CHECK YOUR ENGLISH VOCABULARY FOR

TOEFL

®

by Rawdon Wyatt

THIRD EDITION

A & C Black Ⴇ London

. renewable and recyclable. ISBN-10: 0 7136 8414 3 ISBN-13: 978 0 7136 8414 8 eISBN-13: 978-1-4081-0235-0 Text typeset by A & C Black Printed in Great Britain at Caligraving Ltd. The logging and manufacturing processes conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin. London W1D 3HB © Rawdon Wyatt 2007 All rights reserved.acblack.com First edition published in Great Britain 2002 Second edition published in 2004 This third edition published in 2007 A & C Black Publishers Ltd 38 Soho Square. sustainable forests.www. It is natural. Thetford. Norfolk This book is produced using paper that is made from wood grown in managed. A CIP entry for this book is available from the British Library. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form without the permission of the publishers.

which provides comprehensive practice for all sections of the exam. but we particularly recommend Barron's TOEFL iBT (ISBN 978 0 7641 3374 9). For a more advanced and in-depth coverage of vocabulary. Extending your vocabulary Also remember that there are other methods of acquiring new vocabulary. standard computer-based TOEFL. It is essential to have a good dictionary with you when you are doing the exercises. Use this to build up your own personal vocabulary bank. but is also useful if you are going to take the older. idioms and phrasal verbs. How to use the book You should not go through the exercises mechanically. 1 . For example.Introduction Introduction Introduction If you are going to take the TOEFL®. we recommend the American English Study Dictionary (ISBN 978 1 9016 5969 6). The second. It is better to choose areas that you are unfamiliar with. as well as offering essential language skills development and useful studying strategies. or that you might come across or be tested on in the Listening and Reading sections. They will help you to review. and review these from time to time so that they become an active part of your vocabulary. Structure of the workbook The workbook is divided into 2 sections. A greater command of vocabulary is one of the key factors that will help you raise your TOEFL® score. newspapers. etc). There is a comprehensive answer key at the back of the book. The book has been written for the Internet-based TOEFL. is ideal. including synonyms. The first section deals with general vocabulary. or areas that you feel are of specific interest or importance to yourself. Remember that you should keep a record of new words and expressions that you learn. For basic vocabulary. It also gives lots of vital information on the test itself and how it works. which will give you the chance to use the key vocabulary in an essay. from which many of the sample sentences in this book are taken. the Macmillan English Dictionary (ISBN 978 1 4050 2628 4). and focuses on some of the topics that regularly appear in the TOEFL®. smaller section is topic-specific. Each topic is accompanied by a typical TOEFL® Writing question. There is a vocabulary record sheet at the back of the book which you can photocopy as many times as you like. magazines. practice and acquire a lot of the words and expressions that you might need to use in the Writing and Speaking sections. Practicing for the TOEFL There is a lot of TOEFL material available. you will find the vocabulary exercises in this workbook very helpful. you should read as much as possible from a different variety of authentic reading materials (books.

In addition.Information about the TOEFL® The purpose of the TOEFL® is to evaluate a non-native English speaker's proficiency in the English language. visit www.acblack. scholarship programs and licensing / certification agencies use TOEFL® scores to evaluate English proficiency. There are currently 16 books in the series: Check your Vocabulary for Academic English Check your English Vocabulary for TOEFL® Check your English Vocabulary for TOEIC Check your English Vocabulary for IELTS Check your English Vocabulary for FCE+ Check your Vocabulary for English for the PET Examination Check your English Vocabulary for Phrasal Verbs and Idioms Check your English Vocabulary for Business and Administration Check your English Vocabulary for Law Check your English Vocabulary for Medicine Check your English Vocabulary for Computers and Information Technology Check your English Vocabulary for Leisure. Travel and Tourism Check your English Vocabulary for Human Resources Check your English Vocabulary for Banking and Finance Check your English Vocabulary for Living in the UK Check your Vocabulary for Natural English Collocations For more information. The test is also used by institutions in other countries where English is the language of instruction. or in order to get a better grade in an exam. About the Check your English Vocabulary series Check your English Vocabulary for TOEFL® is one of several books in the Check your English Vocabulary series.com 2 . Almost one million students every year from 180 countries register to take the TOEFL®: the majority of universities and colleges in North America as well as in other English-speaking countries require official TOEFL® score reports for admission. An acceptable score depends on the particular institution or agency involved. These books are designed to help students of English (and those who are working or who want to work in an English-speaking environment) to develop and practice the essential vocabulary that they would need to know or use on a day-to-day basis. government agencies.

79. 31. 38. 77. equation. and belief Opposites: Verbs Opposites: Adjectives Phrasal verbs 1 Phrasal verbs 2 Phrasal verbs 3 Prefixes Presenting an argument Pronouns and determiners Similar meanings: Adjectives 1 Similar meanings: Adjectives 2 Similar meanings: Nouns Similar meanings: Verbs 1 Similar meanings: Verbs 2 95. 103. 75. 10. 40. 57. 63.Contents Contents Page Title 4. 112. 19. 23. Addition. 90. 98. 93. 111. 67. 15. 88. 5. 72. 51. 105. 97. 26. attitude. 34. 86. Page Title 60. 17. 101. 21. 82. Spelling Starting and stopping Task commands Time Word association: Adjectives Word association: Nouns Word association: Verbs Word forms: Nouns from verbs Word forms: Nouns from adjectives Word forms: Adjectives from verbs “Working” words Topics 1: Children and the family Topics 2: Education Topics 3: Food and diet Topics 4: The media Topics 5: Money and finance Topics 6: Nature and the environment Topics 7: On the road Topics 8: Science and technology Topics 9: Town and country Topics 10: Travel Topics 11: Work Mini topics Vocabulary record sheet Vocabulary record sheet sample Answers 3 . 49. 28. 65. 27. 69. 110. and conclusion “American” English Changes Comparing and contrasting Condition and requirement Confusing words and false friends Idioms and colloquialisms 1 Idioms and colloquialisms 2 Idioms and colloquialisms 3 Idioms and colloquialisms 4 Metaphors Numbers and symbols Obligation and option Opinion. 84. 50. 12. 11. 43. 80. 8. 53. 37. 47. 45. 61.

and our seas and rivers are no longer safe to swim in. 9. ______________ industrial waste. 3. drink. The ozone layer is becoming depleted. pollution from car fumes is poisoning the environment. 4. and conclusion This exercise will help you to review more of the important words that we use to join ideas in an essay. In order to travel. Drugs are banned in Britain. In most cases. or eat unhealthy food. equation. ______________ bringing much needed money to developing countries. 7. you should live a more healthy lifestyle. ______________ they should respect the local customs. 4 . it provides employment for the local population. ______________. 1. 8. to sum up briefly ț along with ț as well as ț it can be concluded that likewise ț similarly ț also ț too ț in addition ț besides ț to conclude in brief ț in the same way ț thus ț what's more ț furthermore moreover ț along with ț to summarize ț therefore ț correspondingly Addition (For example: and) Equation (For example: equally) Conclusion (For example: in conclusion) Exercise 2 Complete these sentences with one of the words or expressions from above. Tourism brings much needed money to developing countries. ______________ weapons such as guns and knives. more than one answer is possible. ______________. Tourists should respect the local environment. You shouldn't smoke. 5. you need a passport. Exercise 1 Put the following words and expressions into their correct place in the table depending on their function. 10. ______________ you need to work really hard if you want to pass your exams next month. All power corrupts. you might need a visa. the air in the cities is becoming too dirty to breathe. tourism provides employment for the local population. take drugs. ______________ pollution is slowly destroying the planet. immunization shots. Your grades have been very poor all year.General Vocabulary Addition. and written permission to visit certain areas. ______________. absolute power corrupts absolutely. 2. ______________. a verbal presentation or sometimes in everyday speech. 6.

30. __D_N The campus has a shop where students can buy stationery and essential items. “American” words are understood by “British” English speakers (largely as a result of imported television programs and movies). ___V__O_ R__L__R_ __S 16. college. 37. The post normally arrives before lunchtime. the word will remain the same. with a break for lunch at midday.General Vocabulary American English This exercise looks at some common “American” words (words which are used in the U.A. so you will need to take the A40. 9. Estate agents are some of the most unscrupulous people in the country. 6. but there will be a difference in spelling. the best time of the year is autumn. Goldberg. it is important to use the “American” words rather than the “British” words in the TOEFL. _N___P___ The oil crisis resulted in a 28% rise in the cost of petrol. 13. 32. As a result. 11. __L_ The automobile company's first attempt to design a family saloon that ran on diesel was a resounding failure. Write your answers in the crossword grid on page 7. but with some of the letters included. Generally. with a short interval between the two. 8. H _ _ _ W _ _ Their request for a $2 rise in the hourly rate was firmly rejected by the management. _H_____ The road outside the school is very busy. and Canada). (At a school. (Informal) I really like Mr. the word that you need has been put at the end of each sentence. Look at the sentences below. so students are advised to use the subway to cross it. but many North Americans are unfamiliar with some “British” English words. I_T__M_____N _V__ If you make a mistake in your calculations. 24. The M40 is closed. ___L _E_______ The government refused to recognise the new republic. 5 . which all contain a “British” English word in bold. you'll need to do them again. 29. 18. Government spending on defence was reduced by 23%. The workshop will last for 6 hours. To help you. Decide what word North Americans would normally use in the same context. _U_ __C___Y _E__S_ _A__E 26. The theatre received an unexpected grant which helped to prevent it closing down. Take the lift to the top floor. He's a great bloke. with most of the letters removed. 20. 35. ___E___ __O__ 36. The play is in two acts. which is the main road connecting London with Oxford. or university) A staff meeting has been called for two o'clock. 27. In some cases.S. Across (ı) 2. You might find it useful if you have been learning “British” English (the English which is spoken in the United Kingdom and in other countries around the world). In my opinion.

19. which are hyphenated. 17. He gave me just enough money to buy a return bus ticket to Portland. there is a clear need for dialogue between the parents and their children. when you are calling someone) Hello. 31. is that Harrison Keane? ___S 22. The first thing the council did was dig up the pavement outside the front door. The postcode for the company is MA 04532. the best place to start is by going to your local chemist. who in turn leased them to small companies. In the event of a marital divorce or separation. The best way to get from one part of the city to another is to use the dual carriageway. _I___ __D_W___ __V__ 14. it is essential to employ the services of a good solicitor. _ _ A _ _ _ If you want to stop smoking. Strict labour laws have had an adverse effect on small businesses. _I_ _O__ (2 words: do not leave a gap between the words in the crossword grid) Classes start at nine o'clock every morning Monday to Friday. 12. _P__T_____ All travellers flying to the USA have to undergo strict security checks at the airport. __A______ The Dean's office is on the ground floor. T_R____ 3. __E_W__ (On the telephone. 33. 39. 7. 23. 6 .General Vocabulary 38. Most Americans tend to stay in the country for their holiday. 4. These days it is not unusual to see children as young as five carrying a mobile phone to school. __B__Y Before buying a house. ___MN__ 40. __TT__ Several flats were leased to private agencies. 34. I'm afraid we've got slightly behind schedule. My favorite film of all time has to be the classic 1959 comedy 'Some Like It Hot'. You should use a pencil to do the test. 10. C______N_ Down (ij) 1. 21. 41. and use a rubber to remove any mistakes. D__G_____ Services on the underground start at five in the morning and finish at half past midnight. R___D-___P (2 words. You don't need to ask me for permission to use the toilet! V___T___ B___R___ _TT_____ __A___ 25. 15. There are several museums and galleries in the city. __V_E_ Have you got any change for a $20 note? B___ __B__ 5. Do not leave a gap or use a hyphen in the crossword grid) He's a graduate of Berkeley College. but most students prefer to spend their evenings at the cinema. 28.

General Vocabulary 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 7 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 24 25 27 28 26 23 21 29 30 31 33 34 35 36 32 37 38 39 40 41 7 .

12. Use the words and expressions in bold to help you decide. 10. 17. There has been a general improvement in the standard of living. Some management roles in the company will not exist this time next year. We're running down our stocks of coal. There has been a sharp fall in the pass rate. 18. It is now much easier to import goods into the country than it was a few years ago. 8. Last year. 13. There has been a steady decrease in the number of people out of work. 14% of the population work in industry and 8% work in agriculture. There has been a growth in industrial activity. There has been a narrowing of the gap between those working in different sectors of the economy. 2. 14. Our company has witnessed considerable expansion in the last five years. There has been a deterioration in the national road system. American travelers abroad have discovered that they can buy more foreign currency with their dollar. There are going to be cuts in healthcare spending next year. 7. Some management roles are going to be phased out. 20. Her English is clearly better now than it was when she first arrived. and Des Moines in the last five years. There has been a weakening of the dollar. Prices have gone up by about 4% every year since 1998. The government has spent a lot of money improving roads around the country. There has been a dramatic increase in the number of people living in the country. This year. People live in better houses. 1. The rules are much stricter now than they were before.General Vocabulary Changes Exercise 1 Look at these sentences and decide if the statement which follows each one is true or false. 11. and eat higher-quality food than they did twenty years ago. The alliance are going to build up the number of weapons they have. Deflation has adversely affected industries around the country. The number of exam passes achieved by the school's pupils has risen by almost 50%. 9. Our company has opened new factories in Detroit. There has been a tightening up of border controls. Houston. More people are shopping at large supermarkets rather than small local stores. 6. There has been marked progress in her English. Americans nowadays want to see more of the world. 3. 19. We're increasing our stocks of coal before the winter begins. Americans nowadays want to narrow their horizons. drive nicer cars. There has been a decline in the number of exam passes. There has been a relaxation of the rules. 8 . The government will spend less on the healthcare services next year. The pass rate for the exam was 3% lower this year than it was last year. The population of the country has trebled in the last 25 years. 15. 4. The alliance are going to reduce the number of conventional weapons in their armed forces. Unemployment has dropped by about 2% every year for the last six years. 16. 12% of the population worked in industry and 10% worked in agriculture. There has been a constant rise in the rate of inflation. There has been an upward trend in the number of people shopping in small local stores. 5.

6. 2. and goods can only be _____________ on production of a receipt or other proof of purchase. a m s e a n g o u t r d r w p r e t t t s u a o i p v l h u s e c p f t a a n e c o r t t s c s r e n d u e u r n h i y t d n r d r e a r d r h e e c a e p r e r a g e m e r d l t n e i i p a d g o a e o t s e e e e p w c c v l e h n s t u n e u a a l e s i e e s e d t e o g h v r n i x e e t w r o e i i z p r e o e a r r o l e a e x m r l t h r m n t c e e n e c a a END d o h d x e n t t e p m a e t d s e e r r o n g e n t r s t 1. These are all verbs. Fees _____________ according to the length of the course: the longer the course. The science building is currently being _____________. In some cases you will need to change the form of the verb (for example. 8. After only three weeks on the History course. then use some of them to complete sentences 1 – 10 below. 4. We have made radical changes to college regulations. it _____________. 9 .General Vocabulary Exercise 2 The box below contains 31 more words used to describe change in different situations. 9. 5. The economic situation is _____________ rapidly. by putting it into its past simple or past participle form). The discovery of oil _____________ the country from a small emirate to a major economic power. starting in the top-left corner and following the direction of the arrows. and they can be found by reading from left to right and from right to left. Course fees will be _____________ on January 14: some will come down. but will remain open while building work is carried out. she decided to _____________ to something more practical. Separate these words. and the entire economy is in danger of collapse. the more you pay. As water freezes. 10. The company cannot refund customers' money. 7. 3. Elastic becomes weaker the more it is _____________. and students are expected to _____________ to these over the next few weeks. but most of them will go up.

7. 5. except one was aimed at a younger market while the other targeted twenty-somethings. Grades have not been good over the last semester. 9. and the other is a gasoline-electric hybrid. and those employed in the primary sector. his attitude and commitment. Compared / Compare / Comparing with 15 years ago. Exactly / In the same way / Just as. Serious computer hackers can access your personal files and destroy or alter them. the TOEIC focuses more on business and professional issues. 2. faster. 1. 8. and showed a romanticized view of life. 4. 10 . they can gain access to your Internet banking facility and steal your money. In one case. There were several similarities / similarly / similar to between the two novels. 11. 12. The contrast / compare / comparison in working conditions between our Denver department and our department in Chicago is very noticeable. The TOEFL covers a variety of academic and general English tasks. Nevertheless / Even so / However. There currently seems to be a large discrepancy / discrimination / differential between the number of people employed in service industries. and employees are now demanding equality in this area. 10. 3. Our digital photography course is similar to / alike / resemble our traditional photography course. 15. Likewise / Alike / Likeness. unlike / whereas / whereby the pre-Raphaelites used a lot of detail and bright colors.General Vocabulary Comparing and Contrasting Complete these sentences with the most appropriate word or expression in bold. It is often difficult to differentiate / differ / contrast between students who are absent because they are genuinely sick. 13. 6. There's a clear distinguish / distinctive / distinction between studying at a college and working from home on a correspondence course. The two courses are different in every way: there's absolutely no compare / comparison / contrast between them. and those who are just enjoying a day in bed. The new software program shared some common characters / characterizes / characteristics with those that were already on the market. all three options are possible. The Impressionists used light and color to give the general feeling of a scene. The two engines differentiate / differ / different considerably from each other: one runs on gasoline. In contrast to / Although / By way of contrast. 14. except that it is obviously more computer-oriented. home PCs are cheaper. The quality of his work is excellent. the college still has one of the best academic records in the state. and have a much bigger memory.

The main retncopiinsod for a healthy economy are controlled consumer spending and low unemployment. The first one has been done as an example. 7. We agreed to sign the contract. Good language skills are one of the quereesisitpr for a job in an international organization. 11 . 13. we will meet you at LaGuardia airport at ten o'clock. 3. even if things get difficult.General Vocabulary Condition and requirement Rearrange the letters in bold to make words and expressions related to condition and requirement. ni het nvete fo a tie between the two teams in tonight's game. break glass. We need to involve at least 20 people on this project. If you have a query. 5. 11. Everyone should get a good mid-term grade vogrnipid ttha they hand in all their work on time. 4. sa nlgo sa there is sufficient demand for healthy food such as salads and soups in the school cafeteria. The teachers have nidncoalitoun trust in their students: they know they will do their best at all times. it is important that you agree with the remst and ioctnsodin set out in the contract. Before you accept a job. 8. 16. sumsagin hatt the flight is on time. 6. niifagl ttha. 1. 15. 9. the only aputonstili being that it would run for at least five years. It is a nmreiretque of the college that students attend at least 95% of their course and complete all their assignments on time. His argument was based no teh autonmsspi hatt people are basically decent and honest. (Notice on a fire alarm): ni eacs fo fire. 10. 14. (Answer = As long as) 2. please telephone us at the number above. send us a fax or email. we will continue to provide it. I will have to give you a lower grade for the course. 12. Students may use the college computers for personal emails no incotnido atth they agree to give up their computer if someone needs it for coursework. seusln I receive your assignment within the next couple of days. there will be a replay on Saturday afternoon. ehewotris it can't go ahead.

10. appreciable / appreciative There is an ____________ difference between manslaughter and murder. continual / continuous A ____________ trade embargo has badly affected the economic infrastructure. advice / advise Can you ____________ me on the best course of action to take? He offered me some excellent ____________ . but have a different meaning or look similar. channel / canal The television ____________ received a formal complaint about the program. assumption / presumption They raised taxes on the ____________ that it would help control spending. briefly / shortly ____________ before the conflict began. avoid / prevent Rapid government reforms managed to ____________ a revolution taking place. 7. many people do extra work in the evening. The senator spoke ____________ about the need for political reform. the army pulled down the border posts. affect / effect Cuts in spending will have a serious ____________ on the healthcare services. It's sheer ____________ for the government to suggest things have improved since they came to power. 1. but have a different meaning False friends are words in English which have a similar-looking word in another language but which have a different meaning. 9. 4. He's always trying to ____________ taking a decision if he can help it. 12 . 5. or are related to the same topic. ____________ their regular daytime job. The computer has given us ____________ problems ever since we installed it. beside / besides The office is just ____________ the railway station. 3. ____________ workers should be rewarded for their hard work. 2. The Suez ____________ was built in the second half of the nineteenth century. 6. 8. 11. Complete the following sentences with the appropriate word in bold. The strike will seriously ____________ train services. Economic ____________ stagnated as the recession took hold.General Vocabulary Confusing words and false friends Confusing words are two or more words which have a similar meaning to each other but are used in a different way. She was very ____________ of our efforts to help. conscientious / conscious Most people are ____________ of the need to protect the environment. action / activity The police took immediate ____________ when they realised the situation was getting out of hand.

discover / invent When did he ____________ the telephone? Did Alexander Fleming ____________ penicillin? during / for / while Stores were closed ____________ the duration of the conflict. 14. however / moreover The plan was good in theory. The plan was excellent. damage / injury / harm It was a severe ____________ which needed immediate hospital treatment. A lot of ____________ was caused to buildings along the coast during the storm. criticism(s) / objection(s) They didn't raise any ____________ when we insisted on inspecting the figures. The bomb went off ____________ the President was making his speech. possibility / chance There is always the ____________ that the government will reverse its decision. 15. The government is ____________ of other political parties. If we act now. permission / permit I'm afraid we can't ____________ photography in here. 24. 13. 21. the country experienced severe strikes and riots. 19. we have a good ____________ of finding a cure for the disease. The manager made it clear he intended to ____________ down some strict rules. There's no ____________ in taking a break from your job now and then. ____________. so she would never intentionally upset anyone. 16. She's a very ____________ person. intolerable / intolerant I consider his behavior to be quite ____________. considerate / considerable He made a ____________ amount of money from his dotcom enterprise. ____________. 23. The government plans to ____________ the price of meat to make sure it doesn't go up too much. and be prepared to act if violence flares again. We need to ____________ the problem carefully and decide if there is anything we can do about it. job / work Everybody has the right to a decent ____________ with good pay. Following the recession. The government's plan was met with severe ____________. 18.General Vocabulary 12. 22. control / inspect Environmental health officers regularly ____________ kitchens and other food preparation areas. look at / watch We must ____________ the situation in Lugumba carefully. 17. in practice it was extremely difficult to implement. ____________ the transition from a dictatorship to democracy. many people are still looking for ____________. it was clear from the beginning that it was going to be a success. They received ____________ to attend the sessions as long as they didn't interrupt. 20. 13 . lay(s) / lie(s) The city of Quito ____________ near the equator.

They want to bring up their children in an area which is considered to be ____________. 28. most airlines plan to ____________ their fares. 33. imply / infer From what you just said. treat / cure Hospitals are so understaffed that they find it almost impossible to ____________ patients with minor injuries. 30. disinterested / uninterested In order to end the dispute. subjective / objective Your report should be as ____________ possible: just present the facts and try to avoid saying what you think about them. 32. demand usually drops. I merely said that I needed a bit of time to myself. paper money suddenly became ____________. The newspaper article was extremely ____________: the journalist more or less forced his own views and ideas on his readership. As inflation spiraled out of control. 29. 27. The ____________ of the college is an ardent non-smoker. acupuncture and hypnosis are seen as ____________ medicines. In response to the current oil shortage. 34. raise / rise As prices ____________. 14 . All new students will receive a ____________ study pack and dictionary. respectable / respectful The delegates listened in ____________ silence as the chairman spoke. priceless / worthless ____________ paintings by artists like Van Gogh should not be in the hands of private collectors. process / procession The ____________ made its way down the avenue. 31. but they were completely ____________. I thought they would enjoy my talk. we need some impartial advice from a / an ____________ third party. can I ____________ that you think I'm interfering? I didn't mean to ____________ that you were interfering.General Vocabulary 25. and hundreds died as a result. Applying for a visa can be a long and frustrating ____________. principal(s) / principle(s) Many people refuse to eat meat on ____________. They were unable to ____________ the disease. complimentary / complementary In western societies. The country's ____________ products are paper and wood. 26. Not many people are familiar with the ____________ of nuclear physics.

_____________________________________ A. Professor Parkhill sure seems to be absent a lot these days. I promise to replace it. 3. A. Come on. 9. 6. I know! You're not the first person to say that. Well. 5. 11. B. _____________________________________ A. let's eat out. Do you think I should apply to the University of West Virginia? B. really. 8. We're going to Mo's bar tonight. Exercise 1 Complete the dialogs with an expression from the box. Shall we eat out or do you want me to cook something? B. I couldn't agree more. It's up to you. _____________________________________ A. 1. 4. I'm really sorry that I lost your dictionary. _____________________________________ A. It can't be helped. _____________________________________ A. aren't they. A. I will. _____________________________________ A. A. ț I really don't mind. A. _____________________________________ A. All right. I need a decision as soon as possible. _____________________________________ A. ț Never mind. Often. to be honest. Right. A. you should. _____________________________________ A. Thank you so much for all your help. but it was nothing really. but not always. _____________________________________ A. 2. I really appreciate it. Our history lessons are really boring. The economics seminar has been canceled yet again. I spent most of the weekend lying in bed and watching TV. A. Nevertheless. B. Are you interested in science? B. No way! Not a chance! ț You've got to be kidding! ț Why not? Go for it! Wow! Way to go! ț You should really get a life. Me neither. Your whole future might depend on them. In that case. _____________________________________ A. I never thought I'd be able to do it. I'd rather you told me now. A. it is possible to identify the meaning of an idiom or a colloquialism from the context in which it is being used. Want to come? B. I couldn't have done it without you. I find it really boring. 10.General Vocabulary Idioms and colloquialisms 1 Idioms and colloquialisms (spoken expressions) are a common feature of the TOEFL Listening Comprehension. you'll fail your exams. A. _____________________________________ A. If you don't work harder. and each one has to be learnt individually. OK. B. ț I couldn't care less. There are a lot of them. ț Let me sleep on it. I've passed all my exams – grade A's all round! B. I'm afraid not. A. Perhaps we shouldn't have chosen it as an option. A. B. Thanks. 12. Well. don't be like that! It'll be fun! A. B. 15 . The idioms and colloquialisms exercises in this book focus on some of the most commonly-used expressions. 7. Thanks. B. It does nothing for me. No. B. A. ț You're welcome.

Want to come to the concert tonight? B . _____________________________________ A. I'm a bit tied up for the time being. A. really. I thought you might be a bit busy right now. Let me lend a hand. _____________________________________ A. That's the spirit! Well. Oh. Perhaps a barbecue. I was wondering if you could help me with my assignment. I was only asking. B.General Vocabulary Exercise 2 Instructions as above. 6. I'll go and get us some tickets. That's great. I'll do the same for you next time. A. _____________________________________ A. A. _____________________________________ A. I'm used to it. What a drag! You're out of luck. A. 12. Can I have a look at your essay to get a few ideas? B. not bad. B. Don't be like that. or something like that. 2. 8. 10. 16 . 3. Oh well. _____________________________________ A. _____________________________________ A. Do you think you'll pass your exams? B. I know. Sure. A. Why not? You bet! 1. 11. B. good luck. but we'll make up for it next weekend. I'm fairly confident of passing. You've been doing it for so long. B. A. We need to finish this assignment by Monday. A. I'm working really hard for my exam at the moment. A. _____________________________________ A. We're thinking of doing something to celebrate the end of the semester. Where's Murai today? B. A. Oh. 7. I have to get the hall ready for tonight's lecture. Yes. Poor Sarah failed to get a good grade in her TOEFL once again. never mind. A. 5. Do you find it difficult getting up at 6 o'clock every morning? B. A. _____________________________________ A. She never seems to do any preparation for it. I'm not sure. Right. _____________________________________ A. _____________________________________ A. A. There goes our weekend. That's really kind of you. _____________________________________ A. 4. ț ț ț How's it going? ț ț ț How should I know? ț Is it any wonder? ț What do you have in mind? I'm going to give it all I've got. Are there any tickets left for tonight's show? B. B. B. Thanks. _____________________________________ A. I thought so. I suppose you must be. 9.

5. Do you think you'll pass the exam? B. B. I hear that you're going to throw a surprise party for my birthday. ț That'll be the day! ț That'll teach you! Who let the cat out of the bag? 1. I'm all ears. touch wood. ț I'd rather you didn't. B. 8. I can't afford to go to the concert tonight. 12. ț I'd be glad to I'm having second thoughts. __________________________________________________ A. __________________________________________________ 2. B. __________________________________________________ A. B. __________________________________________________ A. __________________________________________________ A. I thought you were going to apply for a place on the Theory of Knowledge course. Oh. ț I'd love to. that's too bad. B. Make yourself at home. __________________________________________________ A. __________________________________________________ A. Now you're talking! ț Rather you than me. I'd be really grateful if you didn't tell anyone about it. __________________________________________________ 2. A. I've just eaten six hot dogs. I've signed up for extra sociology classes with Professor Dullman. ț Oh. ț Fire away. Exercise 2 Instructions as above. let's go to the theater instead. ț Sure. B. __________________________________________________ A. Take care and keep in touch.General Vocabulary Idioms and colloquialisms 2 Exercise 1 Complete these dialogs with an appropriate expression from the box. __________________________________________________ A. B. __________________________________________________ A. this is on me. 17 . A little bird told me. Yes. ț Hold on. 7. B. How do you know the test has been canceled? B. 4. Would you mind looking after my bag while I go to the rest room? B. ț The name doesn't ring any bells. I've managed to get a place on the Advanced Studies program. 4. Thanks. B. ț Be my guest. 11. Would you like to come to Gino's tonight? B. __________________________________________________ A. 10. Congratulations. ț You're welcome. A. It's wonderful. Do you mind if I sit here? B. I've got some really interesting news. __________________________________________________ A. B. 3. 5. 1. Thank you very much for all your help. __________________________________________________ A. ț I'm keeping my fingers crossed. B. ț My lips are sealed. __________________________________________________ A. 6. 3. __________________________________________________ A. I promise to work harder from now on. Oh wow! What a great room. __________________________________________________ A. 9. You don't want to work tonight? OK. ț Couldn't be better. and now I've got a terrible stomach ache. B.

12. A. Did you know that our economics teacher has left the questions for tomorrow's test lying on his desk? B. B. 11. __________________________________________________ 8. B. I'm off to Niagara Falls for the weekend. a presentation to prepare. 9. Take a seat. two essays to write. A. Snake is considered a delicacy in some countries. I forgot my boyfriend's birthday last week. 10. Could you give me a bit of help with this assignment? B. Professor de Gruchy has extended the deadline for our essays to Thursday. 10. __________________________________________________ A. __________________________________________________ 2. __________________________________________________ A. __________________________________________________ A. See you Monday. Let's get together again soon. Well. __________________________________________________ A. A. Did you enjoy it? B. __________________________________________________ A. __________________________________________________ A. I thought the lecture on the Declaration of Independence was great. 8. take it easy. Do you think you'll do well in tomorrow's test? B. Aaachoooooooo! B. 12. B. B. 3. Tom. ț Well. __________________________________________________ A.N. __________________________________________________ A. Have a good time. __________________________________________________ A. Would you ever consider eating it? B. B. ț How's it going? ț Oh well. Exercise 3 Instructions as above. 18 . I didn't do too well in the end of semester exams. B. so you don't need to worry about not finishing it on time. B. __________________________________________________ A. __________________________________________________ A. Hi. 9. ț Sure thing. it's not the end of the world. 1. Gesundheit! ț Not on your life! ț Of course. 4. __________________________________________________ A. __________________________________________________ A. Have you ever heard of the Darwin Awards? B. I have so much to do by Monday. Can I come in? B. 6. 5. So I guess you're in the doghouse again. __________________________________________________ A. __________________________________________________ A. ț I'll say. and I have to do some research on the history of the U. How are you? B. B.General Vocabulary 6. B. __________________________________________________ A. That's the third time I've failed my driver’s test. 11. Do you mind if I smoke in here? B. 7. ț That's a load off my mind. __________________________________________________ 7. It's been nice seeing you again. I'm so depressed. Don't kill yourself. I'm about halfway through my essay. keep it to yourself. We'd better leave now – our train leaves in half an hour.

