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10.1007_s12541-012-0187-z|Views: 8|Likes: 0

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/152541555/10-1007-s12541-012-0187-z

12/31/2013

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1007/s12541-012-0187-z

AUGUST 2012 / 1425

Finite Element Method Study to Predict Spring-back in Roll-Bending of Pre-Coated Material and Select Bending Parameters

Duc-Toan Nguyen1,#, Young-Suk Kim2, and Dong-Won Jung3

1 School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, 1A-Dai Co Viet Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi City, Vietnam, 10000 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sangyeok-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu, Republic of Korea, 702-701 3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jeju National University, 1 Ara 1-dong, Jeju-si, Jeju, Republic of Korea, 690-756 # Corresponding Author / E-mail: toannd-mcii@mail.hut.edu.vn, TEL: +84-43-869-2007, FAX: +84-43-869-2006 KEYWORDS: Pre-coated material, FEM, Spring-back prediction, Surface fitting method

In this study, pre-coated material was applied in roll-bending process to make 90 degree wall angle with various corner radii. Based on the desired corner radius value, a die radius and bending angle should be selected to obtain corrected shape. To predict spring back in roll-bending process, combined kinematic/isotropic hardening law was used and shown more accuracy with other laws when comparing with corresponding experiment data. To decide die radius and bending angle for desired shape, several values of die radius and bending angle of roll bending process were first changed to simulate and investigate corner radius and wall angle of blank after spring-back. A MATLAB tool was then utilized to determine the corner radius and wall angle of blank after spring-back as functions of die radius and bending angle using a surface fitting method. Finally, the die radius and bending angle were obtained by solving intersection curve equations between desired planes of corner radius and 90 degree wall angle with fitted surface.

Manuscript received: January 2, 2012 / Accepted: March 13, 2012

1. Introduction

Nowadays, pre-coated material (PCM) sheets are widely using to make household electric appliances due to their cost-effective, environmentally attractive alternative to other sheet metals after forming process and especially surface appearance improvement. In order to prevent scratching for products made of PCM sheet, new forming processes should be used instead of conventional methods. To verify the effects of coating material and forming conditions on scratch characteristics of PCM sheet, several researchers had been studied.1-3 In current work, an innovative process of roll-bending for manufacturing sheet metal products will be introduced. The rollbending process (Fig. 1) is applied to make 90 degree wall angle with various corner radii (Fig. 2). The movement and bending angle of the rollers are controlled by using a CNC system. This approach can prevent the PCM coating layer from being damaged or flaked after bending. However, in roll-bending process, to achieve the desired corner radius value of products, a die radius and bending angle should be calculated carefully because of larger spring-back occurrence after bending process. But manual or experience © KSPE and Springer 2012

calculations were shown as an unrealistic and low cost-effective method due to the effect of both material properties and forming process parameters on spring-back. Finite element method (FEM) simulation, which is an essential tool for an understanding of the physical processes modeled by partial differential or integral equations, was currently applied to clarify the forming characteristics,4,5 predict springback6-8 and improve the forming process.9,10 After the pioneers work of (FEM), It has been successfully became the basis of spring-back compensation method. In sheet metal forming, when sheet parts are removed from tools after forming then material elements experience elastic unloading and spring-back phenomenon which will affect the accuracy of part geometry inevitably. To understand the detailed mechanics in relation to analytical spring-back methods and approaches please refer to.11 As mentioned by previous studies,6-8,12 FEM simulation to predict spring-back remains a difficult task due to sensitivity of material and process parameters. One of important reasons is the Bauschinger effect under unloading. In other words, the effects of constitutive model on spring-back simulation results are mainly significant based on the correctly prediction of material behavior

