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# Government of India & Government of The Netherlands DHV CONSULTANTS & DELFT HYDRAULICS with HALCROW, TAHAL, CES, ORG & JPS

Guidance on the design of cableways

October 1998

Annex - A

Guidance on the Design of cableways

Design, Fabrication, Supply, Installation and Commissioning of Cableways – June 99

Annex A

support column and foundation. bank-side operation is the preferred option and the only one considered here. the USA and Canada there has also been a tradition of using manned cable car systems. Installation and Commissioning of Cableways – June 99 Annex A Page 2 . Therefore. Manned cable-car systems must also be engineered to a higher specification and be subjected to a more rigorous regime of safety checks producing higher installation and operating costs. in particular for large spans in excess of 200 m. Bank-side operation. is the most common system. these have been phased out in Europe and are being eliminated where possible elsewhere for safety reasons and because of improvements in bank-side equipment. where the winch and operator is located on one bank. In India. Fabrication. unless the river is otherwise inaccessible. Design. Supply.1 Introduction Cableway systems for stream gauging have been in existence for decades and in many variations. This guideline covers the design aspects of the cableway cables. However. Examples are given of typical designs.

1 Cableway system with loop traverse cable and spooled sounding cable The main components of a bank-side cableway system are: • • • • • support columns (towers) main cable (track cable) traversing cable ( tow cable) meter suspension cable (sounding cable) hydrometric winch (Alternative names in common use are shown in brackets) 2. Fabrication. In India practice specifies the mass of a sinker-weight needed in kg as approximately 5 x mean velocity of water in m/sec x depth of water in metres. it is recommended that the sinker weight should not exceed 100 kg.1 General Bank-side cableway systems are covered by the international standard ISO 4375 “Cableway systems for stream gauging”.2 Sinker weight The design process begins with selecting the appropriate sinker weight as this affects cable selection. it may be necessary to specify a heavier sinker. Main Cable (Track) Traverse Metering Traversing Drive Coaxial Signal/Sounding Pulley Sinker Current Meter Coax Metering Cable Drum Figure 2. foundations and winch. the existing standard has been thoroughly revised and is currently in circulation to ISO member bodies as a draft for comment.1. It is important not to over specify the sinker weight. A sketch of a typical cableway is shown in Figure 2. However. Design. support design. If the river is deep and swift flowing. The design procedures described in this document take account of additional safety recommendations and the clearer definitions of working and ultimate loads for the purpose of selecting cables and calculating forces set out in the draft revision. Installation and Commissioning of Cableways – June 99 Annex A Page 3 . However. Supply.2 Bank-side cableway systems 2. The sinker weights rarely exceed 50 kg. It is noted that 100 and 150 kg sinker weights have been proposed and these values have been used for sample calculations.

1) it is observed that the cable tension is inversely proportional to the cable sag. i.2. The breaking load of the meter suspension cable is the design load for the main cable. The worst case point loading is at mid-span.3. 2.2 mm stainless steel coaxial signal cable has a breaking load 710 kg (6.3. if the winch is fitted with a load limiter (see Sub-section 2. in metres D = cable sag (dip). to be applied initially to arrive at the required sag of 2% of the span under working conditions with the Design.1) where: T = actual cable tension. and the suspended load. in Newton’s Th= horizontal component of tension T.393 N). The tension in the cable when suspended between supports of equal height. ISO 4375 recommends an optimum working sag of 2% of the span. is given by: T = Th√(1+(4D/S)2).7. the sag due to self-weight of the cable only. Installation and Commissioning of Cableways – June 99 Annex A Page 4 . initial sag. In the computations of the cable tension for the design and FoS assessment.e. For the purposes of providing examples.2 Selection of main cable Operational loadings on the main cable are a function of: • • • the operating sag. A 3. or accept a FoS of 4. in Newton’s w = weight per meter run of wire rope or cable.7 is acceptable as the load is limited by a torque limiter.5.965 N) and hence would be suitable for suspended loads up to 710/5 = 142 kg (1. in Newton’s P = the concentrated moving load. with: Th = wS2/(8D) + PS/(4D) (2. This may be acceptable.3 Selection of cables 2. the weight of the cable.4). Fabrication. Supply.2 mm suspension cable and that a FoS of 4. then it will be necessary to increase the size of the meter suspension cable. with respect to the cable sag three cases can be distinguished: 1. It is important that this is not over-specified. If it is essential to use a 150 kg sinker. A main cable is selected so as to provide a factor of safety of 2 with a point loading at mid-span equal to the breaking load of the meter suspension cable. in Newton’s S = the horizontal span.1 Selection of meter suspension cable A FoS (Factor of Safety) of 5 is required by ISO 4375 for the meter suspension cable with respect to the maximum weight of the sinker. in metres From equation (2. under static conditions and neglecting wind loading. it has been assumed that sinker weight of 150 kg is being deployed on a 3.

