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**1. Direct proofs 2. Indirect proofs
**

Vocab 1. Law of Syllogism 2. Premises 3. Direct Proof 4. Indirect Proof Activity 5. Theorem

Time

Do Now: Here were the household rules I grew up with. I had a mom, a dad, an older brother (Johnny) and a younger brother (Robbie) and me (Lizzy). My mom is younger than my dad. Rule 1: The cook is never the person who does the dishes. Rule 2: Johnny does the dishes on Mon/Wed, Lizzy does the dishes on Tues/Thurs, Dad does the dishes on Fri/Sun, and Robby does the dishes on Sat. Rule 4: If someone isn’t home for dinner the night they are supposed to do dishes, then the person who is closest to them in age, but younger, has to do the dishes. Rule 5: If Johnny, Lizzy and Robby don’t come home for dinner, then Dad will always have to do the dishes. (1) Based on the rules above, who cooks dinner every day? Don’t just give me an answer, Explain which rules led you to your conclusion. (2) Someone called Mom one night and told her they weren’t going to be home for dinner. Robbie then had to do the dishes that night even though it wasn’t Saturday. We now know TWO pieces of info. What do we now know and prove using the rules why we know it. (3) On a Friday night, no one called to say they would miss dinner but Johnny did the dishes. What happened? Prove why that must have happened using the rules. (4) Johnny is convinced that Dad won’t be home for dinner. Explain, using the rules, why he must be mistaken. Direct Proofs: Exercise1: Consider the following logical argument. This is an example of a direct proof: Given: Lizzy calls home saying she won’t be able to do the dishes Prove: Robby can’t have cooked dinner that night Statement Robbie is closest in age to Lizzy but younger Lizzy calls home saying she won’t be able to do the dishes If Lizzy can’t do the dishes, then Robbie has to do the dishes If Robby has to do the dishes, then he can’t have been the cook Theorem: Therefore if Lizzy calls home saying she won’t be able to do the dishes, then Robby can’t have cooked dinner that night. Reason Given Given Rule 4 Rule 1 Law of Syllogism

**Direct proofs are proofs that string together statements in a logical order. To do a direct proof you
**

Law of Syllogism (or in Algebra, the Transitive Property). The way we do Direct Proofs A syllogism is when you link several conditional statements together, and then use this link to conclude that the first hypothesis leads to the final conclusion. 𝑎 → 𝑏 𝑏 → 𝑐 𝑐 → 𝑑 Therefore 𝑎 → 𝑑 Premises: We call each separate statement in a direct proof a premise. Theorem: The final conditional statement that we’ve proved, the 𝑎 → 𝑑 statement is called a theorem. A theorem is a new, true, result that we’ve proven to be true.

need the following law: Exercise 2: Direct proofs start with one true statement, and then we use the rules of math, or other theorems we’ve proven, or definitions, to reason from to the thing we’re trying to prove, . Try it yourself. Prove the statement “mom always cooks” using my household rules. (Hint: you’ll need the contrapositive of rule 1.) Statement If Johnny, Lizzy and Robby don’t come home for dinner, then Dad will always have to do the dishes. If Dad does the dishes, then he is not the cook If Dad is not the cook, then mom must be the cook Reason Rule 5 Contrapositive of Rule 1 Statements 1 and 2

Exercise 3: (1) Rearrange the following statements to form a proof. If you eat Fugu fish, your tongue will go numb If you go to Japan, you will have to eat Fugu fish If you are not able to eat delicious sushi, then there was no reason to go to Japan. If your tongue goes numb, then you will not be able to eat delicious sushi. (2) What “theorem” did you just prove? Indirect Proofs: Indirect proofs rely on understanding truth tables and what the negation of a conditional statement is. Exercise 1: Explore (1) Suppose you have a really obvious statement like “Roses smell good.” It’s hard to prove this statement directly. Where do you start? If it’s a rose, then…. Hmmm. There’s nowhere to go. a. Write the negation of the statement “Roses smell good.” Rosses don’t smell good b. Recall that any statement can have only two possible truth values. What are they? T and F c. A statement and its negation must have opposite truth values. This means that i.) ii.) If the negation is true, then the original statement is False If the negation is false, then the original statement is True

d. So if we can’t prove a statement true (but we want to prove it true because it’s so obviously true) we can instead prove that it’s negation is: false (2) Let’s try to prove that “roses smell good”. Let’s operate on two obvious assumptions People like smelling things that smell good People enjoy stopping to smell roses. Statement Reason

Roses don’t smell good If things don’t smell good, then people won’t like smelling them Therefore, people won’t like smelling roses This contradicts the fact that people enjoy stopping to smell roses. So since “Roses don’t smell good” is a false statement, then its negation “Roses do smell good” must be a true statement. Exercise 2: Steps in an indirect proof. Indirect Proof Step 1: Negate the statement we want to prove. Step 2: Use this negation in a direct proof until you come to a conclusion.