kinematic and combined hardening laws were simulated using the ABAQUS/Explicit finite element code17 to describe stress-strain curves at various pre-strain and compared with experimental data of uni-axial tension and compression tests. Nowadays. No.Frederick15 and Chaboche16 changed the linear model to nonlinear forms by including transient behavior and by introducing an additional term.7 2. several simulations were performed with the changing of die radius and bending angle of roll bending process in order to verify the effect of spring back on corner radius and wall angle of the products. kN/mm2) Possion’s ratio Yield stress (σY. it is very difficult to determine experimental parameters for exactly reproduce the forward-reverse stress-strain curves under reverse loading. the combined hardening law with new way of determining experimental parameters. Solving the system of intersection curve equations between desired planes of corner radii and 90 degree wall angle with fitting surfaces shows the results of die designs and bending angles. 2. which incorporates the shifting of a single-yield surface. To fit the test data to the true stress-strain curves of Voce’s18 hardening law Eq. was implemented to predict spring-back for some corresponding sample tests of roll-bending process. Prager13 and Ziegler14 proposed linear kinematic hardening. MPa) A (MPa) B-value PCM 7. In this study. reproduced nonlinear and smooth deformation during loading and reverse loading.3 165 190. and tension yield stress. Then. (1) was implemented using least square fitting of the MATLAB tool to determine the hardening parameters. first. this approach is widely used in commercial software to predict material behavior under reverse loading and especially spring-back phenomena. we first employed surface fitting method of MATLAB tool to express the corner radius and wall angle of the products after spring-back as functions of die radius and bending angle. 13. Material and hardening model 2. and σ Y are the equivalent stress. 8 Fig. Based on the agreement between simulation and experimental results. pl σ = σ Y + A(1 − exp(− Bε eq )) (1) pl where A and B are the plastic coefficients. stress-strain curve under reverse loading.g.2 The hardening models The nonlinear combined hardening model was developed by Amstrong . In order to predict more exactly spring-back of roll-bending process. the von-Mises yield surface both translates and expands with plastic strain and is defined as Eq. The parameters characterizing the uni-axial-stressplastic-strain response of the material are also given in the Table 1. ε eq . PCM sheet with a thickness of 0. isotropic. To obtain desired corner radius with 90 degree wall-angle.Frederick15 and then Chaboche. However. σ . The additional back stress term. For combined hardening model.5 mm.g. (2) . respectively. 1 Roll-bending process e. One of approaches to describe the reverse loading phenomena in continuum phenomenological plasticity is based on kinematic hardening. kg/mm3) Young’s modulus (E.9 17. The tensile specimens were cut from the sheet in parallel to the rolling direction in order to carry out uni-axial tensile tests.16 They include transient behavior and introduce additional terms to express nonlinear forms. which shows the best fitting compared with uni-axial stress-strain curves of tension and compression tests.1426 / AUGUST 2012 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PRECISION ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING Vol. Fig. which decreases the total back stress gradually with deformation. For this approach group. 2 Typical sample with 90 degree wall angle with various corner radii Table 1 Mechanical properties of tested material Material Density (ρ.1 Materials Table 1 shows the mechanical properties of the blank. equivalent strain.8e-06 104700 0. Obtained die designs and bending angles were finally simulated to investigate the calculation results. then Amstrong . three kind of hardening models e.

