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Copyright © 2007 LearningExpress, LLC. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT. p. cm. ISBN: 978-1-57685-632-1 1. Test of English as a Foreign Language—Study guides. 2. English language— Examinations—Study guides. 3. Vocabulary—Examinations—Study guides. 4. English language—Ability testing. I. LearningExpress (Organization) PE1128.V63 2007 428.0076—dc22 2007026015 Printed in the United States of America 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN: 978-1-57685-632-1 For information on LearningExpress, other LearningExpress products, or bulk sales, please write to us at: LearningExpress 2 Rector Street 26th Floor New York, NY 10006 Or visit us at: www.learnatest.com
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About TOEFL iBT Vocabulary in Context Using Preﬁxes and Sufﬁxes Word Roots Commonly Confused Words—Homonyms Idioms and Vocabulary Variations Practice Test 1 Practice Test 2 Appendix A: Word List Appendix B: Preﬁxes, Sufﬁxes, and Word Roots
Discovering words you don’t know may send your anxiety level soaring. There are several techniques for breaking sentences into smaller units. As you are reading a sentence with blanks or with words you don’t know. think about bringing these three large sets of words together into a rich and useful database that will serve you well. 3. and a speaking vocabulary. You can also use trial and error to ﬁnd islands of meaning in a sentence. Is it the subject—the person. you can learn to take unknown words in stride. Start small. Your speaking vocabulary may ignore many words you have either read or heard but do not use.Introduction E veryone has three vocabularies in every language he or she speaks: a reading vocabulary. and nobody does their best work when they’re anxious. and then you will understand the dynamics of the whole sentence. Usually you can ﬁgure out what function a word is serving in the sentence. The verb provides an anchor for the meaning because it tells you what is being done. look at the words around it. Ask yourself if it’s an action word. 2. 1. Don’t tackle the whole sentence at once. The words something and whatever work well v . Is it describing something? Then it’s an adjective or adverb. place or thing performing the action in the sentence? It’s a noun or pronoun. it can ease your anxiety to substitute words or sounds of your choosing in place of the unknown words. a listening vocabulary. it’s a verb. If the vocabulary in a sentence is a problem. though. If so. With practice. and heard words you’ve never read. Use the surrounding context to help you guess the meaning or at least the part of speech of an unfamiliar word. you will eventually see how they ﬁt together. One way you can do this is to ﬁnd a verb (an action word that tells you what’s happening) and gradually incorporate the words around it into an increasingly longer phrase as you decipher its meaning. Here’s how to start. Find a word or a phrase you understand and start adding a word or two on either side. As you discover several such islands and gradually enlarge each one. As you explore the vocabulary in this book. You’ve read words you have never heard.
For the TOEFL iBT. Share them with your coworkers. grammar. Remember those unfamiliar words you encounter in conversations or while reading. you should stick as closely as you can to your plan. It may be first thing in the morning. chances are you will not have to take this exam again—ever! . or exchange and scholarship programs. and spelling. Determine how much time you have until the test day. Whether your exam is months away or coming up in a few weeks. and it forms the foundation for reading comprehension. and certiﬁcation agencies. Take them apart. Welcome them to your world. If you study hard the first time. It mostly takes curiosity. you’ll still possess a wealthy vocabulary of English words! HOW TO USE THIS BOOK If you are trying to gain admission into universities where instruction is in English and this is not your native language. during your commute to work.vi VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT in many situations. With Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT. Obtaining a better vocabulary doesn’t have to be hard work. this book will help you prepare. friends. Whenever the time is right. or family. In general. Think about when would be the best time for you. You’ll be greatly rewarded for your efforts— because long after you have ﬁnished this book and taken the TOEFL iBT. Always keep your end goal in mind. Vocabulary is a broad topic. Once you establish a study plan for yourself. The reason for this is simple: Academic institutions want to be sure that you can read. Sometimes. and comprehend spoken English so that you can succeed in the college classroom. You may ﬁnd you prefer nonsense words instead. you can start substituting words that might work in the sentence. the better your basic vocabulary skills are. licensing. write. you will not be allowed to use a dictionary. thesaurus. this test will also be used to evaluate you by many government. we suggest that you choose a time each day to improve your vocabulary. or before you go to bed at night. As the meaning of the sentence gradually becomes clear. Begin getting ready for the TOEFL iBT by creating a study plan for yourself. and then decide how much time you can devote to studying each week. Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT will help nonnative speakers build or renew vital vocabulary skills. or other reference tool to help you with unfamiliar words. the better you will do on the entire TOEFL iBT. just make sure you do it regularly—at least five days a week for a month. you will have to pass the TOEFL iBT (Test of English as a Foreign Language Internet-based test).
I NTR O D U CTI O N
Now, once you have set a study plan for yourself, look at the table of contents to see the types of vocabulary topics covered in this book. You may want to tackle the chapters in sequence, or you may decide to study the sections that give you the most difﬁculty early on in your test preparation. Each chapter is ﬁlled with practice questions to test the new skill you just read about. As you work through the practice questions, you may want to have a dictionary or thesaurus handy. This can help expand your bank of vocabulary words. After you answer the practice questions, you will undoubtedly want to check your answers against the answer explanation section at the end of each chapter. Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT contains two practice tests at the end of the book. These tests will give you the chance to measure what you have learned and review any problem areas that you ﬁnd. If after answering all the questions you feel like you need more practice, reread the questions and try responding one more time. Repetition is often the key to success and studies show that most repetitive tasks become part of a person’s inventory of skills over time. The book ﬁnishes with a helpful word list of more than 650 commonly tested vocabulary words (Appendix A). It will be very beneﬁcial for you to add these words to your current vocabulary. We advise tackling the words on the list as you move through Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT, not waiting until the end of the book. Another helpful list—entitled Preﬁxes, Sufﬁxes, and Word Roots—is included in Appendix B. Understanding the parts that make up a word can give you a clue about a word’s deﬁnition, and this can help you make educated guesses when taking the TOEFL iBT.
About TOEFL iBT
he Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) is used to measure your ability to use English in an academic setting. The TOEFL is designed to indicate your ability to communicate by measuring the impact of reading, listening, speaking, and writing on effective communication. Strong ability in each of these four areas will be necessary as you continue learning in English.
WHO SHOULD TAKE THE TEST
Proﬁciency in English is essential if you are to follow class discussions and complete the reading and writing assignments in most college classes. In many courses, you may also be required to deliver oral presentations. And if you are applying to a graduate program, you may be given a position as a teaching assistant, which means you will be expected to help undergraduate students with their schoolwork, instruct them, and grade their assignments. In order to ensure that you can succeed even though you are not studying in your native language, and that you will be a competent teaching assistant if you are applying to graduate school, colleges and other institutions may require you to take the TOEFL. To determine if you need to take the TOEFL, you should contact each institution to which you are applying for admission.
READING SECTION (approximately 60–100 minutes) 30 total points This section contains 3–5 reading passages. After completing a section of the test. In other words. Speaking. each followed by 12–14 questions. followed by Listening. each test taker receives the same range of questions. Language Skills Used Reading Source for Response Reading passage Question Types Factual information • 3–6 per set • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Negative factual information • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Inference • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Rhetorical purpose • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Vocabulary • 3–5 per set • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Topics Identify information from text Reading Identify information in the text that is not true Reading passage Reading Identify information that is strongly suggested but not stated Reading passage Reading Identify why author makes a statement Reading passage Reading Identify the meaning of a word in the text Reading passage . you will not be able to return to that section to ﬁnish or change your answers.2 OVERVIEW OF THE TEST VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT The entire TOEFL iBT will take approximately four hours to complete and all test sections will be completed in one day. and Writing. The ﬁrst test section is Reading. There will be a ten-minute break after the Listening section. The test is worth a total of 120 points. The test is not computer-adaptive.
A scrollbar on the right side of the screen will allow you to move to the end of a passage. On the right will be a clock. The Review button will allow you to review the questions that you have answered and make changes. a passage will appear on the computer screen. A Help button will provide some additional assistance for you. At the top of the computer screen is a navigational toolbar. The center of the toolbar will state the question you are working on as well as the number of questions in the section. You can adjust the volume by clicking the Volume button.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 3 Language Skills Used Reading Source for Response Reading passage Question Types Reference • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Sentence simpliﬁcation • 1 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Insert text • 1 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Prose summary • 1 per set at most • 6 answer choices each • worth 2 points each Fill in a table • 1 per set at most • multiple answer choices • worth 3–4 points each Topics Identify the grammatical relationship between two words in the text Reading Identify the choice that restates the sentence indicated Reading passage Reading Insert a sentence in the most appropriate place in a passage Reading passage Reading Choose the three most important ideas in the passage Reading passage Reading Complete a table organizing the main ideas Reading passage As you begin the Reading section of the TOEFL iBT. (You should note that your time does not stop when you are using the toolbar feature. . Clicking on the View Text button will let you view the entire passage when answering questions. Above the clock function are six navigation buttons.) The heading on the left of the toolbar will state the section of the test on which you are working: Reading. You may choose to hide the clock by clicking the Hide Time button located next to the clock. indicating your remaining time.
SPEAKING SECTION (approximately 20 minutes) 30 total points Tasks Task 1 (independent) Task 2 (independent) Speaking Language Skills Used Speaking Topics Familiar things Choose a side Opinion 15 seconds 45 seconds Source for Response Opinion Preparation Time 15 seconds Response Time 45 seconds . a Help button that will provide some additional assistance. each followed by 5 questions Listening Nonacademic situation on campus Details from conversation Source for Response Details from lecture For the Listening section of the TOEFL iBT. Above the clock are four navigation buttons. the Listening section toolbar will state which question you are working on. each followed by 6 questions Language Skills Used Listening Topics Arts. Difﬁcult words or phrases in the passage may be deﬁned for you. the number of questions in the section. When the listening passage is complete.4 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Finally. you may not go back and review questions. LISTENING SECTION (approximately 60–90 minutes) 30 total points Stimulus 4–6 lectures. After selecting Next. and social science 2–3 conversations. physical sciences. there are Back and Next buttons. There is a Volume button that allows you to adjust the volume. and your remaining time. you are asked to click the OK button to conﬁrm that you want to move to the next question. and a Next button that allows you to move to the next question. In the Listening section. This picture is designed to help you imagine the situation. Like the toolbar for the Reading section. You may choose to use the Hide Time button located to the left of the clock. a question will appear on the screen. life sciences. The heading on the left of the toolbar will state the section of the test on which you are working: Listening. you will listen to the lectures and conversations through a headset. An image depicting the lecture or conversation will appear on the screen. which allow you to move back and forth between questions. A toolbar will appear at the top of the screen.
. An image depicting the lecture or conversation will appear on the screen. and Speaking Task 5 (integrated) Listening and Speaking Task 6 (integrated) Listening and Speaking Academic topic Details from materials given 20 seconds 60 seconds To take the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT. For all of the speaking tasks. and Speaking Topics Nonacademic situation on campus Academic topic Task 4 (integrated) Reading. you will listen to the spoken materials through a headset. and Writing Writing Choose a side Topics Academic topic Source for Response Details from materials given Opinion 30 minutes Response Time 20 minutes For the Writing section of the TOEFL iBT. Listening. which will be digitally recorded and sent to the ETS Online Scoring Network. WRITING SECTION (approximately 50 minutes) 30 total points Tasks Task 1 (integrated) Task 2 (independent) Language Skills Used Reading. you will speak into the microphone to record your responses. Human raters rate writing responses through the ETS Online Scoring Network. Listening.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 5 Source for Response Details from materials given Details from materials given School-related problem with two possible solutions Opinion about materials given 20 seconds 60 seconds 30 seconds 60 seconds Preparation Time 30 seconds Response Time 60 seconds Tasks Task 3 (integrated) Language Skills Used Reading. Listening. you will type your response to two tasks. you will listen to the spoken materials through a headset. For the integrated writing task. For four of the speaking tasks. you will be required to wear a headset with a microphone.
S. territories.toeﬂ. ﬁll out the registration form in the Information and Registration Bulletin. call the Regional Registration Center (RRC) for your area or country. call 1-443-751-4862. J HERE’S A HINT THE INFORMATION AND REGISTRATION BULLETIN Before you register for the TOEFL. To register by phone. and a list of writing topics.org • by calling the ETS at 1-609-771-7100 You can register online at the TOEFL website. Canada. and a registration number. seven days a week. you should obtain the Information and Registration Bulletin. test instructions. you should begin the TOEFL registration process right away. institution codes. After completing the registration form. To schedule a test date in the United States. Payment methods include a valid credit card or an electronic check (if you have a bank account in the United States or its territories). or U. reporting time. which you must bring to the test center on test day. To register by mail. If you do not. mail your completed registration form and payment to the ETS at the following address: . you must call at least seven days before the test date and pay using a valid credit card. A list of RRCs is printed in the Information and Registration Bulletin. test center address. To schedule a test date elsewhere. you must call the location where you mailed your registration at least three full business days before the registration deadline for your earliest test choice. territories. which you will need to report your scores to the colleges and universities you would like to attend. You should receive a registration conﬁrmation. www.S. It includes a list of test sites in all countries. If you live outside the United States and want to test in the United States. You can pick up or request a bulletin: • from admissions or international student ofﬁces at most colleges and universities • from ETS representative ofﬁces • from the TOEFL website. 24 hours a day. call 1-800-GO-TOEFL (1-800-468-6335). You will be given a test date. or U. To schedule a test date in the United States. you will receive an instant e-mail conﬁrmation.6 REGISTRATION VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Because test centers ﬁll up quickly. and other information you will ﬁnd useful. Request a bulletin as soon as possible if you have not already done so. The ETS created this document to provide you with all the important information you will need to know before you take the TOEFL iBT. such as sample questions. Canada.
HOW MUCH DOES THE TOEFL IBT COST? The fee for the TOEFL iBT is $140. while mailed registrations must be received at least four weeks before the test. Reports requested online are mailed about four working days after your request. You may choose those institutions up until 10 P. by mail. This includes an examinee score report and four score reports sent to institutions that you designate when you register for the test.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 7 ETS-TOEFL iBT Registration Ofﬁce P.O. TOEFL test scores are kept on ﬁle for two years after the test date. you may view your scores online. you will be . you can get one examinee score report and up to four ofﬁcial score reports sent to the institutions of your choice. Fifteen business days after completing your TOEFL iBT. Requests must be made online. CANCELING OR RESCHEDULING YOUR EXAM If your schedule changes and you can’t make it to the test you have registered for. USA To schedule a test date elsewhere. Box 6152 Princeton. you can either reschedule or cancel your test date. The printed score report that is mailed to you will contain all of the ﬁnal section scores as well as your total score. (local test center time) on the day prior to your test date. call the RRC for your area or country. Scores more than two years old can’t be reported. the examinee score report will be sent to you and ofﬁcial score reports will be sent to your selected institutions. Reports requested by mail or fax are mailed about two weeks after receipt of your request. Although the ETS makes it possible to register by mail.M. online and phone registrations are quicker processes. You can have ofﬁcial score reports sent to institutions other than those you indicate when you register. or by fax. Online and phone registrations must be completed one week before the test. NJ 08541–6152. The cost is $17 for each report ordered. OFFICIAL SCORE REPORTS At no cost. If you reschedule. Fifteen days after you take the test.
Each of the two writing tasks is awarded between 0 and 5 points based on a rubric. meaning each question has a correct answer(s). territories. and you will not receive a refund.S. HOW THE TOEFL IBT IS SCORED You will earn between 0 and 30 points for each of the four test areas. . For each test section. you will be able to reinstate them provided that your request is received within ten days of your test date. the total score will range from 0 to 120. the points are converted to a 0. The Reading and Listening sections of the test consist of objective test items. For testing elsewhere. The Speaking and Writing sections are subjective. CANCELING AND REINSTATING YOUR SCORES If.to 30-point scale. If you score below what is required by the institution of your choice. Canada. some colleges provide ESOL (English as a Second or Other Language) classes. The institutions to which you are applying determine the minimum acceptable score. you can cancel your score at the test center. So. All tasks are graded by trained human raters. Each of the six speaking tasks is awarded between 0 and 4 points based on a rubric. after taking the exam. contact your RRC. you may be able to register for ESOL classes your ﬁrst semester and continue on to other classes when you successfully complete the ESOL course. you will receive a refund of $65. Your total score is calculated by adding the four skill area scores together. they will not be reported to you or any institutions. But one of the goals of this book is to prepare you to do your best and succeed the ﬁrst time around. After canceling your scores. In the United States. PASSING THE TOEFL There is no single passing score on the TOEFL iBT. If you call to cancel at least three business days before your appointment. Alternatively. or U.8 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT charged a $40 rescheduling fee. This means that there is not one correct answer to these questions. However. call 1-800-468-6335 to cancel or reschedule. you feel that you didn’t perform to the best of your ability and that your score is not high enough to get you into the program of your choice. you can take the TOEFL iBT again. If you do cancel your scores.
and U. and the score report will be mailed shortly thereafter. and payment of the $20 reinstatement fee. daytime phone number. If the rescoring conﬁrms your original score. Territories) 1-609-771-7100 (all other locations) Fax 1-609-771-7500 Mail TOEFL Services Educational Testing Service P. NJ 08541-6151 USA Your request should include your name.O. The reinstatement will take approximately two weeks to be reported online. Rescoring results will be available about three weeks after the receipt of your rescoring request. Canada. The institutions that you selected as score recipients will receive new ofﬁcial score reports. Box 6151 Princeton. WRITING AND SPEAKING RESCORING If you disagree with your score on the Writing and Speaking sections. registration number. which is found on the TOEFL website. you will receive a revised examinee score report. you can request that your answers be rescored up to three months after your test date. . If there is a change in your score. Complete the TOEFL iBT Rescoring Request Form.S. date of birth. These revised scores will become your ofﬁcial scores. You will be charged $60 for a Writing or a Speaking section rescore by scoring specialists. you will be notiﬁed via mail.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 9 You may reinstate your scores by: Phone 1-877-863-3546 (United States.
If you fail to provide proper registration and identiﬁcation documents on the day of the test. drink. or chew gum. Timing of the section will not stop during an unscheduled break.10 ON TEST DAY VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT The ETS is very strict about identiﬁcation for TOEFL test takers. If. You will also need your registration number. collect all the items you are taking to the test in advance and put them in a safe place. Your picture will be taken and reproduced on your score report and the computer monitor you are using. pagers. raise your hand. for some reason. . In most cases. smoke. Read the identiﬁcation requirements in the Information and Registration Bulletin. except as permitted in designated areas of the testing center during breaks. If. DON’T: • bring cellular phones. All testing sessions are subject to videotaping. or electronic or photographic devices of any kind to the test session. • eat. beepers. watch alarms. at any time during the test. AGAINST THE RULES Here is a list of things you are not allowed to do during the exam or exam breaks. TOEFL TEST CENTER PROCEDURES AND REGULATIONS On the day of your exam. you believe you have a problem with your computer or need the administrator for any reason. you have to leave your seat at any time other than the break. Failure to comply with these rules may result in your dismissal from the test center and canceling of your scores without a refund. arrive at the test center at least 30 minutes early to allow time for registration and identiﬁcation. a passport that has your photograph and signature will do. raise your hand. Your identiﬁcation will be checked before you are admitted. Before the test session. you must answer at least one question in each section. To make sure your hard work and studying don’t go to waste because you forgot a piece of paper. To receive an ofﬁcial score report. you will be required to write your signature and sign a conﬁdentiality statement. you will most likely not be admitted to the test center.
• create a disturbance or behave inappropriately. Follow these guidelines. or any other electronic or photographic devices or keyboards. notes. translators. The following are considered testing aids: pencils or pens.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 11 • refer to or use any testing materials or aids at any time during the testing session or break. books. highlighter pens. pamphlets. • attempt to tamper with the computer. • leave the test center during the test session and break. • attempt to remove test questions (in any format) from the testing room. • attempt to take the test for someone else or fail to provide acceptable identiﬁcation. . • give or receive unauthorized help. and be sure to comply with the test administrator’s directions at all times. dictionaries. rulers. watch calculators. • exceed the time permitted for the break. calculators.
You can use the context of a sentence—or context clues—to help you detect the meaning of a word. Once in a while. you must rely on the context clues in the sentence. But if you’re in a testing situation and you are not allowed to use one. Context refers to the words and sentences that surround a particular word and help convey its meaning. O DEFINITION context: the words and sentences that surround a word or phrase and help convey its meaning 12 Ever since you learned your ﬁrst English words. . which gives you a very clear definition of the word. you have been determining meaning from context. this means that you can look for clues in and around the vocabulary word.2 Vocabulary in Context O ne of the most fundamental vocabulary skills is how to use context to determine meaning. The term context clues means that other words in the sentence “give away” or “give clues” to the definition. sometimes you’ll find synonyms (words that mean the same thing) or antonyms (words that mean the opposite). Simply put. For example. of course. Using a dictionary is. or details that lead you to identify the vocabulary word in question. the best way to deﬁne a word. you’ll find a group of words set off by commas (called an appositive).
you can assume that candor is a positive thing. frank. sincere speech. 4. thus signifying that candor means frank. if you don’t use it. comfort with speaking in front of people. The speaker tells you that Arun is sometimes too honest. you can tell from the context whether it is something positive or negative. The ﬁrst part of the sentence tells you that candor is a good thing (positive/negative). . he can be a bit too honest. 2. There a four types of context clues that can help you: 1. Introduce them to members of your family. and this can help you narrow down your answer choices on an exam.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 13 J HERE’S A HINT USE IT OR LOSE IT There’s really only one rule for building your vocabulary: Use it or lose it. Based on the context of the sentence. only b can be the correct answer. notice how the context of the sentence below helps give the word candor its meaning: ➥ I admire Arun’s candor. Use them in e-mails or letters to friends. Write new words down on a vocabulary list. Now. When you are learning a new word. but sometimes. Restatement Positive/Negative Contrast Speciﬁc Detail This sentence uses two types of context clues: restatement and positive/negative. sincere speech—Arun tells people exactly what he thinks. You can therefore eliminate choices a and c. Candor means a. readiness to judge or criticize others. In this case. Even if you can’t ﬁgure out exactly what candor means. Use the words you learn in your everyday communications as much as possible so they become a permanent part of your vocabulary. c. 3. d. b. because the speaker admires Arun’s candor. irritability. you will soon forget what it means.
and by noon. done her grocery shopping. Let’s say you were given the choices below: a. luxurious b. it is not a good thing to be so poor one can barely afford to eat. so poor that he could barely afford to eat. Thus you can determine what indolence means. she had already cleaned her whole apartment. How do you know what indolence means? From two more types of context clues: contrast and speciﬁc detail. hard labor c. she was back to her old assiduous self. Read the following paragraph as an example (but don’t look up the italicized words!): Sarah had worked so hard for the past few weeks that she decided she owed herself a day of complete indolence. reading and watching television. ordered take-out so she wouldn’t have to cook. you know the other answers are incorrect because Sarah didn’t do anything luxurious (choice a) and she didn’t do any work or chores (choice b). Here’s another example of a sentence that uses these two types of context clues: ➥ Hani suddenly found himself destitute. She left her chores for another day and spent the afternoon lying on the couch. laziness The correct answer is d. Besides. Now let’s look at the context in which assiduous is used. There’s no mention of sleep in the paragraph. you have two kinds of context clues: contrast and speciﬁc detail. But on Sunday. she slept until noon. There are two other types of context clues to watch for. laziness. The speciﬁc details tell you that Sarah did her best to laze around the house all day. and left the dishes in the sink. so choice c is also incorrect. Again. Saturday. The ﬁrst sentence suggests that indolence is in contrast to working hard.14 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT while the second part essentially restates the meaning of the word. so that you can tell exactly what destitute means—extremely poor. deep sleep d. You know that the assiduous Sarah of . The context clearly reveals that destitute is not a positive word. essentially deﬁning the word within the sentence. The context also restates the meaning of destitute. while the second and third sentences conﬁrm this with speciﬁc details. and paid her bills.
But all three of these words have different connotations and bring to mind different feelings. if you were to look up the word playful in the dictionary. however. but a quack is also an untrained or unqualiﬁed person who pretends to be a doctor. For instance. Each word also has a connotation—an implied meaning or emotional impact. Spirited has a positive connotation and mischievous a negative connotation. unremitting. . O DEFINITIONS denotation: a word’s exact meaning or dictionary deﬁnition connotation: a word’s implied meaning or emotional impact When you come across an unfamiliar word. the connotation can be favorable or positive. even if it does not provide enough information for you to determine its denotation. slow moving or sluggish inactive: not active or not tending to be active. Sometimes. At a minimum. A quack. For example. spirited and mischievous. have more than one meaning. Then again. DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION The denotation of a word is simply its dictionary deﬁnition. Assiduous means diligent. the context will often reveal a great deal about the connotation of that word. is the sound a duck makes. Therefore.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 15 Sunday was very different from the indolent Sarah of Saturday (contrast). You also know what the assiduous Sarah does: She is very. the connotations of the surrounding words will usually tell you whether the vocabulary word is positive or negative. you might get a deﬁnition similar to that of two of its synonyms. cleaning and working around the house (speciﬁc detail). Words also have another meaning beyond their denotation. Other times the connotation can be unfavorable or negative. very busy on Sunday. for example. make sure you look at the surrounding words carefully and consider their denotations and connotations. while playful is neutral in tone. ➥ ➥ ➥ procrastination: to postpone or delay needlessly lazy: to be resistant to work or exertion. look at the dictionary deﬁnitions of the following words. when you are looking for context clues. some words do not arouse any emotion at all and have a neutral connotation. not functioning or operating Some English words. hardworking. or persevering.
16 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT J HERE’S A HINT ALL SYNONYMS ARE NOT CREATED EQUAL Synonyms are words that share the same meaning or nearly the same meaning as other words. HOW MUCH CONTEXT DO YOU NEED? In the passage about Sarah. for example. one of these words suggests an overabundance. although these words are effectively synonymous. Succinct is more neutral. Terse. a glut of food is an excessive amount of food that suggests there will be waste involved. when it comes to your own communications. the words bountiful. your understanding of a sentence or paragraph depends on your understanding of a particular word or phrase. terse. they are rarely identical. you can’t even ﬁgure out if it is something positive or negative. However. and glut suggest abundance. plentiful. though. While you can have a bountiful. you should choose your words carefully. you can’t understand what inept means from the following example sentence—it simply does not provide sufﬁcient context. and succinct. It is important to know that there are often many synonyms for one word. Is Sabina a graceful dancer? An awkward dancer? Or an accomplished dancer? You simply cannot tell from the context. For example. Thus. or plentiful supply of food on the table for a dinner party. conveying a sense of compactness or tightness in how an idea has been expressed. because the sentence provides almost no context at all: ➥ Sabina is an utterly inept dancer. each word carries its own speciﬁc connotation and leaves a slightly different impression. on the other hand. In fact. In some cases. While some synonyms can be similar. So while test questions will often ask you to identify synonyms such as laconic. For instance. It is important to choose your words carefully and to be as clear as possible when choosing synonyms. ample. has the most positive connotation of these three words. Although some synonyms are interchangeable. Laconic. suggesting brevity with a sense of polish or elegance. ample. But you could ﬁgure out what inept means by . most words have their own unique connotation. conveys the same basic idea but with the suggestion of brusqueness or abruptness. you would still be able to understand the main idea of the passage even if you did not know—or could not ﬁgure out—the meanings of indolence and assiduous.
however. Often. Now we can tell through context that inept means awkward or clumsy. you can ﬁgure out what these words mean. Meanwhile. you must look at the passage for clues that will uncover the deﬁnition of the word. Being able to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words from their context is an essential vocabulary skill. Sentence completion questions always have one or more commas or semicolons.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 17 breaking down the word into its preﬁx (in-) and word root (ept). you can still tell something about the word by how it is used—by examining the words and ideas surrounding it. The basic strategy is to separate the sentence into units divided by punctuation. then at least one unit will have one or two blanks. The following sections will give you the keys you need to unlock the meanings of even the most complex sentences. More often than not. ◗ Sentence Structure The single most important key to the meaning of a sentence is its structure. Like detectives looking for clues at a crime scene. though. That’s the subject of Chapters 2 and 3. The great thing is that these are master keys that can unlock any and all sentences. but like everything else worth doing. The best and easiest way to determine sentence structure is to look at its punctuation. it’s easy to decipher the message. here’s a sentence that does give you the context you need to determine the meaning of the word: ➥ Despite years of lessons. it’s hard at ﬁrst and gets easier as you practice. Think of yourself as a detective trying to decode a secret message. There are some basic skills you need to acquire. Once you have the key to the code. Even if you have no idea what a word means. including the many complex sentences you will encounter in your college reading. though. Sabina remains an utterly inept dancer who simply stumbles across the dance ﬂoor. By looking for the way the words are used in the paragraph. The unit that expresses a complete thought will . SENTENCE DETECTIVE Deciphering some sentences can seem like an impossible mission. a careful look at the context will give you enough clues to interpret the deﬁnition. Sometimes you will ﬁnd unfamiliar words whose meanings are indecipherable without a dictionary. one of the units will express a complete thought.
the one with the blank. is the best answer choice. reverent b. the unit without the blank. . Now you’re ready to use the ﬁrst unit to illuminate the second.18 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT tell you what the unit(s) with blank(s) need to say. consider this sample question: Select the word that best ﬁlls in the blank. The second unit. theological c. you have: After ﬁnding sacred objects inside numerous Mayan caves. Here’s an example of a sample question that doesn’t divide neatly into a complete unit and an incomplete unit. Your ﬁnal step is to look at the answer choices to ﬁnd the one that matches the idea you have formed about what needs to be in the blank(s). This question has a blank in each of its two units. tells you that 1) archaeologists have begun to revise their opinion and 2) their opinion (before being revised) was that Mayan caves were used only (solely) for some kind of function. a. For example. secular. tells you that the second unit has something to do with what happened 1) after finding sacred objects and 2) in Mayan caves. Choice d. religious d. ➥ After ﬁnding sacred objects inside numerous Mayan caves. secular When you divide this sentence into punctuation-deﬁned units. namely what kind of function archaeologists used to think the caves were exclusively used for. it means they used to think the caves were not used for sacred purposes. Your mission is to figure out what goes in the blank. Now you know you need to ﬁll in the blank with a word that means “not sacred. or secular. If scientists used to think one thing until they found sacred objects. archaeologists have begun to revise their opinion that the Maya used the caves solely for ________ functions. The first unit.” a word such as civic. and archaeologists have begun to revise their opinion that the Maya used the caves solely for ________ functions.
If actually were to be removed from the sentence. . as illustrated by the fact that he did not _______ until he was two years old. and cause and effect. . there’d be no way you could know what kind of words go in the blanks. . careful . There are three types of logical relationships commonly expressed in sentence completion questions: contrast. right? So the word that goes in the ﬁrst blank will be one that has a contrasting relationship to that expected temperament. amble b. . These are the words that most help you decode the sentence. if not done before age two. bold. . as illustrated by. The best answer to this question is choice b. a. scuttle The ﬁrst unit is The famous daredevil was actually quite _______ by temperament. The word actually tells us that there is something unexpected going on. uses a phrase of comparison. reckless . perambulate c. Mastering these three relationships will help you succeed on sentence completion questions.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 19 Select the words that best ﬁll in the blanks: ➥ The famous daredevil was actually quite _______ by temperament. . . daring . . ◗ A Clue for You The second important skill you must master for sentence completion questions is the ability to identify key words and phrases. . would indicate that kind of temperament. The second unit of the sentence. or move about on one’s own. careful . sometimes you have to complete one portion of a two-blank sentence before you can work on the logical relationship of another unit. Among the most useful of these are the words that enable you to identify the logical relationship between the complete unit(s) of the sentence and the incomplete unit(s). adventurous . daring. as illustrated by the fact that he did not _______ until he was two years old. you could be fairly conﬁdent that you had the right answer because careful is such a good choice. As in the preceding example. rest d. to let us know that the word that goes in the blank should complete the idea of the daredevil’s having a temperament that is not bold. The famous daredevil actually had an unexpected kind of temperament. comparison. Actually is a clue word. The next thing you do is look at the answer choices for words that are similar to the ones you chose. Think of something that. perambulate. one that points you toward the meaning of the sentence. Think of a synonym for “not bold. Now read the sentence using your word in the ﬁrst blank. Even if you didn’t know that to perambulate is to walk. What kind of temperament would you expect a famous daredevil to have? Adventurous. Think of them as clues to a mystery.” Put it in the ﬁrst blank. .
when you see one of these words or phrases. See how the two parts of your sentence oppose each other. Words that signal comparison include likewise. in fact. You might choose the word social. similarly. Friendly. What is an antonym of solitary? Solitary means alone. and and.20 CONTRAST VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Some words that logically signal a relationship of contrast are: though. The ﬁrst unit tells you by the use of the word although that the second unit will express a relationship of opposition or contrast. but. despite. as well as. as the second unit. Can you think of others? There are also phrases that signal a contrast between the units of the sentence. This is the logical relationship of contrast. and that is. in other words. and yet. you will know you’re looking at a sentence that expresses one thought in its complete unit and a contrasting thought in the incomplete unit. For example: ➥ Although the tiger is primarily a solitary beast. First you decipher the thought in the complete unit. Although the tiger is primarily a solitary beast. such as on the other hand. although. Words and phrases that precede restatement are namely. The word that goes in the blank has to be an adjective that describes animal in the way that solitary describes beast. Therefore the word that will contrast with the idea in the ﬁrst unit is in opposition to solitary. despite. its cousin the lion is a ________ animal. The idea expressed in the complete unit of the sentence is similar to or the same as . You can see that tigers and lions are being contrasted. COMPARISON There are two kinds of comparison relationships: comparison by similarity and comparison by restatement. Phrases that introduce comparisons are just as. using the punctuation to guide you. or opposition. however.” Then you look for the word in the answer choices that is a synonym of the word you chose. First divide the sentence into two units. gregarious. all meaning “not solitary. but. then ﬁll in the blank in the incomplete unit with a word that expresses a contrasting thought. or on the contrary. and as illustrated by. as shown. or sociable are other options. for example. No matter how complex a sentence completion question seems at ﬁrst glance. Relationships of logical comparison are straightforward. Now you have as the ﬁrst unit. and. Try making a sentence using these words and phrases. its cousin the lion is a ________ animal. however.
therefore. Again. you know what the incomplete unit needs to say—the same thing. English is a difﬁcult language because it is so visually confusing. Foster never stood up straight. or its synonym. When you know what the complete unit says. Here’s an example of a comparison sentence: ➥ Until he went to military school. One of the ways you most often encounter vocabulary is by listening. needs to be ﬁlled by a word that will illustrate his slouching. the sentence states that one thing is a result of something else. Here’s an example of a cause and effect sample question. Try making some cause and effect sentences to see how they work. often resulting from years of hard work by numerous investigators. This sentence has three units. and because. Vocabulary CDs and tapes are available in libraries and bookstores. Foster slouched. Play the audio version of the book as you read along in the book. a. consequently. as illustrated by his ________ in this photograph. U ON YOUR OWN PRACTICE REALLY LISTENING Some of the best resources for nonnative English speakers trying to increase their vocabularies are CDs or audiotapes. CAUSE AND EFFECT A third kind of logical relationship often expressed in sentence completion questions is the cause and effect relationship. irrelevant . you can rely on key words to point you in the right direction. In other words. illogical c. The correct answer will be posture. Select the word that best ﬁlls in the blank. as a result. therefore. Words such as thus. ➥ Scientiﬁc knowledge is usually _______. and leads to signal a cause and effect relationship. You may also ﬁnd it helpful to use a nonﬁction or ﬁction book and the same book in audio form (CD or audiotape). and phrases such as due to. two complete and one incomplete. cumulative b. This will help you match the word to its written form. or very nearly so. The blank in the third unit.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 21 the idea that needs to be expressed in the incomplete unit. The ﬁrst two units tell you that before military school. decreasing d.
