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Interviews are particularly useful for getting the story behind a participant's experiences. The interviewer can pursue in-depth information around a topic. Interviews may be useful as follow-up to certain respondents to questionnaires, e.g., to further investigate their responses. Usually open-ended questions are asked during interviews. Before you start to design your interview questions and process, clearly articulate to yourself what problem or need is to be addressed using the information to be gathered by the interviews. This helps you keep clear focus on the intent of each question.
Preparation for Interview
1. Choose a setting with little distraction. Avoid loud lights or noises, ensure the interviewee is comfortable (you might ask them if they are), etc. Often, they may feel more comfortable at their own places of work or homes. 2. Explain the purpose of the interview. 3. Address terms of confidentiality. Note any terms of confidentiality. (Be careful here. Rarely can you absolutely promise anything. Courts may get access to information, in certain circumstances.) Explain who will get access to their answers and how their answers will be analyzed. If their comments are to be used as quotes, get their written permission to do so. 4. Explain the format of the interview. Explain the type of interview you are conducting and its nature. If you want them to ask questions, specify if they're to do so as they have
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them or wait until the end of the interview. Indicate how long the interview usually takes. Tell them how to get in touch with you later if they want to. Ask them if they have any questions before you both get started with the interview. Don't count on your memory to recall their answers. Ask for permission to record the interview or bring along someone to take notes.
Types of Interviews 1. Informal, conversational interview - no predetermined questions are asked, in order to remain as open and adaptable as possible to the interviewee's nature and priorities; during the interview, the interviewer "goes with the flow". 2. General interview guide approach - the guide approach is intended to ensure that the same general areas of information are collected from each interviewee; this provides more focus than the conversational approach, but still allows a degree of freedom and adaptability in getting information from the interviewee.
Intersperse fact-based questions throughout the interview to avoid long lists of fact-based questions. tasted or smelled 6. 4.about what a person thinks about a topic 3. evocative. 3. Closed. first ask about some facts. heard.note that respondents sometimes respond with "I think . etc. i.. Sequence of Questions 1. education.). Questions should be asked one at a time. this approach facilitates faster interviews that can be more easily analyzed and compared. the same open-ended questions are asked to all interviewees (an open-ended question is where respondents are free to choose how to answer the question. Note that the above questions can be asked in terms of past. Standardized.. e.here. Respondents should be able to choose their own terms when answering questions. Behaviors .standard background questions. Before asking about controversial matters (such as feelings and conclusions). such as age. Types of Topics in Questions Patton notes six kinds of questions. The last questions might be to allow respondents to provide any other information they prefer to add and their impressions of the interview. . respondents can more easily engage in the interview before warming up to more personal matters. they don't select "yes" or "no" or provide a numeric rating. open-ended interview . 5.g. One can ask questions about: 1." so be careful to note that you're looking for feelings 4. Avoid wording that might influence answers. etc. present or future. fixed-response interview . Sensory . which tends to leave respondents disengaged..e. 2. Wording of Questions 1. Background/demographics . 4. This format is useful for those not practiced in interviewing. 2. Feelings . With this approach. Wording should be open-ended. touched. It's usually easier for them to talk about the present and then work into the past or future. Questions should be as neutral as possible. Knowledge . Opinions/values . judgmental wording. Get the respondents involved in the interview as soon as possible.to get facts about a topic 5.where all interviewees are asked the same questions and asked to choose answers from among the same set of alternatives.3. 3. Ask questions about the present before questions about the past or future..about what people have seen.about what a person has done or is doing 2.
What is your profession you are working in? What pushes you in having this kind of work? How many years are you working? What are your obligation and responsible as a seaman? In your 15 years of experience with this kind of job. Question: 1. etc. don't show strong emotional reactions to their responses. was the respondent particularly nervous at any time? Were there any surprises during the interview? Did the tape recorder break?. These questions may also cause respondents to feel defensive. if used. to clarify any scratchings.. For example. Be careful asking "why" questions. ensure pages are numbered. 3. 2. This includes knowing any terms particular to the program or the respondents' culture.g. Questions should be worded clearly. This type of question infers a cause-effect relationship that may not truly exist..4. that they have to justify their response. what job would you preferred to change?why? .g. e. Encourage responses with occasional nods of the head. worked throughout the interview.. Provide transition between major topics. Conducting Interview 1. take so long to answer a question that times begins to run out. which may inhibit their responses to this and future questions. 2. if you jump to take a note. 2. This can occur when respondents stray to another topic. Make any notes on your written notes. which may influence answers to future questions. it may appear as if you're surprised or very pleased about an answer. If you are given another chance having a differ job. Patton suggests to act as if "you've heard it all before." 4. Don't lose control of the interview. Attempt to remain as neutral as possible. 3. or even begin asking questions to the interviewer. where did the interview occur and when. e. etc. Verify if the tape recorder. Occasionally verify the tape recorder (if used) is working. 4. "we've been talking about (some topic) and now I'd like to move on to (another topic). Ask one question at a time. 6. 5. do you encountered such problems in the kitchen which you are enable to manage? 6. Be careful about the appearance when note taking. 3." 7. Write down any observations made during the interview. That is. fill out any notes that don't make senses. 5. e. That is. 5. "uh huh"s..g. Immediately After Interview 1.
Some of the conflict he encountered in his work is managing the proper waste disposal and making a food menu everyday and computing the monthly budget for the food of the crew members of the ship. Apostol was working overseas for his family needs in order to give his children a good life a good quality education. He shares in the interview that being a chief cook in board is a hard job because your meeting different kind of people Filipino and Foreign people which has a different type of taste preferences. Bernardito Apostol.Background of the respondents Mr. a 51 years old seaman was currently working in East Gate Company as chief cook in the kitchen. . For 15 years. his working 10 hours per day. Mr.
Lemery Batangas. Camille B.Her interest are in the field of Medicine. Sandoval. She would like to pursue her studies in Social Psychology and Developmental Psychology on what nature-nurture can help individual personality to developed. is 19 years old.Interviewers information Queencel B. She is a 3 rd year college student taking up Bachelor of Science in Psychology in Lyceum of the Phillipines University – Batangas. Enriquez was born on January 26. She would like to work on how can she be a way for the special children to enhance their talents within them and how can the special children can interact with the society without fear in their environment. her curiosity about what is Psychology is all about brought her to a new beginning of her life. . She is a third year college student taking up Bachelor of Science in Psychology in Lyceum of the Philippines University-Batangas.She dreamed to be a Psychologists since childhood. She wants to be a doctor someday.1992.residing at Wawa Ilaya.