Data Booklet

CHEMISTRY 12
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© Ministry of Education

Revised January 2000

CRC Press. 80th edition. Lide. 1999.R. .CONTENTS Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Table Periodic Table of the Elements Atomic Masses of the Elements Names. and Charges of Some Common Ions Solubility of Common Compounds in Water Solubility Product Constants at 25°C Relative Strengths of Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Acid-base Indicators Standard Reduction Potentials of Half-cells REFERENCE D. Boca Raton. Formulae. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.

2 209.9 (98) 101.1 10.4 Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Gallium Ge Germanium As Arsenic Se Selenium Br Bromine Kr Krypton Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium 39.9 91 90 144.6 204.9 51 79.1 40. 232.0 47.5 35 39.9 192.9 106.2 18 11 12 Na Aluminum Mg 27.3 86 55 56 57 72 Cs Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Ba 180.1 140.0 14 4.9 9.9 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 52.9 53 83.2 92 (145) 93 150.5 87.9 97 162.9 79 Sr Y Zr Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd Cadmium In Indium Sn Tin Sb Antimony Te Tellurium I Iodine Xe Xenon Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium 85.0 15 6.7 49 72.9 137.0 54.5 98 164.8 83 127.9 101 173.3 138.3 96 158.0 231.6 84 126.0 200. Cerium 140.8 58.0 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Al Si Silicon P Phosphorus S Sulphur Cl Chlorine Ar Argon Sodium Magnesium 23.0 (209) (210) (222) 87 88 89 104 Fr Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Ra (262) (263) (262) (265) Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Meitnerium Francium Radium Actinium Rutherfordium (223) (226) (227) (261) (266) 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 Ce Pr Praseodymium Nd Neodymium Pm Promethium Sm Samarium Eu Europium Gd Gadolinium Tb Terbium Dy Dysprosium Ho Holmium Er Erbium Tm Thulium Yb Ytterbium Lu Lutetium Based on mass of C12 at 12.1 102.0 95 157.0 24.9 99 167.4 94 152.3 100 168.2 109 105 106 107 108 183.8 186.9 55.9 178.2 190.5 197.3 28.1 34 35.9 85 131.4 107.0 102 175.0 Boron Carbon Be B C N Nitrogen O Oxygen F Fluorine Ne Neon Lithium Beryllium Atomic Number Symbol Name Atomic Mass 14.9 58.PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 2 1 2 3 1 H Hydrogen He Helium 1.0 33 32.7 63.2 195.1 45.8 54 37 38 39 40 –1– Nb Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Rb 92.8 13 14 12.9 36 19 20 21 22 K Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Ca 50.4 207.6 88.6 50 74.8 81 118.9 69.1 32 31.0 16 19.00.1 La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Gold Hg Mercury Ti Thallium Pb Lead Bi Bismuth Po Polonium At Astatine Rn Radon Cesium Barium Lanthanum Hafnium 132.0 103 Th Thorium Pa Protactinium U Uranium Np Neptunium Pu Plutonium Am Americium Cm Curium Bk Berkelium Cf Californium Es Einsteinium Fm Fermium Md Mendelevium No Nobelium Lr Lawrencium Values in parentheses are the masses of the most stable or best known isotopes for elements which do not occur naturally.9 73 74 75 76 77 78 95.0 17 20.7 82 121.5 65.0 52 79.2 112.9 91.0 5 6 7 8 9 10 3 4 Si Silicon Li 28.0 (237) (244) (243) (247) (247) (251) (252) (257) (258) (259) (262) .0 238.4 80 114.0 16.

