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Presented By: Karim Moustafa Mohamed Ali Table of contents:
1) Mooring :
1.1 Purpose of mooring 1.2 Types of mooring systems
1.2.1 Fixed mooring system 1.2.2 Fleet mooring system
1.3 Mooring equipment
1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 Fenders Pier fitting Deck fitting Ropes
1.4 Automated mooring systems 1.5 Static environmental forces
Purpose of anchoring 2.2 Type of anchoring 2.3 Chains 2.4 Mechanism
3 )Cranes :
3.1 Types of cranes
Marine cranes Offshore cranes Mobile cranes Shipyard cranes Floating cranes Manuel Mechanical Hydraulic Electrical 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.1.5 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4
3.2 Types of operation systems
Propose of mooring: is to safely hold a unit in a certain position
to accomplish a specific mission or purpose. Mooring is needed to safely protect the unit and life and public interests and to preserve the capabilities of the vessel and surrounding facilities. Ships mooring provide: i) Loading and unloading of cargo like bulk, oil, personnel, vessels and etc. ii) Maintenance and repair iii) Mission like floating dry-dock , towing , surveillance and etc
Types of mooring system: 1.2.1 fixed mooring systems
220.127.116.11 Single Vessel Secured at Multiple Points: it consist of two types 18.104.22.168.1 Pier: Multiple tension lines are used to secure a
vessel next to a pier/wharf and compliant fenders to keep the ships safe from the structure in case of high winds or waves.
Spud mooring: Multiple vertical structural steel beams are used to secure the vessel, such as a floating dry-dock. This type of mooring is especially effective for construction barges temporarily working in shallow water. Spud moorings can be especially susceptible to dynamic processes.
22.214.171.124 Multiple Vessel Moorings : 126.96.36.199.1 Opposite Sides of a Pier: Vessels can be placed
adjacent to one another on opposite sides of a pier to provide some blockage of the environmental forces/moments on the downstream vessel.
188.8.131.52.2 Multiple Vessels Next to One Another : Vessels
can be placed adjacent to one another to provide significant blockage of the environmental forces/ moments on the downstream vessel
Fleet mooring system
a. Vessel Secured at a Single Point
i. By anchor
ii. Single Mooring Buoy
b. Vessel Secured at Two Points
i. Bow Stern Mooring
c. Vessel Secured at Multiple Points
i. Med Mooring
ii. Spread Mooring
d. Multiple Vessel Moorings
Mooring equipment : size and type of mooring equipment are
determined by size of vessel and type of operation required to be done
1.3.1 Fenders 184.108.40.206 purpose of fender : to protect the pier structure from the 220.127.116.11
stresses forces and to protect it and to decrease the maintains required for the pier type of fenders : i. rubber fender used for harbours, piers , wharfs and quays ii. Ships fenders used for working boats, tugs and small ships and may also be used for small wharfs
1.3.2 pier fitting 1. Single Bollard
2. Double Bollard ( double bitt )
1.3.3 Deck fitting
Deck Machinery: its function is to handle and secure mooring
lines .It consist of capstan head, related machinery and constant tension winches. In the marine field it is usually uses the hydraulic system and/or two speed electrical systems (full and quarter).
Capstan head : is a warping head with a vertical axis used for
handling mooring and other lines ( it is generally rotate in both direction )
Related machinery: it consist of winch motor with a horizontal capstan which can handle the whole mooring lines and operation control. Constant tension: which mange the tension while loading / unloading of cargo due to the change of draft and the effect of tidal rise and fall
ii. Fairlead: are used to lead mooring lines around obstructions and
provide proper alignment with the gypsy heads.
Many types like: 1. Panama fairlead
2. Multi-angle fairlead
3. Two-roller fairlead
4. Pedestal fairlead
1.3.4 Mooring lines ( Ropes ) :
The size of mooring lines depends on size of ship, operation required to be done and size of equipment are used on board. Types of lines (ropes) used on board are : 1) Nature fiber rope
2) Synthetic fiber ropes
Automated Mooring Systems (AMS): By using vacuum
and hydraulic instead of ropes the whole operation of mooring a ship is reduced to a simple press of a button.
Advantages of AMS : 1) Risk of injury to shore and personnel by mooring ropes eliminated. 2) Multiple redundancies of vacuum pads and inherent fail safe features ensure a secure mooring even during power cuts or loss of control signals. 3) Fast attachment (typically > 12 sec) and quick release.
4) Avoids delays while waiting for mooring teams to become available. 5) Only one operator required, based ashore or onboard, to activate and remotely monitor (if necessary) the mooring system. 6) Offers measurable reduction in rope costs, less abrasion to hull paintwork and reduces mechanical wear on shore fenders.
Static Environmental Forces (like winds, current and tide): The principal forces acting on a moored vessel are
generally caused by wind and current. However the mooring system has to be capable of withstanding any combination of forces resulting from the following : a) Wind b) Current c) off-quay hydrodynamic force and hydrodynamic interference from passing ships d) Ocean or long swell waves e) Waves caused by passing ships in narrow channels f) Tidal rise and fall, and change in draught or trim due to cargo operations Normally, if the mooring system is designed to accommodate the maximum wind and current forces, the reserve strength will be sufficient to resist other forces that may arise
1.5.1 Forces due to wind: wind forces acting on a ship can be divided
into two components longitudinal force acting parallel to the longitudinal axis of the ship and a transvers forces acting on the longitudinal axis and tis will leads yawing moments.Wind forces on ship also varies depending on the exposed area of ship , if there is a head wind so it will only stick a small portion of the total exposed area of the ship so longitudinal forces are relatively small , if there is a beam wind so it will exposed to large area which leads to large transverse forces . By compering these two forces we will find that the transverse forces equal five times the longitudinal forces. When the wind hits the ship from an angle between a head and beam so there will be a combination between transverse and longitudinal forces since that the exposed area is between bow( or stern ) and side of ship.
And as shown in figure the combined force is smaller than the transverse forces.
1.5.2 Current Force: the change in the current force depended on changes
in the current velocity and direction of flow (like wind force), current forces also complicated by significant effect of clearance beneath the keel as shown in figure