dW oiI,o:w

KACST f"IlkU
..
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
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The Driver's Manual for obtaining
a Saudi driving license
(The approved Curriculum by the
Ministry of Interior)
Authors
Prof. Abdulrahman I. Alabdulaaly
I'ror. Ali S. AI-Gamedi
Brigadier General (R) Ameen A. Saeed
Engr. Saleh A. AI·Amro
Colonel! Abdulaziz M. M. AI-Merebah
/11 the Name of Allah Most Gracious Most
Merciful
..
Acknowledgement
Authors of this manual would like to ex-
"ress their gratitude to King Abdul aziz City
1m Science & Technology (KACST) for fi -
lIancial support to prepare this manual as one
or the researches of the National Traffic Safe-
tv Committee. They also thank those who sup-
ported them directly or Indirect ly speci all y the
(ielleral Directorate of Traffic and the Saudi
Red Crescent Authority.
\
Preamble
Traffi c Safety represent a major concern for traffic
mll horities, who strive to bring into effect, while on the
ot her hand, road users hope to secure such safety. With
collective efforts we will all feci it' s tangi ble effects.
This manual, with it' s scientific content ai ms at
1l()()\l ing practical traffic awareness levels of vehicle's
drivers in the Kingdom's roads. The manual was pre-
pared by a learn of specialized professors and hi ghly
pmfcssionai orficials. liS comprehensiveness and sim-
plicity in present ing information shall serve as the best
)!uidance for those seeking to learn driving and/or en-
hancing and implementing safe drivi ng skills.
1'0 allain the objective of this manual. special COIl-
.deration was made to its assortment into chapters in
tl'lm of diversity and sequence of infommtion to make
II lIluch easier for the beneficiaries,
We hope this manual meets the proposed object ive
.lIld acquires sati sfact ion.
In pursuance of God wi ll
GenerallFahd bin Saud AI-Bisher
I)ircctor of the General Directorate for Traffic
VII
Table of Content
Acknowledgment
Preamble
L.lhlc of Content
Introduction
v
VII
IX
1. To whom this Manual 3
2. Driving License ~ m d important information 7
2· I Obtaining a Saudi Drivi ng License 9
2-2 Individuals obliged 10 obtain a driving li-
cense 10
2-3 Types of driving Licenses 10
2-4 Driving license test procedures 10
2-5 Other information about driving license 11
Qu i!. 14
Kult Ul.ltiun'S
1- 1 Traffic rules
.1-2 Driving conditions
.1·3 Seat belt
.1-4 Insurance
1-5 The points system
Quiz
4. Roads and Traffic Signs
4- 1 Road intersections
IX
15
17
23
26
28
29
31
33
36
4-2 Road signs
4-3 Work zones signs
4-4 Traffic control at intersections
Quiz
S. Safe Driving
5- 1 Speed
5.2 Running red light
5.3 Drifting (Tafheeth)
5-4 Using the mobile while driving
5-5 Defensive driving
5-6 Rules that must be known
Quiz
6, S h a r j n ~ thl' Road nith Others
6- 1 Pedestrians
6-2 Bicycles
6-3 Persons with disability
6-4 Schools students
6-5 Emergency vehicles
6-6 Road works
Quiz
7. The Vehicle
7- 1 Tires
7-2 Vehicle's breakdowns
7-3 Emergency conditions
x
37
46
47
50
53
55
55
57
57
57
58
61
63
65
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
73
78
80
Quiz 82
8. Traffic Accidents 83
8- 1 Avoiding accidents 85
8.2 Colliding with camels 88
8.3 The accident 's si te and crowding 90
8-4 Intensity of the traffic accident 9 J
8-5 How to act when you sec an accident ? 9 1
8.6 Stopping acute bleeding 93
8.7 Hazardous materials 95
8.8 Factors influenci ng dri ving 97
Qui z 100
~ . Uchaviors t hat lead to license suspension 10 1
'IJIJ<lldix (Il: 105
'1':lblcs of the traffic violations pursuant to the trar-
ne Act
\lJl'cndix (2)
I'nl ffic signs and signals . ......... .......... .................. 115
x,
Introduction
This manual is intended to enhance your dnving
,I.. II Is whether you are applying for a dri vi ng permit ,
license or you already have one and wi she!) tn keep
.lhreast of the latest traffic ru les and regulat ions.
Oblall1ing a driving liccm.e is i.\ privilege not a
nght; it entails a declared acceptance to compl y with
the traffic rules and regulations to maintain safety and
L'curit y of our roads. Thus you arc entitled to consider
.. 11 road users and be alert to road surpri ses that you
lIlay encounter any timc.
Obtaining a Saudi driving license means you are
lX'rmittcd to drive a vehicle on public roads, not that
)OU are immune from encountering a traffic accident.
rilUS you are required to be al ways cautious, since
,kill alone is not enough to avoid road risks and sur-
p n ~ e s .
You are required to rcad thi s manual carefully. The
IIIformalion presented in this manual is not just essen-
Iml for passing the driving lest, but it is intended "by
God will" to preserve your safety and the safety of
ro.\d users.
- I -
1
To whom this
Manual
This manual is intended for:
Applicants for Driving Pennit.
Applicants for Driving License.
Those hold ing non-Saudi driving license and re-
quired to obtain a Saudi driving license.
Drivers with driving experience who wish 10 fami l-
i'.lrizc themselves widely with the traffic reguhlti ons
and driving rules of conduct, or obtaining addit iomll
or updated infonnat ion about traffic rules and de-
fensive driving.
- 5 -
2
Driving License and
important information
- 7 -
2· 1 Obtaining a Saudi Driving License
Those who compl eted 18 years are enti tled to ob·
t'l in a private dnving license and motorbikes dnving
liccnce, wh ile who completed 20 years are entitled to
lotam a general dnvmg license and driving public
works vechlclcs. Those who completed 17 years may
ohtain a temporary pcrmit valid for onc year to drive a
pn vate veh icle.
ApphcJnt s for driving license or a driving permit
arc sUb.jected to vi sion test and are required to pass the
lollowing two tests:
1. Written tcst
2. Practical test
Apphcants wuh health constrains that reqUires
medical exammatlon to asses their eligibility to dnvc,
shall undertake to reveal this upon applying for a driv-
ing license.
First tjrne applicants are requi red to enroll in a
driving training quali fication course at an accredited
lraining school in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Cer-
Ilficates obtai ned fOffil such schools shall not by itself
qualify a person for road driving. unless he refers to
the concerned traffic directorate to obtain a dri ving li-
cense or permit. The driving training course is intend-
ed to enhance driver's theoret ical knowledge and prac·
tical skill of vehicles driving, such as traffic
regulations, traffic signs and their connotations, safe
and defensive driving, and how to deal with vehicles
break downs and emergency situations.
"ritten test questions are hased on inforrmt·
tion contained in this numu.l1.
- 9-
2-2 Individuals obliged to obtain a driving license
Any citizen or resident expatriate driving a vehicle
on public roads is obliged to obtain a driving license.
Visitors are allowed to drive private vehicles on the
authority of a valid international driving license or
their countries of origin driving license. The duration
of this allowance expires upon the expiry of the driv-
ing license or the visit period. In both cases the allow-
ance duration shall not exceed one year.
It is s t r i c t l ~ prohibited to drhc a 'cchictc on the roads
"ithout ohtainlng un adc1luate ,alid licensc or IIl'rmil
2-3 Types of Driving Licenses
There are four types of driving licenses:
I. Private driving license: issued to those driving pri-
vate vehicles with a gross weight of not more than
3.5 tons.
2. General driving license, the type and category of
the pcnnittcd vehicle is specified in the license.
3. Public works vechicles driving license.
4. Motorcycle drivi ng license.
2-4 Driving license test procedures
-Test location
The written test, vision test and practical test may
be conducted at any traffic department assigned to
that purpose. Written test is required for fi rst lime ap-
plicants and for those intending to obtain another dif-
ferent type of dri ving license, while vision test is re-
quired in all cases.
- 10-
Pr.lclice Field al a Driving Training School
Test components
I. Vision test to ensure the applicant visual ability to
see things clearly.
2. Written test on traffic rules, road signs, principles
of traffic safety; to assess the applicant knowledge
of the traffic rules and safe vehicle operation. The
test questions arc based on infonnation contained
in this manual. The test comprises many questions
and lasts for 30 minutes. A minimum passing score
of 80% is required.
3. Practical driving test requires a vehicle in a good
condition, with good brakes, tires, head and tai l
lights, brake lights, signal lights, side and rear mir-
rors and wipers.
The practical driving test provides the applicant
with an opportunity to prove his ability to drive
safely accompanied with a traffic officer who pro-
vides clear instructions without requesting illegal
deeds.
- II -
Applicants shall obser ve the rollowing points in the
driving test:
* Use of seat belt.
* Control over the steering wheel.
* Use of accelerator.
• Use of hand brake.
• Use of foot brake.
• How to start moving the vehicle.
• Use of mirrors.
* Reverse movement and appropriate parking.
* Use of signal li ghts.
• How to turn left and right.
* Watch for pedestrians.
• The distance between your vehicle and the vehicle
ahead.
* Wat ch out others around when intending to pass.
* Avoid other's mi stakes.
• Compliance with the traffic signs and signal s.
* Observe the right-of-way.
* Driving in a single and multi-lane roads.
* Focused and disciplined driving behavior. such as
busy with mobile phone.
* U-turn in a si ngle-lane road.
* Expect ing road surpri ses.
* Compliance with traffic rules and regulations.
- 12-
2·5 Other information about the driving license
The Traffic authority maintains the right to sus·
Ix: nd the procedure of obtaining a driving license or
it 's renewal in the following instances:
Supply invalid information in the application form.
Lack of the required driving skill .
The existence of a health problem that may result in
unsafe driving.
Unpaid traffic violation tickets.
Presentation of fake documents.
f
Falsifinltion' of the driving license
c n t ~ l i l s severe punishments
- 13 -
Quiz
Q I. Ilriving vehicles on the roads is stricUy prohib-
ited without:
A. Obtaining a dri ving license or drivi ng permit.
B. Switch on the vehicles lights.
C. Use eye glasses.
D. All of lhe above.
Q2. Obtaining your driving license means:
A. Accepting the res ponsibility to comply with the
traffic rules and regulations.
B. That you arc immune from encountering a traffic
accidellt .
C. Thai you became a skilled driver.
D. All of the above.
- 14-
3
Traffic Rules &
Regulations
- 15 -
3- 1 Trame rules
Traffic has rules that must be observed. Preaching
those rules increases the possibility of engagi ng into
traffic accident. The following are some of these
ru les:
A. Speed limits:
Over speeding is the major cause of fatal accidents.
Drivers are not supposed to exceed the speed limit be-
yond necessitated by the road ci rcumstances and the
, urroundi ng environment. Drivers shall not alw.lYs
l'omply with driving within speed limit; inste'ld they
IllWH consider the road situation, weather conditions
and the surrounding ci rcumstances (such as rain, fog,
' tmm, congestion. maintenance work, poor visibility
ilt night).
<.; pced limit differs in residential areas and nonresi-
dent ial areas, within urban zones and rural areas, in
' traight roads, curves and intersections.
Speed limil ,ign
- 17-
Dri vers should comply with the following speed lim-
its if there are no speed limit signs.
Vehi clc Type Maximum speed Km/h
Light Vehicles wi thi n urban zooes 50
Li ght Vehicles in rural roads 120
Hcavy trucks within urban zones 30
Hcavy trucks in rural roads 70
Dn\crs should comltJcr road ClfcUlmtances .md \cather
condItIons VehIcle speed not always reach the
specified limit
8. Driving lanes
There are specified rules regul ating the use of road
lanes. Dri vers shall comply with these rul es while
driving to mai ntain other's right-of-way and avoid
traffi c accidents.
You should always signal your intension to shift
between lanes (change Janes)and ensure that others
are aware of thi s.
C. The right-or-way
Means the dri ver's right to continue dri ving. You
should respect other's right on the road, since they are
entit led to the same right-of-way. In general the ri ght
remains with those driving in straight direction. Yield-
ing the road right-of-way has specific situations and
places such as:
- Roold ilccess / exit:
* in accessing a main road. a dri ver must yield the
ri ght -of-w::1Y to other vehicles in the main road
- 18-
* In exiti ng a main road a driver must yield the right-
of-way to other vehicles in the service road.
• Intersections
• The roundabout: driver must yield the right-or-way
to vehicles inside the roundabout.
* Intersect ions with no traffi c control (no traffi c li ght ,
stop sign or yield sign): the driver must yield the
right-of-way to vehicles coming from the ri ght side.
• Emergency vehicles
Dri vers must yield the ri ght-or-way to emergency
vehicles.
D. Rules of passing
Driving sometimes requires passing other vehicles;
but thi s may result into accidents, if the safety traf-
fic rules were not observed. The following arc
some important rules for passing other vehicles:
Ensure a safe di stance between your vehicle and the
vehicle YOll intend to pass.
* Ensure there is no other vehicles in the lane you in-
tend to move to.
• Check the tmrti c behind your vehicle (use the mir-
ror).
Signal your intension to the right or left , as required
Move to the other lane, but remember you may
need to accelerate your speed to pass, provided YOll
sbould not exceed the speed limit.
Ensure there is no other vehi cles in the blind areas
around your vehicles, by looking around and quick-
ly resume back to your norm;,l1 position.
- 19 -
the appropriate
before paSSin!! another vehIcle
Blind a r c a ~ arc the arC;JS to thc right and Icli of the \chlde,
\ hllh the drJ\er can not ~ c c l l n l c ~ ~ b} looking UrollnJ In the
nght .mu left
E. Prohibited passing situations
passing is prohibited in the following situations:
* When there is poor visiblity.
* When incoming traffic from opposite direction do
not allow safe passing.
* In the intersections, railrodas, bridges and pedestri-
ans crossings.
* In curves, hilly areas, slopes, squares and slippery
roads.
* When the vehicle you intend to pass is moving fast-
er Ihan your vehicle.
• [11 areas where passing is prohibited.
• When the vehicle you intend to pass started already
passing a vehicle ahead.
* When a vehi cle behind you started passing.
* In lanes marked with continolls line,
• When school buses SlOp for children 10 board or exit.
- 20-
Passi ng is prohibit<."<! in curve ...
is prohibited nC;lr rail road imcrM!Ction
F. Vision and stoPP:Jge distance
Sometimes a driver is confronted with an object on
the rond such as animals or a brokendown
vehicle. In such cases the driver is required to stop be-
fore colliding with these objects. Stopping a traveling
vehicle requires a distance thm is known as the stop-
page distance: it compri ses of two parts: fi rst. the di s-
tance traveled bet ween the realization and reaction
time. i.e the moment the dri ver sees a body and reali l..-
es thiJt there is an obstacle ahead: the vehicle during
thi s part travels with its original speed. The second
part represents the distance required for the veh icle to
come into a compl ete stop whi le the driver applying
lhe brakes.
- 21 -
-
"
Upon applying the brake while drivi ng, the vehicle
travel s for a distance before coming to a complete
stop. The lengt h of such distance depends on a num-
ber of factors; such as the vehicle's speed at the ti me
the driver applies the brakes, friction coefficient be-
twecn the vehicle's tires and the road surface, incl ina-
tion of the road and the ti res quality.
Vehicles travel ing at high speed require more dis-
tance to come to a complete stop. As shown in the fo l-
lowing table, if the veh icle speed is 30 km/h, it re-
qui res 30m to come to a complete stop. This distance
mult iplies 10 206m (seven times approximately) when
the speed reaches lOOkm/h.Drivcrs shall always not
exceed the specified speed limit, at the same time they
shall consider the road ci rcumstances and adapt thei r
speed accordi ngly. It is wort h mentioning that driving
at night requires more alert since the visibil ity range
provided by the front light is shorter than the stoppage
distance. To avoid this problem drivers are advised to
reduce speed as much as possible without affecting
ot her vehicles on the road.
G. Keep Safe Distance
Drivers shall always mai ntai n a safe distance be-
hind the vehicle ahead. The safe distance varies ac-
cording to vehicle speed, it is longer as the speed ac-
celerates and shorter as vehicle slows. The safety
rules requires to allow three meters from the vehicle
ahead for each 10km of the vehicle speed; e.g. the
safe following distance for a vehicle traveli ng al
90km/h shall be 27-30m. If the average vehicle length
is 6m, the safe distance shall be equal to fi ve vehicles
length.
- 22-
Stoppage di stance as per vehicle's speed
Speed
Di stance tray-
Distance tmv-
Distance tmy-
(Km/h)
eled before re-
eled after flp- eled before the
sponding by
pl ying the
vehicle com-
applying the
brake (m) pletely .slopped
bmke (m)
(III)
30 21 9 30
40 28 17 45
50 35 29 64
60 42 43 85
70 49 63 11 2
80 56 84 140
90 63 107 170
100 70 136 206
110 77 170 247
120 84 204 288
Drh IIIg Conditions
\. Driving within urban zones
Driving with in urban zones requi res skill s that dif-
ler from driving outside urban zones; thus drivers
.. hall observe the foll owing:
Continuous attention to vehicles approaching from
side roads.
Patience in slow traffic.
Alert to pedestrians specially til the vicinity of
school s, mosques and hospitals.
Plan ahead for your destination prior to departure
and choose the adequate road.
Alert to any unexpected situati on that may occur
while driving.
- 23 -
* Minimi ze changing lanes as much as possibl e.
* Avoid being di stracted while dri ving.
* Comply with the specified speed limit.
* Use the horn in case of extreme necessity.
* Yield the ri ght-or-wuy to emergency vehicles and
offi cial parades.
* Signal your intension when shifting lanes or ex iting
one road 10 another.
B- Driving on highways
Mosl hi ghways assign specific lanes to accelerate
or decelerate to enable drivers to adjust their speed to
merge smoothl y with the moving traffic. Upon enter-
ing a hi ghway observe the following:
• Signal your intension.
* Accelerate your speed gmduall y to match the high-
way traffi c.
* Be cauti ous in e ntering the right lane of the hi gh-
way and merge smoothl y wi th the traffi c when
safe, or otherwi se you may stop at the center of the
acceleration lane. yield the ri ght -or-way and enter
when the path is clem·.
Upon exi ting a highway it is advisable to consider the
fu llowi ng:
* Signal your int cll'. ion.
• Move to the Inne adjacent to the ex it lane with a
suitable distance.
• Enler the ex it lane before slowing down.
* Start slowing down upon entering the ex it lane III
preperalioll 10 ex it the hi ghway.
- 24-
Emrancc r.IIl1P
c- Driving during night
Poor vision at ni ght requires slowing speed; it rc-
;.lI so attention to thc bright lights that temlXlrar-
L1y arrcct your vision, Avoid looking direct ly to those
lights.
To prevent dazzling other dcrivers in the opposite
dircction usc the low beam hCi.ldlight s while driving.
Remember to switch on your vehicl e's light s 30
minutes berore sunset and ti ll 30 minutes after
fiSC,
It is recommended to adopt the rollowing while
driving at ni ght :
* Park your vehicle hy the side or the road and laJ.. e
rest when you reel tired or sleepy.
- 25-
* Maintain eyes movement and avoid fi xating.
* Never use sun glasses at night.
* Always use the headlight s. and don't confine to the
small lights instead.
* Your driving speed should be less than the speci-
fied speed limit.
.1-3 Scat licit
Resei.lrches and studies confirm that using seat belt
has contributed positively to the reduction of injuries
and its fatal effects in traffic accidents. Here arc some
facts about the scat belt:
* The seat belt protects the body from colliding with
components within or outside the vehicle and even
with other passengers.
* To remain inside the vehicle during colli sion is saf-
er thall to be thrown out.
* Seat belt is required even in short trips si nce traffic
accidents within urban areas are more frequent
than in rllral areas.
* Ch ildren are always ill need for protection from ac-
cident s. child seats help.
* Scat bel! does not harm pregnant women.
* Seat belt in the rear seats has the same effect as in
the fronl seal.
* Seal belt secure the driver behind the steering
wheel. Ihi s shall help him to control the veh icle in
case the vehicle losl balance for any emergency or
accident.
- 26-
Not using the seal belt affects the effic iency of the
ai r bags in protecti ng the driver and the passenger
during accidents God forbids.
f
seat belt IS oblJgatory to the dri\ef and the front seat
passenger. Ql1klren younger than ten)Clli"S 01 age are
not allowed to SIt tn the front scat
lOW the se.lt belts work during accidents?
In each accident there are in fact two separate colli -
sions:
First: the vehicle colli sion, as it coll ides with an
object and stops; the second, whi ch is the painful one,
because it in volves human colli sions, it happens when
passengers colli de with an object, which is normall y a
component of the vehi cle, or an object outside it.
Without scat belts passengers continue movement ac-
cording to the ori ginal speed of the vehi cle and collide
with objects such as steering wheel, the windscreen,
the back side of the seat s, or any other component in-
side or out side the vehicle. Seal belts help in avoiding
this type of colli sion. Those who uses seat belt are
less subject to collide with other objects.
l ow to fasten the "'eat belt appropriatel}
Ensure fasten ing your scat belt
- 27 -
* Ensure the seat belt
is not twisted.
* The belt shall be
lowered as possi -
ble.
* Tighten belt on the
chest & stomach.
Child Scat
Fastening scat belt is
obli gatory to the driver and
the front scat passenger
Remember that the traffic regulations in the King-
dom requires drivers to place firmly children younger
than 10 years of age to an appropriate scat equipped
with safety belt. Children of small bodies frame even
if they are older than ten years of age must be firmly
placed to an uplifted seat before fastening the seat
belt , and ensure that the seat belt is not passing
around the neck since it might cause suffocation.
3.4
The traffic regulations obligate any vechicJe's
owner to have a third party co-operati ve insurance
policy. In addition to the prominent significance of in-
surance ill disputes sett lement between parties in-
volved in accidents and it's role in securing the conse-
quent material rights, it al so has a role to play in
traffi c sarety. That is because the insurance premium
reduced as far as the driver is abid ing by the traffic
regulations and doesn't commit traffic violation or in-
volved in accidents as a part y at fault. You can obtain
- 28-
Ilw policy from the authorized insurancc
\ IIlllpallles .
• Drhers c.;hould he sure thut
till,.' insuranl,."e
it
Pursuant to this system a number of poi nt s arc allo-
l,lted to trarric viol;:ttions according to the nature of
tl1l' violat ion and the danger it represent s to the traffic
"IIt' ty (see the following table) in such n way that the
number of points expresses the magnitude of the vio-
1.lllIlIl in terms of degree of its impact on the driver
,lIld the safety of others on the road. When a dri ver
l'tlll llllits a traffi c violation the respective prescribed
p01ll1s are registered in the driver's record and will not
Ix' omitted before the elapsi ng of one year from the
date of this violation, provided that the driver should
not have committed another violation during the
.lIlle year. When the accumulated points in the driv-
record reHehes 24. the traffic regulation call s for
.. uspending hi s license for a specifi c period of lime.
1>0 )0011 kno\ Ihat!
i-:xcessin' SPCI,.'tf and n red light ("onslitutes
the majority urthe traffic viulaliOJ1s illlhc
Kingdom's roads and h,l\c direct impacl on the
Ol'CUl"I"cnce of many traffic accidl'nts
- 29-
..
Traffic Violation Points
Viola!ion tyJ>C