Just give it… I'm not sure whether to take a vacation this summer. 7. it can take a while to learn the… I know you have a lot of work. 18. but look on the bright … The President can't be in his right… You shouldn't go over his… You're kidding. could you please let me… I was rather unhappy when she made a… The project was more or… I just need to complete this essay. Try to do things step by… There's a chance that sooner or… When you first start a new job. 13. but they never really got off… 19 . 4.D. but once in… I've never been too… There are parts of the course which are a bit boring. 9. 5. then all at… Many people believe that it's about… I've changed… He had some excellent plans. 19. 20. 25. 6. 3. 2. Use the expressions in bold to help you make the connection. 17. but in the end I decided to go… I got a grade A for my first assignment of the year. but I get mixed… Don't worry about the exam. 26. 11. 22. 8.General Vocabulary Idioms and colloquialisms 3 Connect the first part of each sentence in the first box on this page with the second half in the second box on the next page. 16. 14. 12. You're pulling my… It can be difficult to make ends… Try to make the most of your… I asked Ron to get the computer fixed. and he promised to take… I understand the theory. If you come late. course. and then my coursework will be over once and… His lectures are generally really dull. I'll decide one way or… I wasn't sure whether to apply for a Ph. but on the… Don't try to do everything at once. 23. 10. 1. 24. That's a good… For years he was ignored. 15. 21.

S. I. …up when I try to describe it on paper. …care of it at the earliest opportunity. at least you won't get bored this weekend! …a while there's something of interest. …start.General Vocabulary A. …time more money was invested in education. C. H. E. …head and make your own decisions. T. …later the students will demand some real changes. …meet when you're a student on a low income. …know in advance. J. …the ground. Q. F. N. …the other when I see my exam results. V. …point of reminding me about my previous bad grades. isn't it? …all you've got and hope for the best. …once. R. …whole it's really good. …less complete when someone pointed out they had missed some details. …side. M. making a stupid decision like that. P. O. X. W. Y. …leg. …mind. Right? …my mind about attending Professor Malkovich's course. L. I've always preferred the arts. B. …ropes and become familiar with the way things work. …big on science. 20 . K. people began paying attention to what he had to say. …time when you're in New York. U. …for all. Z. It'll be a real relief. D. G. …for it and see what happens. …step until you've finished.

even when people oppose you) I only just passed my exam. 6. 14. but I'm feeling better now. but once in a blue / red / green moon. 10. (to pay a lot of money) He knew that what they were doing was wrong. 16. It will help to break the ice / mold / air. 1. (somewhere quiet. (to let somebody know what has happened. 7. stand your land / place / ground and tell him you won't change your mind. 18. (to make people feel more friendly and willing to talk to each other) Everybody should say exactly how they feel. but he decided to take the goat / cow / bull by the horns and tell his boss that he wanted to leave the company. usually when other people already know) 17. (a difficult and complicated situation) It was a difficult decision. The meaning of each idiom is in brackets after the sentence. (very rarely) I'm afraid your request is out of the answer / statement / question. (slightly sick) He's a rather boring person. We don't want to lose land / ground / place in the baseball competition. (not possible. That should clear the room / air / feelings. we can talk later. where not a lot of people go) If you're pressed / crushed / squeezed for time. to ignore) Many people like to get off the beaten road / path / track when they take a vacation. 11. usually in a social situation where there are others present) 13. You shouldn't try to burn the match / lighter / candle at both ends. (to become less successful than the others) Let's have a party at the beginning of the year. unacceptable) He gave us some information that was strictly off the books / record / list. Don't let him stop you. to be kept secret) 2. he realized what a can of worms / beans / beer they were opening. 12. 21 . 5. 4. (to refuse to change your mind about something. you'll exhaust yourself. but turned a blind / closed / cold eye to it. 15. he'll come out with something really amazing. (to discuss your job with a coworker. (something almost did or didn't happen) What's happened? Put me in the picture / story / scene. (to help end an argument or disagreement) It's very rude to talk shop / work / jobs when you're out with other people. (to deal bravely or confidently with a difficult situation) Some insurance companies make their customers pay through the ears / nose / mouth for their services. 3. (busy. (unofficial. (to pretend not to notice. (to get up early in the morning and go to bed late at night on a regular basis) Once he started looking into the details. It was a very far / close / exact thing. 9. in a hurry) I've been feeling a bit under the thumb / weather / table recently. 8.General Vocabulary Idioms and colloquialisms 4 Exercise 1 Choose the correct underlined word to complete each of the idioms in bold.

Let's take three / four / five. (generally) All right. 13. (to use your influence with somebody in order to get something) Donna played / did / went hooky again today. but I don't really think he was on the air/ ground / level. 1. hear. smell. I might be asked to leave the course. but my fifth / sixth / seventh sense tells me he trying to get out of doing his assignment. 4. I've completed three out of my five essays already. (to tell somebody you are angry with them. and explain why) His theories broke fresh earth / ground / land and changed the way people thought about science. (to change your life by starting to be a better person or stopping a bad habit) There are some good restaurants nearby that won't bankrupt / break / rob the bank. (to do something original or innovative) He said that he had missed his lecture because he had to visit a sick relative. 11. (to have a short break) I don't know exactly what he's up to.) He knew I was friendly with his boss. (to do what seems the easiest thing in a particular situation) I thought my last essay was really good. for no good reason) My bank account's in the black / red / pink again. 22 . I'm afraid. 6. but my advice is to go with the snow / flow / glow and see what happens. that's the third lecture she's missed this week. (not expensive) I can't talk to you now. 5. etc. everything is going well) I'm really angry with Jerry. so old Professor Clack really rained on my show / carnival / parade when he told me he thought it was terrible. 17.General Vocabulary Exercise 2 Instructions as above. (being honest and telling the truth) It wasn't my fault! Why am I always the one to carry the can / tin / box? (being the person who is considered responsible for something that has gone wrong) University life can seem strange at first. (a special ability to feel things that you cannot see. 12. everyone.. and asked me to pull a few legs / strings / ropes for him. haven't you? (to become well known. So far. etc. 8. 3. so good / fine / acceptable. (to spoil something or make it much less enjoyable) The Dean has told me that unless I turn over a new leaf / book / paper. class. 9. (extremely good. We've achieved a lot in the last hour or so. He can be a bit unfriendly. 16. 14. (to owe money to the bank because you've spent too much) 2. but by and big / large / huge he's OK. I'm running / walking / jumping a bit late. It's time I had it in / out / over with him. (until now. You've really made a name / title / place for yourself. 10. famous and / or respected) Have you seen his house? It's out of this planet / earth / world. or taste) 18. wonderful. (to be slightly later than normal) 7. (to miss a lesson. 15. touch.

all of which would be implemented over the next five years. The website is _______________. The first one has been done for you. achievements. but then early research and negative feedback began to _______________ of doubt in their minds. 10. ideas. 4. Her ideas were carefully _______________ by a series of results showing that they had been put into practice and actually worked. 3. the word father is not used in its usual sense to mean someone's male parent. The following exercises look at some common metaphors that are used in different situations. but we hope to have it up and running by the end of the month. It means that Picasso was the person who started the Cubist movement. and theories Metaphorically. For example. and developing an idea is like getting plants to grow. 8. His argument was carefully _______________ and was extremely difficult to dispute. and theories are often seen as buildings. and nothing can change these beliefs. The newspaper article threatened the whole ____edifice_____ of government. The business was started in 1986. ideas. 11. and the failure of something being similar to the destruction of a building. The contract acted as a _______________ for future cooperation between the two organizations. architect demolish blueprint edifice sow the seeds build on fertile build up fruitful buttress collapse construct deep-rooted ruins ground-breaking take root towering lay the foundations under construction stem from 1. 23 . Exercise 1: achievements. Metaphors are a bit like idioms (see pages 15 – 22). In several cases you will need to change the form of the words. from the President all the way down to grass-roots politicians. or that he was the first one to do it successfully. Superstitious beliefs are _______________ in many cultures. 6. Metaphorically. with an idea or the process of achieving something being similar to the process of building.General Vocabulary Metaphor A metaphor is a word or phrase that means one thing and is used to refer to another thing in order to emphasize their similar qualities. The new government _______________ for radical changes to the voting system. The company directors were convinced people would want their new product. 7. because the words and expressions are not being used with their literal meaning. 12. ideas are also like plants. Complete sentences 1 – 20 with a word or expression from the box. 5. Father is being used in a metaphorical way. 2. The new constitution was _______________ traditional values and a desire for progress. The invention of the microchip was a _______________ achievement. He was the chief _______________ of the country's new economic policies. and over the next 20 years was _______________ into one of the most powerful companies in the country. in the sentence “Picasso was the father of the Cubist movement”. 9.

when you sitsas someone. The discussion was very __________. (A) They only succeeded by using their political muscle. Metaphorically. making an trofef is like using a part of your body. The idea seemed good in theory. Her ideas __________ her belief in the existence of life on other planets. but __________ when practical tests were first carried out. Exercise 2: Other metaphors. it is like supporting them physically (for example. 24 . Metaphorically. His books were very popular because he had a __________ imagination and a talent for telling a good story. the brighter the light is. 17. but you have to put your back into it if you want to succeed. Note that two of the final sentences use the same word. 19. (B) As a child. but a series of unexplained events meant that his ideas quickly __________ and people were more prepared to listen to him. (C) The novel received some good reviews. 16. 18. I put forward several ideas. an muntrage is like a fight or a war. (C) I don't want to be kept in the dark. Einstein was believed to have a rather dull mind. Metaphorically. and look especially at the words and expressions in bold. 4. Nobody believed him at first. and something that is ntaprmotniu is small or light. 20. (A) She was one of the brightest students in the class. B. but was initially seen as a simple novelty. 15. (B) Her work greatly illuminated this aspect of the subject. 14. but many people thought it was rather lightweight. The first one has been done as an example. (C) The team clashed over what steps to take next. (A) I was wondering if I could rely on your support. (A) You look confused: let me throw some light on the matter. but it did not deter him from starting again. Then rearrange the letters in italics in the final sentence to make another word or words. His life's work was in __________. Metaphorically. and C in the following groups.General Vocabulary 13. The more you have. but to my anger and disappointment each one was comprehensively __________ by the board. with people “attacking” and “defending”. 3. (B) There was a lot of conflict over what to do next. (B) She didn't have the backbone to accept his challenge. and we all came away from it believing that at last we were going to achieve something worthwhile. something that is taprmotni is like something that is big or heavy. Look at sentences A. (A) Your point of view is indefensible. (C) I know it's difficult. Metaphorically. (B) Would you mind lending me a hand with my assignment? (C) The government helped to prop up the college by offering it a financial grant. (Answer = argument) 2. (A) He is often regarded as the greatest writer of the twentieth century. The final sentence should then explain what the metaphors in the first three sentences are describing. The new technology was revolutionary and __________. 1. with your body). ngeelcneilti is like a light. (B) Everyone agreed that there were some weighty issues to be discussed at the meeting. (C) She had a sudden flash of inspiration and began writing down her thoughts. so please let me know what is happening. 6. 5.

General Vocabulary

Metaphorically, when you have gwednloke about something, it is like shining a light on it (and when you lack this, it is like being in darkness). 7. (A) His new career opened the door to a whole new way of life. (B) Having a University degree is arguably the key to success in life. (C) Age should be no barrier to success. Metaphorically, having the roitpoytupn to do something is like having a door or other entrance opened for you. 8. (A) We unearthed some useful facts and figures. (B) Her latest book is a goldmine of useful information. (C) We left no stone unturned in our search for the truth. Metaphorically, when you oeidrvsc things such as facts and information, it is similar to finding them by digging or searching in the ground. 9. (A) He originally set out to become a priest, but became involved in politics instead. (B) At the age of 24, things took an unexpected turn for him. (C) After six years in the same job, I decided to move on. Metaphorically, a ilef or raecer path is like a journey. 10. (A) They put a lot of pressure on him to make change his mind. (B) The country was dragged reluctantly into war. (C) I'm sorry to press you for an answer, but we need to know your plans. Metaphorically, when you ecfro someone to do something, it is like putting physical pressure on them (for example, by pulling or pushing them). 11. (A) He was very sharp-witted and could always be relied on to come up with an astute comment when asked. (B) She has a keen intellect and makes sure that everyone knows it. (C) He was an incisive critic who always researched his subject thoroughly before passing comment on it. Metaphorically, eengintecill is like a knife, a blade, or another sharp object. 12. (A) We covered a lot of ground at the meeting. (B) I'd like to return to the point I was making earlier. (C) After three hours, we finally arrived at a decision. Metaphorically, a veoantcirosn or nosisidscu is like a journey, with the people who are speaking going from one place to another. 13. (A) We need to address the social ills that are at the root of crime. (B) The country was paralyzed by a series of natural and man-made disasters. (C) Drugs such as heroin and cocaine are seen as a cancer at the very heart of society. Metaphorically, a beprmol is like an illness. 14. (A) The speaker received a very warm welcome from the audience. (B) We had several good ideas, but they poured cold water on all of them. (C) I was disappointed because his response was rather lukewarm. Metaphorically, anesismuht and nicetxetem are like heat, and a lack of these is like cold or wet. 15. (A) The biography mainly dealt with his years at the top. (B) Many people commented on his rapid ascent up the ladder. (C) His greed and lack of integrity eventually led to his downfall. Metaphorically, being fucsuscsel is like being high up, and uraelfi is like falling or being low down.

25

General Vocabulary

Numbers and symbols
How do you say the numbers and symbols in bold in these sentences?
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 2006 was the company's most profitable year since 1994. The advantage of Internet banking is that you can check your account 24/7. Despite a rigorous advertising campaign, demand has only risen by 0.8% in the last two months. We're meeting in his office at 3:45 this afternoon. Your flight for Zurich leaves at 1800 from Logan International Airport. I expect to be back in the country on June 30. Our next range of products will be released on 10/3. She completed the test in a record 27½ minutes. ¾ of all our employees think the canteen food could be improved. The new desk measures exactly 6ft. x 3ft. x 3ft. Is this printer really only $1.99? Oh, sorry sir, that's a mistake. The sticker should say $100.99. And that computer doesn't cost $120.75. It actually costs $1120.75. Please quote reference ACB81 - 25/B. Our new telephone number is (212) 909-7940. For more information, call 1-800-528-4800. Alternatively, ring 1-800-AXP-1234. The emergency telephone number in the U.S.A. is 911. In the U.K. it's 999. In Australia it's 000. To access the information you require, press the # key, followed by the 0 key, and finally the * key. He earns a salary of over $200K a year! In fact, he's making so much money that he plans to retire in his mid-50's. We have invested over $6M in new technology. The union held a ballot to see if the workers wanted to strike. The result was 2:1 in favor. My email address is markbarrington@snailmail.com. Hi Todd. GR8 news on the promotion. I'm really :-) for you! CUL8R for a celebratory drink? He drives to work in a big, fuel-guzzling 4x4. The Denver Deadbeats won the match against the Washington Washouts by 2:0. In the game against the Los Angeles Layabouts the following week, they tied 3:3. At the last census, the population of the country was 37,762,418. It's important to send your 1099 form to the IRS on time. This book is © Rawdon Wyatt, 2007. The “Ultimafone®” has just won a “Product of the Year” award.

26

General Vocabulary

Obligation and option
Complete sentences 1 – 17 with a suitable word from the box. More than one answer is possible in some cases.
alternative compelled must compulsory need entail essential obliged exempt optional forced require have liable

mandatory 1.

obligation

voluntary

A valid passport and visa are _____________ by all visitors to the country. Unless you have these, you will not be allowed in. Attendance at all classes is _____________. You may not miss a class without prior arrangement with your course leader. Note to new students: all fees _____________ be paid no later than one week before the commencement of the course. Your place on the course may be forfeited if you fail to satisfy this requirement. Before you make an appointment with the college doctor, you _____________ to register your name at the clinic, which you will find in the Administrative Block. If you cause any damage to property, whether accidentally or on purpose, you will be held _____________ for any costs incurred. The college was _____________ to refund part of its student fees after they announced that several of the course modules would no longer be running. Books, clothes, and food are currently _____________ from government tax, as they are considered necessities rather than luxuries. _____________ police security checks are carried out on all students and members of staff who will be working or associating with minors (i.e., those under 18). Entrance to the museum is free, but visitors are asked to make a _____________ donation of $5. Evening lectures and presentations are _____________: it is up to you whether you attend or not. 11. Unless your attendance improves, the college will have no _____________ but to ask you to leave the course.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9. 10.

12.

Manufacturers of packaged foods are _____________ to list all the ingredients contained clearly on the box or package. This should include any artificial colorings and additives. You are under no _____________ to work overtime, but we hope that you would be prepared to work late at least once a week. When Professor Ranscombe was accused of making sexist remarks in his lectures, he felt _____________ to write a public letter of apology to those he had offended. The project is very exciting, but everyone realizes that it will _____________ a lot of work. There's no _____________ to make an appointment to see me. Just turn up at my office anytime after lunch. It is absolutely _____________ that the two liquids are kept separate, otherwise a chemical reaction could trigger an explosion.

13.

14.

15. 16.

17.

27

6. attitude. especially in the traditional values of society”. The government are ingerdgar the debt that is owed by developing nations as a major barrier to global economic progress. We strongly pesctus that the proposal to develop the computer facilities will not go ahead. These words can be found by reading from left to right and from top to bottom only. 2. This word can be used to complete sentence 13. 9. I butdo that the new government will keep all its promises. 4.General Vocabulary Opinion. 9. 11. technology is moving too quickly. Exercise 2 Hidden in the box on the next page you will find 40 more words related to opinion. and belief Exercise 1 Rearrange the letters in bold in the following sentences to make words that can be used to talk about opinion. 7. 10. 12. 12. 28 . They come from a strongly taitoanrdil family who still believe in arranged marriages. Find these words and then use them to complete definitions 1 – 40. If you do this correctly. 10. He has very ____________ views and disapproves of change. 1. attitude. She aitainsmn that most young people would rather work than go to school. As far as I am enodccenr. 3. Do you popvisread of smoking? The government are micedtomt to the struggle to end institutional racism in the police force. and belief. In my nponioi. 4. 5. I take strong etonepixc to people coming late or cancelling appointments at short notice. 7. 6. 8. 1. Scientists are cdnoevcin that human degradation of the environment is causing thousands of species to become extinct. Write these words in the appropriate space in the grid that follows the sentences. 8. 3. attitude. 2. you will reveal a word in the shaded vertical strip that means “not willing to accept much change. A lot of people are atifalnac about sport in general and football in particular. 11. The first letter of each word has been underlined for you. happiness is more important than money. and belief. Use the word in the shaded vertical strip to complete this sentence: 13. 5.

General Vocabulary

Q P R A G M A T I C P M O R A L E
1.

M U D G O P I N I O N A T E D X P

I S O C I A L I S M A F J E O I A

D I G A C D I M T M S G R G B S C

D O V P H Z V U A U A J E A S L I

L I E I R X E S T N G U P L E A F

E N G T I D G L H I N D U I S M I

O T A A S E E I E S O A B T S C S

F E N L T M T M I M S I L A I D T

T L T I I O A M S I T S I R V O R

H L O S A C R Q T C I M C I E G T

E E L M N R I W E H C M A A O M Y

R C E J I A A R R R D O N N P A U

O T R E T T N A H I N D U S E T F

A U A W Y C B C T S T E K T N I A

D A N A R C H I S T A R C O M C S

W L T H K V N S Y I O A Y I I V C

S I K H I S M T U A I T N C N B I

E P B I G O T E D N S E I A D N S

R R O Y A L I S T O M S C L E M M

T A F J L B U D D H I S M L D Q C

Y S S U P E R S T I T I O U S W A

Someone who is well educated and interested in art, science, literature, etc., at a high level: an ________________. Someone who believes that their country should have a king or queen: a ________________. A political system that aims to create a society in which everyone has equal opportunities and in which the most important industries are owned or controlled by the whole community: ________________. An economic system in which property, businesses, and industry are owned by individual people and not by the government: ________________. A political and economic system is which there is no private ownership of property and industry and in which people of all social classes are treated equally: ________________. Someone who chooses not to eat anything made from, or produced by, animals, including fish, eggs, milk, cheese, and honey: a ________________. Someone who chooses not to eat meat or fish: a ________________. An adjective describing someone who thinks about something all the time because they think it is extremely important, even if it is not, and even if other people believe they are thinking about it too much: ________________. A four-word adjective describing opinions, attitudes, styles, etc., which are not extreme: ________________. An adjective describing people who are willing to accept other people's beliefs, way of life, etc., without criticizing them (even if they disagree with them): ________________. An adjective relating to right and wrong and the way people should behave. It can be used to describe people who base their actions on what they believe rather than what rules or laws say is right: ________________. Someone who does not like or respect people who belong to races that are different from their own, and who thinks their race is better than others: a ________________. A two word adjective describing someone who is willing to consider new ideas: ________________. An adjective describing someone who is so sure that their beliefs and ideas are right that they expect other people to accept them: ________________. Someone who believes that there should be no governments or laws: an ________________.

2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

7. 8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13. 14.

15.

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General Vocabulary

16. 17.

An adjective describing someone who accepts bad things without complaining: ________________. An adjective describing someone who has opinions that most people think are unreasonable, especially about race, politics, and religion: ________________. An adjective to describe someone who bases their actions on achieving practical results rather than on theories and ideas: ________________. Someone whose opinions and actions are reasonable and not extreme, especially in politics: a ________________. An adjective to describe someone who has very strong opinions that they refuse to change, even when they are clearly unreasonable: ________________. In the U.S.A., a political party whose members usually have conservative views. Elsewhere, someone who believes that a government should have a president and representatives elected by the people: ________________. In the U.S.A., a member of the political party (with the same name) whose policies are usually more liberal than those of number 21 above. Elsewhere, someone who supports democracy as a political system: a ________________. The religion based on the ideas of the prophet Muhammad: ________________. Someone who is a follower of the religion in number 23 above: a ________________. The religion based on the ideas of Jesus Christ: ________________. Someone who is a follower of the religion in number 25 above: ________________. The religion based on the writings of the Torah and the Talmud: ________________. Someone who is a follower of the religion in number 27 above: a ________________. The main religion of India, which believes in reincarnation: ________________. Someone who is a follower of the religion in number 29 above: a ________________. The Indian religious group that separated from number 29 above in the 16th century: ________________. The set of religious beliefs based on the teachings of Siddharta Gautama: ________________. A Chinese system of religion and thought that says people should live a simple, natural, and honest life: ________________. An adjective used to describe a person, society, etc., that believes that everyone is equal and should have the same rights: ________________. A very right-wing political system in which the government is very powerful and controls the society and economy completely without allowing any opposition: ________________. Someone who does not believe in the existence of God: an ________________. Someone who believes that it is not possible to know whether God exists or not: an ________________. Someone who believes that people care only about themselves and are not sincere or honest: a ________________. Someone who believes that violence is wrong and refuses to fight in or support wars: a ________________. An adjective describing someone who believes in the power of magic or luck: ________________.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.

34.

35.

36. 37. 38.

39.

40.

30

General Vocabulary

Opposites: Verbs
Exercise 1 Replace the verbs in bold in sentences 1 – 26 with a word or expression from the box which has an opposite meaning in the same context. In many cases you will need to change the form of the word (for example, to its past simple form).
abandon abolish attack conceal decline demolish deny deteriorate exaggerate extend fall forbid gain hire lend loosen lower postpone refuse reject replenish reward set simplify succeed withdraw 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. They accepted the offer of a ceasefire. He admitted telling lies in his original statement. They agreed to meet to discuss the future of the organization. The senator defended his opponent's policies in a televised speech. The apartments blocks they built were the ugliest in the city. He complicated matters by rewriting the original proposal. They continued their plans to assassinate the king when he opened Parliament. He deposited $10,000 – half his college fees for the forthcoming year. Relations between the two countries have improved considerably in the last year. He permitted us to present our petition directly to the President. The members of the commune were punished for their part in the revolution. He raised the overall standards of the company within two months of his appointment. As soon as the sun rose, the demonstrators began to appear on the streets. Prices rose sharply in the first three months of the financial year. As soon as he had tightened the knots, he pushed the boat out. To everyone's surprise, she failed. Tomorrow's meeting has been brought forward. The management said that they would be happy to borrow the money. Several flaws in the design of the new model were revealed. The course has been shortened to 12 weeks. I don't want to underestimate his role in the club. Attendance has increased since the new professor took over the course. Fuel supplies have been exhausted. Despite having a bigger and cheaper choice of healthy foods, many Americans have lost a lot of weight. Following the revolution, the monarchy was restored. The company started seeing some success once they dismissed several employees.

31

change the verb in bold into its opposite form using one of the prefixes above. make sure it is switched off. Despite recent rumors in the press. astronomer Harvey Weiss claims to lock the secrets of the universe. and in some cases by also removing a letter). and unfortunately we were unable to finish on time. 20. The press deliberately tried to represent our college. The college staff approve of students smoking on the premises. 8. im-. physical conflict is often the result. 6. they should put their concerns in a letter to the Course Director. If any student use the college computers (e. Across (ı) 2. Your lack of progress on this course has please your tutor. it needs to kept in a dark. 23. they will be instantly suspended. you should also need to change the end of the verb (by adding -s.General Vocabulary Exercise 2 Some verbs can be made into their opposite form. Once the film has been load from the camera. Kaput Computers is pleased to announce that it will not be continue its popular range of discounted computers for students. and not “America's hopeless future”. 14. the government decided to take drastic action. by the addition of the prefixes dis-.. 7.g. or un-. The National Patients' Association is calling on Senators around the country to make doctors legally responsible for diagnose an illness. In most cases. We completely judge the time we had for the project. Then use your answers to complete the crossword on the next page. 22. In his new book “Stars in my Eyes”. Students who are caught cheating will be immediately qualify. He was surprised that everyone had obey the rules. -ing. When one group of people understand another. 16. 5. 10. Employers have every right to trust interview candidates who are not able to provide adequate references or show proof of their qualifications.. Down (ij) 1. dry place until it can be processed. etc. 4. As the full extent of the disaster fold. and in view of this he plans report you to the Principal. The press have once again quote the President: he said that women were “America's hope for the future”. 13. usually as a result of linguistic or cultural differences. 32 . 12. Before connect the copier from the power supply. 3. wrongly suggesting that we only recruit students whose parents make large financial donations to the college. If any students agree with the new regulations. mis-. 2. In each of the sentences below. -ed. for accessing undesirable websites). or otherwise modified.

21. We regret that our trust in you was sadly place. We claimed $20. 19. Unfortunately. 17.General Vocabulary 9. and therefore we will not be dealing with you in the future. 15. but not surprisingly. It is a sad fact of college life that unless some students are properly supervised. but the claim was allow because we hadn't observed proper safety procedures. they will take every opportunity to behave. 18. I accidentally calculate the amount we needed to spend on fees and accommodations. many of our students like the increased workload this semester.000 for fire damage. 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 5 9 12 10 11 13 14 15 16 19 20 21 17 18 22 23 33 . A recent investigation has cover several cases of unauthorized Internet use in the library. 11. The huge increase in exports recently has prove the argument that the world has stopped buying American goods.

11. 9. Planned demonstrations and strikes took place all over the city. she was very awkward. 14. The country displayed all the features of a stagnant economy. the surface of the planet appears to be very rough. His policies were beneficial to the economy as a whole. The device is very sophisticated and should only be operated by someone who is familiar with it. 6. 15. supplies of food after the harvest were plentiful. 13. Many students believe that doing voluntary work for charities is a pointless cause. 5. 16. There is a slight difference in the way the company is run these days compared with a few years ago. Newspapers are saying a lot about the country's modern licensing laws. The plans they presented were simple and well written. A lot of students are willing to attend classes on Saturday morning. 4. From a distance. The new rules had a profound impact on everyone's behavior. 3. When she first started dancing. 22. The jury decided he was guilty of the crime. 26. 18. 10. he's a very awkward person to deal with. The bright light from the flashlight picked out details on the walls of the cave. this is a very rare event. commonplace feasible reluctant worthwhile compulsory graceful spontaneous considerable innocent tedious crude intricate vibrant detrimental flexible problematic smooth The meaning of his words was very ambiguous. 17. all of them natural. 34 . 23. approximate delicate negligible archaic artificial dim easy scarce clear even worthless 1. According to his colleagues. 21. 19. We need exact figures before we embark on a new venture.General Vocabulary Opposites: Adjectives Exercise 1 Replace the adjectives in bold in sentences 1 – 28 with a word or expression from the box which has an opposite meaning in the same context. 7. 24. Contrary to what many people think. 12. The spices used in the production of some international dishes have a very strong flavor. The confectionery contained several flavors. 27. Organizing a fundraising event can be surprisingly simple. 25. The laws restricting pollution in the city are very rigid. Add up all the odd numbers between 1 and 20 to get a result. 28. Attendance at afternoon classes should be voluntary. A close study of the painting by experts revealed it to be priceless. 2. What you are asking me to do is quite impossible. Her lectures are extremely interesting. 20. 8. Despite the weather.

4. in-. While many found such an offer (B) irresistible. It is an (A) unavoidable fact. 5. Task 1: Decide which of the prefixes from the first box can be used to make opposites of the words in the second box. he remained (D) irresolute in his views. 1. dis-. and (C) immature. In each one there is one word which has been given the wrong prefix.General Vocabulary Exercise 2 A lot of adjectives can be made into their opposite form by adding a prefix (un-. He is a very (A) disagreeable man and he makes visitors feel very (B) unwelcome. those who are (B) unqualified or who have (C) imsufficient work experience will find themselves seriously (D) disadvantaged. Insider dealing is not only (A) immoral and (B) inhonest. etc. but in a competitive job market. but also (C) illegal: companies are legally bound to take the strongest possible action against such (D) unacceptable behavior by their employees. In return for an increased investment. but the management think he's (C) irreplaceable and are (D) uninclined to fire him. and many in the audience challenged the points he made. 6. He had clearly given his presentation (A) disadequate preparation. look at the following sentences and paragraphs. 35 . some thought the promises were (C) inconvincing and were (D) uncomfortable about parting with so much money. 2. Decide which word is wrong and correct it. disiliminirun- acceptable authorized complete fair accurate avoidable conscious adequate believable contented advantaged certain convincing legal obedient pure agreeable comfortable correct limited attractive competent curable literate even logical patient rational responsible fashionable married perfect regular mature personal relevant honest moral possible inclined mortal proper organized qualified resolute welcome replaceable satisfied resistible sufficient satisfactory Task 2: Without looking at your answers to Task 1. 3.) to the beginning of the word. although the only person he managed to convince was himself. which she considered extremely (D) unfair. She was described by her boss as being (A) unresponsible. saying they were (B) inaccurate and (C) illogical. the company offered (A) unlimited returns for their investors. il-. (B) incompetent. Despite this.

