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EX BIBLIOTHECA
FRANC. BABINGER

.

evliya efendi. ALLEN & CO. BABINGER .S. F. NARRATIVE OF TRAVELS EUROPE. &c. M..M.. n. EXBIBLIOTHECA FRANC. THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. VOL. &. LONpON: PRINTED FOR THE ORIENTAL TRANSLATION FUND OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND SOLD BY WILLIAM H.R. ASIA.C.A. LEADENHALL STREET. TRANSLATED FROM THE TURKISH BY THE RITTER JOSEPH VON HAMMER.DCCCL. &c. AND AFRICA.

: LONDON PRINTED BY WILLIAM NICOL. PALL MALL. CO. .

. . and description size of the . . Journey to the Crimea. . . I. Tombs . . ib. CONTENTS. . . of the Khân Tomb of Sinope Samsun Town and Ancient Eatables and Beverages 17 of Briissa Eatables. Castle . The Mosque Mills. . of of Sultân Bâyâzid The Mosque of Mohammed Mosques 6 ib. and Sebils of Briissa 10 .. Description 23 . . ib. Description of the of Briissa Walks and pleasure-places 15 Description of the Ice-worm 16 Language. Baths. Journey to Batum and Trebisonde. &c.. 49 Praise of the River Kosh-oghlan of Sultans and Saints 50 ib.. . .. Murâdl med Ottoman Princes 2 4 Officers of Briissa Description of the Imperial and other of Visit to the Fortress of Mo- Description of the Buildings of Brüssa The Public Page Tombs . ib.. ib. .30 . .. .. ^ y'. ib. .45 Description of the Scientific Colleges.. . Walks of Trebisonde Visit to the Monuments 4S ib. ib.21 . Fountains.. . . Page JOURNET TO BrUSSA.. :n.. . Market-places. Description of the Castle of Baliklava OS'^ '^ . Description of the principal Arts and Handicrafts . .. . The Mosque of The Colleges Moham of Qualities of a Mineral Spring . Imârets. ib. Description of the hot spring of Chekirgel of the sulphurous hot New 11 ib. . Tomb . .46 . Description of the Market of Briissa 12 13 . . Praise of the Poets of Trebisonde Description of Mingrelia Conquests of Sultan Orkhân . 67 . 8 ib. I. . ib. Osman Notice of Haji Begtâsh. 44 Town. ib.. II. .. Kbodavendkiâr Short account of liderim Bâyazid 39 40 41 .. . . 22 ..47 . the Great Saint Short account of Sultan Murâd . . . Ottoman Sultans Short account of the Conquests of Begs of Abaza Tribes . Dress. &c.... I. Guilds. . 18 Short account of Sultân Mohammed Short account of the reign of Murâd ib. .. I. . ib. ..) Specimen of the Land Abaza 52 Abaza Language 58 Description of the of Specimen of the Sadasha Abaza ib. . . the Capital ofthe Lezgians tants of Trebisonde 14 Dissertation on Mountains The Climate Description ofthe of Kaplijeh Description of the bridge of Erghandi Description of the Castle of Form and spring (Gogurdli Kaplijeh) Description of Town Description of the Ancient The Commanding Officers and Magistrates ib. The Mosque of Murâd II.. .43 of .?ffc... . .33 of Trebisonde. Journey to Nicomedia. Khans. 36 Fortress .. . and Manufactures of the Inhabitants of Briissa The ib. . 19 Visit to Sultân Orkhan's of Sultân ib. . . first Monuments and Tombs . Description of the Lower Description of the Mosques .. Beverages and Fruits of Briissa Visit to the 24 . Khodavenkiar. . . Description of the Castle of Onia Emir Sultân of Briissa The Convents. the son Sultân of Saints at Briissa .51 Journey to Azak (Assov. . Trebisonde . . . or Sultân I. Description of the dania Town and The Mosque ib. . Pilgrimages of Nicomedia . Description of the complexion of the Inhabi- Occupations. . ib. . . Praise of the Baths of Bn'issa A .. . Journey to Georgia and Mingrelia. its Monuments Murâd I.

. the Form and Erzen'im Size of the Fortress . Description of the Castle of Sheki . Pilgrimage of Mama Khati'in .. . of a . . . . . .94 . . . Inhabitants. .115 . . . 113 Genealogies of Erzerum . 129 Description of the Capital of Azerbeijan.111 .. Beverages. . . Inhabitants. . . . 120 Georgia Description .157 . .93 . . 154 Pilgrimages (or Tombs) of Martyrs . 150 Description of the important town of Genje .. Arts and ib.163 an 164 Elephant Description of Derbend the Gate of Gates . Shiishek or 121 • . Provisions. Products. . . ears like . Pilgrimage to the ib. . . . of Description the . .162 Shamâkhi Baku Description of our journey from the . Of the Walks. 116 Praise of Mount Caucasus Description of the Town of .CONTENTS.104 The Governorship of Erzerum or Erzenrdm of Hossein 96 . 117 of the Fortress Hassan ib. Pilgrimage 89 Koyi'm Bâbâ Tomb of Size of Amasia Form and Burhandedeh . . Of the Baths. . . ib. . ib.119 Description of the Fortress of . Castle . . . . Description of our journey along the Aras to YEAR 1055 (1645). Khans. . &c.143 with the Kkân to Sham Ghâzân . &c. .134 . . Description of the Account of the Tribe of Ettels .118 .91 . 1 65 . Language. . Climate. Tomb of Shems Tabriz! Town of Erivan (Revân) . 147 .Spring of Nigissâr Pilgrimages of Nigissâr . Kiiisse . &c.145 Description of Ajan 110 Places of Pilgrimage at Erdebil Description of the Expedition . Castle of Shüshik Size and .73 . .. .137 Market-places and Mount Eerli Handicrafts. . . .136 . 142 Form .. Siege of the Fortress of Canea of Shi'ishik Size and form of Magii Expedition against Malta in the . . . . Praise of the Palaces of Of the . Description of the great river Euphrates . Mosques Fountains . . . Erzerum . .. . ib. . . . .122 • 123 Persia 78 Curiosities of Uch .. . . Page Description of the Hot-bath Description of the Convent of Kilghra Sul- 70 tân Return to Constantinople . Journey from Nakhshivan to Tabriz. 159 . . Cause of the Death of Yûssüf Pâshâ 120 . Description of the Fortress of Erzerum Of ancient town of Tabriz Description of the Account of the Persian Crown (Taj) .79 Pilgrunage of Mohammed Station of Gallipolis . of the Castle of Khinis . JOURNBT TO ErZBRUM. .144 Description of Merâghâ . and reprehensible things in Iran Pilgrimages and Visits in the town of Tabriz 108 we undertook .156 . Mosques of Tabriz Account of a curious conversation . Dress. Tomb Form Size and . . . Description of 135 Colleges of Tabriz of Markets Of the 33 1 . and Pilgrimages The Town and Tombs or Castle of Nigissar The Hot. Tomb Shah's ib. Journey from Tabriz to Erivan. of our Military expedition to Description of the Hot-baths Provisions. Son the Praise of the Air and Climate Pilgrimage to the tomb of the great Saint Pilffrimaffe to the of Riza. the son of Baur Pilgrmiages Stations .92 . 1 . . ib. . Bikara 158 Baku through . Fruits. Pilgrimage of Ashâr-bâbâ . . 83 . .. the 97 . 1 39 101 . .103 .112 of Sheikh Kârzûni . . . 141 . 100 . ib. . General Praise of Tabriz .. Station of Khandak-bazâri Places of Pilgrimage at Boll Karaman Pilgrimage to Habib . Praise of Balaam. . . . 1 40 102 Bad . . Gardens. 25 1 . .98 . Gebize Praise of the The Lake of Sabiinja .107 . Whale with 49 . . ib.

. 212 215 Description of the town of ib. : ib.CONTENTS. Shiibin Kara-hissar ib. . . Products Castles of Georgia belonging to the Province 207 208 ... . . . . . Journeys on our return . .. ib. ib. .. ... Janja.. . . to Con- of Zilka'deh 1057 199 (1647) Journey to Georgia. . . 176 .. 195 . . . . Description of Georgia or Shûshâdistân.... Specimen of the Georgian Shushad Language ib.. . . Description of the Castle of Erzenjan .. . . Description of the old town and great bridge . . Tortum Size and Shape of the Castle ib.. Form and Pilgrimages . 1 . . Pilgrimages of Lâdik Description of Merzifun Description of the Baths Number of Ziamets and Timars Form and size of the Castle of Akhachka . . Praise of the . Gumish Praises of Haji Bairâm the Saint Journey to Baiburd. . . . Pilgrimage to the Saints of Merzifun 177 Stations of the Journey from .. .. Genealogy of the Georgian Kings Description .175 . .. .Allan Tomb of Emir Sultân . ...173 . Description of Sûrân 202 . 213 . 225 The Pilgrimages of Karânji-bâbâ Sultân . .. .. Of the Language . Ill Page Size and figure of the Castle 166 Description of the Iron Gate ib.. . . of Lâdik Description of the Lake of Lâdik of the Stronghold of Akhaska. .. Praise of Sheikh Bârdâkli-bâbâ Form 189 ib. 205 210 of Lâdik . . ib.173 .178 . . [ . . The warm baths . . . . .. Begs of the Sanjak 204 ib. Castles in the neighbourhood of Erdehân the year in . Khas or Revenues Solomon's Alum called Description of the Castle of Lâdik The Walks . 229 231 ib. ib.197 of the JVIingrelians Buildings within the Castle 167 Moral Reflections Pilgrimages 168 Account of our return from Erzeriim The Pilgrimage of the Forty 198 month stantinople in the ib. . 217 . Our journey to Description of the Castle of Serir-ul. 220 . I 185 Isper. . ib. Description of the Castle of 69 Description of the Castle of Kusekht . of Tiflis ....211 . Description of the old town of Kâkht 1 . 239 240 tomb of the great Saint .. 171 The Hot-baths .. .216 . Journey from Merzifun to Kopri to Er. . Sultân Seh'm's conquest . Description of the strong Castle of Shin or . Description of a Lion ib. . . i Journey to Erivan . The Eatables and Products Tortum and Akchbkala'a.. . 233 Description of the town of Beg-bazâri or Bebek-bazari Journey from Beg-bazâri to Constantinople 190 Description of the 191 Akshems-ud-din .. . Akhaska . 209 . of Kopri I 1057(1647). ib.. Description of Angora Pilgrimages 188 size of the Castle . '201 Praise of the Eatables and Beverages . .172 . ofChaldir Praise of Pirdedeh zeriim . Alum.170 Betlis Size and Figure of the Fortress . .241 .. of the Castle 227 .... Description of the River Jorilgh . Page Account of our Inroad into Mingrelia . 74 . Description of the Castle of . . . . Pilgrimages . ib. viz Products Kumakh Kumakh the Castle of .

.

which so frequently recurs in the future progress of the mission. but of the whole Kizil Irmak. at half past two we passed a small waiting our passage. : "At two o'clock we came Khosh Auh. he wanted them to run.— NOTES. where a large body of people to were notice of the Istakball. p." Note 3. and to conduct him and gave us two in his passage. 16.) Beg. Bielfields. and excited them with his Two of the chosen of the village performed feats before us on their to increase the excessive dust. This party kept pace with us. a are man voice where lean horses. Note The summit is \. and helped They were They then advanced vollies as a salute. Stratton. the van of the little us. the Prussian Charge d'affaires. wished us a prosperous journey. as an honorary assemblage called forth to receive a distinguished traveller. on horseback. easUy reached — It is a Journey in nine hours. not only of this river. Bushire to Shiraz Ahmadi^h. difficulty of all the road. shields .) See Morier's Travels. the journey having been accomplished in that time by the Translator.—The river Khalliz. First journey through Persia. in the company of Mr." As we proceeded our on horseback. and being announced by the Arz- all in tatters. Evliya evidently places the time necessary for Turkish indolence. which seems to have formerly been the name. of two days from Briissa to the top. (In the Journey this is fort called the first and rest. p. 2\\. 197. matchlocks. and pikes. you They were commanded by who with his whip kept them together. assembled to form the istikbâl (solemn meeting . and B. This was no doubt originally called Halys. the British Minister. until we were army who were waiting our reception at Borazjoon : these also fired their muskets. to the account of the length and Note The inhabitants of Tortum 2. civility "Khosh amedeed. all armed with to us They were answered by the usual party was headed bv the soldiery. which involved again met by a similar host. . in the year 1804. p. welcome. swords.

. PALL MALL.LONDON : PRINTED BY WILLIAM NICDL. 60.

foot the account of which ardent wish was to is see Jerusalem and Baghdad. granted my and first I. pearls and greetings also be to men and the wonders therein. Praise be to God him." came to the house of my friend Chelebî. My . with the desire of performing the pilgrimage. said to him. II. ressid-allah (Intercession. in the month of Moharrem 1040. VOL. He invited me to be his companion according to the maxim. JOURNEY TO BRUSSA. the who by his the prophet. Cairo and Damascus. "First the companion. he prepares the means Thus Okjî Zâdeh for its accomplishment. and murmuring fountains. instead of the usual form. Praise be to the Creator ! destined my who . Hûrîs all and Rizwan the guardian of Paradise gales the duty of it is moon and family accomplished out of nothing called me on the radiant sun : his divine me into existence and the duties of Islam. volume of these by a slip when of the tongue. nightin- corals . graciously smiling. then the road." and said. Shifd'at yd Siydhat yd ressul-allah (Travelling. O travels. when I B . I found that preparations were made for a journey to Brussa. Angels and Eden. his fast. In accomplishment of this sacred duty. imposing alms and pilgrimage. envoy of God) and O envoy of God) he. first tried strength by commencing. lowly servant family. " Whatever God willeth. and. left who ! to obey him. "Let us spend a fortnight in visiting all the remarkable monu- ten years after this dream. a journey on through the environs and quarters of Constantinople contained in the first volume of these travels.THE TRAVELS OF evliya efendi. who made for before all things ! the heavens and mission Ahmed me Evliya. wish. the prayer. my genii to praise created roses and daffodils. according to my dream related in the introduction to the the prophet appeared to me in the night. I. Mecca and Medina.

in the year 1050. The town is built by the sea-shore. closed against the anchorage Modania. Amidst these amusements we came distant to the island of Heibeli (Prince's Islands). unfurled the sails and weathered the point of the Seraglio . first Friday of Moharrem of the year 1050. the object of our voyage. The At the head of the harbour stands the custom-house. From hence we weighed anchor with sailing their instruments. lease of Town and It is first enabled to and then went the port of Brussa. ancient Fortress of by a Greek Princess called Modina. saying. a brisk gale. the which amounts to a million aspers. leaving the town of Constantinople. For the first time then." and describes all the hardships according to the tradition of the prophet weighed anchor . laying the ship's high head towards Brussa. " in God's name ! accepted this I " to which all present responded. forth to view the town. Several of the effect. and and in the morning on the at board as passengers some clever ship-builders . being wind from seven points and open only to the North. captains and masters of ships. after five hours' landed happily on the coast of Modania. and so. and forms a safe harbour." is . the place of my birth. their strains. eighteen miles from Constantinople. excellent. and nine in circumference visited every year Convent which is inhabitants are all officers are the though fire The The public officer of the Janissaries. and sung three tetrasticks and one sumâyi of the compositions of Dervish Omerbesteh. with such was perform built my is Here I was Friday's prayer. without the knowledge of my family. and by Ottoman Sultans. on the Bosphorus. which I did with great devotion. chokur. accompanied by twenty friends in a boat of Modania. giving us their best wishes for a prosperous journey. the vessel cutting the waves was bursting forth from and it. I fixed to for a happy voyage accompany them in on the measure girdanieh." proposal as a divine inspiration. I set out on this journey. after having preluded awhile. " Travel in therein safely day and night. with the intention of seeing other towns and villages. journey. spirits.THETRAVELSOF 2 ments at Brussa Saint Emir the tombs of the : Sultan. particularly that of the great this visit illuminate our hearts. Bostânji-bâsh (of Constantinople) andan with a rapidity as it . that boatmen accompanied us on water came into the mouths of the hearers with delight. the boatmen finding the time favourable for sailing. which undertook I The present volume gives an account of this consequence of the verse of the Kordn. Description of the It contains a famous by many boats from Constantinople. for We called at Findikli to take on Emîrgûneh. " A journey I underwent a fragment of hell. wealthy Greeks. . by singing All the passengers were in and some of them implored the Lord's assistance Some Musicians encouraged me spiritual songs.

. we reached the emporium of silk. the circumference of which is Filehdar. the besiegers retiring only on the ap- gates. which at the time of the Asiatic rebellions of Kara Some of the stones of the walls Yaziji. and two hundred small streets but no room for readwith brick. one bath. but was compelled on the last occasion by an attack of the gout to renewed He sent his son Orkhân with Sheikh Hâjî Begtâsh. once by the Seljukians. Ketelî and Castel. 3 on a low rocky ground. This appointment is sometimes given Tlie houses are all faced to the Molla of Brûssa as Pashmaklik (pin-money). viz. the siege. daughter of a Sultân (Orkhân) tinuing our journey town of Brûssa. conquered this town in the year 721 (1321) and destroyed the walls in several It is governed by a places. passed on horseback continuously through gardens and Filehdar. the was received after con- : among gardens and vineyards for two hours. not fordable in the a clear stream. The houses have a northern aspect The fortress. the prison-gate. of Brussa having been built towards the North on natural rocks has no ditch. . and built two great towers. has acquired the it we name figs inhabitants are From and grapes. called is number of the The river Nilüfer. but on the side of the head fountain (Bünâr-bâshî) and the quarter of the Mills. the of Darkhill (vinegar-house). Voivode. His annual revenue amounts to two thousand piastres. subordinate to Brûssa. Osmfin the founder of the Ottoman dynasty besieged it three retire times. that it might no longer afford shelter to the infidels. and four head fountain. each arch of which resembles the arch of heaven from its . which issuing from the mountains Rvihbân. with his father Osman's permission. who to Iconium. builder the Princess Nilüfer. has six thousand battlements. three khans. one at the side of the hot-baths (Kaplijab). sixty-seven towers. them. The town is and some bear Greek Mount Olympus. the gate of the . the chief seat of the Sanjak of Khodâvendkiâr. being situated at the foot of and look over the plain of eleven thousand paces. it has a deep one. proach of winter. The judge is appointed with one hundred and fifty aspers a day. The main road crosses it over a handsome bridge. as well as that of the river. its name. Koran or tradition. There are three mosques (jâmî) and seven mesjids. the hot-bath s'-gate to This stronghold was besieged more than the west. and the gate of the fishmarket. ing the Greeks. two schools for boys. the ancient capital of this country (Bithynia). because the greater There are excellence of its fine the gardens producing superior vinegar. who came with an army of twenty thousand men the siege lasted between seven and eight months. The town inscriptions on protected against southerly and easterly winds from its are of the size of the cupola of a bath. South-east of the town cultivated field beo-inning of spring. waters the valley of Fillehddr and disembogues into the White Sea. Prince Orkhdn. Kallender and Said Arab was filled up.EVLIYAEFENDI.

who was related to the prothe Ottoman Sultfins are Seyyids or Sherifs on the mother's side. Khodavendkiâr.. has had Sultân its own palace in the castle was the residence of the early the time of to Murâd I. The first is the Pâshâ of the Sanjâk. Ottoman Emperors tinople . one bath Orkhân one hundred and ten feet Sultân Orkhân lies buried here. The interior of the fortress palaces.079 aspers khâss. and the square. at the phet. Orkhan on Sheikh Edebali's daughter. and mussulman Brüssa soon became popu- colonists from all quarters. there received the news. The Sultân Orkhân's reign. rendered 722 in (1322) after Osman died at the and buried his father's body in the castle. they are in to Constan- Since Brüssa some places stones are found with grow cypress -nut built all sexangular chimneys to air is who removed Böstânjî-bashî (like Constantinople) the streets of the castle are the time of the Infidels. The public Officers of Bnissa.THE TRAVELS OF 4 and the other on the months head fountain (Bunâr-bîîshî). lated by first castle of Wailakabtid. There are four hundred and twenty The and one thousand and five tîmârs. there are seven quarters and The mosque as many high many mosques. was It moment he Orkhfin his successor entered Bnissa with Hajî Begtâsh. and no gardens. a year's siege. The Pâshâ leads five hundred men of his is appointed with 500 aspers. the very wholesome. and been built. and said the prayer from the pulpit in Sultân Osman's name. at the hot-bath. assemble at and Jûz-bâshî. at the head-fountain. let trees and inscriptions of long the houses have vines. The judge (Molla) feudal militia is to the posts of Adrianople valued annually at forty thousand piastres. paved with large stones. his nephew Timur- beg. Mohammed may be ascertained how of stone. fixed his residence. it is a high is promoted from hence office. . it was used during large drum called Orkhân's drum is suspended in this mosque and twenty shops. so that Sheikh Türsün their was a divine first relation of conquest he Sheikh Edebâlî. Description of the Buildings of Bnissa. In some places and from the elevation of the ground. having previously resided at Adrianople. begat his son first sur- Osman conquered His seventy towns during the lifetime of his father Ertoghrul. by which also II. time of war. with a minareh of one story. of Sultân is . and Cherî-bâshî Alâi-beg. fiefs called ziâmet commanded by an the Pasha's command in own. appointed with a revenue of 618. but contains two thousand houses. which took seven side of the Orkhân posted himself to complete. and Yalabanjik-beg at the mountain's side. and have a kind of out the smoke. in Near Niceea Koja-Ui by Akcheh Koja. and and Constantinople. faced with brick. which look very well.

There is but of one ditch near the gate of the Tatars and no where it. and Jennet-oghH. the Voivode of the town silk. The gate of theTâtârs thousand guards opens to the East. but there are six in the town. seven of The upper part of the town with Mount Olympus beautiful when seen from the plain of Filehdar. particularly in syringa (Erghiwan). the syringa is in perfection the air good. festivals . an I built I have seen nothing like it background rising in the hour's distance from during my travels. and Chokurjeh. and there is no need an enemy were to dig approaches. excepting at Baghdad. O and the and death. because trenches. most conspicuous of of the Emperors. but not very strong it is . all is the ancient residence has three baths and three it hundred rooms. a chamberlain are. contribute altogether. at the back of the town on the south side is a mine of than one thousand and sixty well-known springs flow from supply water in abundance to the palaces and houses. districts are those of r. The circuit is fifteen hundred paces. fortified in the time of Mohammed III. a Chokâdâr of the janissaries. if else. of holiness. Fileli. the walls are not very high. expounders of the Koran and keepers of tradition. water would rush up Guns and there is falconets are mounted on the towers. Sherifs. who Mount Olympus water. nine of Greeks. which of the in are fired on no other garrison than the doorkeepers. abounding with Divines. Kalender-oghli. . the colonel of the armourers (Jebeji). Meskins (Lepers) six of The Jews. but no garden on account of the narrowness of the are in the whole town one hundred and Armenians. to render Brussa one of the most delicious spots on earth. Deli Hassan. in the ancient style and that of Hassan Pâshâ . the . Seven Naîbs (deputies) officers Sîpâhs (Kiayâ-yerf) inspector of the who provost. other five The Abolonia. in the upper town or fortress. it extends from East to West to the foot Mount Olympus for the length of one farsang and the breadth of half a farsang.EVLIYAEFENDI. the water full being much and in all Emir celebrated. and one of Copts. the annual assembly of Sultân held in the season The inhabitants being when fair. The gates are of iron and above each are towers whence grenades and stones may be thrown on the besiegers. commanding officer in Kînâ. Castel. abounds also kinds of flowers. no less are found no where else so numerous. the head of the Mufti. officer of the janissaries. sixty-six quarters of Moslims. of the The the town are subordinate to the Molla. the conqueror of Erla against the Anatolian rebels Kara Yaziji. have power of all (Kâpüjf-bâshî) The lower town was life civil the . is can truly say that There place. it. the of the custom-house. the the . quarter of the a separate quarter leading to the road of Sultân Murâd. Briissa is and is a very devout town. It living it. that of Filehdar to the North There are twenty-thousand large and small houses towards the Kiblah.

