# Geometry Lesson 10 Objectives 1. Conditional Statements 2. Manipulations of Conditional Statements Vocab 1. 2.

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Activity 10.1: Manipulations of Conditional Statements Exercise 1: Converse, Inverse and Contrapositive (1) Write and examine the 4 statements below. 𝑝 is “I drink bad milk”. 𝑞 is “I get sick” a. Have them write the converse and determine its truth value b. Have them write the inverse and determine its truth value c. Have them write the contrapositive and determine its truth value (2) Each of the above statements has a name. You’ve already learned what the negation of a conditional statement is. We’ll add on 4 more manipulations. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Manipulations of Conditional Statements Negation: The negation of 𝑝 → 𝑞 is 𝑝 → ~𝑞 Converse: The converse of 𝑝 → 𝑞 is 𝑞 → 𝑝 Inverse: The inverse of 𝑝 → 𝑞 is ~𝑝 → ~𝑞 Contrapositive: The contrapositive of 𝑝 → 𝑞 is ~𝑞 → ~𝑝 Biconditional: If both the original statement 𝑝 → 𝑞 is true and the converse 𝑞 → 𝑝 is true, then the biconditional 𝑝 ↔ 𝑞 is true and is read as “if and only if”. For example: the statement “If I am human, then I can write down my thoughts” is true. The converse “if I can write down my thoughts, then I am human” is true. So the biconditional is “I am human if and only if I can write down my thoughts.

Exercise 2: Practice (1) Write 4 different, silly statements in the boxes to the right. (2) Write the converse of the statement 𝑝 → 𝑞 (3) Write the inverse of the statement 𝑟 → 𝑝 (4) Write the contrapositive of the statement 𝑞 → 𝑟 (5) Write the biconditional of the statement 𝑠 → 𝑝 10.2: Truth Values of Inverses and Contrapositives Exercise 1: Again, let’s examine a true statement and then look at its inverse. Statement: “if you live in New York then you live in the United States” (1) Draw a Euler Diagram for the statement above. (2) Write the inverse of the statement above If you don’t live in NY then you don’t live in the US. (3) Thinking about the Euler Diagram, do you think the inverse is true? Why or why not? NO because a person could be in the bigger circle meaning they do live in the US but they’re not in the the smaller circle meaning they don’t live in NY. So even if you don’t live in NY you could live in the US. Exercise 2: Now let’s think about the contrapositive. (1) Write the contrapositive for the statement from above. If you don’t live in the US then you don’t live in NY (2) Based on the Euler Diagram, do you think the contrapositive is true? Why or why not? Yes, because if you’re not in the bigger circle, you can’t be in the small circle that’s inside the big circle. (3) Do you think that if a conditional statement is true, then its contrapositive will always be true? yes Exercise 3: Let’s make a GIANT truth table for a statement and its manipulations and see if we notice any patterns.

Original Hypothesis 𝒑 T T F F

Negation of 𝑝 ~𝒑 F F T T

Original Conclusion 𝒒 T F T F

Negation of 𝑞 ~𝒒 F T F T

Original Conditional Statement 𝒑 → 𝒒 T F T T

Converse 𝒒 → 𝒑 T T F T

Inverse ~𝒑 → ~𝒒 T T F T

Contrapositive ~𝒒 → ~𝒑 T F T T

(1) Logically Equivalent means that two types of statements always have the same truth values. Which types of statements seem to be logically equivalent? Original statement and the contrapositive are logically equivalent. The converse and the inverse are logically equivalent. (2) A biconditional statement has both a true original statement and a true converse. This means that its inverse and contrapositive will also be: true 10.3: Truth Values of Converses and Biconditionals Exercise 1: Let’s examine a statement and its converse: Statement: If you live in New York, then you live in the United States (1) Draw a Euler Diagram for the statement above. (2) Write the converse of the statement above if you live in the US then you live in NY (3) Thinking about the Euler Diagram, do you think the converse is true? Why or why not? NO Exercise 2: Think about the following conditional statement Statement: If it’s a platypus, then it’s the only mammal that lays eggs. (1) Draw a Euler Diagram for the statement above. (2) Write the converse of the statement above If it’s the only mammal that lays eggs then it’s a platypus (3) Thinking about the Euler Diagram, do you think the converse is true? Why or why not? YEs Exercise 3: The second statement “If it’s a platypus, then it’s the only mammal that lays eggs” is special because both it, and its Definition converse are true. Such special statements are called A definition is a biconditional biconditional statements or more commonly are called statement that describes what definitions. something is. (1) If a conditional statement is biconditional, we take out the “if” and the “then” and we replace them with “if and only if” between the hypothesis and the conclusion. Rewrite the definition of platypus above as a biconditional statement. It is a platypus if and only if it is a mammal that lays eggs. (2) We often get tired of writing “if and only if” so mathematicians abbreviate it to “iff”. For example: “It is a triangle iff it is a polygon with three straight sides”. Write the two conditional statements that are implied by this biconditional statement. If it is a triangle then it is a polygon with three straight sides; if it is a polygon with three straight sides then it is a triangle. (3) Come up with your own true if and only if statement. Write the two conditional statements that must be true if your if and only if statement is true. 10.4: Using Conditional Statements to make valid and invalid deductions Exercise 1: Ms. Peacock and Col. Mustard are both prime suspects in a burglary investigation. The detectives were able to show that the person who committed the crime was right handed. (1) Examine the Euler diagram of this evidence. What conditional statement could we write based on this diagram? Right-Handed If the person is guilty, then they are right handed People Guilty (2) The police determine that Col. Mustard is right handed and therefore conclude that he must be the guilty person. Person a. What is the conditional statement the police are assuming?

