (a2 − b2 )xy = 0. the line containing the ﬁrst trisection points always passes through the centroid. 4 (4) Recall that the tangent to the nine-point circle at the Feuerbach point F = ((b − c)2 (b + c − a) : (c − a)2 (c + a − b) : (a − b)2 (a + b − c)) is the line y z x + + = 0. b−c c−a a−b Applying the homothety h(G. it is perpendicular to the Euler line joining the centers of the two circles. −2). Exercises 1. For each such P .

and construct the isogonal conjugate X ∗ of X . . (b) Construct the tangent at Q. (d) Find the locus of X ∗ . Animate a point P on the circumcircle of triangle ABC and draw the line OP .112 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 4. (a) Construct the point Q on the circumcircle which is the isogonal conjugate of the inﬁnite point of OP . (c) Choose a point X on the tangent line at Q.

2 The inﬁnite points of a circum-hyperbola Consider a line L intersecting the circumcircle at two points P and Q.Chapter 9: Circumconics 113 9. the circum-hyperbola is rectangular. The rectangular circum-hyperbola through P has equation u(SB v − SC w)yz = 0. The directions of the asymptotes of the hyperbola are given by its two inﬁnite points. This is also equivalent to saying that the circum-hyperbola is rectangular if and only if it contains the orthocenter of triangle ABC . It follows that the center of the circum-hyperbola is the intersection of these Simson lines. if and only if its isogonal transform is a diameter of the circumcircle. The asymptotes of the rectangular circum-hyperbola which is the isogonal transform of P Q are the Simson lines of P and Q. which are the isogonal conjugates of P and Q. The isogonal transform of L is a circum-hyperbola C. cyclic . Theorem Let P and Q be antipodal points on the circumcircle. Let P = (u : v : w) be a point other than the orthocenter and the vertices of triangle ABC . The angle between them is one half of that of the arc P Q. Exercises 1. A O I B Q P C These asymptotes are perpendicular to each other if and only if P and Q are antipodal. and is a point on the nine-point circle. In other words.

3. the Mittenpunkt.3 The perspector and center of a circumconic The tangents at the vertices of the circumconic pyz + qzx + rxy = 0 are the lines ry + qz = 0. 7 point appears as X110 in ETC. We shall show in a later section that the center of the circumconic is the cevian quotient Q = G/P = (u(v + w − u) : v (w + u − v ) : w(u + v − w)). Circumconic with incenter as perspector The circumconic with incenter as perspector has equation ayz + bzx + cxy = 0.114 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 9. 9. The circumconic with the incenter as center has equation a(s − a)yz + b(s − b)zx + c(s − c)xy = 0. rx + pz = 0. (− p : q : r ). (p : − q : r ). point appears as X100 in ETC. These bound the triangle with vertices This is perspective with ABC at the point P = (p : q : r). This intersects the circumcircle at the point 6 a2 b2 c2 . The two circumconics intersect at u v w : : v−w w−u u−v . the circumconic with center K has O as perspector. qx + py = 0. : 2 : 2 2 2 2 b −c c −a a − b2 This point can be constructed as the antipode of the isogonal conjugate of the Euler inﬁnity point. which we shall call the perspector of the circumconic. The two intersect at the point 6 This 7 This a b− c : b c−a : c a− b which is a point on the circumcircle. Here we consider some interesting examples based on the fact that P = G/Q if Q = G/P . This means that the circumconics with centers P and Q have perspectors at the other point. This has center G/I = (a(b + c − a) : b(c + a − b) : c(a + b − c)). . (p : q : − r ).1 Examples Circumconic with center K Since the circumcircle (with center O) has perspector at the symmedian point K .

This point does not appear in the current edition of ETC. What can you say about the type of the conic as P varies on the circumcircle? 8Q · · · : · · · ). (a) Show that the circumconic with perspector P is an ellipse. . (d) Find the intersection of the two conics. This point does not appear in the current edition b +c c+a a +b 2 2 10 Q = symmedian point of medial triangle. b2 −c2 11 ( : · · · : · · · ). This point does not appear in the current edition of ETC. Let P be the Spieker center. Why is the circumconic with center Q and perspector P a parabola? What is the intersection of the two conics? 11 4. (b) Find the center Q of the conic. Animate a point P on the circumcircle and construct the circumconic with P as perspector. What can you say about the type of the conic as P varies on the circumcircle? 5. with coordinates (b + c : c + a : a + b). This point appears in ETC as X37 . If P is the midpoint of the Brocard points Ω→ and Ω← . 8 (c) Show that the circumconic with center P (and perspector Q) is also an ellipse. what is the point Q = G/P ? What is the common point of the two circumconics with centers and perspectors at P and Q? 10 3. b2 +c2 −2a2 9 ( b−c : c−a : a−b ). of ETC. Let P and Q be the center and perspector of the Kiepert hyperbola.Chapter 9: Circumconics A A 115 O K O I Mi C B C B Exercises 1. common point = ( b −c : b2 +c2 = (a(b + c) : b(c + a) : c(a + b)). 9 2. Animate a point P on the circumcircle and construct the circumconic with P as center.

A E R B P Q C D . (3) R = P Q ∩ BE . Then AR is the tangent at A. (2) Q = AD ∩ CE .4 Appendix: Ruler construction of tangent at A (1) P = AC ∩ BD.116 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 9.

BX BX ′ z1 z2 g = . · = XC X ′ C y1 y2 h Similarly. XC X ′ C Y A Y ′ A ZB Z ′ B Proof. Z ′ .1 Equation of conics 10. Write the equation of the conic as f x2 + gy 2 + hz 2 + 2pyz + 2qzx + 2rxy = 0. Y .Chapter 10 General Conics 10. The converse of Carnot’s theorem is also true: if X . Z . . and AB at Z . X ′ . Y ′ . The intersections with the line BC are the two points (0 : y1 : z1 ) and (0 : y2 : z2 ) satisfying gy 2 + hz 2 + 2pyz = 0. for the other two pairs of intersections. X ′ . Z ′ are points on the side lines such that BX BX ′ CY CY ′ AZ AZ ′ · · · · · = 1.1 Carnot’s Theorem Suppose a conic C intersect the side lines BC at X . CA at Y . Y A Y ′A f AZ AZ ′ f · = . From this. ZB Z ′ B g The product of these division ratios is clearly 1.1. we have h CY CY ′ · = . XC X ′ C Y A Y ′ A ZB Z ′ B then the 6 points are on a conic. then BX BX ′ CY CY ′ AZ AZ ′ · · · · · = 1. Y ′ .