• You won’t be daunted if you are intrepid. Abate and ebb. You know that whatever word the test makers are looking for. chances are you will understand the crucial words.22 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT The complete unit of the sentence. • You might tout something about which you are fervent. • You might disdain something that is banal. The incomplete unit. You can also mix and match words to create synonym and antonym pairs. of course. it must have something to do with lots of stuff. To prepare for these types of questions on the . cumulative. Next you determine the logical relationship of the units. tells you that you are looking for a word to describe scientiﬁc knowledge as a result of those years of hard work. The best answer choice for this question is choice a. which. Once you learn how to identify the complete and incomplete units of a sentence using punctuation to guide you. have nearly the same meaning. the one with the blank. • You might grovel if you are servile. But if you keep working on building your vocabulary. even if there’s some vocabulary you don’t understand. match verbs and adjectives together in pairs that will help you recall their meaning. Here are several examples: • You abhor what is odious. applies to lots of stuff. • You might vacillate if you are timid or difﬁdent. you will be daunted if you are timid. J HERE’S A HINT MIX AND MATCH SENTENCES To help you remember some important verbs and adjectives. because years of hard work by numerous investigators would produce a lot of something. often resulting from years of hard work by numerous investigators. vocabulary in context questions ask you to determine the meanings of particular words. and then you understand what the sentence is saying. ACTIVE READING As you might expect. for example. tells you that the other unit results from numerous investigators working hard for years. you’ve made a good start. using key words and phrases. while disdain and revere are opposites.
As you read an English-language newspaper or magazine. like the TOEFL iBT. These words often tell you whether the word is positive or negative and/or set up contrast clues. but if you make a habit of taking the time to read carefully and actively. By reading carefully. Read carefully. TIPS AND STRATEGIES Vocabulary-in-context questions are common on standardized tests. you can usually eliminate one or two answers that you know are incorrect. read the sentence with each answer choice substituted for the vocabulary word. contrast. surprisingly. Consider the tone and connotation of the other words in the sentence. the more you will comprehend. positive/negative. By reading actively. putting the word in the context of the sentence can help you determine whether an answer is right or wrong. This may help you better use the context as it is presented on the exam. you will often be able to determine meaning from context.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 23 TOEFL iBT. . At a minimum. Remember the four types: restatement. there will be some kind of context clue to help you determine meaning. you will continually expand your bank of vocabulary words—and the bigger your word base. you will actually spend less time learning the meaning of new vocabulary words. however. try to remember the context in which you heard it used before. have a dictionary handy. this can often help you determine whether the vocabulary word is positive or negative. it is a good idea to become an active reader. This may sound like a contradiction. Look for introductory words and phrases such as unfortunately. and the less time you will spend looking up words. Look up as many unfamiliar words as you can so that your bank of vocabulary words becomes as large as possible. To help you eliminate answers. you can eliminate negative choices if the context suggests the word is positive. Look for speciﬁc details that provide clues to meaning. This is a skill you can practice every day. From the start. Often. If you have heard the vocabulary word before but aren’t sure what it means. and speciﬁc detail. Here are some speciﬁc tips and strategies to use while preparing for and taking the exam: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● On any vocabulary-in-context question on an exam. Remember that you have a very powerful tool on a multiple-choice exam: the process of elimination. For example.
accomplished c. The _____________ data supports the belief that there has been an increase in population in the county. The _____________ collected from real estate taxes helped to balance the town budget. a. a. talkative b. domain b. revenue d. incumbent 2. remainder c. assessment 4. receptive c. a. She pretended to be _____________ about the new job opportunity. demographic c. nominal b. artiﬁcial d. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. dedicated b. but secretly she was very excited. a. nocturnal 3. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. The _____________ president differs from the past president on healthcare reform issues. candid d. practical d.24 PRACTICE QUESTIONS VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Choose the best vocabulary word to ﬁll the blank. 1. blasé .
a. a. unnecessary d. decrepit 7. irrelevancy 8. eloquent d. association c. receptive c. ambiguous 9.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 25 5. as if it had been stored in a trunk for a long time. current b. a. aged b. but now it is _____________. but the spectacular view of the valley below was worth the hike. The suit had a(n) _____________ odor. circumference b. solitude b. summit c. fulcrum d. loneliness d. a. accessible b. Because his workplace was so busy and noisy. nadir 6. We were tired when we reached the _____________. My computer was state-of-the-art when I bought it three years ago. The teacher put the crayons on the bottom shelf to make them _____________ to the young children. he longed most of all for _____________. scented c. musty d. outmoded . a. dedicated c.
ambiguous or implied. cadence 11. natural. fruitful. chronologically ordered. clearly and fully stated. c. a. Explicit means a. 14. quest c. d. useless. b. d. b. The hotel is teeming with security personnel because the leaders of several countries are here for a summit meeting. to be under close scrutiny. discovery d. intricate. Make sure the directions are very explicit so that no one makes a mistake. radical. of local origin. Although it was futile because he didn’t meet half of the requirements. 13. nearly overﬂowing. Karen was relieved to learn that the chemicals in her well water were all benign. surge b. complex. . Futile means a. 12. Jensen applied for the job anyway because it was his dream position. c. harmless. insane. b. Visiting all the tea shops in the city. c. dangerous. d. they were on a _____________ to ﬁnd the perfect cup of tea. to be full of. d. to close down temporarily. Teem means a. Benign means a. b. c. to lose business due to circumstances beyond one’s control.26 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 10.
difﬁcult to capture. c. Evade means a. to deviate. b. Victor Frankenstein spent the last years of his life chasing his elusive monster. to create. c. b. b.000-word article. cut 500 words from the 2. b. to regress. difﬁcult to avoid. d. revert. 18. Diffuse means a. Terse means a. factual. I completely lost track of Tula’s point because she kept digressing to unrelated topics. 17. who was always one step of his creator. Digress means a. The editor. c. d. stray. d. to express concisely. to change the tone. difﬁcult to forget. concise. and the rest of the meeting was highly productive. Xiu’s timely joke served to diffuse the tension in the room. to refuse. to intensify. preferring a more terse writing style. to refuse to answer directly. elegant. c. The senator evaded the question by changing the subject and accusing his opponent of misconduct. b. to answer indirectly. d. difﬁcult to compare. 16. d. to soften. to escape or elude. . Elusive means a. to deceive. c. 19. descriptive.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 27 15.
Solitude. 2. 6.28 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 20. bolster d. He tried to ______________ the sinking morale of his friend in the hospital. activities 22. nourish ANSWERS How did you do on identifying context clues? Check your answers here. sustain b. to conﬁrm. c. Samantha hasn’t said why she’s been so withdrawn lately. to surprise. . can be a desirable thing. a. to believe. 8. a. Demographic data is the branch of research that deals with human populations. The summit means the highest point. foster c. b. d. 4. 1. Blasé means bored or unimpressed by things after having seen or experienced them too often. where the hikers would have a good view. d. behavior d. b. 7. a. and it would be something a person who works in a busy ofﬁce would crave. c. c. 3. and then analyze the results to ﬁgure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. Accessible means capable of being reached or being within easy reach. A musty odor is one that is stale or moldy. d. 5. 21. unlike loneliness. Their conversation was considered playful _______ between two old friends. Revenue is the income of a government. a. antics b. but I would surmise that it is because she is still upset about not being able to go to camp. b. to guess. Incumbent means holding any post or position. banter c. Surmise means a.
using no unnecessary words. To surmise means to form a notion from scanty evidence. 12. having a beneﬁcial effect. The context tells you that the directions need to be clear to prevent an error. d. To digress means to turn aside. who constantly escaped his grasp. producing no result. Choice a is incorrect because antics are unpredictable behavior or actions. b.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 29 9. to be present in large numbers. to avoid fulﬁlling. 10. a. c. Karen would logically be worried about chemicals in her water and relieved if she learned those chemicals were harmless. 17. deviate. dramatically reducing its wordiness. To diffuse means to spread throughout. b. it will help ensure that no one makes a mistake. a. Outmoded means no longer in style or no longer usable. to soften or make less brilliant. Explicit means clearly and fully stated. Elusive means evasive. d. 16. Futile means useless. To teem means to be full of. answering. If there is a meeting of several foreign leaders. hopeless. vain. Jensen’s application is useless because he does not meet the minimum requirements for the job. . gentle. Choices c and d are incorrect because their deﬁnitions are too broad and do not focus on conversation. in this case for the perfect cup of tea. Benign means not harmful or malignant. eluding the grasp. exact. Frankenstein was never able to catch the creature. b. to stray from the main subject in writing or speaking. 13. d. 14. b. there is likely to be a great number of security ofﬁcers in the hotel. 11. d. To evade means to elude or avoid by cleverness or deceit. If the directions are clearly and fully stated. 15. 21. d. The main clue is that the editor cut the article by 25%. 18. 20. A quest is a search or pursuit of something. Numerous security personnel typically surround the leader of a country. The senator avoids answering the question by changing the subject. The speaker loses track of the point because Tula keeps shifting from the main topic to unrelated subjects. Xiu’s joke softened the tension so that the meeting could be more productive. The sentence tells you that Dr. Choice d is the only answer that makes sense in the context of the sentence. straightforward. or doing. Banter is deﬁned as remarks or talk that is playful and teasing. disperse. Terse means concise. difﬁcult to capture. a. mild. 19. The narrator is guessing that Samantha has been withdrawn because she is upset about not being able to go to camp.
” this means that the friend’s feelings or attitude are overwhelmed or defeated. thus. b. . The speaker would. If the friend has a “sinking morale.30 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 22. c. want to raise or bolster this morale. and d are all incorrect. The speaker would not want his friend’s morale to continue to sink. Choice a.
There are dozens of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes in the English language. but the job may be easier than you think. PREFIXES Preﬁxes are syllables attached to the beginning of words to change or add to the meaning of the root word in some way. changes: 31 . For example. The more familiar you are with these fundamental word parts. you are already using the same preﬁxes and sufﬁxes with simple words that you already know well. ﬁx. breaking those words into their parts can help you determine their meaning. meaning before. A good knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes is essential to building an effective vocabulary. Learning preﬁxes and sufﬁxes in another language may seem like a daunting task. Thus the meaning of the root word. the word preﬁx itself uses the preﬁx pre-.3 Using Preﬁxes and Sufﬁxes W hen you come across unfamiliar words without context. This chapter reviews preﬁxes and sufﬁxes and how you can use them to add new words to your vocabulary—and better understand words you already know. the easier it will be to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. Though preﬁxes and sufﬁxes often appear in books like this with sophisticated vocabulary words.
you can eliminate all but the correct answer in the following question: ➥ A polyglot is someone who a. is easily frightened. which uses the preﬁx in-. is an expert in global issues. administers lie detector tests. it is the only possible correct answer. meaning not—not suitable or competent. Knowledge of preﬁxes can help you in many ways as you build your vocabulary and as you prepare for the TOEFL iBT. speaks many languages. U ON YOUR OWN IMMERSE YOURSELF IN WORDS Get in the habit of noticing words all the time. Carry a small notebook with you and write down interesting words as you encounter them in your daily life. but even eliminating two or three will be a great help. c. take the word polyglot. knowing that the . Don’t know how to spell a word you hear? It doesn’t matter—write it down just as it sounds to you and look it up later. including inept.32 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ﬁx: to place securely or ﬁrmly preﬁx: something placed at the beginning of a word Several of the vocabulary words you studied in Chapter 2 used preﬁxes. Thus. to eliminate incorrect answers. For example. Choice d is the only answer that includes the idea of many or multiple. d. b. the base upon which preﬁxes and sufﬁxes are added preﬁx: syllable(s) attached to the beginning of a word to change or add to its meaning sufﬁx: syllable(s) attached to the end of a word to change or add to its meaning You will not always be so lucky as to eliminate all of the incorrect answers. and to provide partial context for the meaning of the word. If you know that the preﬁx poly.means many. O DEFINITIONS root: the main part of a word. Although you can’t determine meaning based on a preﬁx alone—you also need to know the root of the word—you can often use a preﬁx to determine whether a word is positive or negative. For example.
trident. bicycle) tri-: three (trivial. enchant. those that can tell something about the number represented by the word. that is. unity. Among the most common number related preﬁxes are: un-. decimal. With a few exceptions. to speak ill of. bilateral.means bad. mono-: one (unique. trinity. . decibel) cent-: hundred (century. If you recall any context in which you have heard the word malign before. harmful. triage (responding to the needs in order of priority. you may be able to choose the correct answer. millimeter) Following is a list of the preﬁxes. For each preﬁx. we have provided two examples of words that use that preﬁx. to arrange. you can eliminate choices a and c. This will help you remember the meaning of each preﬁx—and show you just how well you already know them. to charm. these examples are not test-prep words. or wrong can help you signiﬁcantly narrow down your choices in the following question: ➥ To malign means a. rather. evil. to speak badly about. quart. millennium. quarter. triple) quad-. leaving you with a 50–50 chance of choosing the correct answer. To malign is to say evil. monopoly) bi-: two (bigamy. c.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 33 preﬁx mal. and trilogy (a series of three plays). J HERE’S A HINT NUMERICAL PREFIXES Probably among the most easily recognized of the preﬁxes are the numerical preﬁxes. centipede. quartet) deci-: ten (decade. decathlon. traditionally in three orders of priority). d. to cast an evil spell. centennial) mil-: thousand (millipede. monotonous. quar-: four (quadrant. and often untrue things about someone. b. they are basic words that are probably already a part of your vocabulary. bicameral. b. With your knowledge of preﬁxes. Take a look at some words that contain numerical preﬁxes: bipartisan (two parties).
about. or an occurrence) co-. together. con-: with. occur. or lie between two points of time or things) . informal (not formal) inter-: between. intervene (to come. off abduct (to take by force). away from exit (go out). circum-: around. opposing. jointly cooperate (to work together. disobedient (not obedient) ex-: out. away. connect (to bind or fasten together) dis-: away from. comply). out of. atypical (not typical) ab-. expel (to drive out or away) in-: not inaccurate (not accurate). eject). against antibiotic (substance that kills microorganisms). among. apart. a particular incident. abnormal (away from or apart from the standard) ante-: prior to. in front of. come before) anti-. an-: not. before anterior (placed before). ant-: opposite. reversal. circumstance (the conditions or state of affairs surrounding or affecting an event. without amoral (not moral). abs-: from. on all sides circumference (the outer boundary of a circle). appear. antedate (to proceed in time. com-.34 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ◗ Common Prefixes a-. within intercept (to stop someone or something between its starting point and destination). not dismiss (to send away from. antidote (remedy for counteracting the effects of a poison) circ-.
beneath. excellent). ill. exceeding superb (grand. submarine (a ship that can operate under water) super-: above. below subdue (to overcome. a new form of neonatal (of or relating to a newborn child). evil. wrong malfunction (to fail to function properly). superman (a man with powers exceeding ordinary human capacity) . multiple (having several or many parts or elements) neo-: new. over. malpractice (wrongdoing. of unusually high quality. nonsmoker (someone who does not smoke) poly-: many. replace (to put back in its former position. wrong. bring under control). make known in advance) re-: back. neologism (a new word or phrase) non-: not nonﬁction (the genre of literature that includes all types of books other than ﬁction).U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 35 mal-: bad. especially improper or negligent treatment of a patient by a physician) mis-: bad. to take the place of) sub-: under. again rebuild (to build again after destruction). predict (to forecast. abnormal. magniﬁcent. polysyllabic (having three or more syllables) pre-: before precaution (something done in advance to avoid risk). recent. opposite or lack of misbehave (to behave badly). much polygamy (the system of having more than one wife at a time). multiple multimedia (the combined use of several media). misspell (to spell incorrectly) multi-: many.
36 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT A more comprehensive list of the most common English preﬁxes is located in Appendix B. As you use your knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes to determine meaning. Visit a local park or museum where you will hear English around you.” in the word decimate. Listening well will improve your English vocabulary. . or rent a ﬁlm in your native language and watch it with English subtitles. The important point to remember is that in learning preﬁxes. you are not looking to memorize a long list of disconnected word parts. displeasing. not a verb. You may also realize that the sufﬁx -ian calls for an adjective. and illegible. make sure you review the list carefully and study any preﬁxes that are unfamiliar to you. but to recognize familiar examples that you can apply to new words when you encounter them. inconsiderate.” Historically. For example. and il. in-. J HERE’S A HINT SOUNDS LIKE . For example. . . as in unhappy. Try watching the evening news. there is only a distant hint of the preﬁx deci-. see if you can recall hearing or using any words with similar roots or sounds. Some preﬁxes immediately change the entire meaning of a word. The point of learning about preﬁxes is to be able to notice how they can change word meanings in recognizable ways. Even if you don’t know exactly what agriculture means. the word decimate meant to destroy a tenth of someone’s property. dis-. the more you will understand. which means “ten. the preﬁxes un-. For example. which means “to completely destroy. Now we hardly recognize that meaning in the present deﬁnition. you may realize that agrarian sounds like it shares a root word with agriculture—and it does. Other preﬁxes only remotely affect word meaning. you might know that it has something to do with land and its cultivation. Go to the movie theater to see a ﬁlm in English.immediately signal that the word is the opposite of its root. After you have completed this chapter. U ON YOUR OWN GO TO PLACES WHERE ENGLISH IS SPOKEN The more you listen to English being spoken.
other adverbs. Part of Speech noun Function names a person. Elm Court. to provoke the hostility of . valor go. that dog) several (e. Helen.g. oblong. when. feel. several dogs) slowly.. very. thing. opponent opposing. occurrence. imagine. an action or state of being (a verb). which one. place. car. which is a word that describes (an adjective or adverb). how many. J HERE’S A HINT PARTS OF SPEECH The following table offers a quick reference guide for the main parts of speech. an adversary.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 37 SUFFIXES Sufﬁxes are syllables added to the end of words to change or add to their meaning. ancient. never. or state of being adjective describes nouns and pronouns. exhilarating that (e. soon Examples cloud. or thing (a noun). brush. look how the sufﬁxes in the following table change the word antagonist from a noun to an adjective to a verb (and don’t forget to notice the preﬁx. clumsily. thereby also changing how the word functions in a sentence. how and to what extent white. here. place. adjectives. combating. They often change a word’s part of speech. or entire clauses. Part of Word antagonist antagonistic antagonize Speech noun adjective verb Deﬁnition one who opposes or contends with another.. can also identify or quantify. adversarial to oppose actively. how much adverb describes verbs. jump. Sufﬁxes tell you whether a word is a person. tells where. ant-). or concept verb shows an action. contend. tells what kind. interrupt For example.g. or a modiﬁer.
such as equality (state of being equal). For example. or shocked. revere worthy of deep respect or reverence. extremely shy. as you come across vocabulary words with common preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. Choices a and b are deﬁnitions for other parts of speech—a verb and a noun. Squeamish means easily sickened. depending upon its sufﬁx. it’s important to remember that they are tools to use in conjunction with other vocabulary skills. deserving of honor and respect. most words that end in -ish are adjectives describing a characteristic. However. to scream or squeal.38 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Likewise. and eliminate incorrect answers on an exam. but it can help you determine the function of the word. Similarly. b. the word venerate changes from a verb to an adjective to a noun. you can eliminate answer choices that do not match that part of speech. including context (see Chapter 2) and word roots (see Chapter 4 and Appendix B) to be sure you are on the right track. BUT NOT ALWAYS While preﬁxes and sufﬁxes are fundamental components of your vocabulary. c. J HERE’S A HINT MOST OF THE TIME. For example. to honor with a sense of awe. . but look for other clues to meaning as well. and only choice d is correct. but they are both verbs. recurring illness. respectively. if you know that -ish is a common sufﬁx for adjectives. d. disgusted. use your knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. just knowing sufﬁxes won’t enable you to determine the full meaning of an unfamiliar word. Part of Word venerate venerable venerator Speech verb adjective noun Deﬁnition to regard with deep respect or reverence. ➥ Squeamish means a. easily disgusted. Select the best answer to the question. Only choices c and d deﬁne adjectives. one who shows deep respect or reverence Again. zero in on its meaning. you know that a word with this ending is probably a noun describing a state of being. Thus. vanquish and varnish both end in -ish. nauseated. not adjectives. if you know that the sufﬁx -ity means state of being.
failure (something that has failed to perform as expected or requested). process. produces.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 39 The following is a list of the sufﬁxes you need to know for the practice questions at the end of the chapter. practice. process. or process. believes. state or doctrine of feminism (belief in the social. For each sufﬁx. and economic equality of the sexes). . materialism (the belief that the acquisition of material possessions is the highest good) -ist: one who performs. ﬁdelity (the quality of being faithful) -sis: process or action diagnosis (the process of identifying the nature or cause of a disease or injury). or degree equality (the state or quality of being equal). paralysis (loss of sensation or ability to move or function) -ure: act. function enclosure (an area or thing that is enclosed). and again. makes. political. state or condition detection (the act of detecting). pianist (one who plays the piano) -ity: quality. election (the act or power of electing) -ism: act. politician (one who seeks or holds a political ofﬁce) -ion: act or process. state. these examples are basic words that are part of your everyday vocabulary. or state of adolescence (the state of growing up from childhood to adulthood. ◗ Noun Suffixes -ance. dentist (one who is trained and licensed to practice dentistry). -ence: action. we have again provided two examples of words that use that sufﬁx. the transitional period between youth and maturity). dependence (the state of being dependent) -ian: one who is or does comedian (one who creates comedy). etc.
-ian: related to. unable to be believed. incredible (not credible. However. ethical (of or relating to ethics or morals) -an. or characteristic of a humanitarian). -ible: capable or worthy of. frail). realistic (of or relating to the representation of things as they really are) -ile: having the qualities of fragile (easily broken. relating to.40 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT J HERE’S A HINT MEMORIZING PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES You may try to save time by memorizing a difﬁcult vocabulary word for each preﬁx or sufﬁx. characteristic of humanitarian (relating to. ◗ Adjective Suffixes -able. damaged. theatrical). having the quality of dramatic (of or relating to drama. improbable) -al. you don’t have to worry about forgetting their meaning and you will be able to recall them easily even while under the pressure of an exam. -ial. useful). you can quickly and accurately learn the most common preﬁxes and sufﬁxes by remembering examples of words you already know. Because the words are already so familiar to you. tending or liable to dependable (worthy of being depended on. exhibiting folly. in the manner of a fool) . slavish) -ish: having the character of childish (characteristic of. or resembling a child). or destroyed. trustworthy). pertaining to. foolish (devoid of good sense or judgment. abjectly submissive. such as cooperate and dismiss. -ical: having the quality of. or characterized by practical (of or relating to practice or action. servile (pertaining to or beﬁtting a slave. vegetarian (relating to vegetarianism) -ic: pertaining or relating to.
U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 41 -ive: performing or tending towards (an action).. specify (to state explicitly or in detail) -ize: to cause to be or become. By memorizing these essential word parts. to bring about colonize (to establish a colony). ● ● ● ● Take the time to memorize the most common preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. annoyed) -ify. The more familiar the word is to you (e. all the time. having the nature of cooperative (marked by a willingness to cooperate. sickening) ◗ Verb Suffixes -ate: to make. impair. famous). they change or add to the meaning of the root word. the easier it will be for you to remember the meaning of the preﬁx or sufﬁx. defensive (serving to defend or protect) -ous. Use as many . Do not feel intimidated by the long lists in this chapter or in Appendix B. you will be able to learn new words more quickly and better determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. cooperate). irritate (to cause annoyance or disturbance in. form into beautify (to make beautiful). cause to be or become deteriorate (to make worse. You already know much of this material. relating to glorious (having or deserving glory. Here are some speciﬁc tips and strategies to use as you develop this skill and prepare for your test. nauseous (causing nausea. Remember that preﬁxes and sufﬁxes alone do not create meaning.g. democratize (to make or become democratic) TIPS AND STRATEGIES A good knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes is an invaluable asset when you are building your vocabulary and studying for the TOEFL iBT. having the quality of. -ose: full of. done with or working with others for a common purpose). rather. Use words that you are very familiar with as examples when you study preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. -fy: to make. to make inferior in quality or character). angry. to make impatient. Remember that you use preﬁxes and sufﬁxes every day.
PRACTICE QUESTIONS Directions: Choose the best answer to each question using your knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. Allow for exceptions. Elitist is an example of an adjective with this ending. d.42 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ● ● ● ● vocabulary skills as you can to determine meaning. uniform. d. 1. under the authority of. word roots. Once you have narrowed down your answer choices. Circumspect means a. Antecedent means a. to examine thoroughly. try to recall another word with a similar root. c. Does it match the part of speech of the deﬁnition according to the sufﬁx? If you know the preﬁx or sufﬁx but still aren’t sure of a word’s meaning. word roots (covered in the next chapter). Check preﬁxes. and context if possible to conﬁrm meaning. put forth in writing. looking around carefully. the better your chances of choosing the correct answer. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. many sided. not every -ist word is only a noun. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. d. and context. Although most words ending in -ist are nouns deﬁning a kind of person (one who does). ﬁghting against. . cut into parts. The more you narrow down your choices. b. Plug in that meaning with the preﬁx or sufﬁx and see if it makes sense. Use your knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes to eliminate incorrect answers. two-faced. b. c. Multifaceted means a. 3. looking after. c. determine the part of speech of each remaining choice. coming before. b. including preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. 2. relating to the circus.
c. amount. c. or degree. Dubious means a. To presage means a. with an air of superiority. to age gracefully. to issue a warning. d. d. d. 5. to pressure. exactly as expected. Parity means a. b. 9. to warn in advance. . to make equal in status. haughty. Consensus means a. questionable. incapable of making a decision. Supercilious means a. the act of making someone or something equal in status. c. amount. a nonbeliever. or degree. c. speaking in a measured. or degree. Agrarian means a. to doubt or question. doubtful. 7. b. d. d. 6. the state of being equal in status. exact tone. to cultivate. one who doubts. c.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 43 4. d. amount. b. general agreement by a group. less than the norm. b. a counting of individuals. 8. c. amount. to be out of date. one who is equal in status. disappointing. relating to land or land ownership. b. b. an individual opinion. or degree. to be uncertain. to send a message.
d. equivalence. b. relating to. questionable. wavering. 4. and then analyze the results to ﬁgure out your plan of attack for mastering these topics. to cause to become active or aware. value or degree. or exceeding. d. c.means around. together. The preﬁx super. 6. the thing. foretell. done with the intent of harming another. c. reversing a previous opinion or decision. challenging. circumstance. wary. the state of becoming active or aware. disdainful. c. The preﬁx non. Galvanize means a. The preﬁx con. d. c. 3. The preﬁx ante.44 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 10. The adjective sufﬁx -ian means related to. 7. over. watchful. 8. to be active or aware. indifferent. to bring about. 9. Antecedent means that which precedes. The preﬁx multi. To galvanize means to stimulate or rouse into awareness or action. b. ANSWERS How did you do on remembering preﬁxes and sufﬁxes? Check your answers here. Parity means having equality in status. not showing anxiety or excitement. Agrarian means relating to or concerning land and its ownership or cultivation. Consensus means general agreement or accord. on all sides. 1. complex. Multifaceted means having many facets or aspects. amount. . or event that came before. To presage means to indicate or warn of in advance.means before.means with.means not. 5. The noun sufﬁx -ity means state of being. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of. c. one who becomes active or aware. The preﬁx circum. haughty. 11. scornful. Nonchalant means a. d. b.means many. Nonchalant means indifferent or cool. b. d.means above. 11.means before. fraught with uncertainty. Circumspect means cautious. not showing anxiety or excitement. a. Dubious means doubtful. The preﬁx pre. 2. a. 10. The verb sufﬁx -ize means to cause. d. an opinion or position reached by a group. to predict. Supercilious means with an air of superiority (as if one is above or better than another).
As you break down unfamiliar words into their parts. the more you will be able to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words and the better you will understand words you already know. you will be more likely to recognize the roots and therefore more accurately determine meaning. The study of word origins and development 45 . the more roots you know. anonymous and synonym share the Greek root nom/nym.Word Roots 4 P reﬁxes and sufﬁxes attach to word roots—the base parts of words that typically convey the bulk of their meaning. most English words have been borrowed from other languages throughout the centuries. You will also have a better understanding of the words you already know. manual and manufacture share the Latin root man. Needless to say. too. meaning hand. the stronger your vocabulary will be. and English is composed largely of words built upon root words from other cultures. The two most important categories of roots to learn are Latin and Greek roots because so many English words are built upon Latin and Greek word bases. you can also better understand words and more effectively build your vocabulary by learning about the history of words. so. In fact. Just as you can better understand a person by learning about that person’s past. For example. do many of the words in the English language. Just as many Americans have their roots in other countries. This chapter examines some common Latin and Greek word roots. meaning name. The more word roots you know.
violet). My mother plants herbs in her garden.46 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT is called etymology. and a detailed etymological study will show you not only where a word comes from but also how its meaning has changed over time. Use mnemonic devices to remember the meaning of word roots. J HERE’S A HINT MNEMONICS Don’t let the spelling of this word scare you! Mnemonics is a simple concept. For example. For example. Simple mnemonics can be created from rhymes. the study of its origin and development Many words have a rich history. orange. however. you are tracing the etymology or history of that word. green. When you break down a word and identify a root word from another language. Meaning “memory aid. blue. Here’s a trick to remember the difference between hetero (different) and homo (same): homo has the same number of letters as same. you can use the following sentences to remember these roots: Root nomen herb graph pan phil Meaning name plants write all love Sentence My name is Nom. the acronym Roy G. Mental pictures and stories are also useful mnemonics. O DEFINITION etymology: the history of a word. the focus of this chapter remains on learning some of the most common roots so that you can better determine meaning and succeed on the TOEFL iBT. Biv is a mnemonic used when learning the colors of the spectrum (red. indigo. or acronyms (words that are made up of the ﬁrst letters of a group of words or phrases. or spelling. meaning. He will write the information on a graph. tunes. For now. . The idea behind mnemonics is that people remember best when more than one function of the brain is used to process information. yellow. Phil loves to help others. All the eggs are in the pan.” mnemonics can be handy for helping you remember a word’s root word.
related to Thus. • Make your mnemonics personally meaningful. rhythmic patterns. roots are the base to which preﬁxes and sufﬁxes (and sometimes other roots) are attached to create a rich variety of meaning. Look at the etymology of the word homogeneous: homo: Greek root meaning same gen: Latin root meaning birth.WO R D R O OTS 47 Here are some tips on creating mnemonics that will be easy to remember and. for example. move on. On occasion. surpass precede: to come or go before in time. But most of the time. therefore. Notice how many different words can be created by adding different preﬁxes and sufﬁxes to this root and how the different preﬁxes and sufﬁxes change meaning. or tunes. to yield. meaning to go. rank. etc. antecedent: that which precedes or comes before cessation: a stopping. surrender concession: the act of conceding or yielding. advance procedure: the act or manner of proceeding. The Latin roots err and pug. yield. or importance predecessor: one who precedes or comes before another in time (as in holding an ofﬁce or position) proceed: to go forward or onward. process . respectively. Now. Latin and Greek roots are themselves words. proper. place. an acknowledgement or admission exceed: to extend beyond or outside of. kind ous: sufﬁx meaning having the quality of. stop. a bringing to an end concede: to acknowledge or admit as true. having a uniform structure or composition throughout. a course of action or conduct. take the Latin root ced/ceed/cess. homogeneous (also spelled homogenous) means of the same or similar nature or kind. especially after an interruption. (often with reluctance). useful: • Use rhymes. • Try humorous or odd sayings that will stick in your mind. mean to make a mistake and a boxer. a thing yielded. • Exaggerate features or images to make them vivid.