9 (98) 127.6 95.9 (210) 137.1 132.8 79.1 180.0 87.1 (251) 12.9 85.0 195.9 35.0 (257) 19. Element Actinium Aluminum Americium Antimony Argon Arsenic Astatine Barium Berkelium Beryllium Bismuth Boron Bromine Cadmium Calcium Californium Carbon Cerium Cesium Chlorine Chromium Cobalt Copper Curium Dubnium Dysprosium Einsteinium Erbium Europium Fermium Fluorine Francium Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Gold Hafnium Helium Holmium Hydrogen Indium Iodine Iridium Iron Krypton Lanthanum Lawrencium Lead Lithium Lutetium Magnesium Manganese Mendelevium Symbol Ac Al Am Sb Ar As At Ba Bk Be Bi B Br Cd Ca Cf C Ce Cs Cl Cr Co Cu Cm Db Dy Es Er Eu Fm F Fr Gd Ga Ge Au Hf He Ho H In I Ir Fe Kr La Lr Pb Li Lu Mg Mn Md Atomic Number 89 13 95 51 18 33 85 56 97 4 83 5 35 48 20 98 6 58 55 17 24 27 29 96 105 66 99 68 63 100 9 87 64 31 32 79 72 2 67 1 49 53 77 26 36 57 103 82 3 71 12 25 101 Atomic Mass (227) 27.5 4.9 (262) 207.0 209.5 (247) (262) 162.0 164.00.4 45.7 92.9 144.4 232.1 (261) 150.3 69.9 118.9 63.5 52.3 (247) 9.0 10.2 102.0 140.3 152.0 106.5 (252) 167.1 107.0 58.9 192.9 65.0 50.9 (145) 231.2 55.8 83.9 175.9 112.5 101.8 39.2 6.9 (258) –2– Element Mercury Molybdenum Neodymium Neon Neptunium Nickel Niobium Nitrogen Nobelium Osmium Oxygen Palladium Phosphorus Platinum Plutonium Polonium Potassium Praseodymium Promethium Protactinium Radium Radon Rhenium Rhodium Rubidium Ruthenium Rutherfordium Samarium Scandium Selenium Silicon Silver Sodium Strontium Sulphur Tantalum Technetium Tellurium Terbium Thallium Thorium Thulium Tin Titanium Tungsten Uranium Vanadium Xenon Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc Zirconium Symbol Hg Mo Nd Ne Np Ni Nb N No Os O Pd P Pt Pu Po K Pr Pm Pa Ra Rn Re Rh Rb Ru Rf Sm Sc Se Si Ag Na Sr S Ta Tc Te Tb Tl Th Tm Sn Ti W U V Xe Yb Y Zn Zr Atomic Number 80 42 60 10 93 28 41 7 102 76 8 46 15 78 94 84 19 59 61 91 88 86 75 45 37 44 104 62 21 34 14 47 11 38 16 73 43 52 65 81 90 69 50 22 74 92 23 54 70 39 30 40 Atomic Mass 200.6 32.8 126.7 72.0 (223) 157.1 (244) (209) 39.2 (237) 58.9 183.6 197.7 47.ATOMIC MASSES OF THE ELEMENTS Based on mass of C12 at 12.6 158.8 138.8 238.0 114.0 168.9 204.9 23.0 28.4 40.3 54.0 24.9 74.4 31.0 (259) 190.0 79.4 91.0 178.9 1.1 140.9 14.9 131.2 16.0 88.3 173.0 (226) (222) 186. Values in parentheses are the mass number of the most stable or best known isotopes for elements that do not occur naturally.0 (243) 121.2 .2 20.

NAMES. cuprous Copper(II). stannous Tin(IV). Positive Ions (Cations) Al3+ NH4+ Ba2+ Ca2+ Cr2+ Cr3+ Cu + Cu2+ H+ H 3 O+ Fe 2+ Fe 3+ Pb 2+ Aluminum Ammonium Barium Calcium Chromium(II). plumbous Negative Ions (Anions) Br − CO3 2 − ClO3 − Cl − ClO2 − CrO4 2 − CN − Cr 2O7 2 − H2 PO4 − CH3 COO − F− HCO3 − HC2O 4 − HSO4 − HS − HSO3 − Bromide Carbonate Chlorate Chloride Chlorite Chromate Cyanide Dichromate Dihydrogen phosphate Ethanoate. bisulphate Hydrogen sulphide. ferrous Iron(III). cupric Hydrogen Hydronium Iron(II)*. manganous Manganese(IV) Mercury(I)*. stannic Zinc . AND CHARGES OF SOME COMMON IONS * Aqueous solutions are readily oxidized by air. binoxalate Hydrogen sulphate. mercurous Mercury(II). ** Not stable in aqueous solutions. FORMULAE. plumbic Lithium Magnesium Manganese(II). chromic Copper(I)*. mercuric Potassium Silver Sodium Tin(II)*. bicarbonate Hydrogen oxalate. ferric Lead(II). bisulphite –3– OH− ClO− I− HPO 42− NO3− NO2− C 2O 42− O 2− ClO4− MnO4− PO 43− SO 42− S2− SO 32− SCN− Hydroxide Hypochlorite Iodide Monohydrogen phosphate Nitrate Nitrite Oxalate Oxide** Perchlorate Permanganate Phosphate Sulphate Sulphide Sulphite Thiocyanate Pb4+ Li+ Mg2+ Mn2+ Mn4+ Hg 22+ Hg2+ K+ Ag+ Na+ Sn2+ Sn4+ Zn2+ Lead(IV). bisulphide Hydrogen sulphite. acetate Fluoride Hydrogen carbonate. chromous Chromium(III).