When it rains the water collects in the basin of this fountain on the top of the Minareh. " O all gracious!" Yd Hassdn. and the birds flock hither to drink. and has no equal any where except at Sinope on the Black Sea. . must be absolutely It seen. wherein fish are wire. the gate of the a stone bench . such as. on an airy elevated spot of Brüssa. mihrab one hundred and eighty (opposite to the mihrab). two high brick minareh. and other great men. and so richly endowed. yard left to the by seven hundred is mosques. Diijdn. Vezirs. the the Kiblah is three hundred and feet . fifty-seven of first is one thousand and forty places of worship. nineteen Yd Hanndn.THETRAVELSOF 6 Description of the Imperial and other Mosques. it but the upper castle. " The and other names of God. is no more holy mosque than this and has therefore been described the consecrated in chronological order. and the pipes having at that of the become decayed by age. for it is so wonderful that it cannot easily be described." all . the gate of side. " O all !" O man. supported within by large square is it are gilt and painted to the height of a Yd Menndn. the gate of the Outside of the Kiblah-gate like other two thousand scholars. There are which are mosques of Sultans. swimming and whence the Moslim community take the water necessary for their ablutions. the water of is it is now in ruins. it The fifty feet. three hundred and in all The the great mosque Ulü-jami'î built by liderim Bayazîd. but birds Directly beneath this cupola is a round basin of water. because no less than seventy subjects to distance from one of the side-gates to the other and from the Kiblah On gates. The pulpit made of black nut is skilfully carved and chiselled with flowers and arabesques of all kinds. the right side. in the centre of it has no great court- which the Mufti Abd- ul-aziz Efendi has built a basin with water-pipes. O all faithful!" letters of these cupolas covered with lead and crowned with golden crescents are supported by these pillars. high cubits three are inscriptions beautiful " the bases of which pillars. and the floor covered with carpets which are not found elsewhere because this mosque lamps. in Brussa first. and on Mehkemeh. with Yd merciful. The mahfil of prayer. is crowded with people at is lectures are read here on scientific It is nightly lighted all hours. The mosque is lighted by the proclamation glass windows on the four sides. On gate but the right and left are a fountain (jet d'eau). inscriptions. and is left open so that light and air may and animals are shut out by a grating of brass enter. Mehkemehwhich comes from Mount Olympus. painted with great is or place where the Muezzins repeat art. but a small one. was that of Orkhan in the . is first the Ayâ In short there Sofia of Brussa. The twentieth cupola is placed on the centre of the mosque. has three Emperor's oratory (mahfil).

The Mosque of Mohammed This celebrated and elegant mosque. but style. in a separate suburb called Eskikaplijah Sultan Murjid's mosque. stands I. The stone-cutter gate is also who worked forty is this gate. during which he received generally reported no mosque of more elegant and exquisite workmanship reason of its being named . rooms and the breadth seventy is for students. that they could not be represented finer even by the pen on Chinese paper. situate on the East side of Bnissa. known by (the green building) entirely built of marble. and a minareh one his curse changed into stone. a certain suburb composed of this mosque appurtenances of colleges. or Sultdn Murdd On the west side of Bnissa at half an hour's distance. because devoted to worship.EVLIYAEFENDI. died at Adrianople a holy mosque and has two cupolas. the son of of Mohammed father of Mohammed The II. there in the world. the son Mohammed and was buried here. Description of the It is part The length from the Kiblah the Imam's directions at prayer. one hundred and eight feet long and eighty feet in width. the only ornamented with such elegant arabesque carvings. and It is I. a small mosque. and remained unfinished during the war of Timiir. I. in short. It is impossible to give an idea of the mihrab (altar) and minber (pulpit) because the carving is beyond all conception. khans and gardens. was by This mosque has one gate. I saw no like finer emeralds in sunshine. 7 The Mosque of Khodavendkidr. builder was who Murad and II. built in a peculiar is The lower the architect was a Frank. Mussa Ilderîm's son. I. mosque in Brussa. arises from the cupola and the minareh being covered with green fayence which radiates Tall plane trees surround the outside. so that On one feet. but was completed by . and not much frequented on account of its distance from the town it is one hundred and fifty feet long and one hundred in width. Description of the On its Mosque of Murdd the west side of the town is II. surrounded by fields and gardens. devoted to science. The the green building. Mosque of Sultdn Bdyazid I. spent three years full Mohammed thousand ducats from I. story high. and other travellers say no where else. in the old simple style. distributed into is hundred feet. and has two cupolas without columns. the name upon a hill of Yeshil imaret on the East side of Brussa. the upper which having been recalled by Sultân Murâd each to the may follow mihrab is one of the columns appears a and not obeying. From the gate . falcon. no courtyard. as is on it. I.

Mohammed I. having no endowment. seventeen three of Nakshbendis . men fervent in piety. That of Abdal Sultân Mussa built by the same. station. nine of Kadris one of Kalenders. Efendi. The colleges are those of Orkhan. Mills and Sehils of Brûssa. a height half way up Mount Olympus. one of Rufa'ais . That of Uftâdî That of Abdal Murad Sultân the inner castle. pans. the gate of Tebriz. Imdrets. the dervishes are Begtashis and very poor. the building of the Mufti AbdKoran from beginning to end in one day. Joneid. On the east side of the town mosque built after people to the invites inner castle. Kâssem pâshd. of Khalveti dervishes. . wait . Fountains. a high That of Emîr-sultân entirely covered with lead.lb the length The (mihrâb) sixty. hill. are in the ancient simple style. The Convents. and one of wrestlers. Ilden'm. that of Mevlana Jelal-ud-din containing eighty cells for Dervishes. Of is the mosque of Monlâ Arab the model of the great mosque The mosque pray there. Bâyazîd-pâshâ. Khdns. without interul-latif... and Hamza-beg. built buried at Erzerum within Convents of Khalvetis . the width (minber) pulpit and station of the Muezzins (mahfil) 850 (1446). Here the Molla Khosrew composed his famous book. Kadri. a small fine situation its of Uftadi Efendi the Mesjids or small mosques (where Khutbeh is is in the not said on The Mesjid Zeiniler. Tall plane-trees Many Princes of the Ottoman family are buried here. and copper vessels That of Sheikh Kili near the camel-driver's visitors perform their devotions here. Emîr-sultân. who bareheaded and barefooted with open upon the Moslims who frequent this delightful walk it was built by Orkhan and possesses more than a thousand kettles. At that time two hundred lead-covered mosques and seven hundred minarehs might be seen from Kazi-yaila. and a place for the dance (sima'a). Uhi-jami'i. Jebbârî.. There are three hundred convents. Issa-beg. Fridays) is it the principal. The Mosque of Emir Sultân. This mosque is built on a mound and is the last of the Imperial Mosques which I visited. Zein-ud-dîn Hâfî. That of That of Abu Ishak Kasûli who is Ak-bi'ik Sultân of the order of Begtâsh. is one hundred and fifty feet. THETRAVELSOF 8 of the Kiblali to the mihr. Tenarî. altar. it was breasts. That of Gulsheni. where I read the The Colleges of Briissa. which stands on That of Zeiniler of the sect of Na'amân Ben Thâbet. built in the year adorn the courtyard. in of the Begtâshis. Murad. the most handsome of which are. by Sultân Orkhan. ruption.

by which the openings are obstructed and the purity of the water in the day-time because they is spoiled . is . of ArejH. the gate of for distributing VOL. the Kirâl Kainak (king's boiler) short there are seventeen large fountains water. along the streets. in which yield the clearest and coldest keepers of the throw horsedung into them. for cells the custhe was once drank There are it. where the inspector of the three hundred purses a year seventy khans called Mujerred I. Besides these public himself built two hundred. which. Murâd of worthy of Antar. the in .. . From certain house. called the green one. and the houses rising in rows one above the other There are seventeen fountains. The life. the principal one is that called Bûnâr- the water naturally flows to them. &c. of Bellor Kainak. of Sobran. of Charshu. but the channels decaying aqueducts. c The establishments Although here. of the same silk the poor) are those Mohammed that of There are one hundred and eight khans which has iron g The also caravanserai of All Pasha was built by Sinan the famous architect. . silk resides biiza. the foot of the Castle. and comes out again which proved by the re-appearance of straws that have been put the Sheker Kainak (sugar-boiler) into the upper part of the stream the Selâm at another place. at night. Emîr Sultân.built at of Mount Olympus. are an also in the valley of Eghzândî. . water (Sebils) are six hundred. water-pipes. The fountains of Briissa amount number to the every one of which vies with the spring of of two thousand and sixty. and carry many basins. flows for some distance underground. baths and gardens. EVLIYAEFENDI. because it issues from Mount Olympus. as at Brussa. being man who had out by a single . they would not dare to do this would be punished for it by the public officers. of Kepiz. at the tanners. laid filled . The Imîiets (dining establishments for liderim Bâyazîd. in several places The head on Mount Olympus and fountains of Sûnderlî. of Samanl Kainak. 11. hundred and seventy. Mufti Azfz Efendi name appearing on all of them. khdn on the butter with a bet that he would do Khans I. from which derived. with an from those who drink. this large quantity of bâshî. a large stable. and has doorkeepers. his begging for a fatihah each of the twenty-three thousand houses has springs water-courses pass from house to water to the foot its own supply. of Nâshî Dersi. and the tom of the silk gate of which is is let for size. the quarter of the Hassan Pâshâ. the principal one suspended a cask. of Chatâl Kainak. Kiassî Kainaghî . with two hundred gates. lepers.. the latter obtained the name of straw-boiler. which succeed one another from the head fountain (Bûnâr-bâshî) to the fish-market and all the way down from The Water-mills Balabânjik . water is which rushes out of the rock spreads itself over the town. inscription fountains. unmarried people. . the Murâd-dedeh Kainaghî the course of time. khan. The town bein". is the rice khdn.

they cause the teeth to said. Persons affected with this disease lose their eyebrows and eyelashes. have all two the bath . The all Mohammed cleanhness and elegance of the bath of Sultan description Kayaghan Charshii the bath of Murad. fall (from when mixed with cold water. To but is all uncleanliness boiled as is following are the rules to be observed: at the edge of the basin. throwing till . which being neglected in the time of the Infidels. in the Kaplijeh at Brûssa. of Bostan. of Takht-ul-kala' the bath beyond is drank to if There are many hundred hot out. Kainarjeh Maîhamîm. bagnio. and in Europe. springs at Brûssa. drink the water a certain on is method were from the body. of rooms each by the proprietors to public also devoted hotbaths in Turkish are called Ilijeh. neglected causes the hot-baths of Brûssa is common water. then over the body preparatory — wash the head with warm the bath. but its water afflicted for forty years. with two retired cabinets (Khalveti). and dress quickly ailments. it prescribed to those using the baths. which pleurisy. were not The covered. THETRAVELSOF 10 there such abundance of water that these estabHshments are superfluous. which hangs over these hot springs. The been building is small. and their . and of liderim. the Mogolic language in with sulphur from mines which they pass through underground.) Ka-Kvoç Khdn the bath of Ainebegi-Charshu was founded by liderim . in (boiling) and . Praise of the Baths of Brüssa. neglected brings upon coming necessary. do not remain too long. Arabic. to walking into to avoid catching cold The most . some of which are palaces. are equally wholesome for bathing or drinking. of the castle of the Cutlers.. but is Persian. excess. this precaution powerful of all is if ablution some the whole body is out. smoke. . in order many Murad I. . Germab in Rumeli. There are besides three thousand private baths (Chifteh). in These springs are impregnated they are called Kerensa. The flesh feels a good remedy for palpitation and throbbing of the heart an ear-lap and soft as upon entering these the is that of not cold. on the four sides of which are washingtubs. take a covered. and the dressing-place being built in the old style if First. has a great cupola covering a large basin ten feet square. built by Murad I. are is cured very useful in leprosy if . lepers who have they drink and bathe here forty days. and it The use. yet is Ottoman Sultdns provided them the generosity of the for the distribution of iced water in the summer months. Description of the hot spring of Chekirgeh Sultan. hot-bath of old Kaplijeh.

on its is a vast place covered with cupolas. It stands near the town on a rocky place. as though enamelled by goldsmiths. Bokhara. basin are eight large vaults. cabinets for alteration for will how to treat be rubbed by them in the private to twenty-four within see principally hours a miraculous the skin peels off in black scales. at its four corners are figures of lions which spout the water from their mouths. underneath each of them is high itself) covered with lead.. the suburb of old Kaplijeh. God breath becomes infectious. In short. and in the middle of the basin a There are more than a hundred inspectors walking round pattens. some women. some who for children. separate quarters for the leprous avert it (Mekin) from us H There are ! towns in all in for this reason Rum. is of three hundred houses with gardens and hot springs. The floor of the whole bath is paved with variegated marble. in that on the . the spring very hot and sulphurous is . where those who perform their ablutions can see those who swim in the basin. six hundred marble steps .) It is a small building. Balkh and travellers of Multctn. is (Dellak). The men. bath On is a the side of the a bathing trough of stone. the basin is it is (the in like a sea into which you and dragons. and the body appears white as . EVLIYAEFENDI. and the waiters (Dellak) know people so affected." a basin. sists Those who can bear half an hour. The interior basin one hundred cubits high. that they have no where seen a bath so magnificent as dressing-room men . and with lead. for old come here inhabitants of Briissa. saying " In life on your apparel lay no As every body must In the centre of this dressing-room fountain. con- silver. Description of the sulphurous hot spring (Gogurdli Kaplijeh. Sârî Rostem The PâshiC. say. where the above springs exist. a Turkish verse. some for men. but It Sultân Suleiman having been cured of the gout here. It has two private cabinets (Khalveti). to stay a fortnight with their and use the baths. and some are acquainted with their qualities. Description of New Kaplijeh. to build a large bath. he ordered his Vezir. In the cooling place (Sukhk) fountain (jet d'eau) which reaches to the top of the house. waiters has a cupola which some say descend by his is stress body here undress. relations. all the buildings arC' covered was formerly a small building. besides clean and pierced with six Its this. like those of old Kaplijeh. it used as a remedy for itch and scab. glass windows . capable of holding a thousand walls is written in Ta'lik letters.

some swelling " Tira Mola. their shops with branches bearing fruit. are to The men According to the descriptions of travellers there the hottest hours of the day. in the it. are sold. called Kaindrjeh. which forces are in the water to follow the quick rotation of it. It contains three hundred shops (dolâb) in each of which merchants reside. Infidels but fruit of Brussasit here during Adrianople are famous. with not see. drapers. others joining hands and imitating the is . corner is a fountain supplying water out of two pipes. I did travels. market are the most crowded near the rice khan is is of Haleb and of Alî by true all adorned with all sorts sherbet and also . capmakers. where essence The brains of the passers by are refreshed and nobody is willing to leave it on account of the of roses. and the one occupied by the and the long sellers of roast meat None of the provisions at Brussa are sold by Moslims. The market of the goldsmiths are as rich as the kings of Egypt. the water of which with that of a cold spring which Though this hotbath is is extremely warm. the water. nor even those of Constantino- ple.THETRAVELSOF j2 rio-lit is a small basin. iron gates secured with iron chains . musk. where lovers delight with when these baths are lighted with candles. is all many those who others. and the shops are arranged in rows. others spouting water fiat in my was a stranger. it . some some swimming. bezestan. some lying dead on the water. There mixed obtained. linen merchants. thread merchants. especially in the long winter nights place. their aprons into sails. &c. The saddlers. There . with the most delicious odours. and only setting out on I of boatmen. cries also a private hotbath. The shops of the Sherbet-merchants are very elegant. Pasha principal of cups. and that called the market of the bride. Description of the Market of Bn'issa. These markets are established around the Bezestan. In each In the summer months the servants sprinkle the ground with water. cable merchants. a thousand tricks are played bathers. who also the cotton-beaters. which. yet it is a pleasant their beloved." drive the water round like a whirlpool. its cupola is is a large building with four supported by strong columns. The market be compared with the markets of Brussa. fragrance of the perfumes and the politeness of its merchants. some wrestling diving. a proper temperature is not in such good repute as the former. ambergris. but neither they. so that the whole market resen)bles a The serdâb or cooling place of Baghdad. the shops are all is outside the There are of stone. no where to be found so pleasant a market at place. The Bezestan There are nine thousand shops. because by the from their mouths. but when adjacent. and mix rosewater with merchants ornament summer-time they put flowers into the which is not the custom any where else. and separate from markets of the tailors.

EVLIYAEFENDI. dancers and singers. which are not to they are wainscoted with fayence. Erghândî. like sherbet the principal . men In summer the Buza is cooled in of the town are not ashamed to enter these Buza-houses. the bridge is reserved for the use of strangers to fasten up their horses. either in Arabia. which All coffee-houses. (Erghalandi). may be the hatchet-bearer. word Erghalândî. is derived from the is attached A : signifies. going early to the bath here. and their story-tellers Hossein Bikara. and three times a day singers and dancers execute a musical concert in them like those of Their poets are so many Hassciiis. but they are dangerous for horses. A market for Gokdereh (the weavers valley of is established on both sides of the bridge of Erghândî at Olympus) the small windows of each shop look on torrent of Gokdereh. which are frequented by the most elegant and learned of the inhabitants . Persia or bridge. and Sherif Chelebî enchanted his hearers by Other story-tellers (Kissah Khîn) were those he told from the Shdh-nameh. The related the story to upon seeing such a quantity of gold coins. a warrior. here entice. a kind of paving not met with elsewhere age." and to which the following tradition to the is of this " it has In the time of Sultân Orkhân. a rich treasure. The shops are covered with lead. girt with Brussa girdles. " Shall I come out or not ? " The soldier being a brave fellow. . and the bridge is shut in on two sides by iron gates pierced with loopholes. The roads are paved with large flint-stones. 13 are seventy-five coffee-houses each capable of holding a thousand persons. These coffee-houses became famous only since those of Constantinople were closed by the express IV. which flows beneath. (Meddah) so many Abül-ma'âlî. which been shaken. although abundance of youths. each less capable of accommodating one thousand men. famous those Abu Moslem for reciting the tales of compared memoirs to the (Seir) of Weissi. abound with men skilled in and particularly a thousand arts (Hezar-fenn) dancing and pleasure continue the whole night. these stones are not the least worn by who stumble on them because they are so hard and bright. their lovers to ruin. The one most famous for relating stories from the Hamzeh-ndmeh is Kûrbanî Ali. ice. near the great mosque. command of Sultân Murâd than ninety-seven Buza-houses. saying. Description of the bridge of Erghdndi. — part of There The name Turkey. and in the morning every body goes to the mosque. painted. There are are also no be equalled in the world." adding a curse or two when out broke from the place whence the sound came. heard a voice. no covered bridge like this. . who advised him to spend in pious works. . went and Orkhân. what soldier. with great shaking and trembhng of the earth out. called " Come out.

whence the The verdure is dances (sima'â). Walks and pleasure-places of Brûssa. Mount Olympus. in a chesnut-wood. The walk of Sobran is also adorned with chesnut-trees. or convent of Dervishes. to Kaplijah. and is ascended from below in five hours. cypresses and box-trees. some of these There are benches delightful place. There are plane-trees. which took his its home. The place of Ulumest is a convent for the accommodation of strangers. The streets and some of the markets are adorned with festoons of grapes. that the earth seems covered with green velvet. willows. The Okmeidan. under the shade of which ten thousand fastened with ropes to each other. built by Orkhân. of it took the treasure to to the revenue. is a resting-place. their beloved for prayer The walk a secluded but very pleasant corner. it is swing a most of Fissdîklî is The walk of Kapl Kiaya is a fine spot without any buildings. The pleasure-place of Kazî-yailâ (the judge's Alp) is situate half-way up Mount Olympus. and then built this bridge. garden-town the . which is said to have rushed forth by a miracle. and afterwards of Abddl finest Murâd Sultân is view of Brûssa situate in a is obtained. so luxuriant. is so pleasant a place. you digestive power is the water feel Bûnâr-bâshî. and Karanfilli. and extends as adorned with pine-trees.THETRAVELSOF 14 He Heaven had thus granted him. The chesnuts are grafted trees. on the way is for men may trees. which grow here in great plenty. . where lovers and company and benches far as the eye can reach. paid a tenth name from the circum- and about Brûssa. each not weighing above forty drachms. Brûssa is truly a There are forty-eight large and small bridges stance. so that there in the year. The walk of the Monks' mountain (Olympus) obtained jts name half an hour's distance from the foot of from its having been the retreat of Greek Monks. number of gardens be forty-seven thousand. where . Outside of the town. stands the fountain of A'ssa. to the east. or archery-ground. Swings are procure shelter. where twice a week the Mevlevis assemble take their pleasure in the valley high for their religious The walk fields. and that of Abd-ul- mûmen is above all praise. The finest is that of meat and drink of the water. up on Mount Olympus. that it is beyond all description. of an immense height. one you eat of such The walk a mosque adorns this famous walk. Description of the Of these day for every roast there are no less than three hundred and sixty-five. when the great Saint Emir Sultân struck his staff (a'ssa) into the ground on this spot. and surrounded by woods. The walk of . said to is in all abundantly supphed with water. and others with tall plane-trees and willows. : if hungry again immediately is of the Mevlevî-khâneh.

and passed the night in the open air. or look-out. and farsangs beyond each (six Some hundred thousand sheep graze here. roses. thirty-six. or eighty thousand.. twenty-four. they call it in their language in the third. the scent of which perfumed our and came we brains. Kâf and the Kalmuks beyond If it pleases glorious the ice- God. 15 A Dissertation on Mountains. one of the dishes Jesus multiplied amongst the people like and out from Bûnâr-bâshî ascending Ghâzî Yailâ. from hence on and. where the Nile originates. is the twenty -seven it (Kuh-al-burz) faces the desert of Tartary called Heihât. evliya efendi. after three hour's travelling to the place called Menzil Bakajak. which we immediately roasted. the fourth. thirty-one . as locks of the earth. light a fire for the new moon. thirty-seven great mountains. and ate them fried with fresh butter . the great mountain of Germany (Riesengeburg). . tents station here during the siege of Brûssa." it surrounds the earth and is reached by the Yaldarak Tak. where halted three days and three nights in the woods. Five hours further on obtained. Next day we mounted again in a south-east direction (Kiblâh) thousand men). height. descended from the forty thousand sheep of Sultân Osman the shepherds are Turks." " and the mountains as pales. of these so called because the chesimt-trees. they brought us some sheep as a present. Yailâssî. a large plain with . We refreshed ourselves with water from the living spring. necessary preparations with us. is meadows and From many chesnut-woods . . as soon as where the guns are fired to . it. : the road fined with hyacinths. is held together by them when shaken by earthquakes . This place is called Bakajak. The root of all mountains verse of the Koran. with first Utters. and other flowers. victors (Ghâzî) it . God which created one hundred and forty-eight mountains. mountains which all I ascended with a during whole year. this is hinted in the " His (God's) are the keys of the earth and Heaven . delighting in fresh fish and roasted sheep. in order to visit it. had a it is fish we took seemed a great set the full of trout. and again. " mount Kâf. thus designated by the Koran . nineteen in the second. a small rivulet this place a full is Moslim which lasted a view of the town of the table-land called Sobrân trout are also found in the lakes of of them. sea. they assemble every forty or fifty years to number of seventy. in the sixth. is first It is a pleasant spot running through Brûssa The five hours. the first climate. The Caucasus describe the twenty -nine in the seventh. basihcon. I shall when I undertake that journey. in and in the fifth. Since the time of Alexander none but Kalmuks have seen Mount Kâf. and moon twenty the mountain of the Mount Olympus was goodly company we took the equator." According to geographers there are in verses of the Koran. because the nights previous to Ramazân they watch they see to give notice to the town.