Fabrication.e. that for the computation of the tension in the main cable one has to apply equation (2. the sag due to self-weight of the cable and the suspended load at mid-span.1) with the entries as presented in Table 2. Supply. representing the working conditions. Installation and Commissioning of Cableways – June 99 Annex A Page 5 .1 Sag (D) Initial sag 2% of span Final sag Load at mid-span (P) None Sinker weight Breaking load of suspension cable Entries for computation of cable tension The tension in the main cable for the worst case point loading specified above is the design load for the cableway support columns. and is primarily a function of the cable diameter and the breaking load of the suspension cable and varies slightly with span. 2.1. (see Figure 2. From the above it follows.1 Height of columns Before columns can be designed to accommodate the loadings applied by the main cable. the sag due to self-weight of the cable and the breaking load of the suspension cable. the final sag is considerably larger than the working sag and is typically in the order of about 3. This can be calculated as.4. the initial sag is a function of the span. i.2): Hcol = D+C-Hbfl where: Hcol = support column height above base D = ultimate cable sag.4 Design of support columns 2. which is 2% of cable span S C = clearance for suspended equipment at highest expected flood level Hbfl = height of column base above highest expected flood level. working sag of 2% of the span.2) Design.suspended load at mid-span.e. i. cable diameter and suspended load to be applied 2. it is necessary to specify the required height of the columns. consequently.5 to 5% of the span. (2. Cable tension Initial Working condition Worst case: failure o suspension cable Table 2. final sag. and 3.

Alternatively. 2. located with sufficient clearance in front of a main column. assuming that the worst case loadings would be applied horizontally to the top of the support.S D Column height above base Column base Hbfl High Flood C Figure 2. a second lighter support may be provided for the winch and traversing cables. as a backstay intrudes into the working space. A selfsupporting column is preferred on the winch operating side. Design. Installation and Commissioning of Cableways – June 99 Annex A Page 6 .2 Definition sketch design of column height cableway Ground conditions and availability of space must be taken into account when deciding whether the support may be designed with a backstay or be self supporting. In the examples with this document a drag on the current meter and sinker is used in the case of support without a backline stay. Supply.4. In the absence of a cross section with information on highest expected flood levels. Fabrication. nominal figures have been use for the examples presented in Chapter 3.2 Lateral loadings Allowance should be made for lateral loading in the support columns parallel to the direction of flow. particularly with columns of up to 3 m.

5.2. Sighting bars or lines on the supports can be used to check that unloaded and working sags properly reflect the design tensions. It is important not to over tension the cable. Unfortunately.5.25%. The main track wheel and sounding cable pulley grooves should have a bottom radius to suit the cable. Design. However.5. It is very convenient to have a system of automatic tensioning using counter weights. It is necessary therefore to have some means of adjusting the tension in the main cable to avoid excessive sag on the one hand and excessive tension on the other. depending on the tensioning system chosen. If more than one track wheel is provided. 2. using sighting bars to achieve the appropriate initial sag. fixed cables may be slackened after use by a few turns of a screw adjuster and retensioned before use. In most cases up to 200 m. a fixed main cable with provision for manual adjustment on the main cable should be adequate. the traveller should be articulated. Fabrication. doubles the loading on the system compared with operation at 2%. if two small track wheels are used. over a period initially as it is subject to operational loadings. Supply. The track wheel radius should not be too small for the selected main cable diameter. typically. for example. For example. For long periods between use. steel springs or gas springs.1 Main cable New wire rope will undergo permanent elongation of up to 0. It will also be subject to elastic elongation and expansion and contraction due to temperature changes. pulley wheels and guide rollers should be close fitting to prevent ropes from coming off the pulley and becoming snagged between pulley cheek and traveller side plates. 2. In this case steel springs or counterweights may be more appropriate than gas springs. such systems are more appropriate if the installation will be in regular and continuous use and subject to adequate maintenance of the mechanical parts. to deal with extreme conditions or in situations where sighting bars cannot be used. spring loaded deflector pulley or manual adjustment may be used to adjust the cable operationally. gauging sites are often unused for long periods and the more complex the installation the greater likelihood of malfunction after a period of inactivity. track wheels should be arranged to equally share the load in operation.5 Tensioning systems 2. Spring tensioning built into the traveller. Installation and Commissioning of Cableways – June 99 Annex A Page 7 .2 Traversing cable A new traversing cable will also stretch during initial use and it may be necessary to shorten the cable at some stage and re-make the termination.3 Traveller All track wheels. Operating with a sag of 1% of span.

2.4 Electrically operated winch An electrically operated winch must be capable of conversion to manual operation to allow recovery of equipment in the event of power failure.5. This is preferable to inserting a shear link or weak link into the cableway system. Heavy sinkerweights will require high gearing with correspondingly slow pay-out rates. This has the additional advantage of limiting the load on the cableway and causing the traveller and point of suspension to move towards the bank and out of the main current. A torque limiter should also be specified for the traverse drive system. Installation and Commissioning of Cableways – June 99 Annex A Page 8 . A shear link parting may introduce a shock recoil loading with unpredictable results. Fabrication.2.5. “current limit” and “stall detect” to deal with accidental overload. It is important that the winch is able to deal with accidental overload without the intervention of the operator. Electrical controls should provide “soft start” to prevent shock loading. Design.5 Manual winch operation The gearing of the winch should be appropriate to the sinker-weight used. An automatic load activated brake should be specified to prevent the winding handle from recoiling under the action of the load and the torque limiter should also continue to act in manual mode. so that the traversing cable will slip in a controlled manner should the sinker and current meter assembly become caught up in floating debris. Supply.