Y . 2 (b) Show that this conic passes through the midpoints of AP . 1 cyclic s2 +(s−a)2 . Given a point P = (u : v : w) and a line L : u ′ + v ′ + w ′ = 0. message 1326. then X ′ . ﬁnd the locus of the pole of L with respect to the circumconics through P . the B -excircle with BC . Y ′ . 3 x2 + s(s−a) yz = 0. 10. and the C -excircle with CA. 9/1/00. 3 The conic through the traces of P and Q = (u′ : v ′ : w ′ ). there is a conic through the 6 points.2 Conic through the traces of P and Q Let P = (u : v : w) and Q = (u′ : v ′ : w′ ).1. BP and CP . CB lie on a conic. Show that the points of tangency of the A-excircle with AB . Jean-Pierre Ehrmann. Find the equation of the conic. cyclic A Q P B C Exercises 1. AC . Z are the traces of a point P . AB . Let P = (u : v : w) be a point not on the side lines of triangle ABC . (c) For which points is the conic an ellipse. Z ′ are the traces of another point Q.118 Corollary YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry If X . By Carnot’s theorem. 1 2. a hyperbola? y z x 3. (a) Find the equation of the conic through the traces of P and the midpoints of the three sides. The equation of the conic is x2 − uu′ 1 1 + ′ ′ vw vw yz = 0. 2 2 cyclic −vwx + u(v + w )yz = 0. Hyacinthos.

2. if the conic is non-degenerate.2 Inscribed conics An inscribed conic is one tangent to the three side lines of triangle ABC . The inscribed conic therefore has equation y2 z2 2yz 2zx 2xy x2 + + − − − =0 2 2 2 p q r qr rp pq and touches BC at (0 : q : r). the points of tangency must either be the traces of a point P (Ceva Theorem) or the intercepts of a line (Menelaus Theorem). A A P G B C B C 10. then the equation becomes − x y z + + p q r 2 = 0. The Steiner in-ellipse is the inscribed conic with perspector G. It has equation Exercises 1. By Carnot’s theorem.Chapter 10: General Conics 119 10. If the conic is tangent to BC at (0 : q : r) and to CA at (p : 0 : r). and the conic is degenerate. The points of tangency form a triangle perspective with ABC at (p : q : r). which we call the perspector of the inscribed conic. The locus of the squares of inﬁnite points is the Steiner in-ellipse x2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2yz − 2zx − 2xy = 0. If ǫ = −1. the former is always the case. Indeed. then its equation must be y2 z2 2yz 2zx 2xy x2 + 2 + 2 − − −ǫ =0 2 p q r qr rp pq for ǫ = ±1.1 The Steiner in-ellipse x2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2yz − 2zx − 2xy = 0. .

+ (− u p q r − v q + w 2 ) ). Y = (p : 0 : r). and Z = (p : q : 0) respectively. 2 p qr tangent to the side lines at X = (0 : q : r). and ﬁnd the perspector. r .120 2. (a) Find the coordinates of the second intersection A′ of C with XQ. 4 (b) Similarly deﬁne B ′ and C ′ . Consider an arbitrary point Q = (u : v : w). 5 4 ( 4u 2 : q ( u + v − w ) 2 : r ( u p p q r p p 5( v + w ) 2 : · · · : · · · ). Show that triangle A′ B ′ C ′ is perspective with ABC . Let C be the inscribed conic YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry cyclic 2yz x2 − = 0.

the intersection of Li and Lj is given by the k -row of M # . 3. j. (1) If the rows of a matrix M are the coordinates of three points. . Proposition Let (i. k ) be a permutation of the indices 1. (2) M ## = (det M )M . the line joining Pi and Pj has coordinates given by the k -th column of M # .Chapter 10: General Conics 121 10. 2.3 The adjoint of a matrix The adjoint of a matrix (not necessarily symmetric)   a11 a12 a13 M =  a21 a22 a23  a31 a32 a33 is the transpose of the matrix formed by the cofactors of M :   a22 a33 − a23 a32 −a12 a33 + a13 a32 a12 a23 − a22 a13 M # =  −a21 a33 + a23 a31 a11 a33 − a13 a31 −a11 a23 + a21 a13  a21 a32 − a31 a22 −a11 a32 + a31 a12 a11 a22 − a12 a21 Proposition (1) M M # = M # M = det(M )I . (2) If the columns of a matrix M are the coordinates of three lines.

1 Locus of Kiepert perspectors Recall that the apexes of similar isosceles triangles of base angles θ constructed on the sides of triangle ABC form a triangle Aθ B θ C θ with perspector K (θ ) = 1 1 1 : : SA + Sθ SB + Sθ SC + Sθ . r2 namely. Writing t = Sθ . This conic is nondegenerate provided det(M ) = 0.4. we may take (x : y : z ) = (SBC + a2 t + t2 : SCA + b2 t + t2 : SAB + c2 t + t2 ). v = (c2 − a2 )y . c0 c1 c2 M# p0 =  p1 p2  q0 q1 q2  r0 r1  . .122 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 10. and clearing denominators. 1  a 2 − b2 − S C ( a 2 − b2 )  SCC (a2 − b2 ) we have M# c 2 − a2 − SB (c 2 − a2 ) SBB (c2 − a2 ) Writing u = (b2 − c2 )x. where the coefﬁcients are given by the entries of the adjoint of the matrix   a0 a1 a2 M =  b0 b1 b2  . With SBC M =  SCA SAB b2 − c 2  − S A ( b2 − c 2 ) = SAA (b2 − c2 )   a2 b2 c2  1 1 . we have (SA u + SB v + SC w)2 − (u + v + w)(SAA u + SBB v + SCC w) = 0.4 Conics parametrized by quadratic functions Suppose x : y : z = a 0 + a 1 t + a 2 t 2 : b0 + b1 t + b2 t 2 : c 0 + c 1 t + c 2 t 2 Elimination of t gives (p1 x + q1 y + r1 z )2 − (p0 x + q0 y + r0 z )(p2 x + q2 y + r2 z ) = 0. 10. and w = (a2 − b2 )z .

we have. (b2 − c2 )yz = 0. after deleting a common factor −(a2 − b2 )(b2 − c2 )(c2 − a2 ). z . 123 cyclic cyclic In terms of x.Chapter 10: General Conics which simpliﬁes into 0= (2SBC − SBB − SCC )vw = − (b2 − c2 )2 vw. cyclic . y . cyclic This is the circum-hyperbola which is the isogonal transform of the line b2 c2 (b2 − c2 )x = 0.

