Thermal Pollution, harmful increase in water temperature in streams, rivers, lakes, coastal ocean waters. Thermal pollution is caused by either dumping hot water from factories and power plants or removing trees that permitting sunlight to raise the temperature of these waters. Thermal pollution is widespread, affecting many lakes and vast numbers of streams and rivers. The major sources of thermal pollution are electric power plants and industrial factories. Cold waters are better habitat for plants and animals than warm ones because cold waters contain more dissolved oxygen

Source :
Nuclear power plants Coal – fired power plants Industrial effluents Domestic sewage Hydro-electric power

Nuclear power plants - Drainage from hospitals,




experiments and explosion - Discharged a lot of unutilized heat and traces of toxic radio nuclides - Emission of Nuclear reactors and processing installation – to ↑ temp in water bodies

Introduction of thermal pollution into streams by human activities • Industries and power plants use water to cool machinery and then discharge the warmed water into a stream. • Poor farming practices. • Removal of stream side vegetation. . • Soil erosion caused by construction. • Stream (water) temperature rises when trees and tall vegetation providing shades are cut down.

Increase in Toxicity: The rising temperature increases the toxicity of the poison present in water. several activities like nest building.Effects of Thermal Pollution 1. 3. . digestion 4. 2. migration and reproduction etc. depend on optimum temperature. hatching.. Interference with biological activities: Temperature is considered to be of vital significance to physiology metabolism and biochemical process in controlling respiratory rates. spanning. Interference with reproduction: In fishes. Reduction in dissolved oxygen: Concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) decreases with increase in temperature of water.

(a) Wet Cooling tower: • Hot water.. Cooling towers: • The use of water from water systems for cooling purposes with subsequent return to the water way after passage through the condenser. Direct mortality: Unutilized heat in water is responsible for direct. . 6. Cool air. Cooling tower are of two types. which takes away the heat and cools the water. coming out from the Condenser (reactor) is allowed to spray over baffles. With high velocity. is termed as cooling process. Food storage for fish: Change in temperature alters the seasonal variation in the type and abundance of lower organisms. mortality of aquatic organisms. Control measures (or) management of thermal pollution 1.5. is passed from' sides.

with the help of fan.(b) Dry Cooling tower: Here the hot water is allowed to flow in a long spiral pipes. . which cools down the hot water. is passed over these hot pipes. This cool water can be recycled. Cool air.

Cooling ponds: Spray ponds: Artificial lakes: .

Solid Waste Management .

Waste: Any material which is not needed by the owner. . producer or processor.

kitchen waste.unused materials from nuclear power plants .• Solid waste. • Metal waste.plastic bags. music systems etc. • Liquid waste. TV. metal scraps etc. bottles. • Nuclear waste.discarded electronic devices like computer. household waste etc.unused metal sheet. • E-waste.vegetable waste. distilleries.water used for different industries eg tanneries. thermal power plants • Plastic waste. buckets etc.

Solid Waste in India • 7.1600 core for treatment & disposal of these wastes • In addition to this industries discharge about 150 million tones of high volume low hazard waste every year.2 million tones of hazardous waste • One Sq km of additional landfill area every-year • Rs. which is mostly dumped on open low lying land areas. .

cloth. etc. • Hazardous wastes Sources of. waste paper.Types and sources of solid wastes Depending upon the nature. solid wastes can be broadly classified into three types • Urban (or) Municipal wastes.. . polythene bags. waste metals. • Industrial wastes. Urban (Municipal) Wastes • Urban or municipal wastes include the following wastes DOMESTIC WASTES: It contains a variety of materials thrown out from the homes Ex: Food waste. glass bottles.

etc. debris etc. Ex: Anatomical wastes. bottle. . Construction wastes: It includes the wastes of construction materials. etc.Commercial wastes: It includes the wastes coming out from the shops. cans. offices.. etc. Ex: Waste paper. polythen'e bags. institutions. packing material.. markets. concrete.. Ex: wood. hotels. Biomedical wastes: It includes mostly the waste organic materials . infectious wastes.

etc.Type and characteristics of Urban (municipal) Wastes (i)Bio-degradable wastes: The urban solid waste materials.Biodegradable wastes: The urban solid Waste materials that cannot be degraded by micro organisms are called non-biodegradable wastes.. egg shells.. . dry leaves. scrap metals. (ij) Non. tea leaves. Ex: Polythene bags. that can be degraded by micro organisms are called biodegradable wastes. etc. glass bottles .. vegetables. Ex: Food.

rubbish. Example: Nuclear power plants: It generates radioactive wastes. etc. Chemical industries: It produces large quantities of hazardous and toxic materials . wood.. organic waste. oils. acids. plastic. . glass.Source and Characteristics of Industrial Wastes . scrap metals. rubber. Thermal power plants: It produces fly ash in large quantities. Other industries: Other industries produce. metal and mineral processing industries. packing materials. paper.The main sources of industrial wastes are chemical industries. dyes. alkalis. paints.

that pose a substantial danger immediately or over a period of time to human.Hazardous Wastes Hazardous wastes are the wastes. . plant or animal life. biological wastes and other industries. radioactive substances. Sources of Hazardous wastes • Chemical manufacturing companies. petroleum refineries. paper mills. Types and characteristics of hazardous wastes TOXIC WASTES: These are poisonous even in very small or traces amounts. (a)Acute toxicity: These wastes have immediate effect on humans or animals causing death. smelters.