Some parents are criticized for the way they bring / make / throw up their children. (to raise children) 2. and appear frequently in other parts of the test. (to start doing less of something. choose the correct verb in bold to complete the phrasal verb in italics. and should be learnt like any other item of English vocabulary. 13. In the TOEFL. 1. (to argue) If they examined the issues more closely. early or before you have finished) Major international companies can't carry / cut / figure out the popularity of the anti-capitalist movement. 12. 11. (to show) Before you write your essay. (to rely / depend on other people) Many developing countries are failing to run / chase / catch up with their more developed neighbors. 4. The latest government report leaves / keeps / throws out the real reasons for current demographic shifts. and try to deal with it) 3. (to not to go ahead with a plan) It is only at election time that senators add / count / read on support from their constituents.. they would search / look / find out the reasons. (to not include) The journalist showed / pointed / spoke out the mistakes made by the agency over the last few years. 8. They refused to move / face / come up to their responsibilities. 18. (to discover) As we grow / stand / look up our priorities change. (to rise at the same speed as something else) 5. they come under extreme financial pressure from their bank. (to accept an unpleasant state of affairs. 36 . with disastrous consequences. (to leave a race. The meaning of each phrasal verb is given in brackets at the end of each sentence. (to change from being children to being adults) Salaries very rarely catch / keep / work up with the cost of living.General Vocabulary Phrasal Verbs 1 Phrasal verbs are very common in English. (informal: to find it hard to understand) The committee members dropped / made / fell out over plans for the new health center. (to get to the same level) It can take months or even years for political scandals to die / cut / fall down. (to research) Nobody at the meeting carried / brought / moved up the subject of paid leave. 10. Exercise 1 In the following sentences. etc. 17. (to fail to do something or pay something at the time that you should) The first step to a healthier lifestyle is to cut / slice / chop down on the amount of saturated fats you eat. (to start discussing a subject) Once people lose / jump / fall behind with their mortgage payments. a competition. 9. they are tested in the Listening Comprehension section. 15. you should search / hunt / look into the Party's history. (to become less strong) An alarming number of students jump / drop / fall out of school early every year. 6. usually because it is bad for you) 14. a course of study. The President decided to shout / cry / call off his visit to Europe. 7. 16.

especially a large amount) When I look / consider / move back on my childhood. (to be disconnected while talking on the telephone) 10. 1. (to suggest or state the case for something) Despite the seriousness of the illness. (to meet someone by chance) This course has set / moved / put me back by about $2000. he managed to carry / pull / take through. 17. Many employees went / kept / carried on working despite pressure from the unions. (to try to discover the facts about something such as a problem) It is very important to carry / work / do out my instructions carefully. sales of the product were slow. I tried to argue / place / put forward the arguments in favor of global capitalism. and it's quite common to be cut / shut / run off in the middle of a conversation. 5. 18. often in a particular way) 2. 11. (to continue) The drug's effects are very powerful. (to start to do something in place of someone else) In my last essay. 15. a lot of state-run schools were controlled / taken / acquired over by private companies. often unexpectedly) At first. (to do something that you have been told to do. (to come somewhere. often in a way that is easy for people to understand) I came / ran / moved into Laura outside the theater last week. 8. During the early 2000's. (to slowly improve) I have given / put / moved across several suggestions. but they kicked / hit / picked up when people realized how useful it was. 12. The meeting will be canceled if not enough people arrive / move / turn up. (to add up to a particular amount) The telephone service is rather unreliable. 16. all of the verbs are possible. (to think about something that happened in the past) We were all disappointed with the way things turned / came / changed out. but they begin to wear / come / fall off after a few hours.000. put it in writing and ask the company to investigate / look / see into it for you. 13. I remember the many sacrifices my parents made for me.General Vocabulary Exercise 2 Instructions as above. (to get rid of something) If you have a complaint. 37 . (to develop in a particular way or have a particular result) The exhibition was so popular that a lot of visitors had to be pushed / turned / thrown away. but so far they have all been ignored. (informal: to cost someone a particular amount of money. (to recover from a serious illness or accident) A lot of restrictions on imports have been done / gone / put away with. 7. In one of the sentences. 3. (to gradually disappear or become less intense) 9. 4. 6. (to explain an idea. 14. (to be not allowed to enter a building) The total cost of the project makes / moves / works out to about $250.

and things are beginning to _________ up. (to continue doing something) The anti-smoking message is finally _________ through to people. 5. 15. 6. 14. In some cases. 11. (to do something you have planned or agreed to do. (to find a way of dealing with a problem or avoiding it) The first step to a healthier lifestyle is to _________ up smoking. 9. (to manage to deal with a difficult situation until it is over) People who have to _________ after elderly relatives or other dependents should receive financial support. 7. get. go. (to get better. 4. 17. (to feel happy and excited about something that is going to happen) Generally. 13. fewer people go to the theater and prefer to stay at home with a video. or appear to get better) Scientists _________ across the cure by accident. (to increase in price) 3. 10. (to stop doing something you do regularly) The governor _________ up against a lot of opposition from locals when she proposed building a jail near the city limits. In rural districts. especially after not being sure you wanted to do it) It can be very difficult to _________ down to studying for exams when the weather is nice. (to make someone understand what you are trying to say) As ticket prices _________ up. but will try to _________ around them somehow. give.General Vocabulary Phrasal Verbs 2 Exercise 1 Each of these sentences can be completed with come. (to start doing something seriously or with a lot of effort) Lights _________ out across the country as power workers went on strike. 16. more than one answer is possible. 12. 18. (to work and operate efficiently) I'd like you to _________ over these figures and tell me if you think the project is possible. 2. 1. (to avoid being punished for doing something wrong or illegal) Developed countries are usually able to _________ through a period of recession by drawing on financial reserves. (to try to discover the facts about something such as a problem or crime) After years of decline. or look to make a phrasal verb in bold. (to check something carefully) Large industries can no longer _________ away with dumping industrial waste in rivers. you should _________ on trying. government investment is revitalizing the area. (to find something by chance) Very few students _________ forward to their end-of-semester exams. while studying the health benefits of a rare species of plant. 38 . people are reluctant to break unpopular rules. it can be difficult to _________ by without a car. Make sure you use the correct form of the verb in each one. 8. (to take care of someone or something and make certain they have everything they need) We decided to _________ through with our plans as soon as we had sufficient capital. (to have to deal with something difficult or unpleasant) Even if you fail the first time. The phrasal verb is explained in brackets at the end of each sentence. (to stop burning or shining) The committee were asked to _________ into the latest crime statistics and try to establish a pattern.

7. 9. 10. it is essential to ___________ over the details very carefully. especially to the police) Some people tend to ___________ down on others who are less fortunate purely because of their financial situation. (to reach a particular total when everything is added together) For most poor people. email. This should show as many different meanings as possible for each phrasal verb. You should then try to remember these so that they become a part of your “productive” vocabulary. (to be the result of something) The final bill for the project will ___________ to almost $10 million. (to check something carefully) People who live in close proximity to one another must learn to ___________ along with their neighbors. (to become ill with a particular disease) People often ___________ up the idea of starting their own company when they realize the risks that are involved. (to achieve a particular result in an activity.. or argument) It took a long time for the country to ___________ over the effects of the civil war. etc. 8. 11. (to stop competing or arguing and accept that you cannot win) By the time the message ___________ through it was too late to evacuate the residents. 4. 12. 13. 14. 6. 16. (to no longer want to do something) Before entering an agreement. they decided to ___________ in and reduce tax on gasoline. etc. text message. 3. (to recover from something) The threat of severe reprisals meant that many refused to ___________ themselves up to the police. fight. (to become cheaper) Nothing ___________ of the company's plans to develop solar-powered vehicles. (to surrender to someone in a position of authority. 2. but under pressure from protesters. 1. (to think that you are better or more important than someone else) The government had decided to stand firm on their decision. (to be connected to someone by telephone. it is usually the consumer who ___________ off the worst. Doctors realized there was going to be a problem when several people in the same village ___________ down with suspected food poisoning.) 18. Don't forget that many phrasal verbs can have more than one meaning. (to start dealing with a situation. 39 . 15. (to try to like someone and be friendly to them) It was only after he ___________ into his inheritance after his father died that he was able to expand the company. in a particular way) When supply of a particular good exceeds demand. (to do something after you have intended to do it for some time) New legislation lays down strict penalties for vehicles which ___________ off excess exhaust. Try to develop your own written “bank” of the phrasal verbs you learn. 5. (to receive money or property when someone dies) After the revolution. it is common for the price to ___________ down.General Vocabulary Exercise 2 Instructions as above. (to avoid or escape from an unpleasant situation) In any dispute with an insurance company. problem. (to produce a gas or smell) People who want to know how to ___________ about starting their own company should talk to a trained adviser. it took almost five years for the country to ___________ around to opening its borders. job. especially a competition. 17. ___________ out of the cycle of poverty can be next to impossible.

g. Johnson were unable to pay the rent on time. (to force someone to leave) When I was at school. many decide to _____ of the program and make their own arrangements. (to resemble) After _____ a few unexpected difficulties.. 19. etc. ț Do not put a gap between the verb and the particle(s) in the crossword grid. (to start doing something regularly as a habit) The plans were _____ while we waited for a decision from the management. (to cause a delay or make someone late) 40 . some teachers unfairly _____ children who eschewed sport for more creative interests and pastimes. appointment. (to persuade somebody) Children often _____ one of their parents. which you will find on page 42. you will need to change the form of the verb (e. (to make a deposit) They were reluctant to make changes. but over the next year they became the best of friends. In many cases. their landlord threatened to _____ them _____ onto the street.General Vocabulary Phrasal Verbs 3 ț The verbs and particles in the two boxes below can be combined to make phrasal verbs. but we managed to _____ them _____. (to choose someone to attack or criticize) Although many companies offer their employees a pension plan. ț Don't forget that some phrasal verbs need two particles. (to arrive for a meeting. 16. and Mrs. they decided to scrap the project. (to begin to like someone or something) One of the best ways to get fit is to _____ a sport or activity. 7. etc. 22.) Air pollution can _____ asthma and other chest diseases in those most vulnerable. 10. either in their mannerisms or in the way they look. (to stop because something is in the way) When Mr. and write the answers in the crossword grid. ț Decide which phrasal verbs go into each sentence. add break bring engage factor go hand hold make opt pick put run set shut stem take talk turn about down on after for out against from round in to apart into up aside of with off Clues across (ı) 1. 11. 30.). 20. which can then be used to complete the sentences underneath. 24. Accommodations in some cities are so expensive that some people cannot even afford to _____ the 8 weeks' deposit that is required. (to decide not to take part in something) A lot of applicants expressed an interest in the job. (to start) People who use credit cards unwisely can easily _____ debts of thousands of dollars every month. 9. past or present participle. The meaning of each phrasal verb is in italics at the end of each sentence. 5. but only a handful _____ for the interview. third person “s”. 6. (to make debts go up quickly) Parents often struggle to _____ enough money to pay for their children's education. (to keep or save something from a larger amount in order to use it later for a particular purpose) The two men didn't _____ each other at first. 28.

14. (to apply for a job in politics. (to improve. (informal: to start to have an effect) His popularity _____ the fact that he was born in the area. 12. event or situation) 41 . 25. 4. 13. even though he was desperate for the money. (to take the place of something that has been lost or damaged. 38. 37. by which time we should all have familiarized ourselves with the system. (to tolerate something which is not very pleasant) Once the equipment has been _____. 18. 39. bitter affair which _____ neighbor _____ neighbor. 8. even though they were in a friendly relationship before) Doctors and medical experts were unable to _____ why some people survived the virus and others didn't. (to stop being involved in an activity. (to understand or assimilate information) Radical measures introduced by the college authorities did not _____ a genuine reform of the system. (to use all of something and not have any left) Some students can be very creative with the reasons they give for not _____ their assignments on time. (to take part in a particular activity. and if we don't act soon. It's often a good idea to _____ some money for a “rainy day”. (to understand or know the reason for something) Nobody believed the Senator's explanation for a moment. it will be too late. (to save money) Technology is moving at such a fast pace it is no longer possible to _____ all the latest developments. (to invent an explanation for something) At the age of 38 he _____ the post of President. (to cause a situation or a series of events to happen) After _____ expenditure and inflation. 23. competing against other people for the same job) Despite massive promotion by the tourist board. to get better) Nothing can _____ the damage caused as a result of his actions. or to compensate for something bad that has happened) The group plans to _____ an import business by the end of the year. (to be caused by something) The project will succeed unless someone decides to _____ at the last minute. (to separate an object into pieces) The revolution was a long. 27. The two sides are currently _____ talks which they hope will end the dispute. 15. 26. (to start something such as a business or organization) The results of new rules will start to _____ next month. (to combine to produce a particular result or effect) Nobody was _____ by the government's false figures on unemployment. (to include a particular amount when you calculate something) Our money is _____ quickly. 3.General Vocabulary 32. it took a long time for tourism to _____ again after the terrorist attacks. 21. it is surprisingly difficult to put it back together again. 6. (to give something to a person in authority) Clues down (ij) 1. (to be fooled or tricked) He _____ the job that was offered to him. (to refuse something which is offered) Most people will _____ a stressful job if the money is good enough. 36. (to cause two people or groups to fight each other. but lacked sufficient experience to be taken seriously. profits were very low. They all knew he had _____ it _____. 17. 2. especially something that takes a lot of time and effort) Her discovery _____ a chain of events that surprised everyone involved.

especially to cause changes in a situation) After several guests had _____ food poisoning. the painting _____ for an incredible $60 million. (to start to have success in your career or an area of activity) At the auction.General Vocabulary 29. (to be sold for a particular amount of money) 1 4 5 2 3 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 16 17 18 14 19 20 21 22 23 24 26 28 29 30 31 25 27 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 42 . 31. 34. 33. public health inspectors were called to the hotel. (to become ill with a particular illness) It has always been my ambition to _____ show business. (to make something happen. For years women were _____ the political process. 35. (to not be allowed to do something or not be allowed to be involved in something) Major spending is required to _____ substantial improvement in housing.

im-. 5. etc.D. A / an ________________ student is a student who is studying after receiving an advanced degree such as an M. semi11. sub12. auto2. film.annual …biography …conference …determined …ennial …ference …final …form …graduate …habit …hesion …ient …late …lingual …mature …mission …mutes …que …nomy …ordinate …organism …poly …pone …precious …scope …standard …tonous …val …vent 1. (d) Across / changing / between. that are played immediately before the last game in a sports competition. co5. depending on their context. circum4.. ________________ is a situation in which people or things combine well to form a unit. 4. When you ________________ something. tele 13. mono8. . trans14. (l) Extremely small. and the base words / roots from the box below.General Vocabulary Prefixes Prefixes such as dis-. uniMeaning (a) After or later than. (i) Two / twice / double. 3. (k) Of or by yourself / working by itself. concert. Something that is ________________ is the same everywhere you find it. micro7. such as football. to form words that can complete definitions 1 – 28. bi3. (c) Exactly half / partly but not completely.. (g) Before. A / an ________________ is a short break in the middle of a play. pre10. post9. (j) Around. One definition can be completed with two words (using the same prefix). (h) One small part of a larger thing / below another thing / smaller or less important than another thing. (e) Together / sharing. A / an ________________ voice or sound is boring and unpleasant because it does not change its loudness or become higher or lower. etc. you change spoken or written words into another language. A / an ________________ is one of two games. (m) At or over a long distance. Other prefixes can be used to add meaning to a base word or word root. 43 . inter6. Exercise 2 Use the prefixes from the left-hand column above. (b) Between. un-.A. or Ph. 6. Some of these prefixes can be used in more than one way. 2. 7. can be used to make opposites of many verbs and adjectives (see pages 32 and 35). Prefix 1.. The exercises on the next two pages look at some of these. Two of these prefixes have one meaning (although used in different ways). Exercise 1 Match the prefixes on the left with their meaning(s) on the right. (f) Single / one.

we say that they ____________. region. or have. 20. a / an ____________.. 27. 13. An event that is ____________ happens twice every year. we can say that it is ____________. happened. 19. A / an ____________ is the distance measured around the edge of a circle. If something ____________. A company that has complete control of the product or service it provides because it is the only company that provides it can be said to be. happens or stays somewhere for a short period of time only. you decide that it will not be done at the time it was planned. we can say that they ____________ it. If something happens too soon or before its usual time. Something that is __________ is very special. he or she has less power or authority than someone else. A ____________ is a meeting held among people who are in different places. 44 . or is not the same as anything or anyone else. organization. A / an ____________ stone is one that is used in jewelry and is fairly valuable. 24. using an electronic communication system such as a computer. especially by using a clever trick that does not break the law. but at a later time. 25. Someone who is ____________ is able to speak two languages very well. 23. 15. 28. Something that is ____________ is not as good as you would normally expect. 16. or the edge of a circle or a round object / area. An event that is ____________ happens once every two years. or been decided before. but not as valuable as other stones such as diamonds or rubies. If someone finds a way of avoiding a rule or law that limits them. If something is ____________. 10. A / an ____________ is a piece of equipment for looking at things that are too small to see normally. or good. unusual. 9. it is independent and has the power to govern itself. it changes into something completely different. 17. A / an ____________ is a living thing that is so small you cannot see without special equipment (such as that in 15 above). 11. 21. Something that is ____________ exists. If a country. it happens or develops in a particular way because of things that have existed.General Vocabulary 8. If a person is ____________. 26. state. 14. 22. 12. 18. has ____________. A / an ____________ is a book about your life that you write yourself. If two people live together in a physical relationship but are not married. or not good enough to be accepted. If you ____________ something. etc.

And I'm not alone in this opinion. Now. H. in which somebody is trying to decide whether to go straight to university from school. Furthermore. giving English lessons or working in hotels and stores. On the other hand. or choose one of the essays from the Topics section of the book: 1. K. The first one and last one have been done for you. using the key words and expressions in bold to help you. First of all. if I go straight to university. L. N. 3. it could be argued that I would also meet lots of interesting people while I was traveling. starting work and making money is one of the most important things in life. G. F. A. Put their argument into the correct order. there are so many benefits to going straight to university. But I believe that it would be easy to make a bit while I was traveling. I'll be able to take part in the social activities that the university offers. Should I go straight to university or should I spend a year traveling around the world? It is often said that knowledge is the key to power. Satisfaction in your job is more important than the money you earn. another point is that if I spent a year traveling I would need a lot of money. homesickness. limiting the water we use). On the one hand. 45 . In my opinion.General Vocabulary Presenting an argument Exercise 1 Read the text below. the quicker I'll get a job and start earning. I could end up suffering from culture shock. Many consider a sound career and a good salary to be an important goal. these inconveniences would be an inevitable part of traveling and would be greatly outweighed by the other advantages. present an argument for one of the following issues. A government's main priority is to provide education for its people. Nevertheless. O. Using the key words and expressions in bold from the last exercise. D. E. (1) I'm really in two minds about what to do when I leave school. I. The only way to save the environment is for governments to impose strict quotas on the energy we use (for example. Living in a town or city is better than living in the countryside. and meet lots of new friends who share the same interests. Unfortunately. by restricting car ownership. 4. and some strange tropical diseases. I would learn more about the world. B. and I cannot disagree with this. Moreover. I would experience lots of different cultures. (16) All right. I've made my mind up. if I spent a year traveling. Secondly. where's my nearest travel agency? Exercise 2. C. P. M. The most important point is that the sooner I get my qualifications. or spend a year traveling around the world. However. 2. I'll learn so many things that will help me in my future life. J.

46 . etc.g. 1. The new laws made ________________ easier to get a passport and travel abroad. We should give everyone a chance to say what ________________ think. Students are allowed to hand in ________________ assignments a few days late if they ask for permission at least a week in advance. 4. Someone broke the printer.General Vocabulary Pronouns and determiners Exercise 1 Complete these sentences with an appropriate pronoun or determiner (e. 11. and it will be several weeks before it can feed ________________. The drug works in small quantities. but requires far higher standards of safety to be applied. 5. and from ________________ set out across the desert in a southwesterly direction. Greek and Latin are languages from ________________ many English words have been taken or adapted. 16. 13. Research in the 1960's often took a lot of time and patience. 8. Nuclear energy is far less damaging to the environment than ________________ produced from fossil fuels. The authors admitted using material from other books. from which ________________ can get enough power to move without the need for turning the engine on. so I told ________________ you would call when you got back. his. 3. there. 19. itself. The house stood by ____________ on a small island. Shakespeare ________________ appeared in productions of his own works. 6. ________________ comes a time in everyone's life when a big decision has to be taken. but we had to give ________________ credit for their ability to make an otherwise boring subject lively and interesting. Many playwrights like to act in the plays they have written. The company carried out research into chemical fertilizers and ________________ effect on the environment.. The vehicle employs a small solar panel. A skilled workforce is essential. but you weren't here.). 9. Most students spend more time on their assignments than ________________ should. cut off from the outside world by a treacherous reef. as there was no Internet in ____________ days. You will need to use some pronouns / determiners more than once. which. 18. but ________________ looks like nobody is prepared to accept responsibility. 10. The team arrived in Cairo. Why did you say that I've missed lots of lessons this semester? Where did you get ________________ idea? I haven't missed a single one. 12. Someone called for you. 15. 2. 20. ________________ is why regular training programs are so important. 7. but ________________ efficacy is reduced if used too much and too often. 17. The young chick relies on the adult bird for food. 14.

As part of the survey. 11.General Vocabulary Exercise 2 Instructions as above. but the real problem lies in the computer. 8. 10. Also see Working words on pages 80 – 81 47 . Immigrants often come to the country on their own. and then ask their families to join ________________ at a later date. Her latest book is one ________________ every teenager will enjoy. 1. 9. People who adopt children tend to be people who have no children of ________________ own but who desperately want some. and so on. The voice at the end of the phone was ________________ of a young man. 2. you can pay ________________ in 6 monthly installments through the first semester. 6. Help was offered in the first instance to families ________________ homes had been destroyed in the tsunami. Alternatively. We've been thinking about the offer ________________ you made last week. how they spent their vacation. 3. 4. 7. We need to prepare ________________ for the struggle that we are about to face. 16. Bogart's most famous movie was probably Casablanca. 12. The Republican Party have come under a lot of pressure. we asked members of the public questions about ________________ their work. and not in the software ________________. Prices in New York are roughly 30% cheaper than ________________ in London. 5. We have tea or coffee: ________________ would you prefer? Most people passed the exam. 17. AZB Ltd claimed that the invention was legally ________________. The winner was a Chinese composer. and ________________ that failed were allowed to retake it a month later. their hobbies. The software has a few glitches. 14. The company was forced to cut prices and lay off staff. Fees must be paid in full before the course begins. ________________ was made in 1942. 13. and sued their competitor for breaching their design copyright. 19. 20. Those who want to see Las Vegas and sample all of ________________ attractions are going to need a lot of money. 15. ________________ composition “Blue String” combined elements of classical Chinese and Western music. but ________________ refuse to bow down to popular pressure. the Republicans were divided among ________________ as to the best course of action to take. As it became obvious an economic crisis was looming. 18. but the problems didn't end ________________.

are already in the grid. When you have done this. With the help of a dictionary. but some of the letters have been removed. The more letters you fill in. which are all adjectives. the easier it becomes to complete the grid.General Vocabulary Similar meanings: Adjectives 1 Here is a crossword with a difference. The words. try to fill in the missing letters. match the adjectives in the grid with a word or expression with a similar meaning which you will find in bold on the next page: N C T V C O M P R N H E N S I V E D D I M E N T A R Y P L A C R D G C R R R A T D S B U S T O U T E A R A D U A L T X R E I O U S O S P E I S I V F E R E X C E P T N T S H C O O I L E O D V E R E P L A L G I R R O N A L U R D R L U I C S H B R U P I P A T I B L X C O A T S P R E A D L L W W I D A B T D R I A R A M A E C Y Y C R A U C I R R W N L E R T I V E N T N G V D E Q S N O M V E X I O D I S P E T N R D O A E M P A R S E G L I G N V E S Z L C O N E D F I N I T H B L N T O T B L E R U T D A T V E G M P H R I V I 48 .

40. 27. 21. A punctual start to a meeting. Clear and direct comments. 32. 19. 34. 10. A level surface. 22. 8. 28. 14. 49 . A powerful drug. A flourishing community. A ridiculous idea. Unpredictable behavior. A sudden. An insignificant amount of money 17. 20. A small charge for services. Specialist knowledge. A thorough investigation. A creative director. 6. Gradual progress. 29. 41. A diverse program of events. A superficial person. Basic facilities. Rough material. Essential raw materials (2 possible words). 37. Suitable computer software. 2. 46. 26. 13. Very important information (2 possible words).General Vocabulary 1. 9. Extremely unusual circumstances. Old-fashioned ideas. A determined student. Enough information. 30. 12. 43. Extensive unemployment. Dangerous chemicals. 44. A rude reply. An inquisitive student. Very strange or unusual behavior. An isolated village. A secret operation. 39. 16. 24. Lasting appeal. 35. 4. Poisonous gases. Rich agricultural soil. 25. A strong and successful economy. 45. 11. peaceful sea. 18. 36. 3. 23. An exhibition of modern art. A calm. 33. A valid reason for doing something. 42. . Strict economic controls. Limited natural resources. A potential or likely candidate for a job. 31. 5. 7. Extreme measures to prevent or achieve something. Traditional medicine. 15. Difficult and detailed instructions. A small margin of opportunity. 38. sharp rise in prices.

12. abundant archaic chaotic concise industrious integral rampant risky 1. but a bit of research revealed some startling irregularities. 4. 3. 10. 13.General Vocabulary Similar meanings: Adjectives 2 Look at sentences 1 – 14 and choose a word from the box that has a similar meaning to the words and expressions in bold. 8. 2. There are plenty of opportunities for promotion if you are prepared to work hard. 7. Here's an imaginary situation: you are in the desert and you run out of water. Latin is considered by many to be an outdated language. From a financial point of view it was a very dangerous plan. you will reveal a word in the shaded vertical strip that is a synonym of the word “typical” in this sentence: The strong sense of community is typical of an area where people feel they are an underclass who must struggle to survive. 6. It was obvious that the President had been told what to say by his advisers. First letter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 c oncise Rest of word credible evident hypothetical scrupulous tedious tenacious 50 . The setting of the scene in chapter one of the book is essential to the plot. The conference was really disorganized and a complete waste of time. despite the fact that many words from the language are still in use today. Write these words in the grid below. If you do it correctly. He was a determined man who believed in fighting for his principles at any cost. The first one has been done as an example. 9. 11. His instructions were very brief and clear. The story seemed believable at first. She was a serious. 5. He gained a reputation as an honest and fair dealer. Uncontrolled corruption and abuse of power by officials eventually prompted new anti-corruption laws. His lectures are boring and I never seem to learn anything useful or interesting. 14. hardworking student who achieved excellent grades. and therefore won the respect of his customers.

13. 7. With regard to attendance and punctuality. Thank you for your kind ___________ / ___________: I couldn't have done it without you. There is no ___________ / ___________ to show that standards of living have improved. 17. Identify both the words that could be used. 16. 4. A acclaim accommodations agenda appeal appointment assistance benefit discipline discount drop fallacy fault means opposition poll proof proximity requirement victory work 1. 20.000 people. The early computer program had several ___________ / ___________ which need to be sorted out before it could be used. There has been a sharp ___________ / ___________ in the number of people attending afternoon classes.S. so I suggest we start as soon as possible. 2. 15. These can either be completed with a word from box A or a word with a similar meaning from box B. 5. a basic knowledge of Arabic is one of the main ___________ / ___________ The cheapest ___________ / ___________ of traveling around the U. There are several ___________ / ___________ to working from home: you save on travel costs. 12. the studio provided ___________ / ___________ for over 3. Students holding a valid student card are eligible for a 10% ___________ / ___________ on book prices. despite the fact it had been signed by over 5. The ___________ / ___________ taken before the election did not reflect the final result. The Turkish writer Orhan Pamuk received international ___________ / ___________ for his novel “Snow”.General Vocabulary Similar meanings: Nouns Exercise 1 Look at sentences 1 – 20. In some cases. 9. we need to maintain ___________ / ___________ at all times. If you want to do a Degree in Middle East Studies. 8. 19. for one thing. The bar is popular with our students because of its ___________ / ___________ to the college. 10. I can't see you this afternoon because I have a / an ___________ / ___________ with my tutor. 3. The ___________ / ___________ was rejected by the arbitrating committee. There has been a lot of ___________ / ___________ to the new schedule: nobody likes the earlier starts and later finishes to the day. B advantage closeness decline defect employment evidence help housing meeting method misconception order petition praise prerequisite resistance reduction schedule survey triumph We have a very busy ___________ / ___________ today. 6. Many people believe that exercising makes you more hungry: this is in fact a ___________ / ___________. At the height of its success. 18. 11. His ruling in the case was a ___________ / ___________ for common sense and freedom of speech. 51 . 14. The college provides cheap ___________ / ___________ for its staff and students.000 people. is by Greyhound bus.A. you will need to add an -s to one or both of the words when you put them into the sentence.

The empire reached its ___________ / ___________ at the end of the nineteenth century. Climate change could have disastrous ___________ / ___________ for farmers. 19. 18.m. they managed to create a virtual monopoly for their product. and should take ___________ / ___________ over everything else. Nobody understood the ___________ / ___________ of the results: it was assumed that everything would stay the same. Safety in the workplace is very important. or should we keep it as it is? In the battle of the sexes there can never be a true ___________ / ___________. After much ___________ / ___________. ___________ / ___________ to the building after 6 p. 52 . 7. The college ___________ / ___________ state(s) that students must attend at least 80% of their classes.General Vocabulary Exercise 2 Instructions as above. If you have any ___________ / ___________ please ask a member of staff. 3. 2. 20. Before you start studying for the TOEFL. 11. 10. we decided to reject her offer. Is it necessary to make any ___________ / ___________ to the plan. 17. 4. There are two ___________ / ___________ available to you: work hard on improving your mid-term grades. or consider changing your course. 15. A purple rash and a persistent cough is one of the ___________ / ___________ of this disease. 8. 16. 5. The college accepts no ___________ / ___________ for any damage to vehicles in the car park. 14. 13. I hope you have a ___________ / ___________ reason for missing so many of your classes. A admission code problem liability alteration magnitude protest valid 1. you should come up with a ___________ / ___________ that will help you to make the most of your study time. 12. whereas there were in fact profound changes Thanks to their ___________ / ___________ with several affiliated companies. with at least 50 arrests taking place. Fieldwork is a key ___________ / ___________ of this course. 6. 9. Our latest prospectus provides a / an ___________ / ___________ of our courses and a brief history of the university. but unfortunately there have been several ___________ / ___________. is limited to staff and full-time students only. We had hoped that everything would run smoothly. characteristic cooperation overview result zenith question winner choice priority strategy B access change collaboration complication consequence deliberation demonstration (short) description element feature good importance option peak plan precedence query responsibility rule victor component discussion The ___________ / ___________ against the war spread to most parts of the city by midnight.

The museum's ___________ / ___________ of prehistoric tools and artifacts is surprisingly popular with children. 16. A person's choice of clothes is a / an ___________ / ___________ of his or her personality. Large ___________ / ___________ of unskilled. 5. The best English dictionaries are those for English-language learners: dictionaries in this ___________ / ___________ tend to give very clear definitions with good examples. The board ordered the ___________ / ___________ of all research. Technological ___________ / ___________ have changed the world in the last 20 years. I'm not happy with your ___________ / ___________ that my work is below standard. 13. I'm not an economics ___________ / ___________. 10. she was able to start an international languages club at the school. but even I know that a drop in unemployment often leads to a rise in inflation. 19. Our new Economics tutor has a strange ___________ / ___________ that all students are lazy and irresponsible. 8. 15. 3. You will find the problem easier to solve if you try breaking it down into its separate ___________ / ___________. Our head of department gave us a / an ___________ / ___________ get down to some serious work or get out. 14. 2.General Vocabulary Exercise 3 Instructions as above A achievement backing display notion advent amenity charisma implication part specialist proceeds argument disparity invention reflection B accomplishment (personal) appeal appearance classification component concentration difference dispute exhibit expert facility final demand earnings idea innovation sign suggestion support termination write-up category ending number review ultimatum 1. the young leader lacked ___________ / ___________ and failed to become popular with his people. 4. with the result that it was another five years before a cure for the illness was found. and a garden where students can relax. a swimming pool. 11. 17. With ___________ / ___________ from her teachers. 18. 20. a canteen. 12. Despite several changes to the pay structure. 9. there is still a ___________ / ___________ in pay between graduate trainees and non-graduates. 7. College ___________ / ___________ include a gym. His irrational behavior eventually led to a serious ___________ / ___________ with his sponsors. The book received a lot of good ___________ / ___________ in the press. 6. not many people knew how to type. 53 . Before the ___________ / ___________ of the home PC in the mid-80s. Unlike his much-loved father. unemployed people in certain parts of the country have resulted in a rise in crime and street violence. All ___________ / ___________ from the sale of part of the grounds will be re-invested in the college. and went on to become one of the year's bestsellers. His promotion to director was a remarkable ___________ / ___________ for someone so young.

29. 6. 14. while others have it thrust upon them. Use these words to complete the crossword on page 56. The device is able to confirm whether a banknote is genuine or a forgery by analyzing the paper and print quality. 13. If you want people to take you seriously. 27. The U. 11. and it was late when he eventually finished. Antibodies help our bodies to fight infection. They asked us to give our thanks and best wishes to the chairman. Did you notice a hint of pessimism in her report? He was asked to disclose government secrets in exchange for money. 19. 15. 23. 12. It took him some time to tell the story. 54 .General Vocabulary Similar meanings: Verbs 1 Words with similar meanings are tested in the TOEFL Reading Comprehension. and Iran have often tried to resolve their differences. We normally suppose that most people nowadays have a computer at home. but with little effect. 21. and to improve your general reading skills. His job is mainly to control the activities of everyone in the company with a view to making optimum use of the workforce. Shakespeare said that some people achieve greatness.S. Computer software will continue to develop in response to users' needs. You do not need to change any of the word forms.A. Several attempts were made to improve the system. Look at the words and expressions in bold in the following sentences. 5. and choose a word from the box that has the same or a similar meaning in the same context. His explanation seemed to confuse most people. you should state firmly your reasons for change. 4. Would you reply to his question as briefly as possible. accuse affect answer assert assist assume attain baffle change convey create demand derive detect direct elicit endure enrich exceed evolve forbid gather handle hasten launch mirror misuse oblige obtain permit refine refuse relate remove resist reveal settle submit verify Across (ı) 2. A revolutionary new scientific method may soon help to alter people's physical appearance without the need for surgery. It is also useful to know alternatives to other words to make your writing more varied. 32. The department was asked to propose some ideas for increasing student enrollment. 25. 16.

24. click on the new folder icon at the top of your computer. 31. It is often argued that not enough laws exist to punish those who abuse the Internet. 14. 35. 28. He was asked to deal with the situation with tact and discretion. The report was based on information that they managed to collect from all parts of the country. you will need to acquire a form from the student welfare office. but there are a few that will always stay. Down (ij) 1. The new technique will facilitate rapid identification of possible threats from unstable areas. 22. 20. 26. The rules are designed to eliminate obstacles that may discourage investors. 10. The company announced it will introduce a new version of its software in January. His inability to act quickly enough will probably accelerate their decision to dismiss him. 30. Crime is a complex issue: we cannot simply blame poverty and unemployment. To make a new folder. Trends come and go. 18. 34. To ask for a loan. The senator's relaxed attitude to the problem didn't reflect those of his constituents. 55 . 8. 37. 7. 17. There was general approval when the announcement to ban smoking on college premises was made. benefit the soil in which they are planted. Everyone hoped that the results of his research would surpass their expectations. We were unable to obtain the information we needed from the committee. Even a small change in economic circumstances can influence our spending habits. The governor was asked to insist on new measures to combat crime. 36. 9. Alternative therapies are often suggested for patients who reject conventional medical treatment. such as beans. We do not allow the use of cellphones in the building. Some plants.General Vocabulary 33. The college rules require students to refrain from smoking and drinking inside the faculty buildings. 3. 12. Not all foodstuffs that come from animals are tested to ensure they are fit for human consumption.

General Vocabulary 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 17 18 19 21 20 22 16 23 25 26 27 29 30 31 33 32 28 24 34 35 36 37 56 .

hiveace Violence may have been averted if the police had not acted so aggressively. The first one has been done for you. iehthnge During the election. vredntepe The media liked to depict the leader as a national hero. 7. 6. hatesxu It can take a lot of time and effort to acquire the grade you want in the TOEFL. sumreea The aim of the organization is to promote travel among young people.General Vocabulary Similar meanings: Verbs 2 Exercise 1 Rearrange the letters in bold at the end of sentences 1 – 16 to make words with the same or a similar meaning to the underlined words and expressions in the sentence. h 3. The machine was designed to grind rocks for industrial purposes. The shaded letter in each space is the same as the letter in the bold square in the next line. 5. pefeliixems Everyone endorsed the treaty as it was critically important to the peace process. when in fact he was a cruel tyrant. 14. evroerc He was asked to account for the changes he had made to the curriculum. 16. 4. 1. the Republicans made a great effort to woo younger voters. 13. but they are very difficult to quantify. satheden c r u s h 2. 11. Write your answers in the spaces on the right. nelarcpig The new building symbolizes modern American architecture at its best. rpryato We know that there are benefits. 12. pinelax More must be done to find other sources of fuel for when we deplete our supply of oil. 8. 10. redpupost If you want to reclaim the money you have lost. you will have to fill in a claims form. oragnceue The two reports emphasize the problems that are faced by those living in housing projects. 9. tactart Many retail outlets are substituting cashiers with automatic machines. 57 . srhcu The television campaign helped to increase public awareness of the drug problem. 15. gighihlth The transformation is accelerated by adding salt to the solution.

15. 16. 4. vleos Travel can broaden your knowledge of the world around you. and the sun can all be used to generate power. The study confirmed the findings of earlier research. 58 . 1. 14. vopdre No one was able to unravel the complex mystery surrounding her sudden disappearance. petacdec Before they began. senciare We wanted to involve the community in our plans for a new sports center. totprec Planning regulations limited development on the land outside large towns and cities. 5. ludecin Their choice was influenced and controlled by political circumstances. 10. douprec We began to think that the project might involve more work than we had planned. 11. oeirftf The exhibition was originally conceived as a tribute to the Bauhaus movement. v 3. itehxib p r o v e d 2. 12. tcoonlr The government is committed to promoting the use of public transport. cehkc Some materials may display the characteristics of both a liquid and a solid. tcedare The drug was designed to regulate the flow of blood to the brain. 7. acostrnidne They tolerated poor working conditions in order to finish the job quickly.General Vocabulary Exercise 2 Instructions as above. gagcuenrino Wind. cpustse Thousands of young men volunteered to defend their country. tatdidce If you fail to attend classes. they needed to ascertain that the project was feasible. 9. you might lose your right to continue studying at the college. tides. 6. 8. 13.

We quickly perceived the truth about their intentions regarding the environment. Political apathy could be interpreted as a sign of satisfaction with the government. ocpredu We didn't accomplish much this week. 8.A. The crisis was resolved through a series of open talks and compromise.General Vocabulary Exercise 3 Instructions as above. 14. spsuareds r e a l i z e d 2. r 3. 1. lredzaie Under his reign peace and mutual understanding flourished. 7. gaamen Scientists analyzed samples of leaves taken from the area. 59 . dusneotodr The new drug considerably enhanced the patients' quality of life. 9. tirelagn The concept of factory outlet shopping began in the U. meaienxd Many people are reluctant to eliminate certain food products from their diet. tlsedte The company pioneered the idea of selling furniture that customers had to assemble themselves. 13. srsaded They are trying to gather all the facts pertaining to the problem. 6. pedospus The research failed to yield the information they were looking for. ervmeo We all assumed that he would leave when the project was finished. vimodpre Governments have been slow to deal with the problems of global warming. diubl 16. 12. 15. 10. 11. 4. vehiace 5. giniaoredt The foundation was formed specifically to administer the project.S. popederrs The results exceeded everyone's expectations.

Teachers should encourage there students to practice all the relavant language skills. Can you find and correct them? Apart from condemming tobacco companies and rising the price of cigarettes. seperate 20. occurence 2. and the only people bennefitting from it are the Treasury Departement. indespensable 11. It is becomming increasingly difficcult for many people to find decent accomodations in Los Angeles at a price they can afford. but it is widely agreed that the situation is no longer managable.General Vocabulary Spelling Exercise 1 There are eleven words in this passage which are spelled incorrectly. proffessional 6. this hasn't prevented the big tobbaco companys spending vast amounts of money on advertiseing. Meanwhile. reversable 5. iresistible 26. tendancy 14. begining 9. harrassment 60 . Exercise 3 Instructions as above. Exercise 2 Instructions as above. It is argueable whether good pronounciation is more important than good grammer and vocabulery. the goverment's antismoking campain has failed to have any long-term affects. most people just don't have the necesary funds. questionaire 21. Of course. liason 13. acheivement 27. some doctors have said that they may refuse to treat persistant smokers. address 17. recommend 18. Organizeations such as Home Front can offer advise. tempory housing for lower-paid profesionals is the only official acknowlegment of this problem. responsable 19. The fact that the LA city council is building cheap. intergrate 23. categories 24. Consientious students balance their aquisition of these skills. critisize 7. independant 3. percieve 10. definately 15. supercede 4. miniscule 22. millenium 28. Exercise 4 Here are some more words which students of English (and many native English speakers) often spell incorrectly. wierd 25. To put it simpley. hopeing to acheive both fluency and accuracey. embarass 16. neccesary 8. Can you identify and correct the mistake in each case? Be careful: 3 of the words are spelled correctly! 1. refering 12.

this afternoon's seminar on the Middle East has been _________________ because the speaker is sick. these sentences can be completed with more than one of the words / expressions. then use them to complete sentences 1 – 25. Several of the airline's crews told the press that they were concerned about the safety of its aircraft. but the airline's owner managed to _________________ the story before it went public.General Vocabulary Starting and stopping The box below contains 37 words and phrasal verbs related to starting or stopping something. but had to _________________ less than a year later. Note that in the case of phrasal verbs. A I L P T A K E U P S Y U A U E B N T A K E O F F C A N C E L X O C O U T B R E A K U Z A T W P L E D I S C O N T I N U E O I E I P M Q W A T E R M I N A T E L S T T R K I C K O F F Y R S F W H I U E S T A B L I S H E S R R A O R S X C S U P P R E S S E E S N N T Y D B A C K O U T E S N E C D I N I T I A T E O A R I B T L O D Z E R A D I C A T E G P O O W I S S E G D E L E T E N R F S N S U H F H M F R E E Z E E F U N M S U E I R E T I R E P V B R Q I P T M J N S E T U P H E C E U S E D B F I R E L B A A N D H A S N O A R I S E A I N S T E I S U D W R K O Q Q U I T E V F J H V A N K L P R V N T D O C G K O P U L L O U T W C O Y U X D E T E R C E A S E X H F O T Z Unfortunately. by adding -ed to the end). Because of an _________________ of food poisoning recently. In the case of the verbs. D I S S U A D E P H A S E I N M 1. The company was _________________ in 2002. The laboratory was forced to end its research project when the sponsoring company _________________ and refused to give it any more money. Try to find as many of these as possible. it is very important to make sure you have everything you need. I can't find the document anywhere on my computer. take off will appear in the box as TAKEOFF). 61 . 5. you will need to change the form of some of them (for example. the verb and the particle can be found directly next to each other (for example. Before _________________ on a long journey. In many cases. 2. the school cafeteria will be closed until further notice. I must have accidentally _________________ it. You will find these by reading horizontally left to right (ı) and vertically down (ij) only. 6. 4. 7. 3.

17. but we were obliged to _________________ it _________________ because we were working on too many other projects. though. 20. Hostilities between the major powers _________________ in November 1918 after an armistice was signed. As a result of increased security and a bigger police presence. sales rapidly _________________. 25. 22. 9. We tried to _________________ the manager from making changes to the company structure. However. 21. but by the time I was 15 I had already decided to make it my career. I think he'll miss working here. Five students have been _________________ from the college for using drugs. the old system will be gradually _________________. Between its _________________ in 1925 and its eventual _________________ in 2002. but last week the college announced a _________________. I _________________ photography as a hobby when I was 13. 16. but he said he had already _________________ the first stage of the plan. but without much success. Several problems have _________________ recently as a result of staff illness. 13. there was little public interest. When Congress agreed to _________________ the old tax laws. 14. crime has been almost completely _________________. When the product was first _________________ onto the market in 1981. 18. after a concerted marketing campaign. Meanwhile. use of the college IT center has been temporarily _________________ while the computers are checked for viruses. Owing to technical problems. From now on. We have a lot of things to discuss at this meeting. 62 . Course fees have risen rapidly over the last three years. 19. 11. The library installed security cameras to _________________ students from stealing books. so I suggest we _________________ immediately with a report on last year's sales. Professor Vettriano is 64. The new regulations will not all begin at once: they will be gradually _________________ over the next two years. The student book discount program has been _________________. 12. 23. 24. I had had enough working there and was about to tell my boss I was going to _________________ when she called me into her office and told me I was _________________! They made an excellent offer. 15. so I guess he'll be _________________ soon. 10. students will have to pay the full price for all their books. One of these is that fact that two courses we had planned are no longer going to go ahead. smaller companies suddenly found themselves much better off. World Film Studios made over 300 movies. they have promised no more fee increases until the end of next year.General Vocabulary 8.

ț C____________e the lifestyle of young people in your country with those in the U. 12. 16. ț Say how much it will cost to set up your own website.A. ț Give more details than you have already given on how mass globalization is affecting developing countries. Use the words to complete the crossword on the next page. ț I____________e the importance of a healthy diet. 6.A. The first and last letters of each word are in their correct place. ț E____________e the causes of global warming. ț A____________s the improvements you have made in your English since you started using this book.S. ț Say or write down your career plans for the future. ț D____________e the word “terrorism”. ț O____________e your career plans for the future.S. 4. ț I____________y the problems faced by low-income groups in the U. 8. 5. 18.General Vocabulary Task commands Complete the second sentence in each pair so that it has the same or a similar meaning to the first sentence. In each case. why it is important to eat healthily. ț E____________e the cost of setting up your own website. ț T____________e the development of nuclear technology.A. you need one word only. either by guessing or by using available information to calculate it.S. ț Explain. 9. Across (ı) 2. but just give the main points. ț Provide a short account of the most important aspects of the role the United Nations has had since 1945.A. ț Say what you think will happen with space travel and exploration in the future. and don't go into detail. ț Recognize and understand the problems that low-income groups face in the U.S. with clear examples. Down (ij) 1. ț A____________e the case for protecting the countryside around cities. ț Explain clearly and exactly what the word “terrorism” means. 3. 13. ț E____________e on the effects of mass globalization in developing countries. ț Give reasons why protecting the countryside around cities is important. ț Describe how nuclear technology has developed over a period of time. ț Study carefully the things that cause global warming. ț A____________t for the increase in violence on the streets of our cities. ț Carefully consider and calculate the ways your English has improved since you started using this book. 63 . ț P____________t the future of space travel and exploration. ț Look at the differences between the way young people live in your country with the way they do in the U. ț S____________e the role United Nations has played since 1945. ț Explain why violence on the streets of our cities is becoming more common. 15. 17.

ț Study or explain in detail what is happening around the world as a result of climatic change. 13. ț Give good reasons why the government spends so much on defense. ț Think carefully about how useful a new student social center would be before making a judgement. 11. ț A____________e the effects of climatic change around the world. ț Show me how this computer works by using it yourself. 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 5 10 11 13 14 15 12 16 17 18 64 . ț D____________s the advantages and disadvantages of growing up in a big city.General Vocabulary 7. ț Write or talk in detail about the advantages and disadvantages of growing up in a big city. ț J____________y the government's excessive spending on defense. ț E____________e how useful a new student social center would be. ț D____________e how this computer works. 14. 1 10.

.... the stock market collapsed..... A sudden drop in temperature will usually …….. Part 3: One action or situation occurring after another action or situation afterward 1.. and decide if we usually use them to talk about (1) the past. previously earlier formerly precede by the time …….….. ……. 2....…. …….... 5.. The senator continued speaking. 2....….... 3........ ……........ …….... …….that day he had promised massive economic aid to stricken areas..... 3.. ……..........General Vocabulary Time Exercise 1 Use the time clauses in the boxes to complete the sentences..... or (4) the future.…...... the speech they jeered and shouted slogans...…...... Pay particular attention to the words that come before or after the time clause....... I'd always gone by train.. the sun came out He finished the speech with a word of praise for the police.. pollution was virtually unheard of.. (3) the present.. emergency organizations around the world swung into action.. (2) the past leading to the present......... The President made a speech praising charity organizations working in Mozambique..…...... the army had restored order.. It was my first trip on an airplane.…... ……..….. deserted overnight....... during / throughout at that very moment in the meantime / meanwhile ……. the earthquake.... 2. Part 1: One action or situation occurring before another action or situation prior to 1..... the senator was making his speech.... The Klondike gold rush lasted from 1896 to 1910... ……. the advent of the Industrial Revolution..... the republic of Myanmar is undergoing a slow and painful political transformation... the city had been almost completely devastated..…............ a blizzard.…..... there was panic buying on an unprecedented scale..known as Burma.. Part 2: One action or situation occurring at the same time as another action while / as / just as 1... 4.…........... for the next few weeks nowadays a few decades ago as things stand from now on lately ever since back in the 1990s at this moment in time in medieval times over the past six weeks in those days at the turn of the century one day over the coming weeks and months in another five years' time 65 .. thousands of demonstrators took to the streets. 6..... 4..... as soon as / once / the minute that following ……...........…. 3.. ……. the police were ordered onto the streets.... and shone down on the angry demonstrators..…... the area became practically Exercise 2 Look at the words and expressions in the box below and on the next page..

(a) … time warp. I'm thinking of changing jobs in the future. I have a lot of… 3. but we arrived with… 6. I'm not really watching this movie. only… 12. (b) … times out of ten she's punctual. I suppose. About… 8. I've been thinking of moving for some… 20. I don't want to make a decision now. They don't even listen to me half… (h) … time to time it can be glorious. We really need to hurry. Winters here are generally cold and gray. but I'll try to make… 2. (o) … time for him. but I'll continue working here for the… 19. In this exercise.General Vocabulary in my childhood / youth for the foreseeable future these days at this point in history by the end of this year for the past few months last century from 1996 to 1998 sooner or later Exercise 3 There are a lot of idioms and other expressions that use the word “time” in English. we will need to move with… 14. too. (g) … time being. (d) … the time comes. (j) … the times. (l) … time around. (e) … time. We thought we would be late. we will the second… 16. Don is a really nice man. but there's a first… 15. Chris is sometimes late. but from… 18. there's no… 7. 1. She seems to be living in a… 4. Susanna is so old-fashioned. (m) … his time. but nine… 9. I'll decide when… 11. This isn't a sudden decision. using the expressions in bold to help you. (k) … time now. I'm just killing… 13. (f) … the time. I would love a vacation. Picasso was a remarkable artist who was years ahead of… 17. There's no… 10. you should match the first part of each sentence on the left with its second part on the right. (s) … the time for one. My students just aren't interested in their lessons. (r) … time to lose. here comes our bus. (c) … time for everything. I've never had Japanese food before. If we don't win this time. but I never seem to find… 5. (n) … time to spare. (p) … time until my friends arrive. Shall we start now? After all. I'm very busy at the moment. At last. I don't know if we will be successful. (q) … the time to see you later. If the company is going to compete successfully. 66 . (t) … time like the present. (i) … time will tell.

it collocates) with the nouns and / or adverbs in italics. or virtually. principally. 6. C__________L is often followed by the nouns analysis. seemingly. (Sample sentence: I found the language practically _____ to learn). observation. particularly. C_AREFU__L is often followed by the nouns analysis. issue. or point. examination. result. terribly. quite. allegation. This adjective should be one that is often used (i. extremely. or period. totally. totally. appraisal. allegation. importance. genuinely. C__________L is often followed by the nouns argument. we noticed that the drug was beginning to take effect). issue. (Sample sentence: I like 19th century art. 1. part. utterly. (Sample sentence: They carried out a _____ examination of the documents to see if they were genuine). I__________T is often followed by the nouns aspect. debate. ingredient. mainly. The first one has been done as an example. It is often preceded by the adverbs crucially. impact. (Sample sentence: She made several _____ assumptions about her new professor). element. 7. or utterly. completely. extremely. 9. interview. To help you. the first and last letters of each word have been given to you. assessment. assumption. feature. part. she continued speaking). nearly. entirely. or seriously. 8. or disclosure. element. consideration. idea. impression. patently. deliberation. aspect. discussion. particularly. 4. belief. (Sample sentence: It is vitally _____ to disconnect the appliance from the power supply before dismantling it).General Vocabulary Word association: Adjectives Complete each of the following sentences with one adjective. I__________E is often preceded by the adverbs absolutely. (Sample sentence: The _____ theme of his talk was the possibility of interstellar travel). 10. criticism. 67 . and there is a sample sentence to show you how that adjective could work with one of the nouns or adverbs. description. (Sample sentence: A working knowledge of Spanish is an _____ requirement if you want the job).e. or vitally. almost. I__________D is often preceded by the adverbs deeply. evaluation. 5. pause. D__________G is often followed by the nouns consequence. or scrutiny. practically. primarily. role. admission. or theme. factor. or statement. L__________Y is often followed by the nouns delay. examination. claim. (Sample sentence: After a _____ pause. It is often preceded by the adverbs blatantly. (Sample sentence: After _____ observation. E__________L is often followed by the nouns characteristic. or requirement. negotiations. he resigned). but I'm primarily _____ in the pre-Raphaelite movement). or planning. component. (Sample sentence: After a series of _____ allegations about his professional misconduct. feature. F__________E is often followed by the nouns accusation.. effect. 3. keenly. feature. 2.

but when I interviewed him. possessions. R__________D is often followed by the nouns change. or threat. concern. need. deterioration. rise. problem. (Sample sentence: Earlier settlers in the region faced _____ hardship. contribution. outlook. (Sample sentence: He believed in the principles of life. explanation. argument. M__________R is often followed by the nouns breakthrough. factor. emphasis. or very. attitude. N__________E is often followed by the nouns change. P__________R is often followed by the nouns belief. hypothesis. P__________E is often followed by the nouns approach. or view. (Sample sentence: When you are studying for the TOEFL. P__________R is often followed by the nouns attention. It is often preceded by the adverbs completely. M__________L is often followed by the nouns goods. or view. or well-being. purely. 21. totally. R__________L is often followed by the nouns approach. setback. problem. 20. relevance. pause. prospect.General Vocabulary 11. response. 19. attitude. S__________E is often followed by the nouns difficulty. truly. (Sample sentence: His presentation was well-received. and many died young from illness and starvation). 13. 17. description. quite. rewards. hardship. assessment. or measurement. assessment. resources. or thought. 14. myth. decision. 15. and he got a lot of _____ feedback). (Sample sentence: There has been a _____ increase in the cost of living over the last three years). or upheaval. recession. difference. influence. O__________E is often followed by the nouns analysis. importance. you should try to set yourself _____ targets. 68 . drop. obstacle. expansion. entirely. 16. wealth. (Sample sentence: It is a _____ misconception that men are better drivers than women). misconception. surprisingly. M__________T is often preceded by the adverbs comparatively. feedback. chance. rather. source. goal. 12. (Sample sentence: The computer industry went through several _____ changes when the Internet was introduced to the public for the first time). or succession. and not try to do too much too quickly). 18. target. progress. evaluation. R__________C is often followed by the nouns alternative. (Sample sentence: When you are writing an essay. prosperity. estimate. option. setback. I found him to be surprisingly _____ about his achievements). relatively. (Sample sentence: Everyone said he was arrogant and boastful. concern. choice. (Sample sentence: We need to make a _____ choice that is based on our needs and on our available funds). shortage. or increase. (Sample sentence: We tried to capture a purely _____ record of what we heard and saw). suitably. 22. you should pay _____ attention to cohesion of ideas). expectation. improvement. liberty and the pursuit of _____ wealth). or view. decline. or significance. (Sample sentence: The withdrawal of sponsorship was a _____ setback to our plans). change. growth. drawback. opinion. or wholly. increase. fairly. reinforcement.

simple. or tentative. or possess one of these. orthodox. educational. beneficial. specialist. grant.General Vocabulary Word association: Nouns Complete each of the following sentences with one noun. 33. obey. or workable. or wide a__________l. social. You can encounter. or substantial e__________t on something. 8. have. negative. 32. simple. 14. privileged. middle-class. You can give a problem careful. Across (ı) 1. request. 22. ideal. or take. 21. ignore. or welcome one of these. offer. follow. obvious. circumstantial. detrimental. oppose. peaceful.. detailed. or unique. 29. formal. reliable. give. major. or repeat an i__________n. gain. adjectives. ask for. sufficient. or supporting. 25. or seek p__________n to do something. or unmistakable a__________t. offer. practical. conclusive. rare. When you are trying to guess or calculate something. 15. seize. good. informed. get. conventional. To help you. take. positive. deny. damaging. You can disobey. You can accept. immediate. or produce e__________e that something has been done. perfect. strong. provide. ethnic. hold. When they speak. disadvantaged. golden. optimal. A product or a person can have broad. serious. pronounced. positive. 7. gain. legitimate. receive. universal. provide. You can acquire. make. thick. reject. educational. profound. An action can have a / an adverse. A q__________n can be academic. satisfactory. 11. professional. ignore. heavy. incriminating. You can collect. follow. or vocational. practical. obtain. B__________d is often preceded by the words cultural. 17. popular. refuse. get. disregard. offer. You can adopt. obtain. A s__________n can be constructive. get. holistic. 5. complementary. possible. herbal. destroy. great. gather. This noun should be one that is often used (i. missed. obtain. the first and last letters of each word have been given to you. or rough e__________e. or serious c__________n. find. realistic. you usually have a / an compelling.e. It is also often preceded by the verbs miss. receive. mass. good. harmful. and other words in italics. 20. This can be admissible. 12. or want a__________e to / from someone. or traditional. a person might have a broad. experience. O__________y is often preceded by the adjectives ample. issue. dramatic. Use these words to fill in the crossword on page 71. or wild g__________s. you can take a / an educated. due. helpful. main. 19. 69 . it collocates) with the verbs. provide. significant. or working class. If you are not sure about the answer to a question. submit. M__________e can be alternative. sensible. you can make a / an accurate. lost. give. 34. conservative. major. lucky. or valid r__________n for doing it. logical. religious. A s__________n to a problem or dispute can be ideal. inspired. face. cumulative. or have d__________y with something. give. You can ask. rough. volunteer. excellent. When you do something.

striking. or specific p__________t. follow. lose. employ. or if you are unlucky. you might teach them a hard. significant. disruptive. fulfill. or suspended. hinder. major. or widespread. This can be considerable. special. you can adopt. severe. You can have a brilliant. You can accept. or watch the p__________s of something. You can conduct. bear. pioneer. apply. full. delivered. 16. provide. 18. You can give a / an accurate. or random. logical. genuine. negotiate. 27. When you work as part of a team. chronological. exercise. C__________m of something (for example. You can assess. have. chart. salutary. 70 . fierce. slow. 3. special. or valuable l__________n. healthy. made. given. important. When doing something complicated. a book or the actions of a politician) can be adverse. choose. track. 13. impaired. exercised. gain. or varied c__________r. You can conclude. devise. numerical. review. promising. 6. assume. main. or tragic a__________t. joint. harsh. check. A s__________e can be alphabetical. distinguished. insulting. An object can have distinctive.General Vocabulary Down (ij) 2. 4. 26. outspoken. important. launch. or unusual f__________s. impede. fatal. shoulder. bad. nasty. successful. or win r__________t. develop. require. 28. interesting. checkered. vague. or take r__________y for your (or someone else's) actions. earn. serious. mutual. order. useful. minor. horrific. minor. individual. positive. 9. reach. You can undertake a / an ambitious. or proper. 24. hamper. or vivid d__________n of something. collaborative. evaluate. 23. If someone does something wrong. secure. innovative. outstanding. general. huge. or valuable c__________n to the team and its activities. important. For actions and achievements. monitor. you can command. 30. their b__________r can be aggressive. threatening. glittering. major. brief. deep. 10. If someone has a rather “negative” personality. strong. 12. or undertake an i__________n into something. key. you might be involved in a bad. or violent. If you are not careful. 31. you can make a great. or sign an a__________t. deserve. passed. antisocial. show. formed. reserved. obstruct. demand. detailed. or use a m__________d that makes it easier or more effective. J__________t can be affected.

General Vocabulary 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 19 20 18 21 22 23 25 26 24 27 29 30 31 32 28 33 34 71 .

1. greatly. You can d________s an issue. respect. funding. credibility. it collocates) with the nouns and / or adverbs in italics. (Sample sentence: I don't want to _____ your decision in any way). a conflict. 72 . and there is a sample sentence to show you how that verb could work with one of the nouns or adverbs. my parents actively _____ me to read as much as possible). evidence. a subject. a plan. confidence. (Sample sentence: Neither side showed any willingness to _____ the dispute). 4. positions or stability (for example. You can d________e credit. a question. outcome. legislation. (Sample sentence: They _____ a lot of praise for all their hard work). 5. a secret. (Sample sentence: When I was young. 3.General Vocabulary Word association: Verbs Exercise 1 Complete each of the following sentences with one verb. 7. (Sample sentence: The investigation _____ a scandal that would bring down the government). or your differences. You can c________y with a demand.. so we don't want to do anything that might _____ his confidence any further”). a fraud. (Sample sentence: We're all very tired.e. a quarrel. I suggest we _____ the matter tomorrow). a scandal. 3. authorization. 4. 7. license. 2. development. a fact. information. This verb should be one that is often used (i. or permission. a plan. You can actively. (Sample sentence: You are legally obliged to _____ with the regulations). You can u________r a conspiracy. a plot. To help you. or a topic. praise. decision. or policy. an order. a regulation. (Sample sentence: He _____ a cunning plan to help his friend). or support. 6. If you do this correctly. the first and last letters of each word have been given to you. (Sample sentence: You need to _____ permission to use the computers in the library). 5. you will reveal a word in the shaded vertical strip that is often used with one of these nouns: authority. You can o________n approval. 9. You can i________e someone's or something's behavior. or a rule. or a system. “He's very worried about his exams. evidence. a mention. 1. a method. choice. a requirement. a request. You can d________e a mechanism. 8. positively or strongly e________e someone or something. You can s________e an argument. consent. a mystery. 2. legitimacy. a strategy. a dispute. a proposal. a matter. 8. 9. morale. Write your answers in the appropriate spaces in the grid. 6. recognition. or the truth. a scheme.

9. drastically. This time. forcefully. the word you will reveal in the shaded vertical strip is one that is often used with the nouns agreement. or vigorously. a difficulty. a project. confidence. discrimination. vehemently. an assessment. treaty. 8. a study. vehemently. implacably. 4. awe. You can f________t corruption. plausibly. strongly. 6. or respect in other people. (Sample sentence: Global warming is believed to have radically _____ the climate in some parts of the world). 2. sharply. or truce (for example. (Sample sentence: They _____ forcefully for a change to the existing rules). 3. or strongly for or about something. or significantly. stubbornly. 73 . (Sample sentence: The new government promised the electorate that it would _____ corruption at all levels). fundamentally. (Sample sentence: Her report _____ the plight of migrant workers in the state). prejudice. passionately. ceasefire. a need (for something). envy. crime. 8. a problem. terms. an issue. strongly. or terrorism. 7. You can c________e something or someone completely. significantly. dramatically. deal. fiercely. persuasively. 3. a survey. the plight (of something).General Vocabulary Exercise 2 Follow the same instructions as Exercise 1. devotion. considerably. 1. substantially. a difference. or vigorously about something. or a task. markedly. 4. (Sample sentence: She _____ vehemently when she was accused of cheating). loyalty. price. research. formally. radically. “After the unions refused to end the strike. 1. Something or someone can d_____r considerably. or widely from something or someone else. (Sample sentence: The board promised to _____ a review of current working practices). contract. radically. 5. the importance (of something). a program. an investigation. or tenaciously. You can h________t a danger. You can a________e consistently. or a weakness. 7. You can do this desperately. 5. (Sample sentence: His actions did little to _____ confidence in his friends and coworkers). strenuously. (Sample sentence: English _____ markedly from Spanish in that the words are not always pronounced as they are written). You can o________e something bitterly. settlement. (Sample sentence: Darwin's theories are still bitterly _____ by many people). 9. the management attempted to _____ a new contract”). 2. a review. doggedly. hard. a fact. You can i________e affection. greatly. strenuously. You can o________t bitterly. You can u________e an analysis. convincingly. 6.

the need (for something). or unanimously a__________e of someone or something. a commitment. steadily. a contract. a disadvantage. (Sample sentence: Unemployment figures _____ dramatically under the government's “Work or Starve” initiative). 5. tendency. wholeheartedly. a hurdle. a deal. 7. 5. 4. slightly. intently. 9. or steeply. an idea. 6. impression. You can c________t crime. overwhelmingly. a fear. 1. warmly. 2. a notion. notion. This time. (Sample sentence: The survey results _____ the need for change in people's attitudes toward the homeless). trend. 8. stereotype. a pact. a fact. or a principle. a difficulty. poverty. 7. Something can f________l dramatically. a claim. the word you will reveal in the shaded vertical strip is one that is often used with the nouns attitude. 4. officially. 1. (Sample sentence: The organization's main mission statement is to _____ disease and poverty on developing nations). 9. 74 . You can heartily. a policy. (Sample sentence: He used to be quite religious. personally. a suggestion. (Sample sentence: _____ carefully. the importance (of something). discrimination. or a theory. a claim. hard. You can l________n to something or someone attentively. unemployment.General Vocabulary Exercise 3 Follow the same instructions as Exercises 1 and 2. or closely. an idea. rapidly. terrorism. a point. You can a__________n a belief. inflation. a problem. You can d________s an allegation. closely. a problem. because I will say this only once). (Sample sentence: She _____ my allegation as a complete fabrication. racism. thoroughly. (Sample sentence: We wholeheartedly _____ the measures that you have taken to boost morale). “The latest figures _____ the view that young people read less than they used to”). but _____ his beliefs when his wife died in a road accident). disease. a concept. You can c________e an agreement. or a treaty. idea. or a weakness. 3. or the significance (of something). sharply. or violence. carefully. 3. 6. 2. (Sample sentence: At the end of the summit. (Sample sentence: Hypnosis helped him to _____ his fear of flying). fraud. an obstacle. resistance. 8. limitations. an agreement was _____ under which trade sanctions between both countries would be lifted). You can o________e a barrier. Someone or something can u________e a difficulty. and more or less accused me of lying). or view (for example. belief.

then add 3 letters: (Example: concentrate Ǟ concentrate Ǟ concentration) Remove 1 letter. then add 5 letters: (Example: examine Ǟ examine Ǟ examination) Remove 1 letter.General Vocabulary Word forms: Nouns from verbs Exercise 1 The verbs in the top box can all be made into nouns by removing and / or adding letters. then add 7 letters: (Example: verify Ǟ verify Ǟ verification) Remove 1 letter. consume fail negotiate sign argue attend survive provide permit prove acquire expose refuse expect assure choose apply identify intervene supervise qualify admire persuade disturb recognize expand prohibit promote solve require emphasize coincide arrive respond behave subscribe criticize manage suggest scrutinize warn lose consult abolish recommend decide notify maintain relax determine produce rehearse prefer imply compete Remove 2 letters. and there are 10 words that do not fit into any section of the table. and then write it (in its noun form) in the appropriate section of the table. depending on the changes that are made to it. then add 4 letters: (Example: reduce Ǟ reduce Ǟ reduction) Remove 1 letter. then add 4 letters: (Example: conclude Ǟ conclude Ǟ conclusion) Remove 1 letter. then add 2 letters: (Example: disperse Ǟ disperse Ǟ dispersal) 75 . There are five words for each section of the table. Decide on the noun form of each verb.

6. 10. 2. 8. 5. 76 . 3.General Vocabulary Add 3 letters: (Example: depart Ǟ departure) Add 4 letters: Example: improve Ǟ improvement) Add 5 letters: (Example: confirm Ǟ confirmation) Exercise 2 Now take the verbs from the box that did not fit into any of the sections above. 1. you will reveal a word in the shaded vertical strip that can be a verb and a noun without changing its form. 7. 9. If you do this correctly. Now try using some of the words from this exercise in sentences of your own. 4. change them into nouns and write them in the grid below (in the same order that they appear in the box).

Many people heading off to college for the first time are often unaware of the expensive involved in simple day-to-day life. 15. The management accepts no responsible for items lost or stolen in the cafeteria and immediate area.General Vocabulary Word forms: Nouns from adjectives Exercise 1 Change the adjective in bold in each of these sentences to a noun so that the word is grammatically correct in the sentence. 18. 7. 14. many feel that they are under too much pressure to conform to a set out outdated rules. but the management insists it is necessary in order to reduce petty theft. Please complete the form and return it at your earliest convenient. The Director of Studies is unable to say with any certain when the new changes will be implemented. 2. 16. accurate is very important when it comes to identifying the target market. Money cannot make up for bad tasteful and bad manners. 12. 13. 1. In advertising. 9. 19. Despite a relaxed of regulations. It can often be lack of confident that prevents a student from maximizing his or her potential. 8. 77 . but these were mainly cosmetic. 3. although some restricted apply. There were a few similar between the Boeing 727 and the Tupolev 154. Unnecessary absent from work is costing American companies millions of dollars a year. Items of valuable can be left in the safe at reception. 17. Sometimes in business. 11. The student union has questioned the necessary of CCTV in the library. 5 6. 4. rules have to be changed according to needs: flexible is the key to success. Do you have a thirsty for knowledge? Then why not enroll on one of our evening college courses? It is often said that “honest is the best policy”. The legal professional is often criticized for concentrating on making money instead of upholding the law. There were several unforeseen complicated with the new airport extension owing to opposition from environmental groups. Health and safe issues should be a priority with any organization. Student discounts are offered on most products and services on our website. 10.

78 . 25. he was no longer able to differentiate between fantasy and real. By the time he was thirty. then add 3 letters: Remove 2 letters. Do you know the different between net profit and gross profit? Is overtime the same as allowed time? If you answered “no” to the first and “yes” to the second.S. then add 1 letter: Remove 2 letters. then add 5 letters: Remove 2 letters. then add 3 letters: Remove 1 letter. 23. As soon as the investigative is complete. 26. then add 5 letters: Remove 3 letters.General Vocabulary 20. we can make a decision. 22. Exercise 2 Change the adjectives in the box into nouns following the instructions in the table. 21. Each instruction relates to 3 of the adjectives in the box. There can be no justified for paying health workers so little money. The U. able long aggressive loyal appreciative creative optimistic strong available deep optional sufficient aware familiar bored comfortable popular true compatible high realistic confused hot logical secure considerate convenient mature serious Remove 4 letters: Remove 3 letters. it's time you joined our “Business for Basics” course! His success and popularity were probably due in part to his wonderful charismatic. There is a growing problem of drug addicted in our cities. 24. constitutional guarantees freedom of the press. then add 2 letters: Remove 2 letters: Remove 1 letter. then add 2 letters: Add 2 letters: Add 3 letters: Add 4 letters: fashionable functional punctual weak warm pessimistic systematic Try to use some of the words above in some of your own sentences.

The Coke and coffee machines have both been out of order five times this week. The accident was avoid. The task we were given was very repeat and as a result it quickly became very bore. 2. accommodations. Fees are non-negotiate.General Vocabulary Word forms: Adjectives from verbs Change the verbs in bold into their correct adjective form so that they are grammatically correct in the context of the sentences. but I was a little doubt it would go ahead. An act lifestyle is prefer to a sedentary one. and the air conditioning hasn't been working for a month: these continue breakdowns. but it wasn't very inspire. He's a very create and imagine artist. The two comments were contradict. 1. 12. and his commitment to helping young painters is admire. have resulted in a lot of short tempers. but we hope that everyone will attend these highly construct sessions. 9. some of my fellow students find him a little bit frighten! Her presentation wasn't very convince. 17. 5. 21. 10. 6. The mistake was easily rectify. such as a company car and free healthcare package. and it wouldn't have happened if you hadn't been so care. and you will need to pay a non-refund deposit of $500 before we can enroll you. In the interests of the environment. When you apply for a job. 7. and it was clear the student who wrote the essay wasn't very enthuse about his subject. A good job should offer an attract salary and other excel benefits. At the recruitment drive we were shown a lot of promote material. and all visitors will need to show a validate pass and some form of ID. There is restrict access to the building. meals. Our new Director of Studies isn't very decide and needs to play a more act role in the day-to-day running of the college. 15. we all need to change their waste habits. 14. Recently. so the college is introducing an oblige code for recycling and cutting down on waste. The market for all-include holidays (in which customers pay for their flight. 22. Everybody was very excite when we were told about the cultural trip to Europe. but unfortunately he isn't very depend. and drinks in advance) has become very compete. 11. Computer software designers need to be far more invent if they want to keep up with a changing and change market. but it would have been far more prefer if it hadn't happened in the first place. Participation in the evening training seminars is entirely volunteer. it is very important to be specify about your occupy qualifications. 20. there have been some innovate and impress plans to change the student social areas. 4. coupled with the continue heat. 8. 13. Our tutor is very help and support. 16. 3. and any previous experience. and is certainly much healthier. My tutor isn't very approach: in fact. 18. 79 . and several of her classmates were extremely criticize of her arguments. 19.

One or two of my friends live abroad. 7. 1. __________ the time she retired. has __________ been given a “Teacher of the Year” award. __________ days. __________ 1999 and 2003. 12. but you should just give one of them. there may be more than one alternative answer. 14. 80 . 8. I'm trying to concentrate __________ my project. I've __________ working on this essay __________ over a week. __________ he wrote most of his novels. His sudden change of heart took everyone __________ surprise. __________ it rains tomorrow. 6. In some cases. conjunctions. Please __________ quiet. 13. 4. __________ is the reason I'm so keen __________ Mexican cooking. I adore spicy food. she __________ worked for the company for thirty two years. You can't leave early. 9.General Vocabulary Working words Exercise 1 This exercise lets you review some of the more common uses of “grammar”-type words (prepositions. In __________ of missing most of his lessons. etc. I just can't seem to finish __________. 5. we decided to give it a miss.) in context. prepositions. it's all e-mails and text messages. A few years __________. 16. we can go __________ a picnic. He approached his English lessons __________ enthusiasm. but __________ matter how much I work. but knowing how __________ other people __________ be there. since previously he __________ been very interested in the project. __________ if you promise to work late tomorrow. and during __________ time. a teacher __________ works at St. the book sold __________ a million copies. We wanted to see the exhibition __________ the art gallery. I'm afraid __________ say you have absolutely __________ chance __________ passing the exam. 11. Use one word to complete each gap in the sentences. 3. 10. she only took one or two days __________ sick. but __________ of them live __________ my home. he __________ to pass the exam. Clare's in Portland. Oregon. and __________ excellent progress as a result. pronouns. 2. Jan Kelly. He spent the second half of his life living in _______ remote village of Hogstail Common. 15. people __________ to write letters to each other.

He spent __________ greater part of his life working __________ Barcelona. One __________ two of our lecturers commute from the country. I agree __________ I'm not perfect. 1. Some people try to __________ up cigarettes by smoking _____ they feel sick. __________ all the assignments he was set. __________ can reasonably expect __________ change careers two __________ three times. In spite __________ being rather lazy. 2. unemployment figures dropped to an all-time low. 8. and __________ prepared to work a __________ harder from __________ on. we decided to use our bigger offices __________ New York. Please come __________ time to your lessons. but __________ methods are not very effective. he is always able __________ get good results and has made __________ good impression __________ his tutors. __________ they are ill. in which case they should try to call the college on the day itself. 10. I enjoy working __________ people who come __________ a wide range of backgrounds. We discussed holding the interviews __________ our Washington branch. but __________ 2004 to 2007 __________ rose __________ their highest level ever. “Interphone”. Up __________ a few years ago. He approached his course __________ enthusiasm. 3. but __________ of them live __________ the college or in the accommodations __________ the college provides. but knowing how many people would apply __________ the job. Nowadays. 5. which was far __________ than the organizers expected. There were at __________ sixty people in the room. __________ 2001 and 2004.N. Students are __________ allowed to miss a class __________ they inform their tutor at __________ three days in advance. is __________ of the biggest companies in _______ country. 12. people __________ have the same career for life. Also see Pronouns and determiners on pages 46 – 47 81 . most of us __________ to stand. __________ he produced most of his most famous works of art. I'm __________ capable _______ making mistakes as __________ else. 15. 14. 4. __________ is the reason why I'm so keen __________ working for the U.General Vocabulary Exercise 2 Instructions as above. or by limiting themselves to one or __________ a day. but __________ made him different __________ everybody else in his class __________ his enthusiasm for working __________ weekends. and __________ excellent progress as a result. In most respects he was a typical student. and __________ there were only 20 chairs. 6. __________ is in __________ city center. 7. 9. 13. 11.

__________ is the period in someone's life when they change from being a child to being a young adult. adolescence adolescent adopt authoritarian birth rate bring up dependent divorced extended family family life formative years foster foster child foster family freedom infancy infant juvenile juvenile delinquency lenient minor (noun) nuclear family nurture over-protective protective raise rebellious relationship relatives responsible separated siblings single parent single-parent family strict supervision running wild teenager upbringing well-adjusted 1. A __________ is a family that looks after someone else's child in their own home for a period of time. A __________ or __________ parent is one who makes their children follow rules and behave in a very “correct” way. teachers. 10. A child who is badly behaved and refuses to obey his / her parents. A __________ is a child between the ages of 13 and 19. If a married couple get __________. can be described as __________. A child who lives with this family is called a __________. 15. and a home. The verb is __________. 9. 3. A __________ is someone who has not reached the age at which they are legally an adult. 5.Topics Children and the family Exercise 1 Complete definitions 1 – 15 with words and expressions from the box. and can also be used as a word for a young person who has committed a crime. and their children. 6. 82 . 14. You will not need all of the words and expressions from the box. A __________ is a child or other relative to whom you give food.. Your __________ are those in your life when your character and beliefs are most strongly influenced. This period in a child's life is called __________. This word can also be an adjective. A __________ child is one who is mentally strong and able to deal with problems without becoming upset. 12. 7. A __________ is a family unit consisting of a mother. uncles. 4. An __________ is a family group that includes grandparents. etc. etc. Your brothers and sisters are sometimes referred to as your __________. __________ and __________ both mean the same thing: to take care of children while they are growing up. 13. 8. 2. The opposite of this is __________. If you bring someone else's child into your family and legally make him or her your own child. money. A couple (for example. we say that you __________ him / her. A __________ is a formal word for a young person. aunts. a father. their marriage is legally ended. a husband and wife) who are __________ no longer live together. An __________ is a baby or very young child. A boy or a girl who is at this stage in their life is called an __________. 11.

charged with (9) ________________. His parents got (2) ________________ when he was young. The foster father objected to this. Which of these statements do you agree with? Use specific reasons and examples to support your decision. and neither of his parents wanted to raise him or his brother and sister. he had already appeared in court several times. in which the mother or father has to struggle particularly hard to support their (17) ________________). By the time he reached (8) ________________ sometime around his thirteenth birthday. explaining that children needed (10) ________________ parents and guardians who would look after them properly. You may need to change the form of some of the words. his foster-father was a strict (5) ________________ and often beat him. The judge blamed his foster parents.Topics Exercise 2 Use your dictionary to check the meanings of the other words and expressions in the box. pointing out that Bob's (11) ________________ – his two brothers and sister – were (12) ________________ children who behaved at home and worked well at school. Unfortunately. It has also highlighted the disadvantages of the modern (15) ________________ where the child has only its mother and father to rely on (or the (16) ________________. Exercise 3 Complete this case study with appropriate words and expressions from the box in Exercise 1. This has raised some interesting questions about the modern family system. and any other words or expressions that you think would be relevant. While it is true that parents should not be too (13) ________________ with children by letting them do what they want when they want. Exercise 4 Now try this essay. he was already (7) ________________ stealing from shops and playing truant. or be too (14) ________________ by sheltering them from the realities of life. Bob's problems began during his (1) ________________. Use words and expressions from the vocabulary box in Exercise 1. Others believe that children are protected too much by their parents. it is also true that they should not be too strict. so he was (3) ________________ by a (4) ________________ chosen by his parent's social worker. Bob rebelled against this strict (6) ________________ and by the time he was eight. Some people believe that children nowadays have too much freedom. In fact. many believe that we should return to traditional family values and the (18) ________________ family: extensive research has shown that children from these families are generally better behaved and have a getter chance of success in later life. 83 .

You will not need all of the words and expressions from the box. A ______________ is a main department at a university. college.Topics Education Exercise 1 Complete definitions 1 – 14 with words and expressions from the box. 5. he must ______________ (in other words. which means that can take a day off work about once a week to attend a course of study. A ______________ is a lesson in the evening for people who work during the day. ______________ refers to basic skills in mathematics. The person who gives this talk is called a ______________. A ______________ is a school that is funded by taxes. 2. 6. It is also known as a ______________. which prepares them for the first ______________ at school. discusses something he / she is studying with his / her ______________. he / she puts his / her name on the official list of students). etc. An ______________ is a school for the first six or eight years of a child's education. A ______________ is a talk given to a group of students at college or university about a particular ______________. A ______________ is a meeting at which one student. 10. 8. A ______________ is a meeting at which a group of students discuss something they are studying. A ______________ is an educational course that you take at home. acquire class correspondence course course day release degree discipline doctorate elementary (education) elementary school enroll exam experience faculty fail fees grade grades grade school graduate (noun) graduate (verb) graduate school grant higher degree higher education high school junior high school kindergarten learn learning resources center lecture lecturer lesson literacy mature (student) middle school night class numeracy opportunity pass physical education private school professor prospectus public school qualifications quarter retake (an exam) resources secondary (education) semester seminar SAT® (Scholastic Aptitude Test) sit / take (an exam) skills study subject syllabus topic tutor tutorial undergraduate 1. ______________ is the ability to read and write. A ______________ is a period of time in which students are taught a subject in school (also called a ______________. This word can also be used to refer to the teaching staff of a school. or a small group of students. The ______________ is an examination that students must take before they can go to university. A ______________ is a small book that provides information about a university. A ______________ is school for very young children (aged 4 or 5). 3. 7. People who have a job might be given ______________ by their employer. 84 . receiving your work and sending it back by mail or email. ______________ refers to sports and exercise that children do at school as a school subject. 9. university. Once a students who has read this book decides he / she would like to study there. 4. A ______________ is a school where the parents of the children who attend it must pay ______________.

A ______________ is one of four periods into which the school year is divided. who have not been near a school for many years. Alternatively. college. And if they live a long way from a college or university. this process ends when they are in their mid-to-late teens and they (12 _______________ from high school. We must (7) _______________ ourselves to work hard so that we can (8) _______________ exams and gain the (9) _______________ we will need to secure a good job. Exercise 3 Complete this essay with appropriate words and expressions from the box in Exercise 1. 85 . Exercise 2 Use your dictionary to check the meanings of the other words and expressions in the box. have started to study again and can proudly class themselves as (21) _______________ students. if they have a sympathetic employer.” Use examples and details in your answer. And of course (11) _______________ helps us to develop our bodies and stay fit and healthy. We live in a fascinating and constantly changing world. they might follow a (20) _______________ using mail and the Internet. It is also known as a ______________. 12. Our schooldays are just the beginning of this process. obtain (19) _______________ so that they can study during the week. For others. and we should make the best of every (22) _______________ to develop ourselves. Exercise 4 Now try this essay. however. or a (17) _______________. After that. Do you agree with this statement? “The most important things in life are not learnt at school or college. and any other words or expressions that you think would be relevant. A ______________ is a college or university where students can study for a ______________ such as a Master's or Ph. From the age of 14 or 15. From the moment we enter (4) _______________ as 5-year-olds. You are. they may choose to attend a (18) _______________ after work or. For most people. it is largely due to the proliferation of computers that many people. many progress to (13) _______________ education where they will work towards a (14) _______________ in a chosen (15) _______________ at university.Topics 11. or university. indeed. and as we progress through (5) _______________ and (6) _______________ education. 14. A ______________ is a school for students between the ages of 12 and 14 or 15. Do you agree with this statement? Education is a long process that not only provides us with basic (1) _______________ such as (2) _______________ and (3) _______________. After they finish school. but is also essential in shaping our future lives. A ______________ is a list of the main subjects in a course of study (sometimes called a curriculum).D. You may need to change the form of some of the words. never too old to learn. we are laying the foundations for the life ahead of us. they may work for a while before opting to study at a (16) _______________ for a Masters degree. A ______________ is someone who has completed a course at school. students attend a ______________. A ______________ is one of two periods into which the school year is divided. it is the beginning of a lifetime of learning. You are never too old to learn. and we must continually learn and acquire new knowledge if we are to adapt and keep up with changing events. In fact. 13. We must also (10) _______________ valuable life skills so that we can fit in and work with those around us. whether we are eighteen or eighty. Use words and expressions from the vocabulary box in Exercise 1.

allergy cholesterol fast food allergic consume fat fat farm anorexia balanced diet diabetes bulimia calcium calories carbohydrates exercise free range malnutrition organic vegan consumption fiber harvest diet (noun + verb) food intolerance heart disease eating disorder food poisoning listeria food group health food genetically modified (GM) malnourished overweight minerals protein junk food obese monounsaturated salmonella nutrition scarce nutritious scarcity obesity saturated underweight veganism 1. vegetables. vegetarian vegetarianism vitamins _____________ are the parts of fruit. _____________ is food that is made very quickly. suffer from a medical condition known generally as an _____________. 86 . This can result in _____________. and _____________ are three kinds of _____________. A _____________ is someone who doesn't eat meat. The noun is _____________. _____________ is the oil found in food. and meat that people need in order to grow and be healthy. and _____________. and cheese. and dairy products are three of the main _____________. Meat. milk. you do not eat too much of one particular sort of food. vegetables and grains that your body cannot digest. and many other serious illnesses. _____________ food is food that has been produced from a plant or animal that has had its gene structure changed in order to make it more productive or resistant to disease. and helps food to pass through your body. polyunsaturated. an informal expression for a place where people can go to try to lose weight by eating in a healthy way and doing lots of _____________.Topics Food and diet Exercise 1 Complete definitions and sentences 1 – 12 with words and expressions from the box. _____________ are found in foods such as sugar. People who weigh more than they should often go on a _____________ to help them lose weight. _____________. 8. you eat the correct amounts of the right sorts of food. and there are three main types of this: _____________. milk. and supply your body with heat and energy. It is sometimes called _____________. 3. Some of them may go to a _____________. 4. _____________ food is food produced from animals which are allowed to move around and feed naturally. 9. or who don't eat enough (often because they think they look fat). Someone who is heavier than they should be is _____________. 11. People who eat too much. A _____________ is someone who doesn't eat meat or other products derived from animals (including cheese and milk). You will not need all of the words and expressions from the box. _____________ food is food which is produced without using artificial chemicals. and potatoes. because it is often not very healthy or _____________. they are _____________. 2. 7. 10. 6. _____________ is a substance found in food such as eggs. _____________ are units used for measuring how much energy you get from food. E-coli. If they are a lot heavier than they should be. cancer. _____________ is a white chemical element that is an important part of bones and teeth. Examples of this include _____________ and _____________. _____________. especially food like burgers and pizzas that you can take out. and is found in food products such as eggs. If you eat a _____________. bread. 5.

giving us more energy than we actually need. we are continually hearing about outbreaks of (15) _____________ and (16) _____________ which put us off eating certain foods. especially in the wake of natural disasters which ruin crops and in some cases totally destroy the annual (8) _____________. Do you agree? Support your opinion by using specific reasons and examples. Many children end up suffering from (6) _____________. Many of the ready-prepared foods we buy from supermarkets are high in (12) _____________. Exercise 2 Use your dictionary to check the meanings of the other words and expressions in the box. A few things to watch out for next time you go shopping. People who have a _____________ are unable to eat certain kinds of food because it has a negative effect on them (although it will not affect them seriously). as the effects may be much more serious (for example. Dieticians tell us that we must eat a (9) _____________. People with an _____________ to certain kinds of food must avoid them. and any other words or expressions that you think would be relevant. as this can block the walls of arteries and lead to heart problems. but scientific tests have shown us that burgers and pizzas can lack essential (2) _____________ and (3) _____________ which are essential for health and growth. “If food tastes good. but our lifestyles often make this difficult. This is good advice. of course. We have the option. (13) _____________ foods are appearing on our supermarket shelves. as nobody wants to spend time in hospital suffering from (17) _____________. that is! Exercise 4 Now try this essay.” Most children enjoy eating (1) _____________. Exercise 3 Complete this essay with appropriate words and expressions from the box in Exercise 1. where (7) _____________ of food causes thousands of deaths from starvation. which cannot be digested by the body. in many areas of the developed world. a lot of children show similar symptoms to those in poorer developing countries. If you have the time and the money. And to make matters worse. How far do you agree with this statement? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. They tell us that we should all eat more (10) _____________. of course. since they eat too much of the wrong sort of food. while simultaneously containing large amounts of (4) _____________ and (5) _____________ which can result in obesity and heart problems. it is becoming increasingly difficult to eat a healthy diet. it might kill them). it's probably bad for you”. and fewer foods which are high in (11) _____________. even though nobody is really sure if altering the composition of food cells is safe. In fact. You may need to change the form of some of the words. 87 . “Despite the huge variety of foods in our supermarkets. as it is essential we consume sufficient quantities of the different food groups. Use words and expressions from the vocabulary box in Exercise 1. if someone who is _____________ to peanuts eats something with peanuts in. of buying (14) _____________ foods. but naturally-cultivated fruits and vegetables are expensive.Topics 12.

letters. etc.. it means that it presents these stories or programs in a simple and attractive way without giving many details. by appearing on a television program). you guess something that is not expressed directly (for example. If you _____________. so you try to guess what that information is).. or political reasons is called _____________. _____________ is the crime of saying something about someone that is not true and is likely to damage their reputation (the adjective is _____________). 7. 5. 6. A _____________ is a radio or television program that deals with real people. A _____________ is a newspaper that is printed on large sheets of paper. A _____________ is someone who owns and controls several different newspapers. especially illegally. _____________ programs are television programs in which ordinary people are put into artificially created environments and situations in order to entertain people (the most famous example is “Big Brother”). 9. and then tells people the news himself / herself (for example. especially stories about crime or famous people.. _____________ is an occasion when someone finds out or uses information about your private life. if a newspaper reports a story. A _____________ program is one that deals mainly with political. 10. 8. because many of the stories and either untrue. _____________ refers to television programs that are intended to be shocking or exciting. 4. places. airtime audience broadcast broadsheet censor censorship channel check book journalism circulation current affairs coverage documentary download dumbing down editor entertainment exploit feature freedom of the press gutter press honest information informed Internet invasion of privacy journalism journalist libel libelous log on mass media media circus media event media tycoon news online paparazzi the press program read between the lines readership reality TV reporter restriction slander slanderous tabloid tabloid TV the Internet unscrupulous website 1. etc.Topics The media Exercise 1 Complete sentences and definitions 1 – 12 with words and expressions from the box. that are considered unsuitable for moral. television. _____________ is the practice of paying people a lot of money for information that can be used in newspaper stories. and is very rich as a result. and economic events that are happening now. etc. television stations. it might not tell you the truth or give you all the information you want. social. and is designed to inform people about different things. If a media company is accused of _____________ its stories or programs. and usually contains serious news. 88 . _____________ is the illegal act of writing things about someone that are not true (the adjective is _____________). etc. films. A _____________ often does the same thing. A _____________ is someone who writes news reports for newspapers. 11. You will not need all of the words and expressions. or are about sex and crime). 3. A _____________ is a newspaper that is printed on smaller sheets of paper and generally contains stories about famous people (papers like these are sometimes referred to as the _____________. religious. 2. events. The process of removing parts of books.

while sitcoms. where we can access information from millions of (11) _____________ around the world which we can then (12) _____________ onto our own computers. Do you agree?' Barely a hundred years ago. these forms of (13) _____________ and (14) _____________ (or “infotainment” as they are now sometimes collectively called) have their negative side. Exercise 2 Use your dictionary to check the meanings of the other words and expressions in the box. and any other words or expressions that you think would be relevant.. What are the qualities or features of a good newspaper.Topics 12. Others argue that too much time is being given to (22) _____________ shows. 89 . _____________ refers to the amount of time given to someone or something in a radio or television broadcast. But because communication technology was very basic. we had to rely on word of mouth or. of course. And there is also the (10) _____________. Our lives would be much emptier without the wealth of information available to us today. the benefits greatly outweigh the disadvantages. and newspapers give to something. chat shows. or news website? Use specific details and examples to explain your answer. Whether we choose to read the (2) _____________. at best. Famous personalities frequently accuse the (15) _____________ (and sometimes even respectable papers) of (16) _____________by camera-wielding (17) _____________ who are determined to get a picture or a story regardless of who they upset. with (20) _____________ newspapers paying people lots of money for stories about crime and famous people. the news we received was often days or weeks old. with their lively gossip and colorful stories. but with very little detail. etc. Use words and expressions from the box in Exercise 1. However. with major stories being presented in a simple and attractive way. but they have changed almost beyond recognition. I take the view that while the media may occasionally abuse its position of power. However. and (9) _____________. or to the way in which something is reported. anyone with a computer can go (23) _____________ to find undesirable material placed there by equally undesirable people. and many complain that there is increased (21) _____________ of news and current affairs programs. we are exposed to a wealth of information barely conceivable at the beginning of the last century. Exercise 3 Complete this essay with appropriate words and expressions from the box in Exercise 1. Some people argue that the government should impose stricter (24) _____________ to prevent such things happening. Newspapers are often accused of (18)__________ by angry politicians who dislike reading lies about themselves. _____________ refers to the amount of attention that television. We still have newspapers. it is not just the papers which are to blame. keep us entertained and informed. A newspaper's _____________ is the group or number of people who read that newspaper. Exercise 4 Now try this essay. Meanwhile. current affairs television program. “The media plays a valuable role in keeping us informed and entertained. Of course. newspapers. and perhaps we are better people as a result. But others argue that (25) _____________ and media is the keystone of a free country. radio. in which ordinary people are put into artificially created environments and situations for our entertainment. many people believe it has too much power and freedom”. We also have television and radio. Sex and violence are increasing on the television. and there are frequent accusations of (19) _____________. Personally. with their quality (3) _____________ of news and other (4) _____________ by top (5) _____________ and acclaimed (6) _____________ or if we prefer the popular (7) _____________. You may need to change the form of some of the words. News (8) _____________ let us know about world events practically as they happen. if we wanted to stay (1) _____________ about what was going on in the world.

have then borrowed a lot. it might be an opposite. the word / expression you need is connected in some way with the word in bold in the same sentence / paragraph (for example.. you let someone use your money for a certain period of time. they return something to a store. bank bankrupt bargain bill borrow broke bankrupt cash check cost of living credit card credit debt debit deposit discount distribution of wealth dividends economical economize exorbitant expenditure extravagant frugal income income tax inflation inherit insolvent interest in the black in the red invest investment invoice lend loan loss market mortgage on credit overcharged overdraft overpriced pension priceless profit receipt reduction refund salary save savings and loan association shares statement stocks tax / rent (etc) rebate undercharged unemployment / housing / child (etc. balance 2. they have lost all their money. A _____________ is the amount of money you have in your bank account. If you save money. it might have a similar meaning. for example. and _____________ refers to the money you spend. and cannot pay it back. etc. If a person or company is insolvent. sent to you to ask for payment for goods or services. A _____________ is money paid back to a customer when. 7. they have lost all their money. When you make a profit. If you lend money. for example) which shows how much you have paid for something. 3 4. and then you pay it back. you put it into property. 10. In some cases you might need to change the form of the word in the box. stocks. If your account is _____________. you have spent money which you have not gotten back. 90 . In each case. you have more than $0 in your bank account.) welfare wage wealthy welfare withdraw worthless 1. Something which is overpriced is too expensive. you keep it so that you can use it later.Topics Money and finance Complete sentences and paragraphs 1 – 20 with a word or expression from the box. 9. If a person or company is _____________. An invoice is a note. 5. 6. the amount of money you have spent is greater than the money you have made. When you make a _____________. A bank statement is a detailed written document from a bank showing how much money has gone into and come out of a bank account. and a _____________ is a note (from a store. If your bank account is in the red. so that it will increase in value. you take someone's money for a short time. Income is the money you receive (your wage or salary is part of your income). you gain money from selling something which is more than the money you paid for it. or bill. Something which is _____________ costs much more than its true value. and so you have less than $0 in your bank account. A discount is the percentage by which a full price is reduced in a store. If you _____________ money. 8. or it might be a word that is sometimes confused with that word). If you _____________ money.