Again. notice the rich variety of meaning created by adding different preﬁxes and sufﬁxes to the root word.means not.means back. again. d. you can also answer the following question. meaning to please. try determining what the word recede means: a. plac. through. to move or go below the surface. Thus. ➥ Incessant means a. continuing without interruption. to go forward blindly b. ced means to go. The correct answer is b. Now add the noun sufﬁx -sion. subliminal. or yield. free from disturbance or tumult complacent: contented to a fault. Recede means c. Re. ceaseless. stop. to stop or abandon before completion c. self-satisﬁed. not direct. retreat. going between. The preﬁx in. to allay the anger of. meaning the act or state of.48 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Now. to move or go back. b. and you get: ➥ recession: the act of withdrawing or going back With your knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. not stopping. c. stop. Here are several words formed from another Latin root. yield. unconcerned placebo: an inactive. incessant means continuing without interruption. and the sufﬁx -ant means being in a state or condition of. harmless substance of no medicinal value given to patients to reassure them or to members of a control group in experiments testing the efﬁcacy of a drug . performing or causing an action. placate: to appease. to move back. withdraw. retreat d. continuous. inexorable placid: calm and peaceful. yielding readily under pressure. especially by making concessions implacable: incapable of being placated or appeased. pacify. to go together with others Remember your preﬁxes from Chapter 3. cess means to go. or among.
we can turn it into the noun synchronicity. or a yield sign with cess instead of yield. For example. to remember the root pug. If you are an auditory learner. the best way to memorize words is to create a picture in the mind associated with that word. . you might picture a pug dog in a boxing ring. meaning love: I am love. especially visual learners. long-lasting or recurrent chronology: the arrangement of events in time. be simultaneous By changing the sufﬁx of synchronize. stop. to record in chronological order. which is the state or fact of being synchronous. again. look at the number of words and the rich variety of meaning that comes from the Greek root chron. For example. you can picture the letters EU on a well. arranged in order of time of occurrence chronometer: an exceptionally accurate clock. a precise instrument for measuring time synchronize: to cause to occur at the same time or agree in time.WO R D R O OTS 49 J HERE’S A HINT MAKE THE MOST OF YOUR LEARNING STYLE For many people. or a boxer with a pug nose. to occur at the same time. the sequence in which events occurred chronicle: a detailed record or narrative description of past events. I love ham. habitual. Many different words can be built from a single root. Similarly. For example. use pictures to help you remember words. For example. we can create even more words. make a historical record chronological: relating to chronology. because the colors of the trafﬁc light correspond with the three meanings of this root: go. You could also picture a trafﬁc light for the root ced/ceed/cess. If you are a visual learner. you might picture a stop sign with the root ced written on it instead of stop. you could try one of these sentences for the root am. chronic: continuing for a long time. yield. meaning time. To remember that eu means good or well. I love Amy. an adjective that means occurring or existing at the same time. on-going. you can come up with rhymes or short sentences to help you remember root meanings.
bitter acid (something that is sharp. chast: cut caste (a social class separated from others by hereditary rank. captivated) bel: war antebellum (before the war. exceed (to extend beyond or outside of. sour. A more comprehensive list of the most common Latin and Greek word roots is located in Appendix B. even equate (to make or consider two things as equal). which once again are mostly everyday words. etc. taking note of the examples. equidistant (equally distant) . After you have completed this lesson. use words dictate (to say or read aloud. ceed. stop antecedent (that which precedes).50 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT What follows is a list of some of the most common Latin and Greek word roots. to rebuke) ced. chastise (to punish severely. Review the list carefully. or ill natured). especially the American Civil War). dit: to say. “my fault”) dic. acr: sharp. keenly perceptive) am: love amorous (inclined to love. rebel (to resist or defy authority) cast. enamored (inﬂamed or inspired by love. mea culpa (Latin. affectionate).). tell. dict. predict (to foretell. make sure you review the list carefully and study any roots that are unfamiliar to you. COMMON LATIN WORD ROOTS ac. acute (extremely sharp or severe. cess: to go. yield. surpass) culp: blame culprit (person accused or guilty of a crime). profession. to issue orders or commands). make known in advance) equ: equal. as with a beating. romantic.
animated) loc. bubble. loqu: word. maj. lus: light illuminate (to brighten with light. noc. to make unﬁt or harmful to living things) mag. burning. nai: to be born native (a person born in a particular country). nat. projecting or jutting beyond the line or surface). high spirited. error (a mistake. enlighten). log. hateful) .WO R D R O OTS 51 err: to wander err (to make a mistake). translucent (almost transparent. hang over prominent (standing out. obnoxious (offensive. nic. distinguished) nas. effervescent (bubbling up. as a carbonated liquid. innate (possessed at birth. burn fervid (very hot. vehement). volume or signiﬁcance. ardent. inherent) nec. luv: to wash dilute (to make thinner or weaker by adding a liquid such as water. lut. max: big magnify (to increase in size. inborn. to amplify). speech dialogue (a conversation between two or more people). not dangerous or harmful). free from guilt. death innocent (uncorrupted by evil. to lessen the force or purity of). an incorrect or wrong action) ferv: to boil. allowing light to pass through diffusely) lug. maximum (the greatest possible quantity or degree) man: hand manual (operated by hand). lofty. eminent (towering above or more prominent that others. conspicuous. lum. neologism (a new word or phrase) luc. manufacture (to make by hand or machinery) min: to project. pollute (to make impure or unclean. nox: harm.
outspoken).52 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT omni: all omnipresent (everywhere at once). science (knowledge. anxiety. pos. tending to express oneself often and freely. tic: to be silent tacit (not spoken. vok: to call vocal (of or pertaining to the voice. bright. prerogative (an exclusive privilege or right belonging to a person or group) sci: to know conscious (knowing and perceiving. placate (to appease or pacify) pon. call back. omnipotent (all powerful) plac: to please placid (calm and peaceful). or tension) rog: to ask interrogate (to examine by asking a series of questions). decision or judgment). brilliant. strong) voc. calm. true to life. aware). vigorous (energetic. taciturn (habitually untalkative. verify (to conﬁrm the truth of) vi: life vivid (evoking lifelike images in the mind. especially that gained through systematic study) tac. repugnant (highly offensive or distasteful. implied). hostile. distinct). transpose (to reverse or transfer the order or place of. pound: to put. interchange) pug: to ﬁght pug (a boxer). disposed to ﬁght) qui: quiet quiet (making little or no noise. forceful. tranquil (free from disturbance. reverse. active. revoke (to cancel. still). reserved) ver: truth verdict (the ﬁndings of a jury in a trial. place deposit (to put or set down. withdraw) . place).
To identify most word parts—word root. preﬁx. Otherwise. Let what you know about those words help you ﬁnd the meaning of words that are less familiar. the preﬁx can change the meaning of a root word to its opposite: necessary. the same tactics that work for synonym questions work for antonyms as well. and sufﬁxes are found at the end of a word. The secret is to keep your mind on the fact that you are looking for the opposite of the word given in the question. . sacred. Preﬁxes come before the word root. synonyms will be included as answer choices for antonym questions. A sufﬁx like -less can change the meaning of a noun: pain to painless. unnecessary. too. In this case. See if a part of the word—the root—looks familiar. or preﬁx. Very often. Antonym questions can be problematic because you can easily forget that you are looking for opposites and mistakenly choose the synonym. sufﬁx. or try to remember a context where you have seen the word before. the root of credible is cred. you have to ﬁgure out what the word means without any help from context clues. Usually the best strategy is to look at the structure of the word. Another way to dissect meaning is to look for preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. For instance. or sufﬁx—the best strategy is to think of words you already know that carry the same root.WO R D R O OTS 53 J HERE’S A HINT SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS Some TOEFL test questions ask you to ﬁnd the synonym or antonym of a word. Knowing this. which means to trust or believe. Often you will be able to determine the meaning of a word within the root. the word will be surrounded by a sentence that helps you guess what the word means (this is vocabulary in context). but you may be faced with four choices that are unfamiliar to you. Either of these elements can carry meaning or change the use of a word in a sentence. Not only do you need to know the word in question. Try to determine the meaning of part of the word. For instance. and credit. you will be able to understand the meaning of incredible. If you are lucky. Looking for related words that have the same root as the word in question can help you choose the correct answer—even if it is by process of elimination. circle the word antonym or opposite in the directions to help you remember. Questions that ask for synonyms and antonyms can be difﬁcult because they require you to have a relatively large vocabulary. but the test question could list just a synonym or antonym and four answer choices. If you are completing practice exercises like those in this book.
epidemic (a widespread outbreak of a disease affecting many people at the same time) . or conﬁdence. having inherent power of action or motion). to have a tendency or disposition toward something). especially one used as a burial place). the process or skill of communicating in or deciphering coded messages) dem: people democracy (government by the people through elected representatives). archi. such as a king) auto: self automatic (operating without external inﬂuence or control. slope. cour: heart cardiac (of or relating to the heart). anthropology (the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings) arch. the sequence in which events occurred) cli.54 COMMON GREEK WORD ROOTS VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT anthro. autopsy (examination of a dead body to determine cause of death. monarchy (a state ruled by a monarch—a sole and absolute ruler. courage. encourage (to inspire with hope. to give support. seeing with one’s own eyes) card. clin: to lean toward. bend incline (to lean. recline (to lie back or down) cryp: hidden crypt (an underground vault or chamber. habitual. archy: chief. hearten) chron: time chronic (continuing for a long time. cryptography (secret writing. ongoing. one who creates plans for buildings). chronology (the arrangement of events in time. slant. or cause to do so. principal. cord. long-lasting or recurrent). human android (a very humanlike machine or robot. andro: man. especially one made of biological materials). ruler architect (one who plans or devises.
homophone (a word that sounds the same as another but has a different meaning) hyper: over. euthanasia (the act of painlessly ending the life of someone suffering from a terminal illness) (h)etero: different. synonym (a word having the same or nearly the same meaning as another) . to stray from the main subject in writing or speaking) dog. or function). polymorphous (having or assuming a variety of forms) nom. character. hyperventilate (to breathe excessively and abnormally fast) morph: shape metamorphosis (a transformation. obstinate). a marked change of form. thickness. through diameter (a straight line passing through the center of a circle. dia: apart. digress (to turn aside. heterodox (disagreeing with or departing from accepted beliefs) (h)omo: same homogeneous (of the same or similar nature or kind. especially one praising someone who has died). or swerve. deviate. dyslexia (an impaired ability to read) eu: good. other heterosexual (a person sexually attracted to members of the opposite sex). a prescribed doctrine) dys: faulty. excessive hyperactive (highly or excessively active). abnormal dysfunctional (impaired or abnormal in function). dogma (a system of principles or beliefs. having a uniform structure or composition throughout). nym: name nominate (to name as a candidate).WO R D R O OTS 55 di. dox: opinion dogged (stubbornly unyielding. width). well eulogy (a verbal or written tribute.
harmony. everyone panorama (a complete view in every direction). theology (the study of god(s) and religion) When working on your vocabulary. pat. feeling pity or tenderness toward another’s pain or suffering. suffering. agreement between two people) ped: education. child encyclopedia (a comprehensive reference work on a wide range of subjects). respond to a visual clue in a word. remember to focus ﬁrst on roots. for example. You might.56 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT pan: all. J HERE’S A HINT TRY DIFFERENT APPROACHES Not everyone “sees” words in the same way. existence. all the gods of a people or region) pas. philosophy (love and pursuit of wisdom. Another person reading that same word might recognize a structural clue in the . pediatrician (a physician specializing in the care of infants and children) peri: around perimeter (the outer limits or boundary of an area). and ethics) phone: sound phonics (a method of teaching reading by training beginners to associate letters with their sound values). sympathy (sharing another person’s feelings. symphony (a long and complex sonata for an orchestra. and sufﬁxes. preﬁxes. disease compassion (deep awareness of and sympathy for another’s suffering). a systematic investigation of questions about knowledge. periscope (an optical instrument that provides a view of an otherwise obstructed ﬁeld) phil: love bibliophile (a lover of books). religion atheist (one who denies the existence of a god or supreme being). You will be surprised to see how quickly learning these will increase the size of your vocabulary. pantheon (a temple dedicated to all the gods. or you might instead hear a familiar sound in that word. path: feeling. a large orchestra) theo: god.
and this will both dramatically expand your vocabulary and signiﬁcantly improve your score on the TOEFL iBT. For example. and word roots. Here again are some speciﬁc strategies for using your knowledge of word roots to build your vocabulary and improve your vocabulary skills. try them all! THE POWER OF ASSOCIATION Need more help memorizing word roots? Use the power of association. TIPS AND STRATEGIES Many words in the English language come from Latin or Greek word roots. burn.in impervious means not. bitter. as you are learning roots and trying to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. The bottom line is that because you can’t be sure which strategy will work for you or when. Similarly. J HERE’S A HINT USE WORD PARTS Remember to use word parts to help you determine and remember meaning. for example. for instance. A rebel. The prefix im. and this tells you that impervious means not pervious. which means to boil. the meaning of the root bel is war. she might grasp its meaning by associating the word’s preﬁx with that same preﬁx on another word she knows. you can at least determine that amiable is probably a positive thing and that it probably has something to do with love or friendship. bubble. your best strategy is to break it down into its parts and look for a familiar word root. especially on an exam like the TOEFL iBT. the root ac means sharp. if you don’t know the meaning of amiable but you do know what enamored means. When you are faced with an unfamiliar word in your reading or on an exam. . Now you have the tools to really break down words and work out their meanings. For example. By memorizing common preﬁxes. ﬁghts in a war. fervent has the root ferv. The acute pain you felt in your ankle when you sprained it was very sharp. Here are some speciﬁc strategies for sharpening this skill and using it in a test situation. sufﬁxes. you will be able to accurately guess the meaning of many unfamiliar words.WO R D R O OTS 57 word. think of other words that sound like they might share a root word.
PRACTICE QUESTIONS For each question. friendly. frequently digresses. if possible. equate). Use your knowledge of word roots to eliminate incorrect answers. You already know much of this material. tenuous. the better your chances of choosing the correct answer. errs repeatedly in its logic.58 ● VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ● ● ● ● ● Take the time to memorize as many Latin and Greek roots as you can. often without realizing it. The more familiar the word is to you (e. Do not feel intimidated by the long lists in this chapter or in Appendix B. Remember the power of elimination on an exam. If you don’t know or can’t remember the root word. An amiable person is a. Remember that word roots work with preﬁxes and sufﬁxes—and sometimes other root words—to create meaning. talkative. Look at all parts of the word and the context. c. Or use words that create a vivid picture in your imagination. use the word root to determine the meaning of the italicized word. Use the power of association. A lucid argument a. b. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. 2. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end or the chapter. . is loosely held together. to determine meaning. loud. c. d. Use words that you are very familiar with as examples when you study word roots. 1. Remember that you use common word roots every day.g. predict. By memorizing these word bases.. the easier it will be for you to remember the meaning of the root word. truthful. b. d. honest. is very clear and intelligible. good natured. highly educated. you will be able to learn new words more quickly and better determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. try to recall the meaning of another word with a similar root. The more you narrow down your choices.
d. A quiescent place is a. To measure the veracity of something is to measure its a. c. Something that is eloquent is a. self-satisﬁed. still. . d. d. 6. harm that person. 5. likes to pick ﬁghts. dangerous. circumference. pick a ﬁght with that person. value or worth. weight. c. to lessen it. chaotic. d. c. b. A complacent person a. To indict someone is to a. b. b. trite. tumultuous. embellish the truth. c. dull. c. hackneyed. inedible. very isolated. To exacerbate a problem means a. d. expressed in a powerful and effective manner.WO R D R O OTS 59 3. frequently makes mistakes. charge that person with a crime. c. is known to tell lies. is contented to a fault. but does not accept responsibility. 7. truthfulness. not ﬁt for consumption. harmful. 4. antiquated. b. b. to analyze it. to solve it. b. at rest. very old. 8. stop or block that person from doing something. to worsen it. d.
The root plac means to please. Complacent means contented to a fault. Lucid means very clear. to increase the severity. d. . is even-tempered and composed. b. is very stubborn. use words. easy to understand. A person with equanimity a. d. The root nec/nic/noc/nox means harm. self-satisﬁed (pleased with oneself). Equanimity means calmness of temperament. d. c. d. 3. or bitterness of. b. Noxious means unpleasant and harmful. Quiescent means inactive. Amiable means friendly and agreeable. ANSWERS How did you do on identifying word roots? Check your answers here. 10. a. bitter. 8. even-temperedness. b. A noxious odor is a. The root ac means sharp. at rest. pleasing. The root luc/lum/lus means light. 9. d. violence. patience and composure. 1. harmful. and persuasive manner. truthfulness. and then analyze the results to ﬁgure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. 6. intelligible. To indict means to formally accuse of or charge with a crime. c. especially under stress. The root qui means quiet. The root dic/dict/dit means to say. ﬂuent. To exacerbate means to make worse. enjoys the company of others. unscented. death. unwholesome. 5. tell. 10. likeable. The root ver means truth. The root loc/log/loqu means word. quiet.60 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 9. refreshing. speech. Eloquent means expressed in a powerful. c. 4. 2. b. The root am means love. 7. a. d. good natured. even. d. Veracity means truth. The root equ means equal. has a violent temper. tantalizing.
he will learn something new about his craft. For example. This chapter reviews commonly confused words that you might encounter on your TOEFL iBT. or winter to ﬂavor food (v): I will season the sauce with some curry.5 Commonly Confused Words—Homonyms D ➥ ➥ ➥ o you know when nail means something used with a hammer and when it means a part of your ﬁnger? When to use ensure instead of assure? Incredulous instead of incredible? Using the right word can make the difference between confusion and clarity—and have a huge impact on your TOEFL iBT score. The term homonym comes from Greek roots meaning: homo (same) nym (name) 61 . summer. One thing to watch for are words that sound the same and may look alike but mean different things. fall. the word season has several meanings: a part of the year (n): spring. to make experienced (v): Several months touring with a jazz band will season a young trumpet player because every night. They are called homonyms.
Notice that the different sound in these words can come from the accent. great and grate. KON-dukt (n) means behavior. for example. It is very important to know your homonyms and use them correctly. as are slay and sleigh. but have different spellings and meanings. this chapter will help you get them straight. If so. Night and knight. conduct has two distinct meanings and pronunciations: ➥ ➥ kun-DUKT (v) means to lead or direct. The term for these words.62 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT A speciﬁc type of homonyms are called homographs—words that look alike but that sound different and mean different things. you may confuse your readers with sentences that are at best incorrect and at worst unintelligible. will often test you on the correct homonym for a given context—whether you should use whether or weather in a sentence. So take some time to review the following list of frequently confused words carefully. Another type of homonyms are pronounced the same way. homophone. His conduct in school was terrible. on one part of the word. are homophones. is exactly what its two Greek roots suggest: homo (same) phone (sound) It is a word that sounds the same as another but has a different meaning. Otherwise. For example. like TOEFL iBT. O DEFINITION homonyms: a group of words that share the same spelling or pronunciation (or both) but have different meanings Standardized tests. many of which you may already know. and bear and bare. or piece or peace. while others that you may still ﬁnd confusing. I will conduct the orchestra for the last song. . There are dozens of homophones. or stress. for example.
C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 63 FREQUENTLY CONFUSED WORDS The following table lists some of the most frequently confused word pairs along with a brief deﬁnition of each word. CONFUSING WORDS QUICK DEFINITION accept except access (verb) access (noun) excess adapt adopt affect effect (noun) effect (verb) all ready already all ways always among between assure ensure insure beside besides bibliography biography to recognize excluding to gain entry to means of approaching extra to adjust to take as one’s own to inﬂuence result to bring about totally prepared by this time every method forever in the middle of several in an interval separating (two) to make certain (assure someone) to make certain (to check for yourself) to make certain (ﬁnancial value) next to in addition to list of writings a life story .
verb) disinterested uninterested envelop envelope farther further immigrate emigrate imply infer its it’s loose lose may be maybe overdo overdue respiration to inhale and exhale width money most important government building match praise no strong opinion either way unengaged. verb) compliment (noun.64 CONFUSING WORDS VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT QUICK DEFINITION breath (noun) breathe (verb) breadth capital (noun) capital (adjective) capitol complement (noun. deduce belonging to it it is not tight unable to ﬁnd something may possibly be perhaps to do too much late . suggest to assume. having no interest in to surround paper wrapping for a letter beyond additional to enter a new country to leave a country to hint.
C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 65 CONFUSING WORDS QUICK DEFINITION personal personnel precede proceed proceeds principal (adjective) principal (noun) principle stationary stationery than then their there they’re weather whether who whom whose who’s your you’re individual employees to go before to continue proﬁts main person in charge. sum of interest-earning money standard still. she. not moving writing material in contrast to next in time belonging to them in a place they are climate if substitute for he. or them belonging to whom who is belonging to you you are . her. or they substitute for him.
VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT
Another important reason to review homonyms like team/teem and waive/wave is to avoid a “trap” sometimes set by the test developers. That is, you might encounter questions that use the deﬁnition of a familiar homonym as a distracter. Here’s an example: To waive means a. to signal with an up and down or back and forth movement. b. to return to the original starting point. c. to relinquish a right or claim. d. to swell up or rise to the surface. The correct answer is c. Waive means to give up (a right or claim) voluntarily, relinquish; to refrain from enforcing or insisting upon (a rule, penalty, standard procedure, etc.). If you don’t know the meaning of waive, however, you might be tempted to choose a, which is the deﬁnition of its homophone wave, or d, which is related to the deﬁnition of a wave. These answer choices are tempting because they sound familiar. You need to be able to recognize the familiar homophone and recall its deﬁnition. Not all commonly confused words are homonyms. Take disinterested and uninterested as an example. They don’t sound the same because they have very distinct preﬁxes. But the preﬁxes are attached to the same root, and the preﬁxes seem to have essentially the same meaning: dis- means away from, apart, reversal, not; unmeans not, against. Thus many people assume that both words mean the same thing: not interested. However, only uninterested has this meaning. Disinterested means impartial or unbiased, free of selﬁsh motives or interests—a different word entirely. Some commonly confused words are particularly puzzling because the words not only sound similar, but they also have similar meanings. Take the homophones cue and queue, for example. Both mean a line of waiting people or vehicles, although queue is used far more often than cue for this meaning. However, cue also means a signal, such as a word or action, given to prompt or remind someone of something—and this is its most common usage. And queue can also mean an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing on a computer.
C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S
HERE’S A HINT TRICKY VERBS
These verbs confuse even native speakers of English. To keep them straight, think about which verb in a pair needs an object (a noun or pronoun that’s acted on by a verb). Practice using these verbs in context and you will become more comfortable with them. Lie Lie means to rest, to recline. (subject) past tense: lay, had lain Don’t just lie there, do something! Sit Sit means to rest. (subject) She always sits in the third row. Rise Rise means to go up. (subject) After it is ﬁlled with helium, the balloon rises. Set Set means to put or place. (needs an object) He set the newspaper on the desk. Raise Raise means to move something up. (needs an object) The state is raising taxes this year. Lay Lay means to place, to set down. (needs an object) I always lay my purse on the table.
You already know many homophones and commonly confused words inside and out. The ones you don’t know, you simply need to memorize. The question is, how do you remember these differences in meaning, especially when the words seem so much alike? The key is to capitalize on the differences in the words. And when it comes to frequently confused words, mnemonic devices come in especially handy. Take the commonly confused pair ingenious and ingenuous, for example:
ingenious: marked by inventive skill or creativity; showing inventiveness and skill, remarkably clever ingenuous: 1. not cunning or deceitful, unable to mask feelings; artless, frank, sincere. 2. lacking sophistication or worldliness
The only difference in the spelling of these words is the i/u. You can use this difference to remember key words in the deﬁnition of each word.
VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT
ingenious: inventive ingenuous: unable to mask feelings
Similarly, the difference between disinterested and uninterested is the preﬁx. Use this to help you remember the meaning: a disinterested person is distanced from the situation and is therefore impartial. Here is a list of more commonly confused word sets that include important vocabulary words for your TOEFL iBT test preparation.
a·'lood) v. to make an indirect reference to allude (˘ elude (i·'lood) v. 1. to escape from or evade, especially by cleverness, daring, or skill. 2. to be incomprehensible to, escape the understanding of a·'prayz) v. 1. to evaluate. 2. to establish value or estimate the worth of appraise (˘ ˘·'pr¯z) v. to give notice or information to; to make aware of, inform apprise (a
ascent (a ˘·'sent) n. 1. an upward slope. 2. a movement upward, advancement ˘·'sent) n. agreement; concurrence; consent assent (a censor ('sen·so ˘r) v. to forbid the publication, distribution, or other public dissemination of something because it is considered obscene or otherwise politically or morally unacceptable. n. an ofﬁcial who reviews books, ﬁlms, etc. to remove what is considered morally, politically, or otherwise objectionable ˘r) n. expression of strong criticism or disapproval; a rebuke censure ('sen·shu or condemnation. v. to criticize strongly, rebuke, condemn ˘r) n. a device that receives and responds to a stimulus such as sensor ('sen·so light, smoke, etc. cue (kyoo) n. 1. a signal, such as a word or action, given to prompt or remind someone of something; a hint or suggestion. 2. a line of waiting people or vehicles; a queue queue (kyoo) n. 1. a line of waiting people or vehicles. 2. (in information processing) an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing
to express disapproval of. 2. to diminish in price or value. disseminate elicit (i·'lis·it) v. with joy. a hidden store or stock. 1. to deduce or derive by reasoning illicit (i·'lis·it) adj.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 69 decent ('dee·se ˘nt) adj. 2. to separate and scatter in different directions. lofty. to lessen the worth of. 1. nonconformity ˘·kayt) v. to collect and lay up. eminent ('em·˘·n˘ standing above others in quality. etc. artiﬁcial. the range. reputation. a large group or crowd. to call forth or draw out. conforming to what is socially or morally suitable or correct. character. to provoke. distance. or opponent hoard (hohrd) n. 1. an enemy. 2. or degree to which something reaches or extends. impending imminent ('im·˘·ne ˘·nayt) v. adequate descent (di·'sent) n. not extinct. 2. to belittle. about to occur. illegal. cache. adversary. contrary to accepted morality or convention ent) adj. n. gladly feign (fayn) v. fake. as from a source emanate ('em·a extant ('ek·sta ˘nt) adj. to think or speak of as being of little worth. to pay out disperse (dis·'spurs) v. to withhold approval or assent. to come or issue forth. 2. a wide and open space or area fain (fayn) adv. 2. 2. still in existence. forbidden by law. distinguished ˘nt) adj. 1. to belittle disburse (dis·'burs) v. a difference of opinion. to cause to do so. 1. 1. meeting acceptable standards. a vast multitude . depreciate deprecate ('dep·re depreciate (di·'pree·shi·ayt) v. the act of descending or moving downward. to distribute widely. towering above or more prominent than others. v. lineage dissent (di·'sent) v. to amass and store in secret horde (hohrd) n. to pretend. 2. destroyed or lost extent (ik·'stent) n. disagree.. a downward slope or movement. to differ in opinion. hereditary derivation. not genuine or real foe (foh) n. to give the false appearance of faux (foh) adj. 1. sufﬁcient.
a cooperative unit teem (teem) v. harass. order something to be done. marked by inventive skill or creativity. implausible. pique (peek) v. skeptical. summit. obliterate team (teem) v. n. astonishing ˘·lu ˘s) adj. showing inventiveness and skill. activity. 1. 1. the highest possible point of development. sincere. remarkably clever ˘s) adj. especially because persecute ('pur·se of race. n. demolish completely. or sexual orientation ˘·kyoot) v. n. 2. 1. to level to the ground. put in an upright position 2. artless. to carry prosecute ('pros·e on. 1. or intensity. 2. to lift. to join together so as to form a team. make higher. n. to erase. 1. 2. to be full of. or mistreat. to prohibit. to oppress. degree. dictate. 2. 1. courage. 2. continue. to intrude in other people’s affairs. quantity. not cunning or deceitful. unwilling to believe incredulous (in·'krej·u ingenious (in·'jeen·yu ˘s) adj. forbid by law raise (rayz) v. interfere meddle ('med·e ˘l) n. to provoke or arouse ˘·kyoot) v. or intensity peek (peek) v. 3. an increase in salary raze (rayz) v. practice prescribe (pri·'skr¯b) v. or strength. beyond belief. 2. to vex or create resentment. 2. lacking sophistication or worldliness ˘l) v. a group organized to work together. the act of raising or increasing. to reach its highest point or maximum development. to glance quickly or peer at furtively.70 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT incredible (in·'kred·˘·be ˘l) adj. to bring a criminal action against. intensity. the pointed top of a mountain. 1. to cause annoyance or irritation. 2. unable to mask ingenuous (in·'jen·yoo·u feelings. 1. 1. activity. fortitude. to be present in large numbers . spirit mettle ('met·e peak (peek) v. to increase in size. the sharp end of something tapering to a point. a brief or furtive look. frank. religious or political beliefs. to issue commands. to order a medicine or other treatment proscribe (proh·'skr¯b) v.
you will remember which word has which meaning. create pictures that will help you remember word meanings. Use this key difference to help you remember the difference in meaning as well. Teaching something to another person is one of the most effective ways to master that material. rush. to refrain from enforcing or insisting upon (a rule. a ridge or swell on the surface of a body of water. for example. and appraise means to evaluate. appraise has the word praise in it. dispense with wave (wayv) v. If you are an auditory learner. you might remember that meddle with a d is something you don’t want to do unless you want to annoy others. For example. 1. The more carefully you read each deﬁnition and the closer you look at the spelling of each word. Here are some speciﬁc tips and strategies to help you make the most of your study time. relinquish. to signal with an up and down or back and forth movement of the hand. a surge. ● ● ● ● ● Spelling is often the key to distinguishing between commonly confused words. Meddle. penalty. 2. 2. undulate. rhymes will be more effective. 1. Pay attention to details. especially when you have a limited amount of time to prepare for an exam. a back-and-forth or upand-down movement. Or teach them to someone else. Review. and use them to help you remember the words and their meanings. especially of the hand. . n. review. Use these words. differs from mettle only because it contains the letter d instead of t. standard procedure. 1. the more likely you are to ﬁnd a “key” for you to remember the differences between them. to give up (a right or claim) voluntarily. review. 2. Remember to make the most of your learning style. Use whatever study or memorization techniques work best for you. If you use these words in your everyday writing and conversations. For example. For example. or sudden great rise TIPS AND STRATEGIES Homonyms and other frequently confused words can be particularly challenging. if you are a visual learner. etc. And then review them again.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 71 waive (wayv) v. Use ﬂash cards or other study strategies to review these commonly confused words until you have them memorized. You can associate praise with a good evaluation.). to move up and down or back and forth. 3.
have the root scrib/script. PRACTICE QUESTIONS Choose the correct word in the parenthesis to complete each sentence. 10. and use the difference in pronunciation to help you further differentiate between the words. Don’t forget to use word parts to remember meaning. 2. Then you can remember that proscribe is a (written) law that prohibits something. Lilin (alluded/eluded) to problems with her boss. 7. Please (precede/proceed) with caution through the construction zone. Reina is in (eminent/imminent/emanate) danger and needs our help right away. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. 8. Luna has come up with an (ingenious/ingenuous) solution to the problem. 5. meaning to write. Here is a list of the books the school librarian would like to (censor/censure/sensor) because she feels they are inappropriate for children. . The checks were (disbursed/dispersed) this morning. 9. Both prescribe and proscribe. It was a grueling six-hour (ascent/assent) from our camp to the top of the mountain. 1. for example. 6. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. 3. but she didn’t say anything directly. Once again. Jillian met with a lawyer to see if her landlord could be (persecuted/prosecuted) for his negligence of her building. Xiu is coming this afternoon to determine the (extant/extent) of the problem. We will (waive/wave) the late fee because of your extenuating circumstances. 4.72 ● VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ● Use your ears for the commonly confused words that aren’t homophones.
9. advancement. penalty. distance. To proceed means to go forward or onward. remarkably clever. waive. 8. ingenious.). disbursed. prosecuted. Ingenious means marked by inventive skill or creativity. censor. To allude means to make an indirect reference to. a movement upward. To prosecute is to bring a criminal action against someone. Imminent means about to occur. advance. and then analyze the results to ﬁgure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. extent. An ascent is an upward slope. etc. To waive is to give up (a right or claim) voluntarily. or degree to which something reaches or extends. 4. 6. ascent. imminent. 2. move on. standard procedure. . to refrain from enforcing or insisting upon (a rule. proceed. To disburse means to pay out. impending.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 73 ANSWERS How did you do on identifying the correct word? Check your answers here. Extent means the range. To censor is to forbid the publication. especially after an interruption. relinquish. 3. 1. 5. 7. distribution. showing inventiveness and skill. 10. or other public dissemination of something because it is considered obscene or otherwise politically or morally unacceptable. alluded.
however. that a man was talking on the phone. Although they don’t always follow the general rules of word usage. that there were people able to interpret a political ofﬁce seeker’s actions in a favorable light. In its simplest form. He was on the phone when I got to his house. these sentences bring to mind peculiar pictures of people roped to their ofﬁce chairs. They’re called idioms. depending on how it’s used within a sentence. All of these expressions are idioms. perched on top of telephones. . and the third.6 Idioms and Vocabulary Variations S ➥ ➥ ➥ ometimes you will hear English expressions that sound familiar but are hard to deﬁne outside of the context in which they are used. or whirling through hospitals! When you look at them in context. You will get a better idea of what idioms are by looking at these examples: I was tied up at the ofﬁce until late last night. they are an integral part of any language and are important for you to know. 74 Taken literally. An idiom can sometimes mean one of a number of things. you know that the ﬁrst means that someone was delayed at work. The candidate’s spin doctors were on hand to offer comment on the campaign. the second. an idiom is an everyday term or expression whose meaning evolved over time as it was used in conversation and informal writing.
is a habit or custom peculiar to one’s self. syllabus practicum alumni registrar transcript core curriculum liberal arts elective master’s degree credit sabbatical dormitory You might want to use the Internet to locate these deﬁnitions. Here are some things to keep in mind about idioms: ➥ Idioms can be confused with clichés. the word (sometimes shortened to prereq) refers to the course or courses that you must take in order to qualify for an advanced course. referring to the self. Through overuse. • prerequisite: requirements needed before a promotion or the granting of a job. An idiom is seen as any kind of language use that has gained wide usage in that particular language. An idiom is peculiar not to an individual person but to an individual culture’s use of language. • Clichés are overused phrases that have remained in the language for a long time.I D I O M S AN D VO CAB U LARY VAR IATI O N S 75 U ON YOUR OWN CAMPUS-SPEAK You are likely to encounter certain words on a college campus or in any post-highschool program. their impact is lessened. In college. These include: • tenure: protected employment for professors who have reached a certain level of rank or experience. which are frequently heard around campus. • semester: one of two terms in an academic year • bursar: the ﬁnancial ofﬁcer of a college • tuition: the cost of attending courses On your own. or even ask a university representative. or the world of education. colloquialisms. They are too well known to English speakers. which means that the position carries with it the possibility of tenure. . try and locate the deﬁnitions of the following words.” “right as rain. and slang. Some of the words you’ll ﬁnd in the world of academia. for example. The word idiom is from the Latin word idio. A related term is tenure track. An idiosyncrasy. might also appear on the TOEFL iBT.” and “selling like hotcakes” are examples of clichés. “Pretty as a picture.
” Here are some idioms with their deﬁnitions. What people in the United States call an “apartment building.” and spit simply meant “exact likeness. it makes sense that cool heels would refer to excessive waiting because. up to the job. Somewhere in between are idioms whose meanings made sense once upon a time but are now lost. give it a shot: try for the ﬁrst time watch out: be careful take a stab at: attempt laugh off: ignore with good humor . You could see that laughing off something would have to do with not taking it very seriously. people in the United Kingdom use idioms that are different from those used in the United States. For instance. The use of “should of” for “should have” and “plan on going” instead of “planning to go” are examples of colloquialisms. You might get up early one morning so you can get away on a vacation to France.” O DEFINITION cliché: an overused word or phrase that has lost its impact in the language.76 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ➥ ➥ • Colloquialisms are expressions that may be appropriate in informal speech but are incorrect in formal writing. presumably. Spitting image has nothing to do with saliva. Watching out for (being alert to) something is different than watching over (attending to) something. it is a French word used in English Some idioms are derived from images rooted in experience. • Slang is informal language that is often peculiar to a particular age or occupational group.” the British call a “block of ﬂats. Examples of slang are “tellin’ it like it is” or “What’s up?” Idiomatic phrases in English include hundreds of verbs paired with smaller words (prepositions) that change the meaning of the verb. where you hope to get by with your high school French so you can get along with the locals. It’s a corruption of “spit and image. hot heels result from running hard. All languages have their own idioms. which can make translation from one language to another a bit difﬁcult. Then there are idioms that have evolved over a long period of time and have no particular logic or origin: for example. Even different cultures that speak the same language can have trouble understanding each other’s idioms.
Some of the ways new words are made include: • shortening longer words—for example. appear sleep on it: delay making a decision until the next day take place: happen. but not in the present J HERE’S A HINT NEW AND EMERGING VOCABULARY All words have some point of origin. .” • blending two words together—as in camcorder from camera and recorder • adapting people’s names to ideas that are associated with them—for example. occur used to + verb: something accomplished in the past. all fouled up. which means “an error” and derives from the phrase “situation normal. Reaganomics. amount catch up: to complete something belatedly drop off: deposit or deliver ﬁnd out: discover.I D I O M S AN D VO CAB U LARY VAR IATI O N S 77 hold off: delay burnout: a point of physical or emotional exhaustion ﬂy off the handle: to get angry life of the party: a person who makes things enjoyable for a group of people cool his heels: wait a long time be a wash: even out spitting image: exact likeness up to the job: capable of doing the work by and large: as a general rule give the slip to: escape once in a blue moon: very seldom keep your ears open: to stay attuned all of a sudden: suddenly boil down: summarize. from gymnasium to gym • making up acronyms—such as snafu. decide put off: to hold back to a later time show up: arrive. Words that gain sudden popularity in the language often do so because they’ve grown out of a common new experience or observation. learn have on: wear keep + -ing verb: continue without interruption jump in: begin or enter eagerly make up your mind: settle. from Reagan and economics.