5. We shall identify the homogeneous coordinates of a point P = (x : y : z ) with the row matrix ( x y z ). A line L with equation px + qy + rz = 0 is represented by the column matrix    p  q L=   r (so that P L = 0). 10.1 Line coordinates In working with conics. and denote it by the same P . can be represented by in matrix form P M P t = 0. q p h 10. we shall ﬁnd it convenient to use matrix notations. with   f r q M =  r g p .5.5 The matrix of a conic 10. We shall call L the line coordinates of L.124 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 10. .3 Tangent at a point Let P be a point on the conic C. The tangent at P is the line M P t .2 The matrix of a conic f x2 + gy 2 + hz 2 + 2pyz + 2qzx + 2rxy = 0 A conic given by a quadratic equation We shall denote the conic by C(M ).5.

Chapter 10: General Conics

125

10.6 The dual conic
10.6.1 Pole and polar
The polar of a point P (with respect to the conic C(M )) is the line M P t , and the pole of a line L is the point Lt M # . Conversely, if L intersects a conic C at two points P and Q, the pole of L with respect to C is the intersection of the tangents at P and Q. Exercises 1. A conic is self-polar if each vertex is the pole of its opposite side. Show that the matrix of a self-polar conic is a diagonal matrix. 2. If P lies on the polar of Q, then Q lies on the polar of P .

10.6.2

Condition for a line to be tangent to a conic

A line L : px + qy + rz = 0 is tangent to the conic C(M ) if and only if Lt M # L = 0. If this condition is satisﬁed, the point of tangency is Lt M # .

10.6.3

The dual conic

Let M be the symmetric matrix  f  r q gh − p2  pq − hr = rp − gq  r g p  q p . h  rp − gq qr − f p  . f g − r2

The dual conic of C = C(M ) is the conic represented by the adjoint matrix M# pq − rh hf − q 2 qr − f p

Therefore, a line L : px + qy + rz = 0 is tangent to C(M ) if and only if the point Lt = (p : q : r) is on the dual conic C(M # ).

10.6.4

The dual conic of a circumconic

The dual conic of the circumconic pyz + qzx + rxy = 0 (with perspector P = (p : q : r)) is the inscribed conic
cyclic 1 with perspector P • = ( p : 1 q

−p2 x2 + 2qryz = 0

:1 r ). The center is the point (q + r : r + p : p + q ).

126
A

YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry

P

B

C

Exercises 1. The polar of (u : v : w) with respect to the circumconic pyz + qzx + rxy = 0 is the line p(wy + vz ) + q (uz + wx) + r(vx + uy ) = 0.

2. Find the equation of the dual conic of the incircle. Deduce Feuerbach’s theorem by showing that the radical axis of the nine-point circle and the incircle, namely, the line y z x + + =0 b−c c−a a−b is tangent to the incircle. 6 3. Show that the common tangent to the incircle and the nine-point circle is also tangent to the Steiner in-ellipse. Find the coordinates of the point of tangency. 7 4. Let P = (u : v : w) and Q = (u′ : v ′ : w′ ) be two given points. If X = BP CP ∩ AAQ , Y = CP AP ∩ BBQ , Z = AP BP ∩ CCQ ,

show that AP X , BP Y and CP Z are concurrent at the pole of P Q with respect to the circumconic through P and Q. 8 5. The tangents at the vertices to the circumcircle of triangle ABC intersect the side lines BC , CA, AB at A′ , B ′ , C ′ respectively. The second tagents from A′ , B ′ , C ′ to the circumcircle have points of tangency X , Y , Z respectively. Show that XY Z is perspective with ABC and ﬁnd the perspector. 9
6 cyclic (s − a)yz = 0. 7 ((b − c)2 : (c − a)2 : (a

8 O.

− b)2 ). This point appears as X1086 in ETC. ` un triangle, Nieuw Archief voor Wiskunde, IV 5 (1957) Bottema, Une construction par rapport a

68–70. 9 (a2 (b4 + c4 − a4 ) : · · · : · · · ). This is a point on the Euler line. It appears as X 22 in ETC. See D.J. Smeenk and C.J. Bradley, Problem 2096 and solution, Crux Mathematicorum, 21 (1995) 344; 22(1996) 374 – 375.

Chapter 10: General Conics

127

10.7 The type, center and perspector of a conic
10.7.1 The type of a conic
The conic C(M ) is an ellipse, a parabola, or a hyperbola according as the characteristic GM # G is positive, zero, or negative. Proof. Setting z = −(x + y ), we reduce the equation of the conic into (h + f − 2q )x2 + 2(h − p − q + r)xy + (g + h − 2p)y 2 = 0. This has discriminant = = (h − p − q + r)2 − (g + h − 2p)(h + f − 2q ) h2 − (g + h)(h + f ) − 2h(p + q − r) +2(h + f )p + 2(g + h)q + (p + q − r)2 + 4pq −(f g + gh + hf ) + 2(f p + gq + hr) + (p2 + q 2 + r2 − 2pq − 2qr − 2rp)

which is the negative of the sum of the entries of M # . From this the result follows.

10.7.2

The center of a conic

The center of a conic is the pole of the line at inﬁnity. As such, the center of C(M ) has coordinates GM # , formed by the column sums of M # : (p(q +r−p)−(qg +rh)+gh : q (r+p−q )−(rh+pf )+hf : r(p+q −r)−(pf +qg )+f g ).

10.7.3

The perspector of a conic

Theorem (Conway) Let C = C(M ) be a nondegenerate, non-self-polar conic. The triangle formed by the poles of the sidelines is perspective with ABC , and has perspector 1 1 1 : : qr − pf rp − qg pq − rh .

Proof. The coordinates of these poles are given by the columns of the adjoint matrix M # . These are the points A′ = B′ = C′ = ∗∗∗∗∗: 1 1 , : rp − qg pq − rh 1 1 , : ∗∗∗∗∗: qr − pf pq − rh 1 1 : : ∗∗∗∗∗ . qr − pf rp − qg
1 pq −rh

From these it is clear that A′ B ′ C ′ is perspective with ABC at the point given above. The point
1 qr −pf

:

1 rp−qg

:

is called the perspector of the conic C(M ).