Assume negation Contrapositive of Given (1) Statements (1) and (2) Given (2) Definition of negation.

**Step 3: Show that the conclusion contradicts something we know is definitely true.
**

Step 4: Write “Therefore the negation is false, meaning the original statement is true”. Exercise 3: Examples (1) While driving her 1954 Chevy to the market, Miss Piggy suddenly worries that she may have locked her keys in her apartment. Use one or more of the following statements to prove that she couldn’t have forgotten her keys. Given: Miss Piggy never leaves her apartment unlocked Given: She keeps every key she owns on one large key ring. Prove: She couldn’t have forgotten her keys. Statement Miss piggy forgot her keys If miss piggy forgot her keys, then it’s on her one large key ring If it’s on her one large key ring, then her car key is also on the key ring This contradicts the fact that she is driving Therefore the fact that miss piggy forgot her keys is false, meaning its negation: that miss piggy did not forget her keys is true. Reason Assume negation Given 1 Given Rule of driving: keys are required Definition of negation

(2) Use the household rules from the “do now” to prove the following. Given: the theorem we proved before the mom always does the cooking. Prove: Johnny is wrong if he believes that Dad won’t be home for dinner. Prove that Dad has to be home for dinner. Statement Dad won’t be home for dinner. Mom is the person closest to Dad in age, but younger than him. If Dad doesn’t come to dinner, then the person closest to his age but younger than him has to do the dishes. If the person closest to his age but younger than him has to do the dishes, then mom has to do the dishes. This contradicts the fact that mom always is the cook Therefore the fact that Dad won’t be home for dinner is False, meaning the negation that Dad will be home for dinner is true. Postulates vs. Theorems: Reason Assume negation Given Rule 4 Statements 1 and 2 Given Definition of negation

Exercise 1: In geometry, we use stuff that we know to be true, to prove new stuff to be true. Can we prove everything true? (1) Consider the logical argument below: Suppose that you are faster than a speeding bullet. If you are faster than a speeding bullet, then you would be an Olympic champion. If you were an Olympic champion, then you could quit school and play video games for the rest of your life. What “theorem” did we just prove? (2) Every part of the above argument was logical and valid. Why isn’t our “theorem” valid? Exercise 2: The things in geometry that we have to assume or define to be true without proof are called postulates. Because postulates can’t be proven, we need to make sure we choose them very carefully. They must be so obviously true that they don’t need to be proved. You’ve already done a whole lesson on algebra postulates so I won’t bore you by re-teaching them, but the three most important for geometry deserve restating

Basic Geometry Postulates (1) The Reflexive Property: a=a (2) The Symmetric Property: if a=b then b=a (3) The Transitive Property: if a=b and b=c then a=c The : Equals can be substituted for equals

(1) You look in the mirror. Which property explains why the face you see is exactly the same size as your face? (2) Dave is the same height as me. Am I the same height as Dave? Which postulate is this? (3) Which postulate is illustrated by the “Calvin and Hobbes” picture? (4) My husband Andrew can eat exactly tow whole pepperoni Pizzas. My roommate Mehdi can also eat two whole pepperoni Pizzas. Who would win in a pizza eating contest? What property is illustrated by this?

Geometry Lesson 11

Name:_______________ Date:_________

**Proofs Using Logic Class Work
**

Do Now: Here were the household rules I grew up with. I had a mom, a dad, an older brother (Johnny) and a younger brother (Robbie) and me (Lizzy). My mom is younger than my dad. Rule 1: The cook is never the person who does the dishes.

Rule 2: Johnny does the dishes on Mon/Wed, Lizzy does the dishes on Tues/Thurs, Dad does the dishes on Fri/Sun, and Robby does the dishes on Sat. Rule 4: If someone isn’t home for dinner the night they are supposed to do dishes, then the person who is closest to them in age, but younger, has to do the dishes. Rule 5: If Johnny, Lizzy and Robby don’t come home for dinner, then Dad will always have to do the dishes.

