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This is an introductory high school geometry lesson on logic. It covers conditional statements, Euler diagrams, truth tables and negations

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Time Activity

3.

4.

Do Now: Examine each of the following real newspaper headlines. When the author wrote the headline, they had one meaning in mind, but when you read the headline another funnier meaning should emerge. (1) Police begin campaign to run down jaywalkers (2) Safety experts say school bus passengers should be belted (3) Panda mating fails; Veterinarian takes over (4) Eye drops off shelf (5) Squad helps dog bite victim (6) Enraged cow injures farmer with ax (7) Miners refuse to work after death (8) Juvenile court to try shooting defendant (9) Stolen painting found by tree (10) Two soviet ships collide, one dies (11) 2 sisters reunited after 18 years in checkout counter (12) Drunken drivers paid $1000 in ‘84 Logic and Conditional Statements: As the “do now” illustrates, language can be misleading. One person may intend to say one thing, but the other person hears something totally different. This leads us to some problems in math: We have to use words in math. We use them in definitions, in stating rules, in posing problems. Math has to mean the same thing to everyone!!! If I write down a mathematical rule, even if I use words, it has to have the same meaning to every person who reads it or else mathematicians in different locations will each have their own set of rules and definitions and no one can build on what others have created. o Math is collaborative meaning we’ve all built its rules up together. o Math is also absolute meaning when something is stated mathematically, it must be true to everyone and everywhere. This brings us to a conclusion: when we use words in math, we must all agree upon rules those words will follow so that we all understand what the others are saying. Exercise 1: Write down three rules you live your life by. They may be rules imposed by parents or schools or the government, or rules you set for yourself. (1) Rule 1: In If-Then form (2) Rule 2: In If-Then form: (3) Rule 3: In If-Then form:

**Exercise 2: If-Then Statements
**

Conditional Statement All rules or statements can be written as “if-then” statements also known as conditional statements. The “If” part of the statement is called the hypothesis. It sets a condition that when fulfilled means the “then” part of the statement called the conclusion now has to happen.

(1) Ex: If it’s raining meatballs, then the laws of physics have broken. a. What is the hypothesis? b. What is the conclusion? (2) Ex: Good students get “A”s. a. Rewrite the rule above as a conditional statement b. What is the hypothesis? c. What is the conclusion? (3) Ex: Pigs can fly. a. Rewrite the rule above as a conditional statement b. What is the hypothesis? c. What is the conclusion? (4) Ex: I need bucket-loads of coffee in the morning. a. Rewrite the rule above as a conditional statement b. What is the hypothesis? c. What is the conclusion? NOTE: Because mathematicians are LAZY they don’t like to write out the whole statement all the time so they usually choose a letter to represent each statement. A conditional statement is actually two statements linked by the “if-then” structure so we let the hypothesis be 𝑝 and the conclusion be 𝑞 . Then we let the arrow stand for “if-then”.

(1) Let “𝑝” represent the statement “you (will) become president”, let “𝑞” represent the statement “coffee for everyone”, let “𝑟” represent the statement “we all run around frantically”. a. Write the statement “𝑝𝑞” b. Write the statement “𝑞𝑟”

Exercise 3: Notice that the statements above aren’t necessarily true. Just because we’ve used the correct formatting doesn’t mean our statement is now definitely true. This leads us to the idea of a truth value.

Truth Value A statement has only two states, either true or false. Negation You can reverse the state of a conditional statement by adding “not” to the conclusion. This form of the statement is called the negation of the statement. We represent the “not” in a negation with the ~ symbol

c. Write the statement “𝑞𝑝”

(1) Ex: Let the statement 𝑝 be “Lizzy is a teacher”. Let the statement 𝑞 be “Lizzy eats students for breakfast”. a. What is the truth value of 𝑝? (T or F) b. What is the truth value of ~𝑝 (T or F) c. What is the truth value of ~(~𝑝) (T or F) d. What is the truth value of 𝑞 ? (T or F)