13 6. 5. Let C be a conic tangent to the side lines AB and AC at B and C respectively. The inscribed conic with perspector P has equation x2 2yz − = 0. A circumconic is an ellipse. 14 10 Parabola. or outside the Steiner in-ellipse. This points appears b+c−a 12 The parabola has equation x2 − 4yz = 0. Find the perspector of the conic through the traces of P and Q. Show that the center of the conic lies on the A-median. Conics loci associated with conics. 3. .128 Proposition YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry The center of the inscribed conic with perspector P is the inferior of P • . 2 p qr cyclic Exercises 1. What type of conic does the equation b2 y 2 c2 z 2 a2 x 2 + + =0 f g h represent? 10 2. forthcom- ing. van Lamoen and Paul Yiu. (a) (b) (c) (d) Show that the equation of C is of the form x2 − kyz = 0 for some k . Construct the parabola in this family as a ﬁve-point conic. Find the perspector of the conic through the 6 points of tangency of the excircles with the side lines. Forum Geometricorum. 2 2 11 ( a +(b+c) : · · · : · · · ). a parabola or a hyperbola according as the perspector is inside. 12 Design an animation of the conic as its center traverses the A-median. then the conic contains (t : −2 : t). in ETC as X388 . A P•G P B C Proof. Let (f : g : h) be an inﬁnite point. 13 If 14 Floor the center is (t : 1 : 1). Prove that the locus of the centers of circumconics through P is the conic through the traces of P and the midpoints of the sides. 11 4. on.

1 Inscribed conic with prescribed foci 11. the product of the distances F1 Q1 and F2 Q2 to the tangents is constant.1. Proof.2 The Brocard ellipse b4 c4 x2 − 2a4 b2 c2 yz = 0 cyclic .1. 11. Indeed. The center of the conic is the midpoint of the segment. F2 on the tangents. A P T1 T2 F2 F1 F2 F1 B C Given a pair of isogonal conjugates. being the square of the semi-minor axis. Then ∠F1 P T1 = ∠F2 P T2 . there is an inscribed conic with foci at the two points. if Q1 . Q2 are the pedals of F1 . T2 the points of tangency from a point P . and T1 . Let F1 and F2 be the foci of a conic.Chapter 11 Some Special Conics 11.1 Theorem The foci of an inscribed central conic are isogonal conjugates.

Catalan. Given that the equation of the conic is show that it is always an ellipse. GCA. Note sur l’ellipse de Longchamps. Find the coordinates of the center and the perspector. ( c 2 a 2 : a 2 b 2 : b2 c 2 ) . Exercises 1. and has center at I .4 The Lemoine ellipse Construct the inscribed conic with foci G and K . message 209. Th´ ebault. Its center is the Brocard midpoint (a2 (b2 + c2 ) : b2 (c2 + a2 ) : c2 (a2 + b2 )). cyclic The de Longchamps ellipse is the conic through the traces of the incenter I . 1/22/00. What is this point? 4 3.3 3 The de Longchamps ellipse b2 c2 (b + c − a)x2 − 2a3 bcyz = 0.205.130 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry The Brocard ellipse is the inscribed ellipse with foci at the Brocard points Ω→ Ω← = = ( a 2 b2 : b2 c 2 : c 2 a 2 ) . Ehrmann. IV 2 (1893) 28–30. What are the lengths of the semi-major and semi-minor axes of the ellipse? 5 11. 2. which is the inferior of (b2 c2 : c2 a2 : a2 b2 ). Hyacinthos. . The minor axis is the ellipse is along the line OI . 2. Sp´ eciales. American Mathematical Monthly. It follows that the perspector is the symmedian point. the isotomic conjugate of the symmedian point. APH. and GAB .1. By Carnot’s theorem. The minor auxiliary circle is tangent to the nine-point circle. 3 E. Journal Math. s− a s− b s− c 5 R and r 2 2 Jean-Pierre 1 V. The points of tangency with the side lines are the traces of the G-symmedians of triangles GBC . 4 ( a : b : c ). 1 What is the point of tangency? 2 11. the “second” intersections of the ellipse with the side lines are the traces of a point P .1. Problem 3857. Show that the equation of the Brocard ellipse is as given above. Exercises 1.

The perspector is the isotomic conjugate of the circumcenter. Exercises 1. . mc are the lengths of the medians of triangle ABC . The major auxiliary circle is the nine-point circle. Show that the equation of the Lemoine ellipse is 2 2 2 m4 a x − 2mb mc yz = 0 cyclic where ma .Chapter 11: Some Special Conics 131 A A K G H N O B C B C 11.5 The inscribed conic with center N This has foci O and H . mb . It is the envelope of the perpendicular bisectors of the segments joining H to a point on the circumcircle.1.

This gives the direction of the axis of the parabola. The intersection of the axis with the parabola is the vertex (SB (w − u) − SC (u − v ))2 : ··· : ··· v−w . This is the point 1 1 1 : : v−w w−u u−v on the Steiner circum-ellipse. The tangent at the vertex is the Simson line of the focus. and is perpendicular to the line ux + vy + wz = 0. being the polar of the focus. This passes through the orthocenter. is cyclic The perspector is the isotomic conjugate of that of its dual. The inscribed parabola. It is in fact the line of reﬂections of the focus.132 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 11. The dual conic is the circumconic 1 1 1 • passes through the centroid (1 : 1 : 1) and P = ( u :v :w ). Animate a point P on the Steiner circum-ellipse and construct the inscribed parabola with perspector P . is the line SA (v − w)x + SB (w − u)y + SC (u − v )z = 0. The center of the parabola is the inﬁnite point (v − w : w − u : u − v ). which we regard as the tripolar x z of a point P = (u : v : w). . being the dual of C# . The directrix. The other focus is the isogonal conjugate a2 b2 c2 : : v−w w−u u−v on the circumcircle.2 Inscribed parabola Consider the inscribed parabola tangent to a given line. ℓ : u +y v + w = 0. or equivalently the barycentric product of the inﬁnite point of the tangent and its tripole. The axis is the line through this point parallel to ux + vy + wz = 0. Exercises 1. Thus. the given tangent. It is the circumconic C# v−w w−u u−v + + = 0. x y z −(v − w)2 x2 + 2(w − u)(u − v )yz = 0. It can also be regarded the inﬁnite focus of the parabola. the barycentric product of P and the inﬁnite point of its tripolar. Where does the parabola touch the given line? (u2 (v − w) : v 2 (w − u) : w2 (u − v )).