4 Deformed shape of tensile specimens in FE simulation for tension/compression tests using isotropic hardening law (a) and its predictions for stress-strain curves (b) prediction. Figure 3 shows the stress-strain curves obtained from tension/compression tests at various pre-strains for PCM sheet. where the average element size of the shell elements was about 1. was used to extend the attainable strain range of the PCM sheet in compression to approximately 0. 13.8 mm in length. (3). the uni-axial tension/compression testing specimen was modeled using shell elements S4R. (2).2 mm in width and 2. kinematic. No.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PRECISION ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING Vol. σm are the current values of the stress and mean stress. To verify the effect of hardening laws on stress-strain curves . 8 AUGUST 2012 / 1427 1 1 2 f (σ ) = ξij : ξij = σ iso 2 3 (2) where σ iso is the uni-axial equivalent yield stress.. Equation 2 is rewritten as: f (σ ) = 1 1 Sij : Sij = σ 2 2 3 (6) (a) The consistency condition for isotropic hardening is written by taking the rate of Eq.3 Determination of the material parameters In order to predict spring-back of roll bending process. tension/compression specimen14 for PCM sheet was used to obtain uni-axial stress-strain curves at various pre-strains. finally. isotropic. combined hardening model and then compared with flow stress curves of tension/compression test. In the pure isotropic hardening case. A. and ξ is the stress difference measured from the center of the yield surface. and B in Eq. a test method developed by Boger et al. (6): & (σ ) = 2 σ σ & f 3 (7) For simple kinematic hardening model. and I is the identity matrix. stress-strain data obtained from experimental results were input to ABAQUS/Explicit to simulate the uni-axial tension/compression tests of tensile specimens. 3 Stress-strain curves of PCM material at various pre-strains σ pl pl (σ ij − α ij )d ε eq − γα ij d ε eq (5) where C and γ are the unknown material coefficients refer to kinematic behavior. Here.g. When isotropic hardening law was used to simulate the uniaxial tension/compression tests then only parameters. dα ij = C Fig. we first identified the material parameters based on three kinds of hardening models e. the size of yield surface & = 0 ) and the von Mises yield condition is does not grow ( σ iso written in terms of the stress difference ξ with only the translation of yield locus following back stress α as Eq.03. Then the consistency condition for kinematic hardening is written as: & (σ ) = 1 ξ & :ξ & =0 f ij ij 2 (8) (b) Fig. ξij = Sij − α ij The deviatoric part of the current stress is: Sij = σ ij − σ m I (3) (4) where σ. there is only size evolution of the yield locus then the back stress α is zero and the stress difference ξ is equal to the deviatoric stress S. as shown in Eq. Figure 4(a) depicts the deformed shapes of the tensile specimen in the FE simulation and Figure 4(b) shows the stress-strain curves prediction at various pre- 2. For this purpose. FEM simulations of roll bending process were performed and compared with experimental result to verify the prediction of three hardening models. (1) are adopted as input data. To prevent buckling. The kinematic hardening evolution is depicted by back stress increment as a function of equivalent plastic strain. and the flat steel plate was modeled using rigid surface-elements R3D4. where α is the back stress. σ Y .19 which relies on through-thickness sheet stabilization to avoid buckling.

following fitting equation (11) as show in Fig. No.2. Based on uniaxial tensile stress-strain curve Eq. we can obtain equivalent yield stress data vs pl pl pl equivalent strain values: σ iso (ε eq ) = σ (ε eq ) − α (ε eq ). 6 Combined hardening parameters determination based on experimental data (a) and the predictions for stress-strain curves at various pre-strain (b) at each pre-strain reverse loading occurrence. B1.7 (Fig. 6(a) pl σ iso = σ Y + A1 (1 − exp(− B1ε eq )) (11) With four hardening parameters A1. C. isotropic hardening law overestimated the hardening component by missing the Bauschinger effect and transient behavior.1428 / AUGUST 2012 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PRECISION ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING Vol. and γ. 5(b). These data are then used to determine hardening parameters A1 and B1 as 73. experimental data in both tension and compression tests were used to obtain back-stress α curve following our proposed method: to obtain corrected Bauschinger effect prediction To express non-linear transient behavior under unloading. it turns out that approximately equal amounts of kinematic and isotropic hardening are needed to obtain a good correlation between model and experiment data as shown in Fig. (10). (9). 6(a)). respectively. (1) and back-stress α curve Eq. we utilized the data of unloading curves after translation and rotation about origin point as the evolution of back-stress α curve vs strain values at the beginning (Fig.6 MPa and 92. Above relationship between back-stress α and equivalent strain was used to determine parameters C and γ in Eq. 5(a)). αi = σ i ( loading ) + σ i (unloading ) 2 (10) α= C γ (1 − e pl − γε eq ) (9) As shown in Figs. kinematic hardening model was implemented to simulate tension/compression test and predict stress-strain curves evolution. Fig. To introduce Bauschinger effect. 5 Back-stress α obtainment for kinematic hardening law (a) and its predictions for stress-strain curves at various pre-strain (b) strains and its comparison with corresponding experiment data. (9) was utilized to calculate calibration yields C as 3386. (6) as 8843. respectively. we calculated backstress points as Eq. (5). back-stress α curve was first obtained by offsetting tensile stress-strain curve data about yield stress value ( σ Y ) then fitting method based on the back-stress evolution law Eq.2. 6(b). To determine the kinematic hardening parameters C and γ in Eq. 8 (a) (a) (b) (b) Fig. 4(b) and 5(b).6 MPa and γ as 17. The stress-strain curve predictions using only kinematic hardening law were compared with corresponding experiment data as shown in Fig. 13. and kinematic hardening law underestimates the hardening of material and exaggerates the Bauschinger effect after reverse loading occurrence so that the combined kinematic/isotropic hardening law was applied in fitting procedure.6 MPa and 10. . Here.

8 Deformed shape in FE simulations for roll-bending process with Abaqus/Explicit (a) Abaqus/Standard translation (b) and its spring-back prediction with isotropic (c) kinematic (d) combined (e) hardening laws then comparisons with experiment (f) . The friction behavior was modeled using the Coulomb friction law. stress distribution. boundary conditions and simulation method This FEM software can simulate many characteristics of the forming process such as flow pattern. The spring-back (d) (e) (f) Fig. In order to simulate spring-back. The blank specimen was clamped by the concentration force acting on the blank holder. significantly reducing the cost and time involved in tool and die design. (c) 3. the commercial software ABAQUS version 6. This software can provide elastic-plastic and rigid-plastic simulations of metal forming for a case of large deformation. Figure 7 shows the FE model for the roll-bending process of a PCM sheet to obtain 90 degree wall angle with various corner radii.1. No. The blank holder was allowed to move in the vertical direction and the roller can rotate about center point of die radius. 13. The force was ramped on with a smooth step definition to minimize inertia effects. strain distribution. only one half of the specimen was modeled.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PRECISION ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING Vol. die and blank holder were modeled using rigid surface-elements R3D4 and the reduced 4-node shell element (S4R) was used for the blank. The die was fixed in all directions. the roller. the roll-bending process was first performed in two steps with Abaqus/Explicit. the average element size of the blank was about 20 mm (length) x 20 mm (width) and refined the mesh about 20 mm (length) x 1 mm (width) at deformed zone. etc. 7 Finite element model for forming simulation (b) 3. Throughout this study.10117 was used to simulate the roll-bending process. the average element size of the rigid die. In the second step of the analysis the roller was rotated about center of die radius following decided bending angle. and the spring-back based on the isotropic. The blank holder force was applied in the first step of the analysis. blank holder and roller were about 20 mm in length and 1 mm in width. kinematic and combined hardening laws. To simulate the experiments. 8 AUGUST 2012 / 1429 (a) Fig. The friction coefficient μ1 between the blank and the roller was assumed to be frictionless and the fiction coefficient μ2 between the blank and the die/the blank holder were assumed of 0.1 Geometry. Finite Element Simulation for roll bending spring-back prediction In this study. FE models.