Above the station of Svileimân vegetation ceases and the mountain is barren. with an icy fluid ice. fields. for the Vezirs. and also These rivulets and it after five Imperial Modania Harm There here a is containing trout of one or two becas each. high it is It is a journey of two days from Brussa to the top entirely barren. which. two or three hundred persons bâshî) sends crystal Rocks towering all. being so very the mountains of Cütahîa are seen from the south . and falls but to the lot of kings ! It is said that of dogs. which stretches towards the town like an elephant's proboscis and hanfs over so deep a precipice that nobody dares look down. Filehdar. rivulets and brooks being frozen in the winter. makes a man as healthy and vigorous as a new-born child. interior filled diamond but melts quickly away. embarked to the sky take the three stones in succession. which vibrates on being size of the cupola many meadows. The ice-worm I brought to Sultân Ibrahim It is an aphrodisiac. which is creation. It is rarely found. further in the direction of the Kiblah through flowery still tall like a picture so steep and prominent that the great mosque. the Kâzî-askers. . elephants and eagles. living and walking upon the teller ! I on the Caucasus they are of the among the ice and snow. is on the topmost peak of the monk's mountain (Olympus) whence beneath your feet the clouds may be seen passing over the town. Description of the Ice-worm. strange shapes. Imperial kitchens. such as dragons. it is like it in the midst of ice and snow as old as the has forty all ice. the head ice-man. (Kârjî- brilliant as at hours came to the station of of a bath. were sinking into the base of the mountain. . KuUei Jehân. the castle and It is bezestan of Brûssa seem as We and cultivated grounds appear. sometimes larger. sometimes smaller. feet. isolated rock. the tower of the world. with four feet. are every day for the use of the coffee-houses. because it is all those cucumbers which are sold for seed at Lângabestân. delightful spot with a spring of water so diamonds.THE TRAVELS OF ]g This look-out is on the top of an announce the commencement of the fast. with on paper. and A Sultân Suleiman's fountain-head. with two eyes as red as rubies. cold that a man cannot take out of mass of rock the large touched. This a worm. and its on its back. size Faith be have not seen them. and forty black spots without a tongue. sharpens the sight. and was smaller than a cucumber. is to cut the ice. and it from the summit cannot be seen appearance here of mounted where no many at trees were to be seen. and the and the Muftis. In it . shines like a size. but is is found difficult to find . From it the plain all its villages. transparent as used in summer to cool their sherbet by the Some hundred ass-loads inhabitants of Constantinople and Brussa.

. and Manufactures of the Inhabitants of Brussa. that if men its height. so much exposed On like cotton. the Bnissa called Sereng and Chatma. we arrived at Brussa. attain a very old age affords are not to be and well-arranged words. where Monks Ghazi Yaila. to the Victor's height. The Eatables. manufacture of cushions for it sofas. merchants and learned divines who dress in Asia. white bread of the kind called Sumun. From shines on Constantinople. and dressed The men in tresses is silver bodies. Jafar instead of Ja'fer. the The youth are numerous and have air is dull and heavy when they blow. beyond the White Sea. eloquent that when they speak they never fail to met with elsewhere. hence There are many thousand Being sable pelisses. Memet Chepu instead of Mohammed Chelebi. in short the pleasant advantages which this town The people are of a graceful stature. The women are exquisite of the healthy air. Their principal occupation speak with great purity. Assmîl instead of Ismail. Beverages and Fruits of Brussa. been celebrated in many a town-revolt (Shehrengiz). The Climate of Brussa. from whence. the rocks. produce the greatest their hair curled celebrated in the poetical expression Kessüî merghüleh. on some of them are inscriptions who come after in to the top also mounted our horses and came after People ten hours ride. and from the west side the mounThe summits of the Seven Towers and tains of GahpoUs. 17 Sogkl from tle East. Dress. besides some words and expressions entirely unknown young men of the town however they say . the wind would blow them away four sides is it We in this place. or shelter themselves behind. with well-arranged teeth. who is is said to it is the a deep dark cave which leads to seventy or eighty small resided in the time of the Byzantine Empire Greek and Latin. write their to the wind. ascending and descending. II. another ride of ten hours. the highest spot Landha. Near it is composed of immense stones. may be discerned from hence when the sun side the mountains of . in rich Ahmed Chepu instead of Ahmed Chelebf. the language is related to the Turkish. and so effect on their hearers. manufacture of velvets and other is also famed for the stuffs of is the cultivation of silk.evliya efendi. again . two thousand years names a burying place. cautious. did not chng to. Language. cells. but as beauties. The longest day is fifteen hours : the inhabitants are fresh-coloured on account Mount Olympus intercepts the southerly winds. of the Minarehs of Sultfin Ahmed. the tomb of Sa'dan the son of have taken refuge here from fear of Hamzah. The first is VOL. old. which D is as good as the best .

They first allied themselves wdth the and occupied with them the districts of Malatia. Csesarea. and Ebüsûd Efendi the famous Mufti . and through related to the prophet. till one laid is which dies. grapes. weighing forty drachms each. The plain of Filehdar berry plantations. fat The white Halva of also celebrated. Brussa and Nicomedia. in the year Danishmend family. the ancestor of the Ottoman family from Mahân was he made some inroads from Konia on a relation of his. excellent coffee from Yemen. that of Tîrelî-oghlî. first called Sultân Selim I. and chesnuts These chesnuts. Melek while the Danishmend family resided in those of Sivas and Erzerum. had not yet the right of striking coins and of the Friday prayer. The Seljukians took up their residence in the latter town.THETRAVELSOF 18 of Constantinople then that sort of bread called Cliakil. His son Osman-beg was the monarch of the Ottoman family whose name was struck on the said by Türsün Fakîh. The fruits are forty-day pears. cherries. white roses like . (the Asiatic provinces of the 476 (1083). by Akshems-ud-di'n and was then proclaimed servant of Mecca and Medina by Keraâl-pashâ-zadeh. 699 (1299). are with the meat. Karan-fillî and Shujâb. the Gozlemeh. The beverages are the delicious water of the head fountain Bünar-bdshî and seventeen other principal springs . these princes were the mother of Orkhan. purses of nets. called Beg. he was buried at Sogudjek near Nicsea. He first Until the time of Mohammed H. . Nicsea. was the whose name was struck upon coins. The sheep which are very Brdssa is come from Mount Olympus. silk. called Toghriil-beg. aprons called Kirk-kalem. exquisite famous all put on spits over the world. the Kerdeh. out in mul- is and finally are those of rubj-coloured velvet. who was invested with drum and banner. the sherbet Khanediin-beg (smiling Prince). Ottoman Sultans. apricots. Alayeh. absolute and prayer married the daughter of Sheikh Edebali whom the Ottoman Sultans are Mohammed H. the juice of which penetrates them succulent that it is almost impossible to leave off eating them seven day mulberries are also famous. who became coin. Ghâzî died at Nigissar and is buried there Ala-ud-din the prince of the Seljuk family. and created him a Beg . a kind of roast mutton dressed over a stove (Tennur). made Brussa linen of different colours. Ertoghrul-beg. and Konia. . silken katifeh. they grow so . because the chief product of Brvissa be equalled by the Persian The manufactures silk of is silk. very good bîiza. like that The Seljuk Chdtma munakkash cushions of cut velvet called Visit to the Monuments and Tombs of the first Rum family arrived in the country of Roman Empire) said not to Shirwan. The at Genoa.

Osman commented on the Taftazani in mystic science. at the age of sixty -four . &c. added to the two seas. Mola Jendereli Kara Khalil.evliya efendi. and Bülair Orkhan's son. Moderni. and arrived Forty years long he did at such a degree of perfection. Castel. Conquests of Sultan Orkhân. When young all he never mixed with other boys but sought retirement and scorned He worldly pursuits. him by his father. who nothing but pray and refused to accept the dignity of Sultân which was offered died a Prince in Khorassân. The Elî. Adremyt. Wikayit. . buried there. Balikersi. . reigned twenty-six years. his soul migrated from his body into the world of and he became spirits. Kojâ Iznikmid. Karassî. one of the greatest Jurisconsults he wrote a good commentary on Andalusian prosody. . and a warrior in the ways of God. and divine knowledge. Belakabâd. during his sleep. after a reign of he was a mild monarch. Iznik. he is buried with his father beneath a cupola in the mosque of the inner castle forty-one years. Castles of Yaz. Mola Hassan Kaissarî. at the and died age of sixty-nine. Inogi. Rodosto. and in Rumeli. Yanbolî. He was the first Professor (Müderris) of the College Mola Ala-ud-dîn commonly called Esvved Khojâ (the black master) who commented doctrinally on the work Mof'hni-ullebîb and also on the book. Tarakl. Kitah. Kara-hissar. Goinek. He conquered the castles of hissar. he which Sultân Orkhân built at Nicaea. The divines of his time were David was named Kaissari because he was brought up at text of Mohay-ud-din Arabi and was a second Kaissari of Caramania. 19 of Sultdn Suleiman. who the last was conquered by Sûleimân-pâsha. fast. Short account of the Conquests of Osmdn Khdn. that of Sultfin of title two lands. Bergama. the great Saint. Bigha. Osmân-beg reigned twenty-one years after the death of Sultân Ala-ud-dîn. a father to the poor. lies Tomb. and completed his education at Damascus. who was first created Kâzî-asker of Anatolia by Orkhân. Kogreh. Bilejik. Ashlüna. Brüssa. Ainegol. Kopru- Elibad hissar. Visit to Sultân Orkhan's Sultân Orkhân died in the year 771 (1369). that in the night. after having at the moment Brussa into the fell hands of his son. he . Notice of Hcjji Begtdsh. but them he was if and Khakân of he lost either of to lose the title also. Galibolî. filled with the mystic science of spirits. was a disciple of Mohay-ud-din. he Caesarea. because he had conquered Baghdad and Rodos. he died.

lamp and banner. and gift of direction to bliss (Irshdd). and Ahmed Yessûî. whom who Mervan handed over The prophet delivered the came to his son Hossein. the crown. son of Seyyid Ibrahîm Imam Müsâ left Seyyid no doubt of Seyyid Miissa Ebî Sebha. the symbols of Dervishship. Ja'fer by the hand of Bâyazîd Bostâmî. Mohammed direction leave to them the his appearance. Alkâzim. the son While yet a boy he was distinguished was entrusted to the care of whom Mohammed son of Seyyid Ishak Essakin. Yessui being asked by his disciples to consented Imam Baker. My of Khorassan to be their superior. is men and Saints into Rum. from Lokman had been in- of the disciples of he learned the exoteric and esoteric sciences. the Sheikhs of Hanefî. son of : is the history of Ain Alî gives. and the banner. where he married had Hâjî Begtâsh. who had thirty-seven children. which Gabriel brought from Paradise. the table. Abu Moslim. after his father's death Khatmeh this habit Lokman which has twelve folds at Ahmed and by her for his devotion. who bequeathed it to Ibrahim Almokerrem. the pole of poles. where the . Imam Hâjî and established himself the daughter of Sheikh Lokman. and of true Dervishship. . the carpet. aforesaid who became by who symbols. Khoja Ahmed Mohammed Yessüî Ibn hinted that he had received from him even the the all ancestor. to the to his son Mxissa Imam Kazîm. Mohay-ud-dîn Al-arebî. to Mohammed the true fountain-head of to Imam All. one vested with the religious habit of With Hâjî Begtâsh. the habit. Sultân of learning. as it has been just said. By order of Ahmed Yessûî he accompanied Mohammed Bokhara Sâltik with seven hundred men. never the possession the pole of the poles (Kutbal-atkab). the chief of the Türkistan. Hâjî Begtâsh of Khorassân was the son of the Seyyid Ibrahim Mokerrem. like a jubbeh. the head of the Sheikhs of Türkistan. with its symbols. was his disciple. who when in the all it left it to Dervishship. carpet and table. and other pious abbâ with sleeves Kârî Ahmed Ottoman dynasty took its rise. and there of his descent in direct lineage from the Prophet however. son Elmurteza. Begtâsh's father Khorassân Nishabur. who died in the prison of Mervan. the following genealogy of Seyyid Mokerrem Mûsâ Nishabü î. in worn by the Dervishes of the order of Begtâsh. till Hâjî Begtâsh made prison of and Ja'fer. From him they came Ahmed of it.THETRAVELSOF 20 One men clay the sanctity men great him of Kliorassan asked to perform a miracle as a proof of his he then performed many miracles. and the white invested Hâjî Begtâsh. and was acknowledged by . Shems-ud-din Tebrîzî. from Zein-ul-âbedîn. the fountain head of science. son of Seyyid Ibrahîm El-askeri. This is the crown or turban remembrance of the twelve Imams. which Sultân. the lamp. then to his son and from him to Imam to the crown and gown.

exist in Hâjî Begtâsh died Sultân Orkhân's reign. with awe all who and had reigned enter this monument. Sunbulli. which was renewed by built a Push Bâbâ. Poland and The seven hundred convents Russia. cupola. for Postin assassinated in the year 791. monument having fallen Csesarea of Sultân Suleiman's time. buried on the west side of Bnissa near old Kaplijah. at Sheikh Hassan Rufa'i. he passed seven times from AnatoHa into Wallachia. waged war against Timur. also following bad advice. Short account of liderim Bdyazid. He Khodavendkidr. Hajî Begtiish instituted the hundred his seven new militia called Yenîcherî. the tribunal of Sirkeji-tekkieh. and was buried in his presence in in the capital of Crimea.) to the Rose mosque. restored and covered God we shall describe in it its monument over his decay Sheitân Murâd. came his travels Ak-hissâr. Short account of Sultan He Murdd I. with lead. He his in one year movements obtained besieged Constantinople. buried at Ladika near Amasia. which of Dervishes. and from the rapidity of the name of liderim (lightning). Moldavia. 21 Begtâshî. in bow and which he was quiver are suspended over his tomb. and established a judge there and seven hundred Mussulman houses. gave caps (U'skufa) to the janissaries. his horse having been thrown down. a Beg into proper place. he In the year 805. are derived from the seven hundred disciples of Hâjf Begtâsh. Kublaki. was the of the Begtâshfs. and Sheikh Abdal Murâd. with the bloody killed. both of Sultân Orkhân's time. Tomh of Sultdn Murdd He His arrow. and is buried Sheikh Abdal Müssa Sultân. was seventy years of age which fills at his death. Wallachia. was to Sultân initiated by Haji Begtâsh. actually Turkey. by Milosh my gracious Lord Melek Ahmed Pâshâ. buried at Tokat near nephew of the former. and was taken prisoner by the Tatars after a long struggle into Timur's presence. it Sheikh Seyyid If it Ahmed of please Ruffa'f. where a Tatar princess raised a This tomb. beneath a large is garment I. after the battle of Khassova. but Timur asking what he would . from the Flour-hall (U'n-kapan. embroidered with gold mosque at Bilejk.EVLIYAEFENDI. Brought he was well received. . Sheikh Geigli Bahâ was a Dervish Sheikh Kâra Ahmed Sultân a Persian prince. disciples in the Mohammed Bokhara and having established towns conquered by Sultân Orkhân. who when on Orkhân. on foot. another He was mosque at Briissa and a convent A cupola is erected over the spot. he sent Sârî Sâltik into Dobrûja. thirty. Besides numerous conquests in Anatolia.

Mohammed His son. or present of money. . beneath which he sheltered himself made from the sun. at the place called Kunis. derision. from Brussa to Zaghrah in Rumeli. The Divines of his time valuable commentary. and have been made prisoner by the Tatars?" At the moment he kicked the coffin. Miissa. which carried him off. and had reigned seven years. He took of the above defeat is called to this day. Sheikh Abd-ul-latif Mokadessi Ben Abd-ur-rahman Ben travels. and Issa first and became absolute monarch. that he would have put him into an iron cage and carried him to Brfissa. was the first the poor of He sent a Surreh. and reigned fourteen war against fate. ordered Bayazid to be put into an iron cage. Mohammed I. his time were Kara Shems-ud-din Semavî. and had of the skins of the slain Tatars. whom Chelebi. shared the Empire with his brethren Suleiman. is Short account of Sultân He Sivâssî. by the caravan of pilgrims. he subdued in one year (Yeshil imaret). but he died on the third day of a violent fever. of the Reign of Murdd II. Abd-ul-aziz . buried at Aya Soluk (Ephesus) with Timiir . He lived mosque he had in the built at Briissa. : sixty-seven years. " Oh! my foot!" and from that day was attacked by the gout. buried at Sheikh Abd-ur-rahira Ben Emir Aziz Merzifünî. Timiir being enraged. The famed divines for his where he All is and learned men of works and buried.— THETRAVELSOF 22 him had he been taken prisoner Bdyazid answered. the foundations of which had been laid by his brother Mussa. and built a cupola near Philippolis over the tomb of Ghazi Mohammed Beg. tents Chelebi pursued Timiir's army towards Amasia. intending to carry him into Persia. who composed a Khosb-ud-dîn of Simânezadeh Sheikh Bedr-ud-din Ben Mevlenâ Fakhr-ud-dîn the Persian. liave done to . and the Sheikh Pîr . Shoi^t account The soldiers having revolted. he cried. The field Tâshak-ovâ-sî. who was exiled Ben Ghanem. the buried at Amasia. tomb gave it a kick with his foot. He finished the old mosque at Adrianople. to who Mecca and Medina. Eli'as. were Sheikh Shehâb-ud-dîn is who contended much Mahmud Ben Adrianople who he was a great Emperor. but could not . He built Yerkoi (Gimgera) on the banks of the Danube. do you lie here like a monarch. dethroned him under the pretext that he had . and Nicfea. saying you. and buried it Sultân Murâd IV. and lies buried beneath a painted cupola before his mosque called the green building. when he visited this "What. he was forty-seven years old. He died in 824. in corpse from his father's the enemy. who have destroyed the Ottoman honour.

and having had the honour of kissing the hands of the three sons of Murad II. and eight princes.. but only thirteen years of but being found incapable to hold the reins. II. obtained absolute sway. he foretold to Mohammed II. and took His father died the next year (85 G) at Adrian- his residence at Constantinople. I the son of a . and Sheikh Abd-ur-rahmiin Ben Hassam-ud-din. son of Bâyazîd. a cup. at the Erdebü near Shah Saf. The Pr Divines and Sheikhs of his time were Zekeriah Khalveti. who being taken conversed with (?). which. son of Osman. his assigned a salary to the Seyyids or Sherifs. Ala-ud-dîn Pâshâ. Ahmed's son Murad fled into Shehinshah. a a the mosque Ujsherfeli at Adrianople. his son Mohammed II. grown too and put old. a cavern with his governor Piâleh and killed (909). and presented to the Sultân. 23 who was displaced Mohammed throne. and had reigned twenty -eight years. throne. Persia to Shah Ismail. who all agreed that Jem was I. brethren of Sultân Selim I. Two end of three years. called Gumishlî-zâdeh . also Hes buried here near his father II. lies in more magnificent state than any of the tomb being covered with a golden stuff. " We belong to God. and return my to him. who was strangled by Sultân Selim.. died soon after at Constantinople of the plague. ople. whom he killed when going to war against Prince Ahmed. . that he would conquer Constantinople." In the year 1074 (1663) at the time journey to Vienna. and sent hither. which was dyed black by Sa'dî the poet of Jem. who died in 804. Tombs of Ottoman Princes. he died. son of Bayazid. Dar-ul-hadfth. filled itself again. for Murad to the the second time. he was the son-in-law of Pr Elîas. and recalled old II. age in his place . cupola near Mohammed Murad II. was on many monks and French princess. is buried near him. He was He built thirty -nine years old when he died. then twenty-one years old. had ascended the so also does the unfortunate Jem. the janissaries again was buried at He Briissa.EVLIYAEFENDI. two other He was the first who Bezestan.. sending him to Magnesia. saying the words. the son of the latter and brother of and who was strangled soon brother of Bâyazîd I. poor Evliya. mosques. and are Korkud. where. and was buried of his brothers. Mohammed. II. an ape who played at chess. who at had been spared at the inter- cession of the Ulemas.. on being emptied. and a white parrot. persecuted by Selim also buried here. and the bridge of Erkeneh with a mosque. who. Afterward in the year 855 they deposed Murad and Mahomed up II. are all buried near Orkhan also their brother Ahmed. the disciple of who commonly Elîas. He left after his brother . Governor of Briissa . Prague and Liinjat patriarchs. and establish the true faith there. lies near his brother Orkhan . Sultans buried at Brussa. is was taken at Tekkah in buried beneath a private Prince Hassan..

said. Mola Shems-ud-dîn Mohammed Ben Mohammed Ben Hamza Ben Mohammed Fanari. A for the inhabitants of Briissa. and load gazelles with his baggage after he had harnessed them. and the moon of life. Sultân Orkhân's Vezir. was built also a disciple of He was Ahmed Yessuf. wore the Urf II. where he was buried which Sultân came planted a tree near the Serai which has now arrived at a great height. the conqueror of Egypt wore the Selîmî may . it (a kind last for Tombs of Saints Visit to the ever He Ahmed He Begtâsh to Rûm. ! at Briissa. from the time of the Mahommed Seljiikians. that he tomb of Sultân his enemies. a voice was heard saying " Art thou there ? God deprive thee of sight " and a whirlwind rising at the same moment blew all the his master : ! He was one of the dust of the grave into his eyes. two sons of that name. at Bn'issa. Sheikh Geiklî Bâbâ Sultân was one of the followers of from Azerbeijân. Mustafa. at the sword. It is different scientific subjects. " May I see . Aûz-pâshâ. the son of Suleiman stran gled by his father. Mussa and Suleiman are buried There are many hundred princes and beside their father Bâyazîd at his mosque. he having had The first six Ottoman emperors are also interred at another Mustafa. Briissa in the great convent Abdal Mûssa. the town after the fashion of is placed.. which I. with of Khorassan. the sun of hidden things. SOF 24 Mohammed became the mother of Bdyazid and Jem. He present at the conquest of Brussa. lost in abstraction is the South side. having a spite against Fanârî. and used to ride on wild roes in the woods. by which he became blind. on the invidious report of I. who was buried in a convent facing the town on is same time a pleasure garden is shown here from which he placed in his treasury. Adrianople. but by related that having opened the grave of Kara Ala-ud-dîn. Murâd though interred on the east side of the courtyard gate of Eyyiib. in a convent. one of the Saints Ahmed His tomb at by Orkhân." divines who denied the verse . Chelebî Sultan by II. and (Santons). was and farthingales. Yessin. is who was killed by his father Suleiman. " The earth does not eat the flesh of the Ulema. one of the first divines of Sultân liderim. at the heads of their coffins a particular kind of turban folds II.. also lies buried in the some pretend but that is who. Issa. Mahân. in a pleasant place. at the point of the Seragho.. The art of folding them has descended from father to son in one family. three cubits long cut off one cubit's length. The three brethren of Mohammed I. princesses buried at the mosque of Sultân Murîid II. at the conquest of Brussa.THETRAVEI. and was present with him Abdal Murâd Sultân. has left works on seventy God's will became blind at last. came from Khorassan with Hâjî a companion of Geiklî Bâbâ. of round turban). in the castle at Briissa.