S2 −            All others Alkali ions. Mg2 + . Negative Ions (Anions) All Positive Ions (Cations) Alkali ions: Li+ . Cu + All others Soluble Low Solubility Sulphate. I − − All others Soluble Ag+ . SO4 2 −            Ag+ . Be2 + . Br Iodide.Cl − Bromide. Ba2 + . K + . Sr2 + . Ca 2 + . or   CO32−        Low Solubility or Alkali ions. NH 4 + . SO3 2 − All others Low Solubility –4– . NH 4 + . Ba2 + Soluble Low Solubility Sulphide. Cs + . Sr 2 + Soluble Low Solubility Hydroxide. Rb + . Na + . NO3 −            All Soluble or or Chloride. H + . Sr 2 + . Pb 2 + . PO4 3 −   Carbonate. OH −            All others Phosphate. Fr + Solubility of Compounds Soluble All Hydrogen ion: H + Soluble All Ammonium ion: NH 4 + Soluble Nitrate. H + . NH 4 + Soluble Sulphite.1 mol/L at 25°C. Ca2 + . Pb2 + Alkali ions.SOLUBILITY OF COMMON COMPOUNDS IN WATER The term soluble here means > 0. H + .

2 × 10 −8 8.9 × 10 −8 6.6 × 10 −9 1.6 × 10 −39 6.1 × 10 −12 3.9 × 10−17 6.SOLUBILITY PRODUCT CONSTANTS AT 25°C Name Barium carbonate Barium chromate Barium sulphate Calcium carbonate Calcium oxalate Calcium sulphate Copper(I) iodide Copper(II) iodate Copper(II) sulphide Iron(II) hydroxide Iron(II) sulphide Iron(III) hydroxide Lead(II) bromide Lead(II) chloride Lead(II) iodate Lead(II) iodide Lead(II) sulphate Magnesium carbonate Magnesium hydroxide Silver bromate Silver bromide Silver carbonate Silver chloride Silver chromate Silver iodate Silver iodide Strontium carbonate Strontium fluoride Strontium sulphate Zinc sulphide Formula BaCO3 BaCrO4 BaSO4 CaCO3 CaC2 O4 CaSO4 CuI Cu IO 3 CuS Fe OH FeS Fe OH PbBr2 PbCl2 K sp 2.3 × 10−5 5.7 × 10−13 8.1 × 10 −10 5.0 × 10 −25 ( )2 ( )2 ( )3 ( )2 Pb IO3 PbI2 PbSO4 MgCO3 Mg OH 2 AgBrO3 AgBr Ag2 CO3 AgCl Ag2 CrO4 AgIO3 AgI SrCO3 SrF2 SrSO 4 ZnS ( ) –5– .5 × 10−17 5.3 × 10 −12 6.2 × 10−5 3.4 × 10 −13 8.5 × 10−9 1.0 × 10 −19 2.1 × 10−5 1.6 × 10 −10 4.0 × 10 −37 4.8 × 10−10 1.3 × 10 −9 3.5 × 10−12 1.2 × 10−10 1.6 × 10 −12 5.3 × 10− 9 7.4 × 10 −7 2.8 × 10−8 6.6 × 10 −6 1.0 × 10 −9 2.8 × 10 −6 5.

