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Presentation 2 : Power Electronics

# Presentation 2 : Power Electronics

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by Mohamed A El-Sharkawi.
by Mohamed A El-Sharkawi.

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01/03/2011

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# Power Electronics

Professor Mohamed A. El-Sharkawi

Power Control
Power
On-time (ton)

ton Ps = P τ
ρ

P Ps

Off-time

(toff)
Period (

Time

τ)
2

El-Sharkawi@University of Washington

Power P
On-time (ton)

Off-time

(toff)
Period (

Time (t)

τ)

ton
El-Sharkawi@University of Washington

toff
3

Energy Consumption (E)
Power P
On-time (ton)

Ps
Off-time

(toff)
Period (

Time (t)

τ)

Duty Ratio (K)

E ≡ Pt

ton Es = Ps t = Pt τ
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vsw
i
vs

Ideal Switch
+
vs R

vt
-

R

i

vs
Vsw

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Bi-polar Transistor
(C) Collector Base (B) N (B) P N Emitter (E) (E) (B) VBE IB (C) VCB

(C) IC

VCE

IE (E)

IC ≈ β I B I E = I B + IC

VCE = VCB + VBE

(C) IC VCB IB (B) VBE IE VCE

Characteristics of Bi-polar Transistor
Saturation Region IC IB1 < IB2 IB1 Linear Region IB= 0 V 0.6 BE Cut Off Region VCE

IB

(E)

Base Characteristics

Collector Characteristics

IC RL IB V CE V CC

IC VCC RL (1)

IB max

(2) IB = 0

VCC = VCE + RL I C
At point (1) VCE is very small Closed switch Open switch

VCC

VCE

At point (2) IC is very small

VCC IC ≈ RL

VCE ≈ VCC

Example
• Estimate the losses of the transistor at point 1 and 2. Also calculate the losses at a mid point in the linear region where IB=0.1A. The current gain in the saturation region is 4.9 and in the linear region is 50.

IC 10Ω
IB max=2A

IC VCC RL (1)

IB max

V CE 100V (2) IB = 0 VCC
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VCE
13

Solution
IC 10Ω
IB max=2A

IC Vcc RL

IB max 1 3 2 IB = 0 VCC VCE

VCE 100V

At point 1 Total losses = base loses + collector losses
Total losses = I B max * VBE + I C1 * VCE1

2* 0.7 + [4.9 * 2]* (100 − 4.9 * 2 * 10 ) = 21 W

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Solution
IC 10Ω
IB max=2A

IC Vcc RL

IB max 1 3 2 IB = 0 VCC VCE

VCE 100V

At point 2 Total losses = collector losses Assume VCE=0.99 VCC
Total losses = I C 2 * VCE 2

⎡100 − 0.99 * 100 ⎤ ⎥ * (0.99* 100) = 10 W ⎢ 10 ⎦ ⎣
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Solution
IC 10Ω
IB max=0.1A

IC Vcc RL

IB max 1 3 2 IB = 0 VCC VCE

VCE 100V

At point 3 Total losses = base loses + collector losses

Total losses = I B 3 * VBE + I C 3 * VCE 3

0.1* 0.7 + [50 * 0.1]* (100 − 50 * 0.1* 10 ) = 250.07 W

Power transistors cannot operate in the linear region
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Thyristors [Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)]
Anode (A)
IA

Ig = max Ig > 0 Gate (G)
VRB

Ig = 0

Ih
V AK V TO VBO

Cathode (K)

Closing Conditions of SCR
1. Positive anode to cathode voltage (VAK) 2. Maximum triggering pulse is applied (Ig)
Anode (A)

Gate (G)

Cathode (K)

Closing angle is α
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Opening Conditions of SCR
1. Anode current is below the holding value (Ih)
VRB IA

Ig = 0 Ih
V AK

Opening angle is β
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Power Converters

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Power Converters

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AC/DC Converters

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Single-Phase, Half-Wave
+ vt -

vs

i

R

vs = Vmax sin( ω t )

vs i = ( only when SCR is closed ) R
vt = i R = vs ( only when SCR is closed )

vt i= R
vt

i

vs

i

+ vt -

R

α

β

ωt
vs
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1 Vave = 2π

1 ∫ vt dω t = 2 π α vs dω t ∫ 0

β

vt

i

α

β

ωt
vs
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1 1 Vave = ∫ vs dω t = 2 π α vs dω t ∫ 2π α

β

π

vt

i

1 Vave = ∫ Vmax sin (ω t ) dωt 2π α

π

Vmax Vave = ( 1 + cos α ) 2π

α
I ave Vave = R

β

ωt
vs
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Vave
Vmax

Vmax Vave = ( 1 + cos α ) 2π

π

Vmax 2π

π
2

π

α

Root-Mean-Squares (RMS)