e. What is the truth value of ~𝑞 ? (T or F) f. Write the conditional statement 𝑝 → 𝑞 . g. What is the truth value of 𝑝 → 𝑞 h. Write the negation of the conditional statement, 𝑝 → ~𝑞 i. What is the truth value of 𝑝 → ~𝑞? (1) A truth table helps us figure out the different combinations of truth values that can exist for a statement. Fill in the truth table for a statement and its negation: (2) The truth values of conditional statements can get a little tricky. Something that can help us understand the truth of conditional statements is called a Euler Diagram. It shows you physically how a conditional statement works. Consider the statement “if it is snowing, then it is cold outside.” Notice how in order for it to be snowing, it must It is cold also be cold outside since the “it is snowing” circle outside is inside the “it is cold outside” circle. It is So if you want to draw a Euler Diagram for snowing 𝑝 → 𝑞 , 𝑝 is the inside circle and 𝑞 is the outside circle. Manipulations of Conditional Statements: Now we are ready to examine the truth value of conditional statements and their manipulations. Exercise 1: Your parent says to you “if you get an A in geometry, then I will buy you a new graphing calculator.” Let 𝑝 be “you get an A in geometry” Let 𝑞 be “I will buy you a new graphing calculator” (1) Case 1: You got an A in geometry and your parent buys 𝒑 𝒒 𝒑 → 𝒒 you a calculator. This means the original promise was a T T T true promise. What was promised was given therefore the original statement 𝑝 → 𝑞 was true. Fill out the truth table for this scenario. (2) Case 2: You got an A in geometry but your parent refuses to get you the calculator. The promise was broken! The original statement 𝑝 → 𝑞 was a big FAT LIE! Fill out the truth table for this scenario. 𝒑 T F 𝒒 𝒑 → 𝒒 F

(3) Case 3: You did NOT get an A, but your parent gets you a graphing calculator anyway in hopes that it will help you get an A next time. Your 𝒑 𝒒 𝒑 → 𝒒 parent didn’t break the promise, they just did something F T T nice so the promise still stands. (4) Case 4: You did Not get an A so your parent did NOT get you a graphing calculator. The promise was upheld. Fill in the truth table: 𝒑 F F 𝒒 𝒑 → 𝒒 T 𝒑 𝒒 𝒑

→ 𝒒

(5) So the complete truth table that maps out all the possibilities of a conditional statement and tells you whether or not the conditional statement will be true in different situations is: (6) The only time a conditional statement is false is when: a true hypothesis does not lead to a true conclusion.

T T F F

T F T F

T F T T

Exercise 2: Examples. In each of the following, determine if the conditional statement is true. (1) If 4 + 4 = 8, then 2(4) = 8 (2) If 2 is a prime number, then 2 is odd. (3) If 12 is a multiple of 9, then 12 is a multiple of 3. (4) If 2 > 3 then 2 − 3 is a positive integer. Exercise 1: Converse, Inverse and Contrapositive (1) Write and examine the 4 statements below. 𝑝 is “I drink bad milk”. 𝑞 is “I get sick” a. Write the statement 𝑝 → 𝑞 b. What is the truth value of 𝑝 → 𝑞 ? c. Write the statement 𝑞 → 𝑝 d. What is the truth value of 𝑞 → 𝑝? e. Write the statement ~𝑝 → ~𝑞 f. What is the truth value of ~𝑝 → ~𝑞 ? g. Write the statement ~𝑞 → ~𝑝 h. What is the truth value of ~𝑞 → ~𝑝

Geometry Lesson 9

Name:_______________ Date:_________

**Logic and Conditional Statements Class Work
**

Do Now: Examine each of the following real newspaper headlines. When the author wrote the headline, they had one meaning in mind, but when you read the headline another funnier meaning should emerge. (1) Police begin campaign to run down (7) Miners refuse to work after death jaywalkers (2) Safety experts say school bus passengers should be belted (3) Panda mating fails; Veterinarian takes over (4) Eye drops off shelf (5) Squad helps dog bite victim (8) Juvenile court to try shooting defendant

(9) Stolen painting found by tree (10) Two soviet ships collide, one dies (11) 2 sisters reunited after 18 years in checkout counter (12) Drunken drivers paid $1000 in ‘84

(6) Enraged cow injures farmer with ax

Logic and Conditional Statements: As the “do now” illustrates, language can be misleading. One person may intend to say one thing, but the other person hears something totally different. This leads us to some problems in math: We have to use words in math. We use them in definitions, in stating rules, in posing problems. Math has to mean the same thing to everyone!!! If I write down a mathematical rule, even if I use words, it has to have the same meaning to every person who reads it or else mathematicians in different locations will each have their own set of rules and definitions and no one can build on what others have created. o Math is collaborative meaning we’ve all built its rules up together. o Math is also absolute meaning when something is stated mathematically, it must be true to everyone and everywhere. This brings us to a conclusion: when we use words in math, we must all agree upon rules those words will follow so that we all understand what others are saying. Exercise 1: Write down three rules you live your life by. They may be rules imposed by parents or schools or the government, or rules you set for yourself. (4) Rule 1:____________________________________________________________________ In If-Then form:_____________________________________________________________ (5) Rule 2:____________________________________________________________________ In If-Then form:_____________________________________________________________ (6) Rule 3:____________________________________________________________________ In If-Then form:_____________________________________________________________

**Exercise 2: If-Then Statements
**

Conditional Statement All rules are created out of two statements- one that is preceded with “if” and one that is preceded with “then”. The new sentence that’s created is called a conditional statement. The “If” statement is called the hypothesis. It sets a condition that when fulfilled means the “then” statement called the conclusion now has to happen.