Violation type Painh
Driving under alcohol or Passing ill arcas in which
drugs influence
24
passing is prohibited 6
Drining (Tafllcclh)
2'
Slopping over railroads
6
Running the traffic light Exceeding speed limit (l-
Oll red
12
25 K III PH over posted
limit) 4
Driving a vehicle in the
12
Driving wit hin unauthor-
,
opposite direction of traf- izcd lanes
fic flow
Maneuvering in high school buses
speed between vchicles 8 when children arc board-
4
on public roads ing or exiting
Failure to comply with Failure to secure (cover-
the traffic police dircc-
8
ing and tyi ng up) a trans-
4
lions ported load
Driving a vchide wi thout Carrying out modifica-
or lights 8 l i ons to a vchicle's chas-
4
sis or trunk without ob-
serving the required
procedures.
Failure to completely Failure to use seat belt
2
stop at stop sign
6
Fail ure to yield to the Using ce ll phone by hand
2
right-of- way 6 while driving
Exceeding speed limit Not wearing a helmet
(more than 25 Km PH while driving motorbikes
2
over posted limit )
6
Failure to yield to the
right-of-way to vehicles
6
comi ng from the left in
roumjabout,
- 30-
-
( )
OJ. The speed limit for light vehicle within urban
Lones is:

C.
B.

1)2. Is it a must to comply with the speed limit under all
rircumstances?
A. Yes under all circumstances.
B. You must not always comply; instead you must consid·
cr the road condition, weather conditions and the sur·
rounding circumstances.
C Upon the driver's desire.
D. All of the above.
).\. The blind are .. is defined as:
I\. The area whi ch can be seen without moving one's head.
n The area which cannot be secn without moving one's
head.
(' ' n l C area which cannot be seen through the rear milTOf.
I). The area which cannol be seen at all.
)4. The traffic rCJ,;uJution in the Kingdom obligates
hath the driver und the passenger to usc the scat belt
on:
/I. All roads. B. Some roads.
( ' Highways only. D. Within urban zones.
'\. If a drh'er runs the red light, the number of points
to be registered ugainst him is:
1\ 2 poi nts. B. 3 poi nts.
(' 4 points. D. 12 points.
rl. Requirements of driving in urban zones:
.\ Attention to pedestrians.
B. Planning ahead for your destination prior to depal1ure
and choose the adequate road.
{' Be alert 10 any unexpected situation that may occur
while driving.
D. All of the above.
- 31 -
r
4
Roads and
Traffic Signs
- 33 -
,\ road is not merely the
1'.1111 designated for veh icles
olll y. hut it al so includes the
houlders, sidewalks, bicycles
I III, ". buses and vehicles park-
III pedestrian's crosswalks
Itld emergency and mainte-
11 Ull'l' vehicles lanes. Moreo-
\ I I roads have their own traf-
I II "'gns such as the posted
11'11\. pavement markings and
lI.d ftc signals.
Express hi ghway
I ypcs of roads differ according to their usages, 10-
,II Ions and engineering designs. There are express
ili l' hw':lYs, dual roads and single lane roads. Each one
III thl'se types of roads has its respective traffic rul es
1'111 'lIan! to the nature of its engineering design.
I )nvmg on the road entails abiding by the speed
1111111 for that particular road and by it s signs and
1II,1I)..lI1gS, whether those posted on the road signs, or
.II pldyed on the pavement.
Single lane road Dual lane road
- 35 -
4-1 Road Intersections
A road intersection is the point where one road or
more intersects, whi ch indicates that vehicles coming
from difrerent directions mcct each other. Thi s may
increase the probabili ty of coll ision occurrence be-
tween them if anyone of these vehi cles drivers ig-
nores the traffic regul at ions cont rolling the tmffic at
that intcrsect ion, or if he docs not show enough cau-
tion and alertncss when approaching that intcrsect ion.
Moreover, road intcrsections, especially inside cit ies.
are uscd as crosswalks for pedestrians and are deter-
mined by p.lvement markings designated for them,
which entails that a driver should stop berore the pe-
destrian crosswal k. The statist ics of the traffic acci-
dents emphas ize that a high percentage of urban zone
accidents occur at intersections. which means that
these locat ions are potential places for accidents and
that a dri ver should consider this when approaching
intersections.
Different shapes of intersections.
There are many shapes of intersections. bUlt hc
most common ones arc as follows:
-
T-shapcd intcrsccion
- 36-
Round-about imcrsccl ion
(+) sign imcn;cct ion
;cncral Rule
At the intersection of two roads where there is no
traffic signal. you shou ld always yield the right-of-
way to vehicles coming from the ri ght direction. un-
less the intersect ion is a roundabout, in which case the
right-of- way should be yielded to the driver coming
from the left.
4-2 Road Signs
A- Traffic Signs.
1- Regulatory Signs.
Regul atory signs are used to aquaint the dri ver and
all road users with traffi c regu 1<11 ions. prohibit ion ....
- 37 -
and restrictions that sould be observed while driving
or using the road.
- Prohibition Signs
Circular white signs with red frames in- 0
dicate prohibition, e.g. No U-turn, No en-
try .. ctc.
o
No entry from
this side
®
No U-tum No left tum
No waiti ng area No park.ing &
No lVait ing arcll
- Mandatory Signs
Blue Roundcd signs direct the driver to
a certain action, e.g. mandatory direction
to ri ght or left
0
=
=
Mllndlltory forward Mandatory Jeft Mandatory right
Go stmight
Mlllld;l!ory dir<: tioll
Tum ri ght
Go left
- 38-
Go right
M.mdmory Directi ons gIl
strdight or U tum
There are other mandatory signs with other shapes,
the most common or which is the yield the right-or-
way signs.
' . Warning Signs
The whi te triangular signs with red frames indi cate
warning or hazard
&
& ~
Cluncl crossing Road works
Traffic light
~ 8\
&
Dangerous (:urvcs-
Dangcroos curves-
Dangerous left curve
first right sharp
"'"",
first left sharp bends
sharp bend to the Icft
Pedestrian
crosswalk
- 39-
Road rwrrows
both sides
.f
3- Guide Signs
Guide signs arc lIsed to gu ide and direct drivers
and all road users to towns, villi ages, roads and other
important locations along the journey.
Rectangular and square signs with differe nt
colors direct the driver 10 places such as hospi-
tal s. gas station, ... eel.
signs indicating
cities and vlJlagcs
direction

Ilos-pital
4- Signs of utmost I mport ance
Gasoline
\ 1:llion
(Speed- li mit) signs: or what is known as the maxi-
mum or speci fi ed speed. These sings are usuall y white
wilh a ci rcular shape and red frame with the speed
limil wfill en in black.
(SlOp) Sign: This sign indicates that the driver must
come 10 a complete SlOP when seeing it. They arc in
red color of eiglll -sided 51Hlpe wilh the word (SlOp)
written in white. The "SIOP" sign is frequent ly lI sed
and when seei ng itlhe driver should do the following:
- 40-

Stop completely at the linc (<I white
till .. linc), In case of of an aClual SlOp
fJll c. the driver should SlOp the SlOp sign
l Hnsure that Ihe intersection is clear of vehicles and
pedestrians by looking around in all directions of
the intersection.
Proceed with driving. If there are lIlore than one ve-
hicle stopping al the "Stop Sign" al the intersec-
lion. Ihe rirst vehicle to reach there have the right
10 pass lhe intersection firM.
The driver ('Ollie 10;L
complete stop when seeing
"SIOp sign"
- 41 -
(Yield) Sign: Thi s sign indi cates
yielding the right-of-way. It is used \l
frequent ly at roundabout intersections
or at the intersections that have no traf-
fi c lights or stop sign. The yield sign is
a white triangular with its apex down
and a red frame.
When you see thi s sign at an the intersection it in-
dicates that you can cross with caution and observe
the following:
I. Slow-down to stop if you notice that there are some ve-
hicles or pedestrians at the intersection. You should
stop before the SLOp line (a white continous line)
2. If you do not see any vehicles or pedestrians at the
intersection, you should first slow-down and then
proceed driving across the intersection with caution
and attention.
(No Entry) Sign: This sign indicates
prohibiting the entrance of a road and in
most cases it indicates that some vehi-
cles are coming through this road. It 's
shape is ci rcular and its color is red with
a white horizontal line in the middlc ..
8-Pavement Markings
Pavement markings spread widely on roads. Some
are in the shape of specific lines or symbols in the
p.lvement with certai n colors. such as the white and
yellow lines. and some are jUlling out signs above the
pavement such as the cat eyes and ceramic.
The pavement markings are divided into three
types:
First
Second
Third
Longitudinal markings.
Transversal mark ings.
\ymbols
- 42-
I he Longitudinal Markings
I'hese representlhe lines found ill the center of the
,oad or that divides the lanes.
I ht' center of the road lines:
I hl' Broken White Lines
You .. hould drive to the right side of these
Imes or drive over them or cross them to
pilS" another vehicle or to take a left turn.
ht· conti nuous ' ''hite Lines
You .. hould drive to the ri ght of thi s line
,uRI it is prohibited to cross it or to turn
Idt
Ilu Multiple ' ''hite Lines
You IIllist drive to the right side of these
IJIll'S and it is absolutely prohibited to
\ 10 .... them or to turn left.
I continuous and Broken White Li ne.
III this situation there are two positions;
I h Broken Li ne by your side.
'Otl can cross the line and turn left
Broken Line by the other side:
It , .. prohibited to cross the line or to turn
Ii'll
I 'Il· ... dividing lines:
I hl'''C are broken white lines to di vide
11,lIlIc lanes and allow shifting from one
I.lIll· to :.mother after lIsing the appropriate
.1).' llallights and making sure that the lane
~ I I U IIltcnded to shin to is clcar of vehi-
,k ...
- 43 -
II
2. Transversal Markings
* The horizontal line at Intersections:
This line indicates the point before which a dri ver
must stop befo re apprO<lching an intersection con-
trolled by a traffi c signal or a "stop" sign.
3. Painted Signs
• Arrows.
* Arrows to determi ne the traffi c direction: these arc
mostl y located at poi nts indicat ing thai a cross- road
is ncar. For example, an arrow poi nting to left ind i-
catcs that the lane is des ignated for turn ing left.
* Arrows indicat ing to drivers that the end of the l,me
is near and lhal the driver must merge wit h another
lane .
• Special Signs.
* At some roads there are pavements signs which in-
dic .. lle the type of road usage, for example, the bi-
cycle symbol indicates that the lane is designated
to bicycles, and a handicapped chair symbol indi-
cates a place for uplifting or down-lifti ng disabled
persons or for disabled vehicles parking.
- 44-
( Traffic Lights
Red light indicates "SlOP" and must be a
complete stop.
Green light indicates that a dri ver is permit-
ted to move to enter into the intersection. It I
is always preferable to ensure that vehicles
at other sides of the intersection arc at com-
plete stop.
Yellow light indicates that a dri ver must =
prepare himself to stop and it is always
preferable to stop when the yellow light is
on if possible.
The Traffic Signals Arrows:
The arrow determi nes the traffic flow
direction, eit her ahead, to the right or to
the left.
t\ rcd arrow indicates that the driver must
Sl Op completely"complelc stop".
1\ !! recn arrow indicates that the driver can
proceed or continue driving in the same
lhrcction of the arrow.
1 Fhlshing Lights
Yellow nashing light: Indicatcs that you can cross
ri ll' IIllcrseclion withoLit stopping bUI with ulmost cau-
I UII1 mcaning that you should slow down and mal.:e
,tlrl' Ihm the intersection is clear of any other
,!tll ilhen proceed safely.
Red Flashing Light: Means Ihat the driver should
'lime to a complete stop to ensure that the intersectioll
I dear of any olher vehicles and then proceed safe ly.
, Pl'Clestrian Signals:
l'l:deslrian signals allow pedestrians to
when it is permitted anel safe 10 cross the
Iliad.
I Ill' of a symbol of person or a
- 45 ·
raised hand in a red light indicates that pedes·
trians must stop and not cross the road. A grecn
light indicates allowing the pedestrians to cross.
4.3 Work Zones Signals
A work zone means that part of the road is under
maintenance and excavation works, whi ch causes a
slowdown of traffic. In most cases, one lane, or more,
is completely closed at thi s part of the road, leading
consequentl y to establi sh a detour which guides the
drivers to cross the work zone smoothly and safely.
The traffic signs posted at the work zone focus on
two main functions, namely:
1- Warning the driver of a worki ng zone and indicat·
ing the speed limit in thi s section of the road.
2. Guide the dri ver and direct him to the i<me to be
foll owed through the working zone. It should be
noted here that posting a low speed at the work
zone consequentl y supersede the specified speed
limit for that road. Dri ving in excess of the posted
speed.limit in the work zone is considered a traffic
violation.
The most common traffic signs used at the work
zones with <'1 yellow background, red frame and wri t-
ing or drawing in black are thc following:
>
.--


