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**Solutions to Math Puzzle-1
**

By- Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta E-Mail: kg.abhi@gmail.com ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Ans. (ii) 7 This means you have to divide a circle by three straight lines. Many would answer (i) 6 . But after a little thought you find that if you intersect the three lines at three different points inside the circle you get 7 segments. This kind of a problem is to examine the sense of Geometry.

2. Ans. (iv) none of these. The Answer is 5. Suppose the numbers are x and y . Therefore, 2 x =3 y x 3 ⇒ = y 2 Add 1 to both sides of the above, you get one equation. Subtract 1 from both sides of the above, you get another. Then divide the previous one by the later and you get the following. ( x + y ) (3 + 2) = ⇒ ( x − y ) (3 − 2) ⇒ ( x + y ) = 5( x − y ) This problem is to examine the primary knowledge of Algebra and the elementary rules of Ratios. 3. Ans. (ii) 25% This is a problem of percentage can be solved arithmetically. But applying Algebra will make work easier. Let x be the remaining over and y be the asking run rate per over. Now x reduces to x − x × 20% = x(1 − 1 / 5) = 4 x / 5 . Then y has to be increased by z to have ( y + z ) .

**2 Therefore, we can write x × y = 4 x / 5 × ( y + z ) Solving one gets z / y = 1 / 4 = 25% .
**

4. Ans. (iii) 2 Let the digits of the number are x and y . Therefore, (10 x + y ) − (10 y + x) = 18 Solving, ( x − y ) = 2 . 5. Ans. (iii) 64 Follow each step carefully and observe the number of pieces goes by 2 n , where n is the number of steps executed. The progression follows a power law. Therefore, the result would be 2 6 = 64 . 6. Ans. (iv) none of the above Drawing a diagram would make things clear.

The diagram is self sufficient and one can easily see that the distance between the starting point and the end point is

32 + 1 .

7. Ans. (iv) none This may appear as a silly question. However, the given number is quite big so that most often it tempts you to fall in the trap of wasting time unless you are alert. But the trick lies in the use of Algebra. You can assume that the number is x. Therefore, the steps follow: 2( x + 1) − 2 x → ( x + 1) → 2( x + 1) → 2( x + 1) − 2 → =x 2 So at the end you get the same number. 8. Ans. (i) Two rectangular pieces of equal size. Suppose you take two squares of size a × a and b × b . Therefore, you have two square pieces a 2 and b 2 . If you have two more pieces of equal size a × b then the four pieces together make a 2 + b 2 + 2ab = (a + b) 2 , a square of size (a + b) × (a + b). 9. Ans. (ii) 100 Here the information of the population of size 1 billion is not required. Suppose the present population is x0 .

3 Therefore, the population after one year is x1 =x 0 (1 + 1 / 100) After 2 years it is x 2 = x 0 (1 + 1 / 100) 2 and so on.

Like this the population after 100 years becomes x100 = x0 (1 + 1 / 100)100 . x 1 Thus we have 100 = (1 + 1 / 100)100 ≅ 1 + × 100 = 2 . x0 100

Note that the last approximation can be made in the binomial expression because 1 is much less than 1. 100

10. Ans. (iii) 14. Place 9 squares side by side and form a big square like the following:

**There are 4 number of squares of size 2 × 2 and 1 square of size 3× 3 . Therefore, the total number is 9+4+1=14 (= 3 2 + 2 2 + 1) .
**

11. Ans. (iv) None of these A knock-out tournament is such where one team loses and goes out of tournament. The final team survives is the champion. Therefore, total number of matches played will be 64 − 1 = 63. Try it out with a small number like 3 or 4 and check. 12. Ans. (iii) b > a > c

1 2 1 3

You have to compare among three numbers : 3 , 5 and 2. 1 1 Notice that the powers of the three numbers are , and 1 respectively. Therefore, to 2 3 compare properly one has to take HCF of 2 , 3 and 1 which is 6.

1

Hence, we check (3 2 ) 6 = 33 = 27,

1

(5 3 ) 6 = 5 2 = 25, 2 6 = 64.

13. Ans. (iii) 50 years Invoking Algebra would give you the answer quickly: 5( x + 5) − 5( x − 5) = 50 14. Ans. (iii) 1960

4 This is a elementary problem from the chapter of Permutations and Combinations. Note that from each station you can go to 30 other stations. Therefore, there are 31× 30 connections. And if you consider the return journey tickets then the number is 31 × 30 × 2 = 1960.

15.Ans. (iv) none of these The biggest number you can construct is 5 to the power 5 to the power 5:

55

5

16.Ans. (i) 9 This is again a problem of permutation and combination. You can think of putting 2 objects A and B into 3 Boxes which is 3 2 = 9.

(20 + 30) = 25. The reason is the train does not take 2 equal time up and down that is why you can not take simple arithmetic average like this. Suppose the average speed is x km/h and one way distance is y km. We can then write : y y 2y = + 20 30 x Solving one gets x = 24 The answer would definitely not be

18.Ans. (iii) a square

17.Ans. (iv) 24 km/h

Here the information of the numerical value of the length of the wire (100 cm) is redundant which may only tempt one to manipulate numerically resulting wastage of time. Suppose we make a rectangle of length x and breadth y so that 2( x + y ) = l , where l is the length of the wire (here perimeter of the frame). This means l x + y = c(= ) =constant. 2 The area is A = xy = x(c − x) . Note that the area A would be maximum when you c l choose x = y = = and which is nothing but a square. 2 4

19. Ans. (iv) equal

Ordinary algebraic manipulation would lead to confusion and wastage of time. Invoking ratios (and a simple trick) will make it easy.

5 1 1 Tapas Mrinal Arun Manju × × × = 2 × 3× × = 1 2 3 Mrinal Arun Manju Kartik Tapas ∴ =1 Kartik Therefore, Tapas and Kartik earn equal amount.

20. Ans. (ii) 60 deg

Diagram would make things clear.

θ

The area of the square is a 2 . The height of the rhombus is h = a sin(

π

2

− θ ) = a cos θ .

1 The area of the Rhombus is 2 × × a × a cos θ = a 2 cos θ . 2

a2 1 Therefore, it is clear that if θ = 60 deg, the area of the rhombus will be = × area of 2 2 square.

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