(1) Ex: If it’s raining meatballs, then the laws of physics have broken. a. What is the hypothesis? b. What is the conclusion?

(2) Ex: Good students get “A”s. a. Rewrite the rule above as a conditional statement

b. What is the hypothesis?

c. What is the conclusion?

(3) Ex: Pigs can fly. a. Rewrite the rule above as a conditional statement

b. What is the hypothesis?

c. What is the conclusion?

(4) Ex: I need bucket-loads of coffee in the morning. a. Rewrite the rule above as a conditional statement

b. What is the hypothesis?

c. What is the conclusion?

NOTE: Because mathematicians are LAZY they don’t like to write out the whole statement all the time so they usually choose a letter to represent each statement. A conditional statement is actually two statements linked by the “if-then” structure so we let the hypothesis be 𝑝 and the conclusion be 𝑞 . Then we let the arrow stand for “if-then”.

(5) Let “𝑝” represent the statement “you (will) become president”, let “𝑞” represent the statement “coffee for everyone”, let “𝑟” represent the statement “we all run around frantically”. a. Write the statement b. Write the statement c. Write the statement “𝑝𝑞” “𝑞𝑟” “𝑞𝑝”

Exercise 3: Notice that the statements above aren’t necessarily true. Just because we’ve used the correct formatting doesn’t mean our statement is now definitely true. This leads us to the idea of a truth value.

Truth Value A statement has only two states, either true or false. Negation of a statement You can reverse the state of a statement by adding “not”. We represent the “not” in a negation with the ~ symbol. Two negations cancel each other out. i.e. “I am not unhappy” implies I am indeed relatively happy. Negation of a conditional statement You can reverse the state of a conditional statement by adding “not” to the conclusion. This form of the statement is called the negation of the statement.

(1) Ex: Let the statement 𝑝 be “Lizzy is a teacher”. Let the statement 𝑞 be “Lizzy eats students for breakfast”. a. What is the truth value of 𝑝? (T or F) b. What is the truth value of ~𝑝 (T or F) c. What is the truth value of ~(~𝑝)?

d. What is the truth value of ~ (~(~(~𝑝))) ?

e. What is the truth value of 𝑞 ?

f.

What is the truth value of ~𝑞 ?

g. Write the conditional statement 𝑝 → 𝑞 .

h. What is the truth value of 𝑝 → 𝑞

i.

Write the negation of the conditional statement, 𝑝 → ~𝑞

j.

What is the truth value of 𝑝 → ~𝑞?

(2) A truth table helps us figure out the different combinations of truth values that can exist for a statement. Fill in the truth table for a statement and its negation: 𝒑

~𝒑

(3) The truth values of conditional statements can get a little tricky. Something that can help us understand the truth of conditional statements is called a Euler Diagram. It shows you physically how a conditional statement works. Consider the statement “if it is snowing, then it is cold outside.” Notice how in order for it to be snowing, it must also be cold It is cold outside since the “it is snowing” circle is inside the “it is cold outside It is outside” circle. snowing So if you want to draw a Euler Diagram for 𝑝 → 𝑞 , 𝑝 is the inside circle and 𝑞 is the outside circle.

Exercise 4: Now we’re ready to determine the truth values of conditional statements. Your parent says to you “if you get an A in geometry, then I will buy you a new graphing calculator.” Let 𝑝 be “you get an A in geometry” Let 𝑞 be “I will buy you a new graphing calculator” (1) Case 1: You got an A in geometry and your parent buys you a 𝒑 𝒒 𝒑 → 𝒒 calculator. This means the original promise was a true promise. What was promised was given therefore the original statement 𝑝 → 𝑞 was true. Fill out the truth table for this scenario. (2) Case 2: You got an A in geometry but your parent refuses to get you the calculator. The promise was broken! The original statement 𝑝 → 𝑞 was a big FAT LIE! Fill out the truth table for this scenario. (3) Case 3: You did NOT get an A, but your parent gets you a graphing calculator anyway in hopes that it will help you get an A next time. Your parent didn’t break the promise, they just did something nice so the promise still stands. (4) Case 4: You did Not get an A so your parent did NOT get you a graphing calculator. The promise was upheld. Fill in the truth table: 𝒑 𝒒 𝒑 → 𝒒 𝒑 𝒒 𝒑