_-", t,
Change J I-
[)cWur
rc.:tion
PropmeJ
L!1
£
&
Road narrow, on
Road narrows on
Right lane clofICd
ri glll
left
- 46-

.....
""'_......,AO • .... Dr;TOUFI
Delour ahead
Dctour2km
Warni ng sign on a Cone wilh flag
Barrel
post
Work zone signs are mostly in orange color
4·4 Traffic control at intersections
The types of traffic control may differ regardless
III the intersection's shape and the diversity of the
mntrol devices as per the traffic device used, as fo l.
lows:
Traffic sigml! conlrol
- 47-
Stop sign control
Yield ~ i g n control
Traffic I'olicc Control
- 48-
Roundabout lntersection
At the roundabout you see the yield ~
,l g II which indicates that you should
\ 1I,.' ld the right-of-way 10 the vehicles in- a
Hl l' the roundabout approaching from
lilt' left. In case of passing or many vchi-
\ k ... inside the roundabout you m ~ l y en-
In whenever YOll find an appropriate space amongst
tlll' lIl which allows you to enter without dist urbing the
\I' hides inside the roundabout
Right -or-way in the mundilbout is to
dri ven. approaching from len
[)o "ou know?
The numher oflru!1ic \iolaliol1" rl'AiSlI:rl'd on the
Kingdom's rtluds durinJ! thl' periud 1980-2008G
\.l'el'dl'd 8_' millinn

iolutions at the rutl' of 4 milliun

Related Interests

inlutions pl.'r )'cur
- 49 -
Qui z
Q.l A Circuhu sign with a \Vhite Color back-
ground and red frame always indicates:
A. Mandatory.
B. Warning.
e. Prohibition.
D. Regulation.
Q2. This sign means
A. No Parking & wait ing.
B. No left turn.
e. Do 1101 enter.
D. No U turn.
Q3. This sign indicates:
A. Maximum speed is 70 Kmlh.
B. Minimum speed is 70 Kmlh.
C. Average speed is 70 Km/ h.
D. All of the above.
- 50-
\ white continuous line with a broken line at
the other side indicates:
A Passing and turning left.
B. Passing and turning ri ght.
(' No pass ing or turning le ft.
D. Do not stop.
The Shape or the Yield Sign is:
, A triangle with apex lip.
n Square.
(' A triangle with apcx down.
I). Circu lar.
- 51 -
5
Safe Driving
- 53 -
SI)ccd
The main purpose of specifing a maximum speed
for vehicles on the road is to enhance safety through
el iminating the ri sks resulting from the tendency of
the drivers lO choose a speed which they beli eve is
reasonable. The posted speed limit s represent the
maximum speed the driver is legall y allowed to drive
wi thin its range. However, the driver should take into
t'onsideralion thaI Ihi s speed limit suit s the engineer-
ing design of the road and safety measures applied to
it. A road design based on a specific speed and ex-
ceed ing thi s speed will represent a violation to the en-
gi neering safety measures of that road and conse-
quentl y creating a risk of having a traffic accident.
There is another matter of significant importance;
the speed limit is specified assuming natural condi-
tions and circumstances such as good weather condi-
tions, day light, clearance of any traffic jam or mainte-
nance work or any other ci rcumstances wh ich may
hinder the traffic. Therefore. the driver should choose
a speed that suits the road conditions without exceed-
ing the specified speed. Always remember that 40%
of the traffic accidents in the Kingdom are caused by
cxcessi ve speeds.
The vehicl e's speeds can be detected by radars and
.. urveillance cameras.
2 Running red light
Passing the traffic light on red is call ed " running
the traffic signal". Thi s problem together with Ihe ex-
cessive speed can be considered the main cause of fa-
I.t! accidents in our country. The entering of a vehicle
mto the intersection whi le the signal is on red m c a l l ~
that the driver has committed a violation, name ly the
running of the traffic signal. Therefore. slowi ng down
the speed in preparation for stopping when the yellow
light appears. makes it unlikely for the driver to run
- 55-
the traffic signal and hence he will save his life and
the li ves of others by avoiding a fatal accident.
The presence of the traffi c police is not necessary
at the intersection to arrest the violators of the traffic
signal, as there are secret traffic police, or the surveil-
lance cameras to perform this function and arrest or
register the violators. In this connection, it is worth
mentioning here that such action contradicts the teach-
ings of our religion, Islam. In this regard, His Emi-
nence, the Late Shei kh Abdul Aziz Bin Baz was once
asked thi s question: what is the rule or Islamic judg-
ment pertaining to the persons who violate the traffi c
regulations, for example those who run the traffic sig-
nal on rcd?
The answer of his Eminence was as foll ows "any
Muslim may not violate the Government's traffi c reg-
ul ations as this invol ves great danger and risk to that
person and to others. The Government has set these
regulations out of its desire to secure the interests of
all its subjects and punishing such violators" and he
cited thi s verse from the Holy Quran (And most of
mankind will not believe even if you desire it eagerly)
verse" I03-sufilt-Yusuf'
Hi s Eminence. Sheikh Bin Ethaymeen had also
been asked the above ment ioned questi on and he re-
plied by cit ing thi s verse from the Holy Quran (you
who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Apostle (Mu-
hammad. PBUH) and those of your (Muslims) who
arc in authorit y) verse 59-Sufilt-An-Ni sa (Thc Wom-
en) and he went on to say that " If the rulers have laid
down signs such as: stop signs, or proceed signs, we
shoul d abide by these signs as thi s mcans we obey
our rul ers",
- 56-
5.3 Drifting; (TuOlealh)
Drifling is considercd a traffic viol ution. The driver
who commits drifting is penel ized for the first viola-
tion by detention of the veh icle for fifteen days and a
fine of 1000 (One thousand) S.R. and by detention of
the vechilc for one monlh and a fine of 1500 (One
thousand Five hundred) S. R. in the second offence.
and detention of the vehicle and a fine of 2000 (Two
thousand)S.R. in the third time. In all cases the of-
fender is refered to court to consider jailing him and
confiscation of the vehicle.
5A Csing Mobile Phone by Imnd While Driving
One of the great ri sks whi le driving is the use of
mobiles. That is because, driv-
ing requires focusing and paying ,--------,
attention 10 the road, and being
busy with the mobi le affects thi s
focus and hence reduces the
driver's reaction time when con-
fronted with a hazard situation
and may commit accident due to
improper reaction. Moreover,
speaking on the mobile may dis-
turb the dri ver's thinking or may
become excited which may
make him more likely 10 cause ..... --------'
an accident
.51>cfenshe DrivinJ.!
The defensive dri ver is a driver who always rakes a
posi ti ve attitude tow.ards driving by focusi ng mainly
on safcty. Such a dri ver is always pati ent, obscrvc!<o
the feel ings of others and is wi lling to Up(hlle hi s
knowledge about the safe driving every day. Hi s sty le
of dri ving is based on knowledge. skill and tinder
st:.mding and does not leave things to happen acciden
lall y.
The defensive driver is that driver who control s hi !<o
- 57 -
feelings regardless of the pressures, whi ch he
ters or the misbehavior of other drivers. Hence, he can
avoid accidents by controlling his feelings and
ments and by focusing on driving and how to reach
his destination safely. Also, he is the one who checks
all the directions of the road carefull y while driving in
order to react in a better way to the road surpri ses and
unexpected events or to the faults that might be
milled by others.