. Ex: Acids and bases Iv). It is much more difficult to determine.(b) Chronic toxicity: These wastes have long-term effect slowly causing irreparable harm to the exposed persons. heat and generate toxic gases Ex: Gun powder. Radioactive wastes: These are from nuclear power plants and persist in the environment for thousands of years . etc. nitroglycerine. (iii) Corrosive wastes: These wastes destroy materials and living tissues by chemical reaction. ii) Reactive wastes: These wastes react vigorously with air.

(v) Infectious wastes: It causes infection to others. EX: Used bandages. biodegradable materials undergo decomposition. which spoil the land value. • Toxic substances may percolate into the ground and contaminate the ground water . etc. (vi) Heavy metals: Lead. human tissue from surgery. Effect of Solid Wastes (or) Effect of Improper Solid Waste Management • Due to improper disposal of municipal solid wastes on the road side and their immediate surroundings. hypodermic needles. mercury and arsenic are hazardous substances. This produces foul smell and breeds various types of insects.

plastics. mode of collection. which affect the soil characteristics and productivity of soils when they are dumped on the soil.• Industrial solid wastes are the sources of toxic metals and hazardous wastes. batteries) produce furans. transportation. Process of Solid Waste Management (or) Process of preventing solid waste generation in urban areas Solid waste management includes. which are harmful to human beings. the waste generation. . dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. segregation of wastes and disposal techniques. • Burning of some of the industrial wastes (or) domestic wastes (like cans. pesticides. radioactive materials.

Collection of waste from various sources To transfer the collected wastes to the destination point • To store the collected meanwhile time of the disposal wastes Home separator for recycling (a) Landfill (b) Incineration (C) Composting .

reuse . Reuse and Recycle (3R) (a) Reduce the usage of raw materials If the usage of raw materials are reduced. Reduce. before destruction and safe storage of wastes. the generation of waste also gets reduced.Steps Involved in Solid Waste Management Two important steps of solid waste management is Reduce.and recycle. which reduces the waste generation during manufacturing of rubber bands. can be reused. which are discarded after use. (b) Rubber rings can be made from the discarded cycle tubes. . (b) Reuse of waste materials (a) The refillable containers.

The above process saves money. • (b) Preparation of cellulose insulation from paper. Discarding wastes • For discarding solid wastes the following methods can be adopted. and reduces pollution. raw materials. (a) Old aluminum cans and glass bottles are melted and recast into new cans and bottles. (a) Landfill (b) Incineration (c) Composting . energy. • (d) Preparation of automobiles and construction materials from steel cans.(c) Recycling of materials Recycling is the reprocessing of the discarded materials into new useful products.

• Dispose the wastes as close as possible to the place where they are generated.hazardous wastes. • Optimize environmentally sound recover of the hazardous wastes. . • Manage the wastes in environmentally sound and effective way. • Prevent illegal international traffic in.Objectives (or) significance for prevention of hazardous wastes management • Avoid (or) reduce generation of hazardous wastes. • Promoting the prevention and minimization of using hazardous wastes. • Reduce to a minimum (or) eliminate the trans boundary movements. • Promoting capacities in and strengthening institutional hazardous waste management. • Promoting and strengthening international co-operations in the management.

• Purchase recyclable. • Use water. recycled and environmentally safe products.ROLE OF AN INDIVIDUAL IN PREVENTION OF POLLUTION Environmental pollution cannot be prevented and removed. . energy and other resources efficiently. The proper implementation and especially the individual participation are the important aspects which should be given due importance and stress. The individual participation is useful in law making processes and restraining the pollution activities and thereby the public participation plays a major role in the effective environmental management Role and responsibility of Individual participation in environmental protection • Plant more trees • Help more in pollution prevention than pollution control.

NOx from motor vehicular exhaust.• • • • • • • Use CFC free refrigerators. Increase use of renewable resources. Reduce deforestation. Use natural gas than coal. Use less polluting substitutes for harmful cleaning agents. paints and other products. • Reduce garbage by recycling and reuse. • Use ecofriendly products • Slow population growth. Remove. Use office machines in well ventilated areas. .

so variety of animals are preserved. • Women reduce the amount of trash they dispose off so as to recycle natural resources. • Women buy non-phosphate detergents to reduce the incidence of water pollution. women plant trees and grass. • Women bring the concept of environment protection into families and thus plant a green seedin the heart of children . • Women refuse to use disposal products to save energy and resources. grow vegetables with the dripirrigation method in order to save water. • They value paper and thus protect trees. considering their status in social production. • In urban areas. • Women choose green products instead of poor quality that harm the environment. • They refuse to eat the meat. consumption and their influence to future generations at home.Role of women in environmental protection Women play an important role in environmental protection. Various roles of women are • In rural areas. they go shopping using cloth bags to reduce white pollution.

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