V N Vazirani and M M Ratwani. sag and factors of safety for working loads of 100 kg (Appendix 2) and150 kg (Appendix 3) over spans ranging from 20 to Design. “Steel Structures”.2) Support design.06 x vwind2 where: p = wind load (Pa) vwind = wind velocity (km/hour) From this it follows for the cyclone prone areas a design wind load of p = 1350 Pa (= 138 kgf/m2). The new (draft) ISO 4375 provides tables to guide the cable selection for various suspension loads.09 N/m1. (At the time of design values recommended by Indian manufacturers have to be used) • 14 mm cable. Fabrication. (see for unit conversion Appendix 1): • • • Temperatures range from 0 to 60oC (as per maps in Appendix A and B of IS 800 – 1984) Coefficient of expansion for steel αs = 1. 1997. (Section 3.1) 3. Appendix 4 demonstrates the application to two sites for which some data has been made available. The ISO tables have been augmented with estimates of loading. page 337): p = 0. Khanna Publishers. which is 15% higher than the value given above • Self weights of track cables : (as per UK manufacturers ) • 16 mm cable. Installation and Commissioning of Cableways – June 99 Annex A Page 9 . The estimate of the load in the main cable at the breaking point of the suspension cable.4) In the examples the following design values have been assumed. takes into account the elongation in the cable and the corresponding increased sag.3 Examples 3. including: • • • Cable design. Supply. using nominal but realistic parameters to illustrate the procedure.27 N/m1. (At the time of design values recommended by Indian manufacturers have to be used) (3.945 kg/m1 or 9.3) and Foundation design (Section 3.1 Introduction In this Chapter examples are worked out. (Section 3. giving an estimate of the initial sag required to produce a working sag of 2% of span.2 Cable sizes Some examples of the evaluation and selection procedure are given below. self-weight = 0.723 kg/m1 or 7.25 x 10-5 K-1 (oC-1) Wind load (p): • recommended wind load p = 120 kg/m2 (= 1177 Pa) as per IS:5228 – 1969 • for cyclone prone areas in Orissa and Kathiawar (Gujarat) the wind load has to be derived from a wind velocity vwind = 150 km/hour as follows (ref. Delhi. self-weight = 0.

648x1. a ∅16 mm.2 mm stainless steel coaxial suspension cable with a break strength 710 kg (6.27 N/m S = span is 200 m D = sag at 0.2 = 3m Current meter suspension cable For a maximum sinker weight of 150 kg (1472 N).472 N) c) span = 100 m and sinker weight = 100 kg (981 N) Case a: 200 m span .98% of the span to arrive at a working sag of 2% (see Appendix 3) will produce: Initial tension Cable tension due to self-weight of ∅16 mm cable at an initial sag of 0.98% of span. Table A1.96/200)2)=23.b) Th = 9. a 3. galvanised steel.472 N) b) span =150 m and sinker weight = 150 kg (1.200 m for ∅14 mm and ∅16mm wire rope. Installation and Commissioning of Cableways – June 99 Annex A Page 10 .2).036 N.0098x200=1.98% of S =0.666 N Design. The following cases are considered: a) span = 200 m and sinker weight = 150 kg (1. right hand ordinary lay wire rope. see equation (2.27x2002/(8x1. Main Cable Given the design conditions following from the suspension cable. All calculations are based on the assumption that the cableway has no automatic tensioning device. Fabrication. minimum break-strength 153.sinker 150 kg Assumed design conditions Span = 200 m Working sag 2% of span = 4 m Sinker weight = 150 kg (1.648 N 23.001= (see equation 2.1): Horizontal Tension Th= wS2/(8D) (N) Actual tension T = Th √(1+( 4D/S)2 ) (N) where: w = weight of cable ∅16 mm = 9. Supply.965 N) will provide a factor of safety of 4.2) 23.96)= T = Th √(1+(4x1. set up to an initial sag of 0.96 m (see also Appendix 3.472 N) Required factor of safety on main cable = 2 Height of column base above peak water level 2 m Clearance required for equipment 1 m Height of supports Hcol Hcol = D+C-Hbfl = 4 + 1 .73 (see also Section 2.