Name of Acid Perchloric Hydriodic Hydrobromic Hydrochloric Nitric Sulphuric Hydronium Ion Iodic Oxalic Sulphurous (SO 2 + H 2 O) Hydrogen sulphate ion Phosphoric Hexaaquoiron ion.6 × 10 − 4 3.0 × 10 − 7 9.6 × 10 −10 4.1 × 10 − 4 4.1 × 10 − 7 1.RELATIVE STRENGTHS OF BR¯NSTED-LOWRY ACIDS AND BASES in aqueous solution at room temperature.0 × 10 − 3 7.9 × 10 −10 1.8 × 10 − 5 1.4 × 10 −12 2.2 × 10 − 8 7.2 × 10 −13 1.3 × 10 −10 5.5 × 10 − 2 1.7 × 10 − 5 1.2 × 10 − 2 7. aluminum ion Carbonic (CO 2 + H 2 O) Monohydrogen citrate ion Hydrogen sulphite ion Hydrogen sulphide Dihydrogen phosphate ion Boric Ammonium ion Hydrocyanic Phenol Hydrogen carbonate ion Hydrogen peroxide Monohydrogen phosphate ion Water Hydroxide ion Ammonia + − HF → ← H +F + − HCOOH → ← H + HCOO 3+ 2+ + → Cr(H 2 O)6 ← H + Cr(H 2 O)5 (OH) + − C H COOH → ← H + C H COO 2− + HC 2 O 4 − → ← H + C2O4 + − CH 3COOH → ← H + CH 3COO 2− + H C H O − → ← H + HC H O 2 6 5 7 3+ 6 5 7 6 5 6 5 − + H 3 PO 4 → ← H + H 2 PO 4 3+ → 2+ + Fe(H 2 O)6 ← H + Fe(H 2 O)5 (OH) − + H 3C 6 H 5 O 7 → ← H + H 2 C 6 H 5O 7 − + HNO → ← H + NO 2 2 − + H2C2O4 → ← H + HC 2 O 4 − + H 2 SO 3 → ← H + HSO 3 2− + HSO − → ← H + SO 4 4 H 2 SO 4 → H + HSO 4 + H 3O + → ← H + H2O − + HIO → ← H + IO 3 3 WEAK STRENGTH OF BASE Al(H 2 O)6 H 2 CO 3 HC 6 H 5O 7 2 − + HSO 3 − → ← H + SO 3 + − H 2S → ← H + HS + H PO − → ← H + HPO 2 4 2+ + → ← H + Al(H 2 O)5 (OH) − + → ← H + HCO 3 3− + → ← H +C H O 6 5 7 2− 6.5 × 10 − 3 6. iron( III ) ion Citric Nitrous STRENGTH OF ACID Acid HClO 4 HI HBr Base → H + + ClO 4 − → H +I + + + + + − − − − − Ka very large very large very large very large very large very large 1.8 × 10 − 4 1.9 × 10 − 2 1.1 × 10 − 8 2− 4 STRONG → H + Br HCl → H + Cl HNO 3 → H + NO 3 Hydrofluoric Methanoic.6 × 10 −11 2. chromium( III ) ion Benzoic Hydrogen oxalate ion Ethanoic.4 × 10 − 5 1.4 × 10 − 5 4.5 × 10 − 4 1.0 × 10 −14 very small very small STRONG WEAK + − C 6 H 5OH → ← H + C 6 H 5O 2− + HCO 3 − → ← H + CO 3 − + H O → ← H + HO 2 − + H 3 BO 3 → ← H + H 2 BO 3 + NH 4 + → ← H + NH 3 + − HCN → ← H + CN HPO 4 3− + → ← H + PO 4 + − H2O → ← H + OH + − 2 2− 2 OH − ← H + + O 2 − NH 3 ← H + NH 2 Ð6Ð .3 × 10 −10 5.5 × 10 − 4 6. acetic Dihydrogen citrate ion Hexaaquoaluminum ion.0 1.5 × 10 − 5 6. formic Hexaaquochromium ion.3 × 10 − 7 4.7 × 10 −1 5.

4 – 13.8 6.2 – 6.6 1.0 5.0 – 1.6 10.8 1.8 – 6.0 – 9.6 8.6 6.2 – 4.ACID-BASE INDICATORS Indicator Methyl violet Thymol blue Orange IV Methyl orange Bromcresol green Methyl red Chlorophenol red Bromthymol blue Phenol red Neutral red Thymol blue Phenolphthalein Thymolphthalein Alizarin yellow Indigo carmine pH Range in Which Colour Change Occurs 0.1 – 12.8 3.0 – 7.0 8.0 11.4 4.0 9.0 6.2 – 2.2 – 10.4 – 10.4 3.0 Colour Change as pH Increases yellow to blue red to yellow red to yellow red to yellow yellow to blue red to yellow yellow to red yellow to blue yellow to red red to amber yellow to blue colourless to pink colourless to blue yellow to red blue to yellow –7– .8 – 8.8 – 5.4 – 2.6 – 8.