Answer yes or no to the following sentences. Then compare your selection to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. _____ . use the power of mnemonic devices and associations to help you remember meaning. a colloquialism. indicate whether each of the following expressions represents slang. Once again. 4. Pronounce these words each time you go over their meaning. the more familiar they will feel to you. and other dayto-day communications. “She may of gone to the movies” is an example of __________. _____ 5. ● ● ● ● Use the context of the sentences provided with the deﬁnitions to help you understand these words and memorize their meanings. it means that you need the services of an electrician. Here are some speciﬁc tips and strategies to use as you add these words to your vocabulary and prepare for your exam. “The car battery was dead as a doornail” is an example of __________. 1. The more you hear how they sound. Hang a right at the next corner” is an example of __________. PRACTICE QUESTIONS On the lines provided or on a separate piece of paper. or a cliché. 2. Solidify these words and phrases in your memory by teaching them to someone else. it happens rarely.78 TIPS AND STRATEGIES VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Idioms and vocabulary variations are likely to appear on standardized tests like TOEFL iBT and occur regularly in newspaper articles. textbooks. on the basis of your knowledge of the idioms. 3. If you burn out at something. If it happens once in a blue moon. Then compare your selection to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. and the easier it will be to remember them.
If you give the slip to someone. If you give something a shot. 1. 3. you hand over your undergarment. _____ 8.I D I O M S AN D VO CAB U LARY VAR IATI O N S 79 6. you are willing to try. 6. You have to stand near a window if you are going to watch out for something. _____ ANSWERS How did you do on identifying idioms and word variations? Check your answers here. 4. and then analyze the results to ﬁgure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. _____ 7. 8. colloquialism cliché slang no yes no no yes . 5. 2. 7.
aloof d. choose the word that best ﬁlls in the blank. a. I have always liked your positive attitude. make a list of these words. adversely b. reserved d. irrational c. It might be a good idea to write down the deﬁnition beside the word. however. elitist b. Then. artistic 3.) Attempt to answer the questions without using a reference tool like a dictionary. she was very _____________. secretive c. it has _____________ affected our working relationship. When you are ﬁnished. look up the deﬁnitions for the words on your list. you can determine how much time you need to spend to increase your vocabulary power. ingenious 2. if you come across words that you are unsure of. After you complete the test. a. Directions: For questions 1 through 20. George developed an _____________ plan to earn the extra money he needed to start his own business. We knew everything about the newest member of our group. (We suggest not timing yourself. check the answer key carefully to assess your results. Take your time when answering each question. a. favorably 81 . 1. expressive b.Practice Test 1 T he 80 questions in this practice test will help you assess your vocabulary skills and the topics reviewed throughout this book. candidly d. shamelessly c.
it could cause serious health problems. a. potable 7. condoned . valid b. priceless b. docile 5. and I had no trouble ﬁnding it in time for work. released c. a. commonplace c. a. dispersed 8. The directions to the new ofﬁce were _____________. he is a _____________ and obedient pet. devised c. Rachel _____________ a plan to become a millionaire by age 30.82 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 4. The new board member said she would vote in favor of the proposed city ordinance because it _____________ many of the points discussed earlier this year. arduous c. explicit d. Dog-sitting for Buddy is easy to do. quenchable c. a. If your drinking water is not _____________. embodied 6. a. encompassed b. decreased d. impure d. meddlesome d. reminisced d. delectable b. conformed b.
a. a. Wanting to make a good impression. supposed b. obscurely 12. presumed d. redundancy c. Tim dressed _____________ with bright red suspenders and a purple tie. Because Mark needed to pass the exam. torrid c. vital 13. he made studying a _____________ over watching his favorite television show. he found himself in a _____________ about the right tie to wear to the business meeting. Muhammad fell asleep during the movie because it had a very _____________ plot. a. resolved . perplexity d. priority b. conformity c. a. prestige b. To get the promotion she wanted. concept 11. conspicuously d. monotonous b. ample d. a. deﬁcit 10. virtuously c. surmised c. she _____________ that it was best to go back to school to get her master’s degree as soon as she could. Hoping to win a prize for the best costume.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 83 9. quandary d. eminently b.
a. a. Due to slippery road conditions and the slope of the narrow. the car _____________ down the steep mountainous road. dynamically b. The ﬁre alarm _____________ beckoned the volunteer ﬁreﬁghters of the small community to come to action. approvingly b. duplicate . winding highway. mishap b. reunion 15. ventilated c. The narrator’s description was an accurate _____________ of a true southern family. attraction c. reﬂex d. a. symbolically d. careened d. signiﬁcantly c. council c. generously d. a. audibly 17. After running an early 5K race. Simone _____________ devoured a hearty breakfast. a. agitated 16. The car rental company considered the scratches on the driver’s door to be caused by a minor _____________. beneﬁcially 18. voraciously c. disguise d.84 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 14. dissented b. portrayal b.
a. ﬁlibuster d. bitingly sarcastic. . d. Aswad has such a caustic sense of humor that most people ﬁnd his jokes upsetting rather than humorous. c. b. enemy. Caustic means a. 22. choose the best deﬁnition for the word in italics. very high. although she’s lived here for years and everyone knows her. in a new location. narrowly Directions: For questions 21 through 45. stranger. cutting edge. The participants in the road rally agreed to _____________ near the village commons at 5:00. relentlessly funny. c. refreshingly honest. original. far beyond what is normal or reasonable. b. Enigma means a. Sandra is truly an enigma. c. to orbit. mystery. 21. scatter c. luxuriously c. newcomer. belonging to a group. rendezvous b. Understanding the world economic conditions. 23.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 85 19. a. no one seems to know anything about who she is or where she came from. the recent graduates spoke _____________ about job prospects for the future. b. disperse 20. d. Exorbitant means a. d. measurably d. warily b.
Subordinate means a. Metamorphosis means a.86 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 24. outdo. organized according to rank. a teacher or instructor. repeated frequently to aid memorization. under someone else’s authority or control. Denunciation means a. to surpass. without distinction. b. b. b. literal. To reconcile means a. c. b. c. hierarchical. moralize. to multiply. to denounce or openly condemn. one who denounces or openly condemns another. Unilateral means a. c. tending to change frequently. one-sided. understated. to reestablish a close relationship between. one who has changed. to transform. to preach. to move away from. moralizing. c. intended to instruct. the act of denouncing or openly condemning. d. 27. d. d. d. 28. d. to undermine. b. the process of instructing. d. 29. . c. something ordinary or average. a transformation. b. 25. of or like a condemnation. critical. c. 26. Didactic means a.
c. biting in nature. penetrating. insight. c. an evil person. Perennial means a. an empire built by acquiring other territories. Incisive means a. d. c. ﬁght. one who plants a garden. badly handled. 35. b. to act forcefully. 34. d. to establish contact. relating to the acquisition of territories. villain. b. know intimately. 33. Imperialism means a. 31. Intermittent means a. c. . d. someone who is unconventional. b. a number between one and ten. d. c. someone who lacks creativity. b. c. b. quarrel. 32. abolish. occurring at intervals between two times or points. d. a very naïve person. rest quietly. b. the process of encoding a message. constant. lasting a very long time.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 87 30. d. the policy of extending an empire by acquiring other territories. To abrogate is to a. one who acquires items from other empires. greatly varied. Miscreant means a. revoke. worthy of consideration.
hobo. rambling speech. generous. enables a guilty person to be set free. the act of seeing or shining. If there is amity between two nations. highly noble. a wanderer. a place to stop. b. equality. comply with another’s wishes. is extremely friendly. . To acquiesce is to a. bitterness. c. 37. b. d. d. c. 40. mask the truth. exists only in the imagination. An edict is a. d. given to wordy. 41. 39. c. a formal proclamation or command. there is a. war. give in to. An acrimonious relationship is one that a. A magnanimous person is a. c. has a pleasing and lasting effect on others. b. b. d. has existed for a long time. peace. is experienced through the life or action of another. c. b. d. A vicarious action is one that a.88 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 36. c. extremely talkative. d. 38. speak in a whisper. b. a place to rest. surrenders the rights of others. is bitter or resentful. call attention to.
Jackson may act as if he is totally (disinterested/uninterested) in you. calmness. A loquacious person a. nosy. I am having the jewelry I inherited from my grandmother (appraised/apprised) to ﬁnd out how much it is worth.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 89 42. . peace. d. tends to talk a great deal. 46. d. has good intentions. moves at a constant. 44. The pond was (teaming/teeming) with tadpoles after the frog eggs hatched. b. b. combative. intense. carefree. often has difﬁculty ﬁnding things. but believe me. ﬁery emotion. appropriate. To feel fervor is to feel a. burdened. 47. straying from the norm. d. 45. b. c. Anita’s (faux/foe) mink coat looked so real that a group of teenagers accused her of cruelty to animals. A pugnacious person is best described as a. c. is unpredictable. b. choose the correct word in the parentheses to complete the sentence. he is very anxious to learn more about you. light-hearted. steady pace. is properly ordered. ruthless. talented. c. seems to be harmless but is actually very dangerous. 49. Something that is erratic a. c. 43. d. meandering. is not discerning. Directions: For questions 46 through 59. 48. but often ends up doing things that end up hurting others. in its proper place. as with guilt. tends to like everyone.
57. let’s eat here. 55.90 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 50. 51. identify the correct synonym by looking for word roots. You are sure to be (censored/censured/sensored) if you make such wild accusations about your colleagues. even though she did not entirely agree with the plan. I think he’s telling the truth. Although Oscar’s story sounds (incredible/incredulous). A (hoard/horde) of angry parents attended the school board meeting and demanded that the superintendent step down. 60. preﬁxes. This looks like a (decent/descent/dissent) restaurant. or sufﬁxes. Choose the word that means the same or about the same as the italicized word. 56. identiﬁable b. he seems to be afraid of no one and nothing. incomplete c. Jing-Mae gave her (ascent/assent) to the proposal. Huang decided to (raise/raze) the stakes by increasing the reward. 53. enhanced . 58. Directions: In questions 60 through 63. I have always admired Don’s (meddle/mettle). 52. a partial report a. 59. With just a few hours to go before the big ceremony. The documentary really (peaked/peeked/piqued) my interest in the Civil War. visible d. Helen entered the room right on (cue/queue). 54. Adele rushed around (prescribing/proscribing) orders left and right.
processed Directions: In questions 64 through 67. ﬁnal d. a substantial report a.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 91 61. 64. challenge 63. deny d. reverted b. slow b. regular 65. pause d. excessive . alleged 62. hasten c. corroborate the statement a. conﬁrm b. prompt payment a. transgressed c. inconclusive b. negate c. desist 66. moderate work ﬂow a. choose the word that means the opposite of the italicized word. original b. weighty c. tardy d. proven d. average c. rain delay a. punctual b. manufactured goods a. regressed d. slack c.
imbroglio 69. apropos b. aﬁcionado . cliché b. hiatus c. savoir faire d. par excellence b. an avid sports fan a. milieu c. choose the word whose deﬁnition best matches the description. gestalt b. bourgeois c. initial impression a.92 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 67. an innovative play that uses an experimental style a. blasé b. mélange c. zeitgeist d. façade 71. right Directions: For questions 68 through 72. ﬁrst b. “work like a dog. crisis c.” and other such overused sayings a. gauche 72. insouciant d. ﬁnal d. the complete works of Shakespeare a. mélange d. oeuvre 70. avant-garde d. 68.” “sleep like a baby. a meeting at 7:00 at La Grange restaurant a. rendezvous c.
76. b. write 75. A synonym for adequate is a. conﬁne b. forward c. entertain. steady. average. 77.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 93 Directions: For questions 73 and 74. perform d. d. after b. c. 78. mediocre. choose the word that best describes the section of the word in bold type. A synonym for vast is a. eager. b. A synonym for comply is a. proactive a. b. obey. d. d. subdue. available. attentive. toward d. b. ﬂatter. cheerful. 73. c. sufﬁcient. slight. behind 74. inscribe a. immense. c. . see c. c. A synonym for enthusiastic is a. adamant. d. proﬁcient.
A synonym for ecstatic is a. 13. Conspicuously means obvious to the eye or mind. 12. d. Resolved means having reached a ﬁrm decision about something. Priority means the right to receive attention before others. kindly. 11. Favorably means gracious. d. c. dissembling. Devised means to form—in the mind—new combinations or applications of ideas or principles. a. diverse. Audibly means heard or the manner of being heard. d. positive.94 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 79. slovenly. 80. Monotonous means having a tedious sameness. Explicit means clearly deﬁned. to plan to obtain or bring about. a. a. Docile means easily led or managed. A mishap is an unfortunate accident. 15. Potable means ﬁt for drinking. c. . Quandary means a state of perplexity or doubt. d. attracting attention. thrilled. b. 5. or obliging. c. Voraciously means having a huge appetite. 16. 18. d. Careen means to rush headlong or carelessly. a. An expressive person would be one who is open or emphatic when revealing opinions or feelings. a. c. c. resourcefulness. c. and cleverness in conception. 6. Encompassed in this context means included. a. 8. 10. 9. bizarre. ANSWERS 1. a. to lurch or swerve while in motion. inconsistent. Ingenious means marked by originality. b. 7. d. 4. ravenously. An antonym for uniform is a. 2. d. b. wild. Portrayal means a representation or portrait. 19. 17. 3. 14. A rendezvous is a meeting or assembly that is by appointment or arrangement. b. d.
biting. especially in public. Metamorphosis means a transformation. a. The noun sufﬁx -tion means the act or state of. but no one knows anything about her. 31. happening again and again or year after year. 21. an evil person. d. 22. character. 33. meaning action or process. below. evil. 29. she remains a mystery.means between or among. suitable for. secondary. The preﬁx inter. The main context clue is that people ﬁnd Aswad’s jokes upsetting rather than humorous. not continuous. b. The adjective sufﬁx -ic means pertaining or relating to.means back. periodic. Notice also the adjective sufﬁx -al. Incisive means penetrating and clear.means one. The adjective sufﬁx -ive means having the nature of. 30. acute. thus.means under. a. beneath. Caustic means bitingly sarcastic. The preﬁx re. c. having the quality of. c. (2) subject to the authority or control of another. 32. Choices b and c are both nouns. able to burn or dissolve by chemical action. forever. Unilateral means one-sided. The adjective sufﬁx -ial means having the quality of. a. it would require the sufﬁx -ist.means bad. Warily is a manner marked by keen caution. Only choice b deﬁnes a quality. Perennial means lasting an indeﬁnitely long time. Intermittent means occurring at intervals. The context tells you that people know who Sandra is. thus choice a is the only option that makes sense. Denunciation means the act of denouncing. and as a verb (notice the -ate sufﬁx) it means (1) to put in a lower or inferior rank or class. or function. 28. criminal. a bafﬂing problem or riddle. The preﬁx uni. 24. a.means out. b. again. constantly recurring.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 95 20. subdue. Miscreant means a villain. 26. Choice a is the only adjective deﬁnition. cutting. alternate. To reconcile means to reestablish a close relationship between. but for choice b to be correct. sharp. a. out of. 25. 23. to openly condemn or accuse of evil. Enigma means something that is puzzling or difﬁcult to understand. and watchful prudence. tending to be excessively instructive or moralizing. As a noun it means one that is subordinate to another. The preﬁx mis. (2) to make subservient. away from. to bring back to harmony. cunning. Didactic means intended to instruct. related to. Exorbitant means greatly exceeding (far away from) the bounds of what is normal or reasonable. d. The noun sufﬁx -sis means the process of. a marked change of form. d. The preﬁx sub. The adjective subordinate means (1) of a lower or inferior class or rank. . d. wrong. d. 27. The preﬁx ex.
a state of friendly or peaceful relations. The noun sufﬁx -ity means state of being. d. a formal proclamation or command issued by someone in authority. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. The root dic/dict/dit means to say. The preﬁx ab. bitter. The root mag/maj/max means big. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. uninterested. d. 49. cause to be. Pugnacious means quarrelsome. 41. bubble. burn. The root am means love. ardor. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. a. The noun sufﬁx -ism means state or doctrine of. give in. Faux means artiﬁcial. or inconsistent manner.96 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 34. inclined to ﬁght. 35. away. 37. The root qui means quiet. The root pug means to ﬁght. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. d. consent without protest—thereby “quieting” the other to whom one gives in. d. d. To abrogate means to abolish. deviating (wandering) from the normal or typical course of action. appraised. Fervor means zeal. away from. do away with. to be present in large numbers. acting or suffering for another. garrulous. Erratic means moving or behaving in an irregular. teeming. c. The root loc/log/loqu means word. combative. 38. not genuine or real. Uninterested means not interested. An edict is an ofﬁcial order or decree. down. Vicarious means felt through imaging what another has experienced. b. formally revoke. 40. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. etc. use words. 47. speech. a. The adjective sufﬁx -ic means pertaining or relating to. d. 42. intense emotion. Acrimonious means bitter and sharp in language or tone. 45. opinion. The root ferv means to boil. Imperialism means the policy of extending rule of a nation or empire by acquiring other territories. understanding and forgiving of others. 36. 39. The root err means to wander. The root vi means life. . 48. having no care or interest in knowing. 43. fake. Loquacious means very talkative. faux. b. 46. The root ac/acr means sharp. tell. to establish value or estimate the worth of. uneven.means off. Magnanimous means very noble and generous. The root rog means to ask. Amity means friendship. To teem means to be full of. the sufﬁx -ate means to make. having the quality of. a. 44. To acquiesce means to comply. To appraise means to evaluate. The sufﬁx -or means a condition or activity.
ﬁnal means last. make higher. assent. A delay is a postponement in time. A substantial report is extensive. prescribing. 52. etc. which means with or together. d. A partial report is only part of the whole. 69. To corroborate is conﬁrm. 51. intensity. Decent means (1) conforming to what is socially or morally suitable or correct. decent. This sentence uses the second meaning. condemn. Prompt means punctual. 59. to increase in size. (2) to provoke or arouse. beyond belief. 68. composer. 66. and collide. tardy means late. astonishing. Corroboration means that one statement ﬁts with another. given to prompt or remind someone of something. a. quantity. 60. you may be reminded of a rain delay at a sporting event. 61. a vast multitude. cue. Incredible means implausible. sufﬁcient. If you rely on context clues to help you answer this question. To pique is (1) to cause annoyance or irritation. such as a word or action. A cue is a signal. 57. order something to be done. To raise is to lift. coworker. An initial impression is one that comes ﬁrst. Initial means ﬁrst. 65. horde. to hasten is to hurry. 62. mettle. The key part of the word substantial is substance. Substance means something that has signiﬁcance. fortitude. Assent means agreement. (2) meeting acceptable standards. piqued. Some related words are cooperate. cutting-edge. Context clues are important as well. 53. d. You may have seen this sentence on one of your bills: Prompt payment is appreciated. to vex. Manufactured goods are those that are made or processed from raw material into a ﬁnished product. Partial means incomplete. A horde is a large group or crowd. Avant-garde means using or favoring an ultramodern or experimental style. 55. incredible. a hint or suggestion. Mettle means courage. consent. Moderate means average. 56. rebuke. b. b. c. concurrence. censured. raise. adequate. The key here is to remember not to choose the synonym. especially in the arts or literature. It also means to order a medicine or other treatment. To censure is to criticize strongly. The root of the word here is part. Facer—the word root—means to make or do. excessive means extreme. This sentence uses the second meaning. b. spirit. d. Something that is moderate is not subject to extremes. c. To prescribe is to issue commands. 63. innovative. 58. Notice the preﬁx co-. 64.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 97 50. 67. Oeuvre means (1) a work of art. c. degree. or strength. To delay is to slow. dictate. 54. (2) the total lifework of a writer. artist. .
d. Comply is synonymous with obey. they are forward thinking and take action or initiative to make things happen. If something is adequate. to be diverse is to have variety. The noun rendezvous means (1) a prearranged meeting at a certain time and place. An aﬁcionado is a fan or devotee. d. 75. (2) a place where people meet. d. 77. 71. The word root scribe means to write. Enthusiastic means eager. 74. The verb rendezvous means to bring or come together at a certain place. d. 76.98 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 70. b. If someone is proactive. To be uniform is be consistent or the same as others. especially of a sport or pastime. 78. to meet at a rendezvous. A cliché is a trite or overused expression or idea. 72. to engrave on a surface. d. 73. especially a popular gathering place. . Vast means very great in size. immense. a. b. 79. The preﬁx pro means for. b. it is sufﬁcient. 80. a. b. A person who is ecstatic is thrilled.
The Earth Day committee leader placed large garbage bins in the park to _____________ Saturday’s cleanup. Directions: For questions 1 through 18. optional b. belittled b. integrate d. choose the word that best ﬁlls in the blank. pummeled c. 1. look up the deﬁnitions for the words on your list. confound b. vicious c. rebuked d. When you are ﬁnished. Take your time when answering each question. It might be a good idea to write down the deﬁnition beside the word. (We suggest not timing yourself. legitimate 2. a. a.Practice Test 2 T he 80 questions in this practice test will help you assess your vocabulary skills and the topics reviewed throughout this book. check the answer key carefully to assess your results. if you come across words that you are unsure of. a. facilitate 99 . make a list of these words. pacify c. After you complete the test. Then. The hail _____________ the cornﬁeld until the entire crop was lost. her claim to the estate was _____________. however. Being a direct relative of the deceased. prominent d. you can determine how much time you need to spend to increase your vocabulary power. commended 3.) Attempt to answer the questions without using a reference tool like a dictionary.
Her rapport with everyone in the ofﬁce _____________ the kind of interpersonal skills that all of the employees appreciated. relinquish d. a. you must pass the last exam of the semester to graduate. delude b. Do you have the _____________ paperwork you need to register for the class? a. punitive b. exempliﬁed d. determined c. be sure to give a _____________ description of the new ofﬁce procedures. varied 5. prevailed b. seclusion d. conﬂuence c. treatise 6. grandiose c. Do not _____________ yourself.100 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 4. requisite 7. depreciate c. a. restorative d. The _____________ of the two rivers provided the perfect place to build a new state park. assumption b. a. massive . principled b. a. prohibit 8. diverged c. When you address the members of the committee. comprehensive d.
a. consummate d. a. a. and we were able to continue our golf game. animated d. abated b. voluntary 10. Martin Kemp _____________ told the press that he had accepted the nomination as board chairperson. momentum 11. ample . superﬁcial c. perpetually d. Florin became a _____________ veterinarian who could treat and operate on many different kinds of animals. evoked 13. The news was no longer secret. the thunderstorm _____________. principally 12. After years of experience. a. reticent c. repulsively b. Although Hunter was _____________ about revealing information to us when we ﬁrst met him.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 101 9. The darkening skies in the west were a _____________ to the dangerous thunderstorm that summer afternoon. acute b. constricted d. preference d. a. germinated c. he soon began to talk more than anyone. customary b. reputedly c. tedium b. After an hour of heavy rain. precursor c.
otherwise. On each slick curve in the road. evidently she was right because she always seemed to know what would happen in the future.102 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 14. separated b. Smuggling 16. comical c. a. divided c. hydroplane c. a meticulous young man. diligently d. a. My cousin claimed to be _____________. haphazardly 15. a. operate b. terminally b. differentiated 17. disconnected d. clairvoyant . Poaching c. Provoking d. a. a. dreamlike b. The two cats could be _____________ only by the number of rings on their tails. Anthony. Irritating b. they were exactly alike. _____________ elephants from the wild not only endangers the species but upsets the balance of nature. reconnoiter 18. criminal d. _____________ watered his neighbors’ plants once a week while they were on vacation. I was afraid we would _____________ and have an accident. submerge d. perpendicularly c.
20. To emulate means a. d. c. b. to be excessively competitive. Trite means a. Cy’s attempt to ﬁnally complete the marathon was thwarted when he twisted his ankle in the 23rd mile. to be the subject of a sentence or conversation.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 103 Directions: For questions 19 through 45. Although the plot of the ﬁlm is admittedly trite. so it is no surprise that she is also pursuing a career as a neuroscientist. to create. d. to injure seriously. to withhold. d. c. to demonstrate. to strive to equal. to be more successful than. b. Everyone loved Ilona’s idea. b. . or outdo. to conquer. and she quickly garnered enough support for her proposal to present it to the committee. d. to propose. to prevent from accomplishing. to support wholeheartedly. 19. overused. original. b. 22. complex. 23. the characters are so endearing that the movie is highly entertaining despite the old storyline. To garner means a. to be wrongly or unevenly distributed. b. c. c. choose the best deﬁnition for the word in italics. To subjugate means a. 21. to support actively. imitate. d. Ilka has always emulated her older brother. to be surrounded on all sides. to regard as inferior. exciting. bring under control. To thwart means a. c.
a kind. c. . b. d. mine. discontent among a speciﬁc group within a larger population. 28. d. to carry out an ill-conceived or poorly planned course of action. a surprising collaboration. to go away secretly and hide. generous ruler. to regret. regularity. kind. Lamentable means a. d. 26. Docile means a. obedience. abnormal. b. c. 27. c. To coalesce means a. 29. Benevolence means a. to dig up. to do something without telling anyone. something that is irregular. giving charitably. or deviates from the usual form. one who domesticates animals.104 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 24. generosity. the management of domestic affairs. to be generous with one’s time or money. c. d. d. willing to obey. b. c. c. especially in shame. To abscond means a. to do something regrettable. b. an unfortunate occurrence. b. to combine and form a whole. easily managed or taught. to create a secret hiding place. the cooperation of unlikely individuals. unfortunate. b. to do something ahead of deadline. d. consistency. join together. kindness. Anomaly means a. 25. regrettable. to withdraw silently.
c.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 105 30. unique. d. a strong aversion or dislike. fundamentally different. distinct. c. or apart from others. that which occurred previously. loving. kind. A belligerent person is a. b. . devoted. original. to correct. from another country. exceeding expectations. Inscrutable means a. incapable of being understood. c. Rectify means a. a beginner or novice. foreign. a surprising error. d. b. not fathomable. hostile. someone who lives with another. a roommate. b. a correction. b. kept between or within members of a family. d. an editor. 33. something that comes from multiple sources. Disparate means a. the act of separating from the source. Neophyte means a. c. 32. Antipathy means a. d. d. b. c. from the same origin. 35. d. 34. c. eager to help. chosen from within. eager to ﬁght. 31. b. an examination of all aspects of an issue. teaching a lesson. having little or no impact.
106 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 36. . d. b. often speaks without thinking. A renaissance is a. b. b. d. A person who is culpable is a. speak in a way that conceals the truth. 41. d. 37. 39. a punishment. Someone who is omniscient a. equal. bright. even. burn or sting. c. d. excessive. blames others for his or her own faults. d. d. vocal. c. put something in its proper place. c. full of knowledge. c. receives the maximum beneﬁt. capable. full of life. guilty. newborn. To equivocate is to a. Something that is manifest is a. shining. b. b. a rebirth. 40. c. a lie. 38. b. deadly. c. Something that is luminous is a. a mistake. obvious. calm or quiet. energetic. is eager to please. everywhere.
43. very valuable. 48. genuine. judging equally. speak in a round-about manner. overwhelm. thoroughly washed. As soon as I get off the phone. d. 44. place side by side. choose the correct word in the parentheses to complete the sentence. b. Someone who is reticent is a. c. Tomorrow the city is going to (raise/raze) the building that I grew up in. but the dollar is up. c. 50. 49. a forgery or fake. bubbling over with enthusiasm. Stop (persecuting/prosecuting) me just because I often disagree with you. b. but nothing would (elicit/illicit) a response from the child. irrelevant.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 107 42. fair. I tried everything. an autograph by a famous person. The Euro has (deprecated/depreciated). inoffensive. d. . To juxtapose is to a. c. Directions: For questions 46 through 59. d. ﬂood. 47. 45. wandering from the main path or point. harmless. 46. b. deeply in love. A veritable autograph is a. d. I will (appraise/apprise) you of the situation. dangerous or deadly. b. c. Something that is innocuous is a. reserved. be born again. clean. silent.
Although you all seem to agree. not understandable b. The odor quickly (disbursed/dispersed) through the room. 57. Choose the word that means the same or about the same as the italicized word. not likely c. preﬁxes. and soon it was no longer even noticeable. The thief managed to (allude/elude) the police for several days. 56. I must (decent/descent/dissent). 60.108 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 51. 59. 54. an incoherent answer a. but they ﬁnally caught up with him in Reno. 58. I’m just going to (peak/peek/pique) in the baby’s room to make sure she’s okay. 53. The (cue/queue) for the movies was all the way to the end of the block and around the corner. I think this is a bad decision. 52. A strange odor is (eminenting/imminenting/emanating) from Professor Van Buren’s laboratory. undeniable d. or sufﬁxes. challenging . identify the correct synonym by looking for word roots. Dixie is so (ingenious/ingenuous) I don’t think she could lie if her life depended on it. I don’t like Igor because he is constantly (meddling/mettling) in things that are none of his business. Directions: In questions 60 through 63. 55. Georgio had to (fain/feign) excitement when he opened his presents so his parents wouldn’t know he’d already searched their room to ﬁnd out what he was getting.
inadvertently left a. eager c. carefully 63. experienced Directions: In questions 64 through 67. capable employee a. purposely c. harmonious d. protective material 62. gifted b. zealous pursuit a. idle d. good excuses b. competitive c. absurd c. mistakenly b. transparent material c. envious b. unskilled b. choose the word that means the opposite of the italicized word. 64. unexpected c. covered with debris a. able 65. cautiously d. scattered rubble d.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 109 61. compatible workers a. exorbitant prices a. expensive b. reasonable d. comical 66. outrageous . apt d.
hostile b. imbroglio c. blasé b. quid pro quo c.110 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 67. liaison c. malaise 70. appeasing c. belligerent attitude a. ad hoc b. choose the word whose deﬁnition best matches the description. aﬁcionado b. vis-à-vis . an artist’s ﬁrst gallery showing a. parvenu d. façade 72. debut 69. 68. milieu d. instinctive d. parvenu d. wearing a disguise a. pretending not to be hurt by an insulting remark a. gauche c. a temporary separation in a relationship a. hiatus d. oeuvre 71. ennui b. ungracious Directions: For questions 68 through 72. cliché d. incognito b. imbroglio c. someone who reports students’ questions and concerns to the dean a.
contiguous. inﬂuence. d. a state of being b. leery. intermittent. b. d. a relationship c. 73. b. worried. with b. uninterrupted. An antonym for wary is a. over c. dangerous.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 111 Directions: For questions 73 and 74. a property d. A synonym for continuous is a. 76. alert. sicken. time 74. wisdom a. careless. adjacent. old. b. . unsettled. cause. an action 75. suitable d. apart d. 77. An antonym for novel is a. b. choose the word or phrase that best describes the section of the word in bold type. c. c. A synonym for affect is a. c. 78. d. c. congregation a. accomplish.
13. Comprehensive means covering completely or broadly. d. d. b. Diligently means to do something with careful attention and great effort. ANSWERS 1. b. Facilitate means to make easier or help bring about. c. c. it is called hydroplaning.112 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 79. . Conﬂuence means a coming or ﬂowing together. d. 10. 80. b. 4. Exemplify means to be an instance of or serve as an example. d. civility. rudeness. congruity. c. 6. 17. c. a meeting. b. a. b. weakness. 7. Abated means to decrease in force or intensity. 15. a. to deceive. conviviality. d. fable. 11. d. b. 18. To differentiate between two things is to establish the distinction between them. Reputedly means according to general belief. An antonym for fallacy is a. blessing. or a gathering at one point. Precursor means something that comes before. Pummeled means to pound or beat. 3. b. c. 14. 2. Requisite means essential or necessary. Consummate means extremely skilled and experienced. Delude means to mislead the mind. 12. c. 16. d. Reticent means inclined to be silent or uncommunicative. Legitimate means in a manner conforming to recognized principles or accepted rules or standards. b. To poach is to trespass on another’s property in order to steal ﬁsh or game. A synonym for courtesy is a. 9. A clairvoyant is someone who can perceive matters beyond the range of ordinary perception. 5. When a car goes out of control and skims along the surface of a wet road. 8. truth. d. reserved.
to join together. meaning one that performs. 25. b. 22. recent. Antipathy means a strong aversion or dislike. 20. especially after wrongdoing. 33. bring under control. To emulate means to try to equal or excel. The sentence tells you that Ilona quickly found the support she needed to present her idea to the committee. 27. To rectify means to make right. The preﬁx sub. which indicates that she is trying to equal or outdo him through imitation. b. 34. The preﬁx ab. or causes an action. dissimilar. d. The verb sufﬁx -ify means to make.mean not. The preﬁx neo. incapable of being understood. The preﬁx anti. 24. The key context clue is the phrase “the old storyline. ready and willing to be taught. Lamentable means regrettable. Trite means repeated too often. The preﬁx a. a disposition to act charitably. fuse. one that is irregular or abnormal. opposed to. 32.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 113 19. 28. b. Coalesce means to combine and form a whole. The adjective sufﬁx -able means capable or worthy of. or acquire. Benevolence means the inclination to be kind and generous. being in a speciﬁed state or condition. Disparate means fundamentally different or distinct.means not. unfathomable. 31. varied. together. c. To abscond means to go away secretly and hide oneself.means off. b. To garner means to gather. Anomaly means something that deviates from the general rule or usual form. especially by imitation. a. also because the sentence states that people loved Ilona’s idea. down. 26. reversal. unfortunate. d. apart. subdue. or easily managed. without. Notice also the verb sufﬁx -ate. d.means with. c. 29.means new. . 23. The adjective sufﬁx -ile means having the qualities of. inspiring grief or mourning. 30. The preﬁx co. Neophyte means a beginner or novice. d.” which indicates that the plot of the movie is overused. Cy’s twisted ankle kept him from realizing his attempt to complete the marathon. d. The noun sufﬁx -ence means state of. To subjugate means to conquer. The sentence tells you that Ilka is pursuing the same career as her brother. a new form of. The preﬁx in. away from. 21.means away from. To thwart means to prevent the accomplishment or realization of something. a. not. Notice also the adjective sufﬁx -able. The preﬁx dis. b. it is logical to conclude that she would gather their support. correct. a.means under or below. overly familiar through overuse.means against. promotes. Inscrutable means bafﬂing. Docile means willing to obey. amass. d. apart.
genuine. Belligerent means hostile and aggressive. as the other answers correspond with different roots. true.114 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 35. someone who equivocates is “equally” lying and telling the truth (or rather. The root nec/nic/noc/nox means harm. The root tac/tic means to be silent. The root omni means all.means back or again. brilliant. guilty. not quite doing either). 38. silent. To equivocate means to use unclear or ambiguous language in order to mislead or conceal the truth. performing or causing a speciﬁed action. having no adverse or ill effects. place. The root pon/pos/pound means to put. blameworthy. The preﬁx re. The root ver means truth. The adjective sufﬁx -able means capable or worthy of. obvious. To depreciate means to diminish in price or value. reserved. The ending -ent is an adjective sufﬁx meaning in a state or condition. The root bel means war. a. the root voc/vok means to call. depreciated. b. at hand. The root culp means blame. 43. (2) to deduce or derive by reasoning. Thus. It also means to think or speak of as being of little worth. 44. a. 41. religious or political beliefs. Omniscient means having inﬁnite knowledge. 46. especially to compare or contrast. to provoke. The sufﬁx -able means capable or worthy of. 48. innocuous means harmless. to lessen the worth of. Reticent means tending to keep one’s thoughts and feelings to oneself. to belittle. The root nas/nat/nai means to be born. The preﬁx in. death. the sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. the sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. full of light. the sufﬁx -ate means to make. The root equ means equal. emitting light. 45. harass. or mistreat. the sufﬁx -ance means state of. Manifest means clear and unmistakable. To juxtapose means to place side by side. To persecute is to oppress. The correct answer can be achieved here through the process of elimination. Renaissance means a rebirth or revival. Luminous means shining. or sexual orientation. . cause to be. d. 39. 40. 42. Thus. b. Veritable means real. a. a. c. c. persecuting. knowing all things. This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. showing an eagerness to ﬁght. especially because of race.means not. 47. Culpable means deserving blame or censure for doing something wrong or harmful. The root luc/lum/lus means light. 37. d. untalkative. The root man means hand. To elicit means (1) to call forth or draw out. thus. c. 36. the root sci means to know. elicit.