7 These foci are called the Bickart points. 10 These asymptotes are also parallel to the axes of the Steiner ellipses. B ′ . Let C be a circumconic through the centroid G. Hyacinthos.1 The Steiner circum-ellipse xy + yz + zx = 0 Construct the Steiner circum-ellipse which has center at the centroid G. AB at A′ . The fourth intersection with the circumcircle is the Steiner point. Nieuw Archief voor Wiskunde.H. message 1237. 8 11. 8 O.3. Wiskundige Opgaven met de Oplossingen. 2/1/00. Hatzipolakis and P. An easy way to construct the center as the intersection of the nine-point circle with the pedal circle of the centroid. Hyacinthos. 12 The Tarry point. Conway. The pedal circle of P intersects the nine-point circle at the centers of C and of (the rectangular circum. 8/18/00. B . .3 Some special conics 11. C ′ respectively.Chapter 11: Some Special Conics 133 11. and show that it is antipodal to the Steiner point. Each of them has the property that three cevian segments are equal in length. Hyacinthos. Problem 32. 10 These intersect at the center which is on the nine-point circle. C intersect the sidelines BC . 6 (1980) 98 – 104. J. Construct the foci of the ellipse. Yiu.3 The Kiepert hyperbola cyclic (b 2 − c2 )yz = 0 The asymptotes are the Simson lines of the intersections of the Brocard axis OK with the circumcircle. 12 Conway. The tangents at A. 7 The 6 J. message 1237. 20-1 (1955) 31–32. The axes of the ellipse are the bisectors of the angle KGS . Tummers. 9 J. and the vertices of the ellipse. Pounder. On some remarkable points of a triangle. nearer to the orthocenter. Crux Mathematicorum. 9 11. which has coordinates 1 1 1 . 11 Exercises 1. 11 The other intersection is the center of the Jerabek hyperbola. 8/18/00. CA. principal axis of the Steiner circum-ellipse containing the foci is the least square line for the three vertices of the triangle. Show that the line A′ B ′ C ′ is tangent to the Steiner in-ellipse at the center of C. Bottema. ibid.H.3. message 260. See F. Gremmen. 239 – 240.R.2 Exercises The Steiner in-ellipse cyclic x2 − 2yz = 0 1. This is based on the following theorem: Let P be a point on a rectangular circum-hyperbola C.H. postscript. 6 Construct these axes. Hyacinthos. 8/19/00.P. See. See A. : : b2 − c 2 c 2 − a 2 a 2 − b2 Construct this point as the isotomic conjugate of an inﬁnite point. Find the fourth intersection of the Kiepert hyperbola with the circumcircle.3.hyperbola which is) the isogonal conjugate of the line OP . 19 (1971) 46 – 57. messages 1243 and 1249. J. Equal cevians.

If P = (x : y : z ). Let P be a given point other than the incenters. Hyacinthos. the center of the conic has 1 1 1 coordinates ( b2 − c2 : c2 −a2 : a2 −b2 ). 8/19/00. • It passes through the four incenters.3. Excluding points on the side lines. the four points (±1 : ±1 : ±1).C. the four points (±a : ±b : ±c). . A′ BC ′ . message 1401. The Brocard axes (the line joining the circumcenter and the symmedian point) of the triangles AB ′ C ′ .H. Show that the Kiepert hyperbola is the locus of points whose tripolars are perpendicular to the Euler line. 16 Floor van Lamoen. and A′ B ′ C intersect at the Kiepert center. message 1251. 16 13 O. then we require 0 = = = x yz a2 yz y z zx xy b2 zx c2 xy − c 2 ) x2 = 0 a2 xyz (y 2 − z 2 ) + b2 zxy (z 2 − x2 ) + c2 xyz (x2 − y 2 ) −xyz ((b2 − c2 )x2 + (c2 − a2 )y 2 + (a2 − b2 )z 2 ). 13 3.134 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 2. This means that the conic C are tangent to the 4 lines ±ax + ±by + ±cz = 0. Its dual conic passes through the four incenters. We note some interesting properties of this conic: • It passes through the centroid and the vertices of the superior triangle. van Hoorn. namely.4 The superior Kiepert hyperbola cyclic (b 2 Consider the locus of points P for which the three points P . Let A′ B ′ C ′ be the orthic triangle. Eddy and R. 14 Floor van Lamoen. What are these lines? 15 2. IV 1 (1983) 79. Nieuw Archief voor Wiskunde. Bottema and M. Since these four points form an orthocentric quadruple. Problem 664. P • (isotomic conjugate) and P ∗ (isogonal conjugate) are collinear. namely. ibid. the locus of P is the conic (b2 − c2 )x2 + (c2 − a2 )y 2 + (a2 − b2 )z 2 = 0. 15 The conic C is self-polar. 9/11/00. All conics passing through the four incenters are tangent to four ﬁxed straight lines. See also R.. Fritsch. Exercises 1. • Since the matrix representing the conic is diagonal. 14 11. the conic is a rectangular hyperbola. IV 13 (1995) 165 – 172. Show that the center of the conic through P and the four incenters is the fourth intersection of the circumcircle and the circumconic with perspector P · P (barycentric square of P ). On a problem of Bottema and van Hoorn. Hyacinthos. which is the Steiner point.

The Feuerbach hyperbola is the locus of point P for which the cevian quotient I/P lies on the OI -line. Complete the squares At XXb Ab and At XXc Ac with Xb and Xc on the line BC . Yiu. The locus of the perspector is the Feuerbach hyperbola. This pedal circle always passes through the Feuerbach point. Its center is the Feuerbach point. Hyacinthos.6 The Jerabek hyperbola a 2 ( b2 − c 2 ) S A =0 x The Jerabek hyperbola cyclic is the isogonal transform of the Euler line. Find the coordinates of the fourth intersection of the Feuerbach hyperbola with the circumcircle. Let X be the pedal of A on the side BC of triangle ABC . 8/7/01. 6/13/00.5 The Feuerbach hyperbola a(b − c)(s − a)yz = 0 cyclic This is the isogonal transform of the OI -line. Hyacinthos. 4. and construct its pedal circle. 19 Exercises 1. Animate a point P on the Feuerbach hyperbola. They form a triangle perspective with ABC . Similarly deﬁne ′′ ′′ ′′ ′′ .P. a 20 ( : · · · : · · · ). let At be the point on the altitude through A such that XAt = t · XA. 21 Hatzipolakis. 8/7/01. 20 2. message 3370. a2 (b+c)−2abc−(b+c)(b−c)2 21 P. Three particles are moving at equal speeds along the perpendiculars from I to the side lines. 17 A. 11. . message 1013. Hyacinthos.Chapter 11: Some Special Conics 135 3. 18 11. 3. 17 Let ′′ ′ A′ t = BAc ∩ CAb . For a real number t. Show that as t varies. and At be the pedal of At on the side BC . Hatzipolakis. Its center is the point ((b2 − c2 )2 SA : (c2 − a2 )2 SB : (a2 − b2 )2 SC ) on the nine-point circle. This point appears as X104 in ETC.3. 19 The Jerabek center appears as X 125 in ETC. message 3370. The rectangular hyperbola through the incenter. 18 A. and the perspector traverses the Kiepert hyperbola.3. triangle A′′ andCt Bt t Bt Ct is perspective with ABC .P.