would it be " Well. When Timiir marched against Brussa the inhabitants being alarmed. themselves at his feet. How. Fanari had his sight restored him the same night." possible to stain God's house with the liquor forbidden by the law. with an order to the chief of the tailors E Kojâ and who mend old clothes. and performed the prayer of death on the Pasha. . fix his residence there. evident sign that he was to thousand The disciples. or the throne of God. and reposes at Brûssa near his college. left off drinking wine. go to Riirn with the ." it to the care of Eskejî Ilderîm being defeated. and knew by that miracle that he was a great saint. saying by it to give him the his descent from Saint appealed to the decision of the prophet tomb accompanied by his entitled to came : " where. the Saint answered . Bâyazîd liderim not only walked on foot by the side of his stirrup." . how is it thou art not afraid of staining the purity of this godlike house with wine day and night. They all became Dervishes under his direction. Sultân." From that moment Bâyazîd. Emîr it is a very elegant mosque. Shems-ud-din first to Mahommed Ben Mecca. whereupon a lamp suspended in heaven became his guide to show him the way. Brussa. " thou hast built a mosque." replied with surprise " . where he had four hundred inhabitants of Brussa had seen the lamp for three days. repenting. " Yes. and give me back mine to perform prayer on his grave and it so happened that Aûz-pâshd having had his eyes put out by command of grave. born at Bokhara. " Health to you my child.EVLIYAEFENDI. it II. Ali. they must be informed of recommended it. and then to Medina. Mohammed Ben hearing which the Sherîfs instantly threw upon lamp and Emîr Sultân undertook the journey to Rum. and was He took this as an only extinguished when he entered the town of Briissa. He died Sultân to in the year 833. note which he sent by one of his Dervishes into the to deliver VOL. to Eskeji Koja. that is camp Emîr Sultân wrote a of Timiir. Orkhan for a badly executed commission." said the Saint. commander of the town having Khizr. having saluted his adversaries. Emir Alî. and thou whose body is God's house. a voice was heard. though he was The the prophet through Hossein. 25 the day on which I shall perform the prayer for the dead over this blind Mollâ's This being told to the Molla. but some cups of wine for the refreshment of the pious are The Sultân wanting in the middle. where the Sherîfs refused portion allotted to the Sherîfs. but also gave him his daughter Nilüfer having built the great Sultân whether it mosque U'lûjâmf was not a at Khânum Ilderîm in marriage. himself. and. inquired The Saint said. more excellent than a talisman composed of the divine names. " the of Emîr Sultân what was now to become of the town. find it strange to put cups of wine therein . and having asked perfect mosque. Bâyazîd. he said " God Almighty can yet take away " the sight of the Pasha. called and went to the grave.

the but only look into the south side of the who dine here at the imaret. where he is buried. who was to Abd- also a good Sheikh Abd-ul-latif Mokadessi Ibn Abd-ur-rahman Al-anssarî. Mevlana Yussiif Bali Ibn Yegân. camp were broke up by the tents of the all the power of his command. by which you descend six steps. candlesticks. The Mufti of divine secrets. interpreted as Selim I. On the coffin lay Korans by the hands of Yakut Mostea'-assemî. saying : " Enter Egypt in security. having visited the tomb of Sadr-ud-dm at Konia. Ibn Sheikh-dedeh Mohammed. is Ahmed buried at Briissa. a great lawyer. Telvih. that many do not dare attempt recite a Fatihah. Hassan Chelebî. Sheikh ur-rahman Ben Alî Ben poet. died at Tâj-ud-din's tomb at Brûssa. Emir because this old tailor happened also to be a pole of poles. and ordered him to read the Sirâ Yass. cande- great equalled only by those of . . Kara Hissâri. china (Chînî). The coffin is covered with silk embroidered with gold. visited the tomb of four sides of which are laid out in cells for the poor. and tomb is a very elegant mosque. it by the window at the head." THETRAVELSOF 26 Having read the he Saint's note. He then built the convent There hved not a greater Saint than him in the Mohammed I.. and before he could put up his things in his bag. The tomb is encircled by gold and silver lamps. Sheik who Molla Yegân. (1429). after Sheikh Uzun Mosslah-ud-din. and . one of the U'lemas of Murad I. he stuck his needle in his turban. or great Saint. Zeiniler. " Emir Sultfin shall be instantly obeyed .. year 833 died in the Sultcin beneath a high cupola East. Timûrjî Kûl. brother Ahmed. said. Ibn All Ibn G hanem Al-bostâmî. is The walls are covered with variegated windows looking westward four to the field of Brûssa are four others look towards the Kiblah into the yard of the mosque. Mohammed Shah Ibn time of Sultân Mevlana buried at Zeiniler. and vases for perfumes and rosewater. and at the head a large turban reposes majestically. &c. the brass The buried outside of Briissa to the gates are inlaid with silver. which Emir Sultân promised and on that intimation Kemâl-pâshâ-zâdeh instantly said a Fatihah." which was news of the conquest of Egypt. Sheikh Bekri. the dead saint stretched out his hand from the tomb.. Abd-allah Krimi Khâled. the champion of mystic illlumination. a voice was heard. On it. so also entrance. Those who enter are struck with such awe. Mevlana Seyyid Ahmed Ibn Abd-allah who also wrote notes on the Mevlana Elias Ben Ibrahim. the is The number of suspended ornaments which adorn the interior of the mosque are Medina the silk carpets are richer than are found elsewhere. drew the Sheikh to him on the grave. When Emir Sultân Selim I. who wrote notes on the Ak Bi'ik Sultân of the Dervishes Bairâmi. after the death of his Sultân. labras. having read the Koran for the . Zehebî. who wrote an abridgement of the Kodiiri Telvih.

of Ramazân. some is of his Segbân beautiful Armenian and said. by liderim built . a pleasant Kazm. There is wherein he composed this precious work. with a large convent Molla Kemâl-ud-dîn known by the name of Karadedeh. " my life O Abu as follows. gate. the Sheikh name is Molla Hassâm-ud- of Kara Chelebi-zadeh. which I opposite to the burying place of the Camel-drivers. was Sheikh Ali Mest at the foot of the mountain. beneath the same cupola with Murteza Pâshâ. in the month the white sheep (Baianduri. was sixty years he was a tanner. Khâliss-dedeh. the author of the cele- brated canonical work." will who gave up Erivan to the woman with a white keeper was an old I visited this place the beard. the mine of divine science. a great divine of the time of Santon (Mejzub) Abdal spiritiuil 27 II. and I for the remainder of At that moment a white beard grew from her and she thus escaped the pursuit of the Segbân. had he his is finished the lecture of the whole of Molla Khosreu. buried in the near it. Shâdî Sheikh Emir Alî Efendi of the Karan fiUi-dedeh Karaja Mejid-ud-din. at Hassan Pasha's in the same place. The chapel three times. and did not begin to study until he old. order of Khalvetis. of at Molla Arab Jebbâri have myself seen her exists at Briissa. was an Armenian princess and married to one of the princes of He was born in the year 352. Siivinsa near Amasia. Molla Khosreu Ibn Khizr. Ishak His mother. turned her face to heaven Ishak deliver watch thy tomb. I did Mohammed. dîn Hossein Ben before the it. I. he buried at Erzerilm. his surname Abu Ishak. At the time of the rebellion of Abaza Pâshâ to the village Kânkoî. pole of the Bâbâ. before the monument of Murad Abd-allah Efendi. &c. buried near Zein-ud-din Hafi.. Sunbulli-dedeh at the Tatars' gate. buried at the convent of Zeiniler. Sultân.) and was the pole of poles in his day . his name was Ibrahim. where he lived and died. whose story me from these rioters. the author of the " Mevlûd-nâmeh. seven years afterwards he became Professor of the college . came girl.EVLIYAEFENDI. Eski Kaplîjah. Hassâm-ud- din Chelebi. buried Sheikh in Abu Mohammed world. Molla Ashji-dedeh." he is a small dark leave until I the blessed cell. known by mosque of Emir Sultân. spirit liderim Khân. The space of forty days. buried Mohammed Uftâdeh Efendi of the mosque of the inner castle. it is Chekirkeh Sultân Sultân near Emir in memory Kazm. The died 834. When Persians. with the intention of ravishing a she being aware of her danger. chin. Murad and Mohammed Fanârî. "Dm-er-u-gurer. Sheikh Sultân Ramazân on the great road. which Koran in not as an offering to Sheikh Abd-ul-latif Mokadessi the Imam of Sâurimssakjî-zadeh Suleiman Efendi buried near the old Kaplijah. meadow at Briissa in a convent of Begtâshîs. inside the gate of is Tebriz. born at the village order of Jelvetis. Shehriâr." or hymns on the Prophet's birth sung on Molla Bagdâdi-zadeh Hassan Chelebi Ibn Yiissuf Albagdâdî birth-day.

is established (Armud) which grow on It is a village of three mosque. faced with brick. a khân We spent a night here. who having fled of Pilpay's Fables). which lie to the from laughing East. different One cannot refrain some of these odd inscriptions. spirits. and said a Health to you. to Brussa. Okjizadeh Aghâ accompanied us as far as the bridge of Nilüfer. gay companions walking amongst the gardens and vineyards. Sultân. I many to whom I have their favour and In remembrance of those travels with visits to During forty days and nights ! Shah. said I assistance. which are both in prose and I was obliged to wait here two days. and wrote a great of his composition. have the same cause of complaint. his birth-place are besides. and no other trace of surrounded with fine gardens.THETRAVELSOF 23 Murâd of at Brussa . the air is very pleasant. the author of the " Hmaiûn-nâmeh" (the Turkish translation Sheikh Nur-allah Ben Ak-Shems-ud-din. and at last reached Bozboriin with the greatest It was formerly a good harbour but difficulty at the end of twenty-four hours. morning the boatmen advised us to make haste because the wind was favourable. Here we sent back our horses. accidentally killed himself with his his father from Mevlana Abd-ul-ghani Emir buried near Zeiniler. he lived many of books. and eating district of here. some bakers and buza buildings. We walked about three thousand paces into the Armiidli belonging to Brussa. a bath. all the at pears. and great Saints. and began Fâtihah on behalf of my all recommended myself the Faithful. and companions took leave of our friends on the 20th of Safer 1050. the work " Dedeh-jûngî" is number buried near Emir years after this. and God's mercy upon them enjoyed all kinds of pleasure at Brussa. all The inscriptions are in lamenting or cursing this place of Bozborun. but it is seller's good mosque are shops. all pen -knife. three mesjids. a . embarked in a light boat. from whence we reached Modania in four hours. and in the and ten shops. in name from the quantity of pears the valleys. there this point stormis no possibility of saying a word for it. because all who reach beaten. which I spent with ten or fifteen verse. Molla Alî Ben Sâleh celebrated by the name of Vassi Al. with my were tossed about by a stormy sea. was neglected because it did not afford sufficient shelter. languages. I I is was buried at Zeiniler. The walls of the covered with inscriptions by passengers complaining of this wretched place. There is a khan and a small mosque. the Siira Yass. from whence a Sûbâshî It derives its hills. He is The Mufti Azîz Efendi who was Sheikh-ul-Islâm in Sultân Suleiman's time. hundred neat houses. gardens and vineyards. Boll and he There Many is of their but named. and being exiled to Brussa died there. tombs I visited and said a Fâtihah in remembrance of their noble do not know their names. some hundred thousand great and holy men buried at Brussa.

EVLIYAEFENDI. welcome. The of same night I saw in my dream that thou wast gone to Brussa to implore That same night Sultan's assistance in thy travels. and read the Suna (Ena Atainak) a thousand times. paternal advice. and by a guard of janissaries (Yassakji Kûllüghf). father poor Evhya. walking next day along the sea shore for three hours to the garden of Iskander Chelebi. Arabs by Ibn Abd-allah. I performed many efficacious prayers. he could repeat forty thousand Fetwas by heart. when I was anxious about thy being lost. God which. who hke the martyrs of Kerbela died a violent death We an Usta or master with two is enemies of ambitious and dangerous schemes died without children. and was Sultân He buried here. and gave me leave then also kissed the hands of twelve unspeakable joy obtained their blessings on my under- . with our baggage. carried us out of this sad whirlpool of Bozboriin. traveller of Brussa !" where to. my finished Fâtihah. went the same day and my My mother. was his exiled to this place first by afterwards seized by the Bostânji-bâshî. some small streets and disembarked here and passed the night. under the Bostânjî-bâsh of is belonging to the Molla of Eyyiib. strangled and first Mufti in the Ottoman history. me to compose a faithful advice me me a strong box on kissed my father's hand. my travels. we Fâtihah in honour of Bâbâ said a We up towards Constantinople. when he had the ear. on the 25th Safer of the year 1050. and hear but now.. journey. and to sit gave thee leave to go and detailed account of them he gave I son. took horse here and rode along the shore in sight of our ship advancing by the aid of oars." many moral maxims. touch I did so. who to set out for whatever place I liked. It It now is Omar a large in the is it In the time of the Infidels at the siege of the hundred houses faced with Agios at last Constantinople. There Murâd IV. beat arrived at ruled by a Sbâshî. Thus returned tinople. brick. to hear this as I had not told anybody father crossing his hands said father said: — " In the night of A'shüra the 10th Moharrem. which belonged to the Defterdar of Sultân Selim the garden became an Imperial one. The Mufti Hossein hundred Bostânjî. I was going I my to paternal house. 29 it was a Ibn-ul-aziz in Greek village of has a convent. and much good enjoining my I Emir for my me twelve valuable books travels. the foot of Kâtirlî-tâgh at and Stephanos Stefano) which (St. which was ruined the Khalifat of Suleiman five We two churches. which may God bless ! ear with thy right hand. district At cape be praised. . is the who had been accused by Efendf. Bâbâ-bonm Sultân. large town. and kissed the hands of was astonished but my my : " Welcome. concluding his lesson with a then gave and two hundred well-coined ducats to provide great Sheikhs. who having II. to Constan- I. my I my left and he gave me thee down. this on the manner of .

erected by Mustafa Aghâ the up to quiet all Here we again embarked and the mineral spring (Ichmesu). pitched our tents on the shore. many thousand men from Constantinople . stone. whose hand of O " Shifaat (intercession) !" we weathered Friday at Yemish- mosque and having given thanks and prayed embarked on om. our friends. has one gate. and the agreed with one of I my relations same week the in first days Kül Oghlî Mohammed Reis voyage to Ismid (Nicomedia). " May God bless iskeleh. Qiialitles of In the month of July annually. is Below the mosque. brick. and gave our- and pleasure. Mahommed I. castle there are three bath. (Bis we the point of the Seraglio. ruled by a Sûbashî and belongs to the district of Gebîzeh. 1048 rowing three hours arrived at disembarked with selves and a fountain. Haleb. passed Chalcedonia. It is said to have derived prisoned here in a cave (1423). a At an hour's distance from here the road to Erzeriim and The wind not being favourable we rowed to Baghdad passes through mountains. of Rebf-ul-evvel. This castle is built of thirty houses faced with brick. saying " In God's name !" prophet of On for health and faith. kissed. and neither commander nor gamson. in order to save the going eighty miles long.THETRAVELSOF 30 me This gave taking. a square eighty miles from Constantinople. a khân. for a JOURNEY TO NICOMEDIA. two grocers-shops Bostânjî-bâshî of Sultân after Murâd IV.voyage. name from its and small hundred neat houses faced with streets harbour its . Damascus and Mecca embark in flat-bottom boats to pass over to Hersekdili on the opposite shore. a the port of Gebîzeh. is was conquered by it who were im- in the year 827 the children of Darius. the and ran straight before the wind to Darija. . and at the end of which is round the gulf which situated Nicomedia. the passage where travellers to Konia. is In the harbour of Gebîzeh -dill (the passage on this side) are tv/o old khans. after having where I and make easy the voyage. a biiza-shop. two bakers-shops. With a millah). great satisfaction. but no market or bath. where we (1638). Amen 1" performed the Friday prayer in the remembered the I saying. which looks on the harbour. a Mineral Spring. one mosque. God vision I fresh breeze " Siyahat (travels)" instead point of Tener-baghjeh castle on a chalk cliff Akhi Chelebi. of had had there of the Prophet.

where the ships belonging Janissaries take in their cargoes . year 731 (1330) and destroyed. which means wood might be procured at a very low period to it was called after his name Koja Il and Nicomedia but by the order of Sultân Mohammed Nicomedia was added to Anatoli. 31 merrily under tents during the space of forty days and live amusing themselves with muskets and guns. and Kojâ-Baî had subdued the adjacent country. and relieves the stomach of a quantity of offensive worms and intestines of bitter taste. from a chalk It is a white. juice.EVLIYAEFENDI. garrisoned by seamen. firing Sick persons drink of the water from the well for three days.) of Isnim-git into Ismit. and from the river Sakaria to the Black insulated Sea on the other. " Isnim is now a he gave var git. II. further operation is stopped. and many times since has been given as Arpalik to Vezh-s of three tails. and after half an hour's rowing arrived at the village of Ainehâjî on the sea-coast. which still repository for the re-establish this canal. with a slight The cliff. washing and cleansing their bodies. of his troops to A Nicomedia was conit large square tower of that When Orkhân besieged this town Koja Bai. taking for food chicken-broth without salt. in order that in the should never again afford shelter to the Infidels. causing Koja Il and Nicomedia ceased to be an island. and Nicomedia . and at the end of eight hours to the large town of Nicomedia. fast as a preliminary. cut from the lake of Sabanja to the gulf on one side. When for the next three the water has had its effect by drinking soup seasoned with lemonregimen the patients embark and go to the hot-bath of Yalova fifteen times. which causes vomiting. was made the price. After this directly opposite. and nights. the foundation of Scutari was formerly a strong and is is said to have been also ascribed of the built built more came and populous by Alexander. the ruins of which to whom still It remain . to whom he said. The imperial Khass amounts to twenty-six thousand. by contraction leave. We where they rest themselves. a Turkish village with a mosque and sixty houses. and the canal which was . taking care to keep himself warm : he continues to drink the water days. . Eight hours further rowing brought us to the village of Zeitûn-burnî (Olive Cape) a port of Nicomedia. then re-embarked. regulations prescribed for no meat or any thing its use must be salt on the fourth day the patient drinks a cup of water morning and evening.." After the conquest of Nicomedia. capital of by which became the name of the town. we were pleased with the Aghâ to the cultivated appearance of the country on either side the gulf. bile. while the lower evacuations cleanse the similar matters. five hundred it . assemble here. is be completely but that communication was choked up by Constantine. clear water. place. It quered by Sultân Orkhân would be an easy thing to first wood and command (You have my timber. standing on the sea-coast. and issues enjoin a three days eaten . go.

they cut trees of one hundred cubits length. there is good air of Rostem-Pâshâ. a fine building. quarters. is that of Pertev-Pâshâ with seventy fire-places. with a leaden cupola and one minareh. mosque of Pertev-Pasha. and guarded by two hundred is the next is There are altogether twenty-three the Serai of the Pashci. famous for many This town has no stone-built Bezestdn. stands on the sea-shore. There The also that of Pertev-Pâshâ. five hundred elegant houses with gardens. but his annual revenue may be reckoned at The port piastres. under which ten thousand sheep find shelter in their shade. valuable things are notwith- the khans and shops. The woody mountains East an immense forest in which of the it is town are . Murfid IV. two hundred magazines for wood and other materials are in the port. its which the sun's rays cannot pierce. The white cherries and . one hundred and eighty-seven timârs. paved with white stone. like the former. At the invalids of the The town contains three thousand The largest is the Serai of Sultân and Kûrijî are wealthy. and twenty-three of the tribunal with one minareh the . no establishment by Kojâ Sinan. trees). and that of the Pâshâ at twenty thousand five much is frequented by great merchants. for they cannot be described. and the trees of Yalova are famous At the end of the gulf are salt-marshes which afford pure all over the world. which . the old market is the mosque and one by Jews . salt. The complexion is Danesî (sea of way . many sawmills and works which must be In these thick forests seen. thousand. a Mufti and Nakîb-ul-ishrâf. are richly dressed janissaries (Oturak) Bostdnjis . salt-inspector. with the windows looking towards the sea. their called Aghâ very easy to lose one's here are trees towering into the skies. and are under the direction of a red apples of Nicomedia are famous. best bath is is and water. on the side all The At the back of the houses the mountain streets are all is laid out in inhabitants are healthy.THETRAVELSOF 32 and twenty-six aspers. Tlie judge is appointed with three hundred aspers a day. are waiters. are. the most brilliant of which is that of the Serdâr. gardens. best It is is is it The bath waiters. most of wliom trade in wool. and forty coffeehouses. three of which are occupied by Infidels. and attentive The Sinân's work. Besides the khans. twenty-five ziâmets. one thousand one hundred shops of handicraftsmen. but standing to be Emperor is met with in The houses Near the palace of the of the town are of the mountain. pubhc its officers The a commander of the janissaries and Sipahîs. the Imperial arsenal. mosques. appropriated to the Emperors. bright mosque built reading the Koran or tradition. merchants. khân for an elegant. it was erected by order of Pertev-Pdshâ who was governor here for seven years in the time of Sultân Suleiman. the air and water being very good white.

built by a Greek princess. who saw was going that he to unite the two shores and stop ran after him. one bath. the ruins said to belong to the The judge is appointed with one hundred and fifty aspers. F . she became cured of her leprosy in forty days. a pleasure spot in the midst of thick forests. Helena. was entertained I Mohammed days for ten Chelebi in this town . a grew out immediately in his into a point. a commanding officer of the janissaries and a Subashi. 33 Pilgrimages of Nicomedia. is any liad relation Kiil-oghl' we reached origin of this where into the water. and clothes amongst the brethren of revenue. fifty end of we entered our five are Having excellent. still was destroyed remain their the left for travellers Vezir to set sail. There is seven-hundred houses. the further side of which Efendf. faced with brick. He Gebizeh. discovered by accident the marvellous quality of these waters . took up earth apron.EVLIYAEFENDI. direction. They living. which was the cause of this building being VOL. while this side tongue of land it is ascribed to a is having been refused a passage by the ferryman. to the great fright of the ferrymen. Moham- and at the miles reached the castle of Kara Yalavaj. The Deal or tongue. who come We here after taking a course of the purgative waters at Deal. to cleanse themselves in the hotbath. the town has sanjak of Briîssa. by bathing in them. port of Deal. it the called Gebizeh's Deal. being leprous and exiled to these mountains. but the air being very heavy. and a great alchemist. The and prolonged. whence after a journey of thirty miles.. who conquered castle Khan a large We name. on which he walked to the length of twelve thousand paces. and threw fixed to the opposite shore only three miles distance. which was built in the time of Yanko Ben Madian. which was of liderim it in the time of difficult this castle was Osman. bears built is till . distributed food though he never his order. is In the Market-place a mosque with a minareh capable of holding a great number of people. where we found a couple of hundred tents. At Hersek Deal is who med wait there for a passage II. pitched ours and entered into conversation with the guests. Its and at the shops. three khans and from forty to frequently prevail. agues yoghiird and fruits that was worth seeing here. visited all chariots (araba) took a south east hours arrived at Germab Jihan-namah. and named Kara Yalavâj-oghl. remainder of the sea open. his he buried at the Deal of Ahmed Pâshâ was by him. on the spot called Deal-baba. II. and seven mihrabs. and did not desist from entreating him. and entered their boat. end of and fifty this Khan. at the the time in siege. Hersek-oghli . my house of in the then embarked and went called Hersek's who Dervish. On the west side of the town tomb of Sheikh-zadeh Mohammed the is He great Sheikh of the order of Khalvetis. the daughter of Yanko.