This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. The other trick is not to choose the synonym. This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. Inadvertently means by mistake. (2) in information processing. which means out of or away from. 63. disagree. 65. daring. a. 52. (2) to be incomprehensible to. Compatible means capable of existing or performing in harmony. c. elude. This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. 59. To emanate is to come or issue forth. To feign is to pretend. 61. 56. A queue is (1) a line of waiting people or vehicles. This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. 57. demolish completely. feign. ingenuous.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 115 49. 51. The preﬁx in.means not. obliterate. The key element in this word is the preﬁx in-. disseminate. eager. To elude is (1) to escape from or evade. a. apprise. Ingenuous means (1) not cunning or deceitful. escape the understanding of. which might give you a clue about the meaning of the word. 55. frank sincere. Zealous means eager. (2) lacking sophistication or worldliness. to make aware of. an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing. Incoherent means not understandable. choice b. or skill. One other precaution is to be careful and not be misled by the similar sounds of zealous and jealous. a. dispersed. c. A coherent answer connects or makes sense. To dissent is (1) to differ in opinion. c. 62. This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. as from a source. (2) to erase. dissent. 66. artless. c. Debris is scattered fragments or trash. To apprise means to give notice or information to. emanating. The best clue in this word is the preﬁx ex-. peek. To meddle is to intrude in other people’s affairs. interfere. 60. which means not. or cause to do so. unable to mask feelings. . Exorbitant literally means exceeding the bounds of what is fair or normal. meddling. inform. so idle is most nearly the opposite. To cohere means to connect. very high. The sufﬁx -able tells you that a capable employee is one who has ability. To peek is to glance quickly or peer at furtively. (2) to withhold approval or assent. To disperse is (1) to separate and scatter in different directions. unskilled means unable. queue. 58. Capable means able. You may have heard the word zeal before. 53. To raze is (1) to level to the ground. 54. The opposite of an exorbitant or outrageous price would be a reasonable one. to give the false appearance of. (2) to distribute widely. 50. especially by cleverness. raze. 64.
Continuous means marked by uninterrupted extension in space and time. Someone who has wisdom is someone who is wise enough to discern or judge what is right. b. careless is the opposite of watchful. To be novel is to be new. 71. one who maintains such communication. true. an interruption or break. 74. a. c. d. 68. d.means to be together with. a. the opposite is old. Incognito means with one’s identity concealed. 79. a. Hiatus means a gap or opening. The antonym would be appeasing. a truth is something that conforms to the facts. 76. A fallacy is a false or mistaken idea. The sufﬁx -dom is a state of being. 77. To be wary is to be on guard or watchful. (2) a close relationship or link. 75. To affect means to inﬂuence. 72. d. . A debut is a ﬁrst appearance in or presentation to the public. 78. The preﬁx con. a. especially one that is secretive or adulterous. A congregation would gather together with each other in a house of worship. b. it is characterized by civility. A façade is (1) the face or front of a building. which means warlike. A courtesy is a courteous or mannerly act. d. 70. trickery. 80. in disguise or under an assumed character or identity. especially one intended to hide something unpleasant. 73. (2) an artiﬁcial or deceptive front. c.116 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 67. or lasting. The synonym choices—hostile and ungracious—would be incorrect. a. The key element in this word is the root belli. d. 69. Liaison means (1) a channel or means of connection or communication between two groups.
Flash cards are pieces of paper or index cards that are used as a learning aid.APPENDIX A Word List B y now you’ve seen that a good working vocabulary is a very important asset when taking the TOEFL iBT. and they’re friend-friendly. they’re portable. Learn a short list every day. part of speech. Write the vocabulary word on one side and the deﬁnition on the other. If you can make games out of learning vocabulary.) If the word list looks intimidating. (Note: Some words have different meanings depending on how they are being used. 117 . and a sentence using the word. Multiply that number by 10. Remember that the best way to learn vocabulary is also the easiest: make long lists of words you don’t know and then break them down into short lists. You and your friends can drill each other. 1. try writing a sentence that uses the word on one side of the ﬂash card and the deﬁnition of the word on the other. Or. and it’s yours! Another alternative is to work with ﬂash cards. use it in conversation as soon as possible. 2. You should also try and write sentences using the new words. so you can study with a buddy. try the following strategy. Flash cards are easy to handle. Repetition is key—use a word three times. When you learn a new word. deﬁnition. Figure out how many days there are until you take the TOEFL iBT. studying will be more fun and you will learn more as well! Now. After each vocabulary word. you will ﬁnd the word’s pronunciation. review the word list.
scorn. day bat. dependable. father car. marry. draw stage. super pour. carry. tire. mutter. house. toll more. frank odd. regular. middle stencil. unhappy whether. coy ooze. paper. pop rain. sew aboard. strengthen. yarn. sky jug. treasure . Next to each pronunciation symbol are words chosen to illustrate how the symbols are said aloud. pull vail. a a ˘ ah ahr air aw ay b ch d e e ˘ ee eer f h hw i ˘ ¯ j k l m n hat. edible icy. shaken. trickle eat. hedge kitten. you can learn 300 new words. summon. live want. remember. bed egg. sliver. live. coarse oil. cheer fan. put. father. crib church. preacher day. aware. shut delicious. track lost. here a list of the pronunciation symbols used in the deﬁnitions. pedal palm. head. quaint you. puddle. scare. ﬁnger. stuffy. chart. pot three. boat. by studying only ten new words each day! And. relief go. horse out. come. measure her. cherry shaken. fair ball. cure. ﬁshing. worry cook. fact ago. hazy. walk. You may want to photocopy the next few pages so that you will be able to refer to this list easily. some of these words may already be familiar to you. dear sun. trot salmon. listen. trolley. tragic. yesterday zebra. tree ear. slim no. PRONUNCIATION KEY Before you review the word list. treat. coin. advisor oak.118 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT If you have only 30 days until the test day. farm bare. nowhere it. how pan. heaven. cash tip. turn. dinner. man n o o ˘ oh ohr oi oo oor or ow p r s sh t th th u u ˘ ur uu v w y z zh sing. fog heed. noodle. blame. rabbit. please division. score. clear. sure for. breath this. breathe cup. rice share. fox.
a ceremonial embrace in greeting. eating and drinking in moderation. 1. renounce under oath. suspension. the reviews were abysmal. to regard with horror or repugnance. 2. used with temperance or moderation. to repudiate. extreme. The dictator abrogated agreements that no longer suited his purposes. I know Carlos abhors politics. 1. to choose to refrain from an action or practice. but he should still get out and vote. or degree. As the violent storm abated. abstruse (ab·'stroos) adj. abscond (ab·'skond) v. sparing in the indulgence of appetites or passions. to refrain from voting. detest.WO R D LI ST 119 WORD LIST A abate (a ˘·'bayt) v. His new scientiﬁc theory was deemed an aberration by his very conservative colleagues. 1. After Vadeem gained 30 pounds. formally revoke. to lessen in strength. difﬁcult to comprehend. The jury granted Alan the absolution he deserved. Albert Einstein’s abstruse calculations can be understood by only a few people. do away with. he decided he needed a more abstemious diet. 3. praise or approval. abeyance (a ˘·'bay·a ˘ns) n. a ceremonious tap on the shoulder with a sword to mark the conferring of knighthood. redemption. 1. absolution (ab·so ˘·'loo·sho ˘n) n. accolade ('ak·o ˘·layd) n. profound. 1. to go away secretly and hide oneself. 1. we began to survey the damage it caused. extremely bad. 2. he had to abjure his allegiance to his country of origin. intensity. It was not surprising that the movie was a ﬂop. He received accolades from his superiors for ﬁnding ways to cut costs and increase productivity. an absolving or clearing from blame or guilt. abstain (ab·'stayn) v. aberration (a ˘b·e ˘·'ray·sho ˘n) n. . a formal declaration of forgiveness. 2. abrogate ('ab·ro ˘· ayt) v. distortion. obscure. When Joseph became a citizen. to abolish. especially after wrongdoing to avoid prosecution. using or consuming sparingly. 2. being temporarily suspended or set aside. abstemious (ab·'stee·mee·u ˘s) adj. abjure (ab·'joor) v. limitless. 2. to give up or reject. He threw down his gun and absconded from the scene of the crime. deviation from what is normal. 2. subside. I have decided to abstain on this issue. abysmal (a ˘·'biz·ma ˘l) adj. Construction of the highway is in abeyance until we get agency approval. abhor (ab·'hohr) v.
VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT
accretion (a ˘·'kree·sho ˘n) n. 1. growth or increase by gradual, successive addition;
building up. 2. (in biology) the growing together of parts that are normally separate. The accretion of sediment in the harbor channel caused boats to run aground.
acquiesce (ak·wee·'es) v. to comply, give in, consent without protest. After the
police ofﬁcer explained why the street was closed to pedestrian trafﬁc, I acquiesced and walked to the next street.
acrid ('ak·rid) adj. 1. having an unpleasantly bitter, sharp taste or smell. 2. bitter
or caustic in language or manner. The burning tires in the junkyard gave off an acrid odor.
acrimonious (ak·r˘·'moh·nee·u ˘s) adj. bitter and sharp in language or tone. Jasleen
did not like her new neighbors; it was obvious in the acrimonious way she spoke to them.
acumen (a ˘·'kyoo·me ˘n) n. quickness, keenness, and accuracy of perception, judgment, or insight. With Jonelle’s acumen, she would make an excellent trial lawyer.
ad hoc (ad 'hok) adj. for a speciﬁc, often temporary, purpose; for this case only.
An ad hoc committee will be formed to investigate Stella’s allegations.
adamant ('ad·a ˘·ma ˘nt) adj. 1. unyielding to requests, appeals, or reason. 2. ﬁrm,
inﬂexible. The senator was adamant that no changes would be made to the defense budget.
addle ('ad·e ˘l) v. 1. to muddle or confuse. 2. to become rotten, as in an egg. The
prosecuting attorney’s questions addled the defendant.
ado (a ˘·'doo) n. fuss, trouble, bother. Without much ado, she completed her book
adroit (a ˘·'droit) adj. skillful, clever, or adept in action or in thought; dexterous,
deft. Priya is a very adroit seamstress; she should have your trousers ﬁxed in no time.
agrarian (a ˘·' rair·ee·a ˘n) adj. relating to or concerning land and its ownership or
cultivation. Although his family tried to convince him to move to a big city, Greg preferred his agrarian life as a farmer.
aﬁcionado (a ˘·fish·yo·'nah·doh) n. a fan or devotee, especially of a sport or pastime. Sal is such an Rolling Stones aﬁcionado that he bought tickets to all ten Giants Stadium concerts.
alacrity (a ˘·'lak·ri·tee) n. a cheerful willingness; being happily ready and eager.
The alacrity she brought to her job helped her move up the corporate ladder quickly.
WO R D LI ST
allay (a ˘·'lay) v. 1. to reduce the intensity of, alleviate. 2. to calm, put to rest. The
remarks by the CEO did not allay the concerns of the employees.
allude (a ˘·'lood) v. to make an indirect reference to. The presidential candidate
alluded to the recent unemployment problem by saying, “We’ve all made sacriﬁces.”
altercation (awl·te ˘r·'kay·sho ˘n) n. a heated dispute or quarrel. To prevent an altercation at social functions, one should avoid discussing politics and religion.
amiable ('ay·mee·a ˘·be ˘l) adj. friendly and agreeable; good natured, likable, pleasing. Miguel was usually the ﬁrst person invited to a party; his amiable personality drew people to him.
amity ('am·˘·tee) n. friendship; a state of friendly or peaceful relations. Amity had
existed between Denise and Suzanne since they decided not to ﬁght about money anymore.
ambivalent (am·'biv·a ˘·le ˘nt) adj. having mixed or conﬂicting feelings about a
person, thing, or situation; uncertain. She was ambivalent about the proposal for the shopping center because she understood both the arguments for and against its construction.
ameliorate (a ˘·'meel·yo ˘·rayt) v. to make or become better, to improve. The diplomat was able to ameliorate the tense situation between the two nations.
amorphous (a ˘·'mor·fu ˘s) adj. 1. having no deﬁnite form or distinct shape; shapeless. 2. of no particular kind or character, anomalous. Andrea looked up at the sky, looking at the amorphous clouds.
amulet ('am·yu ˘·lit) n. something worn around the neck as a charm against evil.
The princess wore an amulet after being cursed by a wizard.
anachronism (a ˘·'nak·ro ˘·niz·e ˘m) n. 1. something that is placed into an incorrect
historical period. 2. a person, custom, or idea that is out of date. With the rise in popularity of cell phones, pagers seem like an anachronism.
anarchy ('an·a ˘r·kee) n. 1. the complete absence of government or control resulting in lawlessness. 2. political disorder and confusion. After the king’s assassination, the country fell into a state of anarchy.
anomaly (a ˘·'nom·a ˘·lee) n. something that deviates from the general rule or usual
form; one that is irregular, peculiar, or abnormal. Everyone in my family enjoys seafood, so my uncle’s distaste for the salmon dish was an anomaly.
antagonist (an·'ta ·o ˘·nist) n. one who opposes or contends with another; an
adversary, opponent. Hillary was Mike’s antagonist as they both competed for the lead role in the play.
VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT
antecedent (an·ti·'see·de ˘nt) n. that which precedes; the thing, circumstance,
event that came before. The police are trying to determine the antecedent of the deadly car crash.
anthropomorphic (an·thro ˘·po ˘·'mor·fik) adj. attributing human characteristics,
motivations, or behavior to animals or inanimate objects. Many mythologies are about anthropomorphic deities, who express human characteristics such as love, envy, and sadness.
antipathy (an·'tip·a ˘·thee) n. 1. a strong aversion or dislike. 2. an object of aversion. After Inti stole Peter’s wallet, Peter had antipathy for his classmate.
antithesis (an·'tith·e ˘·sis) n. the direct or exact opposite, opposition or contrast.
Martin’s parenting style is the antithesis of mine; he is strict, I am not.
apathetic (ap·a ˘·'thet·ik) adj. feeling or showing a lack of interest, concern, or
emotion; indifferent, unresponsive. Many students were apathetic when the principal resigned after thirty years working at the school.
aperture ('ap·e ˘r·chu ˘r) n. an opening or gap, especially one that lets in light. The
aperture setting on a camera has to be set perfectly to ensure that pictures will have enough light.
apex ('ay·peks) n. 1. the highest point. 2. tip, pointed end. Upon reaching the apex
of the mountain, the climbers placed their ﬂag in the snow.
apocalypse (a ˘·'pok·a ˘·lips) n. a cataclysmic event bringing about total devastation
or the end of the world. Many people feared an apocalypse would immediately follow the development of nuclear weapons.
apostate (a ˘·'pos·tayt) n. one who abandons long-held religious or political convictions. Disillusioned with religious life, Reverend Gift lost his faith and left the ministry, not caring if he’d be seen as an apostate by colleagues who chose to remain.
apotheosis (a ˘·poth·ee·'oh·sis) n. deiﬁcation, an exalted or gloriﬁed ideal. Hanson
was so in love with Marge; in his daydreams, she was an apotheosis.
appease (a ˘·'peez) v. to make calm or quiet, soothe; to still or pacify. The only way
to appease Lawrence is to concede that he is right.
appraise (a ˘·'prayz) v. 1. to evaluate. 2. to establish value or estimate the worth
of. The art dealer appraised the value of the painting.
apprise (a ˘·'pr¯z) v. to give notice or information to; to make aware of, inform.
The teacher apprised the class about when the midterm and ﬁnal exams would occur.
difﬁcult to traverse or surmount. an upward slope. appropriate (˘ a·'pro ¯·pre ¯·˘t) adj. laborious. severity. to take for one’s own use. original pattern or prototype. belonging to former or ancient times. the grumpy accountant. A number of college students in the 1980s became involved in the arcane game known as “Dungeons and Dragons. 2. mysterious. ascent (a ˘·'sent) n. a movement upward.” archaic (ahr·'kay·ik) adj. passionate enthusiasm. ascetic (a ˘·'set·ik) adj. 2. apropos (ap·ro ˘·'poh) adj. harshness. at an appropriate or opportune time. archetype ('ahr·ki·t¯p) n. suitable to what is being said or done. 1. occasion. often without peror place. The archaic language of Chaucer’s tales makes them difﬁcult for many students to understand. roughness of manner. Some religions require their leaders to lead an ascetic lifestyle as an example to their followers. (˘ mission. ill temper. austere. secret. crooked. ﬁtting. approval. 1. ardor ('ahr·do ˘r) n. ﬁery intensity of feeling. The state legislature will appropriate two million dollars from the annual budget to build a new bridge on the interstate highway. askew (a ˘·'skyoo) adj. The asperity that Marvin. suitable for a particular person. not straight or level. an original model from which others are copied. very difﬁcult. a·'proh·pree·ayt) v. Elvis Presley served as the archetype for rock and roll performers in the 1950s. not allowing oneself pleasures or luxuries. advancement. condition.WO R D LI ST 123 approbation (ap·ro ˘·'bay·sho ˘n) n. incidentally. requiring great effort. arcane (ahr·'kayn) adj. Commander Shackleton’s arduous journey through the Arctic has become the subject of many books and movies. but they were deﬁnitely apropos. practicing self-denial. beyond comprehension. . arduous ('ahr·joo·u ˘s) adj. characteristic of the past. Even the pictures on the wall stood askew after my ﬁve-year-old son’s birthday party. 2. The local authorities issued an approbation to close the street for a festival on St. by the way. irritability. appropriate to the situation. Patrick’s Day. to one side. zeal. adv. brought to the meetings usually resulted in an early adjournment. 1. The rock climbers made the ascent up the side of the mountain. Chancey’s comments may have been disturbing. asperity (a ˘·'sper·i·tee) n. & adv. The ardor Larry brought to the campaign made him a natural spokesperson. to set aside for a special purpose.
patronage. 2. to judge critically. 1. value. unadorned.124 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT assay (a ˘·'say) v. assiduous (a ˘·'sij·oo·u ˘s) adj. to soothe. a self-operating or automatic machine. venerable. 3. hardworking. The children’s art museum was able to continue operating through the auspices of an anonymous wealthy benefactor. The chief engineer wanted a laboratory to assay the steel before using it in the construction project. severe or stern in attitude or appearance. protection or support. Jackie Kennedy’s august dignity in the days following her husband’s assassination set a tone for the rest of the nation as it mourned. to make something less severe. diligent. 2. or degree. someone who acts or responds in a mechanical or robotic way. v. I know my dad seems austere. but they often achieved results. audacious (aw·'day·sh u ˘s) adj. evaluate after an analysis. agreement. a robot. authoritarian (a ˘·thor·i·'tair·i·a ˘n) adj. augment (aw ·'ment) v. to agree to something especially after thoughtful consideration. auspice ('aw·spis) n. 2. majestic. concurrence. very plain. In order to pass the new law. to weaken. a forecast or omen. automaton (aw·'tom·a ˘·to ˘n) n. to make thin or slender. strength. put to a test. 1. The Russian army was able to attenuate the strength and number of the German forces by leading them inland during winter. austere (aw·'steer) adj. to satisfy (as hunger or thirst). favoring complete. Detective Malloy’s methods were considered bold and audacious by his superiors. the committee must reach an assent. unremitting. persevering. consent. 1. 2. fearlessly or recklessly daring or bold. to examine. enlarge. attenuate (a ˘·'ten·yoo·ayt) v. Omar’s teachers applaud his assiduous study habits. The small cups of water offered to the marathon runners helped to assuage their thirst. reduce in force. simple. but his interference only augmented the problem. The military maintains an authoritarian environment for its ofﬁcers and enlisted men alike. unrestrained by convention or propriety. but he’s really just a great big teddy bear. Because she fol- . inspiring admiration or reverence. 2. to try. or intensity. assent (a ˘·'sent) n. 1. Arty tried to help Ann and Stan settle their differences. unquestioning obedience to authority as opposed to individual freedom. august (aw·' ust) adj. to increase in size. assuage (a ˘·'swayj) v.
to stop abruptly and refuse to go on. and made her children’s lunch like an automaton. I was expecting something original and exciting. balk (bawk) v. a strong. avant-garde (a·vahnt·' ahrd) adj. misery. 2. Natasha made coffee. 2. self-determination. repugnance. woman. Yvette prefers the avant-garde style of writers like Donald Barthelme to the traditional narrative technique. to obstinately refuse or oppose. cause of trouble. causing him to miss his secret meeting. autonomy (aw·'ton·o ˘·mee) n. misrepresent. Alan hoped to belie his lack of success to everyone at the reunion. to amuse or charm. Whether it’s a man. innovative. to contradict. eager to make war. 2. bellicose ('bel·˘·kohs) adj. poison. you can be certain to ﬁnd at least one baleful character in a Stephen King horror novel. trite. to distract the attention of. intense dislike. aversion (a ˘·'vur·zho ˘n) n. using or favoring an ultramodern or experimental style. sinister. but he balked when he saw that he would be compensated for only half of the value of his property. harmful. The bane of the oak tree is the Asian beetle. to show to be false. personal or political independence.WO R D LI ST 125 lowed the same routine every morning. the object of this feeling. cutting-edge. There was little hope for peace following the election of a candidate known for his bellicose nature. banal (ba ˘·'nal) adj. B baleful ('bayl·fu ˘l) adj. beguile (bi·' ¯l) v. 2. or harm. Old man Jones was ﬁnally ready to capitulate and sell his land to the timber company. Violet was able to beguile the spy. to deceive or cheat through cunning. belligerent. destructive. 1. belie (bi·'l¯) v. quarrelsome. commonplace. Todd has an aversion to arugula and picks it out of his salads. 1. . obvious and uninteresting. bane (bayn) n. to give a false impression. selfgovernment. to pass time in a pleasant manner. or animal. 1. 1. The teenager desired fewer rules from her parents and a sense of autonomy. By wearing an expensive suit and watch. divert. menacing. cooked breakfast. distress. but the ﬁlm turned out to have a banal storyline and mediocre acting. car. especially in the arts or literature.
you would be tortured and killed. benign (bi·'n¯n) adj. to buoy or hearten. 1. contemptuous or irreverent acts. unconcerned. accused of trying to bilk senior citizens out of their investment dollars. very sophisticated. light-hearted. attitudes or writings against God or other things considered sacred. 2. blithe (bl¯th) adj. a disposition to act charitably. a ﬂock of animals or birds. to deceive or defraud. he always acted in a benign manner. 3. blight (bl¯t) n. a plant disease that causes the affected parts to wilt and die. bilk (bilk) v. many people refused to associate with him because they feared confrontation. bolster ('bohl·ste ˘r) v. utterances. 1. Coach Edmond’s speech bolstered the team’s conﬁdence. Samuel’s blatant disregard of the rules earned him a two-week suspension. especially to evade paying one’s debts. hostile and aggressive. 2. and carefree. Regina showed benevolence when she volunteered to help raise money for the local soup kitchen. They still do not know what caused the blight that destroyed half of the trees in the orchard. disrespect of something sacrosanct. boisterous ('boi·ste ˘·ru ˘s) adj. 1. . The boisterous crowd began throwing cups onto the ﬁeld during the football game. showing an eagerness to ﬁght. loud. uninterested because of frequent exposure or indulgence. kind. cheat. mild. completely obvious. Because Omar had a reputation for being belligerent. blasphemy ('blas·fe ˘·mee) n. blasé (blah·'zay) adj. nonchalant. 1. something that impairs or destroys. gentle. 2. The stockbroker was led away in handcuffs. 3. an unsightly object or area. blatant ('blay·tant) adj. There was a bevy of eager bingo fans waiting outside the hall for the game to begin. Rachel’s blithe attitude toward spending money left her broke and in debt. 2. not harmful or malignant. Simo’s actions toward his competitors was never mean-spirited. to swindle. 1. stormy and rough.126 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT belligerent (bi·'lij·e ˘r·e ˘nt) adj. If you committed blasphemy during the Inquisition. the inclination to be kind and generous. 1. a large group or assemblage. 2. Quincy has traveled so much that he speaks of exotic places such as Borneo in a totally blasé manner. something that causes this condition. and lacking restraint or discipline. having a beneﬁcial or favorable nature or inﬂuence. 2. noisy. benevolence (be ˘·'nev·o ˘·le ˘ns) n. casual. such as air pollution. bevy ('bev·ee) n. not attempting to conceal in any way. to support or prop up. 4.
blossom. buoyant ('boi·a ˘nt) adj. discordant sound. a small group joined in a secret plot. bravado (bra ˘·'vah·doh) n. Seeing Chuck wipe his mouth with his sleeve. 2. offensive. a scheme or conspiracy. Kyle’s bravado often got him in trouble with other kids in the neighborhood. . When Kathryn began to burnish the old metal tea pot. 1. conforming to the standards and conventions of the middle class. or materialistic. 2. as in to draw off liquid. speaking pompously. din. ill-mannered person. Ahmed was shocked that a renowned and admired humanitarian could give such a bombastic keynote address. to edit by omitting or modifying parts that may be considered offensive. conceited. burgeon ('bur·jo ˘n) v. a show of pretended bravery. the members of the unit readied themselves to begin the cabal. arrogant. light-hearted. in order to begin a discussion of. The bumptious man couldn’t stop talking about himself or looking in the mirror. In science class. a crude. for many of the original tales included graphic language. It was hard for Sarah to broach the subject of her mother’s weight gain. the children tried to identify which objects on the table would be buoyant. C cabal (ka ˘·'bal) n. Although she won millions in the lottery. boor (boor) n. typical of the middle class. burnish ('bur·nish) v. the Brothers Grimm had to bowdlerize the folk tales they had collected. cacophony (ka ˘·'kof·o ˘·nee) n. with inﬂated selfimportance. rub to a shine.WO R D LI ST 127 bombastic (bom·'bas·tik) adj. grow new buds. able to ﬂoat. to polish. bourgeois (boor·'zhwah) adj. loud. 1. Maribel realized she was attending her senior prom with a classic boor. to tap or pierce. conservative. cheerful. to begin to sprout. 2. to bring up. she realized that it was. solid silver. in fact. censor. false courage. commonplace. jarring. bowdlerize ('bohd·le ˘·r¯z) v. hence also. 1. introduce. The tulip bulbs beneath the soil would burgeon in early spring providing there was no late frost. I heard a cacophony coming from the garage where the band was practicing. To make their collection of fairy tales suitable for children. to begin to grow and ﬂourish. clamor. broach (brohch) v. Ada still maintains her bourgeois lifestyle. With Antonio as their leader. bumptious ('bump·shu ˘s) adj.
cutting. capitulate (ka ˘·'pich·u ˘·layt) v. Robin Williams. to wheedle. to remove what is considered morally. openness. ﬁlms. or other public dissemination of something because it is considered obscene or otherwise politically or morally unacceptable. 2. to rush carelessly or headlong. The mechanic was very careful when working with the caustic ﬂuid around the car because it could damage the car’s paint. to surrender under speciﬁc terms or agreed upon conditions. the comedian. to chastise severely. impulsive. etc. frank. relieving emotions via the experiences of others. corrode. acquiesce. to urge with gentle and repeated appeals or ﬂattery. a distinct social class or system. Their dog Cleo would cadge at my feet. an ofﬁcial who reviews books. they castigated him. castigate ('kas·t˘· ayt) v. When his parents caught Bryan stealing money from his classmates. careen (ka ˘·'reen) v. v. politically. the act of ridding or cleansing. to beg. catharsis (ka ˘·'thahr·sis) n. deciding what books were appropriate for the young readers. capricious (ka ˘·'prish·u ˘s) adj. sincere speech. to give in. to forbid the publication. but he balked when he saw that he would be compensated for only half of the value of his property. The librarian served as a censor. caste (kast) n. bitingly sarcastic. Watching the car in front of us careen down the road was very frightening. able to burn. Michael was fascinated to learn the particulars of each caste and the way they related to each other. Valerie is quite adept at cajoling others to get what she wants. censor ('sen·so ˘r) n. Old man Jones was ﬁnally ready to capitulate and sell his land to the timber company. whimsical and unpredictable. While visiting India. caustic ('kaws·tik) adj. distribution. which depicts the bombing of a town during the Spanish civil war. especially through art. he welcomed my candor. to inﬂict a severe punishment on. or otherwise objectionable. even if it’s something she hasn’t earned. hoping I would throw him some table scraps. candor ('kan·do ˘r) n. Survivors of war often experience a catharsis when viewing Picasso’s painting Guernica. . or dissolve by chemical action. cajole (ka ˘·'johl) v. 2.128 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT cadge (kaj) v. demonstrates a capricious nature even when he is not performing. 1. When I told my boss about my performance concerns. to lurch from side to side while in motion. to obtain by begging. 1.
expression of strong criticism or disapproval. 2. 1. habitual. illusion. chronometer (kro ˘·'nom·i·te ˘r) n. to criticize strongly. Charles knew that his wife would chastise him after he inadvertently told the room full of guests that she had just had a face lift. (in Greek mythology) a ﬁre-breathing she-monster with a lion’s head. ill-mannered. a detailed record or narrative description of past events. continuing for a long time. circumspect ('sur·ku ˘m·spekt) adj. conducted in secrecy. wary. chronic ('kron·ik) adj. make a historical record. cliché (klee·'shay) n. male chauvinists are pretty rare today. 1. chronicle ('kron·i·ke ˘l) n. After Tyra was found cheating on the exam. on-going. v. a vain or incongruous fancy. a person who believes in the superiority of his or her own kind. a (monstrous) product of the imagination. but he uses too many clichés. to criticize harshly. boorish. Victor Frankenstein created a monster that ended up destroying him and everyone he loved. the arrangement of events in time. long-lasting or recurrent. kept or done in private. her mother censured her behavior. . the sequence in which events occur. chauvinist ('shoh·v˘n·ist) n. a precise instrument for measuring time.WO R D LI ST 129 censure ('sen·shu ˘r) n. a rebuke or condemnation. Angelo’s churlish remarks made everyone at the table uncomfortable and ill at ease. chronology (kro ˘·'nol·o ˘·jee) n. The ﬁreﬁghter determined the chronology of incidents that contributed to the ﬁre. watchful. 2. condemn. to record in chronological order. a goat’s body. Though common in the early days of the women’s movement. rebuke. a trite or overused expression or idea. The private investigator followed Raul to a clandestine rendezvous with a woman in sunglasses and a trench coat. Seamus has had a chronic cough for the past six months. churlish ('chur·l˘sh) adj. clandestine (klan·'des·tin) adj. often in order to conceal an illicit or improper purpose. rebuke. to punish severely. rude. an extreme nationalist. Seduced by the chimera of immortality. Tito has an engaging writing style. an exceptionally accurate clock. as with a beating. v. cautious. chastise ('chas·t¯z) v. chimera (ki·'meer·a ˘) n. The prison guard was circumspect when he learned that some of the prisoners were planning an escape. Historians have made a chronicle of the war’s events. The track coach used a chronometer to determine the runner’s time for the marathon. and a serpent’s tail.