If he is right handed, then he is guilty b. What relationship does the first conditional statement have to the second? They are converses c. Are statements and their converses logically equivalent? NO! d. Therefore the Police’s deduction is invalid. (3) Ms. Peacock’s lawyer says that because Ms. Peacock is not right handed, she cannot be guilty. a. What is the conditional statement is the lawyer assuming? If she is not right handed, then she is not guilty b. What relationship does the first conditional statement have to the second? It is the contrapositive. c. Are statements and their converses logically equivalent? YES! d. Therefore the Police’s deduction is valid. Exercise 2: True conditional statements give us rules to follow. Then we analyze real world scenarios using the conditional statement. Since the conditional statement we’re following will be true, its contrapositive will be true. Its converse and inverse may not be true! So deductions made based off the original statement or its contrapositive will be VALID Deductions made based off the converse or the inverse will be INVALID Statement: If you like peanut butter, then you are from the US. (This is pretty much true; most people from other countries hate peanut butter. Let’s pretend that it’s always true.) (1) Mark hates peanut butter and thinks that this means he’s not a US citizen. He panics and flees to Mexico because he doesn’t want to get in trouble for illegally being in this country. Is his deduction valid? (2) While traveling in Africa, Jess sees a guy eating peanut butter from a jar with a spoon. She gets excited and walks right up to him, assuming he’s from the US. Is her deduction valid? (3) Dave meets a girl from Japan and doesn’t offer her any of his Reeces Peanut Butter cups because he knows she won’t like them. Is his deduction valid?

Geometry Lesson 10

Name:_______________ Date:_________

**Manipulations of Conditional Statements Class Work
**

10.1: Manipulations of Conditional Statements Exercise 1: Converse, Inverse and Contrapositive (1) Write and examine the 4 statements below. 𝑝 is “I drink bad milk”. 𝑞 is “I get sick” a. Write the statement 𝑝 → 𝑞 b. What is the truth value of 𝑝 → 𝑞 ?

c. Write the statement 𝑞 → 𝑝

d. What is the truth value of 𝑞 → 𝑝?

e. Write the statement ~𝑝 → ~𝑞

f.

What is the truth value of ~𝑝 → ~𝑞 ?

g. Write the statement ~𝑞 → ~𝑝

h. What is the truth value of ~𝑞 → ~𝑝

(2) Each of the above statements has a name. You’ve already learned what the negation of a conditional statement is. We’ll add on 4 more manipulations.

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Manipulations of Conditional Statements Negation: The negation of 𝑝 → 𝑞 is 𝑝 → ~𝑞 Converse: The converse of 𝑝 → 𝑞 is 𝑞 → 𝑝 Inverse: The inverse of 𝑝 → 𝑞 is ~𝑝 → ~𝑞 Contrapositive: The contrapositive of 𝑝 → 𝑞 is ~𝑞 → ~𝑝 Biconditional: If both the original statement 𝑝 → 𝑞 is true and the converse 𝑞 → 𝑝 is true, then the biconditional 𝑝 ↔ 𝑞 is true and is read as “if and only if”. For example: the statement “If I am human, then I can write down my thoughts” is true. The converse “if I can write down my thoughts, then I am human” is true. So the biconditional is “I am human if and only if I can write down my thoughts.