(.)
1 2π

2

0

. dωt

Root Mean Squares of f
1 Step 2: 2π

0

( f ) dωt
2

Step 1: Step 3:

(f)

2

1 2π

( f ) dω t ∫
2 0

Concept of RMS
v2
Average of v2

Square root of the average of v2
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ωt
v
Average of v=0
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Root-Mean-Squares (RMS) of a sinusoidal voltage
1 Vmean = Vave = 2π
1 Vrms = 2π
2π 0

2π 0

v( t ) dωt

∫ [v( t )]

2

1 dωt = 2π

2π 0

∫ [Vmax

sin( ωt )]2 dωt

2 π Vmax Vrms = [ sin(ω t )]2 dω t =

vt

i

α
vs

ωt

α

2 π Vmax [ 1 − cos( 2ω t ] dωt

α

Vrms

Vmax = 2

α sin ( 2α ) [1 − + ] π 2π
RMS of Supply Voltage

Vmax =

2 Vs rms

Vrms
Vmax 2

Vrms I rms = R

π

α

Example.2: An ac source of 110V (rms) is connected to a resistive element of 2 Ω through a single SCR. o o For α = 45 and 90 , calculate the followings: a) b) c) rms voltage across the load resistance rms current of the resistance Average voltage drop across the SCR

vs

i

Solution: For α = 45
o

+ vt -

R

a)

Vrms =

Vsrms 2

⎡ α sin(2α ) ⎤ 110 ⎢1 − π + 2π ⎥ = 2 ⎣ ⎦

⎛ 45 π ⎞ ⎜ 1− 180 + sin( 90 ) ⎟ = 74.13 V ⎜ π 2π ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

(

)

b)
⎡α

V 74.13 I rms = rms = = 37.07 A R 2
1 ⎢ ∫ v s dωt + ∫ v s dωt VSCR = 2π ⎢ π ⎣0 VSCR = −

c)

⎤ V ⎥ = − max ( 1 + cos α ) 2π ⎥ ⎦

vt

2 110 [ 1 + cos( 45 )] = − 42.27 V 2π

α

This looks like the negative i of the average voltage across the load. Why?
ωt
vs

Electric Power
2 Vrms 2 P = = I rms R

R

2 Vmax P = [2(π − α ) + sin( 2α )]

8π R

Single-Phase, Full-Wave, AC-to-DC Conversion for Resistive Loads
i1 S1 vs A S4 B S2 D S3 i2 R vt C

Single-Phase, Full-Wave, AC-to-DC 2-SCRs and 2 Diodes
i1 S1 vs A D2 B D1 D S2 i2 R vt C

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i1 S1 vs A S4 B S2 S3 i2

C

R

vt

D

vt

i1

vt

i2

α
vs

ωt

vt

i1

vt

i2

α
vs
π π

ωt

Vave =

1

π

∫v α

t

dωt =

1

π
2

∫V α

max

sin( ωt ) dωt =

Vmax

π

( 1 + cos α )

Vrms =

1 2π

∫ v(t ) dωt =
0

1

π

π

α

[Vmax sin(ωt )]2 dωt ∫

Vrms =

2 π Vmax sin( ωt )2 dωt =

π

α

2 π Vmax [ 1 − cos( 2ωt )] dωt

α

Vmax Vrms = 2

⎡ α sin( 2α ) ⎤ ⎢1 − π + 2π ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

2 2 Vrms Vmax P = = [2(π − α ) + sin( 2α )]

R

4π R

Half Wave Versus Full Wave
Half Wave
Average Voltage RMS Voltage Power

Full Wave
Vave =
Vrms

Vmax Vave = (1 + cos α ) 2π
Vrms = Vmax 2 ⎡ α sin( 2α ) ⎤ ⎢1 − π + 2π ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

Vmax

π

(1 + cos α )

Vmax = 2

⎡ α sin( 2α ) ⎤ ⎢1 − π + 2π ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

2 Vmax P = [2(π − α ) + sin ( 2α )] 8π R

2 Vmax P = [2(π − α ) + sin ( 2α )] 4π R

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Example
A full-wave, ac/dc converter is connected to a resistive load of 5 Ω. The voltage of the ac source is 110 V(rms). It is required that the rms voltage across the load to be 55 V. Calculate the triggering angle, and the load power.