The school board reached a consensus about building a new high school. . mollifying. abundant. unconcerned. conciliatory (ko ˘n·'sil·ee·a ˘·tohr·ee) adj. Ella’s cogent arguments helped the debate team win the state championship. With two contentious candidates on hand. or comfort. Alex’s logic professor gave the class a conundrum to work on over the weekend. a secret agreement between two or more people for a deceitful or fraudulent purpose. it was sure to be a lively debate. conclave ('kon·klav) n. The discovery of the e-mail proved that collusion existed between the CEO and CFO to defraud the shareholders.130 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT coalesce (koh·a ˘·'les) v. a private or secret meeting. to acknowledge or admit as true. etc. proper. enigma. contented to a fault. 1. The look of consternation on the faces of the students taking the history exam alarmed the teacher. incapacitating horror or dismay. a feeling of deep. making or willing to make concessions to reconcile. coeval (koh·'ee·va ˘l) adj. controversial. self-satisﬁed. general agreement or accord. competitive. The shipwrecked couple found a copious supply of coconut trees and shellﬁsh on the island. Jay and Jael coalesced their money to create one savings account. surrender. (often with reluctance). collusion (ko ˘·'loo·zho ˘n) n. consensus (ko ˘n·'sen·su ˘s) n. The double agent had a conclave with the spy he was supposed to be observing. to yield. to combine and form a whole. consternation (kon·ste ˘r·'nay·sho ˘n) n. soothe. of the same time period. compelling belief. 2. quick to ﬁght. concede (ko ˘n·'seed) v. a puzzling question or problem. convincing. cogent ('koh·je ˘nt) adj. conspiracy. plentiful. conundrum (ko ˘·'nun·dru ˘m) n. causing contention. 2. contentious (ko ˘n·'ten·shu ˘s) adj. large in number or quantity. 1. persuasive. appeasing. quarrelsome. The leader conceded the right to vote to all her country’s inhabitants. The poet Ben Jonson was coeval to Shakespeare. Renee was complacent even when she learned that her coworkers were trying to get her ﬁred. an opinion or position reached by a group. who thought he had prepared his students for the test. fuse. Abraham Lincoln made conciliatory gestures toward the South at the end of the Civil War. copious ('koh·pi·u ˘s) adj. to grant as a right or privilege. a hard riddle. complacent (ko ˘m·'play·se ˘nt) adj. to join together. contemporary.
culpable ('kul·pa ˘·be ˘l) adj. corroborate (ko ˘·'rob·o ˘·rayt) v. crux (kruks) n.” remarked the police chief. to intimidate. The crux of the trial was her whereabouts at the time of the burglary. craven ('kray·ve ˘n) adj. “This craven act of violence will not go unpunished. cowardly. having a hidden or secret meaning. deserving blame or censure for being or doing something wrong or harmful. D daunt (dawnt) v. Both Irma’s and Ye’s statements corroborate Tia’s story. As she walked down the aisle. a horn of plenty. a sudden disaster or collapse. a queue. mysterious. so she must be telling the truth. countenance ('kown·te ˘·na ˘ns) n. 2. to strengthen or support with evidence or authority. a line of waiting people or vehicles. cryptic ('krip·tik) adj. violent ﬂood waters. guilty. facial features and expression. The ﬁrst-graders made cornucopias for Thanksgiving by placing papier-mache vegetables into a hollowed-out horn. 1. to make afraid or discouraged. the central or critical point or feature. blameworthy. hidden. Although I should have proofread the essay carefully. such as a word or action. and charts made the company’s assets look too good to the credulous potential investors at the meeting. a signal. debacle (di·'bah·ke ˘l) n. too willing to believe things. secret. Julia’s countenance was absolutely radiant.WO R D LI ST 131 cornucopia (kor·nyu ˘·'koh·pi·a ˘) n. cursory ('kur·so ˘·ree) adj. 1. gullible. a total defeat or failure. occult. a sudden breaking up or breaking loose. often caused by the breaking up of ice in a river. to make more certain. . 2. especially of a problem. the appearance of a person’s face. When my prank ending up breaking Andrea’s lamp. hasty and superﬁcial. Jimmy was confused by the cryptic note he found written on the refrigerator. Putting the bridge’s supporting beams in loose sand caused a total debacle when the sand shifted and the bridge fell apart. Sonia realized that it was a cue to take the hamburgers off the grill. abundance. When the timer buzzed. All the tables. I admitted that I was culpable. credulous ('krej·u ˘·lu ˘s) adj. I only had time to give it a cursory review. given to prompt or remind someone of something. His austere manner daunted the small children. a hint or suggestion. conﬁrm. graphs. cue (kyoo) n.
decimate ('des·˘·mayt) v. propriety. defame. to blacken the reputation of. to condescend. depict. Neglect and time would eventually decimate much of the housing in the inner cities. a leader who obtains power by appealing to people’s feelings and prejudices rather than by reasoning. to deceive. deprecate ('dep·re ˘·kayt) v. decorum (di·'kohr·u ˘m) n. to draw or outline. so those scenes were removed. Grandpa’s tendency to deprecate the children’s friends was a frequent source of family strife. The survey will clearly delineate where their property ends. describe. but she didn’t think adding ten cloves of garlic to the recipe would taste good. to make a ﬁrst appearance in public. to destroy a large portion of. to raise objections. de facto (dee 'fak·toh) adj. delude (di·'lood) v. When questions concerning decorum arise. & adv. hesitate. the de facto leader is the prime minister. depreciate. deign (dayn) v. to belittle. The dictator was widely regarded as an infamous demagogue. demagogue ('dem·a ˘· aw ) n. the resolution or clearing up of the plot at the end of a narrative. or pretending to be so. denouement (day·noo·'mahn) n.132 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT debut (day·'byoo) n. to be kind or gracious enough to do something thought to be beneath one’s dignity. make someone believe something that is wrong. v. modest and shy. in reality or fact. Would you deign to spare a dime for a poor old beggar like me? delineate (di·'lin·ee·ayt) v. When it was to her advantage. The king is only the nominal head of the country. demure (di·'myoor) adj. demur (di·'mur) v. Nicole deluded Maria when she claimed to forgive her. Sharon could be very demure. decency in manners and conduct. disparage. to express disapproval of. appropriateness of behavior. actual. Polly hated to demur. to portray. denigrate ('den·i· rayt) v. sketch. Irina’s Carnegie Hall debut received rave reviews. The movie script reportedly contained scenes that would denigrate the queen. a ﬁrst appearance in or presentation to the public. I always refer to Emily Post. the outcome or solution of an often complex series of events. The students sat at the edge of their seats as they listened to the denouement of the story. but otherwise she was quite outgoing. .
spread out. derivative (di·'riv·a ˘·tiv) n. disperse. mocking. adj. wordy. After the economy declined. Miguel’s dilatory approach to getting himself up and dressed was his own small act of passive resistance to having to work on a holiday. something that is derived or made by derivation. lacking self-conﬁdence. to remove part of something. digress (d¯·' res) v. unoriginal. division into two usually contradictory parts or kinds. expressing ridicule. recognize as being distinct. 2. penniless. extend. 1. to undeceive. haphazard. to perceive clearly. deviate.WO R D LI ST 133 derisive (di·'r¯·siv) adj. diminish. The word “atomic” is a derivative of the word “atom. utterly lacking. derisive comments were forbidden in the classroom. there was a predictable dichotomy among the students. The perfume she sprayed diffused throughout her bedroom. 1. to turn aside. When the teacher broached the subject of politics. detract (di·'trakt) v. slow or late in doing something. intended to delay. dilatory ('dil·a ˘·tohr·ee) adj. Remy discerned that Opal had no intention of calling him back. make less brilliant. Someone desecrated the local cemetery by spray-painting grafﬁti on tombstones. verbose. to violate the sacredness of. extremely poor. Alan used to be so difﬁdent. to draw or take away from. to profane. . adj. 2. scornful. Ichabod’s desultory ramblings worsened as his disease progressed. difﬁdent ('dif·i·de ˘nt) adj. Helen’s slovenly appearance detracted from the impact of her otherwise brilliant presentation. jeering. In order to promote freedom of expression. but now he’s as gregarious as can be and is usually the life of the party. Natalie needed to disabuse Chin of his belief that she was in love with him. 1. destitute ('des·ti·toot) adj. to soften. to distinguish. discern (di·'surn) v. moving from one subject to another without logical connection. 2. or swerve. desultory ('des·u ˘l·tohr·ee) adj. disabuse (dis·a ˘·'byooz) v. derived from another source. to stray from the main subject in writing or speaking. to spread throughout. correct a false impression or erroneous belief. Her argument digressed from the main problem she had about her friend’s spending habits. scattered. not concentrated.” desecrate ('des·e ˘·krayt) v. dichotomy (d¯·'kot·o ˘·mee) n. Unfortunately. especially to gain time. aimless. diffuse (di·'fyooz) v. shy and timid. many families were left destitute.
dejected. Some ﬁnd the dogma inherent in religion a comfort. to regard with haughty contempt or scorn. The disconsolate look on Peter’s face revealed that the letter contained bad news. to speak of in a slighting or derogatory way. especially the right to vote. despise. Comedians often disparage politicians as part of their comedic routines. hopelessly unhappy. belittle. to shake or quiver. dissemble (di·'sem·be ˘l) v.134 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT disconcert (dis·ko ˘n·'surt) v. a state of being despised. I was humiliated by the way Angelica disdained every idea I proposed at that meeting. to hesitate. 1. disconsolate (dis·'kon·so ˘·lit) adj. or nearly so. disappointed. to consider or reject (someone or something) as unworthy or beneath one’s dignity. 1. to deprive of the rights of citizenship. to be extravagant and wasteful. to upset the composure of. During a crisis. . a system of principles or beliefs. Carl’s disingenuous comments were not taken seriously by anyone in the room. 2. The crowd dissipated when the riot police arrived. 1. a feeling or showing of haughty contempt or scorn. to disperse to the point of disappearing. 2. inconsolable. to discourage from or persuade against a course of action. disenfranchise (dis·en·'fran·ch¯z) v. 2. especially in the pursuit of pleasure. The arrival of Miriam’s ex-husband and his new wife managed to disconcert the typically unﬂappable Miriam. 1. I tried to dissuade them from painting their house purple. The independent monitors were at polling locations to ensure neither party tried to disenfranchise incoming voters. to disguise or conceal one’s true feelings or motives behind a false appearance. whereas others ﬁnd it too restrictive. insincere. 2. disdain (dis·'dayn) n. to frustrate plans by throwing into disorder. calculating. to separate and scatter completely. it is important to have a leader who will not dither. squander. and only the very angriest protesters remained. rufﬂe. Tom needed to dissemble his goal of taking his boss’s job by acting supportive of his boss’s planned job change. be indecisive and uncertain. v. dissipate ('dis·˘·payt) v. disingenuous (dis·in·'jen·yoo·u ˘s) adj. dither ('dith·e ˘r) v. a prescribed doctrine. dogma ('daw ·ma ˘) n. but they didn’t listen. 2. sad. 2. disparage (di·'spar·ij) v. not straightforward or frank. 1. 1. falsely pretending to be unaware. dissuade (di·'swayd) v.
1. amusing in an odd or whimsical way. eccentric (ik·'sen·trik) adj. to deceive. . Even the ruinous deceit of the envious Salieri could not impede the dazzling éclat of the young and gifted Mozart. ebullient (i·'bul·ye ˘nt) adj. 1. I hope Mark’s anger has ebbed. The ebullient children were waiting to stick their hands into the grab bag and pull out a toy. sweet-sounding. The geology students made a surprising discovery: the volcano believed to be dormant was about to erupt. droll story—the children will love it! dross (draws) n. selecting or employing elements from a variety of sources. the return of the tide to the sea. each painting had its own eccentric color scheme. to fall back. The chamber orchestra’s dulcet tunes were a perfect ending to a great evening. or styles. temporarily quiescent. great acclaim or applause. inactive but capable of becoming active. dulcet ('dul·sit) adj. You’re sure to meet someone interesting at the party—Marieka always invites an eclectic group of people to her gatherings. v. waste product. brilliant performance or achievement. 2. bubbling over with enthusiasm. gullible. consisting of elements from a variety of sources. 1. This is a wonderful. harmonious. 2. inactive. 1. anomalous. Charlene was duped into buying this lemon of a car by a slick-talking salesman. or trivial. to ﬂow back or recede. at rest. lying asleep or as if asleep. melodious. draconian (dray·'koh·ni·a ˘n) adj. trick. very harsh. 2. extremely severe (especially a law or punishment). decline. something worthless. Students of international policy are often shocked by the draconian punishments used by other countries for seemingly minor offenses. commonplace. éclat (ay·'klah) n. sludge.WO R D LI ST 135 dormant ('dor·ma ˘nt) adj. eclectic (i·'klek·tik) adj. 2. droll (drohl) adj. as the tide. latent. v. deviating from the conventional or established norm or pattern. exuberant. Her artwork was unlike any other artist at the museum. dupe (doop) n. someone who is easily deceived. I am eager for a reconciliation. E ebb (eb) n. irregular. systems. Work crews immediately began the task of cleaning the dross at the abandoned plastics factory. conspicuous success.
. eke (eek) v. lofty. the best or most skilled members of a social group or class. Hannah was moved by the candidate’s egalitarian speech. The customs ofﬁcials were infuriated by the effrontery of the illegal alien who nonchalantly carried drugs into the country in his shirt pocket. brazen boldness. and persuasive manner. The new designer’s élan and originality were sure to help him succeed in the highly competitive fashion industry. Within the student orchestra. standing above others in quality. producing the desired effect or result. distinguished. social. élan (ay·'lahn) n. enlightening or uplifting with the aim of improving intellectual or moral development. vivacity. ﬂuent. character. enthusiasm. 1. The bank robber was not caught during his ﬁrst crime spree and he proved to be a very elusive fugitive. improving. expressing strong emotions or arguments in a powerful. egalitarian (i· al·i·'tair·ee·a ˘n) adj. eloquent ('el·o ˘·kwe ˘nt) adj. Margaret’s efﬁcacious approach to her job in the collections department made her a favorite with the CFO. The . 2. effusive (i·'fyoo·siv) adj. profuse. effrontery (i·'frun·te ˘·ree) n. After her egregious accounting error cost the company thousands of dollars. distinctive style or ﬂair. characterized by or afﬁrming the principle of equal political. civil.S. elusive (i·'loo·siv) adj. elite (i·'leet) n. acting effectively. efﬁcacious (ef·˘·'kay·shu ˘s) adj. instructing. Anne’s unexpected effusive greeting made Tammy uncomfortable. towering above or more prominent than others. Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address is considered one of the most eloquent speeches ever given by a U. etc. evasive. and economic rights for all persons. conspicuously and outrageously bad or offensive. president. impudence. difﬁcult to capture. a person or group regarded as superior. to earn or accomplish laboriously. describe or comprehend. ﬂagrant. to get or supplement with great effort or strain. His edifying speech challenged the audience to devote more time to charitable causes. gushy. Working two jobs enabled Quincy to eke out a living wage for his family. vigor.136 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT edifying ('ed·˘·f¯·in ) adj. insolence. expressing emotions in an unrestrained or excessive way. overﬂowing. egregious (i·' ree·ju ˘s) adj. eminent ('em·˘·ne ˘nt) adj. reputation. 1. eluding the grasp. there existed a small group of musical elite who performed around the country. Enid was ﬁred. 2.
empirical (em·'pir·i·kal) adj. give rise to. 1. something that is puzzling or difﬁcult to understand. conceal. epicurean (ep·i·'kyoor·ee·a ˘n) n. a person devoted to the pursuit of pleasure and luxury. While on vacation at a posh resort hotel. he began his secret mission. bring into existence. a distinct territory lying wholly within the boundaries of another. a monstrous offense or evil act. atrocity. to try to equal or excel. The tour guide’s façade of enthusiasm could not hide his ennui. 2. to make feeble or impotent. the enormity of the task—but this is considered an incorrect use of the word. to produce. was actually imported from Japan. The math problem was difﬁcult to solve and proved to be an enigma. lasting only a very short time. especially the enjoyment of good food and comfort. The country of Lesotho is an enclave of South Africa. emulate ('em·yu ˘·layt) v. larger territory. ennui (ahn·'wee) n. . engender (en·'jen·de ˘r) v. ephemeral (i·'fem·e ˘·ra ˘l) adj. to weaken. 1. 2. based on observation or experience rather than theory. native to a particular region. Ricky admired his sister Joan and always tried to emulate her behavior. enclave ('en·klayv) n. Stephanie’s cutting remarks managed to enervate Hasaan. endemic (en·'dem·ik) adj. transitory.WO R D LI ST 137 chairperson proudly announced that the keynote speaker at the animal rights convention would be the eminent primatologist Jane Goodall. enormity (i·'nor·mi·tee) n. prevalent in or characteristic of a speciﬁc area or group of people. excessive wickedness. before you know it. to place or hide securely. Professor Sorenson’s support worked to engender Samantha’s desire to pursue a PhD. Once the spy was comfortably ensconced in his new identity. it’s time to go back to school again. a bafﬂing problem or riddle. enigma (e ˘·'ni ·ma ˘) n. (Note: Enormity is often used to indicate something of great size—e. boredom and listlessness resulting from something tedious or uninteresting. Summer always seems so ephemeral..g. purple-ﬂowered vine thought to be endemic to the southeastern United States. Frank’s empirical data suggested that mice would climb over the walls of the maze to get to the cheese rather than navigate the maze itself. Joan became a true epicurean. 2. deprive of strength or vitality. 1. a hairy. enervate ('en·e ˘r·vayt) v. especially by imitation.) The enormity of the serial killer’s crimes will never be forgotten. Kudzu. to ﬁx or settle ﬁrmly and securely. ensconce (en·'skons) v.
2. a perceptive revelation. scholarly. The thief evaded the store’s security guards by escaping out the back door. Waldo knew that the dish was made with ersatz trufﬂes. especially one that is inferior. 2. The ethos of their group included a commitment to paciﬁsm. a Christian feast on the twelfth day after Christmas celebrating the divine manifestation of Jesus to the Magi. eradicate (i·'rad·˘·kayt) v. having or showing great learning. something or someone that embodies a particular quality or characteristic. epoch. erudite ('er·yu ˘·d¯t) adj. equivocate (i·'kwiv·o ˘·kayt) v. eventemperedness. uneven.138 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT epiphany (i·'pif·a ˘·nee) n. equanimity (ee·kwa ˘·'nim·i·tee) n. eulogy ('yoo·lo ˘· ee) n. a manifestation of the divine. As I listened to Professor Lane’s lecture. moving or behaving in an irregular. 2. especially under stressful circumstances. I had a sudden epiphany that I was in the wrong major. 2. deviating from the normal or typical course of action. Einstein is the epitome of true genius. disposition or beliefs characteristic of a community. artiﬁcial. profoundly educated. being an imitation or substitute. a seismograph’s needle moves in an erratic manner. The scholarly work of nonﬁction was obviously written by an erudite young man. region. 1. calmness of temperament. ersatz (e ˘r·'za ˘ts) adj. When falling in love. opinion. During an earthquake. a representative example or a typical model. a feeling of well-being or high spirits. epitome (i·'pit·o ˘·mee) n. euphoria (yoo·'fohr·ee·a ˘) n. The exterminator said he would eradicate the vermin from the house. the spirit. ethos ('ee·thos) n. 1. erratic (i·'rat·ik) adj. etc. it is not uncommon to experience feelings of euphoria. evade (i·'vayd) v. a brief summary or abstract. Raj tried to equivocate when explaining why he came home after his curfew. or inconsistent manner. to elude or avoid by cleverness or deceit. to use unclear or ambiguous language in order to mislead or conceal the truth. Richard was asked to give a eulogy for his fallen comrade. to root out and utterly destroy. 1. Epiphany. patience and composure. . Though most of the guests couldn’t tell the difference. to annihilate. exterminate. answering. attitude. intuitive realization of the essence or meaning of something. a formal speech or piece of writing in praise of someone or something. etc. to avoid fulﬁlling. or doing. 3. a sudden. The hostage negotiator’s equanimity during the stand-off was remarkable.
A quick divorce was an expedient end to the couple’s two-month marriage. violence. delete. After ﬁnishing probation. evince (i·'vins) v.WO R D LI ST 139 evanescent (ev·a ˘·'nes·e ˘nt) adj. the face or front of a building. The safety ofﬁcer tried to evince the dangers of driving under the inﬂuence by showing pictures of alcohol-related automobile accidents. Antoine’s stoicism is just a façade. especially one intended to hide something unpleasant. The terms of the rental agreement were explicit in the document. explicit (ik·'splis·it) adj. straightforward. to clear from a charge of guilt. facetious (fa ˘·'see·shu ˘s) adj. serving to promote one’s own interests rather than principle. 2. juveniles can petition the courts to expunge their criminal records. F façade (fa ˘·'sahd) n. it served to exculpate Marcus. a short-lived means to an end. greatly exceeding the bounds of what is normal or reasonable. to reduce the strength or lessen the seriousness of. to make evident. stated clearly and fully. an artiﬁcial or deceptive front. demanding. exculpate (eks·'kul·payt) v. requiring immediate action or attention. appropriate for a purpose. to show or demonstrate clearly. expunge (ik·'spunj) v. Jude’s facetious reply angered his teacher but made his classmates laugh. exigent ('ek·si·je ˘nt) adj. sportive. transitory. exorbitant (i ·'zor·bi·ta ˘nt) adj. The late-night call on Paul’s cell phone concerned matters of an exigent nature. or bitterness of. exacerbate (i ·'zas·e ˘r·bayt) v. When Anthony admitted to the crime. to make worse. We should have known that splashing salt water on Dan’s wound would exacerbate his pain. 1. urgent. Three thousand dollars is an exorbitant amount to pay for a scarf. cleverly amusing. annihilate. 1. The subject of the poem is the evanescent nature of young love. to eliminate completely. jocular. requiring much effort or precision. inordinate and excessive. critical. to free from blame. expedient (ik·'spee·dee·e ˘nt) n. 2. 2. suitable for a means to an end. to wipe or rub out. he is really a deeply emotional person. ﬂeeting. . The man’s desperation extenuated his actions. 1. exact. humorous and witty. adj. to increase the severity. extenuate (ik·ten·'yoo·ayt) v. to try to partially excuse. vanishing or tending to vanish like vapor.
elaborate. fecund ('fek·u ˘nd) adj. Y and Z will automatically follow. 2. ornate. ﬂippant ('flip·a ˘nt) adj. feeble-minded and silly. fertile. fetter ('fet·e ˘r) v. . but he faced it with great forbearance because he knew it was for his own safety. The felicitous turn of events during her promotional tour propelled Susan’s book to the best-seller list. feign (fayn) v. ﬂaccid ('fla·sid) adj. not showing proper seriousness. something that misleads. ﬂabby. Jake’s feckless performance led to his termination from the team. ardor. 1. apt. complacently stupid. The ﬂorid architecture in Venice did not appeal to me. ﬂout (flowt) v. The fecund soil in the valley was able to sustain the growing community. to disobey openly and scornfully. feckless ('fek·lis) adj. hanging loose or wrinkled. Flappers in the early twentieth century ﬂouted convention by bobbing their hair and wearing very short skirts. put in chains. forbearance (for·'bair·a ˘ns) n. zeal. (of complexion) ruddy. 1. 1. patience. to reject. mock. marked by good fortune. intense emotion. tolerance. Mr. 2. a false notion or misconception resulting from incorrect or illogical reasoning. The skin of cadavers becomes ﬂaccid in a matter of hours. fervor ('fur·vo ˘r) n. saucy. rosy. fatuous ('fach·oo·u ˘s) adj.140 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT fallacy ('fal·a ˘·see) n. weak. to shackle. willingness to wait. The “slippery slope” fallacy argues that once X happens. Gustaf dreaded the security check in the airport. 1. to give the false appearance of. to pretend. felicitous (fi·'lis·i·tu ˘s) adj. not ﬁrm. disrespectful. weak. Because Sam was such an intellectually accomplished student. I prefer buildings without so much ornamentation. The presence of two security guards fettered their plans to get backstage. 2. Ursula’s ﬂippant remarks in front of her ﬁancé’s parents were an embarrassment to us all. Britt was surprised to discover that Sam’s well-meaning but fatuous parents were not at all like him. careless. The fervor of the fans in the stands helped propel the team to victory. feeble. Walter feigned illness to avoid attending the meeting. 2. lacking purpose or vitality. 2. suitably expressed. go against (as in a tradition or convention). ﬂorid ('flor·id) adj. that which is deceptive or has a false appearance. apropos. 1. incompetent and ineffective. deception. to impede or restrict.
costing little. tastelessly showy. excessively bright or over-decorated. Natasha had to forswear her allegiance to her homeland in order to become a citizen of the new country. 1. useless. hopeless. Harriet’s furtive glance told me I had better keep quiet about what I had just seen. My mother would never let me attend the party.WO R D LI ST 141 forestall (fohr·'stawl) v. berate. Petra would gainsay all accusations made against her. G gainsay (' ayn·say) v. The Senator liked to fulminate when other legislators questioned her ideology. suggesting a hidden motive. forswear (for·'swair) v. happening by accident or chance. In its true sense. to give up. furtive ('fur·tiv) adj. thrifty. offensive due to excessiveness. to explode or detonate. surreptitious. frugal ('froo· a ˘l) adj. Whitney garnered enough money to buy a used car. contradict. 2. garner (' ahr·ne ˘r) v.) By a stroke of fortuitous bad luck. preempt. futile ('fyoo·t˘l) adj. renounce. 1. sparing. Wei chose a small. 1. shifty. to amass. especially excess ﬂattery or praise. garish (' air·ish) adj. exclusive resort for her vacation—only to ﬁnd that the ex-boyfriend she wanted to get away from had also chosen the same resort. 2. . fulsome ('fuul·so ˘m) adj. Her new coworker’s fulsome attention bothered Kathryn. or declare false. fulminate ('ful·m˘·nayt) v. fortuitous (for·'too·i·tu ˘s) adj. 2. to issue a thunderous verbal attack. to oppose. acquire. gargantuan ( ahr·' an·choo·a ˘n) adj. however. My grandparents survived the Great Depression by being very frugal. Though Susan thought Las Vegas was garish. a fortuitous event can be either fortunate or unfortunate. characterized by stealth or secrecy. to gather and store up. careful and economical. (Note: Fortuitous is commonly used to mean a happy accident or an unexpected but fortunate occurrence. occurring unexpectedly or without any known cause. 1. to deny. huge. gigantic. It was a gargantuan supermarket for such a small town. Emily thought it was perfectly beautiful. to deny under oath. to prevent by taking action ﬁrst. producing no result. gaudy. arguing with her was futile. The diplomat was able to forestall a conﬂict by holding secret meetings with both parties. vain. 2.
3.142 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT garrulous (' ar·u ˘·lu ˘s) adj. v. The religious leader hallowed the new worship hall. 1. grovel (' ruv·e ˘l) v. consecrate. genteel (jen·'teel) adj. 1. Alan used to be so difﬁdent. you’ve got to stop groveling and stand up for yourself. and the soldiers girded for battle. treacherous cunning. to lie or creep with one’s face to the ground in a servile. to make holy. a conﬁguration or pattern of elements so uniﬁed as a whole that it cannot be described merely as a sum of its parts. surround. a noisy. and a very late arrival. guffaw ( u·'faw) n. guile ( ¯l) n. hapless ('hap·lis) adj. sociable. to encompass. clumsy or awkward. One of the fundamental beliefs of gestalt therapy is that we exist in a web of relationships to other things. gerrymander ('jer·i·man·de ˘r) n. lacking social graces or polish. to divide an area into voting districts so as to give one party an unfair advantage. gregarious ( re ˘·' air·ee·u ˘s) adj. so be prepared to listen for hours. to encircle or bind with a belt or band. missed connections. The genteel host made sure that each entrée was cooked to each guest’s speciﬁcations. The most infamous pirates displayed tremendous guile. Panji. 1. seeking and enjoying the company of others. gird ( urd) v. Michael let out quite a guffaw when Jamal told him the outlandish joke. unfortunate. Aunt Midge is as garrulous as they come. 4. My little brother is so gauche that it’s embarrassing to be with him in public. to prepare for action. The negotiations had failed. but now he’s as gregarious as can be and is usually the life of the party. gauche ( ohsh) adj. elegantly polite. gibe. The hapless circumstances of her journey resulted in lost luggage. especially military confrontation. and that it is possible to understand ourselves only in the context of these relationships. coarse burst of laughter. humble. 2. gestalt ( e ˘·shta ˘lt) n. without tact. the act of gerrymandering. . talkative. to sneer at. shrewd. reﬁned. unlucky. tending to form a group with others of the same kind. crafty deceit. 2. mock. if you want your boss to treat you with respect. 2. or fearful manner. well bred. H hallow ('hal·oh) v. The election was rigged by gerrymandering that gave unfair advantage to the incumbent.
to sharpen. a gap or opening. make more effective. hegemony (hi·'jem·o ˘·nee) n. I honed my computer skills. an interruption or break. a forerunner or precursor. hiatus (h¯·'ay·tu ˘s) n. . hubris ('hyoo·bris) n. Mark was an ignoble successor to such a wellrespected leader. 1. harbinger ('hahr·bin·je ˘r) n. deserving disgrace or shame. ignominious (i ·no ˘·'min·ee·u ˘s) adj. distressing. 2. especially of one government over others. 2. and many members of the organization resigned. After he was laid off by the bank. or event that foreshadows or indicates what is to come. hermetic (hur·'met·ik) adj. The turbulent ﬂight proved to be a harrowing experience for Jane. often scolding or bombastic speech. common. haughty ('haw·tee) adj. By practicing creating spreadsheets. The evidence of plagiarism brought an ignominious end to what had been a notable career for the talented young author. to declaim. 1. scornfully arrogant and condescending. the well-spoken iconoclast challenged political hypocrisy and fanaticism wherever she found it. Oedipus’s hubris leads to his downfall. a long. In the hermetic world of the remote mountain village. Stanley is so often haughty that he has very few friends. predominant inﬂuence or leadership. acting as though one is superior and others unworthy. to perfect. In the Greek tragedy Oedipus Rex. protected from outside inﬂuences. The hegemony of his country borders on imperialism. Using words as weapons. not of the nobility. thing. or institutions. ignoble (i ·'noh·be ˘l) adj. Members of the audience began to get restless during the senator’s political harangue. beliefs. creating great stress or torment. lacking nobility in character or purpose. v. 1. despicable. harrowing ('har·oh·in ) adj. I iconoclast (¯·'kon·oh·klast) n. a person. hone (hohn) v. disdainful. 2. the inhabitants did not even know that their country was on the brink of war. Kobitu decided to take a long hiatus from the ﬁnancial world and took a job as a middle school math teacher. someone who opposes and destroys idols used in worship. to speak in a pompous maner. having an airtight closure. a tirade. 2. overbearing pride or presumption. marked by shame or disgrace. The arrival of the robins is a harbinger of spring. 1. a person who attacks and seeks to overthrow traditional ideas.WO R D LI ST 143 harangue (ha ˘·'ran ) n. dishonorable.
Many impecunious immigrants to the United States eventually are able to make comfortable lives for themselves. but most are relatively easy to serve. not showing or feeling emotion or pain. inexorable. usually involving a disagreement or misunderstanding. having little or no money. unduly hasty and without thought. In the book I’m reading. impassive (im·'pas·iv) adj. imperious (im·'peer·ee·u ˘s) adj. 2. incapable of being placated or appeased.144 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT imbroglio (im·'brohl·yoh) n. to ask incessantly. as a sacriﬁce. imprecation (im·pre ˘·'kay·sho ˘n) n. the gypsy queen levies an imprecation on the lead character. to kill. and a strike seemed imminent. impecunious (im·pe ˘·'kyoo·nee·u ˘s) adj. 3. there is often an imbroglio caused by a case of mistaken identity. It was hard to know what she was feeling by looking at the impassive expression on her face. Great Britain embraced imperialism. to destroy (one thing for another). stalemate. In Shakespeare’s comedies. importune (im·por·'toon) v. impervious (im·'pur·vee·u ˘s) adj. make incessant requests. implacable (im·'plak·a ˘·be ˘l) adj. to kill (oneself) by ﬁre. impulsive. overbearing. marked by violent force. to beg persistently and urgently. impetuous (im·'pech·oo·u ˘s) adj. I had to immolate the weeds. 1. Hadley is such a diehard libertarian that he is impervious to any attempts to change his beliefs. the policy of extending the rule or authority of a nation or empire by acquiring other territories or dependencies. a difﬁculty without a solution. It was an impetuous decision to run off to Las Vegas and get married after a one-week courtship. immolate ('im·o ˘·layt) v. characterized by sudden. a deadlock. constantly nagging for the irresistible toys they see advertised on television. domineering. 1. The labor negotiations with management reached an impasse. . 2. bossy. acquiring so many territories that the sun never set on the British Empire. a confused or difﬁcult situation. poor. incapable of being penetrated. imperialism (im·'peer·ee·a ˘·liz·e ˘m) n. 2. In order for the plants to grow. 1. 1. an invocation of evil. Some of the people who call the customer service desk for assistance are implacable. 2. Stella was relieved with her new job transfer because she would no longer be under the control of such an imperious boss. forceful energy or emotion. impasse ('im·pas) n. Children can’t help but importune during the holidays. a curse. not able to be inﬂuenced or affected. penniless.
The star was traveling incognito. of or involving arson. causing or capable of causing ﬁre. instill. There was an incursion on the western border of their country. inculcate (in·'kul·kayt) v. incredulous (in·'krej·u ˘·lu ˘s) adj. the developing embryos take on the characteristics of their own particular species. the act of entering or running into a territory or domain. just begun. undeveloped. to contradict or call into question. The editorial impugned the senator’s reelection platform and set the tone for the upcoming debate. unwilling to believe. not yet fully formed. to attack as false or questionable. incontrovertible (in·kon·tro ˘·'vur·t˘·be ˘l) adj. hoping to ﬁnd some measure of privacy on her vacation. inﬂammatory. 1. or a human. credit. incipient. to indoctrinate. 2. incense ('in·sens) n. 2. Doctors impute the reduction in cancer deaths to the nationwide decrease in cigarette smoking. incendiary (in·'sen·dee·er·ee) adj. or adv. My parents worked hard to inculcate in me a deep sense of responsibility to others. boldly showing a lack of respect. Marcel’s criticism incensed his coworker. shamelessly forward. impute (im·'pyoot) v. a raid or temporary invasion of someone else’s territory. incognito (in·ko ·ne ´e·toh) adj. fragrant material that gives off scents when burned. incursion (in·'kur·zho ˘n) n. tending to incite or inﬂame. it is difﬁcult to distinguish between a cow.WO R D LI ST 145 impudent ('im·pyu ˘·de ˘nt) adj. in an initial or early stage of development. Fire marshals checked for incendiary devices in the theater after they received an anonymous warning. 3. The members of the jury were incredulous when they heard the defendant’s farfetched explanation of the crime. indisputable. to attribute to a cause or source. 2. incomplete. . their relationship was an incontrovertible fact. in disguise or under an assumed character or identity. skeptical. with one’s identity concealed. immodest. The photographs showed Brad and Allison together. (in·'sens) v. During the inchoate stage of fetal growth. to teach and impress by frequent instruction or repetition. 1. impugn (im·'pyoon) v. 1. inchoate (in·'koh·it) adj. as they mature. undeniable. ascribe. to make (someone) angry. a frog. burning readily. insolent. Thumbing his nose at the principal was an impudent act.
inscrutable (in·'scroo·ta ˘·be ˘l) adj. inevitable. It was completely inscrutable how the escape artist got out of the trunk. Trying to carry all her suitcases at once was an inept way for Amanda to save time. unable to mask feelings. indomitable (in·'dom·i·ta ˘·be ˘l) adj. slow to grow or heal. unmatchable. lacking sophistication or worldliness. bungling and clumsy. foolish. 2. not easily exhausted or fatigued. insolent ('in·so ˘·le ˘nt) adj. 2. The construction foreman was hesitant to hire Earl because of his reputation of being indolent. Julian’s insouciant attitude about his ﬁnances will get him in trouble someday. not cunning or deceitful. The volunteers were indefatigable. The indomitable spirit of the Olympic athletes was inspirational. lazy. bafﬂing. unconquerable. indifferent. artless. 2. incapable of being understood. not suitable. defying imitation. the members considered him an inﬁdel. inclined to avoid labor. not to be avoided or overcome. inimitable (i·'nim·i·ta ˘·be ˘l) adj. a person with no religious beliefs.146 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT indefatigable (in·di·'fat·˘· a ˘·be ˘l) adj. incompetent. blithely unconcerned or carefree. 1. and he won three championships. inappropriate. impertinent. they worked until every piece of trash was removed from the beach. inept (in·'ept) adj. The ineluctable outcome of the two-person race was that there would be one winner and one loser. indolent ('in·do ˘·le ˘nt) adj. doctrine. frank. he felt a deep sadness when Mary died. 1. forbid. or system of beliefs. lethargic. disrespectful. inﬁdel ('in·fi·de ˘l) n. Don’s expression of regret was ingenuous. . unfathomable. 2. absurd. certain. tireless. Because he did not subscribe to the beliefs of the party. Carlos argued that the agriculture department should interdict plans to produce genetically modiﬁed foods. for even though he didn’t know her well. a nonbeliever. 1. 1. Parents of teenagers often observe the insolent behavior that typically accompanies adolescence. ineluctable (in·i·'luk·ta ˘·be ˘l) adj. sincere. brazen. nonchalant. ingenuous (in·'jen·yoo·u ˘s) adj. 3. one who does not accept a particular religion. haughty and contemptuous. interdict (in·te ˘r·'dikt) v. His performance on the tennis court was inimitable. causing little or no pain. insouciant (in·'soo·see·a ˘nt) adj. not easily discouraged or subdued. not able to be vanquished or overcome. to prohibit.