u Ii('rnse m('1U1S that }t1U :Ire

5.6 that must be Kno" It
* Give chance to vehicles that want to pass you
cause the road is the property of all .
* Pedestrians have the right to cross the road.
cially the children, elderly and the di sabled.
* High headlight s and dazzling light s annoy other
drivers and may cause traffic accidents.
*' Keep enough distance between your vehicle and the
vehicles ahead of you to avoid colli sion with them
if they stop suddenly.
* Control your emotions and actions when faced by
some situation along the road that mi ght excite you
and make you nervous. Always be alert.
Wrong Parking
- 58-
II., not make any unnecessary shifting from your
LUll', IIlstead stick to your lane.
I'lall ahead your trip.
your vehicle properly at the designated park.
III).! areas.
I :"l' the safety devices when your vehicle breaks
duwn and keep it away from the road.
I{('t.:ognize the meanings and significance of the
IllIllIe signs and directions and be guided accord·
11I).tly,
1)0 nnt dri ve in excess of the speed limit, and slow
clown your speed when there is a reason for that to
Ivnul causing an accident.
• III "i ingle· lanes roads keep at the extreme right
hen you drive through an elevated section or
'hen you come across a curve or at intersections.
• PlY attention to the signs that indicate animal cross·
1I1i!. (especially camels).
• Whcn you feel fatigue while driving for long dis·
stop driving and walk for a while till you
I I refreshed.
• "ituw down your vehicle speed when there is rain,
Ing or sandstorm.
• \ void passing other vehicles in bad weather con·
lluinns and use the flashing lights.
• In hud weather conditions it would be better to exit
lIway from the road and stop at a safe place.
• When it starts raining, you must keep enough dis·
tlillce from other vehicles and refrain from pressing
the brakes strongly, or driving on the un.paved
p trt!C of the road.
\twnys remember that you should hold the driving
Ikcnse, the vehicle's registration and the insurance
t!,x;ument and all these documents should be valid.
I (tllow the tnlmc police directions and instructions.
Y icld the right·of-way to emergency vehicles.
- 59 -
Prior to Jour lrirJ. it adyis'lhl(' 10 make
sure of Iht' following:
* Plan in advance for the intended trip.
* That the vehicle dashboard indicators (temperature.
oil , fuel etc .. ) are functioning properly.
* That the wipers are functioning
* The emergency devices are
in place (warning triangle,
fire extinguisher).
* Check the oi l level.
* The Radiator water.
* Adjust the mirrors.
* Close the doors properly.
* Ensure all windows and
windscreen surfaces should
be clean and free of any Fire extinguisher and
obstructions. warning triangle are
* Make sure that the signal lights necessary in :lIly
vchicle
and head light are working.
* Make sure that the seal belt is in order.
* Make sure that the tires and the spare tire are In
good condition
Uncivl h/.cd behaVior
- 60-
Q I. The most fatal and common traffic violations in
the Kingdom are:
A. Excessive Speed.
B. Running the traffi c signal on red.
C. Excessive speed and running the traffic signal on red.
D. None of the above.
Q2. The Defensive Driver is the one Who:
I. Is a professional dri ver.
2. Part icipates in intemational mllies.
\. Drives the vehicles at a slow speed .
. l, Always has a positi ve attitude towards drivi ng.
Q3. When you feel fatigue while driving you should:
A. Stop driving and walk for a whi le to get refreshed.
B. Continue driving.
C. Put on glasses to ease the eye fati gue.
D. All of the above.
- 61 -
6
Sharing the Road
with Others
· 63 ·
6. 1 Pedestrians
Us ing the road is
a common right for
the drivers as wel l
as the pedestrians.
Therefore. a driver
... hould respect the
right of pedestrians
hy observing the
followi ng:
I. Be alert and Driven. respect pedestrian' s
slow down your
vehiclc speed to prepare 10 SlOp at the pedestrian'S
crossi ngs.
2. Give the pedestrians the chance to cross the road
safely at wide intersections .
.1. Do not stop on the pedestrians Jines at the intersec-
tions.
4. Slow down and drive with cautious at school s.
mosques, markets and public squares where more
pedestrians arc expected
Rl'rnernher Ihal m!)'1 nr Ihl' Iledl"lrain·s.retaled
Ilddenls uccur al sunwl nr durinj.: n[j.:hl due 10
puur \ bihilil}
6.2 Bicycles
Cyclists are con-
sidered users of the
road who have equiv-
alent rights as those
of vehicle drivers.
Therefore, the driver
should give the right-
of-way 10 the cy-
cl ists. if so required.
You should respect or
Drivers shou ld be alcn while dri vi ng II!
residenti:!! areas
- 65-
-
give consideration to the lanes designated to them.
Also remember also that some children play with their
bikes and may appear suddenly on the road, especially
inside the residential areas, therefore you should dri ve
with utmost cautious in these places and you should
be alert at all times whi le you are driving.
6-3 Persons with Special needs
Our Islamic religion urges us to co-operate and as-
sist each other, and it is more rewarding to offer such
assistance to a di sabled brOlher. Therefore. you should
observe the following cases relating to this category
of the society.
* Crossing the road by a person on a wheelchair may
requ ire longer time than the time taken by walking
persons. Therefore you should be patient and wait till
thi s person crosses the road safely.
Drivers should consider persons with
disability on wheel chairs
- 66-
. -
.
~ ~
I ~ . "
Parking designmoo (or di sabled
persons only
-
A bli nd person crossing the road is di stingui shed by
carrying a white stick.
Some of the car parkings are reserved to the per-
sons with disabi lity through some indicat ive signs.
Parki ng your vehicle on these pl aces is considered
a violation as per the traffic rul es.
6·4 Schools Students
Drivers should abide by the speed limit while dri v-
mg in roads adjacent to schools, which mostly, docs
nol exceed 30 krnlhour. Most of the running over ac-
cidents take place ncaf schools because of excessive
Be ale" 10 school students in the vicini ty
- 67-
speed and due to not paying attention by the drivers.
Remember Ihal students, especiall y in the primary and
intermediate levels, may nol be aware of how 10 cross
the road, therefore you should always observe this.
When you sec students getting out of a school bus it is
always advisable to stop till the school bus proceeds
and titt you make sure that the road is clear ahead of
you.
6-5 Emergency Vehicles
Giving way to emergency vehicles such <kS mnbu-
lances, civil defense vehicles and patrols vehicles is a
mailer of hi gh significance due to the humanitarian
services provided by these vehicl es, which entail that
they should be .. lIowed to reach thei r targeted destina-
tions in the nearest possible time. Therefore, when
you recognize an emergency vehicles coming from
the back through its fl as hing lights or by hc,aring the
siren, you should open the way for them withoul en-
dangering yourself or the other drivers.
Yield the right-of-way 10 emergency vehicles
- 68-
6-6 Road Works
Very frequentl y a part of the road is closed for
maintenance and construction works. which requires a
low speed drivi ng to ensure the safety of workers al
thi s pan of the road. Remember that excessive speed
in addit ion to not payi ng suffi cient attention at work
zones may endanger the life of those workers and may
C.IUSC injury or death.
Slow down your vehicle sp(:cd and be alen
while crossing through work wncs.
lJO)1I1I kl\l)\ Ihut!
1 lit' numhrf of injun·d pl' l"';UnS dul' 10 tht' .1l'1.' idl' nb
\llmh un' urn-d on tlu.' KinAdum's r m l d ~ during Ihr prriO(I
!IJXn-2UUKG stuud at morr Ih.1II 7X-',Uon mjuril's.
- 69-
Quil
Q1. The majority of traffic accidents which occur
adjacent to schools arc:
A. Colli sion between vehicles.
B. Running over.
C. Turning over.
D. None of the above.
Q2. Most of the running over accidents affecting
pedestrians occur at sunset or during the night,
because of:
A. Excessive speed.
S. Crowded pedestrians in the streets.
C. Poor visibility.
D. All of the above.
Q3. When crossing a work zone, you should do the
following:
A. Slow down and be alert.
S. Change your palh to another road.
C. Stop driving.
D. All of the above.
-70-
7
The vehicle
- 71-
"
Taking care of the vehicle and conducting a period-
ical maintenance is one of the important factors that
contributes to reducing the number of traffi c acci-
dents. apart from the occurrence of sudden break-
downs, which may affect the veh icle operati on. The
peri odical vehi cle inspection at authorized stations is
one of the important matters that should be followed
on periodical basis. The inspection would detect the
vehicle's defects on the spot and hence they can be re-
paired to avoid accident s. The veh icle's periodical in-
spection incl udes inspections for the different parts
and components which affect the safe usc of the vehi-
cle. Not present ing the vehicle to the annual periodi -
cal inspection is considered a traffi c violation.
Selection of genuine spare parts represents a cru-
cial element to the safety of the vehicle. It is wcll
known that there are commercial spare parts whi ch
may serve the requi red purpose for a short period of
time, but they have adverse impact on the vehicle's
performance and safety. Therefore it is advisable to
use genuine parts, especially those related di rectly to
the safety of the vehicle such as the brakes and tires.
7.1 Tires
A significant portion of the traffic accidents occur
due to the use of bad or worn out ti res. II is very im-
portant to change the tires on periodical bas is and re-
place them with good ones which suit the Iype of the
vehicle and the weather condit ion of the Ki ngdom as
recommended by the tires manufacturer.
There are two types of tires: radial (wire) and di ag-
onal bias (nylon) . The radial type is the best type due
to its characteristics such as its tolerance to high tem-
perature, maintaining vehicle's balance at turns <l lld
allowing comfortable dri ving because of its ability to
absorb a great deal of the road's roughness in addit ion
to saving fuel consumption.
- 73 -
The most important reasons that lead to wearing
out or bursting of the tire are the following:
I. Excessive weight.
2. Excessive or low air pressure.
3. Excessive speed.
4. Surrounding temperature.
5. Exposure of tire to shocks.
6. Storing in wet places or ;.I t high temperature.
7.Sudden braking or sudden shi fting to a hi gher speed.
8. Non-balancing of t ires.
9. Drift ing (TalllCeth).
When choosing tires for your veh icle it is necessary to
consider factors that have direct impact on the safe
functioning of the tire and which prevent it from sud-
den breakdown. These factors include the speed, ex-
1'1'\)1 IIUJ1Ipcr
R ..
pil'C'lllinhgc
Steeri ng Wipc",
lIall Joints
1',,,m
Tires
Rcar vicw mirror
1'"",1 tank
r Shock
' 'arking brake
Cranhh. f1 li nkage
Exhaus1 box
-74-
cessive load, temperature. usage conditions and road
conditions. For instance, tires are labeled with certain
codes according to maximum speed limit. These
codes are labled on the tire as shown in the fo llowing
table:
Code
Speed Km/Hour
Code Speed Kmfl-lour
L 120 S
180
M 130
T
190
N 140 U
200
P 150 H
210
Q 160
V
240
R 170
Z
Above 240
Regarding the ti re load, each tire has a maximum
load after which it will burst. The load is indicated by
<l number wh ich is labeled on the tire as shown in the
foll owing table:
Cod<
MaJlimum Load Per Ti re. Kg
18
462
84
500
"
515
"
"'"
89 ' w
91
.. ,
100 lSW
108
"''"
132
, ~
150 JJ>O
188
10.000
- 75 -
Moreover, each tire has a pre-detennined level of
air-pressure which is shown on one of its side wall.
The driver should m'lke sure that the air pressure inside
the tire is not in excess of the s ~ c i f i e d pressure point.
Wi th regard to the temperalUre, tires can be classi-
fied into three categories (A, B, C) each category of
tire having a maximum level of temperature to be
used below it. For example code (C) means that a tire
in this category should be used under low tempera-
ture. Based on thi s. the most appropriate c<1tegory for
the climate conditions of the Kingdom is category (A)
and then category (B).
Another important issue to be considered when re-
placing the lires is the lire's manufacturing dale,
which is composed of three digi ts, where the fir st and
second to the left side indi e<l tes the number of the
week, while the thi rd number denotes the year. For
example, in the number (25 1) the two digits (25) indi -
cate week number twellty five whcrC<ls the third num-
ber (I) indicates the year of manufacturing. wh ich is
200 I. Note it is not advisable to purchase a tire that is
over one year from the manufacturing date.
We advice the users when purchasing tires, to refer
to the user's mallual which is avai lable with the tires
distributors.
-76-
T",adwur ~
ManUrac1unnsdatc
(Mans wilh I"" w<:<cL
and ends wilh I""
year)
Maximum
-,"'"
Tc"'pC"ltUR:
....
120 130 140 ISO 160 170 180 190 200 210 NO 270 )(.1
Sro-lliymbol L M N I' 0 R STU /I V W 'r
-77 -
7-2 Vehicle's Breakdowns
If your vehicle breaks down, switch on the tlashing
lights, which indicates that your vehicle is out of order
and can not move, or that it is moving very slowly or
that you are confronting an emergency. The follow-
ings are the most common vehicle's breakdowns:
A. Tire blowout: when a tire burst, follow the follow-
ing steps:
* Lift your foot from the accelerator and do not apply
the brakes, otherwise the vehicle will be tipped
over.
* Hold the steering wheel finnly and maintain the ve-
hicle's direction in a straight line till it stops.
8. Failure of brakes: when you discover that the
brakes of your vehicle are out of order, you should
do the following:
* Bring the gear back to a slower position to slow the
speed of the vehicle.
* Repeat pressing the brakes in an attempt to regain
the brakes oil pressure. When repeating this three
or four times you will know whether the brakes
wi ll return to their nonnal function or not.
* Use the hand brake, but you should remember that
you should release it if it becomes clear that the ve-
hicle is going to slip.
* Use the horn and the flashing lights to draw the at-
tention of other drivers to your critical situation.
* When there is no need to change the direction by
moving out of the road, you may in this case turn-
off the vehicle's engine safely.
·78·
C. Breakdown of the steering wheel: When the en-
gine turns off while you are driving, it is difficult
to control the steering wheel. In this case you
should attempt the following steps:
* Turn the steering wheel strongly using both hands in
order to reach the si de of the road.
* SlOP the vehicle, you will find diffi culty in using the
brakes in automatic vehicles.
* Try to re-start the engi ne with caution.
D. Headlight failure: in case that the head lights
wenl off suddenly during night driving, adopt the
following:
* Move the vehicle away from the road and tum on
the flashing light s.
* Try to switch on the lights repeatedly.
* Upon failure to switch on the light, turn on the
emergency flashing lights or the signal lights.
E. If the engine hood is opened: If the engine hood is
opened suddenly to an upright posit ion whi le you are
dri ving your vehicle, you should do the fo llowing:
* Tum on the flashing Ijghts.
* Slowdown your vehicle speed.
* Try to see from under the cover, if not possible, do
the following:
* Try to see through the window.
* Make use of the lane markings as a guide for you.
* Keep away from the road as fast as you can with ex-
treme caution.
F. Breakdown of the Accelerator:
* Adjust the gear in a neutral posit ion for the ordi -
nary vehicles and to (N) position for the automatic
vehicles.
* Use the brakes.
* Pay attent ion to the road and start pulling your ve-
hicle off the road.
- 79 -
* Draw the attention of the other drivers 10 your
criti cal situation by using the horn or the flashing
li ghts.
* Turn the engine off.
7-3 Emergency Conditions
There are emergency circumstances which necessitate
a compulsory stop of the driver on the road side. In
such situation you should act ns follows:
* Pull away from the road by a distance not less
than two meters if you fail to find an appropriate
parking
* Place a warn ing tri -
angle nt a di stance
of 50 meters in
front of the vehicle
and another one at a
disl::lnce of 100 me-
ters behind the ve-
hicle in the single- ...........
lane road Usc Ihe waming lrianglc in case
of a vehicle breakdown
* If the road is a dual or multilane highway and you
are forced to stop on one of these lanes, you should
put a warning triangle at a di stance of 10 meters be-
hind the vehicle, and another warning triangle at a dis-
tance of 100 meters behind the vehicle also. Do not
forgel to collect the warning triangle prior to moving
your vehicle.
Remember also that many accidents occur because
of unsafe stopping near the highway, whether for re-
pair of a defect in the vehicle or for any other reasons.
Sliding is another unexpected event which occurs
when driving a vehicle. Sliding occurs when the de-
gree of fri ction between the tires and the road surface
reduces. When the vehicle slides, act as follows:
- 80-
I. Tum the dri ving wheel in the direction of the sliding.
2. A void pressi ng the brakes pedal.
3. Slow down your vehicle speed gradually.
4. If your vehicle is equipped with (ABS) system
whi ch prevents locking the ti res when using the
brakes, you should, under wet road circumstances
press the brake pedal strongly and continuously to
acti vate this system, even if you feel that the brake
pedal is becoming loose or is pushing your foot up.
(ABS) system helps the dri ver to control the vehicle
and maintain its direction in a straight line when
sliding on the road due to rain or other causes.
I)n f ) U kmm thut!
The numher or deuths resulkd rrom truffic uceidenls
that occurred on the Kingdom's roads durin!.: thl' pl"
riod 19HO·20mU; CXl'ccdcd to9.0UO l'aSuultil's
- 81 -
Quiz
QJ. The advantage of the vehicle' s periodical in-
spection is:
A. Early detection of defects.
B. Repairing the defect to avoid accidents.
C. Raise the level of the vehicle's safety on the road.
D. All of the above.
Q2. There are three categories of tires, namely (A,
B, C) and the most suitable ones for the King-
dom's weather are:
A.C.
B. C.B
C. A,then B
D. B then A
Q3. When the steering wheel breaks down, you
should do the following:
A. Move the steering wheel with both hands.
B. Stop the vehicle.
C. Try to fe-start the engine.
D. All of the above.
- 82-
8
Traffic accidents
- 83-
8- J A voiding Accidents
In most cases, drivers choose one of three options
to avoid accidents: stops quickly, veer the vehicle or
accelerates the speed. Following is a summary for
each reaclion selected:
* To stop quickl y. use the brakes and when the vehi-
cle slides, stop using the brakes, then press the
brakes one time aft er the other till the vehicle
comes to a complete stop.
* When you don' t find lime for slopping. try 10
change the direction to pull off the road, in order to
avoid colliding with other vehicles and try nol 10
use the brakes whil e changing the direction.
* Some times it would be preferable to accelerate
your speed to avoid accidents, particularl y when a
certain vehicle is about to hit you from behind, or
on your side.
If you fa il to avoid the accident, try to protect your-
self as much as you can, but you should all ow other
dri vers to know what you are intending to do while
you are dri ving your vehicle so they can avoid coll id-
ing with you. By foll owing the guidance and instruc-
tions mentioned below, you wi ll be able to avoid
many accidents:
I. Blind areas:
The driver can nol see the vehicles in the blind are-
as through the mirror and he should turn hi s head 10
be able to see other vehi cles in these areas.
2_ The Spero Limit
You are legall y not all owed to dri ve in access of
the speed limit as posted on the road's speed li mi l
signs, Regardless of the speed limit , your speed
should take into consideration the following:
- 85-
A. The number and speed of the vehicles on the road.
B. The road's surface condition, whether soft or
rough, earthy, or wet, wide or narrow.
C. The road's slope (high or low).
D. Pedestrians and cyclists on the road sides.
E. Rain. fog. winds, sandstonn and dust.
F. The nature of the area you are crossing (schools,
mosques. markets).
Driving in excess of the posted speed limit is con-
sidered a disastrous danger. Also, driving very slowly,
especially on the highway, may lead to causing dan-
gerous accidents. Therefore. you should drive at speed
close to the speed limit and observe the speed of the
surrounding vehicles on the road.
The faster your speed, the lesser will be your abili-
ty to control the vechicJe, regardless of observing the
speed limit.
Many of the new drivers do not take into consider-
ation the safety factor by slowing down their speed
according 10 the nature of the road and the driving
conditions. Hence, these drivers do not act properly
and may cause traffic accidents due to lack of experi-
ence in driving.
- 86-
3. Curves
At road curves there is a side push force on the ve-
hicle (the centrifugal force) whi ch pushes it away
from the curve. To avoid exi ting the vehicle from its
path, you should slow down pri or to entering the
curve and remember that usi ng the brakes while pass-
ing the curve may lead to sliding your vehicle and
tipped over.
4. Work Zones:
Curve Signs
The work zones are locations where disastrous ac-
cidents increase. It is well known that the victims of
these accidents are from the users of road or the work-
ers at those sites. It is also known that work place, re-
qui res closing part of the road or the whole road,
hence, the dri ver should be cautious to pass the work
zone safely and thi s entail s abiding by the traffi c signs
such as the detour signals ... etc, and the instructions of
the persons in charge of the work zone.
Warning si gn on
a post
~
~ 5.:
1
-- 5 l ' ~ l &
Cone wi th nllg
- 87 -
.1
Every driver shou ld remember that the speed limit
at the work place is less than the speed limit at other
parts of the road
s· Wet Roads
You should slow your vehicle speed when the road
is wel. This is because, when there is rain or other liq-
uids on the road, the frict ion coefficient between the
tires and the road surface decreases at the speed of 80
km/ h .and the veh icle will appear as if it is moving on
water. Therefore, any sli ght deviation in your path or
occurrence of a medium level winds may le.ld your
vehicle to slide and you will loose control over it.
Al so remember that pressing the brakes strongly on
the wet roads leads to sliding.
8.2 Colliding with Camels
Camels represent a danger to the traffic now when
Lhey cross through the unfenced roads. The shapes or
the camels are dirrerent rrom the shapes or other ani-
mals. They have huge bod ies and long legs, hence
their centers or gravity are high and th is is the reason
behind the occurrence of ratal traffic accidents when
the vehicle hit camels. The reasoning ror this is that
vehicles fi rst hit the legs and then the mass or the
body rall s on the passengers' cabin in the light vehi-
cles.
Studies proved that trarfl c accidents caused by
camels in Ihe Kingdom constitute about 94% or the
animal s hilling accidents. and 85% of these accidents
occur between 6:00 p.m. and 4:00 a.I11., i.e. during the
night.
In addition. studies indicated that the rate or inju-
ries in the accidents caused by camels represent rour
times the rate of the traffic accidents in general where-
as the death rates exceed six times the rate of traffic
accidents in general.
·88·
To avoid colliding with camels, you should observe
the following instructions:
I. Slow your specd when YOll see a camellcamcb
ncar the road
2. Swi tch on the flashing lights or signals and observc
vehicles aroll nd you, especiall y the ones behind
you.
3. Wail till Ihe camels cross the road completely.
- 89-
t
4. The warning triangle which has a camel's symbol
indicates camel s crossing area. When you sec this
sign you should be cautious and reduce your vchi ·
de speed.
5. You should be aware of the typical behavior of
camels; they do not get scared of vehicles and do
not move away from vehicles when they see them.
6. You should pay attention to the traffic instructions
and warni ng signs issued or announced by the con-
cerned authori ties to avoid this problem.
8.3 The accident's site and crowding.
When you
see the
flashing
IighlS of a
vehicle
ahead of
you, you
should re-
duce your
vehicle L.. __ ....................
speed as there might be an accident or an emergency
on the road.
Alflid ur around tht' lIccidl'lll, or di,·
.. sil'rs ,itt's Ollt fir h('('lIW.l' thi .. \ ill hindl'r III('
(ll)t'rutinll'i and l'lIlllii IlItJrt' m'l'jell'lIt'i
- 90-
8.4 Intensity of the Accident
The intensity of the traffic accidents which ranges
from a simple fall from a bicycle to an accident in
which many vehicles are involved, may cause many
injuries. In most cases, the site of the accident repre-
sents high risks for safety due to the slow traffic flow.
Therefore, always try to keep away from the acci-
dent's site by resort ing to another road to allow the
emergency teams (traffic police, ambulance, civil de-
fense) to carry out their rescue duties without any dis-
turbance or confusion.
8.5 How to act when you see an Accident?
If it happens that you are the first person to reach
an accident's site, you should behave as follows:
Make the place safe:
First: Personal safety precautious
Pay attention to your personal safety by not doing
anything that endangers your li fe. Stop your vehicle
safely away from the road after you pass the acci-
dent's site and turn on the flashing lights. Check
whether there arc injured people. Do not run through a
path which is crowded with vehicles. If it is at night
wear or carry a shining or reflecting object and use a
torch.
Second: The General Protective Precautions
Make the place safe to prevent the occurrence of
another accident. Infonn the traffic police or the am-
bulance or the civil defense. If there are injured peo-
ple trapped inside the vehicles involved in the acci -
dent ask the bystanders to warn the other drivers to
slow their speed. Put warn ing triangle, signal s or
lights at a dist.mce of 45 m at least, aw,ty from the
traffic's si te and at both directions of the road. Switch
off the engine of the vehicle affected by the accident
- 91 -
..
,
and if possible disconnect the vehicle's battery. Keep
the vehicles involved in the accident at stable position
by using the hand brakes. If a vehicle is lean ing on
one side, do not adjust ii , but try to prevent it from
turning upside down. Draw the attention of the emer-
gency services to any damaged electric wires or
spilled out fucl from the vehicles affected by the acci-
dent or the existence of the "danger" signs on them.
Dll not rllll\ .. ' the Itllun.:d p .. :rsotls }Otl t lllJ
thCllIlI!Sld,,:.1 \,: tUI.-It: or 11 the) an.: II I J.U1-
gl.:r \ 1(1\ Ill,!! mlured JX'r'tl l h h.lflll tht: m .lIlu lll.tIl) 01
th .. - .. ast." ilL" tiT .1' ,I rc ... uh oj thl'
Third: Rescuing the persons injured in accidents
Check the injured and make sure that Ihey arc still
breathing. Stay with the injured person and relieve hi s
worry lill the ambulance reaches the site of the acci-
dent. Try to be calm if you afe at the place of the acci-
dent and remember that acting promptl y is very essen-
tiaL While you are waiting for the ambulance 10 reach
the accident's site, you may take the following steps.
Stan
I
I
injured
I
If u pcriOn j , ,H-cltlled OUlsidc of the car,
fi x he,ld ,111([ lied .. m;ing yuur hand ,md
open ,lIr palh by pushing lhe juw up-
ward. removc nil objects fwm inside I hc
jaw, c'IJCcinll y the artificial tccth aud lhc
ocher which may block the ,Iir
p;:tth of lhe injun.-d
- 92-
I
Conscious injured
He kl"t'fl 10 rdic ... ..
Ihfln Mnd ... c
them runllnuousl)'
8·6 Stopping acute Bleeding
The most likely cause of dc.alh when accidents oc·
cur is the bleeding; however, you can stop the external
bleeding easily if you fo llow the steps explained be-
low:
I. Locate the place of the bleeding and press it di rect-
ly using a cl ean piece of cl oth.
2. If the bleeding occurs at onc of the limbs, li ft this
part up and keep pressing as thi s gesture alone may
be enough in Illost cases.
3. Usc a bandage to cover the wound and lic it appro-
priatel y, but be carefu l not to tighten it to the extent
that it interrupts the blood circul ation from rcach-
ing the other parts of the body.
4. Press points: If the previous attempts fail to SlOp
the bl eeding. YOLI may press by the palm of your
hand on the internal side of the humorous between
armpit and the elbow in case of the upper part
bleeding. and press the inlernal front part of the
upper thigh in case of Ihe lower part bleeding.
Do not rt.'plllcc thl:' pil'cc of doth uith a n c \ ~
pil'{"t.' it the hlt.'cding contillues; rlltlll"r
plact.' a lieu Olll' Oil lup of he old.
· 93·
Fi rs(: Fix st raight the
head and neck
Third: Covet !.he woond wi th
bandage
Second: Hold li p the limb and
press to stop the bleeding
Fonh: Plam hand pressing to
stop the bleeding
- 94-
8.7 Hazardous Materials
Traffic accidents may even become morc compli-
cated when hazardous material s spi lled or whcn toxic
vapors leak out. Keep the bystanders away from the
accident's site and stand opposite to the wind' s direc-
tion. If you notice any "danger" signs on the vehicles,
infonn the emergency team about them. If you are
doubtful about your safety or if you noticed any "dan-
gerous" sign , keep at a distance and stay at a safe
place if therc is any leakage of nammable or hazard-
ous material s.
Phone Numbers of Emergency authorities
Security patrols
999
Saudi Red Crescent Authority
997
Civil Defence
998
Traffic Accidents notification
993
Road Security Police
996
- 95 -
.(
=
. ! l i . . ~
c ........... ~
... hoI ... ""
Signs of hazardous materials on trucks
- 96-
8.8 Factors Influencing Driving
The teachings of our religion Islam prohibit drink-
ing alcohol and using narcotics (drugs). The traffi c
regulations and rules stipulate that whoever is in-
volved in a traffi c accident and found to be under the
influence of narcotics, or alcohol will be dealt with
stringentl y (physically and morally). The penalty im-
posed on such persons may extend to suspending their
licenses for a period of one year in addi tion to apply-
ing the Sharia puni shments. On the other hand. some
of the medicines taken by some dri vers may affect
their level of concentration and profi ciency in dri ving.
This applies to the other types of drugs which are pur-
chased by a prescript ion from physician or over-lhe-
counter, including the prohibited drugs. Now, consid-
er these facts:
* The medi cine prescribed for curing headache, nasal
congestation, influenza and tranquili zers, cause
drowsiness which affect the dri ver's focus and
driving skill s.
* Taking medi cal drugs, regardl ess of their types or
doses, has its definite impact on the driver's focus.
Therefore drivers should consult and get confLrma-
lion from the physician or the pharmacist about the
extent of influence of the drugs they take on their
abil ity to drive.
You should make sure that )OU are "eUlmare
of the resulting efffects of using an} I)pcs of
drugs 011 }uur focus nhilc drhing
- 97-
- Fatigue and Stress
Fatigue weakens the driver's focus which will have
adverse effect on his reaclion to the dangers that may
face him on the road, in addi tion to making him feel
sleepy while driving. To avoid this, the driver is ad-
vised to do the following:
Properl y plan the trip.
Take a rest prior to starting your trip and avoid
starting it immediately after the working hours.
Do not try to drive for a long distance continuously
during the night.
Stop and take rest after every two hours of dri ving
and take snacks and hot drinks.
Move y,?ur eyes continuously and talk to your trip
companions.
Listen to some radio programs and usefu l cassettes.
- Vision and hearing
While you are driving, you need to see objects
clearly. In fact many of the acts you do whi le you are
dri ving depend on what you see ahead of you. Thus,
if you are not able to see the objects ahead of you
clearly, your judgment of the distances ahead of you
will be incorrect which may consequently affect tak-
ing appropriate decisions. Some people can see well
during the day but they can not do the same during
the night, particularly on the roads that lack sufficient
lighting. Hence, you should check your eyesight and
use medical glasses, if required.
- 98-
Hearing is also as important as eyesight. You
should check your hearing to measure the extent of
your ability to hear the voices around you as there
might be some voices which you need to hear prior to
seeing their sources to pay attent ion to them, especial-
ly in places where visibility is low.
Listening to the radio or cassette player at low vol-
ume will help you hear voices outside the vehicle.
Do ~ ou knO\ '!
Tlw \olume of economic IO"'-'it's resulting from
traffic accidents In tht, Kingdom is estimatl-d
al S.H. 21 Million 8nnuall)
- 99-
Quiz
Qt- The faster the speed:
A. The more you wi ll be respected by other drivers.
B. The more the insurance premium wi ll increase.
C. The less control you will have over the vehicle.
D. Wililcad to failure of operating the (ABS) system.
Q2. When you see camels crossing the road, you
shoul d:
A. Slow down your veh icle speed and wait till the
camels cross the whole sect ion of the road.
S. Slow down your speed and no need to wait.
C. Usc the hom continuousl y_
D. Increase your speed to prevent them rrom crossi ng
the road.
Q3. When there is an accident or an emergency on
the road, how will you act:
A. Provide assistance if I can.
S. Use another road to allow the emergency and res-
cue teams to reach the site and rescue the injured.
C. SlOP the vehicle near the place of the accident.
D. The above-mentioned in paras (A+B).
- I ()()-
9
Behaviors that lead
to license suspension
- 101 -