27 N/m P = suspended load = break-strength of susp.33/200)2)=53.09 where: w = weight of cable ∅16 mm = 9.33 m (Appendix 3) Th = 9.011= 53.409 N These values are also listed in Appendix 3. (Small deviations with table values are caused by rounding off) FoS = break-strength/T = 153.834 N 54.1) Horizontal Tension Th= wS2/(8D) + PS/(4D) Actual tension T = Th √(1+( 4D/S)2 ) (N) (N) 5.002x200=4 m Th = 9.666= Working tension Cable tension is due to self-weight ∅16 mm cable and sinker weight at a working sag of 2% of span.988x1.33)= T = Th √(1+(4x7. (Small deviations with table values are caused by rounding off) Factor of safety for cable FoS = break-strength/ultimate tension = 153. Installation and Commissioning of Cableways – June 99 Annex A Page 11 .084 N These values are also listed in Appendix 3. 150 kg sinker weight = 1. Supply. (2.965 N S = span is 200 m D = ultimate sag is 7.988 N 30.472 N S = span is 200 m D = sag at 2% of S =0.27x2002/(8x4)+1472x200/(4x4)= T = Th √(1+(4x4/200)2)=29.47 (N) (N) 29.003= 6.1) Horizontal Tension Th= wS2/(8D) + PS/(4D) Actual tension T = Th √(1+( 4D/S)2 ) where: w = weight of cable ∅16 mm = 9.81 Design.33)+6965x200/(4x7.084= Ultimate tension Ultimate cable tension is due to self-weight ∅16 mm cable and a load equal to the breaking-strength of suspension at an ultimate sag of about 3.834x1. Fabrication.036/23. cable = 6.409 = 2.036/54. see eq. (2.FoS = break-strength/T = 153. see eq.27x2002/(8x7.27 N/m P = suspended load in N.7% of span.036/30.

Main Cable Given the design conditions following from the suspension cable.25 x 10-5 oC-1.1 ∆T= temperature range = 60 oC. minimum break-strength 153.834 N 161. Fabrication.2) For a maximum sinker weight of 150 kg (1472 N). see Section 3.25%xS=0. a 3.834 = 53.15 m • • Horizontal component of ultimate tension Th = Moment on base of fixed support HcolxTh(ultimate tension) = 3x53.965 N) will provide a factor of safety of 4.2 = 2 m Current meter suspension cable (see equation 2.87% of the span to arrive at a working sag of 2% (see Appendix 3 will produce: (computational procedure is similar to case a. galvanised steel.036 N.73 (see also Section 2.0025 x 200 = Thermal expansion of rope αsxSx∆T = 0.Permanent extension of rope 0.1 For design of support column: 0.502 Nm Case b: 150 m span – sinker 150 kg Assumed design conditions Span = 150 m Working sag 2% of span = 3 m Sinker weight = 150 kg (1. see Section 3.472 N) Required factor of safety on main cable = 2 Height of column base above peak water level 2 m Clearance required for equipment 1 m Height of supports Hcol Hcol = D+C-Hbfl = 3 + 1 .50 m 0. set up to an initial sag of 0. Supply.0000125x200x60 = where: αs = 1.2 mm stainless steel coaxial suspension cable with a break strength 710 kg (6. Installation and Commissioning of Cableways – June 99 Annex A Page 12 . instead the values have now been taken from Appendix 3 where available) Design.2). right hand ordinary lay wire rope. a ∅16 mm.

902 N 19.036/19.173 = Ultimate tension From Table Horizontal Tension Th= Actual tension T= Factor of safety for cable FoS = break-strength/ultimate tension = 153.312 = Permanent extension of rope 0.27x1502/(8x1.0000125x150x60 = For design of support column: Horizontal component of ultimate tension Th = Moment on base of fixed support HcolxTh(ultimate tension) = 2x51.87% of S = 0.086 N 27.036/27.0025 x 150 = Thermal expansion of rope αsxSx∆T = 0.902x1.710 = 51.710 N 103.173 N 5.25%xS=0.63 51. Fabrication.420 Nm 19.Initial tension With initial sag of 0.93 0.38 m 0.31)= Actual tension T = 19.036/52.2 = 1 m ( in this case.914 = Working tension From Appendix 3 Horizontal Tension Th= Actual tension T= FoS = break-strength/T = 153. Hcol = 2 m would provide some headroom under the cableway) Design.001= FoS = break-strength/T = 153.914 N 7.312 N 2.11 m Case c: 100 m span – sinker 100 kg Assumed design conditions Span = 100 m Working sag 2% of span = 2 m Sinker weight = 100 kg (981N) Required factor of safety on main cable = 2 Height of column base above peak water level 2 m Clearance required for equipment 1 m Height of supports Hcol Hcol = D+C-Hbfl = 2 + 1 .0087x150 = 1.31 m Horizontal Tension Th= 9.68 27. Supply.710 N 52. Installation and Commissioning of Cableways – June 99 Annex A Page 13 .

744 = Ultimate tension From Table Horizontal Tension Th= Actual tension T= Factor of safety for cable FoS = break-strength/ultimate tension = 116.001 = 11.739/44.80% of S = 0.09x1002/(8x0.0025 x 100 = Thermal expansion of rope αsxSx∆T = 0. Fabrication.65 0.349 N Design.08 m For design of support column: Horizontal component of ultimate tension Th = 43.739/16.0000125x100x60 = 10.1 (see also Section 2.2 mm stainless steel coaxial suspension cable with a break strength 710 kg (6.5 16.Current meter suspension cable For a maximum sinker weight of 100 kg (981 N).744 N 6.0080x100 = 0.349 N 44.80)= 11. Installation and Commissioning of Cableways – June 99 Annex A Page 14 .09 N/m Horizontal Tension Th= 7. right hand ordinary lay wire rope. instead the values have now been taken from Appendix 2 where available) Initial tension With initial sag of 0.078 N Actual tension T = 11. Supply.80 m and self-weight of ∅14 mm cable of 7.25%xS=0.078x1. Main Cable Given the design conditions following from the suspension cable.80% of the span to arrive at a working sag of 2% (see Appendix 2) will produce: (computational procedure as for case a. set up to an initial sag of 0. galvanised steel.965 N) will provide a factor of safety of 7. a 3.084 N FoS = break-strength/T = 116.2).006 N 2.739/11.006 = Permanent extension of rope 0.084 = Working tension From Table Horizontal Tension Th= Actual tension T= FoS = break-strength/T = 116.691 N 16.739 N.25 m 0.97 43. minimum break-strength 116. a ∅14 mm.