Gibert. message 4247. Let ℓ be a line through O. 22 6. appears as X74 in ETC. . Find the fourth intersection of the Jerabek hyperbola with the circumcircle. 23 a2 22 ( : · · · : · · · ). Hyacinthos. This point 2a4 −a2 (b2 +c2 )−(b2 −c2 )2 23 B.136 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 5. 10/30/01. The tangent at H to the rectangular hyperbola which is the isogonal conjugate of ℓ intersects ℓ at a point on the Jerabek hyperbola.

2 Envelope of area-bisecting lines Let Y be a point on the line AC . As θ varies. 11. The equation of the line B θ C θ is (S 2 − 2SA t − t2 )x + (S 2 + 2(SA + SB )t + t2 )y + (S 2 + 2(SC + SA )t + t2 )z = 0. where t = Sθ = S · cot θ. There is a unique point Z on AB such that the signed area of AZY is half of triangle ABC . If 1 1 Y = (1 − t : 0 : t).4.1 The Artzt parabolas Consider similar isosceles triangles Aθ BC .Chapter 11: Some Special Conics 137 11. c2 Proof.4. AB θ C and ABC θ constructed on the sides of triangle ABC . x y z This envelopes the conic (x + y + z )2 − 8yz = 0.4 Envelopes The envelope of the parametrized family of lines ( a 0 + a 1 t + a 2 t 2 ) x + ( b 0 + b1 t + b2 t 2 ) y + ( c 0 + c 1 t + c 2 t 2 ) z = 0 is the conic24 (a1 x + b1 y + c1 z )2 − 4(a0 x + b0 y + c0 z )(a2 x + b2 y + c2 z ) = 0. this envelopes the conic (−SA x + c2 y + b2 z )2 − S 2 (x + y + z )(−x + y + z ) = 0 11. The line Y Z has equation 1−t 0 t 0 = 2t − 1 1 0 = −tx + (−t + 2t2 )y + (1 − t)z. This is the dual conic of the conic parametrized by x : y : z = a 0 + a 1 t + a 2 t 2 : b0 + b 1 t + b 2 t 2 : c 0 + c 1 t + c 2 t 2 . We call Y Z an area-bisecting line. then Z = (1 − 2 t : 2t : 0) = (2t − 1 : 1 : 0. . This conic has representing matrix  1 1 1 M =  1 1 −3  1 −3 1  24 This can be rewritten as 2 (4a0 a2 − a2 1 )x + 2(2(b0 c2 + b2 c0 ) − b1 c1 )yz = 0. provided that the determinant a0 b0 c0 a1 b1 c1 a2 b2 = 0.

To construct this as a 5-point conic. These lines envelopes the conic (sx + (s − c)y + (s + b)z )2 − 4bsz (x + y + z ) = 0 with representing matrix s2  s (s − c ) s ( s − b)  with adjoint matrix M# 2(s − a) = −8bcs  s − b s−c  s−b 0 −s  s−c −s  . √ √ √ √ y : z = 3 ± 2 2 : 1 = ( 2 ± 1)2 : 1 = 2 ± 1 : 2 ∓ 1. 2 1 = −4  1 0 1 −1   1 −1  . we need only ﬁnd 3 points on the hyperbola. then AZ = s − t.4. . If AY = t. y − 3z : z = ±2 2 : 1.3 Envelope of perimeter-bisecting lines Let Y be a point on the line AC . Unfortunately the latter two are inﬁnite point: they give the lines AB and AC as asymptotes of the hyperbola. This means that the axes of the hyperbola are the bisectors of angle A. 0 11. .138 with adjoint matrix M# YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry This is a hyperbola with center at the vertex A. (1 : −1 : 0) and (1 : 0 : −1). We call Y Z a perimeter-bisecting line. we set x = 0 and obtain (y + z )2 − 8yz = 0. There is a unique point Z on AB such that the (signed) lengths of the segments AY and AZ add up to the semiperimeter of triangle ABC . Here are three obvious points: the centroid G. . 0 s (s − c ) (s − c )2 (s − b)(s − c)  s ( s − b) (s − b)(s − c)  ( s − b) 2 This conic is a parabola tangent to the lines CA and AB at the points (−(s − b) : 0 : s) and (−(s − c) : s : 0). To √ ﬁnd a ﬁfth point. The line Y Z has equation (t2 − st)x + (t2 − (s − c)t)y + (t2 − (s + b)t + bs)z = 0. Thus images of G in these axes give three more points on the hyperbola. . The coordinates of the points are Y = (b − t : 0 : t) and Z = (c − s + t : s − t : 0). 25 25 These are the points of tangency of the A-excircle with the side lines. .

and (SB (SC − SA ) : SA (SB − SC ) : 0).4 The tripolars of points on the Euler line A typical point on the Euler line SA (SB − SC )x = 0 cyclic has coordinates (SBC + t : SCA + t : SAB + t).. The perspector is the point 26 1 SA (SB − SC ) 26 This 27 The : 1 SB (SC − SA ) : 1 SC (SA − SB ) . 27 point appears as X648 in ETC. SBC + t (SBC + a2 SA t + t2 )x. This can be rewritten as cyclic SAA (SB − SC )2 x2 − 2SBC (SC − SA )(SA − SB )yz = 0. SAA (SB − SC )x = 0.e. (SC (SA − SB ) : 0 : SA (SB − SC )). This can be rewritten as cyclic SAA (SB − SC )2 x2 − 2SBC (SC − SA )(SA − SB )yz = 0. tangent to the side lines at the points (0 : SC (SA − SB ) : SB (SC − SA )). The isotomic conjugate of this perspector being an inﬁnite point. . with tripolar 1 x = 0. SCC (SA − SB ) This is clearly an inscribed conic. It is represented by the matrix SAA (SB − SC )2 M =  −SAB (SB − SC )(SC − SA ) SCA (SA − SB )(SB − SC )  −SAB (SB − SC )(SC − SA ) SBB (SC − SA ) −SBC (SC − SA )(SA − SB )  −SCA (SA − SB )(SB − SC ) −SBC (SC − SA )(SA − SB )  . i. focus is the point X112 in ETC: a2 b2 c2 : : SA (SB − SC ) SB (SC − SA ) SC (SA − SB ) Its directrix is the line of reﬂection of the focus.4. cyclic cyclic or 0= (v + t)(w + t)x = cyclic The envelope is the conic (a2 SA x + b2 SB y + c2 SC z )2 − 4SABC (x + y + z )(SA x + SB y + SC z ) = 0. the conic is a parabola. cyclic .Chapter 11: Some Special Conics 139 11.