Abiding by the traffic regulations and instructions
is a major pre-requi site to avoid being involved in ac-
tions that might lead to suspension of driving license
and disqualify the dri ver form driving. The conduct
that leads to violating the traffic regulations have neg-
ati ve impacts, which includes causing harm to you or
to others or the legal consequences of paying fines
and other legal procedures. However, the adverse im-
pacts do not stop there, but may extend to include reg-
istering black points on your record at the traffi c di-
rectorate. For example, when a driver commits a
violation of running a red light, in addition to the pay-
ment of the financial penalty, twelve black points will
be registered in his driving record. If he continues re-
peating this violation, this balance of black point s
may reach 24 points within one year where his driving
license will be suspended.
In contrast, abiding by the traffic rules by not com-
miuing violations will make your record clean and not
containing any black points. The traffic regulations
contain some provi sions that encourage the drivers to
maintain their record clean. Committing a traffic vio-
lation is not the upshot or does it mean that you are a
dangerous driver. The law stipul ates that " If one year
elapses after a driver committed a traffic violation and
he did not commit another violation, the driver' s black
points pertaining to that violation will be omitted au-
tomatically from the system, consequently hi s record
wi ll be clean of any violations.
nu \UII I.IW\
I impal"l, .,f Ir.lllir .u·ddt·nl t·,lt·1II1 hn "mllht·
I""t·, Iu lIU"huk "It 1.11. IIt,.11t1l ,lIId
fhnl,':':ll.ll IlIIp.ll h.
- 103 -
t
Appendix (1)
Tables of the traffic violations
pursuant to the Traffic Act issued by the Royal
Decree No MISS dated 26110/ 1428H
and it 's Executive Act issued by the decree
No. 7019 dated 3n!1429H
of H.H. Minister of Interior.
- 105 -
6'ioIations Table No. ( 1 ~
Penalties for Violations Table No. (I) are 500 to 900
S.R. fine, or detention of the vehicle as welt. These vi -
olations are:
1. Driving a vehicle without having a dri ving license.
2. Driving a vehicle without registration plates (deten-
tion of the vehicle till the violation is settled).
3. Driving a vehicle without rear registration plate
(detention of the vehicle till the violation is sett led).
4. Driving a vehicle with registration plates that do
not belong to vehicle (detention of the vehicle till
the violation is settled).
5. Using irregular registration plates (detention of the
vehicle till the violation is settled).
6. Installing fittings resembling those of official and
emergency vehicles(delention of the vehicle lill Ihe
violalion is seuled).
7. Erasing or try to erase vehicle's identification signs.
8. Driving under the intluence of alcohol, drugs or
medical drugs that is warned of driving under it' s
infl uence.
9. Running traffic light on red.
10. Driving a vehicle in the opposite direction to traf-
fi c flow.
II. Maneuvering in high speed between vehicles 011
public roads.
- 107 -
12. Exceeding speed limit (more than 25 Km PI-lover
posted limit) .
13. Passing in prohibited areas such as curves and
heights.
14. Slopping over railroads.
15. Failure to secure (covering and tying up) a trans-
ported load
16. Carrying out works on public roads without prior
coordination with the concerned authorities.
17. Fai lure to completely stop at stop sign.
18. Not yielding the .ri ght-of-way by completely stop-
ping at the yield sign.
19. Not yielding the right-of-way to vehicles coming
from right in equal right-of-way intersection i"n
the absence of right-of-way sign.
20. Not yielding the right-of-way to vehicles in the
main road in the absence of yield sign.
2 1. Failure to comply with the traffic police direct ions
:md not giving his directions priority over traffic
signals.
22. Failure of incoming vehicles to yield to the right-
of-way to veh icles inside roundabouts in the ab-
sence of traffic lights or a traffic police.
23. Driving a vehicle not equipped with the necessary
appliances such as brakes, lights etc which jeop-
pardize public safety.(detention of the vehicle till
the violation is settled).
- 108-
24. Failure to use necessary lights while driving or in
bad weather.
25. Driving a vehicle in tunnels without switching on
li ghts.
- 109-
6'1oIaIions Table No. (zy
Penalties for Viohuions Table No. (2) are 300 to 500
S. R. fine or detention of the vehicle as well. These viM
olations are:
I. Carry ing out modifications or add itons to vehi-
cle's chassis or body without observing the legal
procedures.(delent ion of the vehicle till the viola-
tion is sett led).
2. Operating of industri al, const ruction or agri cullu-
raj public works vehicles on roads without taking
the necessary precautions includi ng absence of re-
fl ecting wi ng signs .. (detent ion of the veh icle till
the violat ion is sett led).
3. Driving a vehi cle that causes poll ution on public
roads (detention of the vehicle till the violat ion is
settled).
4. Exceeding speed limit ( 1-25 Km PH over posted
li mit).
5. Messing with regulating traffic road signs, reflec-
tors or poles.
6. Non-stopping in check points or security paLrols in
the presence of SlOp directions or signs.
7. Fail ure to observe traffic regulations in crossroads
and intersections.
8. Usc of vehicle for purposes other than licensed for.
9. Exceeding number of permitted passengers.
- 110-
10. Tmnsporting passengers in places not designed for
them in vehicle.
I I. Refuse to present dri ver's or vehicle's documents
to the authorized personnel.
12. Not observing lanes outlines.
13. Leaving objects on public roads that may endan-
ger public safety.
14. Not yielding right of way 10 VIP convoys or emer-
gency vehi cles.
15. Passing school buses when children are boardi ng
or exiting.
16. Driving with expired driving license.
- II I -
(Violations Table No. (3V
Penalties for Violations Table No. (3) arc 150 to 300
S.R. fine. These violations are
I. Absence of trailer's legal requi rements.
2. Not presenting the vehicle for techn ical inspecti on
3. Using high beam headl ight whi le there arc oncom-
ing vehicles.
4. Fai l ure 10 take necessary precautions when SlOp-
ping the vehi cle on publ ic roads in cases of emer-
gency.
5. Placing obstacles inside the vehicle that obstruct
dri ver's vision.
6. Not carrying dri ving license or vehicle' s registra-
tion whi le driving ..
7. Lc<lving of vehicle unattended in a descending road
without taki ng necessary precautions.
8. Violating traffic regulations on roads.
9. Failure to preserve vehicle's registration plales.
10. Fai lure to compl ete vehicle's ownership rcgistm-
tion procedures
II . Failure to complete the procedures or changing or
vehicle's utilization.
12. Failure to use scat bell
13. Failure 10 use appropri ate sarety seats designed ror
children
• 112-
14. Failure to observe ri ght-or-way rules.
15. Failure to export a vehicle inte nded for e xport in
due dale.
16. Using cell phone by hand whil e dri vi ng.
17. Abuse the use of vehicle's horn.
18. Not wearing a helmet while driving motorbikes.
19. Dri ving in unauthori zed lanes
20. Fail ure of animals' owners to keep them away
from roads.
- 113 -
(VIolatlOJlS Table No. (4 1)
Penalties for Violations Table No. (4) are 100 to 150
S.R. fine . These violati ons are
1. Using unauthorized appliances in the vehicle or fix-
ing stickers or slogans of indecent material.
2. Unnecessarily leaving of veh icles on public roads
in prohibited arcas.
3. Throwing any objects outside the vehicle while
drivi ng.
4. Driving a veh icle without front registration plate.
5. Exiting or boarding whi le the vehicle is moving.
6. Crossing of pedestrians in unaut horized zones.
7. Fai lure of pedestrians to comply to pedestrian traf-
fic signs.
8. Causing traffic congestion by driving slowly.
9. Parking in No-parking areas.
10. Parking in handicapped parking zones.
11. Failure to focus on the road while driving.
12. Absence of insurance policy.
- 114-
Appendix (2)
Traffic Signs & Signals
- 115 -
1
i
!
,
II Warning Signs II

1teYc<x_ Kewne_ _ ...... l.--.
,..., io1\ .. """ _ ..... II> 1<. R - L

t>escenl AscenT II ..... __ I htrood...",... lit <_"""01
k""Plrft onj ......

Tho .. __ 11 __ ... ROU(!II road hump C_""""
'"""'....... __

- 117-

...... -

8ri&"
- 118-

-
& &&&&
WOlerC""",,,, R.......,. S ..... 1Iridp 1lM1raooI ........
" .... -
& &&&&.
n.. ..... 01.... s..llaoooIo.n. MoOn_ s-._o..n._ ........
........... l.icIM""'--" willi. Uft ........ . ...
--

150 100
" " "
- 119-
Regulatory Signs
®S8®®
Mui_"".... ~ . . . . . . _ .... "'.. ""whida .,...,. ....... -
ptGhibioooI ,.-
8@@S
_ ........ ~ w ~ -..-... No .... ktI Soap
•••
®®es \l
No U Tum
- 120-
S8@®0
No_ No"'CUlIOB.-. C_ Priorityror""""",,"1 1>11, ......... _
nffi< 100, __
. ....