adjustment to allow temperature variation is small and could be accommodated by a screw adjuster alone. For the purpose of calculating the lateral loading on the support it is assumed that the suspension/ sounding cable is horizontal at breaking point and the force is applied horizontally.698 Nm NOTE: The breaking strengths and other information are typical for galvanised steel right hand lay wire rope of the diameters specified and may be used as a guide.3 3. In each case. once the permanent extension has been taken up.3 Support design Assuming supports of height 3 m and all other parameters as shown above.502 Nm 165 N/mm2 Required section modulus Design. i. cast directly into the concrete foundation.Moment on base of fixed support HcolxTh(ultimate tension) = 2x43. the cable/wire rope manufacturer’s actual specifications should be used in the design or checked prior to construction to make sure they comply with the design assumptions. the support could be made from a standard universal column. Fabrication. in the direction of flow as the worst case. A spring or counterweight system would not be so limited and would remove the need to make regular adjustments. it depends upon being able to sight through between reference bars to determine the correct sag and it is not always possible to do this easily with long spans for many reasons including the support height. The force on the top of the support can be resolved into a horizontal force at right angles to the river and a force acting in the direction of the sag. Installation and Commissioning of Cableways – June 99 Annex A Page 15 . It will depend on site conditions whether this is a matter of convenience rather than necessity. with no deflection of the sinker. 3. Example: Continuation of case a: 200 m span – sinker 150 kg Perpendicular to river Horizontal loading applied by main cable = Moment on support My = Allowable stress for steel σs = 53.834 N 161.349 = 86. this component would be vertical. and a 14 mm is adequate in the case of example (c). However.e. Supply. It can be seen from the above that a 16 mm diameter wire rope is suitable in examples (a) and (b). However. downwards.

Zy = My/σs = (161. Moment on support Mx = 3483x 3 = 10. Installation and Commissioning of Cableways – June 99 Annex A Page 16 . If backstays are permitted a much lighter and simpler support could be used.483 N (1/2x710 kg = 355 kg) would be applied to the top of the support. a lighter support could be designed to be bolted together on site. Supply.965 N = 3.448x102)/(165x102) = 63 cm3 Hence suitable is : Universal Column 254x254 @ 89 kg/m. a lateral loading of 1/2x6. with Zy= 1100 and Zx= 378 cm3 If access or handling is difficult. A simple strutted support is shown in Figure 3.1.502x102) / (165x102) = 979 cm3 Parallel to river Assuming that the main cable is being pulled horizontally in the direction of flow under ultimate loading.448 Nm Required section modulus Zx = Mx/σs = (10. Design. Fabrication.

see Section 3. However. Fabrication.22mm dia 22mm dia holes in both channels for pulley shafts. Strutted Column and baseplate for bolting on to foundation 3. A 15mm dia holes Figure 3. A 254x254 @ 89 kgf/m Universal Column is adopted.. a case design for 200 m span supports is further illustrated with no back stay.5x6. Only hole "A" required on opposite bank. Tower and base are designed to withstand moments.may be varied to suit .892 N = Total vertical load maximum = 480+7+8 495 kN 8 kN Design. The moment due to ultimate tension on yy-axis Myy = The moment due to hor. force parallel to flow on xx-axis Mxx = Adopt foundation block 2 m wide (parallel to flow) x 4 m long x 2.27x100) 7 kN kN = 161.5 10.3.4 kNm kNm Vertical component of ultimate tension = 4D/SxTh = 4x7.1.5x24 kN/m3 = Load due to cableway = (89x9.5 m deep Taking M20 concrete: weight = 2x4x2.965+ (2.4 Foundations Design of the support foundations is highly dependent on ground conditions and therefore very site specific.619+3483+927) = 7029 N = 480 9.834 = 7.81x3+0. Supply.33/200x53. Installation and Commissioning of Cableways – June 99 Annex A Page 17 Nominal height .