nine miles in our journey to Brussa. from the appear- On its four sides Dalians (look-outs These islands are seven altogether. and is cliffs called by the sea-shore. to the castle of The a mosque and three mesjids. and received their benediction. Their wealth in goats island castle (rup-yoç) its houses with fine gardens and good wells. presented them with some Ketânjî Omer gifts I first At I I passed seven days last the wind became kissed the hands of my father and mother. in the island Tâshanlî. latter island is eight miles in circumference. the water of which in the cherry which we again started. and twenty miles. is extremely hot. after a month's Pasha. season. situate on the chalk circumference. and are rich masters of boats. Burghaz from all is is is eleven miles in has three hundred it ruled by a Sûbashî and Yassakji. between Constantinople and Yelova. is it (?) air is heavy. Borghazli (Antigone). and the inhabitants are The island abounds ascribed by the author of the Tarîkhî Yalovân. and at after Samanl. which was conquered in Sultan Osman's time by Samdnlî-oghlî from whom it took its name. the end of a five hours journey. the Bostanjî-bâshî. in a line fair. The Greeks. Its castle is in ruins. Heibeli (Khalki). ance of its It is called Kizilata mountains. came when mixed pleasant These baths are frequented by a great many people with cold. the Sübashî and a Yassakji. two my father having been father as his Kapii Kiaya or agent accompanied him on the journey to his government. but is existing. a cultivated island of twenty miles in circumference. with a large We remained here a whole week. which for the island of Heibeli. or the red island. ruled by for catching fish) are established. and which Six miles further on from the infinite rence. he appointed my and appoints of Rebi-ul-akhir. rowing eight miles we came to the island of Bûrghazlî with a strong but small castle. who These seven islands are eighteen miles distance from Constantinople. the weather being unfavourable. and hares. is is its name (Hare only one mile grows on this in island) circumfeAfter island. an old and particular friend of at Constantinople. Tashânlî (Platys or Oxia). visiting these isles. which derives uncultivated. has a convent Ten miles distant from Kanal and a Kizilata (the Prince's it is Island). found there The tree Rakita . and form part of the Captain Pasha's province. We embarked we have already mentioned circumference. . and I entered Constantinople on the absence.TIIETRAVELSOF 34 Her erected. and (Proti). with a village of hundred Greek houses. The village of one hundred houses. belonging to the district of Yalova. landing at Wood-gate. enriched the inhabitants of Kizilata (Prince's Island). and is near Scutari. from Nicomedia. two are yet father built six cupolas. which was wrecked among the Prince's to the loss of a richly laden Spanish fleet Greek Emperors. distant is number of hares. the cargo of which being thrown on Islands in the time of the shore or fished up by divers. of which basin beneath. and there are but an hundred and fifty houses with gardens. named governor of Trebisonde.

some faced with brick. here It accursed Cossacks in the reign of is was formerly a Ahmed a judge with an income of fine town. JOURNEY TO BATUM AND TREBISONDE. bath. in Koja-Ilî. at the some shops and a khan. a Voivode's residence one hundred and fifty aspers. we trusting in sailed along the Asiatic rocks. in a very low zines full of state. east sides are all gardens. along the thirty-six miles we came to Shila. and. We volume. with gardens. friends. at south- river is arrived at uninhabited small town of mountains of Kândrî in tiie is we Sakaria here disembosrues from the mountains of Cutahia. The south and took in water. a district with a Subashi. and arrived at the harbour of Irva on the frontiers of Koja-Ilî. a bath and three khans. . and others of wood . there took in five In seven hours more ballast. first the mouth of the Bosphorus. and one hundred fifty houses faced with brick and surrounded with gardens. but not garrisoned. goes to Kiva. the island of Kerpe. with a garden and a mosque head of the harbour. which was built by Sultân the my having taken leave of after at the Flour-hall in the ship called God.. small town of Kefken has a miles further on Kandria. a mosque. four into the hours distance from the island. I embarked Kara-mursal of Fcrtîl-oghlî of Trebisonde. and Kerpe. and came to Akcheshar. which it is is The One hundred twenty miles but in circumference. We At the end of Asiatic shore. and in three hours time arrived at Yenikoi on the which has been already described hundred quintals of biscuit. a jurisdiction of Kojâ-Ilî. falls into the Black Sea near There being no wind we rowed ten miles further on. a khan. as stated in for a prosperous voyage through reached the castle of Kavak. mosque. it rises The to each. The but a mile distant from the continent of Koja-lli. 1050. EVL I YA EFEND 35 I. a place belonging to the district of Nicomedia. . here are six hundred houses faced with brick. Black Sea . one of which was formerly covered with lead. Bosphorus. We now on the shore are seventy maga- Mountain on mountain the town. and advanced by rowing. It is wood and the harbour of Boli The timber. cultivation of the place air. In the beginning of Jemazi-ul-akhir. Turkish houses. forty shops but no Bezestân. from forty to magazines. in the first and ten boat-loads of Here we read a Fâtihah volume. and gardens appear one above the other account of the purity of the is . but burnt by the There are now only I. six hundred on the market-place stands a brick-built mosque. khan and bath. rises on the east side of the people are healthy on passed Eregli (Heraclea) and the tower of the shepherds (Chobân Kûlessi) a small castle on a lime cliff. we Murâd IV.

where all the passengers went on shore. the seat of a Voivode belonging to the sanjak of Boli. but no dining or reading establishment. and seven miles beyond Omer Ben inha- but retreated without taking it. Sixty miles to the north. the houses are faced with brick. a bath. the last of which is . along the seashore. the safest are much praised. the judge commanding is officer of faced . who were always at different times Amassra a mosque and some niesjids. The high mountains (Balkan) are covered with tall trees. and built Kastemûnî . and again in the year 796 by liderim. and fifty miles by sea. dred miles by sea. lies belonging to Kastemûnî . It is also refuge in the world harbour at the eastern . It the Om- besieged this was conquered by U'lu-Beg the Lord of Kastemûnî. river Kayvi forms the frontier forty miles from here to the harbour of Kadoz . The castle AineboH was of Siibashi. but a judge with an income of one hunIn the castle is aspers. It has compelled to retreat. subordinate to fifty There aspers. with brick. nephew of Suleiman Ben Abd-ullah of miades. on the rocks are some remarkable inscriptions.THETRAVELSOF 36 Near it is the statue of the builder. its gate looks to the east. situated on the is by land. and Bârten. has but no good harbour. and good magazines. The which afford excellent timber for the large ships that are built here. and arrived at Amassra (Amastris) built by the Greek Emperors. it is the the seat of a the janissaries. Description of the Ancient Abd-ul-assiz. We north. the Town of Sinoj)e. also castle. We passed the rivers TufadJir a great river. The castle is a strong square building on a high hill. bitants are all ship-builders. is is a by the Genoese. The It is at the distance of seventy miles is reached the point of Kerenbe. rison. distant five days journey on the east side of Heraclea. The castle the houses are mesjids. On the east and west side are two excellent ports. As it is an extremely strong . We rowed from hence till we came in sight of the cape of Sinope. and anchored before Shâtir-koî. it was attacked no Dizdar. and a commanding officer of the janissaries. in the market-place a bath and shops. is between the sanjak of Boli and Kastemûnî. at a distance of four The climate and fruits of this place days journey by land. a Dizdar and gar- a strong pentagon on the seashore all now is appointed with one hundred and landing-place are mosques and of Kastemûnî. where Egyptian ships enter to be The Castle of Bdrten was built by the Genoese and is situated at the end loaded. and one hun- east of Sinope. village of Istefan is the the town of Sinope. having laid siege to Constantinople without effect. dred and fifty by the Russians. a cape like that of Sinope . went from hence eighteen miles further of a gulf eighteen miles in depth. a pleasant village. very hke life.

ij) and one hundred are exempted because they are employed in renewing the fortifications . and has of cloth and caftans The mountains on the east and Kiblah side of the town are laid out The town of Kastemuni is three journies distant on the east side. The inhabitants are a commercial people. in gardens. from Constantinople. cry their " all's well. six viz. Sinope is Sultân. was with it difficulty separated from Kastemuni 37 taken after the third siege. with triple walls of Shedad (gigantic or Cyclo- hill pean) and was built by the Greeks. a great it from the Sultân. the hospital-gate. and The castle stands lies on a high on the west like Sinope side of a straight. which bears the same name. and eight gates. and other arms. (Lonja).evliya efendi. there are five thousand and sixty ancient houses of stone. on the European shore of the Black sea are the rocks of Kilghra it and the Black sea appears between them towards Constantinople and Trebisonde. hundred brave warlike men. those of the Infidels are on the sea-beach Infidels but were routed and driven is . with They commonly wear some Sheikhs and Ulemas. back The Infidels tried several times to retake in great confusion. . additional number It was retaken from the men. made no new attempt divided twenty-four pay the tribute (Khar. of Bogassin. ! it. In the time of Sultân it The garrison consists of Ahmed. From that period the watch has been kept nightly by two hundred officers and Chauches. Serdar. the gate of the inner castle. and the great Vizfr Nassif Pâshâ. thousand six hundred battlements. and Nâkib-ul-ishrdf. situated on a cape of the Black sea. and provided with one thousand of large and small guns. being mechanics and merchants. on a dark night. the place gate. was put to death for having concealed Infidels and garrisoned with fifty quintals of powder. and the gate of the inner castle castle on the seashore oblong square The lower All these gates are of iron and double. Mufti. the Cossacks took the town by escalade. since the and God be thanked reign of Sultân Murâd IV. It is a free fief entirely a Dizdar. Opposite to ferrâjîs It is seven thousand paces in circumference. empowered by an Imperial rescript to kill him if he goes for the inhabitants are further from the six . fortress. is into one thousand one hundred The oldest mosque that in the castle of Ala-ud-din which has a lead-covered cupola. the arsenal-gate. washed by the waves on the two is viewed from the top of Mount Biizdepeh sides. sand- the gate. the Oghran gate. The commander is a constant prisoner. they have The town quarters. facing the sea to the west. and a minareh . towards the sea. with slated roofs. are the authorities of the place. wbich widens five is Samsun hundred miles distant at four journies distance. castle than the distance of a cannon's shot. its appears part of the form is an like a ship's deck divided into three parts." (Yeg dir Allah). a judge. the new-gate. and after the music of sunset the guards.

THETRAVELSOF

38
one hundred paces long,

a

in

The mihrâb

with three gates.

proportion,

fair

and the place of the Muezzins are of exquisite workmanship, but the minber
so elegant that angels alone could adequately describe

but

it

will

be

like

a drop

in the

it

;

I

make

will

ocean or a mote in the sun.

It

is

the attempt,

was composed by

ancient masters of six different kinds of marble, which are so well put together

Jemshîd would be unable to discover the

that even the cleverest artists, such as
joints.

and blossoms of the earth are here

All the flowers

carved, so that in all Islam there

no minber

is

to be

engraved and

skilfully

compared with

this,

unless

it

be that of the great mosque at Brussa, which, nevertheless, cannot compete with

it

in

the abundance of floral ornament

in short, all travellers

;

and

who

artists

behold this minber, place the finger of astonishment on their mouths, for

seems more

a supernatural than a

like

suburb of the Castle,

it is

human work.

Being situated

it

the

in

always crowded with people whose prayers are put up to

The remaining mosques are the Süleimânie in the inner castle with
one minâreh the new mosque near the gate of the Meidân (Almeida) the Ayâ
Sofiâh, an old mosque faced with brick, the mosque Kefeli outside of the gate
Heaven.

;

;

of the Meidân, and that of

The Baths

Mohammed Aghâ

are as follows

:

double one, that of the lower
building, the air

— The
is

with a well proportioned minareh.

bath in the upper part of the market

There

When

and sixty abecedarian schools.

had learned reading and knew the Koran by
on Tradition, and three

shops, full of valuable goods
are

good.

The harbour

quarters of the wind
that of Bâliklava

;

is

there

;

is

reading the Koran, and one thousand

excellent, affording
is

shelter

for

and beverages

ships

against

no better port in the Black sea unless
is

of the Turkish youth of both sexes

who

girls

an imaret, a house

provisions, the white bread especially,

the best water

;

for

There

heart.

the

is

I visited this

town, the inhabitants boasted, that there were two thousand boys and

for lectures

a

a single one like that on the sea-shore, Yalli, the

and the water are equally pleasant and agreeable.

college of Sultân Ala-ud-di'n

is

it

all

be

found here, and the beautiful symmetry
to be attributed to the mildness of the

is

climate.
I visited

the green

the tombs of Sîdî Belâl Sultan, Sübhan Khojâ, that of Jujî Sultân, in

monument

within the Castle

;

of Ala-ud-din, that of Bekir Khojâ below
gate, and those of

Hamza and Emir

South of the town
to

is

that of
it,

Kâzî-Beg Sultân

that of

Efendi near

Imrza Efendi

Buzdepeh

which the rocks of Kilghra are seen on the European shore

bears abound on this

embarked and

at the

We

at the Sand-

it.

the high mountain called,

mountain.

in the college

(ice
;

peak) opposite

foxes, jackals

and

spent three days in this town, then re-

end of three miles came to Findîjâk-âghzî, whose inhabitants

;
;

EVLIYAEFENDI.
are
it

all

rises

boatmen and

ship-builders.

from a mountain

The

name red

from

river

its

Irmdk here enters the

river Kizil

in the sanjak of

reddish colour.

Higher up the

river in

the neighbourhood

cultivated through fear of the

is

derives

it

the mountains

are found cornelians large enough for handles of knives and daggers
in

sea,

Angora, passes under the bridge of

and to Hâjî Haraza near Tüsia,

Chcishnegvi'r to the castle of Osmânjîk,

the

39

;

no

village

Cossacks; forty miles

we came to Bafra, the seat of a Sûbashî subordinate to the sanjak
The judge is appointed with one hundred and fifty aspers a day
of Janik,
The distance from Samsun
there is a separate Serdâr (officer of the janissaries).
Bafra lies south-west of Samsun and at two farsangs distance
is a day's journey.
from the Black sea. The Kizl-Irraâk, which comes from the district of Gunâfurther on

nabâd flows on the west

side of Bafra,

and near

this place

it is

crossed by a bridge

wooden arch from one side of the shore to the other
There are two mosques and two baths at Bafra, and the

of fir-trees, which forms a
it

is

well worth seeing.

houses are

all built

of

fir.

Description of the Castle of Samsi'in.
It

was

first

Seljiik family,

taken from the Greeks,

fifty

built

and afterwards by Sultân liderim

ordinate to the sanjak of Janik.

and

who

Order

aspers.

is

The

by Ala-ud-din a prince of the

it,

is

it

;

the seat of a voivode

judge's provision

kept by a commanding

is

one hundred

fixed at

officer

sub-

of the janissaries

commander of the castle. Dizdar, but there is neither
Mufti nor Nakîb-ul-ishrâf.
The inhabitants are all packers and boatmen, no
great rich men (Awan) but a number of Ulemâs.
Every body dresses according
to his means.
The distance between Sinope and Samsun is by sea one hundred
(Serdâr Kiayayerî), and the

and

fifty

miles,

Samsun, which
III.

the

and
is

five

days journey by land.

Sinope

a strong fortress on the seashore.

conqueror of Erla, the Cossacks took

some

lies

to the

In the time of

this castle

south of

Mohammed

and destroyed the

places, which, after they

were driven away, were repaired,
and the garrison strengthened, with great store of ammunition
it is now five

fortifications in

;

thousand paces

and four

gates.

disembogues
not fordable,

in circumference, has seventy towers,

The

in the

river of Chârshenbe-Bazârî,

two thousand battlements

which passes before Amasia,

Black Sea on the east side of Samsun.

rises in the sanjak of Boli,

It is

a large river,

goes to Tokat, and then passes before

Amasia;

hence originates the proverb coarsely applied by the inhabitants of
Tokat to those of Amasia; " you drink what we have defiled."
The water
of

Samsun

is

called bad,

it

is

however clear and transparent.

faced with brick and surrounded with gardens,

it

The houses

are

has a mosque and khans, but

;

THETRAVELSOF

40

no college or reading establishment, seven abecedarian schools, a bath, and a
market, but no port.
grapes and pears of
stantinople

edge of a

its

;

It is

Samsun

are

pickled

and sent

(tûrshî)

The town

cables, ropes and resin are famous.

We

gulf.

The

an open place but the anchoring ground good.

visited all that

was

be seen at

to

in

casks to Con-

is

situated on the

this place

and then

re-

embarked with our companions.
Description of the Castle of Onia.

was

It

by one of the Emperors of Trebisonde, was

built

Keikiibad of the Seljuk family, and afterwards by Orkhân.

The judge

Voivode subordinate to the sanjak of Jânîk.

hundred and

aspers

fifty

power, but there

is

It

is

the seat of a

appointed with one

is

a Serdâr and Dizdar are in possession of the military

:

no Mufti nor

building on the seashore

conquered by

first

;

The

Nakib-ul-ishrcif.

castle

is

a square stone

the houses well inhabited, the mosques light, and the

all this we re-embarked, and proceeding a few
came to Fatsha on the seashore, consisting of three
hundred houses, a mosque, a khân and a bath. It is a ziamet belonging to

markets populous.

Having seen

miles with a favourable wind,

Janik

;

The

sharp point advancing ten miles into the sea.

We

with well cultivated Greek villages.

passed

who took

lord of Azerbeijan,

this

is

it

hill

the gate looks to the east.
of one

hundred and

known by

inhabitants are
port,

fifty

by the seashore, but
It

is

The

name

It

has

straight before the wind,

castle

is

II.

It

of a round

not strongly garrisoned

is

The

mosques, khans and baths.

of Wiina Greeks and Turks.

where the largest ships can anchor

Constantine the

it

Mohammed

ruled by a Serdâr, and a judge with an income

aspers.

the

with those of Gumish

was taken by

the seat of a Sübashî from the sanjak of Janik.

shape, and stands on a

a

is

and came more northward

together

castle

Khânf, Baiburd and Jankha, at a later period

it

of Stephan

mountains are interspersed

and conquered by U'zun Hassan

to the castle of Wiina, built by the Genoese,

the

The cape

the inhabitants are for the most part Greeks.

any time.

at

We

It is

a good

went from hence,

one hundred miles to the castle of Giressin built by

founder of Constantinople.

It

Hassan, was afterwards taken by the Genoese, and

fell

into the

lastly

by

hands of U'zun

Mohammed

ordered his general Mahmvid Pasha to enter the castle in the night, the

have originated from

who
name

II.,

" giressin" (thou shalt

of the castle

is

enter).

on the frontier of the Pashalik of Trebisonde, to the Khass of which

it

It is

belongs;

its

said to

this order,

public officers are, a judge with one hundred and

Serdâr of the janissaries, a Dizdar of the
house, a Muftf and Nakîb-ul-ishrâf.

It

is

castle,

fifty

aspers, a

an inspector of the custom-

situated

on the seashore between

EVLIYAEFENDI.
Janîk and Trebisonde, to the east of the

41

By

latter.

the appearance of the ruins,

Genoese, but it is now only a
was a large town when
and
khans,
a
bath
and
mosques
a
market
the gardens yield fruit
with
one,
small
in the possession of the

it

;

Though

plentifully.

the anchorage

against contrary winds.

On

excellent, yet the harbour affords

is

west side of

the

a small island, where the

is

it

no shelter

Cossacks concealed themselves when they burnt and plundered this town, which
is

As

not defended by the Castle.

it

belongs to the government of Trebisonde,

some hundred men of Omer-Pcishâ's suite took horse here and continued their
We then steered our boat to the north, and
journey to Trebisonde by land.
arrived at the castle of Purpolum, which
hill

a small square

is

We

are Greeks.

weathered the Cape of Zemreh, where

The

in the mountains.

The

many

castle of Küreli

on a

castle is situated

station of Popoli

hill

by the

district

is

belonging to Trebizonde.

the castle of Kelpe, a district belonging

The castle stands on a high
Genoese. The castle of Bozr-bürnî

hill

was

the

castle of

villages are to be seen

Further on we came to the

by the seashore.

cape, called the point of Bozur, which

is

a

Akche-abâd, a large

is

by the seashore, and was

also built

name

of a

Selim

it

;

The
The

safety.

Wakf

belongs as

port

is

A

built

The

Pulta Bazari
fair is

it.

castle
is

held here

visited by many thousand inhabitants from the neighbouring

to the foundations

of Khatiinieh

the

mother of

same time the Mütevelli or administrator of the
one of the most celebrated in the Black sea on account of its

the Sûbashî

I.,

Wakf.

is

monk who

by the Greeks.

the seat of a Siibaslu and Naib subordinate to Trebisonde.

every week which

built

a small square castle on a rocky

belonging to Trebisonde.

district

a strong pentagon on the seashore,

villages

;

on a

the inhabitants

on a great gulf, where traces of ruined castles are to be seen in

Further to the north

places.

is

to Trebisonde.

The

castle, situated

by the sea-shore, with a commander (Dizdar) and a garrison

is

at the

torrent of Kalatîmâna, which rises in the mountains of Trebisonde,

enters the Black

sea

near the harbour of Pulta.

The

valley of Seredere

is

enlivened by cultivated villages, whose inhabitants go in boats to the market of

Trebisonde, to the south of which these places are situated.

Description of the

It

was

built

Town and

ancient Fortress of Trebisonde, the Capital of the

Lezgians

God guard

;

it

from

all mischief!

by the Greeks and was conquered by U'zun Hassan, the Prince of

Azerbeijan, but retaken by the Greek Emperors at the time of Timiir's invasion,
until, in the

year 878 (1473),

it fell

into the

power of

Mohammed

II.

He

brought

forward an immense army by way of Jankha, and gave battle to U'zun Hassan
in the field of Terjidn,

VOL.

II.

where

forty

thousand of U'zun Hassan's

G

men were

slain,

THETRAVELSOF

42

fled to the Castle of Azerbaijan.

and he himself
Sultan

Murad

Mohammed

no greater victory had been gained.

I.

the town of Trebisonde thirteen years before

Mohammed

increasing).

Since the victory at Kossova of

II.

its

;

name was

spelt

fixed his residence here, coined

conquered

II.