06 120 110.59 81. we first utilized the relationship between the output results (corner radii and wall angles after spring-back prediction) and the input data (die radius and bending angle) as shown in Tables 3 and 4. polyfitn will not help to decide what order polynomial mode to use.71 96.24 105. Die radius and bending angle selections Based on the good agreement between spring-back prediction of simulation and experimental result.00 80. Table 2 lists the selected level for two parameters defined in Fig.41 91. Of course.83 115 107. The displacement obtained at the end of the step was the spring-back. respectively. Those values are then used to simulate and verify spring-back predictions by measuring corner radii (Rsimulation) . After surface fitting procedure.92 90.6 33. They provide information about the parameters. The prediction of combined hardening law was in good agreement with experimental result.7 110 11.90 73.7 115 10. Based on the desired shape of final products e. respectively.74 110 102.1 25. The results from the forming simulation in Abaqus/Explicit are imported into Abaqus/Standard. The fitting method called polifitn. (12) and (13)) by using MATLAB tool with the command of (fsolve). blank holder and roller. Here. Table 3 Corner radius Rsp (mm) after spring-back based on die radius and bending-angle Die radius Rdie (mm) Bending angle θbending (degree) 10 15 20 25 30 100 11. (d). In order to select die radius and bending angle for desired shape.88 81. the deformed blank shape was then imported into Abaqus/Standard (Fig.6 120 10. we represent the corner radii (Rsp) and wall angles (θsp) after spring-back prediction as polynomial functions of die radius and bending angle as shown in Eqs. 13. after deleting the rigid die. which suggests that it is just an extension of polyfit to problems with several independent variables. respectively. Linear or quadratic models often are useful. 8 the isotropic hardening and kinematic hardening laws over.9 25. Tables 3 and 4 show FEM simulation results of the corner radius and wall angle of blank after spring-back based on the level factors of die radius and bending angle parameters.2 25. Polyfitn will allow estimating any simple polynomial model which needs to build.4 Table 4 Wall angle θsp (degree) after spring-back based on die radius and bending-angle Die radius Rdie (mm) Bending angle θbending (degree) 10 15 20 25 30 100 95. That is a problem that usually requires knowledge of the system.19 78. As shown in Fig. 8 analysis was then simulated with Abaqus/Standard. 8(a).7 43. Table 2 Factors and their levels in FE simulations Level Factors 1 2 3 Rdie (mm) 10 15 20 100 105 110 θbending (degree) 4 25 115 5 30 200 3. forming process was first performed with Abaqus/Explicit (Fig. and a static analysis calculates the spring-back. 8(c). in terms of how much noise is present in the data. During this step an artificial stress state that equilibrates the imported stress state was applied automatically by Abaqus/Standard and gradually removed during the step.2 mm die radius.26 105 96. 9. kinematic and combined hardening in Figs.2 Spring-back predictions To verify the spring-back predictions of hardening laws. 8(a)). corner radius (R) and 90 degree wall angle (θ). die radius and bending’s angle on corner radius (Rsp) and wall angle (θsp) of product after spring-back (Fig.8 105 11.6 33.15 88. Here.g.5 33. 8(f). and (e). kinematic and combined hardening laws were applied to simulate roll-bending process and compare their results with the success result of 90 degree wall and 34 mm corner radius from experiment test with 120.96 71.90 103.4 17. then employed surface fitting method of MATLAB tool to express the output results (corner radii and wall angles after spring-back prediction) as functions of the changed die radius and bending angle.56 90.96 99.1430 / AUGUST 2012 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PRECISION ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING Vol. about the relative importance of the variables in a model. (12) and (13).0 17. Based on hardening laws.40 4. Figure 8 shows the simulation procedures to predict springback.89 86. The deformed shape of the blank’s cross-section was measured by scanning and importing pictures into AUTOCAD then comparing between experiment and simulations as show in Fig.6 43.and under-estimate roll-bending’s angle. after spring-back.6 43. the isotropic. Rsp = a1 + a2 ( Rdie ) + a3 (θ bending ) + a4 ( Rdie )(θbending ) + a5 ( Rdie ) 2 + a6 (θ bending ) 2 (12) θ sp = b1 + b2 ( Rdie ) + b3 (θ bending ) + b4 ( Rdie )(θbending ) + b5 ( Rdie ) 2 + b6 (θbending ) 2 (13) where ai and bi are fitted constants determined by surface fitting method. High order polynomial models are not in general something.28 82. (12) and (13) for six validated cases of desired corner (R) radius and 90 degree wall angle (θ). and what we will do with the model.7 43. Table 6 shows the results in calculation for die radii (Rdie) and bending angles (θbending) from Eqs.7 25.3 17. the springbacks and the von-Mises residual stress state were statically calculated and give the predictions of the isotropic. As the FE simulation using the five-level factors with two parameters then the full factorial design is 25 experiments. 8(b)).48 83.g. and the stresses give the residual stress state.4 33.7 43.1 degree bending angle and 25.1 25.08 91. we can solve the system of nonlinear equations (Eqs. 8(f)).06 89. It also requires some appreciation of the goals in the process.8 16. this study utilizes FE simulation results to verify the effect of changing parameters e. No.9 16.4 33. the values of fitted constants were listed in Table 5 and the fitting surfaces depicted in Fig.90 77.