Exercise 2: Practice (1) Write 4 different, silly statements in the boxes to the right. (2) Write the converse of the statement 𝑝 → 𝑞 𝑝:________________________________________

_________________________________________

(3) Write the inverse of the statement 𝑟 → 𝑝
𝑞

:________________________________________ _________________________________________

(4) Write the contrapositive of the statement 𝑞 → 𝑟
𝑟

:________________________________________ _________________________________________

**(5) Write the biconditional of the statement 𝑠 → 𝑝
𝑠**

:________________________________________ _________________________________________

10.2: Truth Values of Inverses and Contrapositives Exercise 1: Again, let’s examine a true statement and then look at its inverse. Statement: “if you live in New York then you live in the United States” (1) Draw a Euler Diagram for the statement above.

(2) Write the inverse of the statement above

(3) Thinking about the Euler Diagram, do you think the inverse is true? Why or why not?

Exercise 2: Now let’s think about the contrapositive. (1) Write the contrapositive for the statement from above.

(2) Based on the Euler Diagram, do you think the contrapositive is true? Why or why not?

(3) Do you think that if a conditional statement is true, then its contrapositive will always be true?

Exercise 3: Let’s make a GIANT truth table for a statement and its manipulations and see if we notice any patterns.

Original Hypothesis Negation of 𝑝 Original Conclusion Negation of 𝑞 Original Conditional Statement Converse Inverse Contrapositive
𝒑

T T F F

~𝒑
𝒒

T F T F

~𝒒
𝒑

→ 𝒒
𝒒

→ 𝒑

~𝒑 → ~𝒒

~𝒒 → ~𝒑

(1) Logically Equivalent means that two types of statements always have the same truth values. Which types of statements seem to be logically equivalent?

(2) A biconditional statement has both a true original statement and a true converse. This means that its inverse and contrapositive will also be:____________

10.3: Truth Values of Converses and Biconditionals Exercise 1: Let’s examine a statement and its converse: Statement: If you live in New York, then you live in the United States (1) Draw a Euler Diagram for the statement above.

(2) Write the converse of the statement above

(3) Thinking about the Euler Diagram, do you think the converse is true? Why or why not?

Exercise 2: Think about the following conditional statement Statement: If it’s a platypus, then it’s the only mammal that lays eggs. (1) Draw a Euler Diagram for the statement above.

(2) Write the converse of the statement above

(3) Thinking about the Euler Diagram, do you think the converse is true? Why or why not?

Definition Exercise 3: The second statement “If it’s a platypus, then it’s the only A definition is a biconditional mammal that lays eggs” is special because both it, and its converse are true. statement that describes what Such special statements are called biconditional statements or more something is. commonly are called definitions. (1) If a conditional statement is biconditional, we take out the “if” and the “then” and we replace them with “if and only if” between the hypothesis and the conclusion. Rewrite the definition of platypus above as a biconditional statement.

(2) We often get tired of writing “if and only if” so mathematicians abbreviate it to “iff”. For example: “It is a triangle iff it is a polygon with three straight sides”. Write the two conditional statements that are implied by this biconditional statement.

(3) Come up with your own true if and only if statement. Write the two conditional statements that must be true if your if and only if statement is true.

10.4: Using Conditional Statements to make valid and invalid deductions Exercise 1: Ms. Peacock and Col. Mustard are both prime suspects in a burglary investigation. The detectives were able to show that the person who committed the crime was right handed. (1) Examine the Euler diagram of this evidence. What conditional statement could we write based on this diagram?

Right-Handed People Guilty Person

(2) The police determine that Col. Mustard is right handed and therefore conclude that he must be the guilty person. a. What is the conditional statement the police are assuming?

b. What relationship does the first conditional statement have to the second? c. Are statements and their converses logically equivalent? d. Therefore the Police’s deduction is (3) Ms. Peacock’s lawyer says that because Ms. Peacock is not right handed, she cannot be guilty. a. What is the conditional statement is the lawyer assuming?

b. What relationship does the first conditional statement have to the second? c. Are statements and their converses logically equivalent? d. Therefore the Police’s deduction is ___________________. Exercise 2: True conditional statements give us rules to follow. Then we analyze real world scenarios using the conditional statement. Since the conditional statement we’re following will be true, its contrapositive will be true. Its converse and inverse may not be true! So deductions made based off the original statement or its contrapositive will be VALID Deductions made based off the converse or the inverse will be INVALID Statement: If you like peanut butter, then you are from the US. (This is pretty much true; most people from other countries hate peanut butter. Let’s pretend that it’s always true.) (1) Mark hates peanut butter and thinks that this means he’s not a US citizen. He panics and flees to Mexico because he doesn’t want to get in trouble for illegally being in this country. Is his deduction valid? (2) While traveling in Africa, Jess sees a guy eating peanut butter from a jar with a spoon. She gets excited and walks right up to him, assuming he’s from the US. Is her deduction valid? (3) Dave meets a girl from Japan and doesn’t offer her any of his Reeces Peanut Butter cups because he knows she won’t like them. Is his deduction valid?