9 = 62 kPa 30.3 = 149 kN or FoS against sliding = 149/53.8 kPa ( 2.5x9.3 kPa 3.3 = 135 kN or FoS against sliding = 135/53.33 m3 .8 Consider the case when water covers the lower 0.5 The universal column and an adequately designed base have to be embedded into concrete for transferring moments by shear forces.8 kN Vertical load including block weight (unsubmerged) = 495 kN Neglect cohesion between base and soil and consider soil friction @ 0. Zxx = 1/6x4x22 = 2.81) = 451 kN Frictional resistance 451 x 0. Due consideration should be given to river training and bank protection. Fabrication.9 = Minimum pressure on base soil = 62 – 30.8 tf/m2 ) 27.3 – 3. Installation and Commissioning of Cableways – June 99 Annex A Page 18 . Units Design.67 = Maximum pressure on base soil = 62 + 30. (Sub-strata bearing capacity needs to match with permissible value of site ) Horizontal forces on the foundation block = 53.834 N = 53. Appendix 1.5 metres of foundation block Reduced weight (495 – 2x4x0.3 + 3.5/5.Average soil load = 495/8 = Zyy = 1/6x2x4 2 = 5. Supply.3 Frictional resistance 495x 0.67 m3 Stress due to Myy is 161.8 tf/m2 ) The resultant is within middle third and the block is stable and the bearing loads are as above and acceptable.8 = 2.4/2.90 kPa 96.33 = Stress due to Mxx is 10.8 = 2.2 kPa ( 9. This has to be designed as part of detailing.

Fabrication. This includes: Quantity Mass Force SI unit kilogram (kg) Newton (N) kilo-Newton’s (kN) Weight Stress Newton (N) = mass (kg) x 9.100 Pa 1 N = 0. the Newton (N) and Pascal (Pa) also the kilogram-force (kgf) and kgf/m2 is used: 1 kgf = 9.81 N 1 kgf/m2= 9. Supply. Installation and Commissioning of Cableways – June 99 Annex A Page 19 .81 Pa 1 kgf/cm2= 98.81 m/s2 Pascal (Pa) = Newton/m2 Mega-pascal (MPa) = 106 Pa Besides the metric units for force and stress.1019 kgf 1 Pa = 0.19 kgf/ cm2 1 kgf/cm2= 0.0981 MPa Design.1019 kgf/m2 1 N/mm2 = 1 Mega-pascal (MPa) 1 N/mm2 = 1 MPa = 10.In this guideline generally the metric or SI unit system is used.

7 8.4 3.28 0.7 2.13 0.2 6.96 0.61 0.18 0.6 6.5 2.72 0.47 0.2 3.83 1.18 1.28 0.4 3.8 6.02 1.4 13147 13612 14063 14504 14963 15414 15855 16290 16744 17189 17638 18080 18521 18963 19412 19860 20304 20750 21190 13401 14008 14600 15188 15773 16358 16942 17523 18102 18686 19271 19853 20430 21008 21596 22179 22762 23339 23922 13105 13568 14019 14457 14915 15365 15804 16238 16691 17134 17582 18022 18462 18902 19351 19797 20239 20684 21122 13358 13963 14554 15140 15723 16305 16888 17467 18044 18626 19209 19789 20365 20941 21528 22108 22690 23264 23845 2.92 1.6 5.77 0. Fabrication.50 0. Supply.3 3.43 8.9 5.96 0.5 6.1 3.0 8.5 10.5 7.3 3.6 2.5 3.05 1.7 2.6 2.93 0.61 0.05 1.06 0.9 6.30 1.0 3.56 0.7 2.83 0.43 1.4 3.10 1.76 0.0 41623 41929 42227 42520 42820 43118 43412 43705 44006 44299 44600 44901 45199 45500 45804 46109 46412 46718 47022 44605 45016 45416 45813 46209 46605 47002 47398 47795 48195 48597 48999 49400 49802 50210 50617 51025 51432 51844 40979 41284 41580 41871 42170 42467 42758 43049 43349 43641 43940 44239 44536 44834 45137 45441 45742 46046 46349 44002 44411 44808 45203 45596 45990 46385 46779 47174 47571 47971 48371 48769 49169 49575 49979 50386 50790 51199 Design.67 0.68 1.1 3.37 0.5 2.12 0.00 1.7 9.69 0.80 0.14 1.84 0.4 9.07 1.7 7.7 2.7 5.6 6.8 2.0 3.3 3.62 0.12 1.99 1.0 3.99 2.19 0.6 2.3 3.8 2.7 6.84 1.21 0.7 2.92 0.40 0.40 1.50 0.5 8.0 3.06 0.73 0.9 10.3 7.2 3.12 1.1 9.1 3.05 1.58 0.3 6.29 0.10 0.1 6.1 3.71 1.6 2.54 1.Appendix 2 Cable way set up 1 Cableway set up to achieve a sag of 2% with a working load of 100kg Under normal conditions Failure of suspension cable Rope Dia 14mm 14mm 14mm 14mm 14mm 14mm 14mm 14mm 14mm 14mm 14mm 14mm 14mm 14mm 14mm 14mm 14mm 14mm 14mm 16mm 16mm 16mm 16mm 16mm 16mm 16mm 16mm 16mm 16mm 16mm 16mm 16mm 16mm 16mm 16mm 16mm 16mm 16mm Span Initial Initial Factor of Tension sag sag Safety metres % metres N Horizontal Factor of Load Safety N Tension N Horizontal Load N 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 0.99 1.9 7.8 7.86 0.5 2.9 8.80 0.5 2.48 0.8 2.7 2.70 0.12 2.20 1.17 1.02 1.57 1.2 3.87 0.0 5.0 7.4 7.6 8.3 8.98 2.4 10.90 0.6 7.2 7.26 1.6 2. Installation and Commissioning of Cableways – June 99 Annex A Page 20 .0 6.98 1.16 1.2 7.38 0.87 0.28 2.5 11.