(1) Based on the rules above, who cooks dinner every day? Don’t just give me an answer, Explain which rules led you to your conclusion.

(2) Someone called Mom one night and told her they weren’t going to be home for dinner. Robbie then had to do the dishes that night even though it wasn’t Saturday. We now know TWO pieces of info. What do we now know and prove using the rules why we know it.

(3) On a Friday night, no one called to say they would miss dinner but Johnny did the dishes. What happened? Prove why that must have happened using the rules.

(4) Johnny is convinced that Dad won’t be home for dinner. Explain, using the rules, why he must be mistaken.

Direct Proofs:

Exercise1: Consider the following logical argument. This is an example of a direct proof: Given: Lizzy calls home saying she won’t be able to do the dishes Prove: Robby can’t have cooked dinner that night Statement Robbie is closest in age to Lizzy but younger Lizzy calls home saying she won’t be able to do the dishes If Lizzy can’t do the dishes, then Robbie has to do the dishes If Robby has to do the dishes, then he can’t have been the cook Theorem: Therefore if Lizzy calls home saying she won’t be able to do the dishes, then Robby can’t have cooked dinner that night. need the following law: Exe rcis e 2: Dire ct pro ofs star t with Law of Syllogism (or in Algebra, the Transitive Property). The way we do Direct Proofs A syllogism is when you link several conditional statements together, and then use this link to conclude that the first hypothesis leads to the final conclusion.
𝑎

→ 𝑏 𝑏 → 𝑐 𝑐 → 𝑑 Therefore 𝑎 → 𝑑 Premises: We call each separate statement in a direct proof a premise. Theorem: The final conditional statement that we’ve proved, the 𝑎 → 𝑑 statement is called a theorem. A theorem is a new, true, result that we’ve proven to be true.

Reason Given Given Rule 4 Rule 1 Law of Syllogism

Direct proofs are proofs that string together statements in a logical order. To do a direct proof you

one true statement,

and then we use the rules of math, or other theorems we’ve proven, or to the thing we’re trying to prove, . Try it yourself. Prove the statement Statement Reason Rule 5

definitions, to reason from

“mom always cooks” using my household rules. (Hint: you’ll need the contrapositive of rule 1.) If Johnny, Lizzy and Robby don’t come home for dinner, then Dad will always have to do the dishes.

Exercise 3: (1) Rearrange the following statements to form a proof. If you eat Fugu fish, your tongue will go numb If you go to Japan, you will have to eat Fugu fish If you are not able to eat delicious sushi, then there was no reason to go to Japan. If your tongue goes numb, then you will not be able to eat delicious sushi.

(2) What “theorem” did you just prove? Indirect Proofs: Indirect proofs rely on understanding truth tables and what the negation of a conditional statement is. Exercise 1: Explore (1) Suppose you have a really obvious statement like “Roses smell good.” It’s hard to prove this statement directly. Where do you start? If it’s a rose, then…. Hmmm. There’s nowhere to go. a. Write the negation of the statement “Roses smell good.” b. Recall that any statement can have only two possible truth values. What are they? c. A statement and its negation must have opposite truth values. This means that iii.) iv.) If the negation is true, then the original statement is_________________ If the negation is false, then the original statement is_________________

d. So if we can’t prove a statement true (but we want to prove it true because it’s so obviously true) we can instead prove that it’s negation is:____________________ (2) Let’s try to prove that “roses smell good”. Let’s operate on two obvious assumptions People like smelling things that smell good People enjoy stopping to smell roses. Statement Roses don’t smell good Reason Assume negation Contrapositive of Given (1)

Exercise 2: Steps in an indirect proof.

Indirect Proof

Step 1: Negate the statement we want to prove. Step 2: Use this negation in a direct proof until you come to a conclusion.