OS
CIooc.<I_dirccUoooo No_ II> No, .... .. _
--
j.A:.JI r.:.tl.,k-o

Trucks
Keep Righi
anirnab ..... ..... ..

- 121 -
At ~ 10 At _Jo-ti-IO
.... liJhIon", ... lhokft .... it;hlon", ......
''''
- 122-
..... - .......,
II
Guide Signs
II
a
w
[i!J
- ~
~ -
,-
Y_I-
-
- 123-
L...-_ ______ II
&i!Bi!!i .
- _ ..I I
,. --
- ..... -..... .---
-124-
--
. ~
.
..
-------- ..
----_._--
w .....
t ....... _-
.. -
- 125-
Ii'-!
J)j""d" ... ",
\ " '.one si:::Jl
)(
Cl ~
o()O'-'o
oc
,-,
- 126-
00
........ -
I ~ = ~ l
---
L!,,-' """'1.01
DETOUR AHEAD
1500 "'. ,. '0·'
0.-'"-I11500 ..
~
~
--L
Drum
Tllhut. o..lintalOr VMicaJ PaMI
T)'pc [I Donie"""
- 127-
Finally .. .
The authors wish that the efforts they have been exerted in
writing this manual have achieved the aspired objectives in
establishing and deepening the traffic safety culture and
concept for the road users. This effort remains in need for more
deve!opmenr and updating through the contribution of
whoever concerned by way of making comments, remarks and
suggestions and sending the same to the authors on the
following address.
King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology
The National Traffic Safety COlllmittee
P.O. Box 6086 Riyadh J 1442
Secretariat of the COllllllittee:
Tel: 01/481 3746
Fax: 01/481 3878-01/481 3837
Email : gdrgp(ilkacst. edu.sa

Related Interests

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inlutions pl.'r )'cur
- 49 -
Qui z
Q.l A Circuhu sign with a \Vhite Color back-
ground and red frame always indicates:
A. Mandatory.
B. Warning.
e. Prohibition.
D. Regulation.
Q2. This sign means
A. No Parking & wait ing.
B. No left turn.
e. Do 1101 enter.
D. No U turn.
Q3. This sign indicates:
A. Maximum speed is 70 Kmlh.
B. Minimum speed is 70 Kmlh.
C. Average speed is 70 Km/ h.
D. All of the above.
- 50-
\ white continuous line with a broken line at
the other side indicates:
A Passing and turning left.
B. Passing and turning ri ght.
(' No pass ing or turning le ft.
D. Do not stop.
The Shape or the Yield Sign is:
, A triangle with apex lip.
n Square.
(' A triangle with apcx down.
I). Circu lar.
- 51 -
5
Safe Driving
- 53 -
SI)ccd
The main purpose of specifing a maximum speed
for vehicles on the road is to enhance safety through
el iminating the ri sks resulting from the tendency of
the drivers lO choose a speed which they beli eve is
reasonable. The posted speed limit s represent the
maximum speed the driver is legall y allowed to drive
wi thin its range. However, the driver should take into
t'onsideralion thaI Ihi s speed limit suit s the engineer-
ing design of the road and safety measures applied to
it. A road design based on a specific speed and ex-
ceed ing thi s speed will represent a violation to the en-
gi neering safety measures of that road and conse-
quentl y creating a risk of having a traffic accident.
There is another matter of significant importance;
the speed limit is specified assuming natural condi-
tions and circumstances such as good weather condi-
tions, day light, clearance of any traffic jam or mainte-
nance work or any other ci rcumstances wh ich may
hinder the traffic. Therefore. the driver should choose
a speed that suits the road conditions without exceed-
ing the specified speed. Always remember that 40%
of the traffic accidents in the Kingdom are caused by
cxcessi ve speeds.
The vehicl e's speeds can be detected by radars and
.. urveillance cameras.
2 Running red light
Passing the traffic light on red is call ed " running
the traffic signal". Thi s problem together with Ihe ex-
cessive speed can be considered the main cause of fa-
I.t! accidents in our country. The entering of a vehicle
mto the intersection whi le the signal is on red m c a l l ~
that the driver has committed a violation, name ly the
running of the traffic signal. Therefore. slowi ng down
the speed in preparation for stopping when the yellow
light appears. makes it unlikely for the driver to run
- 55-
the traffic signal and hence he will save his life and
the li ves of others by avoiding a fatal accident.
The presence of the traffi c police is not necessary
at the intersection to arrest the violators of the traffic
signal, as there are secret traffic police, or the surveil-
lance cameras to perform this function and arrest or
register the violators. In this connection, it is worth
mentioning here that such action contradicts the teach-
ings of our religion, Islam. In this regard, His Emi-
nence, the Late Shei kh Abdul Aziz Bin Baz was once
asked thi s question: what is the rule or Islamic judg-
ment pertaining to the persons who violate the traffi c
regulations, for example those who run the traffic sig-
nal on rcd?
The answer of his Eminence was as foll ows "any
Muslim may not violate the Government's traffi c reg-
ul ations as this invol ves great danger and risk to that
person and to others. The Government has set these
regulations out of its desire to secure the interests of
all its subjects and punishing such violators" and he
cited thi s verse from the Holy Quran (And most of
mankind will not believe even if you desire it eagerly)
verse" I03-sufilt-Yusuf'
Hi s Eminence. Sheikh Bin Ethaymeen had also
been asked the above ment ioned questi on and he re-
plied by cit ing thi s verse from the Holy Quran (you
who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Apostle (Mu-
hammad. PBUH) and those of your (Muslims) who
arc in authorit y) verse 59-Sufilt-An-Ni sa (Thc Wom-
en) and he went on to say that " If the rulers have laid
down signs such as: stop signs, or proceed signs, we
shoul d abide by these signs as thi s mcans we obey
our rul ers",
- 56-
5.3 Drifting; (TuOlealh)
Drifling is considercd a traffic viol ution. The driver
who commits drifting is penel ized for the first viola-
tion by detention of the veh icle for fifteen days and a
fine of 1000 (One thousand) S.R. and by detention of
the vechilc for one monlh and a fine of 1500 (One
thousand Five hundred) S. R. in the second offence.
and detention of the vehicle and a fine of 2000 (Two
thousand)S.R. in the third time. In all cases the of-
fender is refered to court to consider jailing him and
confiscation of the vehicle.
5A Csing Mobile Phone by Imnd While Driving
One of the great ri sks whi le driving is the use of
mobiles. That is because, driv-
ing requires focusing and paying ,--------,
attention 10 the road, and being
busy with the mobi le affects thi s
focus and hence reduces the
driver's reaction time when con-
fronted with a hazard situation
and may commit accident due to
improper reaction. Moreover,
speaking on the mobile may dis-
turb the dri ver's thinking or may
become excited which may
make him more likely 10 cause ..... --------'
an accident
.51>cfenshe DrivinJ.!
The defensive dri ver is a driver who always rakes a
posi ti ve attitude tow.ards driving by focusi ng mainly
on safcty. Such a dri ver is always pati ent, obscrvc!<o
the feel ings of others and is wi lling to Up(hlle hi s
knowledge about the safe driving every day. Hi s sty le
of dri ving is based on knowledge. skill and tinder
st:.mding and does not leave things to happen acciden
lall y.
The defensive driver is that driver who control s hi !<o
- 57 -
feelings regardless of the pressures, whi ch he
ters or the misbehavior of other drivers. Hence, he can
avoid accidents by controlling his feelings and
ments and by focusing on driving and how to reach
his destination safely. Also, he is the one who checks
all the directions of the road carefull y while driving in
order to react in a better way to the road surpri ses and
unexpected events or to the faults that might be
milled by others.