2 6.0 5.1 3.0 6.96 0.23 0.31 0.9 5.52 0.5 6.71 0.46 0.2 3.40 0.0 2.3 6.8 48123 48538 48955 49375 49785 50203 50620 51042 51464 51886 52312 52732 53156 53583 54012 54438 47543 47955 48370 48788 49196 49611 50026 50446 50866 51286 51710 52128 52549 52974 53402 53825 Design.0 3. Installation and Commissioning of Cableways – June 99 Annex A Page 21 .05 1.67 0.2 7.81 0.93 1.43 1.84 0.71 0. Fabrication.9 2.8 6.56 1.2 5.0 3.6 6.2 3.1 21344 21924 22512 23104 23669 24251 24829 25419 26003 26586 27173 27744 28323 28904 29492 30074 21276 21854 22441 23031 23594 24173 24750 25338 25920 26502 27086 27656 28232 28812 29398 29978 3.60 0.8 5.89 0.8 2.98 0.9 2.9 2.82 0.1 3.83 1.96 7.3 5.87 0.4 5.62 0. Supply.Appendix 3 Cableway set 2 Under normal conditions Failure of suspension cable Cableway set up to achieve a sag of 2% with a working load of 150kg Rope Span Dia metres Initial Initial Factor of Tension Horizontal Factor of Tension Horizontal sag % sag m Safety Load Safety Load % N N N N 16mm 16mm 16mm 16mm 16mm 16mm 16mm 16mm 16mm 16mm 16mm 16mm 16mm 16mm 16mm 16mm 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 0.69 1.50 0.78 0.92 0.1 3.9 2.0 3.30 1.75 0.18 1.9 2.5 5.58 0.94 0.6 5.

Maximum sinker weight has been estimated using mass (kg) = 5 x mean velocity (m/s) x depth (m). assuming a permissible stress of 165 N/mm2 in compression and tension. Installation and Commissioning of Cableways – June 99 Annex A Page 22 . Supply. The support height may be affected by other factors not considered here. The minimum support height relates to the higher of the two supports. Column heights have been calculated in relation to ground level. such as the site of the winch installation. making no allowance for working platforms or other building works. Design. although this is a little artificial for the River Shivan as no slope information was provided to allow a proper estimate of velocity. assumptions have been made to allow the sample calculations to proceed. Fabrication. In the absence of detailed information.Appendix 4 Sample Calculations Sample calculations have been carried out using data contained on cross sections supplied by Maharashtra State Surface Water Department. Steel sections have been selected from a table of British Standard sections.

27 125 112.57 delta x 0 8 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 10 10 10 0.91 50 107.83 16.14 105.06 -0.65 -0.02 0.01 5.93 6.75 5.13 13.48 9.48 1.00 5.17 55 106.4 25 106.75 -2.94 5. peak discharge Estimated Maximum sinker weight 963 cumecs 2.05 26.12 0.8 delta y 0 1.01 Depth 0 1.035 assumed 0.16 5.02 10. Fabrication.25 5.05 5.20 5.63 5.28 5.87 60 106.59 -0.24 4.98 5.43 28.85 1.65 26.06 5.25 7.6 2 112.3 15 108.5 0.19 0.31 -1.26 0.15 10 110.5 -0.21 5.01 0 Sigma a calc A 7.22 45 105.03 29.00 5.81271 Area R n s Q velocity 341.95 30.56 70 110.15 75 110.5 85 111.01 10. Installation and Commissioning of Cableways – June 99 Annex A Page 23 .27 4.01 5.55 24.50 3.05 25.01 10.8 m/s 88 kg (5 x mean velocity x depth) Design.8 m/s Estimated peak discharge Estimated mean velocity.23 0.1 40 106. Supply.85 3.09 -0.34 4.00204 963 cumecs 2.44 12.21 30 106.59 2 1.01 0.15 115 112.88 20 107.3 0.14 5.81 65 107.19 35 106.15 95 111.00 Sigma pw calc P 8.65 105 112.80 20.14 105.75 30.35 -0.00 5.00 5.River Telenadu at Parsewada Estimates of discharge and velocity using slope-area method 114 112 110 108 106 104 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Cross section up to max flood level Chainage Elevation 0 112.96 6.73 29.65 1 0.8 112.42 1.49 -0.50 2.55 0.77 103.