Tarbefzün (joy

money, had public

He

prayer performed in his name, and remained here three years.

subjected the

northern provinces of Georgia, Mingrelia, and Abaza, established his son Bâyazîd
here as

commander, and went himself

Bâyazîd

II.

to

his

third residence, Constantinople.

having ascended the throne in his father's place, gave the government

of Trebisonde to his son Selim

I.

who

twice passed over to the Crimea, and

heading the Tatars led them against his father.
Varna, and once at Adrianople, he

left his

Being defeated

in battle,

once at

son Suleiman his Lieutenant at Tre-

bisonde, and retired in disguise into Persia, where he played at chess with
Ismail, then travelled over

Baghdad, Meshhed, Mecca and Medina

versed there with Ebii Sa'iid Jârehî, and
into

Mezruk

Rum and Persia, and then come to Egypt."

to Trebisonde,

to Egypt, con-

said "

who

Kafâkî,

Shah

O

Selfm go

After three years travel he returned

from whence, keeping up secret intellligence with the janissaries

and with Mengli Gerai Khdn, he led a Tatar army against

his father,

whom

he

vanquished at Chorli, and banished to Dimitoka, where he died at the village of

Hawsa.

Sultân Selim remained absolute monarch, and immortahsed himself by

the victories of Chaldir and Egypt.

was brought up

Siileimfin

Ottoman Emperors.
to this place

of Batiim.

Vezirs of three

fair

Two

it

to a separate province, with the addition of the sanjak

a Beglerbeglik of two

but was given more than once to

consists according to the

Murad
Kanun

IV. and Ibrahîm.

piastres.

Trebisonde, which

There are
is

piastres,

five sanjaks, viz.

the chief place.

The

but

There are forty-three
of Trebisonde,

;

he

get, in

a

severe, even thirty

feudal officers are a Defterdar of the
rolls

an inspector of the Chaushes

ziâraets,

is

may

Jânkha, Batiim, Zr, Gonia, and

Timars, a Kiayâ of the Defter, an Inspector of the

Kiayâ of the Chaushes

if

The

(law) of forty thousand

Sübashî are attached to this place, and the Pâshâ

way, every year, nineteen thousand

thousand

tails,

as arpalik, in the reign of

tails

Khass of the Pâshâ
aspers.

Trebisonde, which has been the seat of four

In remembrance of his youth spent here, he sent his mother

and raised

It is

at

(Defter-emini), and a

is

also appointed here.

two hundred and twenty-six timars

and thirteen ziâmets with seventy-two timars

in the sanjak
in

the

sanjak

of Batum, altogether one thousand eight hundred well-armed men, besides a

thousand Jebelis of the Pâshâ, so that the whole including the
to three thousand

men.

They hold

should go to war under the
forfeit their leases.

command

villages

officers

amounts

and land on condition that they

of the Pâshâ, which

if

they do not they

Khângî-chîchû. Gûnelî. Khûftî. Well. Meizer. Paivân. and instead of the Serdâr of the janissaries a Chaush of high authority. Râbieh. Kananan. of Ashufli. Fâtima. from father to son. candles. and Memet. Memf. token thereof. of Kamishlar. There are seventy Abaza obeisance since the time of Sultân Suleiman. The town is situate on the eastern pleases God The distance from side of the Black sea and is surrounded by delightful gardens. Affa. Constantinople is exactly a thousand miles. a Shah Bender or chief of the merchants. and makes annually a revenue of eight thousand piastres. a Kiaya-yeri of the Sipâhîs. them to kill the Jews who enter the town. Mufti. Siâmî. of Boziinik. Kalafat. Onkhân. Khiva. a Mohtessib. Esma Khân. the inhabitants are Lezgis and Janissaries. which is pronounced here pâshâ. Apârtî. the names of the women. Nakib. constitution of Sultân Suleiman. &c. Aliali. the reason of their being thus empowered shall. of Jembeh. and A'nifah who Allah -kûlî. Gulshâkhî. Saikha. thousand pieces of coarse linen for towels for the Imperial kitchen. a Subashi. Kotûzmeslî. and in short seventeen public magistrates appointed by an Imperial rescript. and of Suntija. Fodiil. and a pelisses. Alî. Rostem. Fakhzâd. who tribes. a way by the Lezgians. Their names are. wax. an inspector of the Custom-house and. according to the The Judge. Kashûmbûr. Jorkâjî. Hânifeh. of Fertul. The Commanding Officers and Magistrates of Trebisonde. of the fish-market. if it be detailed in another place. Mohammed II. rendered a populous place it inherit this right . with the word bâshâ added to the end. Zâkhila. Jûndah. Fazar. that they appear quite strange. who then renews the treaty of protection with Envoys tliem. Begs of Abaza The tribe of Jajlar. Khodaverdî. a Molla with five hundred aspers. of Tribes. are spelt in Many of the . son Kosdûd. Peshir. Ja'fer. These are the Pâshâ. come every year from Mingrelia with this tribute to Trebisonde. names of the slaves. Khüma. The mountains of the Lezgis are towards the south and the east the name Lezgi has been corrupted into Laz. Fesli. Tûnti. extends his jurisdiction to forty-one districts. of Yokarûlî. of A'rtlar. Pîpolî. of Kûnassî. an Ayak Nâîb. of Kechilar. Mihrmâh. of Erlan. such . of the wine. colonized it from all quarters and The inhabitants also possess an Imperial privilege which allows ! . of Sujelar. and send in 43 a tribute consisting of boys and girls. Katraz. to the Pâshd of Trebisonde. having conquered this town. Sürmeneli. every year who have made in camphor. Kashîd-bârî. The surnames are. of great Chândalar. but the A'âli. U'ssuf. These names were originally pure Arabic names. an inspector of the dyers. Assieh.EVLIYAEFENDI. Chândalar.

every one of whom the author of a is Divân or alphabetical collection of Ghazels (Odes). as well as the Ghanayî went with Melek Ahmed Pasha to discourses of Urfi and Tuzûlî. . the first is the lower the second the middle castle. Description of the The north Lower wall abuts on the sea. is of a square form. in vei'se stammering is is From fourth gate is called The third gate of the middle castle is the prison gate. barracks all cut in lime-stone gate leads to the middle castle. Ghanayf Efendi was Secretary to Tayem-Pashâ. nineteen . and is its is Monuments. and afterwards to Melek Ahmed Pasha. the tanner's gate. is The New The middle it it it is The mosque. and it is is or also at the therefore called east. the is flows a rivulet which rises in the mountains Bodzepeh and the Lezgian mountains on the of the tanner's market On Friday's gate. He knew the dictionaries of Kamiis and Shemii by heart. lower castle. of office. jasper Both Prose and Poetry are cultivated to a high degree. garrison. . and passes through the In the centre a large bridge built of stone by U'zun Hassan the lord of on the western wall and Za'anus. are in our age no less than eleven poets. magazines for the the castle.THETRAVELSOF 44 inhabitants of the order of the Dervishes Gulsheni wear necklaces of coral. which (Oghrun Kapii) I's The enclosed by walls. and seventy paces broad. is it gate on the east side which leads from the tower called the tanneries into the sea ditch inside this castle is a . innermost castle The and storehouses. the second gate tanneries are outside of In front of . a second secret gate sometimes swells into a furious torrent. and Paslm 1021 volumes and prose. and Description of two great castles shore of the Black sea. succeeded to his father's in It consists of comparison with which Weissi himself Size of the Town. and there and turquoise.. and the innermost or tower castle. child. government of Rumeli. north side a castle is an oblong square it. Hes to the east of Erzerum. the only open gate always kept closed. and is to the gate and leads to the therefore called the lower castle gate. debtors are confined. but a between the edge of Mount Bozdepeh and the divided into three parts extremely strong being protected by mount Bozdepeh. or third division of the town. his Mohammed He left three buried at Sofia in the mosque of Dervish Alî-jânî (1612). is end of the same wall. the castle Castle. where the malefactors and this gate you pass over a stone bridge on the northern side of the wall. Praise of the Poets of Trebisonde. Form and castle. very deep.

year 865. thousand paces in circumference. . where people are also allowed to pray an elegant minareh. leading to a long bridge Sûtkhîîneh leading to the quarters of the Christians signifies in Greek The are raised to support ruined walls. side is in the mihrab and minber are of ancient workmanship. turned the mihrab from the east towards The wood an oratory (mahfil) of most elegant carving. faced with brick and look to the north or west. . In the centre of the castle was an old Christian church. and two in the eastern with lead. The mosque was born here. Mevluz shore. There are besides three other mahfils or oratories supported by pillars in this mosque. it is . is Christians. of this there In the west suburb are also four mosques. in the year 951 (1573). elegant minareh pierces are built of black polished stone. sides to the sea. in alternate built in the year 920. conquered the town the Kiblah. with by candles every night. — the gate of Za'anus next the prison gate close to the walls. but The mosque at a mile distance Beg on the west from it on the place of Kawak. mosque of Khatunieh. Moshms and is closed against hostile invasion. it it side. and reserved entirely for the Emperor's use. it was built out of the hands of the with a fine minber and mahfil . above the other are all name the on the lie of spurs or piers which walls of the lower castle extend on both Mum Khâneh or the number are made at this gate. it is covered was a beautiful structure with a minareh much is of Khatiinieh was built by the mother of Selim I. The houses rising one fourth gate candles. EVLIYAEFENDI.. the market called Piilta-bazari foundation. The mosque in the time of Aya Sofiyâh of the Infidels. The gate and walls villages. In the language of the Lazes. Christians. Three quarters of the town but by no Jews. belongs to when cells for students in the its many cultivated The cupola is illuminated the sky. who extremely well endowed. It 45 has also four gates. the gate of . Description of the Mosques. It courtyard outside has two gates. by a wall that of is of which a great Trebisonde are manufactured outside of are inhabited by the gate of Mevluz which from the abundance of pebbles that (?) a small stone. granite columns. of the mosque it is a great crowd. which cannot be described The mihrab and minber are in the ancient style. nut. and box Mohammed cypress. and white marble. and on the east Its it is . viz. of Suleiman has one minareh covered with lead. having II. so that the town wax because fabric. and surrounded by vineyards and plantations of olives. it is beautified with on the seashore on the west Kurd Ali-beg took and adorned many marble and with sufficient praise. the all is The running along the seashore. its it is rows . is always closed. and the mosque of the tower castle ornamented.

with dresses on great festivals and presents besides . mosque. built by Khatunieh mother of Selim I. introduced is Mohammed II. wits. and is is on the north wall of the innermost or tower said to have existed in the time of the Infidels. the lecturer holds the degree of a Molla and meeting-place of sides The . The bath is of the tower a single one. and stands in a lofty The mosque of iskender Pâshâ. is where orphans are supplied with mental and bodily food. that bears the same name. castle . mosque was raised from a mesjfd it into a has a well proportioned gate and It The new mosque was formerly a church. and the schools of iskender Pâshâ . in a school so blessed. man the elegant school of . known by the name of Kâfir- mincCreh. Baths. a single one. lecture (Dersî-a'âm). which will accommodate one hundred horses besides many other Khans great . There is a pleasant double bath for the use of both sexes. at the where reading manner after the of Ibn Kether where works on the Koran are read and Shâtebieh . with a cupola. Outside of the courtyard of the mosque of the middle castle Mohammed II. for merchants and single persons. Meidânî. is richly endowed with mosque of Trebisonde are those of the middle castle. The bath of the lower castle is it of is between Friday quarter and the Infidels' place.THETRAVELSOF 46 The mosque of Wardogdi-Beg stands half a mile distance south of the of Khatiinieh in the quarter of Tekfur -serai. situation.. that a boy Bismillah (in God's name Khatunieh on the west !) cannot fail side of the its Mohammed II. wax the college of There a general is a mine of poets. new mosque. The college of Katunieh is is it is . adorned with the students receive fixed quantities of meat and 8çc. college of iskender Pâshâ on the north side of the mosque. The abecedarian the school of the has been taught here to read the to be a learned mosque of seven established methods of Jeserf after the and that of iskender Pâshâ close to schools for boys are that of The reading-houses stipends for the students. these are the most celebrated. mosque by Torghiid-beg in 985 (1577). There are besides at Trebisonde two hundred and forty-five private baths. with a well its proportioned minareh. that of iskender Pâshâ the bath of the Infidels the New is double . that of Khatunieh. cells on four for their subsistence. and a number of Khans. the middle custle who . Marhet-places. in the middle castle near the gate which leads to the lower castle. and the bath of Tektür-seraî. Description of the Scietitific Colleges. . (the Infidel's place) has cupola entirely covered with lead. Tlie Khân of Khatunieh has a stable equal to that of Antar. . The bath the imaret. built of stone. with a great number of cells and students.

the men vines. shalwars. Description of the complexion of the Inhabitants of Trebisonde. into Abaza and the Crimea The fourth are the The cloth and bogâssîn. even pleasure are those of and poor. the inhabitants are fellows. they have their peculiar dress. Occupations. The first are the great and mighty Princes and sons of Princes (Beg and Beg-zadeh). its shops amount to the number of eighty. thus accoutred. The ments. The Imdrets there . The merry climate and the air being extremely favourable. dolimans of cloth. who are the Ulemas. fifth are the who and dolimans called kontosh. . small market. pleases God. accommodating II. is are extremely rich and wealthy. close to the mosque. noon a the middle castle. who Being pleasure. Mohammed The imaret at Trebisonde equalled. all jolly amusement and and the moon women are or a portion of the sun. the dress according to their condition and live on endow- third are the merchants. Georgia and Circassia fair. of the vineyards. and every Friday a is these regulations are to remain in force. who The second are dressed in magnificent pelisses of sables. Of the Market-places. think of nothing but eating and drinking. both rich is an oven for dish of soup and a piece of bread Zerde Pilaw. there are some there are two and which many thousand three. Circassia. ready. every one a . a well-built Bezestân where the Arabian and Persian merchants reside. a calling in less is sixth class are all planted with than thirty-one thousand gardens reckoned to each garden. as long as may passengers and boatmen . Guilds. who trade by sea and land to Ozakov. to trade or to fight at sea. and the students have a proper dining-hall. Near the kitchen the provisions of the imaret. their colour coming from Abaza. and a cellar (klar) for keeping is the eating-place for the poor. EVLIYAEFENDI. in of Khdtunieh. in the morning. dress themselves in ferrajfs of boatmen of the Black Sea . In the middle castle the market called the furnished with every thing is . because the mountains of Bozdepeh are and in the register are set and vineyards. and a kind of lining (astar) wrapped round The the head. so that if down no only one man thirty-one thousand gardeners. is red. of all idle amorous fellows. the There who first is 47 outside of the gate of the wax-manufactory. Every day. and Yakhni (stewed meat) it is not to be dine here at their baking white bread. inhabitants are divided from the earliest period into seven classes.. men The seventh are employed. . The 8^c. the country of the Cossacks. sheikhs and pious men. into Mingrelia. but in class are the fishermen. with iron buckles. and at provided for each. they dress in ferrajfs of cloth handicraftsmen.

the Sgombro which is taken in the season Erbain (forty days). different kinds of lemons. who drink and the clove wine are the fine must of the the it . I Suleiman (the great) himself was the apprentice of a Greek called Constantine. skilfully. which exported to many is is also an called the date of places . which frequently causes bloody days when southerly winds blow) . raisins the sherbets The gardens best. from five to six drachms. fish the fish called Kiziljeh-tekerbalik. engraved if who who was the From this time buried at Beshik-tash. The water of Bozdepeh of Trebisonde is is fresh as the spring of sweet. pecuhar to of the small sorts quite ripe and resembles a black cherry. . roasted on stoves. as is said. and and has two or three kernels. are a new and clever invention. by Alexander. which are worthy of mention are Lorek-bâlighî. this exclusive production of Trebisonde. lips. inkstands. The inlaid work of pearl-shells. no headache life to those . THETRAVELSOF 48 Description of the principal Arts and Handicrafts. with a red head and delicious to taste the gold fish. pulpits. Efendi. in be by the pearl-shell work of India. which are not found so sweet any where else. is each blossom is like a red rose. The this place. for the coin of his Yahya foster brother of the goldsmiths of Trebi- sonde became the most famous in the world. lific . . is eaten before it is Another Trebisonde is fruit. Selîm art of a goldsmith. produce most exquisite fruit . of which alone there are seven sorts to be found nowhere else except at Damascus and Jerusalem. But the most precious of in the Market-place. flavoured giapes. is marble in . pomegranates and olives.. swords. which if eaten by women renders them pro- lus). (the strifes the Khamsî-bîîlighî taken in the season of these fish were formerly thrown on the shore at Trebisonde by virtue of a talisman erected. is One fruit. fifty is all. so father saw some of this first in the world. with sand-boxes and chairs are ornamented that they cannot be equalled in any country. the muscat. and quarrels Khamsan. and perfumes the brain with the sweetest scent. cherries red as woman's pears of different kinds. oranges of a deep purple colour. Eatables and Beverases. and work vases for rose-water and daggers and knife-handles in most wonderful perfection. being brought I. apples called Sinope. The knives of Ghorghür-oghlî are the most famous of all the hatchets of Trebisonde incense. and gives called the triple. that and cut dies they appeared as coin at Trebisonde. except it which such perfection. and weighs. The goldsmiths up in this of Trebisonde are the town was taught the Bâyazîd. it is a sweet The ruby-coloured pink which grows here. figs called Bâdinjîan-Injur. Kefâl-bâlighî (Cephathe Kalkân-balighî (Rhombus). tables. without the stalk.

including box. It is wonderful all kinds of rare trees. oranges. cypress. it is that in the mountains of Erzerum. but the sea abounds with all fish are fifty At boats loaded with these fish arrive in the harbour. thus becomes quite a luminous dish. three hundred miles distance. called pilegi is made of it cleaned. serpents and other is one hour. situated a great deal further to the south. IValhs of Trebisonde. this fish extremely useful to the stomach and the eyes. The people by the smoke. and the nature of the people partakes of this they are kind to strangers. with who navigate the which they trade to the harbour of Trebisonde. strengthening and easy of digestion. 49 before the gate of the town. which even the inhabitants of Trebisonde without an interpreter river Chorogh . all is winter and storm. the fish pies). said to illuminate those fish. On the place of Kawak outside of the gate of Za'anus. a shining an aphrodisiac of extraordinary potency. while here are roses. pronounced Khapsi-bâlighî. they have a do not understand they are for the most part boatmen. Turkish orthography slaves. lemons. the whole town is in an uproar. in those who eat it. manner. does not smell like fish. but on the birth-night of the prophet. and baklava (mixed pies. it following manner. the Pashas play jerid Three masts are erected with their troops on days of recreation. EVLIYAEFENDI. to Mingrelia. and is God the Almighty has blessed this town with a dish of friendship and love. There have been no . representing a fish of this kind in brass on a column of stone. even when at prayer. one of the best of anchoring grounds and ports it is open to the west. sound this season at the . the air happy equality of the seasons is .. white fish of a span's length. boxwood and . be dressed and eaten. syringas. H in the centre. thus the them during the the shore. when talismans lost their power. one of them having a golden top which VOL. and also cures sore mouths. and other sweet The winter and fruits. carrying the language . and the dealers in in a peculiar soon as this is fish them cry same time sounding a kind of horn or trumpet as heard. then cut into slices on which parsley and celery. the Chichu and Chifta are extremely troublesome people of the Lezgis cannot be written or expressed in peculiar dialect. is shot at by arrows. instantly cease. the same happened to this at Trebisonde . creates no fever If the head of this fish. II. is first a dish it is cooked over the which may be fire for use it is it venomous in all their during forty days thus used with yakhni'. and Turkish nut. roasts. and people who hear it. but the Greeks and the Lezgians. it who the best oil is the in is laid then poured on it. and looks towards the harbour of KafFa in Crimea. and is Khamsî-bâligh. no longer thrown on said days. But however may eat it. to which gives a peculiar flavour. and run like madmen after It is it. mild. reptiles are killed dishes. then another layer of and burnt.

Praise of the River Khosh-oghldn. who was governor a Dervish of the town. a covered with lead as well as the mosque all ! I remained three months at learned and distinguished men. which I. a general search of all all Moslim youths tyrannically shut up in the inscription to Prince Jewish tanneries took place by an armed the when not only the two brothers. and. . an inscription. that was handed about for sale. none of whom have since dared to show their faces at Trebisonde. and then accompanied Hossein-agha. it Chobanian family. and after supplying water to many gardens. We embarked in Lezgian boats with an escort of two hundred men. but the mountain inhabitants . is way from this Monuments I'ead to Baiburd of Sultans and by a gate. passes on the right side of Trebisonde into the sea.THETRAVELSOF 50 Jews at Trebisonde since the time of Sultân Selîm. discovered on a piece of leather (saffian). ninety of Selîm men of the Koran. Selfm. which implored the assistance of to be observed righteous Moslims. second Rabia Aduyeh. on whose backs the Jewish tanners had worked in force. passed on the it is f^isit to the The mother cupola. God's mercy upon her is Erzerum making the acquaintance of lady. The cupola near the monument. province of Erzerum. the kiaya of Ketanji Omer Pasha. Saints. of Menzil thence we Degermen Deressi sailed is near Trebisonde. to deliver two innocent The Dervish having explained the Jewish tanneries. in the It rises in southern part of the District the Kerkdeh. the inhabitants of which town are a religious and devout people. trusting The station a large harbour. JOURNEY TO GEORGIA AND MINGRELIA. from the mountain called Yailak-mesjidi. From in the Lord. mountain whence stands a castle issues. buried before the gate of Za'anus beneath a high are appointed there is Aghâj-bashtâghî by the called town the by one Khosh-oglan of the built itself is On monument-keepers and readers to be She was a pious through three times a day. who set out with presents on an embassy to Mingrelia. sailed from the harbour of Trebisonde to the north. the following circumstance was the cause . and northward to Shana where there is is a harbour called Rutha. written in a way not by every body. This discovery occasioned a general slaughter and banish- ment of the Jews. tanning their skins. but many other Moslim boys were found. lost many years before.

The strong town of Konia in the sanjak Batum . and has are faced with brick. Description of Mingrelia. the There spoons. three hundred are the Pasha's private troop fortresses on the has a salary of one hundred and because the inhabitants are the point of the lance. all and the large place of Khoban on the seashore. waters the country of the Lezgians. is a river like a sea. From Konia we advanced place Kemerler. but thousand Lezgian boats. one night Ada Khosh and the gardens are planted in the village of the Beg. The mountains We slept Khaneda the frontier of the tribe are covered with box. the spelhng of corrupted from Ji-rûh. surrounded with gardens the in habitants of which are Lezgians. from whom it was taken a Sübashî. iron. the militia is ruled by a Cherî-bashî and Ala'i-Beg. is made The whole into handles for whose inhabitants are Chichii. hill. Beg those of the Infidels. who war time commands eight in hundred men. passes through Baiburd. who did every thing . a judge with an income of one hundred and is and a garrison it . but the wind blows from that quarter three or four anchors are required to enable ships to ride in safety. Chchû five . aspers. It has neither ferry nor bridge. many to the then entered the river Jûrûgh. a Dizdar 5] of which the large village Kalipravülî.EVLIYAEFENDI. of the judge thousand piastres on a high square the garrison of the but his revenues are in partibus. on the river Jûrûgh. Mahnuz district of mountain is consists of sixty villages belonging to Trebisonde. stands Dizdar and frontier consist of a all The revenues to seven Lezgîs. the castle originally built by the was conquered by been many times plundered by the Cossacks. has an excellent harbour sheltered against the when quarters except the north-west. and Mingrelia with and bringing box. trading on different sorts of linen. and enters the Black Sea near the castle of Konia. covered with this river to from Mingrelia and Georgia to Trebisonde. with only disembarked at the salt. mosque and khans. the wood covered with box-trees. The sanjak of Konia ends at of Mingrelia. north. as are also the hundred men. It lies Mohammed The houses II. the nuts of we the end of some miles from this place wind from all II. with box-trees. . is At arrived at the castle of Siirmena. The by the infidel Greeks. honey. and sailed eastward for one day. wax. fifty aspers. forests are principally hazel. by Hersek-oghlî fifty which are everywhere famous. which rises in the mountains of Jânkha- is Kawih'-hissar and Shin-kara on the west side of Erzerum. built Mohammed and conquered by there . and slaves of both sexes. it this word The jud^e who can only be controlled at may amount to one thousand. belonging to Trebisonde has thirteen ziamets and seventy-two timars.

We passed the Phasus. It rises between MingreHa. like Konia with a good wind. and came next day. and passes between Mingrelia and Abaza into the Black Sea. and they swim stem nor forecastle. Ubiir. in ten 1050. The (liman). these boats I left but are equal on both The port. passed the at the harbour Sofari the sides are lined . Thâgistân. Georgia.THETRAVELSOF 52 We to treat us kindly. the merchants said five landing places. each one like our companions went back to Trebisonde. JOURNEY TO AZAK (ASSOV) We embarked with three hundred boys of my own. Circassia. landing-place Raijeh five sponges keeps them afloat and are called Munkesileh. and consist of three planks. go with the company of the Zenberekj-bâshî of Konia to to the siege of Assov. These visited in The mountains We passed the a hundred miles distance from The Fasha (Phasus) is a great mile. Kabartaî. and the third forms the bottom with reed twice as thick as a man's wrist this lining of reed . and from Mount Caucasus (Kuhal-burz). in they have neither river Jiirugh The and arrived landing-place (iskele) now a ruined castle where goats are on the frontiers of Mingrelia. . river like the . marching to the west. some places a On landing-place Siiri has an old ruined at Konia. in others but half a mile broad. without a port. from eight to ten fathoms deep. fresh as the spring of life . and then returned to Konia but was commanded I villages. The the landing-place Yarissa landing-places are summer time by is all are inhabited by forty or is Danube. Mingrelian villages. to the great river Fashechai (Phasus). one thousand three hundred miles from Constantinople. two of which form the sides. on the frontier of Mingrelia. saw more than seventy Mingrelian a town. kept. and for a whole day went along the shore of the Black Sea. the two people mutually steal their children of both sexes and sell them as slaves. on the west the Abaza . but has an old ruined castle. it disembogues and in a gulf at the north end of the Black Sea. Lezgian barks called Munkesileh. fusileers of the janissaries. Description of the It Land of the Abdza. On the east side are the and both shores being covered with thick forests. and Sadasha. forms the northern shore of the Black Sea. and five rowing These boats are made of the large plane-trees growing on the river Jûrûgh. in the storms of the Black Sea. Khandra has uo port of sides. they are only fifty who carry on the slave trade. thousand warlike Mingrelians. begins at the mouth of the .

Heshdek. &c. Aswan. and who is Persians. and forward the Turkish as the language of Tatars . Of which being corrupted remained the name of their descendants. Portuguese. Greeks. Syrian. Alewi. with as many languages : — fire the Noghai. Baghdad. Maibornu. Turcomans. island of According to the most authentic of Abfiza. and Tai . All the Arabic tribes principal. Merakesh. Mevâlî. after which till and having after languages. Servians. Mûltâns. Jichel Khan. Lipka. Sind. having by accident. Fess. and Omman. and had five the third Kisu . Moghânî. Copts. the Prophet was born. such as the Mogrebi. Zenji. Medina. in Paradise in the true Tiitar form. Habeshi. Badiah. them are the people belonging to the Hind. three sons Abâzî. manki. the Arabs of Yemen. The the tribe Koreish Hashemi of which created time and space. who. Miinji. and The Franks Israelites or Jews. Rompi. " we are four" Italians. his own. which (?) mankind divided into seventy-two who invented new languages was Edrîs wrote and bound books. who had fifth some say more. Berbers. the principality of the tribe devolved on the eldest son Jebel-ul-himmet. it is related by Omar. Jebel-ul- and sought refuge at . Boghaski. and being asked who they were. forgot on earth. Aden and the first was called Jebel-ul-himmet the second Arab authentic histories that in Lazki is God and the year 25 of the Hejira. The first it when and Persian. Venetians.. and the sons . Afenii. Ajikbash. having fled towards Erla (Agra). and hid them in the pyramids. Lezgi. Mekka. Mingrelians. Shûrshâd. for whose sake entitled the But Lord of Arabs and sixty there was an Arab called Saba. Batha. is) the Arabs forty tribes first settled in Egypt. Sudani. Gulapshi. Four children of Menuchehr. Ismail re- they were taken out after the deluge by the philosophers. to return after this digression to the origin of the Abaza . . Bulgarians. Chagatai. Kara- Fiinji. in the Califat of . they begat forty thousand children all in Adam the form of Tatars. amount to three thousand most noble and eloquent of them. (Men char Majâr. met Eva on mount his exile Anapa near the related of the origin 53 Esau brought trieved the Arabic and Persian originally spoken in Paradise. named Kais. Kurds. the fourth After the father's death. Taman. Genoese. answered. Nubians. French. Croats. whence who by this means mul- languages to the number of one hundred and forty-seven. Phasus. divided into Spaniards. tiplied the following having spoken Arabic in Paradise. Banians. the old Persian king. and began to speak Hebrew. EVLIYAEFENDI. Armenians. and twelve nations of worshippers. Tuscans. Georgians. Dadian. Dehkili languages were spoken The A'arafât. . Basha Melek who then ruled Yathreb. and ends at the castle of tradition is Adam historians was created many nations and as (Enoch) who first the deluge. knocked out the eye of an Arab was sentenced by Omar himmet on the same night took with him to lose one of his four brethren.

hairy. there Heraclius. which is spoken on the opposite shore of the Phasus they are warlike men. by . he sought shelter at Trebisonde. they are called the mountain Chandas. true Abazas. the brother Kisii was assigned the Circassian mountains. Taf. no ship lies can pass the winter there. have few horsemen. Abaza. and Kais are all branches So God populated the earth. the inhabitants of which are called the Koreishite Albanians derive to Albania. who descendants became apostates. therefore. particularly in nuts. His brother Arab. So Kais. that Moavia the son of Ebi Sofiân was fled to Constantinople. faces the sea. we remained here a night winter and summer. in number about ten thousand. consisting of ten thousand warlike their harbour is harbour both in called Lâchigha . bears still Having undertaken some predatory excursions from thence towards Damascus and Medina. a pleasant two journies further to the west to the frontier of the tribe Chanda. Further to the west on the seashore is the village Khafal the frontier of the tribe Arlan. but valorous lances. They have Arabic tunes. Khaled Ben Welid and Eswed Ben Mokddd overpowering him with their forces. and are an unruly set of people. but. Khâke. We travelled . the built who gave him the mountains of Syrian town of Jebelheh which that name. it is men . where he mountains of Avlonia. Albanians. the Arabic tribes of Tai. fifteen hundred valiant men. who follow more than one of the Koreish family.THETRAVELSOF 54 Emperor Antioclia. arrows. on account of the heavy southerly and easterly gales. Their mountains are very rehgion. obliged him took up his residence now to in the He embarked and went fly. and his three nephews and Mevâlf were carried by Khaled Ben Welid prisoners to Hedjaz. hazel-nuts. surrounded with gardens. Lezgis. near it. and their harbour Kakur. God does what he likes. with the He Tripolis. and far of Jebel-ul-himmet. where Kais and Tai became masters of the their uncle became master of Oraman. Their harbour Lakia and apricots . Arab two brethren from Khaled Ben Welid. two journies to the west. fruitful. and they is buried near Ilbessdn. who speak Mingrelian. they bear the same arms as the footmen. and dwell between Avlonia and Delonia. three hundred miles from Trebisonde. bows and Arabs. origin their their songs : from Jebel-ul-himmet. The village Three journies beyond. His the mountains of Dukat (Ducato) in are of a tawny colour like the Arabs. The principal tribe in Abaza are the Chach. Here the banks of the river Jürügh within the castle of Konia was assigned to the Lazkis (Lezgis) who To are also of Arabic descent. approaching Constantinople. first came to Konia and then where having heard. Lazkf and Abazi tribes that bear their their father Kisu and his names. who. as well as the Lezgis boast of being Koreishites. and commands what he pleases ! . and thus the Circassians. Abazi got the country which actually bears his name.

. between which are tribe of times. the greater part horsemen. on which we feasted. as a present to welcome he wore a coat called Kilchakli-gebe-chekmani. stations further to the west. in safety. Circassians (^Takaku) also and took company.. 55 the seashore. The landing-place of this tribe passed a night there as guests . and goes into the Black Sea aflx)rds men thousand fifteeti it . Ahmed Pasha . but it Mamshiikh mountains is marched a day's journey towards the west. the land of the Kechilar tribe their country . the land belonging to the inhabitants speak well the language of both the to the latter their country adjoins. twenty-five villages. is a fresh a safe shelter for ships in winter. but keep up good intelligence by trading together to the landing-place slaves Abaza In these the landing-place frequented on account of the riotous character of the people. which From the Chandas by the seacoast. harbour their is called Chandalar. many each other's thought to be bad they give him not their daughters in marriage. mountains of Kamish swine are fed to the much come with high mountains. They are a very rich and rapacious people. their and a man who does not so that many woody cultivated villages. to the they defeated the tribe of A'rt . fifty us . through a Kamish. at A'rt with and trade in ships. Begs prisoners. is who may bring ten thousand men into the field. he was a stout young fellow. and the Circassians . in the midst of mountains. the janissaries our companions made an entertainment often sheep. where ships we lie for six lie months. Their Beg accompanied by from forty to Both shores are laid out in gardens by the people of Kechilar. Sadsha. but ferry in we the to of seventy-five waters are pleasant. Among is not these . its . armed Abaza brought us twenty sheep and three roes. along the sea-coast. is We went three tract. called Zeperaha. because these Abazas steal and plunder is steal size of asses . but they are neither so brave nor so rapacious. it is called is A'rtlar . The and wax. is like no gives river Passu flows stream. To Sidî the north. most of them are merchants trading in fur. are the great Chandas. . evliya efendi. consists it no summer. . and wore a sword long hair hke himself. They feed a great number of swine. wore All his servants is called Liush. and then proceeded two journies westward to the tribe of A'rt. an open place. carried a bow and arrows in his hand. who are more numerous than the Kechilar. They know neither religious book nor sect. Circassians. We remained guests in the village Hâka in the house of an Abaza. ships therefore cannot Another landing-place there in the winter. ten thousand brave men children. and came a paradise which furnish two thousand marksmen villages Behind these shelter in winter. thousand Circassians are continually on their guard. they are seven The Abaza and brave stout men. but keep their word their number amounts to thirty thousand. The great from the Caucasus.

lances and other weapons. Their villages of from forty to Ships of all fifty countries bring powder. entirely the season comes they open the coffin. they have a Mesjid. old shoes. children and sell Two them. the west we came is is pleasant. which being ended he gave them a Yiird (Camp) in the Circassian mountains of Obur where They are a brave people speaking the Abaza and Circassian they remained. The inhabitants Beg has three thousand men in his service. it . butter. We found at their landing-place ten ships from Constantinople and many of our Mengeli-geraf Khân friends. is may look up to Heaven wrapping the body up in the honey and much sell it. salt. furnish at their landing-place and exchanged our old cloth We remained three days for slave girls and boys. know nothing they houses are situated of cultivated manners. I The fourth day we marched two journies to the west to the tribe of Bozdiik. they nail on to the branches of some make honey. arrows. fine and the next day the Aghâ of Konia. but do not I As the village of Hâdeka. the Beg of which commands seven thousand men. where make bows and arrows. in the mountains. that the Beg. Three stations further to held at the landing-place. The Bozdiik of Abaza and Circassia are separated by Mount Obur They mutually steal each others the distance between them is three stations. : coffin they near the head. know its We name. bogassin. in great numbers Bears. led three thousand men of the Bozduk to the war of Astrachan. they feasted us with a great girls men many dishes. foxes. without using money. the meeting with whom was a great treat to us. us. and tains. language. carry muskets . slaves. is required to be used in pur- . From and the Suchas we went further on two stations to the west. jackals. who two thousand armed men. therefore. swords. gave to the master of the house a turban. who ruined castle of Osowish. because having neither market. in there happened to be a wedding. wax and honey. . bows. soap and similar articles. nor khân. the villages all face the Kiblah and to the tribe of Svljalar. take caution. muskets. borders of cloth. nor church. \vhich high tree and make a hole in the say. journies further along the seacoast is the old we passed a night as guests. our companion. moun- in the These Abaza people have a strange mode of burying their Begs put the body into a wooden coffin. nor bath. which was valued as much as though it had been a crown. myself bought an Ab<Cza boy. the woodcocks are found called Girmen Sowish. take in exchange. shields. to the tribe of Dembe. along the seashore. kettles. as they bees enter the coffin and when . ten thousand brave There being very rocky there are few houses. linen. the air The market the south. a landing place.THETRAVELSOF 56 people of Kâmish the children of the Abaza are sent from Constantinople and Cairo . is remained as guests one night and boys waited on the ground . the landing-place of the castle swine. lead. hooks.

Two journies further on is the tribe of Kûtassî. seven thousand five hundred brave men I . breadth from in a cluster of ten they are obliged to do Abâzas extends from the Phasus along the seacoast and .EVLIYAEFENDI. thousand armed men. and each village in the of communication the people are facility they also sow corn. from Abaza. whose Begs command seven . seven thousand turbulent Akhchissî. which . villages. into the field. and dreaded thieves. this if you Moslims are delighted. with two thousand Within them. of Altogether seventy high if call them infidels will kill you. wealthy . days journey down to one. From Mussulmans of the Abaza of Top-khanah. tribes of Abaza in the mountains are the Posûkhî. which issue from the mountains situated between the Abaza and Circassians. We chasing the honey of the Abâzas. the landing-place the village of A'atima belonging to the Ashaghlis day's journey. as I did not visit country are some hundred thousand men. number great of ships They have magazines covered with mats. but they are There by the Ab^zas themselves. their Begs they have horses of high breeding. ten thousand people VOL. is The is . they are very good ones. and run into the Black Sea. here bought some more slave boys. like lions of the Kûtassî are covered with reed woods. the four sides are circumvallated like a castle. without law or who. religion. however. Jagh- . is One journey journies further men three thousand armed place Hârdena. one thousand men . as all their afraid of the other. thirty thousand II. hundred houses The houses called a dogs watch around by the Shana Circassians journey across . These forty days journey are marked by forty large rivers. Koreishites. Mukellebeh. The men . but They are a which I know nothing. 57 Suk has no ferry. Waipigha. as five and dwellings are they are only separated by a mountain. wild roving people descending from the Arabs. We met some acquain- tances here from the Crimea. they speak the Circassian language. mountains. the horsemen of which country are in continual inter- On course with Circassia. The Kûtassî is their bounded are is a day's Thus the country of the forty days journey in length. which multiplies a fold. it. there are amongst hence Circassia river called is them many distant but a is command The landing- the tribe of Sûksû. the rest of the Abaza sow millet. and if you call them they become real IVIoslims. is much but they cannot remain here tribe of Ashagali. Besleb. is account of the is the case in the distance between the Kûtassî Abaza and the Shana Circassians. frequented by the ships of KafFa and the winter. Two Taman. so. In the port a from KafFa and Taman are found. in all whose Begs can also a ruined castle here. it issues from the mountains of Circassia and flows into the Black Sea there are some wealthy persons amongst them. . . men . and went two journies towards the west to the men bring two thousand brave of which called Ashagali. further to the west. Kabak.

judgment who knows some- thing of the world. . . bravest and best five hundred men Chichakores. sikü . . wife. omchin . chehwdh . twelve." such a man very prudent to easily makes his way through strange countries. It is said that Alexander the Great. seven. . . eleven. I ation being extremely difficult. zinje dokalmet Sec. that he built here a pentagon castle of immense stones (Shedâdî. akshii go. Come. . found no girl. where do you go. three. weh ogha ipli. and Panchâresh. okil . We left the harbour of the Kûtassî. . . must have a sufficient idea of every language to understand whether good or evil whether they are going to " Men learn offer him bread or a box of the ear speak according to their some languages intended to him. and for that reason was called the Castle Kevherpai Anapai. get up. meat. and of God. beslina . and. emeralds. üchi . I six. and returns safely into port. There are many other languages and dialects besides. akzuba . One. four thousand . zeni okhad. kha . is .. arish . wai go. I why. turquoises and cornelians. pear. beri don't go.fiba . ten. bezba two. sioken zinje doko ashü five. sichdb nine. seat. weba if. but a traveller I could. Cyclopean) the room of the divân was paved . don't go. these ten turbulent tribes never . twelve. khoba five. zoba . gha . . with rubies. raisin. arrived at this place. mix with the Abazas of the On of them are the Sadasha. webazoba. aha eight. laka. Macha. s\x. . The coast. four. he was so much pleased with its air and situation. onike I three. it is for the use of the world . . and . ten. feh . the proverb says. . and sagacity is A great deal of required to converse with them. two. It afterwards fell into the hands of the Genoese. and desires to travel quietly. . . curd. shakagh sikü bring a . . odeto salt. THETRAVELSOF 58 ras. . otuz. but I have quoted only some have written them as words which I but there a great difference between the speaking and writing. and at the end of two days journey along the seacoast. Bread. . the coast and in the mountains there are altogether twenty-five tribes. tokazü. ivehzti . two thousand men . . therefore. reached the castle of Anapa. boy. I am busy. hundred weak men eight men three tliousand men Ala Koreish. . . toka . . ikhha . sakha mosû . korn seven. Specimen of the Sadasha Abdza. seat. One. girl. süwü but a boy. . don't go. eight. ipfi lakhmak figs. otûi . pali zû . Specimen of the Ahdza Language. . the pronunci- is acquired in the course of trading . ûzû. sikijdn I . eleven. when commanded by God to build the wall of Gog and Magog. chesnuts. I go. sheba go. . sitte nine. four. abharesh get up. water. cheese. intellect. like the chirping of birds.

kind of pearl was formerly fished for here another reason and This castle has a large port where a thousand ships hundred rebellious against the wind from built. castle are the Anapa is well had just come out of castle of if it Pâshâ. that North of the Kabak. Assov. the Imperial time the is It is a large least apprehension. sheltered in the still lie Kevhergân (jewel-mine). Abdza from divides the territory of the the extremity of the Cape which Circassia. Abaza and Noghais also bring merchandise to While Sheep description to the of Shefâkî. which was put into good condition. had planned a great fired. Osman in the province sail The Cossacks of Assov. and at noon. poor Evliya. leading the expedition against KafFa. The Russians fish for pearls. fifty in fleet made its appearance in the Black Sea. Anapa of is only pay their tithes at subjects. the castle keep to all called is I. tion. and the Aghâ of Konia waited on the Kaima-kâm of the Aghâ of the Janissaries I then waited on the Lord High Admiral Deli Hossein with some presents. Gedek the great Vezir II. called houses built of reed. the Imperial flag was hoisted. was remaining at Anapa with the Yenicheri-agassi of Konia. with a would be easy such good preserva- the hands of the builder. The mountains of Anapa. the like shells it harbour. I Pâshâ. when Timur 59 waste the towns of Dadiân. without the this castle in the point of the halberd. on the shore The complete security. when he was . it is a strong castle without a garrison. this port in . took this castle also from the Genoese. he also wasted the suburbs of the castle of Anapa.EVLIYAEFENDI. On his Miiezzin and gave me the following day the 12th Sha'bân. and Black Sea If and ammunition. and other towns amounting laid number of seven hundred. tied together with one rope may ride all why it There quarters. during which behind arrived. Pâshâ. the gun for departure being Sultân alone we left Anapa and made sail for Murad IV. anchor here every year. who assigned me a tent and rations. but the castle itself Ahmed In the reign of Sultân Bayazîd was spared. Circassia in complete obedience. altogether to the Tokhatmish in his expedition against the Lord of Crimea. the small craft which had been They stayed three left days. expedition against the Maltese. anchor at noon all of Tamân name of the and are three no port is . According in safety. and has been several times ransacked by the Cossacks of Outside of the castle are one hundred and the Tanais. the seat of a Voivode of the sanjak of The people CafFa. past these mountains. and put troops into It is situated at it. 1053. on a clay cliff. which extend as far as the inside during the winter. this village is ships which go to Assov it appears as and goats are kept Demir-oghli inhabitants. sufficient garrison a . and took in water. and came to the port of Anapa.. who remained to be subdued after the conquest of Baghdad. Ileshdek. made me a passage on board the galley of his Kiaya Well.

excellent troops. infested all This news having spread to Constantinople. were sent throughout the whole of Rumeli. it men on alto- hand was the Crimea with the point of Kilissejik. as the water is but from two to three feet on the western extremity of the steppes but the army and and wares were built. two points are but a mile We of Assov. Eighty thousand fifty boats. sarbuna. of the tribes of Shagak. called the Infidels everywhere raised their heads against the the Khan of the Crimea reported to After his death Ottoman Empire. Imperial the shores of the Black sea. Kabartai. with seven thousand waggons. Shana. forty thousand Tatars of Biijak. eighteen Begler-Begs. . had the air in depth. On the seaside came the Imperial fleet of one hundred and galleys. Takafer. that the Russians had overran and plundered the districts of At Crimea and Assov. Khatukaî. the great Vezir of Sultân Ibrahîm. The troops month entered the trenches on the 21st of Sha'aban. Kechin-noghai. Meshükh. of Assov last possession of and one hundred and it. and the inside of this strait is called the sea with a favourable wind. Bozûdûk. of three hundred guns. . and forty thousand infidels of Moldavia and Valachia. seventy Sanjaks. being the harbour of There arrived here from Circassia. surrounded the fortress of Assov on the land side. and fleet it having arrived. which had Anapa. is cannot be used here. and left distant. the camp look-out. as fifty many frigates. with his army of Noghai. because galleys and chaiks drawing five feet water Balisira place. small boats. and came to an anchor in the all the ammunition and provisions were embarked in sandal. rescripts one hundred thousand Cossacks took the after a siege of forty days. having forty thousand gether four hundred ships weighed anchor the castle of in the port of Tamân and opposite on the right.THETRAVELSOF QQ removed by death immense amongst the . and the Governor of Rumeli with twenty-eight sanjak Begs. and Kara Mustafa Pâshâ. and carried thirty miles further on to the castle of Assov. These the point Chucka on the peninsula of Taman. on our . which belongs to the Governorship of Caffa. Kojâ Gurjî Canaan Pâshâ. and the 25th of the same arrived from Anatoli seven Vezirs. (Heihat Sahrassî) a lonely many thousand houses for men of a large town. two hundred shaikas and karamursal. to transport a part of the munitions and provisions to Assov. called board. and tiuibaza.and two who vvith their men (Jebelli) The Tatar Khân was ordered to keep the were forty-seven thousand men. which served Assov. passed the mouth of the river Kuban. fortress Cossacks remained in maimed by the rest. large ships. and of the troops of Shâm-khâl Sultân the Lord of Taghistan forty thousand men. the governor of Ozakov. fleet fitted out for the purpose there were two Kara Maona. entered Here port of Balisira. and twenty thousand Transylvanians. Pultakaî. sacoleva. and he surrounded hundred Ala'i Begs with all the Zaims and Timariots.