u Ii('rnse m('1U1S that }t1U :Ire

5.6 that must be Kno" It
* Give chance to vehicles that want to pass you
cause the road is the property of all .
* Pedestrians have the right to cross the road.
cially the children, elderly and the di sabled.
* High headlight s and dazzling light s annoy other
drivers and may cause traffic accidents.
*' Keep enough distance between your vehicle and the
vehicles ahead of you to avoid colli sion with them
if they stop suddenly.
* Control your emotions and actions when faced by
some situation along the road that mi ght excite you
and make you nervous. Always be alert.
Wrong Parking
- 58-
II., not make any unnecessary shifting from your
LUll', IIlstead stick to your lane.
I'lall ahead your trip.
your vehicle properly at the designated park.
III).! areas.
I :"l' the safety devices when your vehicle breaks
duwn and keep it away from the road.
I{('t.:ognize the meanings and significance of the
IllIllIe signs and directions and be guided accord·
11I).tly,
1)0 nnt dri ve in excess of the speed limit, and slow
clown your speed when there is a reason for that to
Ivnul causing an accident.
• III "i ingle· lanes roads keep at the extreme right
hen you drive through an elevated section or
'hen you come across a curve or at intersections.
• PlY attention to the signs that indicate animal cross·
1I1i!. (especially camels).
• Whcn you feel fatigue while driving for long dis·
stop driving and walk for a while till you
I I refreshed.
• "ituw down your vehicle speed when there is rain,
Ing or sandstorm.
• \ void passing other vehicles in bad weather con·
lluinns and use the flashing lights.
• In hud weather conditions it would be better to exit
lIway from the road and stop at a safe place.
• When it starts raining, you must keep enough dis·
tlillce from other vehicles and refrain from pressing
the brakes strongly, or driving on the un.paved
p trt!C of the road.
\twnys remember that you should hold the driving
Ikcnse, the vehicle's registration and the insurance
t!,x;ument and all these documents should be valid.
I (tllow the tnlmc police directions and instructions.
Y icld the right·of-way to emergency vehicles.
- 59 -
Prior to Jour lrirJ. it adyis'lhl(' 10 make
sure of Iht' following:
* Plan in advance for the intended trip.
* That the vehicle dashboard indicators (temperature.
oil , fuel etc .. ) are functioning properly.
* That the wipers are functioning
* The emergency devices are
in place (warning triangle,
fire extinguisher).
* Check the oi l level.
* The Radiator water.
* Adjust the mirrors.
* Close the doors properly.
* Ensure all windows and
windscreen surfaces should
be clean and free of any Fire extinguisher and
obstructions. warning triangle are
* Make sure that the signal lights necessary in :lIly
vchicle
and head light are working.
* Make sure that the seal belt is in order.
* Make sure that the tires and the spare tire are In
good condition
Uncivl h/.cd behaVior
- 60-
Q I. The most fatal and common traffic violations in
the Kingdom are:
A. Excessive Speed.
B. Running the traffi c signal on red.
C. Excessive speed and running the traffic signal on red.
D. None of the above.
Q2. The Defensive Driver is the one Who:
I. Is a professional dri ver.
2. Part icipates in intemational mllies.
\. Drives the vehicles at a slow speed .
. l, Always has a positi ve attitude towards drivi ng.
Q3. When you feel fatigue while driving you should:
A. Stop driving and walk for a whi le to get refreshed.
B. Continue driving.
C. Put on glasses to ease the eye fati gue.
D. All of the above.
- 61 -
6
Sharing the Road
with Others
· 63 ·
6. 1 Pedestrians
Us ing the road is
a common right for
the drivers as wel l
as the pedestrians.
Therefore. a driver
... hould respect the
right of pedestrians
hy observing the
followi ng:
I. Be alert and Driven. respect pedestrian' s
slow down your
vehiclc speed to prepare 10 SlOp at the pedestrian'S
crossi ngs.
2. Give the pedestrians the chance to cross the road
safely at wide intersections .
.1. Do not stop on the pedestrians Jines at the intersec-
tions.
4. Slow down and drive with cautious at school s.
mosques, markets and public squares where more
pedestrians arc expected
Rl'rnernher Ihal m!)'1 nr Ihl' Iledl"lrain·s.retaled
Ilddenls uccur al sunwl nr durinj.: n[j.:hl due 10
puur \ bihilil}
6.2 Bicycles
Cyclists are con-
sidered users of the
road who have equiv-
alent rights as those
of vehicle drivers.
Therefore, the driver
should give the right-
of-way 10 the cy-
cl ists. if so required.
You should respect or
Drivers shou ld be alcn while dri vi ng II!
residenti:!! areas
- 65-
-
give consideration to the lanes designated to them.
Also remember also that some children play with their
bikes and may appear suddenly on the road, especially
inside the residential areas, therefore you should dri ve
with utmost cautious in these places and you should
be alert at all times whi le you are driving.
6-3 Persons with Special needs
Our Islamic religion urges us to co-operate and as-
sist each other, and it is more rewarding to offer such
assistance to a di sabled brOlher. Therefore. you should
observe the following cases relating to this category
of the society.
* Crossing the road by a person on a wheelchair may
requ ire longer time than the time taken by walking
persons. Therefore you should be patient and wait till
thi s person crosses the road safely.
Drivers should consider persons with
disability on wheel chairs
- 66-
. -
.
~ ~
I ~ . "
Parking designmoo (or di sabled
persons only
-
A bli nd person crossing the road is di stingui shed by
carrying a white stick.
Some of the car parkings are reserved to the per-
sons with disabi lity through some indicat ive signs.
Parki ng your vehicle on these pl aces is considered
a violation as per the traffic rul es.
6·4 Schools Students
Drivers should abide by the speed limit while dri v-
mg in roads adjacent to schools, which mostly, docs
nol exceed 30 krnlhour. Most of the running over ac-
cidents take place ncaf schools because of excessive
Be ale" 10 school students in the vicini ty
- 67-
speed and due to not paying attention by the drivers.
Remember Ihal students, especiall y in the primary and
intermediate levels, may nol be aware of how 10 cross
the road, therefore you should always observe this.
When you sec students getting out of a school bus it is
always advisable to stop till the school bus proceeds
and titt you make sure that the road is clear ahead of
you.
6-5 Emergency Vehicles
Giving way to emergency vehicles such <kS mnbu-
lances, civil defense vehicles and patrols vehicles is a
mailer of hi gh significance due to the humanitarian
services provided by these vehicl es, which entail that
they should be .. lIowed to reach thei r targeted destina-
tions in the nearest possible time. Therefore, when
you recognize an emergency vehicles coming from
the back through its fl as hing lights or by hc,aring the
siren, you should open the way for them withoul en-
dangering yourself or the other drivers.
Yield the right-of-way 10 emergency vehicles
- 68-
6-6 Road Works
Very frequentl y a part of the road is closed for
maintenance and construction works. which requires a
low speed drivi ng to ensure the safety of workers al
thi s pan of the road. Remember that excessive speed
in addit ion to not payi ng suffi cient attention at work
zones may endanger the life of those workers and may
C.IUSC injury or death.
Slow down your vehicle sp(:cd and be alen
while crossing through work wncs.
lJO)1I1I kl\l)\ Ihut!
1 lit' numhrf of injun·d pl' l"';UnS dul' 10 tht' .1l'1.' idl' nb
\llmh un' urn-d on tlu.' KinAdum's r m l d ~ during Ihr prriO(I
!IJXn-2UUKG stuud at morr Ih.1II 7X-',Uon mjuril's.
- 69-
Quil
Q1. The majority of traffic accidents which occur
adjacent to schools arc:
A. Colli sion between vehicles.
B. Running over.
C. Turning over.
D. None of the above.
Q2. Most of the running over accidents affecting
pedestrians occur at sunset or during the night,
because of:
A. Excessive speed.
S. Crowded pedestrians in the streets.
C. Poor visibility.
D. All of the above.
Q3. When crossing a work zone, you should do the
following:
A. Slow down and be alert.
S. Change your palh to another road.
C. Stop driving.
D. All of the above.
-70-
7
The vehicle
- 71-
"
Taking care of the vehicle and conducting a period-
ical maintenance is one of the important factors that
contributes to reducing the number of traffi c acci-
dents. apart from the occurrence of sudden break-
downs, which may affect the veh icle operati on. The
peri odical vehi cle inspection at authorized stations is
one of the important matters that should be followed
on periodical basis. The inspection would detect the
vehicle's defects on the spot and hence they can be re-
paired to avoid accident s. The veh icle's periodical in-
spection incl udes inspections for the different parts
and components which affect the safe usc of the vehi-
cle. Not present ing the vehicle to the annual periodi -
cal inspection is considered a traffi c violation.
Selection of genuine spare parts represents a cru-
cial element to the safety of the vehicle. It is wcll
known that there are commercial spare parts whi ch
may serve the requi red purpose for a short period of
time, but they have adverse impact on the vehicle's
performance and safety. Therefore it is advisable to
use genuine parts, especially those related di rectly to
the safety of the vehicle such as the brakes and tires.
7.1 Tires
A significant portion of the traffic accidents occur
due to the use of bad or worn out ti res. II is very im-
portant to change the tires on periodical bas is and re-
place them with good ones which suit the Iype of the
vehicle and the weather condit ion of the Ki ngdom as
recommended by the tires manufacturer.
There are two types of tires: radial (wire) and di ag-
onal bias (nylon) . The radial type is the best type due
to its characteristics such as its tolerance to high tem-
perature, maintaining vehicle's balance at turns <l lld
allowing comfortable dri ving because of its ability to
absorb a great deal of the road's roughness in addit ion
to saving fuel consumption.
- 73 -
The most important reasons that lead to wearing
out or bursting of the tire are the following:
I. Excessive weight.
2. Excessive or low air pressure.
3. Excessive speed.
4. Surrounding temperature.
5. Exposure of tire to shocks.
6. Storing in wet places or ;.I t high temperature.
7.Sudden braking or sudden shi fting to a hi gher speed.
8. Non-balancing of t ires.
9. Drift ing (TalllCeth).
When choosing tires for your veh icle it is necessary to
consider factors that have direct impact on the safe
functioning of the tire and which prevent it from sud-
den breakdown. These factors include the speed, ex-
1'1'\)1 IIUJ1Ipcr
R ..
pil'C'lllinhgc
Steeri ng Wipc",
lIall Joints
1',,,m
Tires
Rcar vicw mirror
1'"",1 tank
r Shock
' 'arking brake
Cranhh. f1 li nkage
Exhaus1 box
-74-
cessive load, temperature. usage conditions and road
conditions. For instance, tires are labeled with certain
codes according to maximum speed limit. These
codes are labled on the tire as shown in the fo llowing
table:
Code
Speed Km/Hour
Code Speed Kmfl-lour
L 120 S
180
M 130
T
190
N 140 U
200
P 150 H
210
Q 160
V
240
R 170
Z
Above 240
Regarding the ti re load, each tire has a maximum
load after which it will burst. The load is indicated by
<l number wh ich is labeled on the tire as shown in the
foll owing table:
Cod<
MaJlimum Load Per Ti re. Kg
18
462
84
500
"
515
"
"'"
89 ' w
91
.. ,
100 lSW
108
"''"
132
, ~
150 JJ>O
188
10.000
- 75 -
Moreover, each tire has a pre-detennined level of
air-pressure which is shown on one of its side wall.
The driver should m'lke sure that the air pressure inside
the tire is not in excess of the s ~ c i f i e d pressure point.
Wi th regard to the temperalUre, tires can be classi-
fied into three categories (A, B, C) each category of
tire having a maximum level of temperature to be
used below it. For example code (C) means that a tire
in this category should be used under low tempera-
ture. Based on thi s. the most appropriate c<1tegory for
the climate conditions of the Kingdom is category (A)
and then category (B).
Another important issue to be considered when re-
placing the lires is the lire's manufacturing dale,
which is composed of three digi ts, where the fir st and
second to the left side indi e<l tes the number of the
week, while the thi rd number denotes the year. For
example, in the number (25 1) the two digits (25) indi -
cate week number twellty five whcrC<ls the third num-
ber (I) indicates the year of manufacturing. wh ich is
200 I. Note it is not advisable to purchase a tire that is
over one year from the manufacturing date.
We advice the users when purchasing tires, to refer
to the user's mallual which is avai lable with the tires
distributors.
-76-
T",adwur ~
ManUrac1unnsdatc
(Mans wilh I"" w<:<cL
and ends wilh I""
year)
Maximum
-,"'"
Tc"'pC"ltUR:
....
120 130 140 ISO 160 170 180 190 200 210 NO 270 )(.1
Sro-lliymbol L M N I' 0 R STU /I V W 'r
-77 -
7-2 Vehicle's Breakdowns
If your vehicle breaks down, switch on the tlashing
lights, which indicates that your vehicle is out of order
and can not move, or that it is moving very slowly or
that you are confronting an emergency. The follow-
ings are the most common vehicle's breakdowns:
A. Tire blowout: when a tire burst, follow the follow-
ing steps:
* Lift your foot from the accelerator and do not apply
the brakes, otherwise the vehicle will be tipped
over.
* Hold the steering wheel finnly and maintain the ve-
hicle's direction in a straight line till it stops.
8. Failure of brakes: when you discover that the
brakes of your vehicle are out of order, you should
do the following:
* Bring the gear back to a slower position to slow the
speed of the vehicle.
* Repeat pressing the brakes in an attempt to regain
the brakes oil pressure. When repeating this three
or four times you will know whether the brakes
wi ll return to their nonnal function or not.
* Use the hand brake, but you should remember that
you should release it if it becomes clear that the ve-
hicle is going to slip.
* Use the horn and the flashing lights to draw the at-
tention of other drivers to your critical situation.
* When there is no need to change the direction by
moving out of the road, you may in this case turn-
off the vehicle's engine safely.
·78·
C. Breakdown of the steering wheel: When the en-
gine turns off while you are driving, it is difficult
to control the steering wheel. In this case you
should attempt the following steps:
* Turn the steering wheel strongly using both hands in
order to reach the si de of the road.
* SlOP the vehicle, you will find diffi culty in using the
brakes in automatic vehicles.
* Try to re-start the engi ne with caution.
D. Headlight failure: in case that the head lights
wenl off suddenly during night driving, adopt the
following:
* Move the vehicle away from the road and tum on
the flashing light s.
* Try to switch on the lights repeatedly.
* Upon failure to switch on the light, turn on the
emergency flashing lights or the signal lights.
E. If the engine hood is opened: If the engine hood is
opened suddenly to an upright posit ion whi le you are
dri ving your vehicle, you should do the fo llowing:
* Tum on the flashing Ijghts.
* Slowdown your vehicle speed.
* Try to see from under the cover, if not possible, do
the following:
* Try to see through the window.
* Make use of the lane markings as a guide for you.
* Keep away from the road as fast as you can with ex-
treme caution.
F. Breakdown of the Accelerator:
* Adjust the gear in a neutral posit ion for the ordi -
nary vehicles and to (N) position for the automatic
vehicles.
* Use the brakes.
* Pay attent ion to the road and start pulling your ve-
hicle off the road.
- 79 -
* Draw the attention of the other drivers 10 your
criti cal situation by using the horn or the flashing
li ghts.
* Turn the engine off.
7-3 Emergency Conditions
There are emergency circumstances which necessitate
a compulsory stop of the driver on the road side. In
such situation you should act ns follows:
* Pull away from the road by a distance not less
than two meters if you fail to find an appropriate
parking
* Place a warn ing tri -
angle nt a di stance
of 50 meters in
front of the vehicle
and another one at a
disl::lnce of 100 me-
ters behind the ve-
hicle in the single- ...........
lane road Usc Ihe waming lrianglc in case
of a vehicle breakdown
* If the road is a dual or multilane highway and you
are forced to stop on one of these lanes, you should
put a warning triangle at a di stance of 10 meters be-
hind the vehicle, and another warning triangle at a dis-
tance of 100 meters behind the vehicle also. Do not
forgel to collect the warning triangle prior to moving
your vehicle.
Remember also that many accidents occur because
of unsafe stopping near the highway, whether for re-
pair of a defect in the vehicle or for any other reasons.
Sliding is another unexpected event which occurs
when driving a vehicle. Sliding occurs when the de-
gree of fri ction between the tires and the road surface
reduces. When the vehicle slides, act as follows:
- 80-
I. Tum the dri ving wheel in the direction of the sliding.
2. A void pressi ng the brakes pedal.
3. Slow down your vehicle speed gradually.
4. If your vehicle is equipped with (ABS) system
whi ch prevents locking the ti res when using the
brakes, you should, under wet road circumstances
press the brake pedal strongly and continuously to
acti vate this system, even if you feel that the brake
pedal is becoming loose or is pushing your foot up.
(ABS) system helps the dri ver to control the vehicle
and maintain its direction in a straight line when
sliding on the road due to rain or other causes.
I)n f ) U kmm thut!
The numher or deuths resulkd rrom truffic uceidenls
that occurred on the Kingdom's roads durin!.: thl' pl"
riod 19HO·20mU; CXl'ccdcd to9.0UO l'aSuultil's
- 81 -
Quiz
QJ. The advantage of the vehicle' s periodical in-
spection is:
A. Early detection of defects.
B. Repairing the defect to avoid accidents.
C. Raise the level of the vehicle's safety on the road.
D. All of the above.
Q2. There are three categories of tires, namely (A,
B, C) and the most suitable ones for the King-
dom's weather are:
A.C.
B. C.B
C. A,then B
D. B then A
Q3. When the steering wheel breaks down, you
should do the following:
A. Move the steering wheel with both hands.
B. Stop the vehicle.
C. Try to fe-start the engine.
D. All of the above.
- 82-
8
Traffic accidents
- 83-
8- J A voiding Accidents
In most cases, drivers choose one of three options
to avoid accidents: stops quickly, veer the vehicle or
accelerates the speed. Following is a summary for
each reaclion selected:
* To stop quickl y. use the brakes and when the vehi-
cle slides, stop using the brakes, then press the
brakes one time aft er the other till the vehicle
comes to a complete stop.
* When you don' t find lime for slopping. try 10
change the direction to pull off the road, in order to
avoid colliding with other vehicles and try nol 10
use the brakes whil e changing the direction.
* Some times it would be preferable to accelerate
your speed to avoid accidents, particularl y when a
certain vehicle is about to hit you from behind, or
on your side.
If you fa il to avoid the accident, try to protect your-
self as much as you can, but you should all ow other
dri vers to know what you are intending to do while
you are dri ving your vehicle so they can avoid coll id-
ing with you. By foll owing the guidance and instruc-
tions mentioned below, you wi ll be able to avoid
many accidents:
I. Blind areas:
The driver can nol see the vehicles in the blind are-
as through the mirror and he should turn hi s head 10
be able to see other vehi cles in these areas.
2_ The Spero Limit
You are legall y not all owed to dri ve in access of
the speed limit as posted on the road's speed li mi l
signs, Regardless of the speed limit , your speed
should take into consideration the following:
- 85-
A. The number and speed of the vehicles on the road.
B. The road's surface condition, whether soft or
rough, earthy, or wet, wide or narrow.
C. The road's slope (high or low).
D. Pedestrians and cyclists on the road sides.
E. Rain. fog. winds, sandstonn and dust.
F. The nature of the area you are crossing (schools,
mosques. markets).
Driving in excess of the posted speed limit is con-
sidered a disastrous danger. Also, driving very slowly,
especially on the highway, may lead to causing dan-
gerous accidents. Therefore. you should drive at speed
close to the speed limit and observe the speed of the
surrounding vehicles on the road.
The faster your speed, the lesser will be your abili-
ty to control the vechicJe, regardless of observing the
speed limit.
Many of the new drivers do not take into consider-
ation the safety factor by slowing down their speed
according 10 the nature of the road and the driving
conditions. Hence, these drivers do not act properly
and may cause traffic accidents due to lack of experi-
ence in driving.
- 86-
3. Curves
At road curves there is a side push force on the ve-
hicle (the centrifugal force) whi ch pushes it away
from the curve. To avoid exi ting the vehicle from its
path, you should slow down pri or to entering the
curve and remember that usi ng the brakes while pass-
ing the curve may lead to sliding your vehicle and
tipped over.
4. Work Zones:
Curve Signs
The work zones are locations where disastrous ac-
cidents increase. It is well known that the victims of
these accidents are from the users of road or the work-
ers at those sites. It is also known that work place, re-
qui res closing part of the road or the whole road,
hence, the dri ver should be cautious to pass the work
zone safely and thi s entail s abiding by the traffi c signs
such as the detour signals ... etc, and the instructions of
the persons in charge of the work zone.
Warning si gn on
a post
~
~ 5.:
1
-- 5 l ' ~ l &
Cone wi th nllg
- 87 -
.1
Every driver shou ld remember that the speed limit
at the work place is less than the speed limit at other
parts of the road
s· Wet Roads
You should slow your vehicle speed when the road
is wel. This is because, when there is rain or other liq-
uids on the road, the frict ion coefficient between the
tires and the road surface decreases at the speed of 80
km/ h .and the veh icle will appear as if it is moving on
water. Therefore, any sli ght deviation in your path or
occurrence of a medium level winds may le.ld your
vehicle to slide and you will loose control over it.
Al so remember that pressing the brakes strongly on
the wet roads leads to sliding.
8.2 Colliding with Camels
Camels represent a danger to the traffic now when
Lhey cross through the unfenced roads. The shapes or
the camels are dirrerent rrom the shapes or other ani-
mals. They have huge bod ies and long legs, hence
their centers or gravity are high and th is is the reason
behind the occurrence of ratal traffic accidents when
the vehicle hit camels. The reasoning ror this is that
vehicles fi rst hit the legs and then the mass or the
body rall s on the passengers' cabin in the light vehi-
cles.
Studies proved that trarfl c accidents caused by
camels in Ihe Kingdom constitute about 94% or the
animal s hilling accidents. and 85% of these accidents
occur between 6:00 p.m. and 4:00 a.I11., i.e. during the
night.
In addition. studies indicated that the rate or inju-
ries in the accidents caused by camels represent rour
times the rate of the traffic accidents in general where-
as the death rates exceed six times the rate of traffic
accidents in general.
·88·
To avoid colliding with camels, you should observe
the following instructions:
I. Slow your specd when YOll see a camellcamcb
ncar the road
2. Swi tch on the flashing lights or signals and observc
vehicles aroll nd you, especiall y the ones behind
you.
3. Wail till Ihe camels cross the road completely.
- 89-
t
4. The warning triangle which has a camel's symbol
indicates camel s crossing area. When you sec this
sign you should be cautious and reduce your vchi ·
de speed.
5. You should be aware of the typical behavior of
camels; they do not get scared of vehicles and do
not move away from vehicles when they see them.
6. You should pay attention to the traffic instructions
and warni ng signs issued or announced by the con-
cerned authori ties to avoid this problem.
8.3 The accident's site and crowding.
When you
see the
flashing
IighlS of a
vehicle
ahead of
you, you
should re-
duce your
vehicle L.. __ ....................
speed as there might be an accident or an emergency
on the road.
Alflid ur around tht' lIccidl'lll, or di,·
.. sil'rs ,itt's Ollt fir h('('lIW.l' thi .. \ ill hindl'r III('
(ll)t'rutinll'i and l'lIlllii IlItJrt' m'l'jell'lIt'i
- 90-
8.4 Intensity of the Accident
The intensity of the traffic accidents which ranges
from a simple fall from a bicycle to an accident in
which many vehicles are involved, may cause many
injuries. In most cases, the site of the accident repre-
sents high risks for safety due to the slow traffic flow.
Therefore, always try to keep away from the acci-
dent's site by resort ing to another road to allow the
emergency teams (traffic police, ambulance, civil de-
fense) to carry out their rescue duties without any dis-
turbance or confusion.
8.5 How to act when you see an Accident?
If it happens that you are the first person to reach
an accident's site, you should behave as follows:
Make the place safe:
First: Personal safety precautious
Pay attention to your personal safety by not doing
anything that endangers your li fe. Stop your vehicle
safely away from the road after you pass the acci-
dent's site and turn on the flashing lights. Check
whether there arc injured people. Do not run through a
path which is crowded with vehicles. If it is at night
wear or carry a shining or reflecting object and use a
torch.
Second: The General Protective Precautions
Make the place safe to prevent the occurrence of
another accident. Infonn the traffic police or the am-
bulance or the civil defense. If there are injured peo-
ple trapped inside the vehicles involved in the acci -
dent ask the bystanders to warn the other drivers to
slow their speed. Put warn ing triangle, signal s or
lights at a dist.mce of 45 m at least, aw,ty from the
traffic's si te and at both directions of the road. Switch
off the engine of the vehicle affected by the accident
- 91 -
..
,
and if possible disconnect the vehicle's battery. Keep
the vehicles involved in the accident at stable position
by using the hand brakes. If a vehicle is lean ing on
one side, do not adjust ii , but try to prevent it from
turning upside down. Draw the attention of the emer-
gency services to any damaged electric wires or
spilled out fucl from the vehicles affected by the acci-
dent or the existence of the "danger" signs on them.
Dll not rllll\ .. ' the Itllun.:d p .. :rsotls }Otl t lllJ
thCllIlI!Sld,,:.1 \,: tUI.-It: or 11 the) an.: II I J.U1-
gl.:r \ 1(1\ Ill,!! mlured JX'r'tl l h h.lflll tht: m .lIlu lll.tIl) 01
th .. - .. ast." ilL" tiT .1' ,I rc ... uh oj thl'
Third: Rescuing the persons injured in accidents
Check the injured and make sure that Ihey arc still
breathing. Stay with the injured person and relieve hi s
worry lill the ambulance reaches the site of the acci-
dent. Try to be calm if you afe at the place of the acci-
dent and remember that acting promptl y is very essen-
tiaL While you are waiting for the ambulance 10 reach
the accident's site, you may take the following steps.
Stan
I
I
injured
I
If u pcriOn j , ,H-cltlled OUlsidc of the car,
fi x he,ld ,111([ lied .. m;ing yuur hand ,md
open ,lIr palh by pushing lhe juw up-
ward. removc nil objects fwm inside I hc
jaw, c'IJCcinll y the artificial tccth aud lhc
ocher which may block the ,Iir
p;:tth of lhe injun.-d
- 92-
I
Conscious injured
He kl"t'fl 10 rdic ... ..
Ihfln Mnd ... c
them runllnuousl)'
8·6 Stopping acute Bleeding
The most likely cause of dc.alh when accidents oc·
cur is the bleeding; however, you can stop the external
bleeding easily if you fo llow the steps explained be-
low:
I. Locate the place of the bleeding and press it di rect-
ly using a cl ean piece of cl oth.
2. If the bleeding occurs at onc of the limbs, li ft this
part up and keep pressing as thi s gesture alone may
be enough in Illost cases.
3. Usc a bandage to cover the wound and lic it appro-
priatel y, but be carefu l not to tighten it to the extent
that it interrupts the blood circul ation from rcach-
ing the other parts of the body.
4. Press points: If the previous attempts fail to SlOp
the bl eeding. YOLI may press by the palm of your
hand on the internal side of the humorous between
armpit and the elbow in case of the upper part
bleeding. and press the inlernal front part of the
upper thigh in case of Ihe lower part bleeding.
Do not rt.'plllcc thl:' pil'cc of doth uith a n c \ ~
pil'{"t.' it the hlt.'cding contillues; rlltlll"r
plact.' a lieu Olll' Oil lup of he old.
· 93·
Fi rs(: Fix st raight the
head and neck
Third: Covet !.he woond wi th
bandage
Second: Hold li p the limb and
press to stop the bleeding
Fonh: Plam hand pressing to
stop the bleeding
- 94-
8.7 Hazardous Materials
Traffic accidents may even become morc compli-
cated when hazardous material s spi lled or whcn toxic
vapors leak out. Keep the bystanders away from the
accident's site and stand opposite to the wind' s direc-
tion. If you notice any "danger" signs on the vehicles,
infonn the emergency team about them. If you are
doubtful about your safety or if you noticed any "dan-
gerous" sign , keep at a distance and stay at a safe
place if therc is any leakage of nammable or hazard-
ous material s.
Phone Numbers of Emergency authorities
Security patrols
999
Saudi Red Crescent Authority
997
Civil Defence
998
Traffic Accidents notification
993
Road Security Police
996
- 95 -
.(
=
. ! l i . . ~
c ........... ~
... hoI ... ""
Signs of hazardous materials on trucks
- 96-
8.8 Factors Influencing Driving
The teachings of our religion Islam prohibit drink-
ing alcohol and using narcotics (drugs). The traffi c
regulations and rules stipulate that whoever is in-
volved in a traffi c accident and found to be under the
influence of narcotics, or alcohol will be dealt with
stringentl y (physically and morally). The penalty im-
posed on such persons may extend to suspending their
licenses for a period of one year in addi tion to apply-
ing the Sharia puni shments. On the other hand. some
of the medicines taken by some dri vers may affect
their level of concentration and profi ciency in dri ving.
This applies to the other types of drugs which are pur-
chased by a prescript ion from physician or over-lhe-
counter, including the prohibited drugs. Now, consid-
er these facts:
* The medi cine prescribed for curing headache, nasal
congestation, influenza and tranquili zers, cause
drowsiness which affect the dri ver's focus and
driving skill s.
* Taking medi cal drugs, regardl ess of their types or
doses, has its definite impact on the driver's focus.
Therefore drivers should consult and get confLrma-
lion from the physician or the pharmacist about the
extent of influence of the drugs they take on their
abil ity to drive.
You should make sure that )OU are "eUlmare
of the resulting efffects of using an} I)pcs of
drugs 011 }uur focus nhilc drhing
- 97-
- Fatigue and Stress
Fatigue weakens the driver's focus which will have
adverse effect on his reaclion to the dangers that may
face him on the road, in addi tion to making him feel
sleepy while driving. To avoid this, the driver is ad-
vised to do the following:
Properl y plan the trip.
Take a rest prior to starting your trip and avoid
starting it immediately after the working hours.
Do not try to drive for a long distance continuously
during the night.
Stop and take rest after every two hours of dri ving
and take snacks and hot drinks.
Move y,?ur eyes continuously and talk to your trip
companions.
Listen to some radio programs and usefu l cassettes.
- Vision and hearing
While you are driving, you need to see objects
clearly. In fact many of the acts you do whi le you are
dri ving depend on what you see ahead of you. Thus,
if you are not able to see the objects ahead of you
clearly, your judgment of the distances ahead of you
will be incorrect which may consequently affect tak-
ing appropriate decisions. Some people can see well
during the day but they can not do the same during
the night, particularly on the roads that lack sufficient
lighting. Hence, you should check your eyesight and
use medical glasses, if required.
- 98-
Hearing is also as important as eyesight. You
should check your hearing to measure the extent of
your ability to hear the voices around you as there
might be some voices which you need to hear prior to
seeing their sources to pay attent ion to them, especial-
ly in places where visibility is low.
Listening to the radio or cassette player at low vol-
ume will help you hear voices outside the vehicle.
Do ~ ou knO\ '!
Tlw \olume of economic IO"'-'it's resulting from
traffic accidents In tht, Kingdom is estimatl-d
al S.H. 21 Million 8nnuall)
- 99-
Quiz
Qt- The faster the speed:
A. The more you wi ll be respected by other drivers.
B. The more the insurance premium wi ll increase.
C. The less control you will have over the vehicle.
D. Wililcad to failure of operating the (ABS) system.
Q2. When you see camels crossing the road, you
shoul d:
A. Slow down your veh icle speed and wait till the
camels cross the whole sect ion of the road.
S. Slow down your speed and no need to wait.
C. Usc the hom continuousl y_
D. Increase your speed to prevent them rrom crossi ng
the road.
Q3. When there is an accident or an emergency on
the road, how will you act:
A. Provide assistance if I can.
S. Use another road to allow the emergency and res-
cue teams to reach the site and rescue the injured.
C. SlOP the vehicle near the place of the accident.
D. The above-mentioned in paras (A+B).
- I ()()-
9
Behaviors that lead
to license suspension
- 101 -