Construct the isotomic conjugate of its isogonal conjugate. Animate a point P on the circumcircle. . Find the envelope of the radical axis of C(P ) and the incircle. and construct a circle C(P ).e.. the point Q = (P ∗ )• . Animate a point P on the circumcircle. center P . and radius half of the inradius. 2.140 Exercises YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 1. What is the envelope of the line joining P Q? 28 28 The Steiner point. i.

1. Xb = (0 : v : w + u). intersecting the side lines at the points Y a = (u : 0 : v + w ).Chapter 12 Some More Conics 12. with equation vw(v + w)x2 − u(vw + (w + u)(u + v ))yz = 0. A Yc Za = (u : v + w : 0). From this we obtain . Construct parallels through P to the side lines. Zb Za P Ya B Xc Xb C These 6 points lie on a conic CP . Y c = (u + v : 0 : w ). Zb = (w + u : v : 0).1 Conics associated with parallel intercepts 12.1 Lemoine’s thorem Let P = (u : v : w) be a given point. Xc = (0 : u + v : w). cyclic This equation can be rewritten as − + (u + v + w)2 (uyz + vzx + wxy ) (x + y + z )(vw(v + w)x + wu(w + u)y + uv (u + v )z ) = 0.

cyclic with center (2u + v + w : u + 2v + w : u + v + 2w) and perspector 1 1 1 : : v+w w+u u+v 1 The center has coordinates (u(2vw + u(v + w − u)) 2 The . Show that the conic CP through the 6 parallel intercepts through P is an ellipse. 2 12. Yc Zb : Z a Xc : Xb Y a : −vwx + w(w + u)y + v (u + v )z = 0. x = 0. 1 2. or a hyperbola according as P is inside. Show that the Lemoine circle is concentric with the Brocard circle. The sides of the hexagon have equations Ya Yc : Zb Za : Xc Xb : y = 0. u v It is easy to note that these six points lie on the circumconic v+w w+u u+v + + = 0. and that its center is the midpoint of the P and the cevian quotient G/P . These correspond to the following points on the dual conic: the vertices and −1 : w+u u+v : v w .142 Theorem (Lemoine) YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry The conic through the 6 parallel intercepts of P is a circle if and only if P is the symmedian point. w(v + w)x − wuy + u(u + v )z = 0. z = 0. : v (2wu+v (w +u−v )) : w(2uv +w(u+v −w)). v (v + w)x + u(w + u)y − uvz = 0.1. there is another conic inscribed in the same hexagon. x y z It follows that the 6 lines are tangent to the incribed conic (v + w)2 x2 − 2(w + u)(u + v )yz = 0. v+w w+u : : −1 . Exercises 1. a parabola. center of the Lemoine circle is the midpoint between K and G/K = O. on. or outside the Steiner in-ellipse. v+w u+v : −1 : u w .2 A conic inscribed in the hexagon W (P ) While CP is a conic circumscribing the hexagon W (P ) = Ya Yc Zb Za Xc Xb . .

The triangle A′ B ′ C ′ is perspective with ABC if and only if (a2 (x + y + z ) − SB x)(b2 (x + y + z ) − SC y )(c2 (x + y + z ) − SA z ) (a2 (x + y + z ) − SC x)(b2 (x + y + z ) − SA y )(c2 (x + y + z ) − SB z ). .3 Centers of inscribed rectangles Let P = (x : y : z ) be a given point. The vertices of the rectangle on the sides AC and AB are the points (x : y + z : 0) and (x : 0 : y + z ). consider the two other rectangles with top edges through P parallel to CA and AB respectively. u +v and ( vu : +w : u + v ). The center of the rectangle is the point A′ = (a2 x : a2 (x + y + z ) − SB x : a2 (x + y + z ) − SC x). Construct the inscribed rectangle whose top edge is the parallel to BC through P .Chapter 12: Some More Conics A 143 Yc Zb Za P Ya B Xc Xb C Exercises 1. Za Xc and Xb Ya . Further cancelling a common factor x + y + z . we obtain the quadratic equation a2 SA (SB − SC )yz + (x + y + z ) 3 (v cyclic 2 b2 c2 (SB − SC )x = 0. v2 w +u +w : v2 w +u : w2 ). with centers B ′ and C ′ . Find the coordinates of the points of tangency of this inscribed conic with the Yc Zb .1. so do the last terms. Similarly. : : v+w w+u u+v 12. = The ﬁrst terms of these expressions cancel one another. and show that they form a triangle perspective with ABC at 3 u2 v2 w2 . u +v ( vu :w+u: +w 2 w2 ).

It also contains the de Longchamps point L = (−SBC + SCA + SAB : · · · : · · · ) and the point (SB + SC − SA : SC + SA − SB : SA + SB − SC ). it contains the point H ∗ = O and G∗ = K . 11/10/04. . 4 P circumcenter symmedian point de Longchamps point (3a2 − b2 − c2 : · · · : · · · ) Exercises 1. cyclic Since the Jerabek hyperbola is the isogonal transform of the Euler line.144 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry This means that the locus of P for which the centers of the inscribed rectangles form a perspective triangle is a hyperbola in the pencil generated by the Jerabek hyperbola a2 SA (SB − SC )yz = 0 and the Brocard axis OK b2 c2 (SB − SC )x = 0. by Peter Moses. Show that the three inscribed rectangles are similar if and only if P is the point b2 c2 a2 : : t + a 2 t + b2 t + c 2 . Perspector 1 1 1 ( 2S 2 − SBC : 2S 2 −SCA : 2S 2 −SAB ) (3a2 + b2 + c2 : a2 + 3b2 + c2 : a2 + b2 + 3c2 ) (SBC (S 2 + 2SAA ) : · · · : · · · ) 1 ( S 2 +SAA +SBC : · · · : · · · ) where t is the unique positive root of the cubic equation 5 t3 − (a2 b2 + b2 c2 + c2 a2 )t2 − 2a2 b2 c2 = 0. 4 None 5 Corrected of these perspectors appears in the current edition of ETC. The conic therefore passes through O and K .