Note that many of them can have more than one grammatical function without changing their form (for example. When you credit an account. you have paid less than you should have for goods or services. “Financial advice from a father to a son” In the play “Hamlet” by William Shakespeare. you take it out of your account. or to borrow money to buy a house. A wage and a _____________ are both money you receive for doing a job. and deals with money generally. If you have been _____________. he says. and it is also a piece of paper showing you how much you have to pay for a product or service). “Neither a borrower nor a lender be”.Topics 11. where a formal arrangement has been made with the bank to borrow it. but the first is usually paid daily or weekly and the second is usually paid monthly. You may need to change the form of some of the words. Exercise 3 Complete this conversation with appropriate words and expressions from the box in Exercise 1. a father gives his son some financial advice. 91 . A bill is a piece of paper showing the amount of money that you have to pay for goods or services. and will probably lose his friend as well. A _____________ is similar. you take money out of it. A worthless object is something which has no value. 16. A bank is a business which holds money for its clients. but in this case the money is only used to buy property. A _____________ is similar. It is usually done without making a formal arrangement with your bank. but shows what you have to pay after a meal in a restaurant. Exercise 2 Use your dictionary to check the meanings of the other words and expressions in the box. A loan is money that you borrow from a bank. 20. you have paid too much. Extravagant describes someone who spends a lot of money. which is more than there is in your account. Also note that some of the words can have more than one meaning (for example. but is usually used by people who want to save money. _____________ describes someone who is careful with money. Likewise he should never give a (2) _____________ to a friend because he will probably never see the money again. 14. A loan is money that you borrow from a bank to buy something. When you _____________ an account. A _____________ object is an extremely valuable object. 19. 15. 17. you put money into the account. balance can be a noun and a verb). A _____________ is the same thing. If you have been undercharged. 13. If you deposit money in an account. An _____________ is the amount of money that you take out of your bank account. 18. you put money into it. He is trying to tell his son that he should never (1) _____________ money from anyone because it will make it difficult for him to manage his finances. a bill is a banknote. 12. If you _____________ money.

Now listen. when you eventually get a job and are earning a good salary. I know. Some people say that “Money makes the world go round”. ask the store if they'll lower the price by. others say that “Money is the root of all evil”. but you should try to (8) _____________. Why? Because some stores charge you an (12) _____________ amount of money to buy things over a period of time. Also. say. 92 . Jim: Dad: Jim: Dad: Jim: Dad: Jim: Dad: Exercise 4 Now try this essay. And try to get a (16) _____________. when stores offer huge (14) _____________ and you can pick up a (15) _____________.. (7) _____________ is running at about 10%. Thanks for the advice. Also. How do I do that? Easy. Things are so expensive. you can buy it outright. If you spend too much. but let me give you some sound financial advice before you go. Don't expect me to pay it for you. Imagine the conversation they would have now: Jim: Dad: Jim: Dad: Right dad. Well. 10%. I'm off to college now. Try to wait for the sales. Which of these do you agree with? Use examples and details in your answer. OK dad. Avoid expensive stores and restaurants. Buy (18) _____________ in government organizations or (19) _____________ in private companies. this is important. Oh come on dad….Topics The play was written over four hundred years ago. They offer a much higher rate of (10) _____________ than banks. Use words and expressions from the box in Exercise 1. try to (17) _____________ the money in a good company. The first thing you should do is to make sure you balance your (3) _____________ – the money you receive from me and mom – and your (4) _____________ – the money you spend. It's much better to (13) _____________ a little bit of money each week so that when you see something you want. avoid buying things (11) _____________. it's true what they say: there are some things that money just can't buy. It's been (20) _____________. But it's so difficult. I've heard enough. Next. leave your money in a good local (9) _____________ account . but today many parents would give similar advice to their children. When you buy something. and any other words or expressions that you think would be relevant. and the (6) _____________ goes up all the time. you will end up with an (5) _____________ at the bank. All right son.

Farmers have cleared acres of thick wooded land in tropical regions where the precipitation is very high to provide pasture for their cattle. The gases and other substances which come from factories using oil. acid rain activists animal rights battery farming biodegradable packaging biodiversity biofuels breeding (in) captivity CFC gases climate change conservation conservation program conserve contaminated deforestation degradation desertification eco-friendly ecological ecology ecosystem emissions endangered species environmentalists environmentally friendly erosion extinct fossil fuels fumes genetically modified global warming green belt greenhouse effect greenhouse gases intensive farming natural behavior natural resources organic organic farming ozone-friendly ozone layer poaching pollute (air) pollution rare breeds rainforest recycle recycling renewable / sustainable energy research solar power tidal energy toxic waste unleaded gas wildlife management 1. The burning of some fuels creates carbon dioxide. and other fuels which are the remains of plants and animals can cause serious damage to the environment. sea. 3.Topics Nature and the environment Exercise 1 Replace the words and expressions in bold in sentences 1 – 15 with one of those from the box. 9. You will not need all of the words and expressions from the box. cartons. 15. and methane which rise into the atmosphere. and cans which can easily be decomposed by organisms such as bacteria. for their products. 11. 13. 10. coal.. building is restricted or completely banned in the area of farmland or woods and parks which surround a community. 93 . 14. In some countries. 8. etc. Friends of the Earth. More and more companies are using boxes. 4. both large and small. Most modern cars use fuel which has been made without lead additives. carbon monoxide. We should all try to process waste material so that it can be used again. without using any chemical fertilizers or pesticides. or by sunlight. 12. The heating up of the earth's atmosphere by pollution is threatening life as we know it. Don't drink that water. 5. It's been made dirty by something being added to it. 7. 2. 6. Many shops now sell fruit and vegetables which are cultivated naturally. This bread is made from wheat which has been altered at a molecular level so as to change certain characteristics which can be inherited. sulfur dioxide. in many parts of the word. Greenpeace. water. Planting trees and bushes can provide some protection from the gradual wearing away of soil. Human activity has had a devastating effect on the living things. and other people concerned with protecting the environment are holding an international summit in Geneva next month. Polluted precipitation which kills trees often falls a long distance from the source of the pollution.

(8) _____________ and overfishing are killing off millions of animals. even better. Some people think that the government should spend as much money as possible on protecting the environment. What causes this problem. to help prevent this. however. do much more. we should make a conscious effort to avoid foods which are (13) _____________ (at least until someone proves that they are safe both for us and for the environment). . There is a lot we can all do. and this kills trees. Exercise 3 Read this essay and complete the gaps with one of the words or expressions from the box in Exercise 1. have inherited the earth. all around us. of course. Others think this money should be spent on other things such as education and healthcare. all living things large and small which comprise our finely balanced (10) _____________ are being systematically destroyed by human greed and thoughtlessness. The serious (16) _____________. we should buy a small car that uses (15) _____________ which is less harmful to the environment or.Topics 94 Exercise 2 Use your dictionary to check the meanings of the other words and expressions in the box. Rivers and oceans are so heavily (6) _____________ by industrial waste that it is no longer safe to go swimming. We. If you are truly committed to protecting the environment. Factories burn (1) _____________ which produce (2) _____________ . and what can we do to prevent it?” There is no doubt that the environment is in trouble. Finally. you should only buy (14) _____________fruit and vegetables. The easiest thing. We should also check that the things we buy from supermarkets are packaged in (12) _____________ which decomposes easily. including whales. of course. And they will campaign to keep the (19) _____________ around our towns and cities free from new building. make more use of public transportation. as humans. “Environmental degradation is a major world problem. safe in the knowledge that they have been naturally cultivated. They will oppose activities which are harmful to animals. elephants. At the same time. of course. but we can at least do our own little bit at grass roots level. Exercise 4 Now try this essay. Use words and expressions from Exercise 1. and any other words or expressions that you think would be relevant. Which one of these opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. Meanwhile farmers clear huge areas of (5) _____________ in places such as the Amazon to produce feeding land for cattle or produce wood for building. such as (18) _____________. however. is to (11) _____________ waste material such as paper and glass so that we can use it again. (3) _____________ rise into the air and contribute to (4) _____________ which threatens to melt the polar ice cap. They are aware of the global issues involved and will actively involve themselves in (17) _____________ by making sure our forests are kept safe for future generations. but that doesn't mean we can do whatever we like with it. We cannot all be as committed as them. Cars pump out poisonous (7) _____________which we all have to breathe in. At the same time. and other (9) _____________ In fact.

Decide which are which. and which may not be used by drivers of motor vehicles. all of its running costs are paid for by the government or a local authority. Road rage is anger or violent behavior by one driver toward another driver. accident accident risk auto theft back out black spot brake congestion crosswalk cut in (in a vehicle) cycle lane destination dominate drunk driving driver driver's licence driving test expressway fatalities a fine freeway gas highway highway patrol injuries intersection interstate joyriding mile mobility overtake park and ride pedestrian pedestrian mall pollution public transportation pull in pull over road rage road work rush hour safety island sidewalk to speed speed limit subsidized (e. 8. A black spot is a place on a road where a lot of car accidents happen. public transportation) to tailgate traffic light / signal traffic calming traffic circle / rotary traffic-free zone traffic jam traffic school transport strategy turnpike 1.Topics On the road Exercise 1 Some of the words and expressions from the box below have been defined in sentences 1 – 16. and in some they are wrong. these definitions are correct. 16. An expressway is a wide road (usually in a city) where people can drive quickly.A. 13. 5. usually in a busy or built-up area. 14. Rush hour is the time of day when there are not many vehicles on the road because most people are at home. that drivers must pay to use. In some cases.S. 10. 95 .g. A traffic-free zone is a main road between major towns and cities that drivers do not have to pay to use. A mile is a measure of distance equivalent to 1..609 kilometers. 4.S. usually in a dangerous way. Fatalities (in this context) refers to people who are injured in accidents on the road. In the U. 9. 3. Traffic calming measures are fines and other penalties imposed by the police on bad or dangerous drivers. accelerate 2. Someone who backs out in a vehicle drives it very quickly and dangerously. equivalent of a British dual carriageway. 6. 15. 12. 7. A sidewalk is a part of the road in a town or city where drivers can park their vehicle. A traffic school is a school for people who want to learn to drive a motor vehicle. A turnpike is a main road in the eastern part of the U. 11.A. and is the U. the interstate is part of the national public transportation system (including trains and buses) which people use to travel around the country.S. Someone who has been accused of joyriding has stolen a car in order to drive it for pleasure.. If a service such as public transportation is subsidized. A cycle lane is a part of the road that is set aside for people on bicycles.

(1) _____________ and (2) _____________ on our roads are increasing from year to year: last year. and any other words or expressions that you think would be relevant. especially around July 4th and Thanksgiving.000 hurt in traffic-related accidents in the state. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?: It is time we all relied less on private motor vehicles to get around. the police and the courts are coming down hard on drivers who misuse the roads. In New Stockholm.827 people were killed and almost 300. Use words and expressions from the box in Exercise 1. Exercise 3 Complete this article with appropriate words and expressions from the box in Exercise 1. Harley Street. for these people. There are more (16) _____________ on main routes into the city. handing down large (18) _____________ or even jail sentences on selfish. . has been designated a (15) _____________. or (5) _____________. But these innocent victims. and a notorious accident (11) _____________ for pedestrians and cyclists. Use specific examples and details to support your answer. and instead used other forms of transport. Most of these were caused by drivers (3) _____________ in built-up areas. You may need to change the form of some of the words. (13) _____________ measures such as speed bumps have slowed traffic down. (14) _____________ programs have helped reduce the number of cars in the city. together with the help of the highway patrol and local safety groups. making it safer for the huge number of students and residents who rely on bicycles to get around. In many cases. the city council has recently implemented its new (12) _____________. a city plagued by (9) _____________ and (10) _____________ caused by traffic. closed to all vehicles during the day. as office workers and shoppers leave their cars outside the city and bus in instead. which has improved the flow of traffic to the benefit of those on foot or on two wheels.Topics 96 Exercise 2 Use your dictionary to check the meanings of the other words and expressions in the box. (20) _____________ is not offered as a softer alternative. Meanwhile. knocked down as they are walking across the street at (7) _____________ by drivers who seem to have forgotten that a red (8) _____________ means “Stop”. inconsiderate drivers who believe it is their right to (19) _____________ the roads. 2. are fighting back. Exercise 4 Now try this essay. when more alcohol is consumed than at any other time. the main shopping thoroughfare. it is (6) _____________ who are the victims. And (17) _____________ public transportation has helped to keep down the cost of using buses. where many seem to disregard the 30mph (4) _____________.

_____________ is the detailed study of something in order to discover new facts. A _____________ is someone who does not like. _____________ is the study of living things. _____________ is the use of technology to make copies of natural things (for example. it is changed slightly in order to improve it. 7. 97 . or want to use technology. 14. especially the use of low temperatures for preserving the bodies of dead people. nuclear engineering technologist research safeguard technocrat technophile technophobe _____________ is the practice or science of changing the genes of a living thing. artificial body parts). 4. or plan that protects people or something from harm or problems. A _____________ is a rule. _____________ is the science that studies the effects of low temperatures. 9. _____________ is the study or use of computers and electronic systems for storing and using information. _____________ is the invention or use of new ideas. You will not need all of the words and expressions from the box. especially in order to make it more suitable for a particular purpose. An _____________ is a scientific test to find out what happens to someone or something in particular conditions. 3. analyze computers bioclimatology cryogenics experiment geneticist invent biology cybernetics breakthrough development cellphone digital chemistry discover discovery control e-mail genetic engineering genetic fingerprinting information technology (IT) microchip modified genetic modification innovation information superhighway invention life expectancy physics Internet molecular biology scientist 1. equipment. 15. 11. 10. 6. especially computers. 5. 13. A _____________ is a scientist who studies or works in genetics. methods. _____________ is the length of time that someone is likely to live. 8. If something is _____________.Topics Science and technology Exercise 1 Complete definitions 1 – 15 with words and expressions from the box. law. 2. A _____________ is a scientist or other technical expert with a high position in industry or government. trust. 12. A _____________ is a discovery or achievement that comes after a lot of hard work. etc.

Exercise 3 Complete this essay with appropriate words and expressions from the box in Exercise 1. when it was first (5) _____________. Do you agree with this statement?” The second half of the twentieth century saw more changes than in the previous two hundred years. The relatively new science of (14) _____________ has been seen as a major step forward. however. Meanwhile. The development of (11) _____________ led to mass automation in factories. Exercise 4 Now try this essay. allowing us to access information from the other side of the world via the (6) _____________ or send messages around the world by (7) _____________ at the touch of a button. You may need to change the form of some of the words. this tiny piece of silicon and circuitry would be found in almost every household object from the kettle to the DVD recorder. Perhaps the most important (4) _____________. and any other words or expressions that you think would be relevant.Topics 98 Exercise 2 Use your dictionary to check the meanings of the other words and expressions in the box. What. However. we need to make sure that we (17) _____________ it rather than the other way round. Incredible (3) _____________ such as television have changed the way we spend our leisure hours. that within a matter of years. which in turn led to millions losing their jobs. but putting modified foods onto the market before scientists had properly (15) _____________ them was perhaps one of the most irresponsible decisions of the 1990s. And nobody could have predicted the sudden proliferation of computers that would completely change our lives. (8) _____________ into other aspects of information technology is making it easier and cheaper for us to talk to friends and relations around the world. and our lives have become better as a result. But everything has a price. Of course we all rely on modern science and technology to improve our lives. in your opinion. has been the single most important scientific or technological development of the last fifty years? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. where (13) _____________ to prevent accidents were inadequate). has been the microchip. pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies continue to (16) _____________ on animals. “Science and technology have come a long way in the last 60 years. . bad news for the (10) _____________ who would prefer to hide from these modern miracles. Nobody could have imagined. The genius of Einstein led to the horrors of the atomic bomb and the dangerous uncertainties of (12) _____________ (we hear of accidents and mishaps at nuclear power stations around the world. Meanwhile. a move that many consider to be cruel and unnecessary. Good news for (9) _____________ who love modern technology. there have been many remarkable advances in medicine that have helped to increase our average (2) _____________ way beyond that of our ancestors. Use words and expressions from the box in Exercise 1. Penicillin has already been (1) _____________ and used to treat infections.

it causes a lot of pressure and makes people worry. Then take the letter indicated at the end of each sentence. you will “find” another word which means “showing the influence of many different countries and cultures”. and as a result the traffic moves very slowly. (Write the 4th letter of this word in the grid) Sentence number: Letter: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 4. theaters. If the town in which you live offers you good __________. is __________. especially in a job or career.. (Write the 5th letter of this word in the grid) 2. parks. religions. 6.. etc. especially one that is busy and exciting. etc. (Write the 6th letter of this word in the grid) A __________ is someone who travels regularly to and from work. 11. 3. 5. 9. (Write the 7th letter of this word in the grid) A __________ is a big city. 10. If you do this correctly. 8. (Write the 2nd letter of this word in the grid) If a situation.Topics Town and country Exercise 1 Complete sentences 1 – 12 with a word or expression from the box. (Write the 3rd letter of this word in the grid) __________ occurs when there are a lot of vehicles on the road. An __________ is the set of systems within a place or organization that affect how well it operates (for example. etc.). cultures. a public transportation system or road system). (Write the 2nd letter of this word in the grid) __________ is an adjective relating to towns and cities. (Write the 4th letter of this word in the grid) A town's __________ are the things that make it comfortable and pleasant to live in (for example. living together. (2 words: Write the 3rd letter of the 1st word in the grid) __________ refers to the movement of people from one place to another (often from one part of a country to another. (Write the 2nd letter of this word in the grid below) If a town or city is described as a __________. 12. it offers you the chance for success. and write it in the grid that follows the sentences. it has people of many different races. place. 99 . stores. 7. agriculture amenities apartment block arable land atmosphere to breed crime building sites Central Business District (CBD) commute commuter commuter belt congestion construction cost of living crops crowded cultivation cultural events depopulation development drug abuse employment environment facilities fields green belt industry infrastructure housing project inner city lively mall / shopping mall melting pot metropolis migration nature nightlife outskirts peaceful peak period pedestrian precinct pollution population population explosion poverty productive land property prices prospects resident residential area rural rush hour slum street crime stressful suburbs traffic jam unemployment urban urban lifestyle urban sprawl 1. (Write the 3rd letter of this word in the grid) The __________ of a town or city are the areas that are furthest away from the center. or from one country to another country). (Write the 1st letter of this word in the grid) __________ is a situation in which many people leave a place in order to live somewhere else.

And as the city is expanding. Nowadays. a swift and efficient bus service. outlining its good points and bad points”. Paris. Exercise 3 Complete this essay with appropriate words and expressions from Exercise 1. and New York. “Describe a place where you live or have lived. which means that Singapore imports almost all of its food. there are a lot of (13) _____________ where new apartments are continually being built to deal with the (14) _____________ which is a direct result of the government encouraging people to have more children. For a start. and made the most of the superb (4) _____________. with people from different parts of the world living and working together. and one of the words you will need is the extra word you revealed by doing Exercise 1. for example. For seven years I lived in Singapore. which is partly the result of the government imposing very severe penalties on anyone bringing narcotics into the country. Singapore wouldn't be ideal for everyone. however. the (16) _____________housing estates there are probably the safest and most orderly in the world. Singapore doesn't suffer from problems that are common in many cities such as (15) _____________. Some people prefer to live in the countryside or in a small town. Like London. Which place would you prefer to live in? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. ranging from the excellent stores to some of the best restaurants in the world. and any other words or expressions that you think would be relevant. or a Chinese opera in the street. is very expensive. living in a city like this has its disadvantages as well. as the government banned private cars from entering the (8) _____________ during the morning and afternoon (9) _____________ in order to reduce (10) _____________ on the roads and (11) _____________ from the exhausts). was the remarkable transportation (6) _____________. the (20) _____________ which has eaten into the countryside has had a detrimental effect on the (21) _____________. with excellent roads. Singapore is a (2) _____________ city. Exercise 4 Now try this essay. . And despite a “green” approach to city planning. Of course. a (1) _____________ of almost three million people. The traditional villages that were once common have disappeared as the residents there realised there were no (18) _____________ for their future and moved into new government housing in the city. I enjoyed the (3) _____________ lifestyle I led there. especially if you come from the countryside and are used to a (17) _____________ lifestyle. and a state-of-the-art subway system which could whisk (7) _____________ from the suburbs straight into the heart of the city (this was particularly important.Topics 100 Exercise 2 Use your dictionary to check the meanings of the other words and expressions in the box. Use words and expressions from Exercise 1. Others prefer to live in a big city. however. You may need to change the form of some of the words. In fact. so it is safe to walk the streets at night. the (12) _____________ can be very high – renting an apartment. an exhibition of Malay art. it was difficult to get bored. In the evenings and at weekends there were always (5) _____________: with such diverse attractions as classical western music. Fortunately. there is very little (19) _____________ around the city. Perhaps most impressive.

9. and which cause little damage to the environment itself. The most expensive type of seat is called _____________. Complete this sentence: A _____________ seat is the cheapest type of seat on a plane or train. are they doing something that is legal or something that is illegal? Complete this sentence: A person who has been _____________ has been forced to move from one part of their country to another (often because of a war or other threatening situation). What does the expression persona non grata mean? Complete this sentence: _____________ is the nervous or confused feeling that people sometimes get when they arrive in a place that is very different from the place they normally live. there is _____________. usually over long distances. 3. 6. Would you be happy if the country that you were staying in deported you? Complete this sentence: _____________ refers to the large numbers of people that travel for their vacation. 4. what has happened to them? What is a cruise? What is a safari? Why might someone want a green card? If someone is trafficking something. acclimatize alien all-inclusive business class check-in check in (to a hotel or for a flight) check out (of a hotel) coach class consulate cruise culture shock customs deport disembark displaced economic migrants ecotourism embark embassy emigrate emigration excursion expatriate first class flight gate green card illegal alien immigrant immigration independent traveler internally displaced journey long-haul luggage mass tourism migrant migrate package tour package tourist passport persona non grata refugee repatriate safari short-haul tour operator trafficking travel agency travel agent trip UNHCR visa voyage work permit 1. 13. 7. 8. 12. 16. and some of them ask you to complete a sentence with the appropriate word(s) or expression(s). then answer questions 1 – 16. Between these two. What is the difference between a travel agency and a tour operator? Complete this sentence: An _____________ is a short trip somewhere. usually for one day or part of a day. 14. 5. 11. 15. 2. If someone has been repatriated. 101 . 10. Some of these questions ask you to explain what a word or expression means.Topics Travel Exercise 1 Look at the words and expressions in the box. What is the difference between a package tourist and an independent traveler? Is a refugee the same as an expatriate? What do you think the letters UNHCR stand for? Complete this sentence: _____________ is the business of creating and selling vacations that give people the chance to learn about a natural environment.

and any other words or expressions that you think would be relevant. Their future is uncertain. travel is done in the face of great adversity and hardship. travel is a matter of life and death. We strap ourselves into our tiny (6) _____________ aircraft seats and a few hours later we (7) _____________ from the aircraft. our passport. the whole world goes on vacation at once: the age of (8) _____________ is in full swing! But for the great majority of people around the world. it seems. of course. the (15) _____________ can be too great. perhaps. moved from one part of their country to another by an uncaring government. they will often be (18) _____________ or repatriated. Something to think about. They never get to indulge in an (9) _____________ vacation in a luxury hotel with all meals and drinks included. or the (12) _____________. I refer. And while many countries with an open policy on (16) _____________ will welcome them in with open arms. and those who do it because they have to. You may need to change the form of some of the words. They never get to explore the lush Amazon rain forest or the frozen wastes of the Arctic on an (10) _____________ vacation. As well as losing their homes because of war or famine or other natural disasters. and any (4) _____________ that are necessary to get us into the country. Exercise 4 Now try this essay. “There are two types of traveler: those who do it because they want to. These people are simply desperate to survive. We go to the (1) _____________ to pick up our brochures. We make sure we have all the right currency. others will simply turn them away. the next time you are (19) _____________ to your five-star hotel by a palm-fringed beach or sitting in a coach on an (20) _____________to a pretty castle in the countryside. smells. For them. who choose to live in another country and often have nice houses and high salaries. Most of us have. We book a two-week (2) _____________ with flights and accommodations included. Can you imagine anything worse than the misery these people must face? Let's not confuse them with those (14) _____________. . strange new sights. and sounds greeting us.Topics 102 Exercise 2 Use your dictionary to check the meanings of the other words and expressions in the box. Use words and expressions from the box in Exercise 1. using specific examples”. we make our own way to the country and travel around from place to place with a rucksack on our back). experienced the joys of travel. they must come to terms with their new environment: for many. unwanted and unwelcome. (or if we are (3) _____________. at some point in our lives. to all the (11) _____________ escaping from their own countries. or (13) _____________ forced to find a job and seek a living wherever they can. Exercise 3 Read this essay and complete the gaps with one of the words or expressions from the box in Exercise 1. Even if they manage to get into a country. We go to the airport and (5) _____________. What are the good things and bad things about traveling? Use specific examples to explain your answer. Discuss this statement. These people become (17) _____________. Nowadays.

adverse working conditions applicant application form be laid off blue-collar worker boss candidate commission demanding dismiss dismissal downsize employee employer fire fixed income flexible working hours freelance full time hire homeworker incentives incentive scheme income increment interview interviewee interviewer job satisfaction job security manager manual worker manufacturing industry (on) leave overtime part-time pension pension contributions perks profession promotion raise recruitment drive repetitive strain injury (RSI) resign retire rewards and benefits salary self-employed semi-skilled service industry sick building syndrome sickness benefit skilled a steady job stress supervisor unemployed unemployment union unskilled unsociable hours wage (on) welfare white-collar worker workaholic 1.). 8. What is the difference between a wage and a salary? Complete this sentence: _____________ is a painful condition of the muscles in the hands and the arms caused by doing the same movement many times (for example. 10. You may need to change the form of some of the words. 6. 103 . 7. Complete this sentence: _____________ are extra payments or benefits that you get in your job (for example. 11. Complete this sentence: The word raise in the box is similar in meaning to _____________ (which is also in the box). True or false?: retire and resign have the same meaning. 4. What is the difference between a blue-collar worker and a white-collar worker? True or false?: When a company downsizes its work force. he was instantly dismissed”. hospitals. 12. 3. meaning (you will need to change the form of the word): “When he was caught stealing from the company. free meals. but less formal. 5. Replace the word in bold in this sentence with another word from the box which has a similar. using a computer over a long period of time). Replace the word in bold in this sentence with another word from the box which has a similar meaning: “A lot of people wanted the job. you have work which is reliable and will last for a long time. but she was the best candidate”. Would you be happy if you had adverse working conditions? Complete this sentence: A person who is _____________ is not permanently employed by one company. 9. and hotels are examples of _____________. company car. health insurance. but sells their services to more than one company. etc. and answer questions 1 – 14.Topics Work Exercise 1 Look at the words and expressions in the box. 13. Complete this sentence: Banks. What do you think sick building syndrome is? Complete this sentence: If you have _____________. 14. this means that it pays its workers less than before. 2.

. By avoiding such factors. or a (6) _____________ worker in a bank. this depends on the job they have and the conditions under which they are employed. an alternative. however. it is not always easy to find all of these. companies have a high turnover of staff. Everybody would like a (9) _____________ in which he or she is guaranteed work. a (3) _____________ (4) _____________ worker on a production line in one of the (5) _____________. Unfortunately. is a motivating factor. the prime motivator. There is. With all these negative factors. Such companies are not popular with their workers. an (19) _____________ plan to make you work hard such as a regular (20) _____________ above the rate of inflation. First of all. of course. and any other words or expressions that you think would be relevant. of being given a better position in a company. with the knowledge that you might lose your job at any time. Nowadays. Money is. hope to achieve happiness in their work. a job where you work (14) _____________ and so never get to see your family or friends. Likewise. In most cases. Exercise 4 Now try this essay. You may need to change the form of some of the words. what are the elements that make a job worthwhile?” In answering this question.” How far do you agree with this statement? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. it doesn't matter if you are an (2) _____________ worker cleaning the floor. Your future may not be secure. store. “It is more important to have a job you enjoy doing than a job which pays well. The chance of (17) _____________. potential (1) _____________ are more likely to find a job that is more worthwhile. or a physical job in which you do the same thing every day and end up with the industrial disease that is always in the papers nowadays – (15) _____________. I would like to look first at the elements that combine to make a job undesirable. The same can be said of a job in which you are put under a lot of (12) _____________ and worry. and everybody wants a good (16) _____________. (10) _____________ new staff and (11) _____________ others on a weekly basis. you will never feel happy. a job which is so (13) _____________ that it takes over your life. (21) _____________ in case you fall ill and a company (22) _____________ plan so that you have some money when you retire all combine to make a job worthwhile. and by doing so. or one of the other (7) _____________: if you lack (8) _____________. (18) _____________ such as a free lunch or a company car.Topics 104 Exercise 2 Use your dictionary to check the meanings of the other words and expressions in the box. Forget the office and the factory floor and become (23) _____________ and work for yourself. In your opinion. But of course that is not all. however. but at least you will be happy. “Some people live to work and others work to live. Exercise 3 Complete this essay with appropriate words and expressions from the box in Exercise 1. Use words and expressions from the box in Exercise 1. it would be difficult to believe that there are any elements that make a job worthwhile.