Abiding by the traffic regulations and instructions
is a major pre-requi site to avoid being involved in ac-
tions that might lead to suspension of driving license
and disqualify the dri ver form driving. The conduct
that leads to violating the traffic regulations have neg-
ati ve impacts, which includes causing harm to you or
to others or the legal consequences of paying fines
and other legal procedures. However, the adverse im-
pacts do not stop there, but may extend to include reg-
istering black points on your record at the traffi c di-
rectorate. For example, when a driver commits a
violation of running a red light, in addition to the pay-
ment of the financial penalty, twelve black points will
be registered in his driving record. If he continues re-
peating this violation, this balance of black point s
may reach 24 points within one year where his driving
license will be suspended.
In contrast, abiding by the traffic rules by not com-
miuing violations will make your record clean and not
containing any black points. The traffic regulations
contain some provi sions that encourage the drivers to
maintain their record clean. Committing a traffic vio-
lation is not the upshot or does it mean that you are a
dangerous driver. The law stipul ates that " If one year
elapses after a driver committed a traffic violation and
he did not commit another violation, the driver' s black
points pertaining to that violation will be omitted au-
tomatically from the system, consequently hi s record
wi ll be clean of any violations.
nu \UII I.IW\
I impal"l, .,f Ir.lllir .u·ddt·nl t·,lt·1II1 hn "mllht·
I""t·, Iu lIU"huk "It 1.11. IIt,.11t1l ,lIId
fhnl,':':ll.ll IlIIp.ll h.
- 103 -
t
Appendix (1)
Tables of the traffic violations
pursuant to the Traffic Act issued by the Royal
Decree No MISS dated 26110/ 1428H
and it 's Executive Act issued by the decree
No. 7019 dated 3n!1429H
of H.H. Minister of Interior.
- 105 -
6'ioIations Table No. ( 1 ~
Penalties for Violations Table No. (I) are 500 to 900
S.R. fine, or detention of the vehicle as welt. These vi -
olations are:
1. Driving a vehicle without having a dri ving license.
2. Driving a vehicle without registration plates (deten-
tion of the vehicle till the violation is settled).
3. Driving a vehicle without rear registration plate
(detention of the vehicle till the violation is sett led).
4. Driving a vehicle with registration plates that do
not belong to vehicle (detention of the vehicle till
the violation is settled).
5. Using irregular registration plates (detention of the
vehicle till the violation is settled).
6. Installing fittings resembling those of official and
emergency vehicles(delention of the vehicle lill Ihe
violalion is seuled).
7. Erasing or try to erase vehicle's identification signs.
8. Driving under the intluence of alcohol, drugs or
medical drugs that is warned of driving under it' s
infl uence.
9. Running traffic light on red.
10. Driving a vehicle in the opposite direction to traf-
fi c flow.
II. Maneuvering in high speed between vehicles 011
public roads.
- 107 -
12. Exceeding speed limit (more than 25 Km PI-lover
posted limit) .
13. Passing in prohibited areas such as curves and
heights.
14. Slopping over railroads.
15. Failure to secure (covering and tying up) a trans-
ported load
16. Carrying out works on public roads without prior
coordination with the concerned authorities.
17. Fai lure to completely stop at stop sign.
18. Not yielding the .ri ght-of-way by completely stop-
ping at the yield sign.
19. Not yielding the right-of-way to vehicles coming
from right in equal right-of-way intersection i"n
the absence of right-of-way sign.
20. Not yielding the right-of-way to vehicles in the
main road in the absence of yield sign.
2 1. Failure to comply with the traffic police direct ions
:md not giving his directions priority over traffic
signals.
22. Failure of incoming vehicles to yield to the right-
of-way to veh icles inside roundabouts in the ab-
sence of traffic lights or a traffic police.
23. Driving a vehicle not equipped with the necessary
appliances such as brakes, lights etc which jeop-
pardize public safety.(detention of the vehicle till
the violation is settled).
- 108-
24. Failure to use necessary lights while driving or in
bad weather.
25. Driving a vehicle in tunnels without switching on
li ghts.
- 109-
6'1oIaIions Table No. (zy
Penalties for Viohuions Table No. (2) are 300 to 500
S. R. fine or detention of the vehicle as well. These viM
olations are:
I. Carry ing out modifications or add itons to vehi-
cle's chassis or body without observing the legal
procedures.(delent ion of the vehicle till the viola-
tion is sett led).
2. Operating of industri al, const ruction or agri cullu-
raj public works vehicles on roads without taking
the necessary precautions includi ng absence of re-
fl ecting wi ng signs .. (detent ion of the veh icle till
the violat ion is sett led).
3. Driving a vehi cle that causes poll ution on public
roads (detention of the vehicle till the violat ion is
settled).
4. Exceeding speed limit ( 1-25 Km PH over posted
li mit).
5. Messing with regulating traffic road signs, reflec-
tors or poles.
6. Non-stopping in check points or security paLrols in
the presence of SlOp directions or signs.
7. Fail ure to observe traffic regulations in crossroads
and intersections.
8. Usc of vehicle for purposes other than licensed for.
9. Exceeding number of permitted passengers.
- 110-
10. Tmnsporting passengers in places not designed for
them in vehicle.
I I. Refuse to present dri ver's or vehicle's documents
to the authorized personnel.
12. Not observing lanes outlines.
13. Leaving objects on public roads that may endan-
ger public safety.
14. Not yielding right of way 10 VIP convoys or emer-
gency vehi cles.
15. Passing school buses when children are boardi ng
or exiting.
16. Driving with expired driving license.
- II I -
(Violations Table No. (3V
Penalties for Violations Table No. (3) arc 150 to 300
S.R. fine. These violations are
I. Absence of trailer's legal requi rements.
2. Not presenting the vehicle for techn ical inspecti on
3. Using high beam headl ight whi le there arc oncom-
ing vehicles.
4. Fai l ure 10 take necessary precautions when SlOp-
ping the vehi cle on publ ic roads in cases of emer-
gency.
5. Placing obstacles inside the vehicle that obstruct
dri ver's vision.
6. Not carrying dri ving license or vehicle' s registra-
tion whi le driving ..
7. Lc<lving of vehicle unattended in a descending road
without taki ng necessary precautions.
8. Violating traffic regulations on roads.
9. Failure to preserve vehicle's registration plales.
10. Fai lure to compl ete vehicle's ownership rcgistm-
tion procedures
II . Failure to complete the procedures or changing or
vehicle's utilization.
12. Failure to use scat bell
13. Failure 10 use appropri ate sarety seats designed ror
children
• 112-
14. Failure to observe ri ght-or-way rules.
15. Failure to export a vehicle inte nded for e xport in
due dale.
16. Using cell phone by hand whil e dri vi ng.
17. Abuse the use of vehicle's horn.
18. Not wearing a helmet while driving motorbikes.
19. Dri ving in unauthori zed lanes
20. Fail ure of animals' owners to keep them away
from roads.
- 113 -
(VIolatlOJlS Table No. (4 1)
Penalties for Violations Table No. (4) are 100 to 150
S.R. fine . These violati ons are
1. Using unauthorized appliances in the vehicle or fix-
ing stickers or slogans of indecent material.
2. Unnecessarily leaving of veh icles on public roads
in prohibited arcas.
3. Throwing any objects outside the vehicle while
drivi ng.
4. Driving a veh icle without front registration plate.
5. Exiting or boarding whi le the vehicle is moving.
6. Crossing of pedestrians in unaut horized zones.
7. Fai lure of pedestrians to comply to pedestrian traf-
fic signs.
8. Causing traffic congestion by driving slowly.
9. Parking in No-parking areas.
10. Parking in handicapped parking zones.
11. Failure to focus on the road while driving.
12. Absence of insurance policy.
- 114-
Appendix (2)
Traffic Signs & Signals
- 115 -
1
i
!
,
II Warning Signs II

1teYc<x_ Kewne_ _ ...... l.--.
,..., io1\ .. """ _ ..... II> 1<. R - L

t>escenl AscenT II ..... __ I htrood...",... lit <_"""01
k""Plrft onj ......

Tho .. __ 11 __ ... ROU(!II road hump C_""""
'"""'....... __

- 117-

...... -

8ri&"
- 118-

-
& &&&&
WOlerC""",,,, R.......,. S ..... 1Iridp 1lM1raooI ........
" .... -
& &&&&.
n.. ..... 01.... s..llaoooIo.n. MoOn_ s-._o..n._ ........
........... l.icIM""'--" willi. Uft ........ . ...
--

150 100
" " "
- 119-
Regulatory Signs
®S8®®
Mui_"".... ~ . . . . . . _ .... "'.. ""whida .,...,. ....... -
ptGhibioooI ,.-
8@@S
_ ........ ~ w ~ -..-... No .... ktI Soap
•••
®®es \l
No U Tum
- 120-
S8@®0
No_ No"'CUlIOB.-. C_ Priorityror""""",,"1 1>11, ......... _
nffi< 100, __
. ....

OS
CIooc.<I_dirccUoooo No_ II> No, .... .. _
--
j.A:.JI r.:.tl.,k-o

Trucks
Keep Righi
anirnab ..... ..... ..

- 121 -
At ~ 10 At _Jo-ti-IO
.... liJhIon", ... lhokft .... it;hlon", ......
''''
- 122-
..... - .......,
II
Guide Signs
II
a
w
[i!J
- ~
~ -
,-
Y_I-
-
- 123-
L...-_ ______ II
&i!Bi!!i .
- _ ..I I
,. --
- ..... -..... .---
-124-
--
. ~
.
..
-------- ..
----_._--
w .....
t ....... _-
.. -
- 125-
Ii'-!
J)j""d" ... ",
\ " '.one si:::Jl
)(
Cl ~
o()O'-'o
oc
,-,
- 126-
00
........ -
I ~ = ~ l
---
L!,,-' """'1.01
DETOUR AHEAD
1500 "'. ,. '0·'
0.-'"-I11500 ..
~
~
--L
Drum
Tllhut. o..lintalOr VMicaJ PaMI
T)'pc [I Donie"""
- 127-
Finally .. .
The authors wish that the efforts they have been exerted in
writing this manual have achieved the aspired objectives in
establishing and deepening the traffic safety culture and
concept for the road users. This effort remains in need for more
deve!opmenr and updating through the contribution of
whoever concerned by way of making comments, remarks and
suggestions and sending the same to the authors on the
following address.
King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology
The National Traffic Safety COlllmittee
P.O. Box 6086 Riyadh J 1442
Secretariat of the COllllllittee:
Tel: 01/481 3746
Fax: 01/481 3878-01/481 3837
Email : gdrgp(ilkacst. edu.sa

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