The intersections of the conics are the same as those of these lines with any one of them. These clearly are not area . 1 −1 0 On the other hand. we obtain −2a −sM1 + M2 =  −b −c  −b 0 0  −c 0 0 which represents the degenerate conic 2ax2 + 2bxy + 2cxy = 2x(ax + by + cz ) = 0. In the pencil of conics generated by these two. With x = 0 we obtain yz = 0. These correspond to the lines CA and AB . Now. for any real parameter t. In other words.2 that the A-area-bisecting lines envelope the conic whose dual is represented by the matrix   2 1 1 M1 =  1 0 − 1  . the A-perimeter-bisecting lines envelope another conic whose dual is represented by   2(s − a) s − b s − c 0 −s  . namely. M2 =  s − b s−c −s 0 To ﬁnd a line simultaneously bisecting the area and perimeter. there is at least one member which degenerates into a union of two lines. the conics represented by matrices of the form tM1 + M2 . we seek an intersection of of the two dual conics represented by M1 and M2 .4. the intersections of the two dual conics are the same as those x2 + xy + xz − yz = 0 (represented by M1 ) and the lines x = 0 and ax + by + cz = 0. 2(t + s − a) t+s−b t+s−c t+s−b 0 − (t + s ) t+s−c − (t + s ) 0 det(tM1 + M2 ) = = = = −2(t + s)(t + s − b)(t + s − c) − 2(t + s)2 (t + s − a) −2(t + s)[(t + s − b)(t + s − c) + (t + s)(t + s − a)] −2(t + s)[2(t + s)2 − 2s(t + s) + bc] By choosing t = −s.Chapter 12: Some More Conics 145 12. and hence the points (0 : 0 : 1) and (0 : 1 : 0) on the dual conic.2 Lines simultaneously bisecting perimeter and area Recall from §11.

2b The division points on AC are (1 − t : 0 : t) = 2b − s ∓ s2 − 2bc : 0 : s ± s2 − 2bc . and with corresponding t satisfying 2bt2 − (a + b + c)t + c = 0. From this.146 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry bisecting lines. t= (a + b + c ) ± (a + b + c)2 − 8bc s± = 4b √ s2 − 2bc . This means that such a line must pass through the incenter I . .

Each pair of them. has a unique common tangent. A O B C Exercises 1. and c−parabolas respectively. 6 6 −S 2 x2 + a2 (c2 y 2 + 2SA yz + b2 z 2 ) = 0.Chapter 12: Some More Conics 147 12.3 Parabolas with vertices of a triangle as foci and sides as directrices Given triangle ABC . b−. The intersections of BHa and CHa with the perpendicular bisector of BC are the points of tangency with the b− and c−parabolas respectively. consider the three parabolas each with one vertex as focus and the opposite side as directrix. The vertices are clearly the midpoints of the altitudes. . The three common tangents therefore intersect at the circumcenter. No two of these parabolas intersect. The points of tangency of the perpendicular bisector BC with the b− and c−parabolas cR are inverse with respect to the circumcircle. Find the equation of the a-parabola. Ha its reﬂection in the side BC . These points of tangency can be easily constructed as follows. for they are at distances bR c and b from the circumcenter O. and call these the a−. Let H be the orthocenter of triangle ABC . It is well known that Ha lies on the circumcircle. which is the perpendicular bisector of a side of the triangle. however.

The centers of the Soddy circles clearly are the intersections of the three Soddy hyperbolas. and C (s − c). consider the hyperbola passing through A.1 The Soddy hyperbolas Given triangle ABC . The reﬂections of A in the side BC and its perpendicular bisector are clearly points on the same hyperbola. the points of tangency of the side BC with the incircle and the A-excircle.4 The Soddy hyperbolas and Soddy circles 12. there are three circles centered at the vertices and mutually tangent to each other externally.4. and with foci at B and C . A I B C Likewise.148 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 12. 12. and (0 : s − c : s − b). The Soddy circles of triangle ABC are the two circles each tangent to these three circles. .2 The Soddy circles Given triangle ABC . we speak of the B . The vertices of the hyperbola on the transverse axis BC are the points (0 : s − b : s − c).and C -Soddy hyperbolas of the same triangle. so is the symmetric of A with respect to the midpoint of BC . and locate obvious points on these hyperbolas.4. We shall call this the a-Soddy hyperbola of the triangle. since this and related hyperbolas lead to the construction of the famous Soddy circle. B (s − b). all externally or all internally. These are the circles A(s − a).

Chapter 12: Some More Conics 149 A O B C Exercises 1. Show that the equation of A-Soddy hyperbola is Fa = (c + a − b)(a + b − c)(y 2 + z 2 ) −2(a2 + (b − c)2 )yz − 4b(b − c)zx + 4(b − c)cxy = 0. .

3 The center of C (1) B ′ := the second intersection of C with the parallel through B to AC . (2) Let M be the midpoint of AB .2 The second intersection of C and a line ℓ through A (1) P := AC ∩ BE . 12.1 The tangent at a point on C (1) P := AC ∩ BD.5. and no four concyclic. to form a line ℓ′ . 12. (4) A′ := ℓ ∩ ER.5.5 Vertices of C (1) Construct the tangent at A to intersect to the axes OX and OY at P and Q respectively. the conic C. A′ is the second intersection of C and ℓ. Construct (i) OM and (ii) the parallel through O to AB each to intersect the circle at a point. (4) Repeat (3) for the circle with diameter QQ′ . AR is the tangent at A.5. B . (5) O := ℓb ∩ ℓc is the center of the conic C. (3) Construct a tangent OT to the circle with diameter P P ′ . no three of which are collinear. (2) Q := ℓ ∩ BD. (5) Let KP intersect the circle K (O) at X and Y . Join these two points to form a line ℓ. D.4 Principal axes of C (1) K (O) := any circle through the center O of the conic C. 12. (3) R := P Q ∩ BE . (2) ℓb := the line joining the midpoints of BB ′ and AC . (4) ℓc := the line joining the midpoints of CC ′ and AB . . (4) P := ℓ ∩ ℓ′ . C . 12. 12.5. or a hyperbola. (2) Construct the perpendicular feet P ′ and Q′ of A on the axes OX and OY . (3) Repeat (2) for another chord AC .150 YIU: Introduction to Triangle Geometry 12. (2) Q := AD ∩ CE . The intersections of the line OX with the circle O(T ) are the vertices on this axis.5 Appendix: Constructions with conics Given 5 points A. a parabola. Then the lines OX and OY are the principal axes of the conic C. Through these 5 points is either an ellipse. (3) C ′ := the second intersection of C with the parallel through C to AB .5. E . (3) R := P Q ∩ CD.

center P .5.6 Intersection of C with a line L Let F be a focus. (1) Let H = L ∩ ℓ. (3) Construct a circle. (6) The parallels through F to P X and P Y intersect the given line L at two points on the conic. . ℓ a directrix. (2) Take an arbitrary point P with pedal Q on the directrix. (4) Through P construct the parallel to L. intersecting the circle above in X and Y. and e = the eccentricity. radius e · P Q.Chapter 12: Some More Conics 151 12. intersecting the directrix at O. (5) Through O construct the parallel to F H .