Exercise 3: Examples (1) While driving her 1954 Chevy to the market, Miss Piggy suddenly worries that she may have locked her keys in her apartment. Use one or more of the following statements to prove that she couldn’t have forgotten her keys. Given: Miss Piggy never leaves her apartment unlocked Given: She keeps every key she owns on one large key ring. Prove: She couldn’t have forgotten her keys. Statement Miss piggy forgot her keys Reason Assume negation

(2) Use the household rules from the “do now” to prove the following. Given: the theorem we proved before the mom always does the cooking. Prove: Johnny is wrong if he believes that Dad won’t be home for dinner. Prove that Dad has to be home for dinner. Statement Dad won’t be home for dinner. Reason Assume negation

Geometry Lesson 11

Name:_______________ Date:_________

**Proofs Using Logic Homework
**

Direct Proofs: (1) Determine if each of the following is a valid or invalid direct proof (follows the law of syllogism). a. If a duck flies upside-down, it gets dizzy. If a duck gets dizzy, then it quacks up. Therefore, if a duck flies upside-down, it quacks up. b. If you go to Long Beach, you will see beautiful sunsets. I If you are in Hawaii, you will see beautiful sunsets. Therefore, if you go to Long Beach, then you are in Hawaii. c. All donkeys have long ears. All long-eared creatures are habitual eavesdroppers. Therefore, all donkeys are habitual eavesdroppers. d. The second batter on a major league baseball team is always a good hit-and-run player. The second batter on a major league baseball team is always a good bunter. Therefore, if someone on a major league baseball team is a good hit-and-run player, he is also a good bunter. e. People who shoplift are dishonest. No dishonest person is trustworthy. Therefore, people who shoplift are not trustworthy.

(2) The following statements are pairs of premises from which it may or may not be possible to derive conclusions using a syllogism. You may need to consider the contrapositive of one of the statements before being able to tell whether a conclusion is justified. Write either the conclusion statement or “no conclusion” as your answer. a. If you are faster than a speeding bullet, then you are more powerful than a locomotive. If you are more powerful than a locomotive, then you are able to leap tall buildings in a single bound.

b. If it is April first, then the soldiers are tired. If they have just had a March of thirty-one days, then the soldiers are tired.

c. If you are afraid of earthquakes, then you shouldn’t live in California. If you are crazy, then you are not afraid of earthquakes

(3) Fill in the missing statement in the proof below. If the electricity goes off during the night, your clock will be wrong. If your clock is wrong, you won’t realize what time it is. Missing statement:_________________________________________________________ Theorem: If the electricity goes off during the night, you will be late for school. (4) Reorganize the proof below, writing it in logical order. NASA would send some mice on a lunar mission if they were eager astronauts. If mice were sent on a lunar mission, the eyes of the entire world would be watching them on television. If the moon were made of green cheese, mice would make eager astronauts. It would be one giant peep for mouse kind if the eyes of the entire world were watching them on television.

(5) Try some direct proofs for yourself.

a. Use the household rules from the “do now” to prove the statement “If Johnny is my older brother, then I can’t be the cook when he’s gone.” Statement Reason

b. For the following proof, let the hypothesis of the statement be the given and let the conclusion of the statement be what we’re trying to prove. If ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ is perpendicular to ⃡⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ then ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ is the bisector of Statement Given Definition of perpendicular Definition of right angle Definition of bisector . Reason

Indirect Proofs: (6) A real world indirect proof: Although blood types cannot be used to prove that a particular man is the father of a given child, they can be used to prove that he is not. The table shows the possible blood types of the children of parents having certain blood types. Suppose that a woman has type O blood, and her child also has type O blood. Complete the following indirect proof that a man having type AB blood cannot be the child’s father. Statement

Parents O and O O and A O and B O and AB

Children O O or A O or B A or B

Reason Assume Negation

If _______________, then the child has either_____________

This contradicts the fact that:

Therefore:

(7) Let’s do a geometry proof. Let’s do both an indirect and direct version. Use the two definitions below in both proofs. Def. of Right Angle: If an angle is a right angle, then its degree measure is 90 Def. of Perpendicular: If two intersecting lines are perpendicular, then they form right angles. Given: Prove: ̅̅̅̅ is not perpendicular to ̅̅̅̅ . a. Direct Proof. (Hint: start with the given. Then use the contrapositive of both definitions.) Statement Reason

C

D

E

b. Indirect proof. Statement Reason

(8) Dra w a figure that represents the statement. Then write both a direct and an indirect proof. Given: ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ bisects Prove: c. Direct Proof. Statement Reason

d. Indirect proof. Statement Reason

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This is a logic lesson for use in a high school geometry course. It explores how direct and indirect proofs work and has students complete logic proofs using every-day rules.

This is a logic lesson for use in a high school geometry course. It explores how direct and indirect proofs work and has students complete logic proofs using every-day rules.

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