Topics Mini topics Friends and relations 1. Use a dictionary to check the meanings of the words in the box. Now try this essay. The world today faces a lot of problems. Use words and expressions from the box. Can you think of any other words and expressions to add to the list? alien emigration extremist charity civil rights discriminate equality illegal alien poverty UNESCO global village cultural exchange program discrimination homeless immigrants prejudice UNHCR ethnic cleansing culture culture shock emigrants extremism hunger differences genocide ignorance displaced people exploit homelessness immigration racism UNICEF refugee terrorist environment exploitation human rights inequality institutional racism nationalism pollution tolerance internally displaced study visit intolerance terrorism language migrants religious religion tolerate stateless people xenophobia 2. Use words and expressions from the box in Exercise 1. Use a dictionary to check the meanings of the words in the box. and any other words or expressions that you think would be relevant. and any other words or expressions that you think would be relevant. Different people influence our lives in different ways. 105 . Can you think of any other words and expressions to add to the list? acquaintance bond cousin admire boss adore bring up crony enemy amiable brother discipline generous love (steady) boyfriend buddy chemistry dysfunctional get on with in-laws nuclear family relationship sister sympathy be on good terms classmate family ties empathy best friend encourage be close to fiancé / fiancée grandparents coworker empathize encouragement be fond of intimate see eye to eye extended family influence fall out with friendship kinship (steady) girlfriend inseparable parents spouse wife respect teacher nurture have a lot in common kind related husband inspire inspiration raise support partner supervisor relative / relation siblings sympathize room mate shared interests supportive soul mate 2. and solutions 1. Outline a few of these problems and suggest some things that ordinary people could do to make the world a better place. How? Illustrate your answer with specific examples. Global problems. social tensions. Now try this essay.

and any other words or expressions that you think would be relevant.g. in your opinion. Use words and expressions from the box in Exercise 1. sugar) fat fibre get fit disease eating disorder give up (e. yourself. Too many young people these days are unhealthy and / or overweight. Health and exercise 1.g. and any other words or expressions that you think would be relevant.) a politician a republic a state to vote the House of Representatives opposition security to ratify a referendum a technocrat a monarchy sanctions a prime minister a Republican the Senate a senator a statesman / stateswoman 2.g. your health) sedentary skin problems underweight slim overweight take exercise take up (e. What advice would you give somebody who wanted to become fit and healthy? 106 ... Use a dictionary to check the meanings of the words in the box. Use words and expressions from the box. Use a dictionary to check the meanings of the words in the box. Can you think of any other words and expressions to add to the list? active aerobics balanced diet fall ill cholesterol cut down on (e. etc. What.g. Now try this essay. tax.. smoking) in poor shape obese sports center jogging obesity swimming fast food / junk food heart attack health club keep fit on a diet heart disease in good shape muscles lifestyle look after (e. are most important things a government should do for its people? Support your answer with examples. fatty foods. a sport) unhealthy 2..Topics Government and politics 1. Now try this essay. Can you think of any other words and expressions to add to the list? authoritarian Congress democratic freedom legislation a bill a candidate to canvass the Capitol Capitol Hill a committee a congressman / congresswoman a democracy a governor legislature a Democrat a constituent assembly an election ideology represent totalitarian parliament a constitution independence a president to elect federal (law.

Can you think of any other words and expressions to add to the list? accent bilingual challenging communicate competent culture dictionary fluent get by (in a language) grammar learn something parrot fashion lingua franca look up (in a dictionary) monolingual mother tongue multilingual native pick up (a language) practice progress pronunciation rewarding second language self-access centre vocabulary 2. and any other words or expressions that you think would be relevant. What are the most effective ways of learning a foreign language? Illustrate your answer with specific examples. 107 .Topics Learning languages 1. Can you think of any other words and expressions to add to the list? acting action box office entertaining performance actor / actress cartoon exciting plot cast feel-good romance animation climax funny scenery stars atmosphere comedy gritty audience believable big budget drama musical director horror documentary location movie science fiction story thriller screen video setting soundtrack special effects 2. Use a dictionary to check the meanings of the words in the box. and why do you enjoy watching them? Use specific examples to explain your answer. Use words and expressions from the box. Use a dictionary to check the meanings of the words in the box. Use words and expressions from the box in Exercise 1. and any other words or expressions that you think would be relevant. Now try this essay. What kinds of movies do you enjoy watching. Now try this essay. Movies and the theater 1.

and any other words or expressions that you think would be relevant.) prize referee score spectator spectator sports sponsor sponsorship sportsman / sportswoman stadium support supporter take up (a sport) team team spirit team sports train trainer umpire unite violence win 2. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Sports play an important role in a culture. etc. How far do you agree with this? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Use a dictionary to check the meanings of the words in the box. Can you think of any other words and expressions to add to the list? arena athlete athletics beat coach competitive competitor course court draw equalize exercise go (swimming. tennis. Can you think of any other words and expressions to add to the list? aggressive an album an artist(e) beat blues (music) a classic classical music a compilation to compose a composer a concert to conduct a conductor contemporary dance music download easy listening heavy metal a hit improvise lively lyrics mellow memorable mood improvisation innovative jazz live (adjective) opera orchestra percussion pop popular rap to record recorded reggae relaxing rock music sentimental a singer-songwriter a soloist strings vocalist vocals wind instrument world music 2.) hooligan hooliganism lose match opponent opposition pitch play (baseball. Now try this essay. Sports 1. Use a dictionary to check the meanings of the words in the box.Topics 108 Music 1. basketball. etc. and any other words or expressions that you think would be relevant. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Use words and expressions from the box in Exercise 1. . climbing. Now try this essay. The music you listen to says a lot about the kind of person you are. jogging. Use words and expressions from the box.

Can you think of any other words and expressions to add to the list? amenities busy character college community community spirit congestion crime demolish (old buildings) eating out environment healthcare historic homeless homelessness hospital housing housing project improve improvement increase industry job opportunities library livelihood lively local customs mall modern monument museum neighbor neighborhood nightlife noise control park peaceful pedestrianize pollution population preserve (old buildings) reduce rejuvenate renovate restaurants rural safe shopping sports center sports facilities statue street crime theater traditional traffic traffic calming traffic-free urban zoo 2. and why? 109 . Use words and expressions from the box in Exercise 1.Topics Your hometown 1. You have been asked for some suggestions to make your hometown a better place. What suggestions would you make. Now try this essay. Use a dictionary to check the meanings of the words in the box. and any other words or expressions that you think would be relevant.

and keep this in a file or folder with the words / expressions stored in alphabetical order for quick and easy reference. Review the items that you have recorded on a regular basis. See the next page for a model record sheet showing an example of how a vocabulary item has been recorded. Word or expression: Topic area(s) (if relevant): Definition(s): Translation or equivalent in my language: Other forms of this word (if relevant): Sample sentences: Other collocations: Related words and expressions: Other information: You may photocopy this page 110 . and use it to keep a record of new words and expressions that you learn.Vocabulary record sheet Vocabulary record sheet Photocopy this page as many times as you like. Try to build up your own vocabulary bank.

to disagree with an idea. The opposite of rejection is acceptance. (of a human body) to reject an organ after a transplant.Vocabulary record sheet Vocabulary record sheet sample This is a sample of a completed vocabulary sheet. “She rejected my offer as being too expensive”. we can say that we reject it “out of hand”. based on the word “reject”. rejection (noun) Sample sentences: It is almost certain that our offer will be rejected. The court rejected the defendant's argument. rejeter / refuser Translation or equivalent in my language: Other forms of this word (if relevant): reject. rebuff. these adverbs can also come before the word “reject”. take a rain check (idiom) (“Would you like to come out tonight?” “I'll take a rain check. regular. proposal or request. to not agree to an offer. turn down. His body rejected the new kidney and he became seriously ill. 3. decline. 111 . 2. refuse. The student has included as much information about the word as possible. The company rejected the whole shipment. 4. to behave in an unkind way to someone who wants kindness or love. transitive) / rI'dzekt / Accepting or refusing something Topic area(s) (if relevant): Definition(s): 1. veto. To refuse to take something. dismiss. 5. snub. Reject is often used with as + an adjective or adjective phrase: “He rejected the idea as ridiculous”. With the exception of “outright”. including its grammatical function and pronunciation. maybe because it is damaged. Word or expression: reject (verb. throw out. to reject categorically / decisively / firmly / flatly / outright / totally / unanimously / vigorously. argument or suggestion. He claimed he had been rejected by his parents. If we reject something completely. shun. if that's OK with you”) Other collocations: Related words and expressions: Other information: The opposite of reject is accept.

eraser 34. etc. including the other words in a sentence that they “work” with. the Humanities Faculty). catalog. subway 31. this word can be spelt recognise or recognize)* 11.) ț Words which end with -amme in British English usually just end with -am in American English (kilogram. theater* 13. fall 35. etc. but some words that use a single L followed by a consonant in British English use a double L in American English (skillful. In this case. store 37. Also see the note on practice in the answer key for Spelling Exercise 2 on page 120).) ț Words which end with -ogue in British English normally end with just -og in American English (dialog. etc. respect – are the same and refer to the same thing. etc. telegram. center. realtors 24. vacation 39. Likewise / In the same way / Correspondingly 8. traveling. so we can use a word of equation here) 4. Likewise / Similarly / In the same way (the verbs in both sentences – i. bill 7. To conclude and To summarize are usually used to conclude longer pieces of writing – e. etc. and keep a record of them to refer to the next time you use them. travelers* 15. gotten 12. In brief 9. etc. labor* 10. but which have a different meaning (often depending on the context in which they are used). attorney (lawyer is also used) 33. “American” English (pages 5 –7) Across 2. through 4. faculty** 32. mail 9. recognize (note that in British English. guy 30. color. Therefore (To sum up. Furthermore / Moreover / In addition / What's more (this is less formal than the other expressions) 2. Likewise / Similarly 7. sidewalk 19.) ț Words which end in -ence in British English end with -ense in American English (pretense. equation. while in British English it is used to talk about a particular department in a university (e. installment).) ț Words with a double L in the middle in British English (such as traveller or travelling) usually use a single L in American English (traveler. intermission 6.g. round-trip 40. itemize. labor.) ț Words which end with -re in British English usually end with -er in American English (theater. but the word petrol is more common: British-English speakers normally 112 . at the end of an essay. cellphone Down 1.. university. There are other spelling differences which do not follow any particular “rules”. The word gasoline is also used in British English. Use a dictionary to look up examples of these words and expressions. underpass 16. program. liter. defense. apartments 14. raise 27. judgement in British English can be spelled the same way in American English. again is used in the same way as it is used in British English) 8. drugstore 28. ** This is one of several words which are used in both British and American English. but has the same meaning) Note: It is important that you are familiar with the way these words and expressions are used. faculty is usually used by North Americans to talk about the people who work in a school. first 17.e. bathroom * Note the following spelling differences between British and American English: ț Words which usually end in -ise in British English end with -ize in American English (recognize. sedan 36.Answer key Answer key Addition. In other contexts. dialog* 25. movies (movie theater is also used) 5.). and these words have to be learned individually (for example..g. freeway (expressway is also used) 22. Thus is slightly more formal than therefore. realize. As well as / Besides 3. etc.. gas 18. but many North Americans also spell it judgment). college. this 23. defense* 38. highway 26. and conclusion (page 4) Exercise 1 Addition: and along with as well as also too in addition moreover along with (this could also be equation) equally likewise addition) similarly in the same way besides what's more furthermore Equation: correspondingly along with (this could also be Conclusion: in conclusion to sum up briefly to summarize therefore it can be concluded that to conclude in brief thus Exercise 2 1. alumnus 41. Gas (see 16 across) in American English is a short form of gasoline. elevator 20.) ț Words which end with -our in British English normally end with -or in American English (humor. It can be concluded that 10. movie 21. over (in the context of repeating something completely only. zip code 3. In addition 6. recess 29. As well as / Along with 5.. etc. offense.

deteriorating 9. requirement 15. subjective / objective 32. vary 7. principle / principal / principal / principle 27. False: we're increasing or building up our stock of coal 8. To make things more complicated. possibility / chance 25. providing that (that = optional. considerable / considerate 19. it also has the same meaning in North America.Answer key Answer key use the word gas to talk about a substance that is used to heat the house or cook food. revised or amended (revised prices are usually increased. Most of the words in this task can be verbs as well as nouns. disinterested / uninterested or disinterested (it is a common misconception in English that disinterested cannot be used in the same way as uninterested when we want to say that someone does not find something interesting) 33. as in this example. True 17. False: there has been an improvement 4. False: there has been a strengthening of the dollar 6. you should try the second option – send us an email) 16. Use a dictionary to check which ones. an article or pronoun would be needed after in case of) 7. treat / cure 31. expands 8. False: there has been a tightening up of the rules 13. False: there has been a decline 12. Assuming that (that = optional) 11. we do not say In case of a fire. on the assumption that (that = optional) 12. False: there has been a widening of the gap 14. False: there has been a downward trend 16. complementary / complimentary 113 . intolerable / intolerant 20. exchanged 2. True 18. similarities 10. contrast 2. characteristics 5. lies / lay 22. in the event of 8. stretched Comparing and contrasting (page 10) 1. True 9. False: there has been a relaxation of border controls 7. Compared 7. but they can also go down. transformed 4. distinction 6. Exercise 2 The words in the box are: adapt replace expand promote reduce transform switch renovate exchange demote alter disappear vary raise lower extend enlarge heighten lengthen deepen shorten stretch revise amend cut outsource deteriorate streamline upgrade restructure downsize 1. renovated 5. differ 3. shortly / briefly 9. infer / imply 34. beside / besides 8. adapt 3. True 20. Likewise 12. differentiate 4. By way of contrast 13. In other situations. discrepancy 15. on condition that (that = optional) 4. In the same way 11. As long as 2. similar to 9. whereas Condition and requirement (page 11) 1. True 15. We can also say provided that) 5. unconditional 10. Unless 3. True 3. False: they're going to decrease the number 11. invent / discover 16. preconditions 6. continuous / continual 12. comparison 8. job / work 21. priceless / worthless 26. Nevertheless / Even so / However (Even so is more common in spoken than in written English) 14. advise / advice 3. permit / permission 24. True 2. injury / damage / harm 15. prerequisites 13. respectful / respectable 30. procession / process 28. rise / raise 29. False: there has been an increase 5. for / during / while 17. channel / canal 10. objections / criticism 14. False: there has been a slight fall 10. watch / look at 23. False: Americans want to broaden their horizons. conscious / conscientious 11. appreciable / appreciative 5. True 19. Changes (pages 8 – 9) Exercise 1 1. This verb in this context is usually used in the passive voice) 10. Failing that means that if the first option – telephoning us – is not possible. In case of (note that in this particular expression. However / Moreover 18. Failing that (that is needed here. switch 6. action / activity 2. effect / affect 4. inspect / control 13. stipulation 9. terms / conditions 14. assumption / presumption 6. otherwise Confusing words and false friends (pages 12 – 14) 1. as it refers back to the previous sentence. prevent / avoid 7.

G 13. 4. Make yourself at home (this is an expression we use when somebody visits our house). relax) 9. take it easy. Let me sleep on it. How's it going? (an informal way of asking somebody if something is going well or badly) 2. 7. P 10. Of course. How should I know? 4. We can also say “Bless you!”) Idioms and colloquialisms 3 (pages 19 – 20) 1. or when we refuse to tell someone a secret). R 14. 10. 9. Why not? Go for it! 11. Y 25. Exercise 2 1. That'll teach you! (this means that the person who is complaining has only themselves to blame) Exercise 2 1. I really don't mind. 10. It does nothing for me. N 22. but it was nothing really. S 3. I couldn't care less. M 26. 4.) 12. C 19. 5. The name doesn't ring any bells (this means that you do not recognize the name) 12. Sure thing (an informal way of saying we agree to do something) 7. K 114 . and we use it to sympathize with someone) 11. Sure. Gesundheit! (this is something we say when someone sneezes. Sure. touch wood (“Touch wood” is an expression we use when we hope that something will. I'd be glad to (this is a polite way of agreeing to do something). Q 11. E 20. you are in trouble with someone) 12. 7. a secret) 6. etc. that's too bad (this is another way of saying “Hard luck”. 7. this is on me (we say this when we are offering to pay for something). 2. Let me lend a hand. It's up to you. I 2. U 18. W 24. I'm going to give it all I've got. Oh. 10. or won't. Now you're talking (we say this when somebody suggests something that is more acceptable or enjoyable than something else they have already suggested). 10. You've got to be kidding! 3. 9. 6. We can also say “That's a weight off my mind”) 5. 7. You're welcome. You're welcome (this is another way of saying “Not at all” or “Don't mention it”). No way! Not a chance! or You've got to be kidding! 5. or to calm down. I'm used to it. (these are informal ways of telling somebody not to work too hard. V 17. Wow! Way to go! 10. 3. D 23. 8. 11. Don't kill yourself. What a drag! 5. I'd rather you didn't (this is a polite way of telling somebody that you don't want them to do something). I'd love to (we say this when we are accepting an offer to do something) 4. Well. X 6. Have a good time (we want the person to whom we are speaking to enjoy themselves) 11. 8. or “Tough luck”. 8. take a seat (“Take a seat” means “Sit down”) 8. 3. “Bad luck”. You're out of luck. usually because something is. My lips are sealed (we say this when we promise to keep a secret.Answer key Answer key Idioms and colloquialisms 1 (pages 15 – 16) Here are the most suitable answers: Exercise 1 1. J 21. or should be. Congratulations (this is another way of saying “Well done”). L 15. 5. Oh. I'm having second thoughts (this means that we will probably change our mind about something we have already agreed to). keep it to yourself (= don't tell anyone else. a surprise. Couldn't be better (this means that we are very well). That'll be the day (this means that we don't believe something will happen. Why not? or You bet! 2. it's not the end of the world (this means that things are probably not as bad as they seem). happen) Exercise 3 1. I'm a bit tied up for the time being. Oh. O 16. We can also say “And pigs might fly!” or “I'll believe it when I see it”) 11. B 12. A 7. How's it going? 3. I'll say (when we agree completely with somebody) 3. Is it any wonder? Idioms and colloquialisms 2 (pages 17 – 18) Exercise 1 1. 12. Oh well. (when we are suddenly no longer worried about something that was troubling us. Z 8. Be my guest (this is a polite way of giving somebody permission to do something). Hold on (an informal expression which means “Wait”). 2. I couldn't agree more. Fire away. T 4. Yes. 2. Well. H 9. 6. A little bird told me (we say this when we don't want to say who said something to us). Not on your life! (an informal way of saying that we would never do something) 4. I'm all ears (this means that we are ready to listen to something). 12. F 5. So I guess you're in the doghouse again (if you are “in the doghouse”. That's a load off my mind. Take care and keep in touch (an expression we use when we will not see somebody for a while). You really should get a life or You've got to be kidding! 8. Thanks. Who let the cat out of the bag? (we say this when we want to know who revealed something that was supposed to be a secret. 6. What do you have in mind? 9. I'm keeping my fingers crossed (we say this when we are hoping that something will happen). Never mind. Rather you than me (this means that we are glad we are not doing something that somebody else is). It can't be helped. 9. You bet! 6.

difficulty. sow the seeds 3. argument. conversation. good 7. 10/3 = the third of October / October third (in the USA) or the tenth of March / March the tenth (in the UK). fertile 18. 2:1 = two to one (when talking about odds and ratios) 23. fruitful Exercise 2 (These are suggested answers.762. ground 13. world 12. 0. (212) 909-7940 = two one two. money. Make a note of those that you think are the most useful. understand. nine oh nine. successful / failure 7. busy. guilty. intelligence 3. you could say the third of the tenth 8. quantity. $100. force 11. and cannot be used by another company for another product) * In British English. Note that the words and expressions that come towards the end of each metaphor box are more informal and idiomatic than those at the beginning. sensible. argument 2. break 4.75 = one hundred twenty dollars seventy five (or one hundred twenty dollars and seventy five cents) / $1120. nose 5. knowledge 8. love. notes. aim. 4x4 = four by four (a vehicle with four-wheel drive. effort 6.com = at Snailmail dot com 24.75 = One thousand. illness. happy. flow Metaphors (pages 23 – 25) Exercise 1 1. help. sixth 9. time. ACB81 . Numbers and symbols (page 26) 1. question 11. relationship. 2:0 = two zero / 3:3 = three all 27. can 11. five 18. people. demolished 17. enthusiasm The Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners. four hundred eighteen 28. $6M = six million dollars 22. 27½ = twenty seven and a half 9. level 10. people say past in British English 115 . one two three four 18. deep-rooted 6. $200K = two hundred thousand dollars / mid50's = mid-fifties 21. shop 16. angry. ground 15.25/B = ACB eighty one dash (or hyphen) 25 slash (or stroke) B 15. and email) 25. 2006 = two thousand (and) six (some people also say twenty oh six) / 1994 = nineteen ninety four 2. important / unimportant 5. also called a 4WD or SUV – Sports Utility Vehicle) 26. A X P. success. and you might choose other words which are equally suitable) 1. life or career 10. one hundred twenty dollars seventy five (or one thousand. laid the foundations 8. 24/7 = twenty four seven (= 24 hours a day. simple. has very useful sections on metaphors under the following entries: achieve. criticize. proud. intelligence 12. pressed 8. 1-800-528-4800 = one eight hundred. Alternatively. opportunity 14. or quarter of four* 5. ground-breaking 15. mistake. running 16. 999 = nine nine nine / 911 = nine one one / 000 = triple oh 19. hate.418 = thirty seven million. self. feeling. parade 13. 37. ice 14. worms 3. discover. record 3. afraid. build up 11. four eight oh oh 17. one hundred twenty dollars and seventy five cents) 14. buttressed 5. red 6. = six feet by three feet by three feet** 11. 3:45 = three forty five. problem / excitement 15. took root 19. deceive. situation. 1800 = eighteen hundred (hours) 6. discover 9. assist 4. picture 9. blind 6. responsibility. conversation / discussion 13. June 30 = the thirtieth of June or June thirtieth 7. nine oh nine. and would normally only be used in more informal spoken situations. x 3ft. five two eight. 7 days a week) 3. strings 14. mind. tolerance. @snailmail. close 18. ruins 16. collapsed 14. $120. and try to use them in your English. bull 12. opinion. effort. weather 15.99 = one hundred dollars ninety nine (or one hundred dollars and ninety nine cents) 13. important. force. ¾ = three quarters or three fourths 10. stemmed from 20. candle 2. search. Note that for times before the half hour. $1. power. air Exercise 2 1. ground 17. knowledge. life. enthusiasm. win. edifice 2. language.Answer key Answer key Idioms and colloquialisms 4 (pages 21 – 22) Exercise 1 1. blue 10. © = copyright (the material cannot be copied without permission) 30. problem. idea. x 3ft. confused. played 5. opportunity. blueprint 10. from which many of the definitions and sample sentences in this exercise have been taken. constructed 4. people say (a) quarter to four. build on 12. secret. friendly. seven nine four oh or area code two one two. GR8 = great / :-) = happy / CUL8R = see you later (informal abbreviations and emoticons*** such as these are commonly used in text messages.8% = zero point eight percent 4. nervous.99 = one dollar ninety nine (or one dollar and ninety nine cents) 12. # = pound / 0 = zero / * = star 20. out 8. want. leaf 4. large 17. strange. intelligence. name 2. 1099 = ten ninety nine (this is a document that people in the USA send to the IRS – the US tax department – that gives details of the money they have earned during the year other than their salary) 29. seven hundred sixty two thousand. ® = registered (the name is registered. honest. method. towering or ground-breaking 9. 1-800-AXP-1234 = one eight hundred. architect 7. interested. track 7. organization. seven nine four oh 16. 6ft. communicate. under construction 13.

disconnecting 5. misrepresent 10. as the gap is preceded by a. intellectual (this can also be an adjective) 2. concerned 2. moral 12. entail (we can also say involve) 16. Jew (the adjective is Jewish) 29. disagree 13. Muslim (this can also be an adjective) 25. pragmatic (a person who is pragmatic is a pragmatist) 19. fanatical (the noun Exercise 2 1. exaggerate 22. doubt 10. Also. he felt that people were putting pressure on him to make him leave. stoical (a person who is stoical is a stoic) 17. The adjective is democratic) 23. misunderstands 4. disallowed 17. as it is stronger and suggests that the company has no other choice. unloaded 12. 4. Judaism 28. miscalculated 11. A foot is divided into 12 inches. unfolded 20. obliged and compelled are usually used when somebody makes somebody else do something) 7. alternative (used as part of an expression: “We have no alternative but to…”) 12. unlock 16. uncovered (not discovered) 19. and ten after four in American English). open-minded 14. misquoted 3. committed 13. have / need 5. regarding 7. opinionated 21. anarchist (anarchy is the name for this belief) 16. Atheism is the name of this belief) 37. as these must be followed with to) 6. Taoism (a follower of this belief is a Taoist) 34. suspect 5. Buddhism (a follower of this religion is a Buddhist) 33. compulsory 3. hired Exercise 2 Across 2. misuses 14. it is a smiling face to show happiness. Racism is the name for this attitude) 13. capitalism (capitalist is the adjective and also the word for someone who supports this system adjective and also the word for someone who supports this system) 5. by entering :-).Answer key Answer key and after in American English (for example. vegetarian (vegetarians practice vegetarianism) 8. a symbol that shows emotion. exception 6. replenished 24. extended 21. atheist (atheistic is the adjective.S. dislike 116 . obsessive 9. gained 25. disapproved 23. exempt 8. as this must be followed with to) 4. Sikhism (a follower of this religion is a Sikh) 32. Some computers automatically turn some emoticons into proper faces (for example. forced (this is better than obliged or compelled. *** :-) is an emoticon. attacked 5. attitude and belief (pages 28 – 30) Exercise 1 1. compelled (in other words. distrust or mistrust 22. as these cannot be followed with by) 2. Other emoticons include :-( to show unhappiness. required (not mandatory or compulsory. Christian (this can also be an adjective) 27. communism (communist is the adjective and also the word for someone who supports this system) 6. displeased 9. declined 23. need (used here as a noun) 17. Democrat (the second definition uses a lower-case d: democrat. opinion 3. misplaced 18. Islam (the adjective is Islamic) 24. pacifist 40. and use standard punctuation symbols and letters. convinced is fanatic) 9. royalist (this can also be an adjective) 3.K. demolished 6. :-@ to show fear. traditional 11. In this case. refused 4. loosened 16. lend 19. forbade 11. ** A foot is a unit of measurement used in the U. simplified 7. :-X to indicate a kiss. disproved 21. maintains 4. Hindu (this can also be an adjective) 31. and the U. denied 3. rejected 2. postponed 18. We could also use obliged) 15. the computer automatically makes a ☺). which is equal to about 30cm. disqualified 7. lowered 13. obligation (note the adjective form of obliged / obligation = obligatory) 14. moderate (this can also be an adjective) 20. conservative 8. rewarded 12. Agnosticism is the name of this belief) 38. as it suggests the checks must be carried out because of a law: see 2 above) 9. socialism (socialist is the adjective and also the word for someone who supports this system) 4. deteriorated 10.10 is ten past four in British English. Obligation and option (page 27) 1. The political system is a democracy. liable (not obliged or compelled. agnostic (This can also be an adjective. :-0 to show surprise. Republican (the second definition uses a lower-case r: republican) 22. disobeyed Down 1. Christianity 26. misjudged 2. racist (This can also be an adjective. set 14. superstitious Opposites 1: Verbs (pages 31 – 33) Exercise 1 1. obliged / required 13. vegan (vegans practice veganism) 7. discontinuing 8. misbehave 15. egalitarian 35. as the gap is preceded by an) 11. tolerant 11. voluntary (not optional. misdiagnosing 6. fascism (someone who believes in fascism is a fascist) 36. must (not have. essential (vital or imperative could also be used) Opinion. Mandatory (this is better than Compulsory.A. disapprove 12. Emoticons take the form of a face on its side. middle-of-the-road 10. optional (not voluntary. fell 15. dogmatic 15. cynic (the adjective is cynical) 39. abandoned 8. :-|| to show anger. bigoted (a person who is bigoted is a bigot) 18. Hinduism 30. abolished 26. withdrew 9. concealed 20. not an) 10. succeeded 17.

Answer key

Answer key
Opposites 2: Adjectives (pages 34 – 35) Exercise 1 1. clear 2. easy 3. graceful 4. detrimental 5. approximate 6. innocent 7. even 8. scarce 9. flexible 10. considerable 11. crude 12. delicate 13. dim 14. compulsory 15. reluctant 16. archaic 17. worthwhile 18. vibrant 19. tedious 20. spontaneous 21. intricate 22. worthless 23. negligible 24. feasible 25. commonplace 26. problematic 27. smooth 28. artificial Exercise 2 Task 1 unacceptable inaccurate inadequate disadvantaged disagreeable unattractive unauthorized unavoidable unbelievable uncertain uncomfortable incompetent incomplete unconscious discontented unconvincing incorrect incurable uneven unfair unfashionable dishonest disinclined illegal unlimited illiterate illogical unmarried immature immoral immortal disobedient disorganized impatient imperfect impersonal impossible improper impure unqualified (disqualified is a verb which means to make someone not able to do something: “He was disqualified from driving for a year”) irrational irregular irrelevant irreplaceable irresistible irresolute irresponsible unsatisfactory dissatisfied insufficient unwelcome Note that adjectives which end with -ful are usually made into their opposite form by changing -ful to -less (thoughtful = thoughtless, useful = useless, etc.). Helpful is one exception to this rule (the opposite is unhelpful. Helpless has a different meaning, and means not able to do anything) Task 2 1. D (= disinclined) inadequate)

2. B (= dishonest)

3. C (= insufficient)

4. A (= irresponsible)

5. C (= unconvincing)

6. A (=

Phrasal verbs 1 (pages 36 – 37) Exercise 1 1. bring up 2. face up to 3. call off 4. count on 5. catch up with 9. fell out 10. find out 11. grow up 12. keep up with 13. leaves out up 17. fall behind 18. cut down on

6. die down 7. drop out of 8. figure out 14. pointed out 15. look into 16. brought

Exercise 2 1. taken over 2. put forward 3. pull through 4. done away with 5. look into 6. carry out 7. went, kept, or carried on 8. wear off 9. turn up 10. picked up 11. put across 12. ran into 13. set…back 14. look back on 15. turned out 16. turned away 17. works out to 18. cut off

Phrasal verbs 2 (pages 38 – 39) Exercise 1 1. get 2. look or go 3. get 4. get or come 5. look 6. go 7. get look 13. get 14. give 15. came 16. go 17. get 18. go

8. went

9. look

10. look

11. came

12.

Exercise 2 1. came or went 2. give 3. go or look 4. get 5. came 6. get 7. give 8. go come 12. getting 13. comes 14. get 15. give 16. look 17. give 18. got

9. come or go

10. came

11.