→ 𝒒 𝒑 𝒒 𝒑

→ 𝒒

(5) So the complete truth table that maps out all the possibilities of a conditional statement and tells you whether or not the conditional statement will be true in different situations is: (6) The only time a conditional statement is false is when: 𝒑 𝒒 𝒑

→ 𝒒

Exercise 2: Examples. In each of the following, determine if the conditional statement is true. (2) If 2 is a prime number, then 2 is odd. (1) If 4 + 4 = 8, then 2(4) = 8

(3) If 12 is a multiple of 9, then 12 is a multiple of 3.

(4) If 2 > 3 then 2 − 3 is a positive integer.

Geometry Lesson 9

Name:_______________ Date:_________

**Logic and Conditional Statements Homework
**

1. Write each of the following as conditional statements, Circle the hypothesis and underline the conclusion. Make a Euler diagram to represent the conditional statement and finally determine if the conditional statement is true or false. a. If the coffee pot is empty, all the teachers become grumpy. If-Then form: If the coffee pot is empty, then all the teachers become grumpy.

Teachers are Grumpy Coffee Pot is Empty.

True? Y or N (Use truth table to guide you) When the coffee pot is empty, the teachers are grumpy, so when 𝑝 is true, 𝑞 is true. This conditional statement is TRUE. b. It is cold outside if it is snowing If-Then form:

True? Y or N (Use truth table to guide you)

c. Coffee is the drink of the gods If-Then form:

True? Y or N (Use truth table to guide you)

d. If a Tyrannosaurus Rex were alive, He would LOVE hotdogs If-Then form:

True? Y or N (Use truth table to guide you)

e. People who live in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones.

If-Then form:

True? Y or N (Use truth table to guide you)

f.

You will have 7 years of bad luck if you break a mirror.

If-Then form:

True? Y or N (Use truth table to guide you)

g. Vampires drink blood. If-Then form:

True? Y or N (Use truth table to guide you)

h. Two points determine a line If-Then form:

True? Y or N (Use truth table to guide you)

2. Ex: Let the statement 𝑝 be “Math is Awesome”. Let the statement 𝑞 be “Everyone loves math”. a. What is the truth value of 𝑝? (T or F) b. What is the truth value of ~𝑝 (T or F). Explain. Explain.

c. What is the truth value of ~(~𝑝)?

d. What is the truth value of ~ (~(~(~𝑝))) ?

e. What is the truth value of 𝑞 ?

f.

What is the truth value of ~𝑞 ?

g. Write the conditional statement 𝑝 → 𝑞 .

h. What is the truth value of 𝑝 → 𝑞

i.

Write the negation of the conditional statement, 𝑝 → ~𝑞

j.

What is the truth value of 𝑝 → ~𝑞?

k. Write the conditional statement ~𝑝 → ~𝑞 .

l.

What is the truth value of ~𝑝 → ~𝑞

m. Write the conditional statement ~𝑞 → ~𝑝.

n. What is the truth value of ~𝑞 → ~𝑝?

3. Try making a truth table that shows in general when the statement 𝑝 → ~𝑞 is true. a. First Fill out all the possible combinations for the truth values of 𝑝 and 𝑞 b. Then looking at the truth values of 𝑞 , determine the truth values of ~𝑞 c. Finally, recalling that a conditional statement is false only when the hypothesis 𝑞 is true but the conclusion ~𝑞 is false, fill out the column furthest to the right. 𝒑 𝒒 ~𝒒 𝒑 → ~𝒒

d. Thinking just about 𝑝 and 𝑞 , under what conditions is the conditional statement 𝑝 → ~𝑞 false?

4. Let’s see if we can make that truth table above make sense. a. Choose a conditional statement that is true (“If it is snowing, then it is cold” is a good one. Assume both 𝑝 and 𝑞 are true.) Write the conditional statement 𝑝 → ~𝑞. Does the truth value of this statement match the truth value in the table?

b. Choose a conditional statement where the 𝑝 is true but the 𝑞 is false (“If we’re in New York, then it snows in the summer” might work.) Write the conditional statement 𝑝 → ~𝑞. Does the truth value of this statement match the truth value in the table?

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