T. “Optimization of forming steps in the incremental forming of twisted shapes using a line array roll set (LARS). No..3 120.. 139. Vol. F. Vol.. 5. Vol. and Jung. 11. “Development of scratch tests for pre-painted metal sheet and the influence of paint properties on the scratch resistance..” 1998. Park. Rep. S. W.2 90.022229 5. “Spring-back evaluation of automotive sheets based on isotropic–kinematic hardening laws and non-quadratic anisotropic yield functions. D. Y. No. .8 26. M. Nguyen.2 25. G. Mater. Manuf. 6..4 θbending (degree) 96. D. 86. D. A. The analysis results show the bigger die radius..” J. 3.1 107. Ekstrand.10).363 b2 0. B. 2003. Yang..8 34.. 5.6 15. pp. Schedin.8 91. “POSCO Tech. Y. 2005. Conclusions In current study.7 28. Park. After comparing with kinematic and isotropic hardening laws.0386 0. “Scratch characteristics for non-vinyl pre-coated metal sheet using the simple Ubending process. Precis. and Hult. S. H. Technol. Vol. Kim..3 18.” Int. J. J. to simulate and predict the roll-bending springback for PCM sheet with various corner radii. J. No.000343 θsp b1 32.. C. M. Those equations can be solved to decide die radius and bending angle following desired corner radius and wall angle of final product.0 Rsimulation (mm) 11. various die radii and bending angles were changed to simulate and verify roll-bending shapes. G. D. θ) and the simulation measurements of corner radius (Rsimulation) and wall angle (θsimulation) R (mm) 12 18 23 27 35 40 θ (degree) 90 90 90 90 90 90 Rdie (mm) 10. Process.003354 (a) REFERENCES 1. Part I: Theory and formulation. Lee. Corner radius and wall angle after spring-back were then formulated as functions of die radius and bending angle based on surface fitting method. Lange.. Y. Process. 2. and Barlat. Kim.” J. Kim. Technol. “Ductile fracture prediction in rotational incremental forming for magnesium alloy sheets using combined kinematic/isotropic hardening model. pp. G. Shim. 13.6 102. No.. 4. S. The simulation results were in good agreement with the selections of die radius and bending angle which were calculated by our proposed method. pp.. a combined hardening model with the new way to determine hardening parameters was implemented into finite element simulations using commercial software (ABAQUS version 6.7 89.6 17. 1998. Y. consisting of the certain die radii and bending angles (Table 3).” Metall..... 2010. 861-882.00092 0. Plast. 8. and Han.1 111. M.7 θsimulation (degree) 88. Mater.1 126. 41.” Int. 9 Fitting surfaces based on the relationship of corner radius (a) and wall angle (b) after spring-back with die radius and bending angle Table 6 Die radii (Rdie) and bending angles (θbending) calculations based on desired shapes (R.. 1-3. D. A. were selected to give the desired shapes and confirmed by FEM simulations.. G.. L. the larger springback occurrence. Eng. 1983-1994. 21. pp. No. J.3 91.3573 b4 -0. 2010.... S.1 and wall angles (θsimulation) after spring-back as shown in Table 6. and Lee. Chung. 8 AUGUST 2012 / 1431 Table 5 Fitted constants obtained by surface fitting method a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 Rsp 1. As analysis results.. Mater. and Kim. Trans. C. (b) Fig.645 0.995 b3 0. Vol.3 22.7 39.161 0.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PRECISION ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING Vol.. 414-421...7 21. The obtained values for validated cases.01729 b5 -0.008863 b6 0. the (FE) simulation results showed that the combined hardening model presented more correctly the stress-strain curves in tension/compression tests with various pre-strain and then the combined hardening model was applied to predict spring-back of roll-bending process. 300-305. pp. 715-723. Kim. From agreement between simulation and experimental data of springback prediction.7 90. K. the combinations of die radius (Rdie) and bending angle (θbending) were identified as the important selections for improving the accuracy of roll-bending process. Luisier. No. E. Wenner. Chung. A. -0. 1-2. 5. M. S.