Phrasal verbs 3 (pages 40 – 42) Across: 1. put down 5. talk…around 6. take after 7. running up against 9. turn out 10. picked on 11. opt out 16. turned up 19. set off 20. run up 22. set aside (or put aside) 24. take to 28. take up 30. held up 32. engaged in 36. set off 37. factoring in 38. running out 39. handing in Down: 1. put aside (set aside – see 22 across – has the same meaning, but would not work in the crossword grid) 2. take in 3. add up to 4. taken in 6. turned down 8. put up with 12. taken apart 13. set…against 14. make out 15. made up 17. ran for 18. pick up 21. make up for 23. set up 25. kick in 26. stemmed from 27. pull out 29. shut out of 31. bring about 33. gone down with 34. break into 35. went for

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Answer key

Answer key
Prefixes (pages 43 – 44) Exercise 1 1. (k) 2. (i) 3. (j) 4. (e) 5. (b) 6. (l) 7. (f) 8. (a) 9. (g) 10. (c) 11. (h) 12. m 13. (d) 14. (f)

Exercise 2 1. postgraduate 2. monotonous 3. uniform 4. translate 5. semifinal (sometimes written as two words: semi final) 6. intermission or interval 7. cohesion 8. teleconference 9. biannual 10. biennial 11. circumference 12. autobiography 13. postpone 14. circumvent 15. microscope 16. unique 17. premature 18. substandard 19. cohabit 20. microorganism (sometimes written as two words: micro organism) 21. transmutes 22. monopoly 23. predetermined 24. bilingual 25. autonomy 26. transient 27. subordinate 28. semi-precious (note that some words which are modified by semi are hyphenated: semi-skilled, semi-permanent, semi-conscious, etc.) Note: Rather confusingly, a biweekly magazine can either be a magazine that is published once every two weeks, or twice a week. This also applies to publications which are bimonthly. To avoid confusion, we can say that magazines that are published twice a week or twice a month are semi-weekly or semi-monthly.

Presenting an argument (page 45) Exercise 1 The best order is: 1. A 16. P

2. H

3. K

4. M

5. E

6. G

7. B

8. J

9. F

10. O

11. L

12. N

13. L

14. D

15. I

When you are asked to present an argument (e.g., in an essay), you should always look at it from two sides, giving reasons why you agree and disagree before reaching a conclusion. It is usually best to present your strongest argument in favor of something just before you write the conclusion. Other words and expressions which you might find useful include: I believe that despite this in spite of this also thirdly I think finally on the contrary at any rate notwithstanding for all that even if

in conclusion nonetheless

admittedly

Pronouns and determiners (pages 46 – 47) Exercise 1 1. there 2. their 3. it 4. them (used when we do not specify if the caller was male or female) 5. himself 6. they 7. that 8. which 9. it 10. their 11. its (do not confuse the possessive its with it's, which is a contraction of it is or it has) 12. There 13. that 14. them 15. which 16. itself 17. it 18. they 19. those 20. itself Exercise 2 1. that or which (alternatively, you could leave the space blank. That or which, when used as pronouns in defining relative clauses such as this, can be left out when they are the object of the relative clause) 2. whose 3. there 4. themselves 5. which 6. those 7. their 8. that 9. which 10. those 11. them 12. its 13. theirs 14. they 15. whose 16. that or which (or leave this space blank – see number 1 above) 17. ourselves 18. itself 19. them 20. themselves

Similar meanings: Adjectives 1 (pages 48 – 49) 1. abrupt 2. robust 3. rudimentary 4. nominal 5. conventional 6. curious 7. expert 8. remote 9. absurd 10. compatible 11. legitimate 12. rigid 13. placid 14. narrow 15. covert 16. negligible 17. hazardous 18. contemporary 19. enduring 20. exceptional 21. outlandish 22. prompt 23. outdated 24. prospective 25. comprehensive 26. adequate 27. steady 28. dramatic 29. thriving 30. complex 31. inventive 32. potent 33. radical 34. shallow 35. erratic 36. fertile 37. even 38. crucial / indispensable 39. varied. 40. crucial / indispensable 41. toxic 42. incisive 43. finite 44. widespread 45. resolute 46. coarse

Similar meanings: Adjectives 2 (page 50) 1. concise 2. handsome 3. archaic 4. risky 5. abundant 6. chaotic 10. integral 11. scrupulous 12. tenacious 13. industrious 14. credible The word in the shaded vertical strip is characteristic. 7. tedious 8. evident 9. rampant

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Answer key

Answer key
Similar meanings: Nouns (pages 51 – 53) Exercise 1 1. agenda / schedule 2. accommodations / housing 3. discipline / order 4. assistance / help 5. drop / decline 6. faults / defects 7. opposition / resistance 8. proof / evidence 9. discount / reduction 10. proximity / closeness 11. appointment / meeting 12. acclaim / praise 13. work / employment 14. benefits / advantages 15. requirements / prerequisites 16. means (note that in this context, means is always used in the plural) / method 17. poll / survey 18. victory / triumph 19. fallacy / misconception 20. appeal / petition Exercise 2 1. protest / demonstration 2. code / rules 3. liability / responsibility 4. choices / options 5. overview / (short) description 6. magnitude / importance 7. cooperation / collaboration 8. valid / good 9. zenith / peak 10. questions / queries 11. characteristics / features (with illnesses, we can also say symptoms) 12. problems / complications 13. strategy / plan 14. priority / precedence 15. alterations / changes 16. winner / victor 17. component / element 18. discussion / deliberation 19. results / consequences 20. admission / access Exercise 3 1. reviews / write-ups 2. advent / appearance 3. charisma / (personal) appeal 4. category / classification 5. ending / termination 6. inventions (or achievements) / innovations 7. numbers / concentrations 8. specialist / expert 9. backing / support 10. notion / idea 11. parts / components 12. achievement / accomplishment 13. ultimatum / final demand 14. disparity / difference 15. proceeds / earnings 16. argument / dispute 17. amenities / facilities 18. display / exhibit 19. implication / suggestion 20. reflection / sign Note that many of the words in this exercise might have another meaning if used in a different context. Use a dictionary to check which ones. When you keep a written record of words that you learn, you might find it useful to put them into related groups. This would include putting words with the same or a similar meaning together. Remember that you should also record words in context (in other words, you should show how they work in a sentence with other words) Similar meanings: Verbs 1 (pages 54 – 56) Across: 2. direct 4. assume 5. attain 6. detect 11. reveal 12. assert 13. resist 14. refine 15. evolve 16. convey 19. settle 21. relate 23. submit 25. change 27. baffle 29. answer 32. verify 33. enrich 35. remove 36. exceed 37. derive Down: 1. accuse 3. handle 7. create 8. elicit 9. forbid 10. hasten 12. affect 14. refuse 17. gather (usually used in the passive form: “Under the college rules, students are obliged to refrain…”) 20. endure 24. misuse 26. assist 28. launch 30. mirror 31. demand 34. permit

18. oblige 22. obtain

Note that some of the words above could have a different meaning in another context. For example, in number 8 down, elicit has a similar meaning to obtain. In another context, it could mean “to make someone react in a particular way” (for example, “His comments elicited a positive response from everyone in the room”). This is one reason why you should always record the new words that you meet in context, and with an example that shows how they are used. That way, when you use these words yourself, you use them correctly. A good dictionary with sample sentences is extremely useful in this respect.

Similar meanings: Verbs 2 (pages 57 – 59) Exercise 1 1. crush 2. heighten 3. attract 4. replacing 5. exemplifies 6. supported 7. recover 8. explain 10. achieve 11. prevented 12. portray 13. measure 14. encourage 15. highlight 16. hastened Exercise 2 1. proved 2. solve 3. increase 4. include 5. dictated 6. forfeit 7. created 8. control 10. produce 11. suspect 12. protect 13. constrained 14. accepted 15. check 16. exhibit Exercise 3 1. realized 9. manage

9. exhaust

9. encouraging

2. prospered 10. examined

3. surpassed 4. understood 5. improved 6. address 7. relating 8. originated 11. remove 12. supposed 13. produce 14. achieve 15. settled 16. build

119

questionnaire 18. supersede 28. practice is the noun and practise is the verb. launched / took off 12. ceased 17. this hasn't prevented the big tobacco companies spending vast amounts of money on advertising. * Practice is a noun and a verb in American English. irresistible 23. embarrass 13. kick off (= informal) 24. Exercise 4 1. hoping to achieve both fluency and accuracy. argue 8. deter or prevent 10. 3 21. integrate 20. analyze 13. perceive 7. Meanwhile. The fact that the LA city council is building cheap. elaborate (in this context. eradicated 9. discontinued 22. identify 4. arisen 25. responsible 16. criticize 4. justify 6. Spelling (page 60) Exercise 1 Apart from condemning tobacco companies and raising the price of cigarettes. retiring 18. took up 14. estimate 5. this is part of a phrasal verb: to elaborate on) 10. and the only people benefiting from it are the Treasury Department. the government's anti-smoking campaign has failed to have any long-term effects. most people just don't have the necessary funds. definitely 12. professional 3. assess 17. occurrence 26. 3 15. To put it simply. independent 27. Organizations such as Home Front can offer advice. compare 13. examine Down: 1. Of course. canceled 2. 120 . suspended 13. this is part of a phrasal verb: to account for) 12.Answer key Answer key Note that while all of these words have a similar meaning to the underlined words in the sentences. demonstrate Note that many of the first sentences in each sentence pair in this exercise sound rather long and “awkward”. account (in this context. the some doctors have said that they may refuse to treat persistent smokers. abolish 23. referring 9. trace 9. predict 18. embarking or setting off 7. reversible 2. dissuade / initiated 11. discuss 14. expelled Task commands (pages 63 – 64) Across: 2. 3 14. not all of them could be used to replace those words without partly changing the meaning of the sentence. minuscule 19. suppress or quash 8. The use of the task command words in the exercise help to shorten and simplify the original sentences. millennium 25. inception / closure 16. phased in / phased out 15. quit (= informal) or resign / fired (= informal) or dismissed 19. summarize 7. backed out or pulled out 4. turn…down 20. freeze 21. liaison 10. Conscientious students balance their acquisition of these skills. Exercise 3 It is becoming increasingly difficult for many to find decent accommodations in Los Angeles at a price they can afford. Exercise 2 It is arguable whether good pronunciation is more important than good grammar and vocabulary. achievement 24. define 15. illustrate 16. necessary 5. outbreak 5. evaluate 11. weird 22. temporary housing for lower-paid professionals is the only official acknowledgment of this problem. separate 17. set up or established / shut down 6. Teachers should encourage their students to practice* all the relevant language skills. outline 3. tendency 11. beginning 6. deleted 3. indispensable 8. In British English. but it is widely agreed that the situation is no longer manageable. harassment Starting and stopping (pages 61 – 62) The words in the box are: abolish arise back out cancel cease closure delete deter discontinue dismiss dissuade embark eradicate establish expel fire freeze inception initiate kick off launch outbreak phase in phase out quash quit resign retire set off shut down suppress suspend take off take up terminate turn down 1.

damaging 5. prior to (this expression is usually followed by a noun or by an -ing verb. important 10. features 9. description 24. advice 12. = (t): a spoken expression used for saying that someone should do something now. essential 6.Answer key Answer key Time (pages 65 – 66) Exercise 1 Part 1. Word association 1: Adjectives (pages 67 – 68) 1. = (h): sometimes. respect 31. evidence 33. rational 21. 2. major 12. popular Word association 2: Nouns (Pages 69 – 71) Across: 1. When is usually used to talk about short actions: While we were working. I fell asleep. = (j): to change and become modern. Throughout can be used on its own. 1. 17. sequence 27. background 5. = (f): used for talking about things that happen fairly often. opportunity 25. positive 19. appeal 32. = (b): usually. 4. modest 14. instead of waiting to do it later. 6. = (n): earlier than necessary. accident 3. contribution 13. = (e): an expression that s usually spoken. but not often. = (i): a spoken expression used for saying that you will know in the future whether something is true or right. medicine 34. objective 18. we left the building) 3. the third time around. 10. instruction 17. Also the first time around. Previously 6. In the meantime / Meanwhile 4. We can also say After. realistic 22. central 3. While / As / Just as (While is usually used to talk about long actions. responsibility 4. the phone rang / We were working when the phone rang) 2. 8. reason Down: 2. interested 17. judgment 28. permission 20. rapid 20. qualification 22. etc. / I slept throughout) 3. guess 11. Previously / Earlier Part 2. = (o): to like someone or something a lot. effect 7. 20. 18. = (q): to make some of your time available for a particular purpose. 19. career 12. = (s) or (f): to make some of your time available for a particular purpose. he had to study the language) 2. = (r): used for telling someone to hurry. method 26. 13. During / Throughout (During must always be followed by a noun. 11. project 30. Following / After the movie. we went home) 2. progress 121 . noticeable 15. = (m): much more modern or advanced than other people or things. lengthy 11. For example: Prior to visiting to country. 15. critical 4. During the concert. particular 9. material 13. = (a): someone or something that is in a time warp seems old-fashioned because they have not changed when other people and things have changed. criticism 18. Following (this word is always followed by a noun. = (c): used for saying that something is strange or surprising. 3. lesson 6. agreement 16. which means that you are annoyed because something has happened later than it should. 1. investigation 23. 14. 16. = (d): used for talking about what will happen at some future time. 7. = (l): the second time that something happens. At that very moment Part 3. accent 8. careful 2. 1. = (k): for a long period of time. = (g): for the present. impossible 16. suggestion 15. precede 5. behavior 10. false 7. difficulty 21. = (p): to make time seem to pass more quickly by doing something instead of just waiting. This expression is often used in the negative. consideration 14. By the time 3. 5. estimate 29. Afterward Exercise 2 The past: in medieval times back in the 1990s in those days a few decades ago at the turn of the century in my childhood / youth last century from 1996 to 1998 The past leading to the present: ever since over the past six weeks lately for the past few months The present: as things stand nowadays at this moment in time at this point in history these days The future: for the next few weeks one day from now on over the coming weeks and months in another five years' time by the end of this year for the foreseeable future sooner or later Exercise 3 1. Formerly / Previously 4. 9. severe 8. As soon as / Once / The minute that (these words and expressions are always followed by an action: As soon as the lecture ended. solution 19. 12.

subscription (from subscribe) 7. similarities 9. combat 7. undertake 9. necessity 13. addiction 122 . approve 2. overcome Word forms 1: Nouns from verbs (pages 75 – 76) Exercise 1 Remove 2 letters. solution ( from solve) 5. highlight 7. then add 7 letters: identify = identification Remove 1 letter. taste 3. scrutiny (from scrutinize) 6. thirst 4. 6. difference 21. change 8. honesty 5. absenteeism (or absence) 11. then add 2 letters: Add 3 letters: Add 4 letters: disturb = disturbance attend = attendance require = requirement manage = management (a manager is somebody who manages. a company or department) prefer = preference sign = signature expect = expectation recommend = recommendation consult = consultation relax = relaxation Add 5 letters: Exercise 2 1. loss Word forms 2: Nouns from adjectives (pages 77 – 78) Exercise 1 1. confidence 6. deserve 6. then add 4 letters: provide = provision persuade = persuasion abolish = abolition decide = decision qualify = qualification apply = application notify = notification imply = implication recognize = recognition Remove 1 letter. restrictions 8. maintenance (from maintain) The verb / noun in the shaded strip is compromise. Exercise 2 1.. emphasis (from emphasize) 4. highlight 7. inspire 2. fall The word in the shaded vertical strip is reinforce. abandon 5. object 3. devise 8. uncover 9. criticism (from criticize) 8. certainty 10. expense 7. settle 5. underline 8. discuss 4. then add 3 letters: Remove 1 letter. encourage The word in the shaded vertical strip is undermine. somebody who survives) arrive = arrival rehearse = rehearsal respond = response fail = failure coincide = coincidence prohibit = prohibition warn = warning suggest = suggestion Remove 1 letter. could also go in the section below) behave = behavior promote = promotion refuse = refusal survive = survival (or survivor. argue 4. complications 20. differ 6. profession 19. Exercise 3 1. acquisition (from acquire) 9. choice (from choose) 2. accuracy 18. charisma 22. obtain 3. safety 16. oppose 5. e. dismiss 4. a person who supervises.g. value 2. listen 3. responsibility 17. flexibility 15. then add 4 letters: Remove 1 letter. proof (from prove) (from lose) 10. conclude 9. 3.Answer key Answer key Word association 3: Verbs (pages 72 – 74) Exercise 1 1. influence 2. fight The word in the shaded vertical strip is negotiate. convenience 12. relaxation 14. then add 5 letters: consume = consumption admire = admiration permit = permission determine = determination compete = competition argue = argument assure = assurance intervene = intervention expand = expansion produce = production negotiate = negotiation expose = exposure supervise = supervision (supervisor.

lesson / class (in either order) 4. give / until / two / these 2. brought up 4. who / just or recently 12. public school / private school / fees* 10. with / did / made Children and the family (pages 82 – 83) Exercise 1 1. continual (= stopping and starting ) / continuous (without stopping) 9. Literacy / Numeracy 6. SAT 3. then add 5 letters: able = ability available = availability compatible = compatibility Remove 2 letters. on / be / little or lot / now 12. adopt 10. been / for / no / it Exercise 2 1. divorced 3. This / on 11. strict / authoritarian / lenient 15. ago / used or had / These 3. the or a / in / where 8. provided or providing / least / unless 11. adolescence 9. with / made 13. decisive / active 7. attractive / excellent 21. running wild 8. at or in / for / in 13. responsible 11. until / would. even 4. rectifiable / preferable 14. specific / occupational 20. separated / divorced 5. active / preferable Working words (pages 80 – 81) Exercise 1 1. siblings 12. By / had / that / off 16. only / if. prospectus / enroll (the British-English spelling is enrol) 7. approachable / frightening 10. what / from / was / at or on 14. minor 3. foster family 5. formative years 9. juvenile 7. creative / imaginative / admirable 19. or / most / near / that or which 10. lenient 14. most or some / near 6. could or might / they / to / or 6. restricted / valid 16. dependents 18. spite / managed 10. then add 2 letters: convenient = convenience sufficient = sufficiency true = truth Add 2 letters: bored = boredom loyal = loyalty warm = warmth Add 3 letters: familiar = familiarity popular = popularity punctual = punctuality Add 4 letters: aware = awareness serious = seriousness weak = weakness Word forms 3: Adjectives from verbs (page 79) 1. inventive / changeable 8. faculty 8. juvenile delinquency 10. authoritarian / strict 6.Answer key Answer key 23. which / the / one / the 5. Adolescence / adolescent 2. excited / doubtful 6. repetitive / boring 5. nuclear family 16. the noun is dependant) Exercise 3 1. kindergarten / grade / elementary school 123 . well-adjusted / running wild or rebellious 8. with / from / This / on 4. then add 3 letters: considerate = consideration mature = maturity secure = security Remove 1 letter. correspondence course / night class / day release 2. by / had 14. investigation 25. overprotective 15. single-parent family 17. lecture / subject or topic / lecturer / seminar / tutorial / tutor 5. be / on 7. convincing / critical 11. well-adjusted 13. upbringing 7. Raise / bring up 13. Between / from / they / to 9. that / as / of / anyone or everyone 15. Between / almost or about or over 5. siblings 4. negotiable / refundable 15. infant / infancy 12. foster family / foster child / foster 6. then add 3 letters: high = height long = length strong = strength Remove 3 letters. extended Education (pages 84 – 85) Exercise 1 1. then add 1 letter: optimistic = optimism pessimistic = pessimism realistic = realism (reality is also a noun form) Remove 2 letters. inclusive / competitive 12. innovative / impressive 3. helpful / supportive / dependable 13. then add 3 letters: confused = confusion deep = depth hot = heat Remove 2 letters. extended family / nuclear family 14. Constitution (note that this particular example begins with a capital letter) 26. voluntary / constructive 17. wasteful / obligatory 4. Physical education 9. the / where 15. promotional / inspiring 2. at / many / would 9. dependent (note that in British English. avoidable / careless (not careful) 18. to / no / of 2. of / to / a / on 7. teenager 11. then add 2 letters: aggressive = aggression creative = creation appreciative = appreciation Remove 2 letters: functional = function logical = logic optional = option Remove 1 letter. Unless / on or for 8. reality 24. justification Exercise 2 Remove 4 letters: comfortable = comfort fashionable = fashion systematic = system Remove 3 letters. least / more / because or as or since / had 3. contradictory / enthusiastic 22. formative years 2.

cost of living 9. journalists or reporters 6. Exercise 3 1. invasion of privacy 4. salmonella / listeria (in either order) 17. food poisoning The media (pages 88 – 89) Exercise 1 1. syllabus 12. documentary / current affairs 11. overdraft 6. check book journalism 20. balanced diet 12. and tabloids as popular papers) 5. tabloids 8. fast food 2 / 3. paparazzi 18. invest 18. freedom of the press Money and finance (pages 90 – 91) Exercise 1 1. debit 18. savings and loan association 19. a public school is a school for children whose parents pay for their education. food groups 11. harvest 9. discount 17. acquire 11. Fiber (spelt fibre in British English) / fat / saturated / monosaturated 2. current affairs 5. bankrupt 5. graduate 13. malnutrition 7. secondary 7. borrow 2. loss 9. physical education 12. censorship (the verb is to censor) 8.. salmonella / listeria (in either order) / food poisoning 10.Answer key Answer key / grade school 11. invest 11. priceless 7.A. overweight / obese / obesity / diabetes / heart disease 9. discipline 8. on credit 12. online 24. qualifications 10. documentaries 10. Calories / Protein / Calcium / Carbohydrates 3. Internet 11. economize 14. entertainment or information 15. check 17. exorbitant 13. invasion of privacy 17. unscrupulous 21. salary 12. censorship / restrictions 25. overdraft Exercise 3 1. higher 14. borrow 3. genetically modified 14. income 4. food intolerance / allergy / allergic Exercise 2 1. graduate school 17. It is becoming increasingly common to refer to the old broadsheets as quality papers. journalist / reporter (also known as a correspondent) 7. libel 19. inflation 8. broadcasts or programs 9. information or entertainment 14. fat / carbohydrates (in either order) 6. fiber 11. informed 2. broadsheet / tabloid / gutter press / tabloid TV (note that several newspapers that were previously printed on large sheets of paper are now printed on smaller sheets of paper. withdraw 14. doctorate 18. organic 15 / 16. correspondence course 21. expenditure 5. kindergarten / elementary school 5. reality TV 10. download 13. refund 4. skills 2 / 3. gutter press 16. diet / fat farm / exercise 4. loan 3. elementary 6. save 16. graduate / graduate school / higher degree 13. exorbitant 10. media tycoon (also called a media baron) 9. shares 20. priceless 13. with the result that broadsheet is not used so much any more. mature 22. receipt 8. frugal or economical 16. fat / cholesterol 12.. literacy / numeracy (in either order) 4. a public school is a free local school controlled and paid for by the government. In the U. semester / quarter *Note that in the U. reductions 15. expenditure 2. reporters or journalists 7. bargain 124 . slander (this can also be a verb: to slander someone) / slanderous / libel (this can also be a verb: to libel someone) / libelous 2. vegetarian / vegan 7. subject 16. websites 12. read between the lines 3. reality TV 23. balance 6. junior high school / middle school (in either order) / high school 14. night class 19. degree 15. overcharged 15.K. minerals / vitamins (in either order) 4 / 5. dumbing down 6. stocks 19. coverage 4. savings and loan association 10. scarcity 8. pass 9. check book journalism 12. balanced diet 10. airtime / coverage / readership Exercise 3 1. Organic / Free range / Genetically modified (GM) 5. in the black 7. dumbing down 22. mortgage 20.S. broadsheets 3. eating disorder / bulimia / anorexia (these last two in either order) 6. Fast food / junk food / nutritious 8. opportunity Food and diet (pages 86 – 87) Exercise 1 1. day release 20. calories 13. interest 11.

greenhouse gases 4. geneticist 9. 14. fossil fuels 2. 5. green belts On the road (pages 95 – 96) Exercise 1 1. discovered 2. technophobe (the fear or distrust of technology is called technophobia. Fatalities are people who are killed in accidents on the road. Correct. Traffic calming refers to methods used to slow down traffic in towns and cities (for example. unleaded gas 10. nuclear engineering 13. outskirts 6. depopulation 7. dominate 20. genetically modified (often shortened to GM) 9. traffic-free zone / pedestrian mall 16. prospects 2. congestion 8. A technophile is someone who is very enthusiastic about technology) 5. contaminated (or polluted) 14. 6. It is a British-English expression that is becoming more widely used in the USA. ecosystem 11. technophobes 11. environmentalists 15. cybernetics 12. recycle 12. emissions / gases / fumes 8. Correct. commuter 5. Correct 16. ecosystem 12. The interstate is a wide road with several lanes of traffic going in each direction. rain forest 5. Global warming Exercise 3 1. A traffic-free zone is an area where you cannot drive a vehicle (including. 7. organic 15. Part of its operating costs are paid for by the government or a local authority. contaminated 7. genetically modified 14. built for fast travel over long distances as part of a national road system. traffic school Science and technology (pages 97 – 98) Exercise 1 1. black spot 12. Internet 7. life expectancy 3. Correct. metropolis 3. Back out is another expression for to reverse (to move a car backward). 9. Correct 15. speeding 4. pedestrians 7. Cryogenics 13. experiment 17. Acid rain 11. A scientist who studies living things is a biologist) 4. greenhouse gases / CFC gases 4. 2. Genetic engineering 2. 4. Wrong. unleaded gas 16. technocrat 11. Park and ride 15. 13. research 9. Innovation (the verb is to innovate. safeguards 14. Information technology 7. a traffic school is a school where drivers are sent to correct their bad driving (usually offered as an alternative to another form of punishment such as a fine or prison sentence when the driver has done something dangerous or caused an accident). urban (the opposite is rural) 12. genetic engineering 15. infrastructure 4. modified 8. bicycles). A sidewalk is an area to the side of a road where people can walk. 12. Wrong. Wrong. speed limit 5. biodegradable packaging 13. in some cases and at some times. organic 8. environmentalists 17. safeguard (this can also be a verb: to safeguard) 3. Research (this can also be a verb: to research) 12. crosswalks 8. Rush hour is the time of day when there are a lot of vehicles on the road because most people are traveling to or from work. fines 19. subsidized 18. congestion / pollution (in either order) 11. 10. innovations / inventions 4. rainforest 6. technophiles 10. 125 . Cybernetics 10. transport strategy 13. acid rain 3. The adjective is experimental) 14. breakthrough 5. global warming 5. e-mail 8. endangered species 10. In the USA. Wrong. Wrong. Wrong. emissions / fossil fuels 13. Wrong. invented 6. by building raised areas across roads). melting pot 9. The adjective is innovative) Exercise 3 1. Wrong. traffic light 9 / 10. Trafficcalming 14. analyzed 16. 8. Exercise 3 1 / 2. Correct.Answer key Answer key Nature and the environment (pages 93 – 94) Exercise 1 1. amenities The word that fits in the grid is cosmopolitan. Correct. Life expectancy 15. battery farming 19. 3. stressful 11. drunk driving 6. cycle lanes 17. green belt 2. poaching 9. Biology (the adjective is biological. injuries / fatalities (in either order) 3. conservation programs 18. experiment (this can also be a verb: to experiment. Wrong. erosion 6. recycle 7. 11. breakthrough 6. control Town and country (pages 99 – 100) Exercise 1 (the letters in bold show you the letters that need to go in the grid) 1. migration 10. biodegradable packaging 3.

checking in 20. persona non grata 18. excursion 5. salary 17. increment / raise 21. A travel agent is someone whose job is to help people plan holidays and make travel arrangements (they usually work for a travel agency). mass tourism 9. A package tourist goes on a package tour. independent travelers 4. No. blue-collar 5. self-employed . freelance (This can also be a verb: to freelance. etc. service industries 13. excursion Work (pages 103 – 104) Exercise 1 1. you are sent out of the country you are in (maybe because you have done something wrong) 7. increment 6. unskilled 3. economic migrants 14. firing 12.. repetitive strain injury 16. An expatriate is someone who chooses to live and work in another country 10. usually through a travel agency. 15. sickness benefit 22. travel agent 2. drug abuse / street crime 16. expatriates 15. your place of work might be unhealthy or dangerous. but wants to live and work there: a green card is an official document that allows them to do this. visas 5. unsociable hours 15. immigration 17. accommodation.) and does not usually rely on an agency 9. demanding 14.: see number 16) 11. Your work conditions are bad (for example.S. A tour operator is a company that organizes holiday tours and then sells them. internally displaced Exercise 3 1. country. inner city 17. they might book their flight on the Internet. culture shock 16. semi-skilled 4. Someone who has been repatriated has been sent back from one country to the country that is legally their own (possibly because they have been deported – see number 6). prospects 19. Sick building syndrome is a medical condition that affects people who work in buildings where the air is not healthy 10. refugees 12. town. coach class 7. culture shock 3. When you resign. all-inclusive 10. congestion / traffic jams 11. No. rural 18. If you are deported. building sites 14. infrastructure 7. you stop working because you have reached a particular age. A safari is a journey taken in order to watch or take pictures of wild animals 14. pay for their hotel when they arrive at their destination. etc. promotion 18. pollution 12. When you retire. A wage and a salary are both money you receive for doing a job. UNHCR = United Nations High Commission for Refugees. transfers. package tour 3. Ecotourism (also called green tourism or sometimes responsible tourism) 12. False. you might not have much job security. The person who does this is called a freelancer) Exercise 3 1. etc. job security 9. 13. An independent traveler books different aspects of their trip separately (for example. A person who is not from the U. service industries 8.) 14. Persona non grata is a Latin expression that is used in English. in a factory or a mine) and a white-collar worker works in an office 7. incentive 20.A. but the first is usually paid daily or weekly and the second is usually paid monthly 3. commuters 8. deported 19. or their passport is no longer valid) 2. especially one that involves visiting a series of places. employees 2. urban 4. environment Travel (pages 101 – 102) Exercise 1 1. the department of the United Nations that deals with the problem of refugees (see number 9) and other displaced people (= people who have been forcibly moved from their home. You would probably not be happy. Central Business District 9. cost of living 13. metropolis 2. population explosion 15. perks 9. together and in advance. applicant 2. disembark 8. then get a taxi from the airport to their hotel. cosmopolitan 3. where they pay for all flights. check in 6. They are doing something that is illegal: trafficking involves buying and selling things such as drugs and weapons illegally. rush hour / peak periods 10. white-collar 7. etc. manufacturing industries 6. It makes some of its workers redundant (=it gets rid of some of its workers) because it no longer needs them 8. pension 23. mass tourism 8.. It is most commonly used to refer to someone who is not allowed in a country because they do not have formal permission to be there (for example. A cruise is a journey on a ship for pleasure. 4. False. including Club Class) 6. you leave a job because (for example) you want a different job or because you are not happy with the company you are working for 12. hiring 11. 16. fired 5. usually through a travel agency. ecotourism 11. perks 19. usually between countries. their visa for that country has expired. internally displaced 13. cultural events 6. Repetitive strain injury (usually abbreviated to RSI) 4. coach class (called economy or tourist class in British English) / first class / business class (sometimes also called by other names. productive land / cultivation / arable land 20. A blue-collar worker does work that involves physical strength or skill with their hands (for example. stress 13. steady job 10.Answer key 126 Answer key Exercise 3 1. a steady job 11. A refugee is someone who leaves their country because they have to (usually because of a war or other threatening event). amenities / facilities 5. urban sprawl 21.

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