Hunger had made the caveman intrepid. Trisha had become inured to her boss’s criticism. stubborn. The young colt was intractable. irk (urk) v. feeling or showing uncertainty. ﬁrmly established. nonsensical or meaningless talk. I was ﬁlled with ire when Vladimir tried to take credit for my work. unruly. the smallest possible quantity. habitual. intrepid (in·'trep·id) adj. intransigent (in·'tran·si·je ˘nt) adj. specialized or technical language of a speciﬁc trade or group. you might help her make up her mind. . undaunted. inveigle (in·'vay· e ˘l) v. so if you talk to her. lacking substance. indecisive. hence: (a) lacking in interest or signiﬁcance. insisting on familiar favorites and rejecting anything new. inured (in·'yoord) adj. meager. stubborn. unmanageable. childish (c) lacking nutritional value. Vanessa inveigled her way into a promotion that should have gone to Maxon. brave. anger. wrath. involute ('in·vo ˘·loot) adj. irritate. I am an inveterate paciﬁst and am unlikely to change my mind. iota (¯·'oh·ta ˘) n. to entice. Young children can be intransigent when it comes to what foods they will eat. intricate. Professor Carlton is so unpopular because he doesn’t have one iota of respect for his students. inveterate (in·'vet·e ˘·rit) adj. easily aroused to anger. irritable. unwilling to compromise. J jargon ('jahr· o ˘n) n. Being a teenager means being continually irked by your parents—and vice versa. and he faced the mammoth without fear. Sandra is still irresolute. The tax reform committee faces an extremely involute problem if it wants to distribute the tax burden equally. to annoy. The movie’s trite and overly contrived plot make it a jejune sequel to what was a powerful and novel ﬁlm. complex. irascible (i·'ras·˘·be ˘l) adj. Her irascible temperament caused many problems with the staff at the ofﬁce. adapted.WO R D LI ST 147 intractable (in·'trak·ta ˘·be ˘l) adj. and it no longer bothered her. irresolute (i·'rez·o ˘·loot) adj. jejune (ji·'joon) adj. hot tempered. deep rooted. accustomed to. ire (¯r) n. hesitant. The technical manual was full of a lot of computer jargon. 2. a very small amount. fearless. 1. to inﬂuence or persuade through gentle coaxing or ﬂattery. and training had to be cancelled temporarily. insipid or dull (b) lacking in maturity. vex.
A shroud of fear covered Eastern Europe as the juggernaut of communism spread from nation to nation. Juggernaut. a close relationship or link. a channel or means of connection or communication between two groups. one who acts according to his or her own impulses and desires and is unrestrained by conventions or morals. 'lee·a ˘·zon) n. chances are they will have a lot of trouble once they enter school. Zse’s laconic reply made it clear that he did not want to discuss the matter any further. Raheeb’s laissez-faire management style is not only popular with our employees but also very successful—employee satisfaction is high and proﬁts are up for the third quarter in a row. slack. terse. Alexi’s jocund nature makes it a pleasure to be near her. Lucinda languished in despair when Sven told her he’d fallen in love with another woman. lenient. latent ('lay·te ˘nt) adj. one who lives or acts in an immoral or irresponsible way. 2. L laconic (la ˘·'kon·ik) adj. 1. I have been elected to be the liaison between the union members and management. 2. to become languid. especially one that is secretive or adulterous. libertine ('lib·e ˘r·teen) n. where the children must follow a long list of rules and regulations. overwhelmingly powerful and unstoppable force that seems to crush everything in its path. merry. juggernaut ('ju ·e ˘r·nawt) n. but in my opinion. a massive.148 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT jocund ('jok·u ˘nd) adj. they’re just a bunch of libertines. cheerful. lax (laks) adj. 1. title for the Hindu god Krishna. concise. sprightly and lighthearted. 1. brief and to the point. If parents are too lax with their toddlers. languish ('lan · wish) v. hands-off. noninterference by the government in business and economic affairs. to lose vigor or strength. to exist or continue in a miserable or neglected state. liaison (lee·'ay·zon. one who maintains such communication. not taut or rigid. feeble. often to the point of being curt or brusque. They claim to be avant-garde. Julian’s latent musical talent surfaced when his parents bought an old piano at a garage sale and he started playing. weak. 1. lacking in rigor or strictness. laissez-faire (les·ay 'fair) adj. present or in existence but not active or evident. ﬂaccid. succinct. 2. 2. .
bungling. lugubrious (luu·' oo·bree·u ˘s) adj.WO R D LI ST 149 lilliputian (lil·i·'pyoo·sha ˘n) adj. proﬁtable. especially by depriving of the use of a limb or other part of the body. and I am thankful that I do not have such major issues in my life. 2. improper professional conduct. to mutilate. maim (maym) v. clumsy. the act of plotting or devising. tiny. trivial or petty. misconduct or wrongdoing. intelligible. Teaching is a very rewarding career. excessively dismal or mournful. maladroit (mal·a ˘·'droit) adj. Irina’s lugubrious tears made me believe that her sadness was just a façade. a feeling of illness or unease. comical misuse of words. easy to understand. Andrea presented a very lucid argument that proved her point beyond a shadow of a doubt. malinger (ma ˘·'lin · e ˘r) v. 1. disable. Stop malingering and give me a hand with this job. to wound. a crafty or cunning scheme devised to achieve a sinister end. M machination (mak·˘·'nay·sho ˘n) n. The city comptroller was found guilty of malfeasance and was removed from ofﬁce. 2. Macbeth’s machinations failed to bring him the glory he coveted and brought him only tragedy instead. cripple. The mining accident severely maimed Antol. malfeasance (ma ˘l·'fee·za ˘ns) n. The loquacious woman sitting next to me on the six-hour ﬂight talked the entire time. Wella ﬁnally learned the cause of her malaise: She was allergic to her new Siamese cat. especially by a public ofﬁcial. very small. garrulous. . loquacious (loh·'kway·shu ˘s) adj. After several tests. inept. producing much money. talkative. but unfortunately it is not very lucrative. malapropism ('mal·a ˘·prop·iz·e ˘m) n. or injure. My troubles are lilliputian compared to hers. malaise (ma ˘·'layz) n. sane or rational. 1. 2. 1. very clear. especially those that are similar in sound. The maladroit waiter broke a dozen plates and spilled coffee on two customers. to pretend to be injured or ill in order to avoid work. lucid ('loo·sid) adj. disﬁgure. lucrative ('loo·kra ˘·tiv) adj. often exaggeratedly or ridiculously so. His malapropisms may make us laugh. but they won’t win our vote.
meretricious (mer·e ˘·'trish·u ˘s) adj. mélange (may·'lahnzh) n. mete (meet) v. 2. to impair or damage. meticulous (me ˘·'tik·yu ˘·lu ˘s) adj. to move on a winding or turning course. The punishments were meted out fairly to everyone involved in the plot. Alice’s mettlesome attitude was infectious and inspired us all to press on. 1. mettlesome ('met·e ˘l·so ˘m) adj. make defective or imperfect. I meandered through the park for hours. to spoil the perfection or integrity of. The milieu at the writer’s retreat is designed to inspire creativity. to distribute. easily controlled or inﬂuenced. 3. You should be able to convince Xiu quickly. extremely careful and precise. liable to change moods suddenly. Tibor was awed by the meticulous detail in the painting—it looked as real as a photograph. allot. The strident sounds of Omar’s abysmal saxophone playing marred the serenity of the afternoon. easily molded or pressed into shape. tawdry. volatile. 2. changeable. 1. mendacity (men·'das·i·tee) n. mar (mahr) v. 1. move aimlessly or without a ﬁxed direction or course. environment or setting. courageous. maverick ('mav·e ˘r·ik) n. some people consider Las Vegas the most meretricious city in the country.150 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT malleable ('mal·ee·a ˘·be ˘l) adj. nonconformist. honeyed. Madonna has always been a maverick in the music industry. the tendency to be dishonest or untruthful. 1. one who acts independently. 2. apportion. paying great attention to detail. sounding sweet and ﬂowing. Her melliﬂuous voice ﬂoated in through the windows and made everyone smile. a mixture or assortment. easily adapting to changing circumstances. Fiona is so mercurial that you never know what kind of reaction to expect. 1. high-spirited. milieu (meel·'yuu) n. a falsehood or lie. gaudy. 2. trying to ﬁgure out how I could have made such an egregious mistake. 2. to wander about. rebel. showily attractive but false or insincere. melliﬂuous (me·'lif·loo·u ˘s) adj. who don’t feel they can trust him. . she’s quite a malleable person. Carlos’s mendacity has made him very unpopular with his classmates. meander (mee·'an·de ˘r) v. With its casinos and attractions. The eclectic mélange of people at the party made for a scintillating evening. lively. mercurial (me ˘r·'kyoor·ee·a ˘l) adj.
undecided. multifarious (mul·ti·'fair·ee·u ˘s) adj. To the refugees from Somalia. dull. moot (moot) adj. 2. 2. too numerous to be counted. mundane (mun·'dayn) adj. innumerable. myriad ('mir·ee·a ˘d) adj. an indeﬁnitely large number. n. I am sure that if you tell the headmaster the truth. debatable. a villain. Although this is a moot issue. the extenuating circumstances will mitigate the severity of your punishment. great merriment.. If you do not have passion for your job. soften. it is one that is often debated among certain circles. 2. greatly diversiﬁed. but today he was ﬁnally captured. to say something more delicately or indirectly for the sake of politeness or decorum. an immense number. having many aspects. alleviate. 3. diminish. to lessen in intensity. calm. gloomy. His attention to the minutiae of the process enabled him to make his great discovery. make less rigid. mollify ('mol·˘·f¯) v. mitigate ('mit·˘· ayt) v. commonplace. mirth (murth) n. he’s a real misanthrope. to walk or speak affectedly.WO R D LI ST 151 mince (mins) v. miscreant ('mis·kree·a ˘nt) n. 1. one who hates or distrusts humankind. minutiae (m˘·no ¯o ¯'she ¯·a) n. The job requires the ability to handle multifarious tasks. to moderate the force or intensity of. sullen. secular. ordinary. misanthrope ('mis·an·throhp) n. evil person. and no one can do anything right in his eyes. joyous laughter. very varied. not spiritual. melancholy. morose (mo ˘·'rohs) adj. trivial or triﬂing matters. 1. as with studied reﬁnement. 1. pl. The miscreant had eluded the police for months. The joyous wedding celebration ﬁlled the reception hall with mirth throughout the evening. to soften. worldly. vast amount. to make less intense or severe. criminal. going to work each day can become mundane. My daughter has been morose ever since our dog ran away. to cut into very small pieces. 3. 1. Pay no mind to his criticism. very small details. 2. . the myriad choices in the American supermarket were overwhelming. to soothe the anger of. Please don’t mince your words—just tell me what you want to say. The crying child was quickly molliﬁed by her mother.
noxious. the lowest point. nullify ('nul·˘·f¯) v. What a noisome odor is coming from that garbage can! non sequitur (non 'sek·wi·tu ˘r) n. O obdurate ('ob·du ˘·rit) adj. stubborn and inﬂexible. not showing anxiety or excitement. nonchalant (non·sha ˘·'lahnt) adj. 2. 1. to make null (without legal force). a genre of literature. Some critics say that movie stars are guilty of narcissism. 1.152 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT N nadir ('nay·d˘r) n. or different. a connected series or group. strikingly new. indifferent or cool. Robert began to practice mediation to elevate his spirits. offensive. the core or center. 3. The opponents wanted to nullify the bill before it became a law. unpleasant and harmful. excessive interest in one’s own personal features. The chef’s new idea to add mango to the salad was novel. source of harm or ruin. bane. The nexus between the lobbyists and the recent policy changes is clear. not easily moved to pity. the very bottom. the monster Victor creates becomes his nemesis. agent of retribution or vengeance. he’s the most obdurate person I know. emerging. coming into existence. 1. foul. The nascent movement gathered strength quickly and soon became a nationwide call to action. Victoria tried to be nonchalant. In Frankenstein. 2. When he felt he was at the nadir of his life. but I could tell she was nervous. I doubt he’ll change his mind. but it degenerated into a series of non sequiturs. noxious ('nok·shu ˘s) adj. a means of connection. especially in odor. 1. narcissism ('narh·si·siz·e ˘m) n. Marcus’s argument started off strong. nemesis ('nem·e ˘·sis) n. noisome ('noi·so ˘m) adj. to counteract or neutralize the effect of. The noxious smell drove everyone from the room. a conclusion that does not logically follow from the evidence. harmful. nascent ('nas·e ˘nt) adj. nexus ('nek·su ˘s) n. the cause of one’s misery or downfall. novel ('nov·e ˘l) n. 2. a link or tie between a series of things. putrid. original. adj. invalidate. unwholesome. 2. admiration or worship of oneself. . hardhearted.
to dim or darken. the total lifework of a writer. The embezzler was good at keeping his ﬁnancial records occult from the authorities. Zeus was the most powerful god. to muddle or make difﬁcult to understand. meddlesome. obviate ('ob·vee·ayt) v. Minsun survived the accident. 1. 2. 1.WO R D LI ST 153 obfuscate (ob·'fus·kayt) v. bossy. thrusting out. oeuvre ('uu·vre ˘) n. beyond ordinary understanding. obtrusive (o ˘b·'troo·siv) adj. contemptible. obtuse (o ˘b·'toos) adj. to make unnecessary. involving the realm of the supernatural. stupid and slow to understand. My ofﬁcious Aunt Midge is coming to the party. a work of art. form of government in which the power is in the hands of a select few. obsequious (o ˘b·'see·kwee·u ˘s) adj. but it is clearly an oligarchy. intrusive. to make obscure or unclear. The obsequious manner of the butler made it clear that he resented his position. occult (o ˘·'kult) adj. obstreperous (ob·'strep·e ˘·ru ˘s) adj. incomprehensible. Constanta’s latest oeuvre is an avant-garde symphony featuring a cow bell solo. not sharp or pointed. prominent. having unlimited or universal power or force. oligarchy ('ol·˘· ahr·kee) n. noisily and stubbornly deﬁant. 1. 2. fawning. because even his rule was often held in check by the unchangeable laws of the Three Fates. 2. hidden. get rid of. Zachary found the work in the slaughterhouse so odious that he quit after one day and became a vegetarian. etc. 3. The obstreperous child refused to go to bed. In Greek mythology. Hiring Magdalena would obviate the need to hire a music tutor. projecting. 1. so be prepared for lots of questions and advice. Instead of clarifying the matter. . aggressively boisterous. concealed. blunt. but he was not omnipotent. hateful. artist. omnipotent (om·'nip·o ˘·te ˘nt) adj. Walter only obfuscated it further. forward. composer. attentive in a servile or ingratiating manner. 2. ofﬁcious (o ˘·'fish·u ˘s) adj. but she was left with several obtrusive scars. 3. secret. detestable. The small governing body calls itself a democracy. odious ('oh·di·u ˘s) adj. excessively or ingratiatingly compliant or submissive. you know what I mean. for she is also a classical pianist. 1. Please don’t be so obtuse. undesirably noticeable. Thankfully. tending to push one’s self or one’s ideas upon others. eagerly offering unnecessary or unwanted advice. 2. unruly.
immoderate. 2. 2. having inﬁnite knowledge. It was inappropriate to make such opprobrious remarks in front of everybody. oxymoron (oks·ee·'moh·ro ˘n) n. to provide relief from pain. 1. possessing great wealth. It was Clark’s idea. The term nonworking mother is a contemptible oxymoron. Lee is very wealthy. lacking in importance or worth. . 1. afﬂuent. The rhythm of the oscillating fan put the baby to sleep. but I believe they have already made their decision. The fever subsided. so the onus is on him to show us that it will work. relieve the symptoms of a disease or disorder. as between two conﬂicting options or opinions. duty or responsibility of doing something. a ﬁgure of speech containing a seemingly contradictory combination of expressions. 1. insigniﬁcant. to waver. 1. presumptuously arrogant. bringing shame or disgrace. excessive. knowing all things. 1. oscillate ('os·˘·layt) v. but he does not live an opulent lifestyle. Kendall was ostracized after he repeatedly stole from his friends. put forward (as of a reason) but not necessarily so. ostensible (o·'sten·s˘·be ˘l) adj. The ostensible reason for the meeting is to discuss the candidates. alleviate. 2. luxurious. overbearing. abusive. onus ('oh·nu ˘s) n. contemptibly small in amount. paleness. appearing as such. abundant. expressing contempt or reproach.154 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT omniscient (om·'nish·e ˘nt) adj. opulent ('op·yu ˘·le ˘nt) adj. mitigate. wretched or contemptible. pitiful. vacillate. 2. 2. cast out from a group or from society. but her pallor remained for several weeks. seeming. pallor ('pal·o ˘r) n. uninterrupted rhythm. overweening (oh·ve ˘r·'wee·nin ) adj. lack of color. paltry ('pawl·tree) adj. P palliate ('pal·ee·ayt) v. to gloss over. put a positive spin on. but it soon became clear that he would not be able to prevent a scandal. we can hear the thoughts and feelings of all of the characters. such as friendly ﬁre. 2. In a story with an omniscient narrator. 1. burden. opprobrious (o ˘·'proh·bree·u ˘s) adj. to reject. scornful. I quit because I couldn’t stand to work for such an overweening boss. pretended. task. ostracize ('os·tra ˘·s¯z) v. to make something less intense or severe. The governor tried to palliate his malfeasance. to swing back and forth or side to side in a steady. Walton couldn’t believe the billionaire offered such a paltry reward for the return of his lost dog.
tiresome focus on or display of learning. a rejected and despised person. Elected “Employee of the Month. 1. pedestrian (pe ˘·'des·tri· a ˘n) n. especially of rules or trivial matters. Senator Waterson’s pellucid argument made me change my vote. Bob Hope was an entertainer par excellence. trite. of. partisan ('pahr·ti·za ˘n) n. beyond comparison. Her lessons were so pedantic that I found I was easily bored. able to be seen through with clarity. a trivial offense. an upstart. unimaginative. translucent. adj. something that serves as a model or example. scarcity. Rosen was relieved to learn that his penalty would be pecuniary only and that he would not have to spend any time in jail.WO R D LI ST 155 paradigm ('par·a ˘·d¯m) n. values or practices that constitutes a way of understanding or doing things. 2. 1. a small sin or fault. having the highest degree of excellence. pecuniary (pi·'kyoo·nee·er·ee) adj. After he told a sexist joke. a person who has suddenly risen to a higher social or economic status but has not been socially accepted by others in that class. or involving money. peccadillo (pek·a ˘·'dil·oh) n. its pedestrian plot has been overused by screenwriters for decades. a guerilla. par excellence (pahr 'ek·se ˘·lahns) adj. but because he was “new money” in an “old money” town. dull. Although the ﬁlm received critical acclaim. a walker. Ronnel was nice enough. relating to. a walker adj. of writing) very clear. pariah (pa ˘·'r¯·a ˘) n. a member of an organized body of ﬁghters who attack or harass an enemy. .g. beliefs. an outcast. 2. The partisan lobby could not see the logic of the opposing senator’s argument and did not understand how the proposed legislation would infringe upon basic constitutional rights. a person fervently and often uncritically supporting a group or cause. 1. paucity ('paw·si·tee) n.” Winona is a paradigm of efﬁciency. commonplace. The paucity of food in the area drove the herd farther and farther to the south. parvenu ('pahr·ve ˘·noo) n. he was a parvenu who struggled to be accepted by his wealthy peers. quintessential. pedantic (pi·'da ˘n·tik) n. 2. marked by a narrow. (e. unremarkable. Jason was treated like a pariah by all of the women in the ofﬁce. smallness of supply or quantity. of course. easy to understand. being the best or truest of its kind. pellucid (pe ˘·'loo·sid) adj. set of assumptions. Don’t make such a big deal out of a little peccadillo..
violating good faith. We were not satisﬁed with his perfunctory work. 2. . The mother’s peremptory tone ended the children’s bickering. Higgins would be their new teacher. The perﬁdious knight betrayed his king. 1. or incomplete testimony while under oath. deadly. perfunctory (pe ˘r·'fun k·to ˘·ree) adj. Sandra is personable and well liked by her peers. pleasing in appearance or manner. astonishment. it’s good to be ﬁnancially secure again. permeate. I was petriﬁed when I heard the door open in the middle of the night. penury ('pen·yu ˘·ree) n. Nancy’s opponent started a pernicious rumor that destroyed her chances of winning. extremely stubborn or persistent. personable ('pur·so ˘·na ˘·be ˘l) adj. very destructive. pertinacious (pur·t˘·'nay·shu ˘s) adj. 2. Consuela has a penchant for wearing the latest fashions. treacherous. harmful. After the terrible car accident. pernicious (pe ˘r·'nish·u ˘s) adj. we felt a more thorough job could have been done. offensively self-assured. After ten years of penury. petrify ('pet·r˘·f¯) v. to spread everywhere. disloyal. 3. misleading. the deliberate willful giving of false. perﬁdious (pe ˘r·'fid·ee·u ˘s) adj. Anoki was pensive about what he should do with his life. to stun or paralyze with fear. dishonest. holding ﬁrmly to a belief. There’s a real surprise for the audience in the penultimate scene. putting an end to debate or action. pervade (pe ˘r·'vayd) v. to be diffused or present throughout.156 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT penchant ('pen·cha ˘nt) n. William was convicted of perjury for lying about his whereabouts on the night of the crime. Fear pervaded the classroom after Sally started a rumor that Mr. The pertinacious journalist ﬁnally uncovered the truth about the factory’s illegal disposal of toxins. especially in a serious or melancholy manner. 1. commanding. perjury ('pur·ju ˘·ree) n. purpose. or dread. a strong liking or inclination (for something). deeply thoughtful. penultimate (pi·'nul·t˘·mit) adj. not allowing contradiction or refusal. superﬁcial. extreme poverty. to make hard or stiff like a stone. not thorough. done out of a sense of duty or routine but without much care or interest. next to last. destitution. attractive. pensive ('pen·siv) adj. imperative. or course of action. peremptory (pe ˘·'remp·to ˘·ree) adj. dictatorial.
2. deeply moving. an overabundance. etc. to wound (someone’s) pride. plaintive ('playn·tiv) adj. The barbarians pillaged the village before destroying it with ﬁre. pillage ('pil·ij) v. to arouse or provoke. pivotal ('piv·o ˘·ta ˘l) adj. pith (pith) n. arousing emotion. Janice’s plaintive voice made me decide to stay and comfort her longer. . The article really piqued my interest in wildlife preservation. poignant ('poin·ya ˘nt) adj. peevish. 2. calm and peaceful. Richards thinks he is cosmopolitan. plethora ('pleth·o ˘·ra ˘) n. 1. phoenix ('fee·niks) n. to offend. philistine ('fil·i·steen) n. a person or thing that has become renewed or restored after suffering calamity or apparent annihilation (after the mythological bird that periodically immolated itself and rose from the ashes as a new phoenix). but he’s really just a philistine. a person or thing of unmatched beauty or excellence. crucial. argumentative. piercing or incisive. free from disturbance or tumult. mournful. extreme excess. 2. (in biology) the soft. a trite or banal statement. statement went right to the pith of the argument and covered the most important issues. 1. The pouting and sulking child could only be described as petulant. pique (peek) v. placid ('plas·id) adj. 1. expressing sorrow. but concise. 2. polemical (po ˘·'lem·ik·a ˘l) adj. The analyst presented a highly polemical view of the economic situation.). 1. pleasantly stimulating or provocative. spongelike central cylinder of the stems of most ﬂowering plants. someone who is uncultured and commonplace. Lake Placid is as calm and peaceful as its name suggests. experience.WO R D LI ST 157 petulant ('pech·u ˘·la ˘nt) adj. agreeably pungent. The phoenix is often used to symbolize something that is indomitable or immortal. to plunder. keenly distressing. There was a plethora of food at the reception. 2. idea. sharp or tart in taste. touching. melancholy. especially in time of war. controversial. platitude ('plat·i·tood) n. to forcibly rob of goods. being of vital importance. They captured the poignant reunion on ﬁlm. 1. Matthew offered me several platitudes but no real advice. the wrong move now could ruin everything. the essential or central part. The spicy shrimp salad is wonderfully piquant. We are at a pivotal point in the negotiations and must proceed very carefully. ignorant person. Her brief. unreasonably or easily irritated or annoyed. the heart or essence (of the matter. a smug. especially one uttered as if it were new. piquant ('pee·ka ˘nt) adj.
the working class. primeval (pr¯·'mee·va ˘l) adj. recklessly wasteful or extravagant. putting on airs. presenting favorable circumstances. propitious (proh·'pish·u ˘s) adj. favoring utility. prodigal ('prod·˘· a ˘l) adj. lavish or profuse. proximity. prodigal. We were awed by the beauty of the pristine forest in northern Canada. in its original and unspoiled condition. 2. 1. showy. those who do manual labor to earn a living. prevaricate (pri·'var·˘·kayt) v. propinquity (proh·'pin ·kwi·tee) n. The crocodile hunter is constantly placing himself in very precarious positions. afﬁnity. precarious (pri·'kair·ee·u ˘s) adj. we spotted a grizzly bear on a precipitous cliff and wondered if he would fall. Quit prevaricating and tell me what really happened. recklessly wasteful or extravagant. foolhardy. practical. The primeval art found in the caves was discovered by accident. a phony. These are propitious omens and foretell a good journey. My ﬁrst impression of the arrogant newcomer told me that he was a poseur. someone who takes on airs to impress others. precept ('pree·sept) n. 1. matter-of-fact. but she is sorely mistaken. fraught with danger. ancient. pristine ('pris·teen) adj. The propinquity of these two elements make them difﬁcult to tell apart. His prodigal actions led to his ﬁnancial ruin. 1. especially with money. similarity in nature. 1. 1. pragmatic (pra ·'mat·ik) adj. hasty. precipitous (pri·'sip·i·tu ˘s) adj. nearness. rash. free from contamination.158 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT poseur (poh·'zur) n. clean. 1. The headmaster reviewed the precepts of the school with the students. given in great abundance. pure. 2. unadulterated. auspicious. 2. Hannah thinks that being pretentious will make people like her. proletariat (proh·le ˘·'tair·ee·a ˘t) n. to stray from or evade the truth. . a rule establishing standards of conduct. to tell lies. I think we should take the most pragmatic approach. Because we don’t have money or time to waste. dropping sharply. dissolute. The proletariats demanded fewer hours and better wages. proﬂigate ('prof·l˘· it) adj. belonging to the earliest ages. lacking moral restraint. I just had a hunch that he wasn’t what he seemed to be. dangerously unsteady or insecure. pretentious (pri·'ten·shu ˘s) adj. pompous. 2. original. 2. Driving through the state park. 2. extremely steep. The proﬂigate man quickly depleted his fortune.
belief. 2. versatile. pungent ('pun·je ˘nt) adj. prudent ('proo·de ˘nt) adj. a person or agent authorized to represent or act for another. 1. provident ('prov·i·de ˘nt) adj. to denounce or condemn. strong curry. protean ('proh·tee·a ˘n) adj. Andrew is a remarkably successful businessman for someone so puerile. to prohibit. extremely attentive to detail. I didn’t have to struggle to pay for college.WO R D LI ST 159 prosaic (proh·'zay·ik) adj. contentious. having a strong. ceremony. so her recent bout of poor choices and boisterous behavior tells me she is very upset about something. 2. 2. it became clear to Hannah that the purpose of the meeting was really to proselytize as many attendees as possible. very meticulous and precise. changeable. protocol ('proh·to ˘·kawl) n. punctilious (pun k·'til·i·u ˘s) adj. The president appointed a proxy to handle business matters during his absence. careful and sensible regarding one’s actions and interests. pundit ('pun·dit) n. economical. the coyote is often called the “shape shifter” because he is such a protean character. Jackson was ﬁred for repeatedly refusing to follow protocol. a learned person or scholar. The journalist consulted several legal pundits before drafting the article. Because my parents were so provident. childish. to banish or outlaw. proxy ('prok·see) n. a document authorizing this substitution. one who is an authority on a subject. After a few minutes. taking many forms. 1. belligerent. eager to ﬁght. frugal. judicious. forbid. belonging to or of childhood. dull. etiquette. 2. In Native American mythology. quarrelsome. The prosaic novel was rejected by the publisher. Clarissa has always been very prudent. Don’t be so pugnacious—I don’t want to ﬁght. wisely providing for future needs. unimaginative. pugnacious (pu ·'nay·shu ˘s) adj. I love the pungent taste of a good. immature. 1. or procedure with regard to people’s rank or status. to convert or seek to convert someone to another religion. a ﬁrst copy of a treaty or document. 1. stinging. proscribe (proh·'skr¯b) v. . doctrine or cause. caustic. proselytize ('pros·e ˘·li·t¯z) v. puerile ('pyoo ˘·r˘l) adj. sharp taste or smell. suitable only for children. penetrating. exercising good judgment. 2. The king proscribed the worship of idols in his kingdom. variable. ordinary. 1. One of the reasons he excels as an editor is because he is so punctilious.
to have the appearance of being. an equal exchange or substitution. to draw back in fear. queue (kyoo) n. romantically idealistic. Maura is the quintessence of kindness. 1. to swallow in large draughts. querulous ('kwer·u ˘·lu ˘s) adj. (in information processing) an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing. The volcano is quiescent at the moment. quixotic (kwik·'sot·ik) adj. to free from impurities. to make or become clean. quintessence (kwin·'tes·e ˘ns) n. Mona quailed as soon as the vicious dog entered the room. quail (kwayl) v. dormant. pedestrian. quiescent (kwi·'es·e ˘nt) adj. Q quaff (kwahf) v. 1. The thief purloined a sculpture worth thousands of dollars. 2. commonplace. Prudence took her quotidian dose of medicine. The letter purports to express your opinion on the matter. 1. daily. cower. a line of people or vehicles waiting their turn. extravagantly chivalrous and unselﬁsh. His quixotic ways charmed all the women at the dance. discontented. to drink hurriedly or heartily. inactive. He quickly quaffed three glasses of water. He’s a cantankerous and querulous old man. to steal. complaining. the perfect example or embodiment of something. . but I love him. purport ('pur·pohrt) v. the essence of a substance. I won’t agree to any deal that isn’t quid pro quo— it must be a win-win arrangement. 1. to be intended to seem. 2. a thing given in return for something. After Leon writes a draft. but who knows when it will erupt again. ﬂinch. peevish. impractical. Look how long the queue is! We’ll be waiting for hours. purloin (pu ˘r·'loin) v. propose or intend. quiet.160 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT purge (purj) v. 2. at rest. quid pro quo (kwid proh 'kwoh) n. he purges the text of unnecessary words to make it more succinct. pure. especially to rid of that which is undesirable or harmful. 2. latent. quotidian (kwoh·'tid·ee·a ˘n) adj.
disorderly. stubborn. not easily understood. It should be an interesting marriage: he’s a reactionary and she’s as liberal as they come. excessively greedy and grasping (especially for money). disobedient. a bitter feeling of ill will. Allowing prisoners to earn their GED or a college degree has been shown to greatly reduce recidivism. unpleasantly loud and harsh. voracious. The rakish young woman charmed everyone at the table. plundering. censure. rebuke (ri·'byook) v. recondite ('rek·o ˘n·d¯t) adj.WO R D LI ST 161 R rakish ('ray·kish) adj. The king regaled his guests until the early morning hours. reconnoiter (ree·ko ˘·'noi·te ˘r) v. smartly dressed or mannered. 1. 1. abstruse. Greg is full of rancor towards his brother. jaunty in appearance or manner. disturbing the peace. one who is opposed to progress or liberalism. The rapacious general ordered his soldiers to pillage the town. unruly. dissolute or debauched. obscure. recidivism (ri·'sid·˘·vizm) n. refusing to obey authority. rapacious (ra ˘·'pay·shu ˘s) adj. raucous ('raw·ku ˘s) adj. especially to gather military information or prepare for military operations. to reprove or reprimand. rancor ('ran ·ko ˘r) n. debonair. 1. a person who favors political conservativism. The recalcitrant child was sent to the principal’s ofﬁce for the third time in a week. to delight or entertain with a splendid feast or pleasant amusement. unconventional and disreputable. long-lasting resentment. refractory (ri·'frak·to ˘·ree) adj. to criticize sharply. a relapse or backslide. 2. 1. recalcitrant (ri·'kal·si·tra ˘nt) adj. and this causes tension at family gatherings. dealing with abstruse or profound matters. to make a preliminary inspection or survey of. My job was to reconnoiter the party and let my friends know if it was worth attending. regale (ri·' ayl) v. to repress or restrain by expressing harsh disapproval. The raucous music kept us awake all night. He loves the challenge of grasping a recondite subject. Ameer realized he was being persecuted by his boss. unmanageable. boisterous. 2. 2. 2. especially into antisocial or criminal behavior after conviction and punishment. reactionary (ree·'ak·sho ˘·ner·ee) n. After weeks of being rebuked in front of his coworkers for minor infractions and imaginary offenses. Elena is a counselor for refractory children in an alternative school setting. resisting control or discipline. .
The reprehensible behavior of the neighborhood bully angered everyone on the block. The president promised a swift reprisal for the attack. The court granted him a reprieve at the last moment because of DNA evidence that absolved him. The renowned historian Stephen Ambrose wrote many books that were popular both with scholars and the general public. deserving rebuke or censure. the ability to make witty replies. replete (ri·'pleet) adj. full. 1. 2. well stocked or abundantly supplied. reject completely. 1. repose (ri·'pohz) n. to say or plead in protest. the practice of using political or military force without actually resorting to war. a quick. 2. renegade ('ren·e ˘· ayd) n. v. tranquility. especially of the death sentence. to scold or reprove. gorged. postponement or cancellation of punishment. or opposition. to disown. witty reply. an act of retaliation for an injury with the intent of inﬂicting at least as much harm in return. resting or being at rest. Edgar deemed himself a reprobate. . He wasn’t expecting such a sharp repartee from someone who was normally so quiet. reprobate ('rep·ro ˘·bayt) n. The renegade soldier decided to join the guerrilla ﬁghters. 2. 2. etc. 2. to bring or come together at a certain place. a deserter. 2. famous. renowned (ri·'nownd) adj. repartee (rep·a ˘r·'tee) n. 1. an immoral or unprincipled person. 2. peace of mind. 2. and a traitor in his written confession. a prearranged meeting at a certain time and place. 1. a place where people meet. disavow. rendezvous ('rahn·de ˘·voo) n. to meet at a rendezvous. Clarissa and Ahmed planned a rendezvous in the park after lunch. Tallon has repeatedly repudiated your accusations. widely known and esteemed. temporary relief from danger or discomfort. 1.162 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT remonstrate (ri·'mon·strayt) v. Mrs. a person who rebels and becomes an outlaw. one without scruples. especially a popular gathering place. reprisal (ri·'pr¯·za ˘l) n. 1. a criminal. The wail of a police siren disturbed my repose. The house was replete with expensive antiques. group. objection. one who rejects a cause. reprieve (ri·'preev) n. 1. calmness. The children remonstrated loudly when their mother told them they couldn’t watch that movie. reprehensible (rep·ri·'hen·s˘·be ˘l) adj. 1. repudiate (ri·'pyoo·di·ayt) v.