. W. K. No. K. E.. 74.. Math. Appl. DOI: 10. and Zhang. pp. and Kang. P. R... large strain..” Int. 10. 1956. D. 23. G...-L. 1023-1030. “A practical two-surface plasticity model and its application to spring-back prediction. G. Eng. Wagoner. 2008. W. K. Wagoner... P.-T.. “Continuous. pp. Vol. 17. 8. D. G. C. Lee. Park. Y. F.. Hibbit.. 1189-1212. J. Yoshida. 13. 16. 11. G. pp. Nguyen. Inst. 8 7. Prager. 14.” World Scientific. J. Appl. 21. E. “Improvement of formability for multi-point bending process of AZ31B sheet material using elastic cushion. R. tension/compression testing of sheet material. 2005. 7. C.. G. 55-65.. Mech. D. Mech. Report. 18. Manuf. Banh.. Plast. Z. D. Armstrong. 1978. pp. “A modification of Prager’s hardening rule. C. “A study on material modeling to predict spring-back in V-bending of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet at various temperatures. L. Vol. No. 1986. 2007. Wenner.. No. J.. Voce. H.. 6.. RD/B/N 731. Manuf. and Kim. J.. Jung. of the Inst. T. Eng. S. B.” J. 1990.” Int.. Boger. J.” Quart.-W.” Int. “A new method of analyzing stresses and strains in work hardening plastic solids.. 19.. Precis. 18. Yu. Vol. 6. S. 17. No.1007/ s00170-011-3828-y.. H. Plast. and Chung. S. D. “Plastic bending: theory and applications. and Frederick. . Vol.. X.” ABAQUS Inc. Ku. Vol. Eng. 224. 15. Barlat. O. Vol.-H.. ASME.10-1.. pp. and Uemori. Lee. 913-924.. Met. 9. 1966. 12.” Int. M. J. 13. H.. and Sorensen. 2010. 12. J.. 149-188. F. B. Adv. pp. J. “A Mathematical Representation of the Multiaxial Bauschinger Effect. Vol. No. B. M. “Finite element method study of incremental sheet forming for complex shape and its improvement. 2.. 537-562. Kim. and Kim. Ziegler. H. Karlsson. 2011.” J..1432 / AUGUST 2012 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PRECISION ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING Vol. Vol. Nguyen.. M. Manuf. Vol.. J. T... Kim. pp. 12. R.. pp.. “ABAQUS User’s Manual. Part B: J. Ver. Plast.” Proc. Chaboche. 661-686. 2002. Quan. 1959. Y.. “A model of large-strain cyclic plasticity describing the Bauschinger effect and work hardening stagnation.” G. 2011.” Int. pp.. T. 2319-2343. Technol. Plast.. Lee.-S. T. J. “Time independent constitutive theories for cyclic plasticity. T.” Int.. Yang. 493-496. and Chung. “The relationship between stress and strain for homogeneous deformation. 23. L.

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