04 SO 4 2 − Cu 2 + + 2 e − → ← Cu ( s ) + 4H + + 2e − → ← H 2 SO 3 + H 2 O + Cu 2 + + e − → ← Cu 2+ Sn 4 + + 2 e − → ← Sn + 2H + + 2e − → H S ← 2 (s) 2 S( s ) Ni 2 + + 2 e − → ← H 3 PO 4 + 2 H + + 2 e − → ← Co 2 + + 2 e − → ← Se ( s ) + 2 H + + 2 e − → ← Cr 3 + + e − → ← 2H + + 2e − → ← H 2( g ) Pb 2 + + 2 e − → ← Pb ( s ) Sn 2 + + 2 e − → ← Sn (s) (g) Ni ( s ) H 3 PO 3 + H 2 O Co ( s ) H 2 Se Cr 2 + (s) Overpotential Effect Te ( s ) + 2 H + + 2 e − → ← H 2 Te 2H O + 2e − → + 2OH − ← H Mn + 2e − → ← Mn ( s ) 3+ Al + 3e − → ← Al (s) (s) 2 2+ 2( g ) 2− Ag 2 S( s ) + 2 e − → ← 2 Ag (s) + S Cr 3 + + 3e − → Cr ← (s) Zn 2 + + 2 e − → ← Zn − −7 2H 2 O + 2e − → ← H 2 + 2OH 10 M Fe 2 + + 2 e − → Fe ← ( ) (s) Mg 2 + + 2 e − → ← Mg ( s ) Na + + e − → ← Na Ca 2 + + 2 e − → ← Ca ( s ) Sr 2 + + 2 e − → ← Sr(s) Ba 2 + + 2 e − → ← Ba (s ) STRONG WEAK K+ + e− → ← K (s ) Rb + + e − → ← Rb (s) Cs + + e − → ← Cs Li + + e − → ← Li ( s ) (s) Ð8Ð .50 +1.85 + 0.70 + 0.28 − 0.89 − 2.41 − 0.96 + 0.48 +1.76 − 0.14 − 0.17 + 0.01 +1.54 + 0.40 − 0.74 − 0.STANDARD REDUCTION POTENTIALS OF HALF-CELLS Ionic concentrations are at 1M in water at 25° C.39 +1.26 − 0.87 2+ MnO 2( s ) + 4 H + + 2 e − → ← Mn + 2 H 2 O 1 IO 3 − + 6H + + 5e − → I ← 2 2( s ) + 3H 2 O − Br2(l ) + 2 e − → ← 2 Br − AuCl 4 − + 3e − → Au ← ( s ) + 4Cl − + − → NO 3 + 4 H + 3e ← NO ( g ) + 2 H 2 O Hg 2 + + 2 e − → ← Hg (l ) + −7 − → 1 + O + H M e 2 10 2 ← H2O 2 2( g ) 2 NO − + 4 H + + 2 e − → ← N O + 2H O 3+ Cr2 O 7 2 − + 14 H + 6e − → ← 2Cr + 7H 2 O + − → 1 O + 2H + 2e ← H O 2 2( g ) 2 − F2( g ) + 2 e − → ← 2F 2− − → S2 O 8 + 2 e ← 2SO 4 2 − H 2 O 2 + 2H + + 2e − → ← 2H 2 O 2+ MnO 4 − + 8H + + 5e − → ← Mn + 4 H 2 O Au 3 + + 3e − → Au ← (s) 1 BrO 3 − + 6H + + 5e − → ← 2 Br2(l ) + 3H 2 O − ClO 4 − + 8H + + 8e − → ← Cl + 4 H 2 O − → Cl + 2 e ← 2Cl − 2( g ) + WEAK STRONG + 2.82 + 0.69 − 0.45 + 0.45 − 0.83 −1.34 + 0.28 − 0.80 + 0.80 Overpotential Effect ( ) 3 STRENGTH OF OXIDIZING AGENT O 2( g ) + 2 H + + 2e − → ← H2O2 − − → MnO 4 + 2 H 2 O + 3e ← MnO 2( s ) + 4OH − − I 2( s ) + 2e − → ← 2I Cu + + e − → Cu ← (s) H SO + 4 H + + 4e − → ← S + 3H O 2 3 Ag + + e − → ← Ag ( s ) 2+ 1 + e− → ← Hg (l ) 2 Hg 2 2+ Fe 3 + + e − → ← Fe 2 4 2 STRENGTH OF REDUCING AGENT + 0.20 +1.36 +1. Oxidizing Agents Reducing Agents E° (Volts ) + 2.41 − 0.37 − 2.78 +1.03 − 3.15 + 0.15 + 0.23 +1.51 +1.77 + 0.13 − 0.91 − 2.79 − 0.98 − 3.19 −1.14 + 0.09 +1.87 − 2.22 +1.80 + 0.23 +1.00 + 0.60 + 0.71 − 2.93 − 2.66 − 2.00 − 0.52 + 0.

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