Solution
Vrms = Vsrms
55 = 110
π

[1 −

sin( 2α ) [1 − + ] π 2π α sin( 2α )
π + 2π ]

α

sin( 2α ) 2.25 = α − 180 2

α ≈ 112.5 o

2 Vrms ( 55 )2 P= = = 605 W R 5

DC/DC Converters

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DC-to-DC Conversion
1. Step-down (Buck) converter: where the output voltage of the converter is lower than the input voltage. 2. Step-up (Boost) converter: where the voltage is higher than the input voltage. 3. Step-down/step-up (Buck-Boost) converter. output

Step Down (Buck converter)
VS I Vl ton Time VS VCE

τ
I

+ Vl -

ton

τ

Time

Vave =

1

t on 0

τ

∫ Vs dt =

ton

τ

Vs = K Vs

Example
f = 5 kHz ( switching frequency ) Vs = 12 V ; Vave = 5 V ; ton = ?
Solution

1 1 τ = = = 0.2 ms f 5
Vave = ton

τ

Vs = K Vs

5 K = = o.417 12 ton = 0.417 × 0.2 = 0.0834 ms
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Step up (Boost converter)
L

it

Is vs
C

R

vt

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L

it

Is vs
C

R

vt

Keep in mind •Inductor current is unidirectional •Voltage across inductor reverses •Inductor cannot permanently store energy

L

L

ion vs
vs

ioff
C

R

vt

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L

L

vs

ion

i off

vs

C

R

vt

Δi

ion

ioff

ton

toff

Time

50

Inductor current

Δi

ton
Inductor voltage
von

toff

Time

voff
Time

Energy is acquired by inductor Energy is released by inductor
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L

L

i on

i off

VS

VS

C

R

vt

Vs = L

Δ ion
ton

V s = vt − L

Δ ioff t off

At steady state Δ ion = Δ ioff

vt =Vs + L

Δ ioff
t

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⎛ ton = Vs ⎜1 + ⎜ t off ⎝
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⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

Example
• A Boost converter is used to step up 20V into 50V. The switching frequency of the transistor is 5kHz, and the load resistance is 10Ω. Compute the following: 1. The value of the inductance that would limit the current ripple at the source side to 100mA 2. The average current of the load 3. The power delivered by the source 4. The average current of the source
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Solution
Part 1

⎛ ton ⎞ ⎟ Vt = Vs ⎜1 + ⎜ t ⎟ off ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ ton ⎞ ⎟ 50 = 20 ⎜1 + ⎜ t ⎟ off ⎠ ⎝ ton =1.5 * t off

ton + toff

1 1 = = = 0.2 ms f 5

ton =1.5* t off = 1.5* (0.2 − ton ) = 0.12 ms
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Vs = L

Δ ion
ton
L = 24 mH
Part 3

100 20 = L 0.12
Part 2

Vt 50 = =5 A It = R 10
Part 4

P = Vt * I t = 50 * 5 = 250 W

P 250 Is = = = 12.5 A Vs 20
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Buck-Boost converter
is vs
L
C

it
R

vt

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-

vs

L

ion

C

ioff

L

R
+

vt

Vs = L

Δ ion
ton

vL = − L
ton Vt = −Vs toff
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Δ ioff
toff

= vt

if Δ ion = Δ ioff

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DC/AC Converters

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DC/AC Conversion
Q1 A Q3 I2 I1 B Q2 Q4

Q 1 and Q 2 are on

VAB
Time

Q 3 and Q 4 are on

Q1 Vdc a Q4

Q3

Q5 b c Q2

a

b

c

Q6

o

n
Q 1 Q 2 Q 3 Q 4 Q 5 Q 6

Q1

First Time Interval
Q1 Vdc a Q4 Q6 Q3 Q5 b Q2 n c a b c

Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6

o

I I/2

I/2 I/2 Q5 a Q6 b c

vab = va − vb = Vdc vbc = vb − vc = − Vdc vca = vc − va = 0

Vs

Q1

I

I

I/2

I

I/2

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Q1

Second Time Interval
Q1 Vdc a Q4 Q6 Q3 Q5 b Q2 n c a b c

Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6

o

I I

vab = va − vb = Vdc vbc = vb − vc = 0 vca = vc − va = − Vdc

Vs

Q1 a Q6 I I I/2 b Q2 c

I

I/2

I/2

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vab - Vdc vbc

vca

• •

Waveforms are symmetrical and equal in magnitude Waveforms are shifted by 120 degrees

AC/AC Converters

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1. Single-Phase, Bidirectional
i1 i2 + vt -

vs
vt i1 vt i2

i

R

α

vs

ωt

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vt

i1 vt i2

α

vs

ωt

Vave

1 = 2π

∫v
α

t

d ωt = 0
π

Vrms =

1 2π

∫ v(t ) dωt =
2 0

1

π

α

[Vmax sin(ωt )]2 dωt ∫
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Vrms =

2 π Vmax sin( ωt )2 dωt =

π

α

2 π Vmax [ 1 − cos( 2ωt )] dωt

α

Vmax Vrms = 2

⎡ α sin( 2α ) ⎤ ⎢1 − π + 2π ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

P =

2 Vrms

R

=

2 Vmax

4π R

[2(π − α ) + sin( 2α )]
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iin AC/DC Idc

iout DC/AC

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3. Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)
iin AC/DC Ib

Idc DC/AC

iout

iin = 0 AC/DC Ib