River Telenadu at Parsewada Span 150 m Max Sinker Weight 100 kg From Appendix 2 for 100kg sinker.0000125 x span x temperature range Rigging screw would be adequate Design.1125 m Temperature range 0. Range of Tensioning Device Temperature Range .88 m working sag + clearance .height of base above peak level For Right Bank Support: Maximum horizontal loading (from Table 1) Moment on RB support 44834 N 160506 Nm height of support * max horizontal loading Required section modulus Zx Horizontal force in the direction of Flow Moment on support parallel to flow 973 cm3 Moment / allowable stress (165N/mm2) 3482 12466 Required section modulus Zy Universal Column 3 76 cm3 3 254x254 x 89kg/m with Zx= 1099 cm and Zy= 379 cm would be suitable.0025 x Span 0.88 m 39454 Nm height of support * max horizontal loading 3 3 Required section modulus Zx Horizontal force in the direction of Flow Moment on support parallel to flow 239 cm3 Moment / allowable stress (165N/mm2) 3482 3064 Required section modulus Zy 19 cm3 Universal Beam 3 3 203x133 x 30kg/m with Zx= 278 cm and Zy= 52 cm would be suitable. OR Universal Beam 406x178 x 60kg/m with Zx= 1059 cm and Zy= 125 cm would be suitable.27 m Height of right bank Base above peak water leve 0. Fabrication.6 Peak water level 112.57 m Level of support base (left bank) 115. Installation and Commissioning of Cableways – June 99 Annex A Page 24 .375 m 0.15 m Assuming Winch installed on right bank Level of support base (right bank) 112.58 m 116.42 m Clearance for equipment 1m Working sag @ 2% 3m Minimum height of RB support Level of cableway height of support (left bank) 3. For Left Bank Support: Maximum horizontal loading (from Table 1) Height of left bank support Moment on LB support 44834 N 0.15 m 0.0 to 60 deg C Permanent extension of rope Thermal expansion of rope 60 0. Supply. a 14mm rope would provide a factor of safety of 2.

25 0 Area R n s Q velocity Sigma a calc A Sigma pw calc Pw 0.45 90 94.00204 714 cumecs 2.07 70 93.0 100. peak discharge Estimated Maximum sinker weight 714 cumecs 2.0 40.05 2.04 5.81 12.98 2.7 m/s NOTE: No slope information was provided for this site.25 5.85 9.55 80 94.0 Cross section up to max flood level.00 0.16 -1.30 77. Fabrication.87 0.45 5.06 4.00 10. Chainage Elevation 0 97.00 5.235 0.50 4.0 60.25 110 95.35 140 98.18 10.95 20 92.86 120 97.25 5.78 32.055 2.45 delta x 0 0.03 10.01 91.0 10.55 0.00 10.93 1.45 18.75 95 95 100 95.94 50 90.95 0.895 30 90.32 0.38 3.60 14.06 11. The slope for the Telenadu was used to complete the calculations and give a general indication of peak values.68 -0.23 23. Installation and Commissioning of Cableways – June 99 Annex A Page 25 .River Shivan near Khamgaon Estimates of discharge and velocity using slope-area method 100 95 90 85 80 0.50 40.105 4.0 50.77 0.0 80.62 60 91.0 70.1 -0.3 -0.25 Depth 0 0.63 268.66 130 98.17 5.035 0.7 m/s 147 kg (5 x mean velocity x depth) Design.66 35 89.72 6 -6.42 -2.0 30.20 39.21 0.0 90.0 20.21 10.8 95 10 94.45 0. Estimated peak discharge Estimated mean velocity.02 5.2 10 10 5 5 10 10 5 5 5 5 10 5 delta y 0 0.05 7.51 3.34 5.55 2.49 65 91.94 40 83.23 75 94. Supply.05 2.

2 m 61543 Nm height of support * max horizontal loading Moment / allowable stress (165N/mm2) 3 3 Required section modulus Zx Horizontal force in the direction of Flow Moment on support parallel to flow 373 cm3 3482 4178 Required section modulus Zy Universal Column. 3 3 Range of Tensioning Device Temperature Range .85 m Height of left bank Base above peak water lev Clearance for equipment 1m Working sag @ 2% 2. 3 25 cm3 3 203x203 x 46kg/m with Zx= 449 cm and Zy= 151 cm would be suitable.9 Peak water level 95 m Assuming Winch installed on left bank Level of support base (left bank) 97. use Level of cableway height of support (right bank) 0. OR Universal Beam 305x165 x 40kg/m with Zx= 559 cm and Zy= 83 cm would be suitable.65 1.95 m 1.85 m 98.45 m Level of support base (right bank) 2.River Shivan at Khamgaon Span 140 m Max Sinker Weight 150 kg From Appendix 3 for 150kg sinker.8 m Minimum height of LB support To provide headroom under cable.0 to 60 deg C Permanent extension of rope Thermal expansion of rope 60 0. Supply. a 16mm rope would provide a factor of safety of 2. OR Universal Beam 254x146 x 37kg/m with Zx= 433 cm and Zy= 72 cm would be suitable.8 m 99.0000125 x span x temperature range Rigging screw would be adequate Design.0025 x Span 0.height of base above peak lev For Left Bank Support: Maximum horizontal loading (from Table 2) Moment on LB support height of support * max horizontal loading Moment / allowable stress (165N/mm2) Required section modulus Zx Horizontal force in the direction of Flow Moment on support parallel to flow 559 cm3 3482 6268 Required section modulus Zy Universal Column. Fabrication.2 m 51286 N 92315 Nm working sag + clearance . Installation and Commissioning of Cableways – June 99 Annex A Page 26 . 3 38 cm3 3 203x203 x 60kg/m with Zx= 581 cm and Zy= 199 cm would be suitable.105 m Temperature range 0. For Right Bank Support: Maximum horizontal loading (from Table 2) Height of right bank support Moment on RB support 51286 N 1.35 m 0.