2. to make a liquid cloudy or muddy. incoherent talk. drawing attention through a striking quality. The crowd was roiled by the speaker’s insensitive remarks. My sagacious uncle always gives me good. 1. to venerate.WO R D LI ST 163 rescind (ri·'sind) v. a vicious and solitary animal living apart from the herd. having or showing sound judgment. reserved.” not “alternative medicine. 1. 1. springing up or jutting out. to regard with reverence or awe. resounding. or note of explanation or direction. disrespectful or irreverent towards something regarded as sacred. Jill’s most salient feature is her stunning auburn hair. resplendent (ri·'splen·de ˘nt) adj. to void or annul. so don’t expect her to tell you much about herself. 1. title. unprincipled person. rubric ('roo·brik) n. sound advice. it’s easy to see which painter she reveres most. that rogue hid all of my cooking utensils. rambling. silent. tending to keep one’s thoughts and feelings to oneself. dazzling. wise. a class or category. watching a resplendent sunset over the mountains. hold in highest respect or estimation. resonant ('rez·o ˘·na ˘nt) adj. Annette is very reticent. every painting is an homage to Cezanne. 2. salient ('say·lee·e ˘nt) adj. Sanjay stood for a long time on the deck. confusing. Yesterday. a complicated. a heading. 2. Her book was criticized by the church for being sacrilegious. prominent. to repeal or cancel.” S sacrilegious (sak·r˘·'lij·u ˘s) adj. today he’s switched everything around in the cupboards! roil (roil) v. petty procedure. 1. The new announcer at the stadium has a wonderfully resonant voice. having great splendor or beauty. conspicuous. We had to go through a great deal of rigmarole to get this approved. I would put this under the rubric of “quackery. revere (ri·'veer) v. . brilliant. 2. sagacious (sa ˘·' ay·shu ˘s) adj. The Olsens rescinded their offer to buy the house when they discovered the property was in a ﬂood zone. reticent ('ret·i·se ˘nt) adj. rigmarole ('ri ·ma ˘·rohl) (also rigamarole) n. perceptive. untalkative. 2. 3. echoing. to stir up or agitate. to anger or annoy. a pleasantly mischievous person. highly noticeable. When you look at Judith’s work. a dishonest. rogue (roh ) n. 3.
mocking scornfully. sparkling. producing a beneﬁcial or wholesome effect. 1. sanction ('san k·sho ˘n) n. remedial. saturnine ('sat·u ˘r·n¯n) adj. graceful tact. hypocritically pious or devout. I was hurt by his sardonic reply. brilliantly clever and animated. scurvy ('skur·vee) adj. knowledge of the right thing to do or say in a social situation. The schism between the two parties was forgotten as they united around a common cause. a penalty imposed to coerce another to comply or conform. seditious (si·'dish·u ˘s) adj. scintilla (sin·'til·a ˘) n. sanguine ('san · win) adj. That scurvy knave has ruined my plans again. of the color of blood. arousing to insurrection or rebellion. composure. 1. sangfroid (sahn·'frwah) n. The thief’s sanctimonious remark that “a fool and his money are soon parted” only made the jury more eager to convict him. People are drawn to her because of her sanguine and pleasant nature. shining brilliantly. . contemptible. sanctimonious (san k·t˘·'moh·nee·u ˘s) adj. 2. sarcastic. optimistic. I had planned to leave the dinner party early. ratify. a trace or particle. sardonic (sahr·'don·ik) adj. to approve or permit. to give ofﬁcial authorization or approval for. I’ve decided to move to a more salutary climate. scintillating ('sin·t˘·lay·tin ) adj. especially in dangerous or difﬁcult circumstances. minute amount. conﬁdently cheerful. I wish I had Jane’s sangfroid when I ﬁnd myself in a confrontational situation. red. a separation or division into factions because of a difference in belief or opinion. engaging in or promoting sedition (conduct or language which incites resistance or opposition to lawful authority). 2. iota. mean. v. gloomy. Adele’s savoir faire makes her the quintessential hostess. 1. 2. sullen. excessively self-righteous. The saturnine child sulked for hours. schism ('siz·e ˘m) n. ofﬁcial authorization or approval. dark. Toby’s seditious behavior nearly started a riot at the town meeting. To promote better health. 1. The city council has sanctioned our request to turn the empty lot into a community garden.164 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT salutary ('sal·yu ˘·ter·ee) adj. She has not one scintilla of doubt about his guilt. but the conversation was so scintillating that I stayed until 2:00 in the morning. savoir faire ('sav·wahr 'fair) n.
2. winding. Caught in an unexpected rainstorm. impropriety. He claims it’s an issue of semantics. to seek to obtain by persuasion or formal application. Cy was touting the merits of the referendum as he solicited support for Tuesday’s vote. unimaginative. 3. 2. 2. a plausible but invalid argument intended to deceive by appearing sound.WO R D LI ST 165 sedulous ('sej·u ˘·lu ˘s) adj. undulating. 2. the meaning. . 2. I was sodden by the time I reached the bus stop. symbols. I was looking for your honest opinion. sinuous ('sin·yoo·u ˘s) adj. 1. servile ('sur·v¯l) adj. full of maxims and proverbs offered in a self-righteous manner. It is dangerous to drive fast on such a sinuous road. lazy and inefﬁcient. My shiftless roommate has failed all of his classes. sententious (sen·'ten·shu ˘s) adj. persevering. serpentine. petition. but the matter is not open to interpretation. After years of sedulous research. abjectly submissive. shiftless ('shift·lis) adj. 1. hard working. or purpose. semantics (si·'man·tiks) n. the study of relationships between signs or symbols and their meanings. a mistake in the use of language. 1. expressing oneself tersely. or interpretation of words. expressionless or dull. to reduce the intensity of. of or like an ape or monkey. quench. simian ('sim·ee·a ˘n) adj. 1. slavish. the study of meaning in language. pithy. pertaining to or beﬁtting a slave or forced labor. 1. The climax comes when Yolanda. who had believed she was doomed to play the role of a servile wife to a domineering husband. solicit (so ˘·'lis·it) v. or other forms. soaked. initiative. Frank’s solecism caused his debate team much embarrassment. sodden ('sod·e ˘n) adj. to satisfy. The deer slaked its thirst at the river. solecism ('sol·e ˘·siz·e ˘m) n. diligent. 2. 1. connotation. sophistry ('sof·i·stree) n. the researchers discovered a cure. thoroughly saturated. moderate. 2. Scientists have studied humans’ simian ancestors. not a sententious reply. violation of good manners or etiquette. clever but faulty reasoning. 3. allay. lacking ambition. ﬁnds the courage to break the engagement and marry the man she truly loves. to approach with an offer for paid services. to ask for earnestly. I was amused by his sophistry. but knew he had a little more research to do before he presented his argument to the distinguished scholars in his ﬁeld. slake (slayk) v. 1.
When he heard the strident tone of his mother’s voice. dirty. but underneath. 1. morally degraded. steadfast ('sted·fast) adj. lofty. Of course I’m angry! You stultiﬁed me at that meeting! stymie ('st¯·mee) v. to ruin. adoration. not genuine or authentic. 2. subliminal (sub·'lim·˘·na ˘l) adj. ﬁrmly ﬁxed or unchanging. staunch (stawnch) v. 1.166 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT sordid ('sor·did) adj. morally repulsive. shrill. wretched. to make (someone) look foolish or incompetent. cripple. (also stanch) stopping the ﬂow of something. I have always been a staunch believer in the power of positive thinking. 1. 2. unswerving. Subliminal advertising is devious but effective. squalid. inspiring awe. supreme. counterfeit. unswerving. succinct (su ˘k·'sin kt) adj. The housing inspectors noted such deplorable and squalid living conditions in the decrepit building on Water Street that they were forced to evacuate the tenants. expressed clearly and precisely in few words. to hinder. terse. below the threshold of consciousness. The negotiations were stymied by yet another attack. destroy completely. 2. 1. subvert (sub·'vurt) v. adj. ﬁlthy and wretched. or reverence. having noble or majestic qualities. false. 3. 2. sordid. The captain held a steadfast course despite the rough seas. 1. concise. She quietly subverted his authority by sharing internal information with outside agents. discordant. 2. indifferent. Michael was stoical. spurious ('spyoor·ee·u ˘s) adj. impassive. squalid ('skwol·id) adj. 2. to undermine. to impair or make ineffective. ﬁrmly loyal and constant. seemingly unaffected by pleasure or pain. stultify ('stul·t˘·f¯) v. Cole’s eloquent and succinct essay on the power of positive thinking won ﬁrst place in the essay contest. deceptively pleasing in appearance. seemingly plausible but false. ﬁrm and steadfast. obstruct. Ian’s surreptitious manner makes me believe his support for you is spurious and that he has a hidden agenda. stoical ('stoh·i·ka ˘l) adj. unpleasantly loud and harsh. resolute. thwart. strident ('str¯·de ˘nt) adj. This sordid establishment should be shut down immediately. grating. ﬁrm and constant in principle or loyalty. to overthrow. Oscar knew he was in big trouble. specious ('spee·shu ˘s) adj. . Beethoven’s music is simply sublime. Vinnie did not fool me with his specious argument. he is every bit as emotional as we are. 1. to prevent the accomplishment of something. sublime (su ˘·'bl¯m) adj.
to infer based upon insufﬁcient evidence. an excessive amount or overabundance. done. a person who asks humbly for something. slender and graceful. The svelte actress offered a toast to her guests. surreptitious (sur·e ˘p·'tish·u ˘s) adj. marked by or acting with stealth or secrecy. sundry ('sun·dree) adj. surfeit ('sur·fit) n. v. haughty. a fawning parasite. svelte (svelt) adj. to feed or ﬁll to excess. overindulge. disdainful. The supplicants begged for forgiveness. various. habitually untalkative. Sunil’s supercilious attitude and sarcastic remarks annoy me greatly. The sundry items in her backpack reveal a great deal about her personality. 2. . 1. clandestine. or disgust. Omar realized that one of the drawbacks of his celebrity was that he would always be surrounded by sycophants. gruff. surrogate ('sur·o ˘· it) n. to provide assistance or relief in time of difﬁculty or distress. sycophant ('sik·o ˘·fa ˘nt) n. scornful. v. or unfriendly in a way that suggests menace. or obtained through stealthy. supplicant ('sup·l˘·ka ˘nt) n. conjecture. surmise (su ˘r·'m¯z) v. The Red Cross and other relief organizations provide succor to the needy during natural disasters. bad-tempered. reserved. made. Ian’s surreptitious manner makes me believe his support for you is spurious and that he has a hidden agenda. In some countries. suave. glut. supercilious (soo·pe ˘r·'sil·ee·u ˘s) adj. After ﬁnding dirty footprints in her apartment. miscellaneous. a person who tries to win the favor of inﬂuential or powerful people through ﬂattery. to guess. Martha agreed to be a surrogate mother for her sister. surly ('sur·lee) adj.WO R D LI ST 167 succor ('suk·o ˘r) n. the state of being or eating until excessively full. Emily received a surly greeting from the normally cheerful receptionist. but yesterday he regaled me with tales of his hiking adventures. 1. or fraudulent means. 2. assistance or relief in time of difﬁculty or distress. one who takes the place of another. Lakisha surmised that someone had stolen her misplaced jewelry. one who beseeches or entreats. a substitute. satiety. the leaders and a select few enjoy a surfeit of wealth while most of the population lives in squalor. T taciturn ('tas·i·turn) adj. I’ve always known him to be taciturn.
or courage. 1. sticking ﬁrmly. Adele was so timid she could barely muster the courage to look another person in the eye. palpable.168 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT tangential (tan·'jen·sha ˘l) adj. stubbornly unyielding. to prevent the accomplishment or realization of something. timorous ('tim·o ˘·ru ˘s) adj. The ﬁsherman found a stream teeming with bass. hesitant. doctrine or principle held to be true by a person. This pamphlet describes the tenets of Amnesty International. adhesive. 3. opinion. tenet ('ten·it) n. The general thwarted an attack by the opposing army. The tendentious proposal caused an uproar on the Senate ﬂoor. succinct. and it took a great deal of coaxing to get him to come near the car. 2. fearful. foolish disregard of danger. conviction. holding ﬁrmly to something. biased. 2. thwart (thwort) v. we must move cautiously to avoid any further damage. 4. to be full of. 2. tenacious (te ˘·'nay·shu ˘s) adj. (of memory) retentive. able to be perceived by touch. unsubstantial. terse (turs) adj. to be present in large numbers. it’s all hearsay. partisan. timid ('tim·id) adj. tangible ('tan·j˘·be ˘l) adj. Heidi and I engaged only in terse exchanges. . or organization. The stray dog was timorous. afraid. After our disagreement. When it comes to ﬁghting for equality. supporting a particular cause or position. having little substance or validity. group. This is no time for temerity. shy. using no unnecessary words. only superﬁcially relevant. ﬂimsy. fearful. I’ve never seen such a tawdry outﬁt as the three-tiered taffeta prom gown that the music singer wore to the awards ceremony! teem (teem) v. ﬂashy and tasteless. a belief. audacity. persistent. a thorough investigation showed they were committed by the same person. such as a right or principle. holding ﬁrmly. not impartial. tendentious (ten·'den·shu ˘s) adj. Though the connection between the two crimes seemed tenuous at ﬁrst. tawdry ('taw·dree) adj. real or concrete. There is no tangible evidence of misconduct. of or relating to a tangent. brashness. concise. temerity (te ˘·'mer·i·tee) n. not relevant facts. Rudy’s thesis paper contained tangential statements. lacking conﬁdence. 1. timid. 1. cohesive. of no substantive connection. gaudy or showy but without any real value. she is the most tenacious person I know. tenuous ('ten·yoo·u ˘s) adj.
a long. Evan toiled for hours before solving the problem. v. easily managed or controlled. demanding total submission of the individual to the needs of the state. the World Controllers use hypnosis and a “happiness drug” to make everyone tractable. 2. sharply deﬁned. 2. 2. tumult. a court of justice. or agitation. disorderly. tumultuous (too·'mul·choo·u ˘s) adj. The totalitarian regime fell quickly when the people revolted. bitterly expressing opposition. violent. 3. extremely perceptive. deﬁantly aggressive. noisy. many writers had written about death in a similar way. trite (tr¯t) adj. clear-cut. 3. penetrating. He will be sentenced for his war crimes by an international tribunal. transitory. labor strenuously. often highly critical speech. etc. The glitch in the software program truncated the lines of a very important document I was typing. repeated too often. 1. incisive. 1. 1. effective. ﬂeeting. forceful. tribunal (tr¯·'byoo·na ˘l) n. 1. to shorten or terminate by (or as if by) cutting the top or end off. totalitarian (toh·tal·i·'tair·ee·a ˘n) adj. exhausting labor or effort. angry. truncate ('trun ·kayt) v. hackneyed. a violent denunciation or condemnation. Cy was touting the merits of the referendum as he solicited support for Tuesday’s vote. to work laboriously. 2. to solicit (customers. to promote or praise highly and energetically. Their relationship was transient but profound.WO R D LI ST 169 tirade ('t¯·rayd) n. trenchant ('tren·cha ˘nt) adj. In the novel Brave New World. of a form of government in which those in control neither recognize nor tolerate rival parties or loyalties. The theme of the novel was trite. ﬁerce. and it forced me to change my mind about the issue.) in an especially brazen or persistent manner. lasting only a very short time. especially with the goal of getting a customer. . It was another tumultuous day for the stock market. worn out. a state of confusion. truculent ('truk·yu ˘·le ˘nt) adj. It was a trenchant argument. obedient. tout (towt) v. votes. overly familiar through overuse. brief. vote. The outspoken congresswoman gave a truculent speech arguing against the proposal. toil (toil) n. transient ('tran·zhe ˘nt) adj. and ﬂuctuating prices wrought havoc for investors. difﬁcult or laborious work. Since Andre was known for his temper. docile. etc. creating an uproar. turbulence. tractable ('trak·ta ˘·be ˘l) adj. his tirade did not surprise his roommate.
1. to reprove. By telling the children that they could eat chocolate. to seize. admonish. V vacillate ('vas·˘·layt) v. the babysitter undermined their mother. untoward (un·'tohrd) adj. This TV show is yet another vacuous sitcom. to move in waves or in a wavelike fashion. 2. 1. Denise vacillated for weeks before she decided to accept our offer. urbane (ur·'bayn) adj. upbraid (up·'brayd) v. condemn. perverse. highly reﬁned in manners. by force and without right. The child was upbraided for misbehaving during the ceremony. ﬂuctuate. etc. I left without test driving the car because the salesperson was so unctuous that I couldn’t trust him. unpleasantly and excessively or insincerely earnest or ingratiating. elegant. 2. improper. offense. suave. Such turpitude deserves the most severe punishment. adverse. a corrupt or depraved act. who was the rightful heir to the throne.. 1. especially by wearing away at the foundation. course of action. undermine (un·de ˘r·'m¯n) v. . contrary to one’s best interest or welfare. to weaken or injure. extremely tactful and polite. wickedness. purposeless. inane. U umbrage ('um·brij) n. but he’s really quite pedestrian. to swing back and forth about an opinion. to move or sway from side to side. to be indecisive. inconvenient. stupid. who had forbade them to eat sweets. containing or having the quality of oil or ointment. After the king’s half-brother usurped the throne. The curtains undulated in the breeze. vacuous ('vak·yoo·u ˘s) adj. or take possession of. greasy. ﬂuctuate. to wrongfully take over. slippery. 2. Jackson’s untoward remarks made Amelia very uncomfortable. I took great umbrage at your suggestion that I twisted the truth. empty. senseless. reproach sharply. undulate ('un·ju ˘·layt) v.170 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT turpitude ('tur·pi·tood) n. unseemly. Christopher thinks he’s so urbane. 1. 2. 2. resentment. to destroy in an underhanded way. he executed the king and queen and imprisoned the prince. unctuous ('un k·choo·u ˘s) adj. usurp (yoo·'surp) v. troublesome. waver. 1.
wordy. extremely poisonous. unprincipled. to censure severely. After being vituperated by her boss for something that wasn’t even her fault. veritable ('ver·i·ta ˘·be ˘l) adj.WO R D LI ST 171 vehement ('vee·e ˘·me ˘nt) adj. easily bribed or corrupted. bitterly hostile or hateful. 2. 1. verbose (ve ˘r·'bohs) adj. 2. acrimonious. face to face with or opposite to. or energy. vigor. caustic. to criticize or rebuke harshly or abusively. venal ('vee·na ˘l) adj. true. a brief description or depiction. 1. indeed. characterized by extreme intensity of emotion or forcefulness of expression or conviction. adv. Jin handed in her letter of resignation. injurious or infectious. berate. vex (veks) v. The movie aims for complete verisimilitude and has painstakingly recreated the details of everyday life in the 1920s. verisimilitude (ver·i·si·'mil·i·tood) n. long-winded. worthy of reverence or respect because of age. marked by great force. dignity. 2. venerable ('ven·e ˘·ra ˘·be ˘l) adj. to cause worry to. vituperate (v¯·too·pe ˘·rayt) v. Einstein was a veritable genius. The two scientists were vying to be the ﬁrst to ﬁnd concrete evidence of extraterrestrial life. They say that the pen is mightier than the sword. real. using more words than necessary. to annoy. Her vitriolic attack on her opponent was so hostile that it may cost her the election. especially a short literary sketch or scene or ornamental sketch in a book. I was completely vexed by his puerile behavior. genuine. the appearance of being true or real. 1. 1. The venerable Jimmy Carter has won the Nobel Peace Prize. virulent ('vir·yu ˘·le ˘nt) adj. words can be every bit as virulent as the sting of a scorpion. The ﬁlm is a series of interrelated vignettes rather than one continuous narrative. irritate. The senator was vehement in her denial of any wrongdoing and maintained her innocence throughout the investigation. 2. Her verbose letter rambled so much that it didn’t seem to have a point. the lights came back on. to compete with or contend. to strive for superiority or victory. . vignette (vin·'yet) n. savagely hostile or bitter. vitriolic (vit·ri·'ol·ik) adj. vie (v¯) v. After a few minutes of pandemonium. referring or directing attention to. character or position. face to face. vis-à-vis (vee·za ˘·'vee) adj. and Suki suddenly found herself vis-à-vis with the man of her dreams. The venal judge was removed and disbarred.
cautious. (in chemistry) evaporating readily. Shalom was such a zealous student that he begged his teacher to assign him extra projects. explosive. guarded. distrust. changeable. top. We have winnowed the list of applicants down to ﬁve highly qualiﬁed candidates. 1. varying widely. Z zealous ('zel·u ˘s) adj. having a great appetite for something. 2. 1. likely to change suddenly or violently. 2. peak. to examine or sift through to remove undesirable elements. W wary ('wair·ee) adj. Many atrocities have been committed because of xenophobia. 2. The revolutionary zeitgeist of the sixties and seventies is in sharp contrast to the conservative zeitgeist of the ﬁfties. After being swindled by the street vendor. language marked by great ﬂuency. to separate the good from the bad. winnow ('win·oh) v. the point in the sky directly above the observer. The stock market has been so volatile lately that I have decided to invest in bonds instead. voracious (voh·'ray·shu ˘s) adj. She is at the zenith of her career and has won every case this year. or fear of foreigners. ﬁckle. devouring greedily. excessively greedy. rapacious. the highest point. nimble speech. inconstant. the general intellectual and moral outlook or attitude characteristic of a particular generation or period of time. zenith ('zee·nith) n. Bridget was wary of most salespeople. earnest. unstable. ﬁlled with or marked by great interest or enthusiasm. the spirit of the times. 2. turning or rotating easily on an axis. to separate the grain from the chaff by using the wind or other current of air to blow the chaff away. I have always been a voracious reader and literally consume dozens of books every month. zeitgeist ('ts¯t· ¯st) n. talking a great deal and with great ease. watchful.172 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT volatile ('vol·a ˘·til) adj. Your new spokesperson is very voluble and clearly comfortable speaking in front of large audiences. fervent. eager. 1. . a strong dislike. rapid. 1. voluble ('vol·yu ˘·be ˘l) adj. X xenophobia (zen·o ˘·'foh·bee·a ˘) n. 3.
WO R D LI ST
Preﬁxes, Sufﬁxes, and Word Roots
The following table lists the most common English language preﬁxes, their meanings, and examples of words with each preﬁx.
PREFIX MEANING EXAMPLES
a-, anab-, absanteant-, antibicircumco-, com-, concontracounterdedis-
not, without from, away, off prior to, in front of, before opposite, opposing, against two, twice around, about, on all sides with, together, jointly against, contrary, contrasting contrary, opposite or opposing; complementary do the opposite or reverse of; remove from, reduce away from, apart, reversal, not
atypical, anarchy, amorphous abnormal, abduct, abscond antedate, antecedent, antebellum antidote, antagonist, antipathy bisect, bilateral, bicameral circumference, circumnavigate, circumspect cooperate, community, consensus contradict, contraindication counterclockwise, countermeasure, counterpart deactivate, dethrone, detract disperse, dismiss, disinterested
VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT EXAMPLES
two out, out of, away from
duo, duet, duality expel, exclaim, exorbitant induct, impart, inculcate invariable, incessant, illicit, inept, impervious intervene, interact, intermittent intramural, intravenous introvert, introduction malfunction, malpractice, malign misspell, miscreant, misanthrope monologue, monogamy, monocle multiple, multimillionaire, multifarious neologism, neonatal, neophyte nonconformist, nonentity, nonchalant overabundance, overstimulate polytechnic, polyglot postpone, postpartum, postoperative precaution, precede, presage proceed, proclivity, profess pseudonym, pseudoscience recall, reconcile, rescind semiannual, semiconscious subconscious, subdue, subjugate superhero, superﬁcial, supercilious transmit, translate, translucent triangle, tricycle, triumvirate unable, uninterested, unorthodox unite, uniform, unilateral
in- (also il-, in, into, within in- (also il-, not im-, ir-) interintraintromalmismonomultineononoverpolypostprepropseudoresemisubsupertranstriununibetween, among, within within, during in, into, within bad, abnormal, evil, wrong bad, wrong, ill; opposite or lack of one, single, alone many, multiple new, recent, a new form of not exceeding, surpassing, excessive many, much after, subsequent, later (than), behind before (a) earlier, before, prior to; in front of (b) for, supporting, in behalf of (c) forward, projecting false, fake back, again half, partly, incomplete under, beneath, below above, over, exceeding across, beyond, through three, thrice not one
P R E F I X E S, S U F F I X E S, AN D WO R D R O OTS
The following table lists the most common English language sufﬁxes, their meanings, and examples of words with each sufﬁx.
SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES
-age -al -an, -ian -ance, -ence -ancy, -ency -ant, -ent -ary -cide -cy -er, -or -ion, -tion -ism -ist -ity -ment -ness -ology -or -sis -ure -y
(a) action or process (b) house or place of (c) state, rank action or process of or relating to; a person specializing in action or process; state of quality or state one that performs, promotes, or causes an action; being in a speciﬁed state or condition thing belonging to or connected with killer, killing action or practice; state or quality of one that is, does, or performs act or process; state or condition act, practice, or process; state or doctrine of one who (performs, makes, produces, believes, etc.) quality, state, or degree action or process; result, object, means, or agent of an action or process state, condition, quality or degree doctrine, theory, or science; oral or written expression condition, activity process or action act or process; ofﬁce or function state, condition, quality; activity or place of business
drainage, orphanage, marriage rehearsal, disposal, reversal guardian, pediatrician, historian adolescence, benevolence, renaissance agency, vacancy, latency disinfectant, dissident, miscreant adversary, dignitary, library suicide, pesticide, homicide democracy, legitimacy, supremacy builder, foreigner, sensor attraction, persecution, denunciation criticism, anachronism, imperialism anarchist, feminist, imperialist clarity, amity, veracity entertainment, embankment, amazement happiness, readiness, goodness biology, theology, eulogy candor, valor, succor diagnosis, dialysis, metamorphosis exposure, legislature, censure laundry, empathy, anarchy
peaceful. -ial. agrarian important. cooperative. -ian -ant. inscrutable educational. egregious sleepy. incessant. listless adventurous. fearless. of. relating to. plagiarize. emanate quicken. -ose. futile. or characterized by one who is or does. full of. -ent -ful -ic -ile -ish -ive -less -ous. tending or inclined to ﬂammable. chronic. preeminent helpful. electrify. wistful fantastic. tolerate. having the quality of tending to or capable of having the quality of performing or tending towards (an action). lengthen.176 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ADJECTIVE ENDINGS SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES -able. having the qualities of. glorious. -fy -ize to make. culpable. unable to act or be acted on (in a speciﬁed way) full of. American. cursory. exacerbate. -ible -al. peripheral. related to. tending or liable to having the quality of. rectify colonize. bookish. having the qualities of. ephemeral human. synchronize . having the nature of without. desultory VERB ENDINGS SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES -ate -en -ify. lacking. -y capable or worthy of. pensive endless. to come to be or have to make. relating to characterized by. characteristic of performing (a speciﬁc action) or being (in a speciﬁed condition) full of. squeamish sensitive. servile Swedish. archaic fragile. -ical -an. frighten beautify. to cause to be or become to cause to be or have. form into to cause to be or become. to bring about violate. tending or liable to pertaining or relating to.
antebellum beneﬁt. adept. apocalypse. to stop center to separate. automaton befriend. recant capital. cip. alias. to lead to. incessant central. inept hierarchy. cret. headlong to take. belittle rebel. to force. discern chronic. to decide time acid. to distinguish. ambivalent. bemoan. carnage caste. cess centr cern. bell ben. amity. misanthrope apology. to get heart ﬂesh cut to go. critique. AN D WO R D R O OTS 177 WORD ROOTS The following table lists the most common word roots. around life. their meanings. to have a certain quality war good to fall. al al. bonus accident. ruler self to be. try breaking the list down into manageable chunks of ten to 20 roots and memorize them section by section. to drive. but don’t be intimidated by the length of this list. anarchy automatic. synchronize . principal. allure alternative. capit. cent. principal. reincarnation. castigate exceed. There are more than 150 roots here. amph anim annui. cept card. capitulate capture. S U F F I X E S. toward. cid cant. crit chron sharp. chronology. to judge. cert. ability chief. benevolent. to happen by chance to sing head.P R E F I X E S. intercept. agitate adjacent. to walk both. perennial anthropology. cour carn cast. coincidence. to yield. archi. acr act. more than one. discord carnivore. apotheosis adapt. archy auto be bel. alter am amb amb. spirit year man. chant cap. To learn these roots. ceed. Some of these roots many already be familiar to you—you use words with these roots every day! ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES ac. another love to go. enamor ambulatory. andr apo apt. ﬁtness. concede. and examples of words with those roots. cascade chant. belligerent. autonomy. preamble. ept arch. animosity. enchant. chast ced. near other. acrimonious agent. soul. cardiac. acute. ennui anthro. mind. equanimity annual. android. enact. concentric. adhere. amphitheater unanimous. monarchy. eccentric ascertain. ag ad. emancipate encourage. cord. cipit cap. chastise. human away skill. ali. crim. anniversary. bitter to do. alien amiable. bon cad. ambush ambiguous.
proliferate fervor. fy fer ferv ﬁd ﬁn ﬂag. conducive endure. incredulous crypt. incubate. epigram. ﬂammable. induct. cur crat. equivocate err. cryptic. famous. clin cour. clu claim. incumbent culprit. indolence. trust end to burn to bend to ﬂow scissors. eulogy. effervescent conﬁde. affable ﬁction. preclude exclaim. to trust hidden to lie down blame to teach people apart. recline. to carry. paradox condolence. ﬂex ﬂu. ﬂexible ﬂuid. indignant dogma. dow dub duc. feit. ﬁdelity. cresc. enclose. to bubble faith. endow. precise. indoctrinate.178 ROOT MEANING VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT EXAMPLES cis cla. clo. dolorous donate. epidemic. clamor decline. incursion. through to say. acquiesce euphoria. indubitable. increment incredible. exculpate doctor. ﬁnite. even to wander becoming good. proclaim. cracy cre. ﬂux to cut shut. bureaucracy creation. cumb culp dac. dyslexia epidemic. equanimity. credit. dox dol don. cret cred cryp cub. duct dur dys epi equ err esce eu fab. feign offer. ﬁg. erratic adolescent. ﬂam ﬂect. incisive closet. proclivity recur. a course to govern to grow to believe. cryptography succumb. endow dubious. close to shout. diatribe. fam fac. superﬂuous . inﬂammatory deﬂect. abnormal upon equal. pandemic dialogue. dot. inﬁdel ﬁnal. indict dignity. to cry out to lean toward. dictionary. dubiety conduct. to use words worth opinion suffer. doc dem di. reﬂect. ﬁc. dit dign dog. dystopia. clam cli. dict. to bear to boil. orthodox. coalesce. obdurate dysfunctional. cursory democracy. increase. bend running. afﬁnity ﬂame. well speak to do. transfer. dichotomy predict. dia dic. docile democracy. factory. to make to bring. epigraph equation. to tell. durable. fervid. error. culpable. autocracy. pain to give doubt to lead hard faulty. ﬂuctuation. fait. euthanasia fable.
manifest minute. loqu luc. monit morph to pour birth. gno grad. lus lug. nai nec. frag. magnitude. lum. dilute. incognito progress. mit mon. forbear fortune. fortunate. S U F F I X E S. fortuitous fracture. ingratiate cohere. to hang over to send to warn shape mort mut nam. innocuous nominate. nox nom. preeminent transmit. ideology eject. eclectic elevator. gratitude. conjecture joint. AN D WO R D R O OTS ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES 179 fore fort before chance foresight. lut. loquacious illustrate. forestall. order to be born harm.P R E F I X E S. death name immortal. junction. metamorphosis. speech light to play to wash big hand small to project. taxonomy. elude. light. hes (h)etero (h)om hyper id ject join. inherent heterosexual. select. infringe infusion. remit. creation. nym. maj. alleviate dialogue. fring to break fus gen gn. admonish. magnanimous manual. recognize. anthropomorphic fra. imminent. frac. genetics. manufacture. noun. nascent. diffuse generous. eloquent. idiosyncrasy. homonym hyperactive. nom. digress grateful. noun. luminous illusion. hyperextend. heterogeneous. perjury. homogenous ignore. lucid. homonym. diminish. permutation economy. heterodox homogeneous. kind to know to step pleasing to stick different. excessive one’s own to throw. leg lev loc. intermittent monitor. minutiae prominent. nominal . autonomy native. nic. to join to swear to select. to choose lift. dejected. lus lud. morbid. log. adherent. max man min min mis. lever. juxtapose jury. fraction. hyperbole idiom. race. gress grat her. immutable. nas. to throw down to meet. abjure election. noc. renaissance innocent. luv mag. remonstrate amorphous. deluge magnify. nown. noxious. other same over. nym nat. aggressive. moratorium mutate. nown death change rule. allude lavatory. junct jur lect. rise word.
to pay completely. permeate. education foot to pay. query quiet. reprisal proliferate. impugn point. prise pro prob pug punc. sanction assault. complacent complete. puncture.180 ROOT MEANING VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT EXAMPLES nounc. portable. to strive love sound to please to ﬁll to fold. importune surprise. desultory conscious. po. pronounce. circumscribe separate. cacophony placid. appease. pandemic. pung. poign que. paradox passionate. impede penalty. pens per peri pet. penance depend. sil. disparate. paragon. pensive perplex. science. to weigh. of. for. encyclopedia. to tangle. homophone. wrong around to go. pit phil phone plac ple plex. to. sacrament. to twist. conquest. oc. suffering. pov. beside feeling. neo. disease few. op omni pac. apprehend. obstruct. apathetic poverty. parity parallel. reprobate repugnant. expedite. to seek. scrip se to announce new toward. impoverish pediatrician. peripheral. obsequious omnipresent. pos. quis qui rid. sult sci scribe. ply pon. punishment. deplete. secr sal. panacea par. to test to ﬁght to point. pu ped ped. comply. paciﬁer panorama. bibliophile telephone. denounce novice. to get. omniscient pacify. completely. component. impetuous philosophy. to compensate to hang. segregate. pugnacious. ris rog sacr. pedantic pedestrian. plethora complex. peas pan par para pas. sault. omnipotent. nou ob. omniscient scribble. to bend to put. neophyte object. novel. pound port prehend. to prick to seek quiet to laugh to ask sacred to leap. punctilious inquisitive. compensate. everyone equal next to. petition. antipathy. nunc nov. little. pod pen. pun pend. insolent. against. juxtapose import. plic. to place to carry to take. to jump to know to write apart announce. poor child. proselytize probe. pauper. implicit expose. path pau. probation. surrogate. seditious . placebo. tranquil. derision interrogate. a lot to prove. sanct. to seize much. pat. pervade perimeter. prescribe. acquiesce riddle. abrogate sacred. ridiculous. philanthropy. over all peace all. profuse. peripatetic compete.
sequ sed. benevolence . to be still. sequel. tenacious extend. tractable abuse. tenuous atheist. to be aware to loosen. dissolution perspective. intervene verdict. obsequious subside. ut ven. venture. spit sta. speculation. religion to drag. sentiment. theology. vicarious evident. persuade. to be in place smooth to be silent to hold to stretch. assiduous. ten. veritable revert. tension. reticent. equivocate volunteer. vis voc. verisimilitude. tens. sti sua tac. taciturn detain. to see to stand. to thin god. AN D WO R D R O OTS ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES 181 sec. dissent dissolve. volition. tic tain. steadfast suave. usurp convene. tenu theo tract us. S U F F I X E S. dissident sense. spic. advocate. tent. versatile vivid. sustain. obstinate. to pull. sid sens. tent. dissuade tacit. aversion. visionary vocal. resolution. to plot to feel. utility. sess. tin tend. sent sol spec. vigorous. to draw to use to come. to move toward truth to turn life to see to call to wish consequence. vent ver vers. vert vi vid. circumspect static.P R E F I X E S. survey. to free to look. apotheosis attract. to plan. vok vol to follow to sit. detract.
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