Geometry Lesson 10

Name:_______________ Date:_________

**Manipulations of Conditional Statements Homework
**

10.1&10.2: Manipulations of Conditional Statements HW 1. Each statement below is followed by a second statement. Name the relation between statement 1 and the following statements as negation, converse, inverse, or contrapositive. Statement 1: If you live in Atlantis, then you’ll need a snorkel a. Statement 2: if you do not live in Atlantis then you do not need a snorkel. b. Statement 3: If you do not need a snorkel, then you do not live in Atlantis. c. Statement 4: If you live in Atlantis, then you won’t need a snorkel. d. Statement 5: If you need a snorkel, then you live in Atlantas. 2. Consider the true statement “If your temperature is more than 102° then you have a fever. If the original statement is represented by 𝑝 → 𝑞 , a. Write the statement that is represented by 𝑞 → 𝑝. What is it called? b. Write the statement that is represented by ~𝑝 → ~𝑞 . What is it called? c. Write the statement that is represented by ~𝑞 → ~𝑝. What is it called? 3. If you are a horse jokey, then you cannot be heavier than 100lbs. a. Write the contrapositive. Is it true? b. Write the inverse. Is it true? c. Write the converse. Is it true? d. Write the negation. Is it true?

5. If the shape doesn’t have straight sides, then it can’t be a polygon. a. Write the converse. Is it true? b. Write the inverse. Is it true? c. Write the negation. Is it true? d. Write the contrapositive. Is it true?

6. If a conditional statement is not true, then it’s negation is true. a. Write the converse. Is it true? b. Write the negation. Is it true? c. Write the inverse. Is it true? d. Write the contrapositive. Is it true?

10.3: Truth Values of Converses, Biconditionals, Inverses and Contrapositives HW 7. If two lines never meet, then they are parallel a. Write the converse of the statement above. Is it true? b. Write a biconditional statement that contains both the original statement and the converse from above. c. Is the biconditional statement you wrote a definition? 8. Take the definition “It is an extraterrestrial iff it is a creature from somewhere other than Earth”. a. Write the two conditional statements that can be written from this definition.

b. Write the inverses of both the above statements.

c. Assuming this definition is true, is the following biconditional statement true? “It is not an extraterrestrial creature iff it is not a creature from somewhere other than Earth.

9. Write a definition out of the following two statements: If a car is a convertible, then it has a removable top. If a car has a removable top, then it is a convertible.

10. Determine if the following statements are good definitions for the italicized words. Write YES or NO and explain why. a. If it is New Year’s Day, then it is a holiday. b. A camera is a device for taking pictures. c. A skunk is an animal that has black and white fur. d. Ice is frozen water. e. A ukulele is a musical instrument that has 4 strings. 11. Write a mathematically correct definition for each of the following. a. Novel:

b. I-phone:

10.4: Using Conditional Statements to make valid and invalid deductions 12. Use the conditional statement “If you stay awake all night, you won’t be able to do well in school.” to determine if the following deductions are valid or invalid. a. Robby stayed up all night. Therefore we know he’ll do poorly in school today. b. Mike did really well in school today, so we know he got a good night’s rest. c. Jess did a terrible job in school today, so we know she stayed up all night.

13. Use the conditional statement “you are a tough teacher if you eat students for breakfast” to determine if the following deductions are valid or invalid. a. Lizzy is a tough teacher, so she eats students for breakfast. b. Dave is not a tough teacher so he doesn’t eat students for breakfast. c. Dana doesn’t eat students for breakfast, so she must not be a tough teacher. 14. Use the conditional statement “When the adults are away, then the children will play” to determine if the following deductions are valid or invalid. a. Dana is in the backyard with her kids. Therefore they are not playing. b. The children are not playing which means there must be adults around. c. All the fusion kids are playing which must mean there are no teachers around. d. The adults all ran out to get coffee so the children are playing. 15. Use the statement “If the diagram is not drawn correctly then we can’t use it to draw conclusions” to draw conclusions based on the following information. a. I was able to draw all the conclusions I needed from the diagram. Therefore: b. This diagram is drawn terribly. Therefore:

16. Use the statement “Teachers are zombies without their coffee” to draw conclusions based on the following information. a. It might help to first write the statement above in “if-then” form. b. The staff room is out of coffee. Therefore: c. The teachers all seem very lively today. Therefore: