Wilson, (Sir) James The dialect of the New Forest in Hampshire

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S. - .I. K.C. .( PUBLICATIONS OF THE PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY IV THE DIALECT OF THE NEW FOREST IN HAMPSHIRE (AS SPOKEN IN THE VILLAGE OF BURLEY) BY SIR JAMES WILSON. OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS LONDON AMEK COKNER EC EDINBURGH NEW YORK TORONTO MELBOURNE BOMBAY . .

A.? OXFORD UNIVERSITY PKESS LONDON EDINBURGH GLASGOW NEW YORK TORONTO MELBOURNE BOMBAY HUMPHREY MILFORD M. PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY 14G6-4 .

20 November. not taken from books. J. have tried to make them accurately represent the actual language still used by the present generation. from standard spoken English. a quiet country village Forest in Hampshire. the words and phrases having been noted down In from the mouths of the people. which will show that. boundary of English speech. in the DURING two New order to give some idea of the differences between that dialect and standard spoken English. I unthinkingly in his I own mother-tongue. in pronunciation. grammar. descended no doubt from the language of our Angle ancestors. the differences are often in an opposite direction from those noticeable in the where it differs dialect of the New Forest. if he were speaking vocabulary. as spoken by the older residents. 1913. where it has for centuries bordered on the Gaelic- speaking country north-west of the Grampians. and idiom. in their lives in the village.INTBODUCTION short visits to Burley. I hope soon to publish a more complete account of the Perthshire dialect. That is a pure English dialect. . so far as they go. I made some notes of the dialect. on the farthest-north my own native dialect. but. They are by no means exhaustive. and as representing what remains of the language of the West Saxons. LONDON. I have in illustrative bold sentences type) giving (printed written every word of the sentence as I understand an old resident of Burley would pronounce it. 59 CADOGAN SQUARE. who had spent all I have now put them together. presume that the dialect of Burley may be taken as fairly typical of the speech of the New Forest. WILSON. It has been interesting to me to compare it with that of Perthshire.

.ABBREVIATIONS adjective. noun. E. singular. intransitive. past participle. New past. pl P^ep. interjection. dem. sing. t- pronoun. Forest.F. adverb. preposition. pron. auxiliary. aux. n. Standard English. adv. conj. num. * conjunction. present. demonstrative. transitive. PP-P- numeral. pres. verb. N. plural. interj. v.

last (laast). I have thought it. two or more less confusing to the ordinary letters often represent a single simple vowel-sound. by using th for the voiceless sound. father (dhis. breathe. on the whole. and (2) that the letters : employed should be those which will most readily suggest the different sounds to the reader of ordinary English. VOWELS In representing vowel-sounds. father (faadhur) lengthened sound of e below. pet. maid. and dh for the voiced sound. dhay. may haul. In such cases it must be remembered that. faadhur). A awe (aw). thicJc f month. CONSONANTS The consonants have all the same sound as they most commonly have in English. a doubled consonant has the same sound as a single consonant. word a aa ae ai or ay au or aw far (faar). paw e hen. breath. but I have distinguished the two sounds which are both written th in English. English reader to adopt the somewhat clumsy expedient of using combinations of vowels to represent different vowel-sounds. hat as in the E. breedh. As in English. instead of using diacritical marks. day. as in thin. as in English. best . they. as in this.DIALECT OF THE NEW FOREST SPELLING THE system of spelling the sounds which I have adopted is based on two principles (1) that the same sound should always be represented by the same letter or letters. The spelling employed Spelling is as follows : Somd man. sail.

one of the most marked Forest dialect is its tendency to substi- tute voiced consonants for voiceless ones. I have in clearly the sounds indicated by New Forest dialect many cases given. die (dii). of course. NOTE. ' ' ' ' ' I do not. g for k. Common in the pronunciation by a Scotchman of such English words as mine. house. CONSONANTS CHANGE OF CONSONANTAL SOUNDS. zh for sh. our. (mee) Not found in English like the Dutch ei o ij. or German to o. b for p. mine (miin) oa 01 or hot. eye (ii). night. and the difference between the and standard English as spoken. lost road. . In order show more the spelling. tile (mein. mean to imply that the New Forest dialect is derived from standard English. or that a consonant is added to or dropped from an English word. moist oo ou or ow u ui would (wood) how. pin.8 Spelling DIALECT OF THE ee ei NEW FOKEST the Sound as in feet. along with the written word. : to the French eu. E. see. cool. d for t. cow sun. : me i ii neit. dh for th. roll (roal) oy oil. teil). must Not found in English similar food. v for f. PKONUNCIATION For convenience sake. mill I (ii). but merely that it differs from it in these respects. as z for s. boy. the standard pronunciation spelled in italics according to the system I have adopted. I sometimes use such expressions ' the as that English vowel is changed into some other. especially at the beginning of a word. go (goa). mist. word deed. NOTE. but. As compared with characteristics of the New standard English. fond. my (mil).

PRONUNCIATION Examples z for .

10 DIALECT OF THE for th NEW FOKEST dh .

11 N. Scotch Written shilling gelding morning starling pudding stocking nothing . Scotch Written Spoken thinking saying blessing living dhinkin zayin blessin livin thinkin sayin blessin livin hiding heidin heidin Examples of non-participles E. N. F. F.PKONUNCIATION E.

noticed the following instances . DIALECT OF THE though there E.12 dialect. is NEW FOREST I have some tendency : in that direction.

IB N. Written id'n hadn't mustn't hadnt ad'n mightn't wouldn't shouldn't musnt muss'n . Spoken %znt Written isn't E. F.PKONUNCIATION E.

Spoken oak old oats oak oald oats woak [woald [ apron acorn ear aipmn aicorn eer wooud Yaipril yaiprun yaeker yeer yeer wuts here heer April Aipril r is sound a. is sometimes prefixed to a word beginning in English with and y to a word beginning with ai or ee. Examples : E. Written Spoken K ask aask N acorn aicorn yaeker oa gi V Dh them with of ov dhem widh em wi give haven't gw havnt haant ADDITION OF CONSONANTAL SOUNDS. N. or generally added at the end of a word ending in the vowelu . Written N.F. Examples : E. E.F. F. w oa.14 DIALECT OF THE E. and sometimes inside a word.F. oa. N. Written Spoken NEW FOREST E. Written Spoken sofa N. Written Spoken N. F. soafa zoavur umbrella umbrella umbrellur vaalur value valyoo awkward awktvurd aarkurd daartur daughter dautur vellur fellow felloa yaalur yellow yelloa window ^vindoa windur .

A short. F. The short a sound. is generally lengthened into a sound like that of the a in far. father.PRONUNCIATION TRANSPOSITION OF CONSONANTS. : . Examples N. E. 15 In a few words the consonants are transposed. so common in standard English. fast (not Examples quite so long as the long aa in Scotch). : Written great Spoken grait girt wasp children wosp children j wops 6rn ^fn hunderd hundred hiwdred VOWELS CHANGE OF VOWEL SOUNDS.

e.16 DIALECT OF THE Aa Long NEW FOREST long. Examples : . aa in standard English often becomes E.

short or long. . Examples E. or a sound between the English e and ii. which I spell ae.PKONUNCIATION : 17 Sometimes the English ai becomes e.

18 DIALECT OF THE NEW FOREST In a large number of common words. Examples : . ee of standard English becomes ai.

Examples The ii sound. in many words in the New Forest (as well as in Scotch). and still more Cockney English. . pronounced more like the Dutch ei or ij. common in : E.PRONUNCIATION li. is. 19 common in standard English.

20 DIALECT OF THE N. haas morning morning cork Dorset cork Dorset maarnin caark Daarset is substituted. F. naarth. . NEW FOREST E. Written Spoken E. In a few words a different vowel N. F. north thorn short sort north thorn short dhaarn shaart saart sort accord ing according accaardin orchard orchard aarchurd ordinary ordinuray aardinuray horse hors haars.

a short often vowel is given a long sound like a modified oo. approaching I write it ui. N. Vowel substituted for u. the sound of eu in French. F. F. and noise (now) is pronounced naaeez. E. Written ewe boot put roof could poot roof cood yoa but put ruff oa cud U. u is changed. 21 Boy (boi) is lengthened into boa-ay. In some words the English oo undergoes a change.PKONUNCIATION Oi. Spoken yoo loot Vowel substituted for oo. i i i Written o o oo Before an r. u u u u In some words the English E. F. E. followed by another consonant. Spoken Written word work earth bird fern wurd wurk erth wuird wuirk uirth bird fern buird vuirn . Examples : N. Oo. Examples : NOTE. Examples : N.

DIALECT OF THE NEW FOREST GKAMMAR NOUNS The following E. Examples E. six : N. zix months munth twenty years twenty yeer NUMERALS The numerals are as follows : . Singular Plural house furze deer child foot hous vuz deer cheild veet houzin or houzinz vuzin deerz childern or chillern veet or veets After a numeral nouns of time do not take the s or z of the plural. F. F. plurals are peculiar : N.

Poss. dhum. Us. e. yee. 't him. too ee. Gi'z (or gee uz) dree Let's av mei speks. First Person Second Person Singular Singular Plural Plural Nom. Let me have my spectacles. Singular Fern.GRAMMAR PRONOUNS PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Dhee mus'n goo. slurred into 's or % often used in short phrases for mee. Good maarnin Ei'll gi Wen dhee a clout 'n dhe yeer. Bist dhee cooud P Bist dhee gwein too see I tell you (thee). Are you cold ? un ? How'z dhee mudhur Doant dhee goo. Examples : Gi'ss wun. You mustn't go. EiV hurt mezelf (I've hurt myself). old sow. Can't you go ? Your dhee. When shall I see you again ? . The pronunciation Ei is for I is Mei (my) slurred into me is . in. more common than Oi. Are you going with me ? In the second person singular dhee is used in all cases (dhou and dhy are not used). Ei tell P Are you going to see him ? How's your mother ? Don't go. I tell you. Obj. 'n dhay dhur dhem. Plural Neut. Leave me alone. ee dhee. Laiv us aloan. I'll give you a cuff on the ear. Oi wee our us mei. Obj. ee Third Person yoo. g. ur its it. Give me one. Nom. 'em. ee dhee. it. en. 'urn NOTE. yee. and is often slurred into ee. Bist gwein wee uz ? on em. ee Masc. me mee dhee. un. Examples : Ei tell ee. ee yoor yoo. Poss. 't All genders. Give me three of them. shaal Ei zee dhee agen ? Good morning to you (thee). hee hiz shee hur hur. Ei. Caas'n dhee goo ? Dhee woald zow.

Examples : N. He isn't much good. the . Get hold of him. Hee'z got too on I asked him his name. "Tiddin fair. where he for In the third person singular the slurred forms. (or on em). It is much more common than in ordinary English to personify an inanimate object and. Ei doant dhink much oa un. Yoo cood heer em a-draashin. I have noticed the masculine hee. None of them. I saw him yesterday. How bist ? Caas'n goo ? How Dust meind ? 'Snoa ? Dist eer oi ? are you (art thou) ? Can't you go ? (Canst thou not go Do you (dost thou) remember ? ?) Do you (dost thou) know ? Did you (didst thou) hear me ? Examples See other examples under the verbs. um (or Hee laivz dhum yeer. : Doan dhink much oa dhay. it isn't. Ei dhaut 'twoz. Sometimes other pronouns are omitted. and em or um for dhem are very common. 't The neuter third personal pronoun it is often slurred into before a vowel or w. in or n him. Examples : 'Tiz 'twoz 'tiddin. Ei zin in yesterday. en.24 DIALECT OF THE NEW FOREST The second personal pronoun dhee is often omitted when the termination of the verb shows that the second person singular is meant. when speaking of such an object. I don't think much of any of is. I suppose I thought it was. to use the masculine or feminine personal pronoun instead of the neuter. un used of the sun. I don't think much of him. It is it was it is. With them. not wair hee iz. them. nun oa um. It isn't fair. could hear them thrashing. Ei spoaz 'tiz. oa um). leaves them here. Baint much good. ur for hur. : Examples Ei aess un hiz naaeem. E. Get hoald on un. hiz. I hit him on the leg. un. F. Ei het 'n on dhe laig. You Nun oa um Wee em. He He has two of them.

kite. If it necessary to distinguish between a near and a distant object. Haast zin un yet? Hee'll wair yoo out. hur. He swears at her. Examples Yoo'll aul bee yeer too-mor- You'll woant dhee ? Hee zung verray well. He (the moon) never fails. train. cigar. house. Examples : Hee nivvur feilz.GEAMMAR 25 . The nominative form of a pronoun is often used for the objective. didn't he ? DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. shaant us ? Wee doo. bicycle. We do. and (except at the beginning of a sentence) the objective form is used for the nominative. woant um ? Wair wood um doo it now ? Diddin um ? Still Wee woz We were there. shan't weren't we ? we? don't we ? did she come from ? They'll go too. un shee swairz at hee. . doant us ? Wair did ur cum vrom ? Dhay'll goo too. won't you ? sang very well. and in the plural dhay or stand for either these (dheez) or those (dhoaz). spaid wull. won't they? Where would Didn't they? of they do it now ? more curious mixtures : pronouns are sometimes heard. and poem and the feminine sh. Ei jumpt oavur ur. moon. Examples : Hee net oi. diddin ur? rur. book. a tree. Dist eer oi ? Avoar hee on shee. which is is in the singular dhik. the spade (a ditch). will. jumped over her time she (a Teim shee woz claind It's ditch) was cleaned out.ee. dher. knife. waggon. motor-car. ur of a ship. Where We'll go. spade. I out. He all be here to-morrow. Have you seen him yet? He'll (the moon) wear you out. and ditch. I was going to lend him one. which or that (dhat). woz'n us ? Wee'll goo. at shee. and she swears at him. The demonstrative pronoun stands for either this (dhis) dhem. Did you hear me ? Hee swairz wun. Ei woz gwein too lend hee He hit me. Before him on her.

Look Dhik wooud baich. dhair. Those dry summers dry up the Those are pools. killed off (destroyed). There was a big fire of those stacks. Ei doant want nun oa dhay. Dhay These books. Examples The : A man wot wuirks in vaarist. Dher woz a big veier oa dhem ricks. both singular and plural. Dhik air mair can goo. at that thing. Ei cood'n ait dhay. Wee doant yooz dhay. buird wot bildz in dhe treez. Voag wot caamps A man who works in the forest. . Plural E. I don't want any of those. Here are more of those cows. That horse. The horse that used to work. Dhem air drei zummurz dreiz up dhe daid Dhem'z stroyd. In dhem baugz. hoalz. ^vhich. I couldn't eat those. t fellur. E. don't use those. books. N. Dhe haas wot yoost too wuirk. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. Examples : Hoo'z caul hee ? Who dost thou call him? What Hoo'z caul dhair vellur gooin long? Who do you call him ? dost thou call (what do you call) that fellow going past ? EELATIVE PRONOUN. A in vaarist. Examples Singular N. the interrogative pronoun is in the masculine and feminine hoo (who) and in the neuter wot (what). is wot.DIALECT OF THE NEW : FOREST (there). masculine and feminine. We Yeer'z moar oa dhay cowz. which stands for who. That mare can go. F. Dhik's hard wuirk. Look at dhay daagz out dhair. This is hard work. relative pronoun. this is done by inserting the adverb yeer (here) or dhair generally slurred into air. I don't know that fellow. People who camp in the forest. A bird that builds in the trees. In those bogs. or that. As in English. Dhik air haas. Look at those dogs. Dhik un. F. Look at dhik dhing Ei doant noa dhik This one. That old beech.

or (after a sibilant) iz. Ei caulz We 2. '. mezelf dheezelf hizzelf myself himself (miiself) thyself (dhiiself) herself ourselves hurzelf ourzelvz yoorzelvz dhurzelvz yourselves themselves VERBS As root of the in standard English. Wee caulz im haarts '. F. Dhee Hee caulst caulz N. 1. in which the termination Singular Pers. 3. use them now. to the numbers and in all persons except the is st. I call (caul) N. F. We call You call They call Ei Ei Ei Ei Ei leiks too eer vorgits. nivvur eerz dhat. em. E. You The cut this turf. Caanst goo ? * like to hear them. and the infinitive is expressed by the root preceded by the preposition to (too) . Oa how leeray Ei feelz. Thou callest He calls (caulz) I I I I I caulz Yoo caulz Dhay caulz E. I feel ! Oh how empty Canst thou go ? Wee moastly caulz it Maaee'. Examples E. The present root of the verb in both indicative adds s or z. F. I trot out. exceptions are the indefinite present and past of the indicative. Ei trots out. E. never hear that. : Plural N. first door you come to. Dhe vust doour yoo cumz too. 27 pronoun the possessive form used throughout. . most other verbal meanings are expressed by means of auxiliary verbs followed either by the The only root of the verb or by its present or past participle. F. Yoo cuts dhis turf. second person singular. the imperative consists simply of the verb.GRAMMAR REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. forget. We usually call it May We call them hearts ' * '. PRESENT INDICATIVE. yooziz dhern now. seem a little empty (hungry). Examples In the reflexive : of the pronoun is N. zaimz a bit leeray.

too. A vyoo dhingz cumz acraas mee. Dhay keeps dhem too. Dhay lets dhem out. As in English. They tell me. Dhay tellz mee. call < ' turfin '. Few A few things I don't people burn it now. the past tense is generally formed by adding ed. F. and the only inflection it takes is the addition of st or 1st in the second person singular. They make wine. Dhay maaeeks wein. Some peculiar pasts are : N. F. What they turfing '. Spoken Hoot eer Past eerd noa goo noad wint cum keep gi cum kep gev bee held aess hit woz haad het bid zet beid zit bust bust . d. NEW Some FOEEST E. PAST INDICATIVE. Dhay gits about aul reit. They know too well. They try hard. They keep them Ei dunnoa wair dhay gooz know where they go to. or t to the root. They let them out. Vyoo peepul burnz it nou. Dhay noaz too well. They get about all right. Dhay treiz haard. come across me too. (occur to me). Zum caulz dhem Wot dhay caulz call them.28 DIALECT OF THE N.

Yoo cood heer em a-draashin. (say) is In narration the present of the verb zay Examples : used for N. Ei zid en. dii-in taak (talk). Ei zez nee zez. The Some form which in English have an irregular past participle. Are you going to the show ? He was walking away. Examples verbs. F. by adding or t to the root. Bist a-gwein too shoa ? Hee woz a-waakin awaaee. . jist a-zayin. The present . ed. d. Hee kep on NOTE. zayin dii (die). PAST PARTICIPLE. He kept on talking. (goaing). Win French woz Dhay keeps a-cumin. often prefixed to the present participle. it : . E. Said I said he. E. Ei zeen in. taakin. That's the same pony I saw last year. I saw him. That man came to our house. F. PRESENT PARTICIPLE. and there is a tendency to use the past as a past participle where in English the latter has a form of its own. English going E. Examples Ei woz N. a-shiftin. as in English. Ei zeen wun oa yoor winshiz. regularly in the New Forest dialect. as zay (say). Example : N. Dhik man cum th' our plaes. I asked him his name. Dhik's dhe zaaeeni poanay Ei zeed laast yeer. They keep changing. When the French were coming. E. taakin. F. is gwein. I saw one of your girls. past participle is generally formed. There are many exceptions to this rule. The present participle is formed by adding in to the root. participle of goo. I was just saying. Ei aess in hiz naaeem. Wair bist gwein ? The syllable a : Where is art thou going ? NOTE. the past.GRAMMAR N. F. You could hear them thrashing. English go (goa).

NEW FOREST E.30 DIALECT OF THE N. Root Past Participle .F.

tiz. Shee idd'n at ooum. iz of the third Sometimes the person singular is used in the third person plural. Wot bist aitin ? Bee yoo gwein ? Bee yoo cooud ? Bee ee cumin ooum ? Wot haas bee yee gwein too reid? We are going too. I know it isn't. P. Past Both woz and wer are used indiscriminately for both numbers and all persons except the second person singular. I'm cold. which is wost. I'm quite benumbed with the cold. Those are fine ponies. Dhat's zum fein poanayz There are wrens about here.GRAMMAR N. Tidd'n wuth it. cooud E. _ I'm not going. Ei noa tidd'n. E. gon. I'm glad (pleased). The negative form is woz'n (wasn't). She's not at home. How bist or best ? Bist dhee cooud ? Bist dhee gwein too ? Yaas. Examples : Mei veet dher. It isn't worth it. are you (art thou) ? Are you (art thou) cold ? Are you going too ? it is. My feet are cold. What are you eating ? Are you going ? Are you cold ? Are you coming home ? What horse are you going ride? to Dhay bee shiz. NOTE. Hou'z gettin on. Are these good ponies ? There are plenty more branches. How Yes. Bee dhay good poanayz ? Dher bee laats moar braanEi baint gwein.P. yoo ? How are on? you (art thou) getting Wair bist gwein ? Hoo bist taakin too Where are you (art thou) going? ? Who are you (art thou) talking to? Wee bee gwein too. Ei bee cooud. Ei bee plaizd. Dher'z renz about eer. Ei bee reit shramd wee dhe cooud. They've gone. Examples : . iz N.

F. We were at Ringwood. Dhik vuz wer aul burnt. Ee wer. Ei'll goo. They were ill. Affirmative Negative Negative Shaat Shaat' n Shalt Shan't Wit Examples : Wit'n Wilt Won't N. Ei shaal. Wit dhee goo laang oa mee ? Oi. was there. F. woz'n ? You were Yoo boyz woz dher. (thou wast) there. Boouth yeerz woz cut off. . Ei wer dher. woz'n dhee? Dher woz a good mennay.32 DIALECT OF THE N. E. Shall I go with you ? Shall you be at home to-mor- morrur ? Ei. Will you go along with Yes. They were there. Wee woz at Ringood. Shaal Ei goo widhee ? Shaat dhee bee at ooum too- No. me ? Noa. That furze was burnt. Dhay woz dhair. You were right. NEW I FOREST E. Ei shaant goo. Affirmative E. Both ears were cut off. as in English. I shall. I'll go. row? Yes. I shan't go. all He was. iiz woz bald. weren't you? There were a good many. Hiz Yoo woz reit. woz'n His eyes were bad. weren't you ? You boys were there. The second person singular is as follows : N. The negative form is shaant and woant. Future The future present is formed by the use of shaal and will (sometimes slurred into '11) in much the same way as in English. weren't they ? dhum ? Dhee wost dher. Dhay woz ill.F.

N. Negative Affirmative Negative Person .GRAMMAR OTHER AUXILIARY VERBS.F. Affirmative 33 E.

F. . E. baid. Haast got a neif ? Wot's caat dhair P Have you What have you Would you (hast thou) a knife ? (hast thou) caught there ? Woots goo eef dhee coodst ? Haas'n dhee got it ? Woos'n goo ? Haas'n dhee sin mei woald cow bout ? go if you could ? Haven't you got it ? Wouldn't you go ? Haven't you seen my old cow about ? (have) is sometimes NOTE.DIALECT OF THE N. I've got to clean up that ill. Gookooz bee got taarbul scairs. F. F. ditch. Examples : N. Cuckoos have become very scarce. All the squirrels have gone. He has gone away. Examples N. NEW FOREST E. NOTE. Ee'z bin gon awaaee. Hee bin taarbul Dhay got doo it. Ei got cleen up dhaat air deich. been to the station. E. F. The : auxiliary verb hev omitted. With an intransitive verb sometimes used instead of have in English. ADVERBS N. I've Ei bin too staaeeshn. Aul dhe squirrlz bee gon. He has been very They've got to do bee is it.

GKAMMAR N. 35 . F.

They want a platform only for the auctioneer. Ei nivvur killd noa voxiz. F. they are affirmatives. i on bee on agin against bout about . I never killed any foxes. dung to sell me ? Haven't you got any little old mare? Examples E. only '. educated the Scotchman. N.F. It 's : A double negative is common.36 DIALECT OF THE N. New Forester. F. I take no notice of it. If or uneducated. E. Tidd'n herdly fair. I never eat bread. Haast got ar looud oa dung too sell Do you happen of to have a load mee ? littul Haas'n dhee got nar woald mair ? NOTE. Ei wood'n gee naut vur un. PREPOSITIONS a oa slurred for at. will begin his answer a Scotchman will begin his with Yes with No ' ' * '. N. To the hardly fair. You don't hear any of the young people say so. an three those of one sentence a adverbs. Dhay doant waant a platform oanly for the auctioneer. I wouldn't give anything for him. containing you say ' ' * ' Englishman. Ei doant talk noa uoatis on't. and hardly are negatives. as well as to most educated Englishseldom '. NOTE. I don't think he ever had any more. Ei doant dhink ivvur ee ad'n enny moar. meaning to agree with you. Yoo doant eer nun oa dhe yung unz zay zoo. Haast Have you all dhee? Hassin got ner a neif bout got any knife at all on you (any sort of a knife) ? Haven't you got any knife at dhee? on you? (Have you no ?) sort of a knife for Perhaps in the following sentences ar stands for er a and nar ner a. Ei nivvur aits noa braid. got er a neif bout NEW FOREST E. To adverbs the men.

Wee un wee um.GRAMMAR addur long oa too toordz after 37 along with till droo vur Examples : towards through for N. Keep dhe daag a heel. Out oa Ingland. A cuppul oa bob. Bist gwein wee uz. Zummit vur too maik wingz. Wot's dhink on it ? . A good lot oa appulz. Zum on em laarnz too much. Too on um. Git hoald on um. T'woz maaeed a purpus. Ei bee glad on it. F. Yoo may stop too Maarch. Ei lookt a un. A bit oa mait. Dhat iddin vur dhee. Ei bee gwein in zillur.

.F.38 DIALECT OF THE NEW FOREST INTERJECTIONS N.

CHILDEEN'S Henray oaray EHYME itturay aan. When the French were coming.cumin. ee. . woaee ponies by kip. to the right. faster. In the winter time. you out. Kum idhur. Steady. O-u-t spellz 'out*. Hee'll wair will. woag Git baak sti. Win French woz In French waar. Cry. In winter teim. Out in the fields. In the French war.F. cows. woag aaf. Out in groun. Jee. Are you going to the station ? In the night. woaee. Those who work in the forest. Go Go Go to the left. Commands to a horse . Meaning. The spade will wear you out. Stop. E. choog. Woag. Dhay wot wuirks in vaarist. Examples is : N. Stoar dhe vinegar in dhe paan. kip. Go back.39 CALLS TO ANIMALS Pigs are summoned by : the call. jee-up. Bist gwein too staaeeshn ? In neit. Way. Oarum stoarum poopshee loarum. Count into the hat. Steddee now. definite article dhe is often omitted. choog . Tell in haat. way dher. OMISSION OF WOEDS AND SLUEEING OF PEONUNCIATION There to omit short The a stronger tendency than in standard spoken English words and to slur their pronunciation. spaid a.

F. neis girt maaeed. Eer'z taakin. I don't know that I ever heard of him. Yes. E. I've heard say. Hee'z got udherz. Burlay. Are you going to bed ? . E. A A A fine big girl. I've got one. Hee yoozd cum Ei yoozd deerz.40 DIALECT OF THE is NEW FOKEST infinitive. Dhe weif. Ei nivvur woz laarud dhat. At the other side of Burley. They're something like ovens. Dhay did'n yoos too goo. That 's old-world speech. help kich dhe He's got to help to catch the others. They'd go on being sucked down. kill offin teimz. art wanting it? Oi. I had some difficulty in doing it. He taarbul lot oa used to come often. SLURRED WORDS. I used to kill a great many deer. N. I was never taught that. F. aaf a duzn. N. Dhay'd keep sukkin doun. bout voar t'day on't about afore expect destroy to-day on it praps spoaz perhaps suppose haant haven't SOME IDIOMS N. Half a dozen. Dhay bee keind oa leik ovenz. Dhik's woald-faashn taak. Dhis twintay yeer. wantin? In dhe vurdher paart oa Here 's talking. The preposition too Examples : sometimes omitted before an N.R spek stroy E. Ei doan noa dhat ivvur Ei heerd on un. Ei got a job too doo it. z Ei gottun wun. Ei'v aird taak. My wife. They used not to go. F. E. Bist gwein on too baid ? These twenty years.

aren't. num. buird. east (eesi). n. slurred for at before a gerund. baint. a. alive (aliiv). v. bisn. baby (baiby). abaid.p. quarters. art. n. afoar. bain. braaeek. beg. off. am. ordinary. bean (been). prep. prep. band. eat (eet). beef. before seldom avoar. v. bottom. sloe bush. low-lying land. of beid. agg. aul. aleiv. all. ait. aardur. n. v. board. n.VOCABULARY a. billis. bird. aij. v. v. bid. n. adv. shaft of a cart. baakay. acraass. adj. n. had not. eighty. prep. blow me. bundle of small boughs. n. have (hav). blaakay. . baavin. n.p. broken. larger than a faggot. aux. art thou. v. n. bagg. n. egg. . broak. n. bond. n. break. n. n. baggur. after. barrow-pig. baarn. adv.ndprep. bellur. adv. orchard. been. bettermost. bist. aist. (athwart) across. bad. and adv.t. a. adv. n. boourd. n. aarkurd. aardinury. horse's beech. ale (ail). agen. blaidur. baak. slurred for on. . v. are. accaardin. ad'n. n.t.t. bellows. be not. boy. belaiv. bload me. beetle. n. shilling. again. v. bid. n. prep. num. basket. art not. prep. bebee. v.p. braid. castrated pig. ago (agoa). of braaeek. agoo. n. baecun. am not. n. afraaeed. ad. prep. beid. aaf. aux. brichin. n. baug. blair. n. aaeeteen. be-est not. n. adj. bob. isn't. n. bellow. bee. . barrow. stayed. birch. and. n. or bissint. v. bee. edge (ej). order. bait. adv. away.i. both. n. v. sing. boouth. back. asked. n. bladder. p. baitul. prep. had. by. an. according. blakdhaarn. booay. v. n. blessing. bellow. aaeer. addur. bout. beat (beet). beskit. about. beard (beerd). baarur. beer. v. a. burch. aardlay. avert. adv. n. hardly. av. beggar. against.. bibee. prep. v. across. abed. eight (a#). prep. robin. tobacco. baist. a. conj. adj. n. n. air. agin. aaeetay. v. believe (beleev). beast (beest). v. v. strap round awaaee.p. aaeel. 2nd pers. n. p. n. ask p. adhurt. haven't. best.t. baich. p. n. baid. born. aan't.t. eighteen. bread (bred). n. bair. awkward. afraid. baird. across. a. bacon (baicon). interj. aess.i. n. bobbeen. be. a. hollow. p. num. blessin. adv. baid. bin. v. bed. blackbird. aess. v. n. baif. n. bog. avoarhaand. a.p. aarchurd. v.i. stay p. blaid. aaeet. before the event.

n. and bust. v. n. draashul. drain. adv. burst . buttur.DIALECT OF THE bust. dhaut. or coosint. thought (thaut). don't (doant). v. caanst. pron. n. v. caas'n. n. craip. if. Daarset. canst not ? caat. contrary. chaffinch. of kech. dhaut. cum.. wren. v. themselves. dhirteen. dhaiuf. then. n. cooud. cousin (cuzn). thy. dis'n. dhirtay. corner. p. couldst not. dhill-haars. caark. n. draeen. coos'n. thorn. childaag. NEW FOKEST n. thing. chinkay.p. chilblain. didst. chimlay. through (throo). gaiter. v. chimblay. dhimbul. n. n. chukkul. pron. n. coat. throw p. doour. v. (if so be) if. donkey. . Thursday. chestnut. v. craitur. n. n. thirty. not daag. (2) slurred for eef a bee. caarn. and p.i. door (doar). a. can't. dhum. these. n. or caasint. ditch. pi. thrush. deerz. dem. to hang a . creature (creetyoor). of come. don't know. didn't. conj. wheat. daughter daid. n. a. flail. droo. n. dishwosher. craim. caint. n. dhay. cheek. droiT 9 p. v. claak. think. deich. and p. n. clain. creep. dhaier. chimney. dry. n. cozn. coors. n. of dhink. doaan. thyself. thirteen. draash. pres. dhik. chaisnut. n. ee. n. dist. thousand. n. v. buzgin. drush. daartur. thou. kettle on.t. f** byre> coz. those. n. a. contrairay. climb (cliim). n. dhink. dhin. cuttay. the horse in the shafts. Charley. corn. driin. there (dhair).p.t. cream (creem). n. n. dus'n or dussint. v. dhaarn. a turf. num. n. clout. did'n. Cherlay. dhinkin. n. dhouzun. throat. corral. think p. aux. n. v. handle clumsily. cud. v. chaffinch. dhing. n.i. those. block of wood. that. n. n.i. v.i. but. a. dunkee. conj. wagtail. thimble. drei. dhem. boot. thinking. caaeek. dheen. dhetzh.p.pron. v. could (cood). pron. dim. n. cork. p. butterfly. Dhurzday. conj. butturvloi.i. thrash. dog. v. or trush. eef. a bang. cold (coald). thee. n. because. didst not.. pron. . canst. clock. dhurzelvz. (1) he dhee. they. . chaik. v. n. (dauter). droat. v.) cowpen. v. Dorset. dree. dunnoa. thin. of course. can. dhee. a cuff. caarner.i. n. v. t p. butter. t. three. n. n. buskin. clean (cleen). chiffay. n. thumb (thum). n. cluck (of a hen). drain. pron. v. chock. thick. draap. this. n. coout. clum. n. v. prep. v. a. adv. dhik. doaant. n. v. (hee). dhenk. caan. dost (dustnt}. cake. dead (ded). num. t?. n.. caught (caut). driven. num. n. thresh. thatch.p. droad. drop. cowshed. a. v. thee (dhee). clot. thief (theef). v. dheezelf. num. them. of deer. n. droa. adv.

n. look. n.t. shock of wheat. n. haas. feesh. haalur. v. grumble. haankee. adv. evening. n. yes. n. heth. hide (hiid) p. gev. or haassint.t.a. haant.p. the fields. v. n. hiding. n. hunderd. horn.t. grandfather. first. n. home. interj. v. heidin. hearth (haarth). fever (feevur). hardly. n. hoss. v. v. n. v. n. engine. husband. iron. horse. potato-pit. hard (haard). v. n. n. without. git. garden. hay.i. heerd. glaid. n. himself. extra. n. eet. great. gaun. n. hand. and #. gown (gouri). (goaing). gelding. foar-haars. n. n. hat. thrashing. hid.. . a. scarecrow. forest. pron. prep. v. foaray. p. hemp. n. n. n. health (helth). yet. w. cuckoo. n.. ant. heerd. arm. . part. gaaeet. a. gi. heil. 43 v. n. hooum. heard (herd). a. aux. num. p. faivur. p. haas'n. hundred. heidee-hoop. higher (hiier). gress. get. p. head. also heerd. p. large. n. id'n. n. a. . n. prep. I. n. leading horse in a team. heidin. Feboouray. eirun.^. haven't. high (hii). idhout. n. herth. pres. glass. eerd. guvnur. adv. n. grandfather. fish. enny wen. pi. hail. . foar. n. gerdin. (any when) at any time. them. eer. houzinz. a. in. hef. grandmother. hast not. . heard (herd). ever. fust. goo. girl. hitch. in. hob. given. him. grass. ees. v. heer. a. v. gi. n. idhur. n. hear (heer). grammer. George. n. haih! eh! what! baud. gel. give p. elth. slurred for one. n.i. hid. pron. gridiron. gaep. v. hiding. hither (hidher). hij. heat (heet). n. n. hous. fail. haat. n. haarn. haaee. a. hin. huzbun. ess. ass. eier. geldin. n. haas. heid. go (#0a). n. groun. half (haaf).VOCABULARY v. grunt. gaalay-baagur. n.i. emmet. girt. n. n. fell. irrjin. a. pony. n. gaffer. v. Ei. adv. v. haaeel. pinafore. n. gape. him. handkerchief. harvest. also heerd. hei. horse. grudeirn. fousty. big. interj. haars.hid.t.p. isn't. gee. haad. en. n. v. p. husband.t. gookoo. houses (houziz). v. head (hed). Jaarj. het. eevnin. er.t. before. em. hedge hen. hit. id. n. glad. adv. of heer. gwein. of heid. hollow. eerd. gless.p. n. faarist. n.i. gate. pron. herd. v. house. heath (heeth). gev. hide-and-seek (hide -and-wh oop) extray. granfer. het. give (giv). pron. n. haand. jigger. n. hast. going insek. n. n. fusty. n. (hej). hizzelf. a.t. hear (heer) p. herdly. himp. haach. haast. February.. pron. insect. v. erm. hervist. frock. adv.

nog. noad. known. low. laat. middling. lady. n. nudhin. and a. a. adj. naamit. meat (meet). the n. key. quoits (koits). pron. long. n. n. adv.p. ool. moast. snack of food. slurred for my. n. p. ood. catch p. v. n. n. laugh. ma'am. noo. Maaee. n. v. nail. mezelf. along with. never. holly. noobody. dare say. *>. n. of noa. and v. and p.pron. moak. n. prep.p.p.t. w. caat. oap. NEW FOREST mei. v. north.t. n. kay. n. load.*. n. loo see. think. nine (niin). mile (miil. my (mil). joaay. maast. mooust. adv. child (chiild). gilly flower. morning. eleven. v. n. w. laig. home. stroll. slurred for in. n. n. o' mooustly. a. n. n. might. oa. n. n. such as. leik. larch. n. difficulty. mum. livin. more. nought. n. laugh. n. kept. leg. naut. n. kiss. n. master. naaeel. pron. v. might not.t. nothing. n. just. moour. niwur. adv. offin. martin. kit can du. kettle. girl. laif. nest. along. mump. jist. me. naaeeshun. leave. oi. noise. adv. leaf.p. a. n. livin. lot.t. n. meddur. will wisp. living. long. prep. nation (naishun). kep. undo (undoo). pole or perch (measure of area). levn. chunk of wood. n. a. wool. living. ollay. often. nestay. meil. generally.i. v. n. luncheon. nobody. n. knew. name. v. n. naaeem. naist. maaeek. n. man. mimray. myself. must. v. most. remember. mertin. kneel. nus. p. nothing. woollen. very. yes. laif.w. mid'n. Oi. kiwur. v. maarnin. mauz. him. kid. n. I (It). wood. nein. lerch-vnr. laarn. kich. n. meadow. job. wander. n. ondoo. muss'n. kite (&*). n. of. muss. v. aux. oam. memory. neif. adv. n.i. laaf. laiv. a threepenny-bit. v. n. num. lead (led). make. a. cover (cuver). laeun. and w. May. mait. donkey. v. n. empty. koit. no. a. n.) meind. allow. interj. v. n. leeray. num. kees. knife (niif). adv. must not. n. v. looud. n. numshon. adv. look ye. maan. lug.DIALECT OF THE jillay staak. n. nail. hope. maaeed. mid. v. lid. slurred for dhan. laaeedee. laang. meedlinish. nasty. kwaaits. v can't (caant). never. n. . and interj. beech-nuts and acorns. near. n. kiddil. learn.1 stiks. luncheon. neerhaand. n. n. teach. heap of corn in the straw. ner. oolln. n. naarth. adv. long. interj. v. nurse. pron. . conj. kent. naaeez. n. maistur. n. lane (Zam). .

s. n. (paiper). stretch. horizontal projection on side of waggon. ourn.g. shade (shaid). n. n. scuggee muggins. sillir. w. putt. v. peat (peet). plaaee. s. v. n. oss. roof.t. a. staarlin. thoroughly.i. qwid. rope. speiur. rick. stroy. seat (seetf). n. stone. shalt not. e. n. 'snoa. v. n. squirrel. heap of hay. speak (speek).t. ran. n. Scaach. w. . paper pag. rain. raiy. screech. n. shaart. pay. south more often zouth. staarm. souf. cultivate. paakit. pait. a. n. rail. n. n. saucer. plag. poodin. Scotch. a. (right) ritt. v. stooun. peg. a. paepur. pinnee. a. shillin.p. v. swaid. adv. storm. and v. qweiut. raabit. n. young for run. n. ruchtee. n. paaeer. raaeek. a n. n. smithereens (smidhereenz). v. potato. pillow. a. rail. p. cease (sees). station (staishun). cock. of run. shaat. quiet. reap (reep). paint. v. plaes. please (pleez). n. write (riit) p. n. stockin. smert. pus. sheet. sofa. a measure of area. v. snag. spaid.i. do you pyooit. n. w. n. a. spade. n. queer. pear. shilling. snail.p. n. n. n. stray. n. saasur. straaeh. . sait. n. expect. stocking. spud. a. qwair. benumbed. plaet. perch. taablish. shramd. ours. pole. plate. reit. n. sort. sauce. w. plague. spire. pea (pee). n. n. n. oun.. pocket. horse. swait. w. n. v. suppose. saddle-chain cart. people (peepul). raip. a. purse. n. spek. hound. saart.i. n. roaup. n. shood'n. pook. kill off. v. n. slurred for us. n. n. paipul.t. plaen.. destroy. pudding. take. straw.t. spaik. notch. smart. squire. saas. rake (raik). n. fairly well. house. slurred for ist. art. pillur. sucker. scraich. a. n. . n. shaed. smuvreenz. v. n. n. raaeel. stag. n. put (poot) p. v. pais. n. lapwing. paaeent. rabbit.. n. staaeeshun. pinafore. n. woman. entire animal. know. same. v. reit. snaaeel. swede (sweed). me. play. place (plats). n. rooster. short. putt. v. M. seen. put down. praps. quite.pl. sweet. ruff. sloe. starling. and v. shait. spay.VOCABULARY oomun. seed. snoch. soavur. colt. taaeek.p. shaat'n. saium. n. stack. n. spoaz. v. plaiz. plain. slurred for dost know. n. should not. cellar. . n. n. n. n. sais. perhaps. n. boar stag. right (riit) . real (raial). castrate a sow-pig. and v. squeiur. n. n. shalt. ous. v. piece (pees). adv. n.p. n. cud. a. v.t. raaeen.

n. n. of viftay. voar. twaal. farthest. comp. thaarn. hames. n. towards (toaurdz). veesh. vorgit. vaartneit. twinty. v. too. v. fish. told (toald). n. vaarist. horses' collars. n. taarmint. slurred for it is (# i). tuffish. . . umberginium. try (frit*). before. van. n. voul. n. a. fifteen. tooud. holding cooking vessels by the trash. fellow. on n. n. . traaeen. tea. forest. vaardin. vaagit. time. vaes.p.p. vaidhur. fat. teacher. n. veil.t. v. n. a. n. table (taibul). n. taarbul. fern. vurrur. twoald. w. pron. I v. fell. num. veind. n. finger. for. num. folk (foalc). terribly. fly (flii). voal. vaartay. first. afore. n. Friday. vellur. umbrella . toordz. num. of tell. n. thorn. n. vound. fourteen. p. toad. potato.i. veet. thrush. n. for tripod iron vinggur. veiv. him.p. fine. trait. found. tugz. a. vurdher. fog. vetch. n. t'odher. earth (erth).pl.t. very. frog. taitay. vloi. num. 'tiddn't. turnip. teird. n. far (faar). DIALECT OF THE NEW FOREST taak. violet. vust. a. teach. vat. value. n. her. n. told (toald). faggot.i. a. tough (tuff). verray. veeld. trevet. taieh. vaark. fork. four. n. vurray. ver. v. fire. to-morrow. voarteen. fir. n. v. n. veier. n. five. a. turxnit. v. vrog. too. fall (faul) . Vreiday. twelve. talk (tauk). very. n. from. adv. conj. slurred for it isn't (it iznt). p. vurdhist. a. - vox. n. fan. tay. tooud.f^ un. warm. fire (fiir). n.. n. full (/ooJ). field. vouer. a. told (toald). n. the other. voag. teit. taanur. j?rep. a. a. tired. n. ur. veeoo. foal. n. pron. face (fais). twenty. vaarm. n. tremendous. umbrellur. n. a. and adv.p. voot. a. trei. till. adv. tell. vaarmur. warmer. vaist. toad. taebul.46 taaeel. a. num. #rep. torment. . twaalv. vur. n. to (too). found. vein. n. v. taichur. find (find) . treat (treet). vifteen. farther off. n. toe (too). fox. pron. foot ^?. num. vog. one (wuri). 'tiz. n. too-morrur. adv.. vuirn. vaul. tail. father. n. tight (tiit). potato. n. uirth. few. p. vur. teim. vool. vrom t prep. forty. n. them. count. vaaees. fowl. 'tiddin. un. or. num. num. veilit. farthing. fifty. forget. vound. prep. n. n. fortnight. train. atfo?. n. a sixpence. a. furrow. tiddee. feast. v. v. a. n. ur. tremenjus. vaalur. vaach.

seen. wet.VOCABULARY vuz. word (wurd). v. wu. n. a. n. sight (siit). worn. spider. wasp (wosp). wit'n. n. say. w. waaeet. sit. side (gtYcZ).t. Wenzday.. n. a. waach. a. a. wuts. n. zoidur. widhee. a. here (heer). pron. (woch). waar. zixteen. and v.p. zich. v. a. acorn. where. cellar. was. v. n. neigh. seem. were. v. castrated ram. wen. n. a. sow (soa). woots. adv. six. n. wun. yellow. winsh. window. n. willow.p. n. Wednesday. once (wuns) woos'n. wide. woz'n. n.p. or wozzint. num. wippul-tree. sixty. n.i. zhoin. war (waur). wooud. zevnteen. zaaeem. zoavur. a. a. n. salt (sault). n. what.t. with. why. zillur. woald-faashun. seventy.i.th. a. n. tU. n.. v. wouldst (woodst). wippin. yeer. apron. yoa. Saturday.p. ewe (yoo). see. windur. zeventy. few. n. wii. .pron. n. side (siid). sat. weight yaandur. zay. zeid. adv. wus. you (yoo). zaim. youngster. (wait).i. sing. weeout. wair. p. who. cider (siidur). zbeidur. interj. n. slow (sfoa). n. v. shine (shiin). wikkur. n. v. wire (wiir). woak. way. week. see-saw. v. or woosint. a. wilt. yungin. zloo. v. num. yes.pl. num. p. wuird. work. Zaturday. adv. wuirk. zing. zell. yaeker. furze vyoo. n. n. n. girl. zee. yoo. yonder. n. num. zee-zaw. zeit. v. zault.. yeer. a. worst (wurst). a. zeed. zoa. zoid. sell. weir. n. without. such. self. the boy who seeks in heidee-hoop. watch waaee. conj. zaik. zaasur. v. seek. num. would not. zayin. cne (wun). . zixty. n. wit. waarm. num. master-tree of plough. silver.t. web. vuzin. wedher. wi t wee. worth (wurth). interj. wench. pres. interj. went. said. n. v. waak. work (wurk). walk (wauk). n. Yaipril. zid. saucer. woald. w. seventeen. sit p. v. woar. yaaprun. oak. certain. n. zilvur. zizurz. zeen.t. and p. zelf. wust. v. set. zit. old (oald). waark. yaalur. a. prep. rel. seven. v. a. wilt not. saying. wot. wer. (Aipril). zet.#. yoorn. which. zed. zin. that. n. sofa. v. wik.i. saw. old-fashioned. num. sea (see). oats. when. wops. n. v. sixteen. n. worse (wun). yaas. wint. . prep. scissors (sizzurs). of zet. wouldst not. zevn. a. n. woons. weid. . weight (wait). n. n. n. well. v. p. ear (eer). v. tU. wait. yours. n. n.pl. zet. swingle-tree of plough. n. n. young one.p. wast not. (wurtn). zertin. wheat (weet}. zay. worm wab. waal. P. 47 pi. same. old (oald). winker. &ndp. n. zix. wood'n.

v. rather. swallow (sivolloa). n. zummur. zun. sun.48 DIALECT OF THE NEW FOKEST n. n.. zow. (soald).p. n. zum. adv. adv. zooner. zoo.A. Sunday. n. Zunday. scythe (siith). zwaalur. a. zoiv. something. n. sow (sou).andv. some (sum). w. south. Printer to the University . zummit. of zell. Oxford : Horace Hart M. n. zooud. sold zouth. so (soa). summer.

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VQVNVO 'OIUVINO 'oiNOdoi 'avo idOdN3Ava eei. .

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(Sir) James The dialect of the New Forest in Hampshire .PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY PE Wilson.

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