fire was renewed. the trenches opened in seven places. a terrible contest incredible noise and roaring. whose goods were consigned ensued during seven hours till daybreak. This lasted seven days. which was caused by the arrival of ten came by the Tanais to the assistance of the castle. the trenches from the side of the water tower. foraging parties were sent out. Il. Deriton. and crushed of them by throwing down a leaden basket. with ten large guns and In short the castle was in the trenches. Manssurlî. that in the end the seven places. so that seven hundred men were and the Pasha of Silistra who thousand Cossacks. so that many Ne bose. and fireworks. continued to resist. defended their Ottoman banner was planted on and the Mohammedan prayer proclaimed. cannon-shot from the cannon for the attack the trench of Yogurdi-Baba in and at the same time . These boats who entered (firkata). and did not cease The next day killed. Nevruz On Irbâtlî. Urûmpit-noghaî. led ten regiments of janissaries. of Karamanla with six regiments of Silistra Canan Pâshâ at those on the south was posted the troops on the western suburb of Tayâk. Beg Olânl. night. battered on seven sides by seventy large and small cannon. Shirînlî. with the cry " the Moslim victors. and the victors solaced themselves with the idea that the conquest was predestined . strength and rushing on like a herd of swine. to The the revenue. noise by shouts firing all the Tatar Khân placed watches on the shore of the Tanais to prevent further reinforcement of the Infidels. many however. Il. Badrâkli. and carrying every thing on with Several breaches being opened some volunteei's ascended one of them. without order. and the Infidels firing on their side. ali Tatars. presents. Uzegi and the island of Timur. Kanlijah. they rushed on in superior numbers. The rest. encouraging the Moslim warriors with words and dehberation. Mankitlî. with an In the morning seven hundred martyrs were found. The Infidels getting new post so well on the walls. Devi Il.evliya efendi. during which the Commander-in-chief continually made the round of the trenches. one of armourers. guarded the side of U'luton. Nakshivânli. the Admiral Seyawush Pasha landed troops from a hundred boats. Next day Hossein Pasha prepared twelve large and on the to the edge of the ditch. and the houses of the town dashed to pieces. Sebhunlî. and ten regiments of janissaries entered the trenches . U'li. made an immense the same night the Infidels in the fortress. side of the monument of Yogûrdî-Baba pushed camp of the Moslims was out of reach of the The castle. Above the water tower the troops of Anatoli with eight large guns. Arslân Chobân Il." drove back standards and bodies remained on the breaches. the governor . which being seen by the Cossacks. 61 Shedâk-noghaî. and planted the Ottoman banner on the wall. Chekcshke. one of artillerymen. but the walls having been strongly built by the Genoese.

and threw the earth dug up for an intrenchment into the river. Ottoman army for the space of forty vio'ilance. war of Infidels. rumour began coming with twenty thousand men.. having lost and by means got great from the riches A besiegers. these topics were touched upon. proposed to fix The Fâthah being read on this resolution. Four thousand Cossacks who came to the assistance of the fortress in forty boats (firkata) were attacked by Canan Pdshâ. spread in the Ottoman thousand muskets. five thousand granades. struggle with. and again fortified themselves in such a manner. all number of the this for the fleet after the all are not obliged . who brought his guns to bear upon them so completely. and to spread that the this all the commanders and that though there officers was now no walls to take the Castle . left. though invention of the enemy. with resined boats. continue above forty days who now Czar of Russia was rumour. caused a great deal of disturbance. To prevent this the Moslims shut the Tanais with a wall of stakes impenetrable even to fish. which they threw behind them while swimming. camp five . all the rest the all because of having been levelled with the dust by the seventy pieces of artillery. great joy was for the next morning. six thousand halberds. Canan the general assault Pasha and Piale Aghâ. they averted it. two thousand shields. which was some comfort for the hardships they had to They rejoiced in the idea that the general assault was near. and that there no safety would be no Infidels being a great A it was only an great council of had hitherto been found impossible who the trenches. during which. two thousand bows. in which salt steppes of all Heihat on the east and south. and many thousand other articles of arms were . when intercepted. was assembled yet it drawing near. and reed in their mouths . days. that whenever an attempt was made to overwhelm them by a mine. hope of succour continued the war underground. seven thousand swords. Infidels were kept in continual anxiety. when the Sea of Assov freezes. notwithstanding great many thousand Infidel Cossacks found means ing themselves naked into the Tanais. towers of the town there now remained but one. that more than a thousand men perished. the Kiaya of the Arsenal. But the Infidels now intrenched themselves underground like so many Ferhads. THETRAVELSOF 62 For ten days more the for another day. that a sedition of the janissaries. They were most able miners also. and thus relieved the fortress. the country of the on the north. to that the winter was communication would be day of Kassim (S. their Thus they stopped the to enter the Castle by throw- swimming across under water with a arms and ammunition were put into leathern jacks. Demetrius) shelter nor provisions for the army. and continued to make mines even underneath the river. and the Moslîms made an immense booty. was to be feared in killing to take into consideration. and the After a long consultation. forty thousand arrows.

were called on to by the Chaiishes. who solaced : and God disposes. with fortyfive thousand prisoners and two hundred thousand horses as booty. thousand two hundred night the Infidels raising walls Of prisoners were allowed to keep janissaries the troops on the seven sides of the attack one men became martyrs and ascended made Heaven." recommending their business to God. It was a complete vic- tory to which none can be compared excepting those of Kossova and Mohacs. to the great " Man proposes themselves. to On this incredible efforts to repair the works of the castle.EVLIYAEFENDI. the castle and penetrated into the inmost recess of Tlie it. rich cloth. great council of war was held. carried an end to the immense deal of booty with them. pelisses. and those of the Infidels afiiicted. with seventy thousand regular troops. Moslims rushed into where they hoisted the banner and proclaimed the prayer of Islam. and stained with blood like butchers. and sent by that means great numbers of the Moslim besiegers to Heaven them from shot the loopholes so that they were in great distress. under the consideration that there only forty days to Kâssim (S. after the funeral prayer was said over them. others now It being near sunset. They continued the war. received pensions. timars. By this arrival. &c. but not with the same unanimity. the hearts of the Moslims were coiTiforted. saying foundations of the castle resembled the wall of consternation of the Moslims. the cannons of Allah raised so that it filled fired 63 from seven sides and the shout the steppes of Kipchak. ditches. general salute was fired. During seven hours and a half the Mussulmans were raging in the castle like wolves amongst sheep. that Gerai-Khan. was ordered to ravage the provinces of Russia. of a hundred piastres. and this Tatar army returned on the 14th day to the Ottoman camp at Assov. arms of and three thousand heads of A to leave the Infidels. besides all kinds one thousand and sixty prisoners. The rest of the Infidels hidden beneath the ground. when great they saw the triumphal procession with the prisoners fettered. and eight hundred thousand horse. opening loopholes by The Gog and Magog. and the crosses . ziamets. and them. The A now remained result of the council was. Demetrius). besides a number of valuable things. The guns were now silenced. and the victors being exhausted by fatigue and hunger. The wounded and maimed Those who brought heads received a reward into the hands of the surgeons. though not with less zeal than before. and the swords alone were clashing. . distributed amongst the army. now set fire to the mines. and those who had made Chelenks. and the martyrs buried. who admonished them retire They next day. So they did. and digging and pointing guns. and were given all kind of military rewards were dis- who were killed was and the property of seven hundred made over to the revenue. tributed.

The army returned by different ways. By this winter drawing near. that one of the Russian Capitals had been laid waste. immense booty every thing became immensely cheap in the Ottoman camp. and by siege. in a who " that if At the same time two the Turks had intended to take the castle. . returned by to Circassia. a new council was held. . trusting in God. the north into their native country Circassia. the whole embarked and this it and to return The same night accomplished." Moslim warriors thought they could not stand that the salt steppe of Heihat was as unmerciful the of the had been instructed accordingly. Tainan and Crimea . and a boy for six piastres. with their lamentations." prisoners. so that a horse was sold for one piastre. say . of Infidels. some by sea and some by land. and the whole camp illuminated during the night. into his country. left presence of the Commander-in-Chief. the Some Hossein Pasha. a girl for five. fleet army as the frost that all the specimen found out as the Black Sea. and the Imperial fleet sailed. and officers of " that for all ranks. The same night seventy and were brought castle. for Constantinople I got permission. but their object was to pillage the Russian countries. of conquering the castle becoming general. and one hundred thousand destroyed by the sword. tinople some through the steppes (Heihat). and received tlie castle of sad. to Constansome by the desert of Kipchdk in six days and nights to the river Kûbân.THETRAVELSOF 64 Khan Since the time of Jenguiz upset. they might have taken month. then Khoros Kermân near Assov. now with a rich booty. saying : hundred this year it was impossible to take the castle. to accompany the Khan of Crimea When the Imperial fleet weighed from the Commander-in-Chief Hossein Pâshâ. The trumpets were sounded. the into made a richer booty. that seventy thousand Infidels had been taken prisoners. who pierced the skies the Tatars had not This sight raised a howl among the Infidels presents. which they had it. through the sea of Assov. were sent back into the castle to messengers went off to Constantinople there was such a hard raise more than At at artillery last the despair once resolved to and ammunition was lying at anchor. were sent altogether to in the castle. all the seniors of the regular troops and of the Tatars agreed. The safe return of the Tatar army was celebrated by a triple salute But of muskets and guns. hungry and them embraced the Islam. and signed unanimously a petition of three signatures of Vezirs. the where the carried to Balisira.

pleasant flowery who have side of their Gozlava Yürds (encampments) their Yiird. and next day when the Kettle-drums were beaten for departui'e. and Danube. yet I lived with Kia Beg of the tribe of Mâssûrlî. and causes crops or swellings on the necks of those drink of river. Dnieper. We slept that night K on the snow of the field of Kipchdk. the snow had fallen three cubits deep. and came to the river Mus. It was here that I ate horseflesh for the first time. it without the least the water reaching only to the stirrups. it in three not very is and they have a The whole army halted here. and in the space of twenty- one hours. which passes in its course. and their we arrived at the river Sud. was passed by eight hundred thousand horsemen and luggage to the tails The Tatars of their horses. VOL. 65 JOURNEY TO THE CRIMEA. or milk-river is derived from contracts from the different metallic strata over which its it whitish colour. it. is in Crimea . We left These places this place all belong to the Russians. and contains excellent fish. which the whole army crossed. There are seventy cultivated towns and villages on both sides of it It is who this but they are not very flourishing on account of the depredations of the Crimea Tatars. It comes from the northern mountains of Russia. This river issues from the western mountains of Russia and here enters the sea of The name Sud Assov.EVLIYAEFENDI. not good for drinking. as on a meadow. extremely marshy. . kettle-drums beat. a large river which we passed over with the greatest difficulty at this cold season. the complexion of the inhabitants on shores its is yellow. We crossed it. II. Though I belonged to the Tatar Khân. opposite to the western side of Assov. and crossed the Tanais with The water being them. and halted on the other side. and is fat. way it to the sea of Assov. where disembogues it runs through reeds for a great distance. the district of Mankis Eli on the Their horses are extremely hardly be distinguished from roes' flesh. one hundred horses and were fifty slaves can Next morning the easy to digest. and three hundred horses were slaughtered and eaten up that evening. tied their jacks difficulty. At the Don of the of Bûrebaî. which disembogues at the end of the sea of Assov. and after a march of nine hours flesh but the ground being lost in the marshes. and twenty thousand Infidels of Moldavia and Valachia. kind of excrescence or crop on the neck. It is fresh water like that of the all put in leather Don. the arms being jacks. shallow in the great Don. I left Assov in company with the army of Gera'i Khân of eighty thousand men. the whole army reached the opposite steppes of Heihat. a branch station flows in different channels sweet : its as .

the Courier of the great Vezîr Kara Mustafa Pushd. On the eleventh day some Russian spies coming from Constantinople were taken They confessed and brought before the Tatar Khân. The Khân field. Ottoman army Vezir to Ottoman Army. cat found it empty. had given These three Mohammed some spies were beheaded. with twenty horsemen arrived from Constanand tinople. and returned to Constantinople.THETRAVELSOF 66 and arrived next day Bûrûmbai . took letters castle of Ordghzi. neither dog. preparations of the Castle. The Tatar Khân having flight of the garrison arrived on the border of the river Sud. they had Tatars. their losses. and returned with ten thousand slaves and a great deal of booty to Crimea. here snow. but nor mouse being seen . freely On fallen into the hands of the the 13th day of this month the pomp. having been aware of the immense notice to the garrison to leave the and that arriving there themselves. were forty there spies at the Port. and an Imperial diploma commanding him to be ready to take the the fine season. the horses were put to feed in the after commencement of with the meadows all signs of for forty days. arrived with great and openly. having heard the sad story of the impossibility to take Assov. and on the following day after sixteen hours ride. and made I quietly passed the winter prevent to sending the Infidels three excursions with between forty thousand horsemen even up to the guns of Assov. which the army broke up again to return to Assov. at the station of we slept again on the reached the frontier of Crimea. and made the greatest He possible haste to reach the fortress. weighing all the hardships of siege. commanded by Chowan Kapüjî-bâshî Pâshâ. against Assov. that who. and was assigned a house there on the borders of the valley ofChûrûksü (rotten water) where without travelling one step. and They ascribed it at first and waited three days. I poor EvHya entered the town of Bagcheserai with the Khân. In the beginning of spring came Hassan Aghâ the Chamberlain of the Sublime Porte bringing to the Khân twelve thousand ducats as boot-money. The moment we entered the Kara Rejib Aghd. infernal stratagem of the Infidels. and the impossibility of holding the fortress finally against the arms and Ottoman power. bringing back prisoners. also of animals. not only of men. day Moslim prayer was proclaimed. only one Genoese tower remained standing. received the orders with submission and duty. heard of the from some prisoners he had taken. on the fourth all the Moldavians and Valachians were . But the Khân reinforcements to the castle of Assov. the garrison of which. The Tatar Khân then sent the welcome news to Constantinople. fifty His Vezir (the Kalgha Sultân) made also three expeditions into the interior of Russia. after from the Khan. abandoned it and fled with their effects to different other Castles. and found the fortress empty.

stronger than the former was begun. on the border of the five The complete ditch. succeeded. so that the sum Ottoman were sold for no more than ten piastres each. first and a The Kalgha Sultân and Nûr-ud-dîn Sultân caftan. seven Sanjak Begs. six regiments of artillerymen. and twelve Alai Begs. travels journey in arrived at Kâchidere. and me two I added from Trebisonde to Mingrelia and the great men. Ö7 them anew. do away the next day got clear of the port in an evil evil of the night by some alms. of Mâssûrlî.EVLIYAEFENDI. all my friends way to the south for the space of hours to Baliklava. who There we parted. troubled by heavy dreams on the Shaika of U'cheli Sefer Reis. and returned with from fifteen to twenty thousand prisoners to the camp. and three hundred small ones . a Begler-Beg was left its building and commander with twenty regiments as of Janissaries. three slaves. the Commander-in-Chief of inroads into ! The ! building Pasha returned to army got permission to return to their homes. began remained with me till we six I a slave each. a sable pelisse. Description of the Castle of Baliklava. repair and fitting out cost the building the Tatars its made seven Russia. Genoese towers. returned to Bagcheserai. and hour. and came with them to Crimea. and mounted on the horses my all money (the continued my company with some friends. such is Having embarked here with three hundred persons on board of the I slept on board. of the Tatar court) and fourteen Aghâs. and the They dug busy carrying work of buildine In one month two towers were finished. to these slaves . then got permission from the Khân to return to Constantinople. the ships were all stones from an old Convent in the island of Timiirlenk. next day I also the case with the castle went on shore. I dare not give a description of of Baliklava. commanded three days work on the foundations and to they came to springs of water till build to . took leave of the Khân and my of the Kalgha-Sultân. prisonei's last the King of the Muscovites imploring pardon and crying (pardon O Family of Osman !) out. It Crimea record the date of government of KafFa. it . During thousand purses. Prevented by warlike expeditions from visiting with leisure the curiosities of Crimea. seven thousand Tatars. and the histories of name was declared the seat of a Sanjak Beg belonging to the of the builder. being nearly finished. with a present of a purse of piastres. as the text of the Koran . gave dignities number so that I had a the eighteen which I of slaves and four purses of had acquired on Abaza. ten regiments of armourers. We took Constantinople. to . and the rest of the I again followed the tribe our pleasure for twenty days in Bagcheserai. with twenty-six thousand men seventy large guns on the bulwarks. Mahommed At Âmân Aman sent ambassadors to Constantinople.

Of crept into one corner of the ship. poor " Come. and to prevent this all tlie sailors We all now touched The waves of Mount Bisûtün. their hands . the storm began to buffet us most un- mercifully. An old sailor said to them . At this of wind (Sighinak) which threatening to tear the prisoners and slaves crying and lamenting out together. and Suluyâr had disappeared. and then on each other." Sura fervently. and already made up their minds to lose their souls. there was such a that every body despaired of moment there again of the magazine all . the heavy merchandize saw that the rudder was going to united and began to cut with hatchets. some alms and pilgrimages.— THETRAVELSOF 68 says. sail. but the ship going too heavy. and most dreadful manner. at the appearance boatmen changed of which the and began to wring colour. Servants of God. One day and one night we went straight before the wind. some I. nothing but thunder down on and lightning. prisoners lightened. which in falling into the sea killed eleven men. but again to break. I. the stays. bark drives on the strand. The mountains of Bâliklava and were then about the middle of the Black Sea. the weather cleared up. but terribly tossed still " If in the What On the topmast with This they did. some sacrifices. but the the ship the Black Sea towered before us like the perpendicular walls of first all some were vomiting. us for three days and nights. the storm tossing of the ship continued in a the highest heavens. endeavouring to lay hold of a plank or a cask. now descended into the deepest of hells. poor Evlîyâ. said At was ship : all some held and puflP felt that he must give up in his soul. " Lads (Dais !) don't you see Lower the forerunners of a tempest. All at once an easterly gale sprung up with thundering clouds. howhng Until their bodies were thrown overboard. they stowed two hundred below (Enbar) and closed the hatches. came a the ship asunder drove and ceased. by worse days. The hail and torrents of the passengers. stripped naked. praying. and recommended . then the mast." the fourth of Safer of the year 1055. into the sea. neither were those of Sinope and Amassra to be seen. what are you afraid of? the mats. they threw the bags. and we were tossed about without well knowing where we were going to. the ship. clasping one another. casks and trunks that were on deck into the sea young . recite this : God may be All having began to pleased to grant to us. they looked at the compass. feeling myself in a state of agitation continued to pray the Sura-Yass. none can the winds command. come and pray with me the Sura Ikhlâss (deliverance) which last rain pouring exhausted by fatigue sailors some vowing victims and Evliya. we opened the magazine (Enbâr) and threw no purpose. life." storm my do shall I by the ? Thus the Verse effect of the currents.

We continued to pray while the we continued tossing Sura-Yass. and up and down. which drove along with the boat. that if we took them in we should all go to the bottom together. crying all story-teller water. some going to the bottom. to the Lord. wave came which upset the boat. saw how the great ship was I hundred and fifty raised their others throwing themselves We the launch. shivering with cold. and all the my I travels. night. baling out the Thus we drove a day and The and lamenting. . others came up swimming. of whom we took in the storyteller Emir Chelebî. who had light threw all and tossed by the asunder from stem to stern. and two of them. being a good swimmer I worked with all my strength. kept off of the launch. and we took him in. and find a place to shall he did not expect it and who . some on planks. Koran. some trying to be saved by swimming." and that Who " : his lot provided. . touching time to time without our being able to prevent On from it. sword in hand. and let it down by business I trusts in shall find God saw that some ropes. the third day at noon a foremost into recommended myself Saints. and four hundred slaves were spread over the sea. and and the judge were attacked by a fit of apo- we threw their corpses into the sea. saying the verse God fears from whence " : 69 recommend my I walk out. to the intercession of the and pious men I had hitherto known on keeping my head clear. and them the four we remained masters of killed four of the sea from fright. swimming like an angel of the Ocean. and by saw that the large alongside our boat. The wreck of the ship had now all those who offered to lay hold disappeared with all the men. and three cleft passengers. immediately drew their swords against the eight Infidels hands against us. While repeating these prayers not be abandoned by him. our turbans heavy with the water. length and one yard in breadth. and drove on. and seven of I.evliya efendi. naked and starved. was passing near to ." (prisoners) got hold of the launch. at the to shall Infidels same time some other sailors were throwing themselves on the other side. into the my companions watching the moment of the launch going down threw ourselves into it the Infidels instantly cut the ropes. we perceived the Judge of Menkub. and were reduced as before to eight persons but we had the misfortune to have a large piece of timber twenty cubits plexy. Alî Efendî. and I fell headthe sea. and we were soon convinced. heavy luggage overboard. with planks. which had before swam I swam undaunted. therefore. despairing of all life. piece of timber. By the hand of Divine power he was brought near our boat. and some trying to reach our boat. all the great this it kind of effort. My seven companions sea. and the launch being now waves. merchants. so that there were now ten of us in it. attacked with a knife Ramazân Chelebî of Aintab. my all God by things to God. into . we. When we laid hold of him.

two fine boys and two pretty Being thrown into an girls. and from thence to the people of Heshdek in Moscovy and Lipka in Poland. Dervish in the town of Yassu by who having been Ahmed Yassn. and by this means converted Thus he travelled and being himself yellow-coloured Yassiii is many years under the (as Sâri Sâltik was) yellow Beg.THE TRAVELS OF 70 me. shivering and starved. it my girls hold of the long piece of timber on which companions I in misfortune. Thus till Dervishes of which place I I had been driven three days in the the boat was upset. from Rumeli to Crimea. who me made me a my having taken away from eighteen slaves acquired in and Abaza. two Circassian all laid rid of it. But Bokhara. the sea going down. kettle-drum and trumpet. twenty- was thrown on the shore at Kilghra. This building is ascribed to Sari Saltik Sultân. occupied the some good people gave us dresses and hoisted us up the rocks which appeared to pierce Having asked where boat from the travels in Mingrelia me and my slaves. name is of Dobruja requested There was then in . of Kilghra in the sanjak of moment I was. came ordained a with Hâjî Begtâsh and three hundred poor people to Sultân Orkhân. with the immediately began a devotional conversation. slave wished to get hold of slave. to praise God and to thank his infinite mercy. wooden sword. praying. and after four hours on the timber. round had I encircling at once all like a serpent. I how just thinking to get cask driving by. we were thrown on the shore exhausted and half-dead. drums beating and banners flying. a banner. and which they assigned to cells. The storm was now completely clearing-up. his name of Sâri many Sâltik. a Haji Begtâsh gave him a drum. At Danzig he conversed with Svîty Nicola the patriarch. and looking I saw two Georgian boys. and was sent after the conquest of Brussa into Russia and Poland. inlet of the rocks. Ahmed Mohammed he obtained from proper The King a miracle from Sâri Sâltik in confirmation of his mission. and was afraid that their weight Driving in this heard a noise behind me. who and a Russian would sink the timber. to cover our nakedness. I the ship went down. a carpet. but he was drowned. the skies. whose name Sar Sâltik whom he thousands to Islam. was was much not being able to reach it when an empty driving. the name of the the same as adopted his habit. and only the four slaves remained. and went. Description of the Convent of Kilghra Sultdn. I was told that these were the mountains Silistra. Kilghra Sultân with seventy disciples spread the hide (on which they sat) upon the sea. the Russian and threw himself into the sea it. and instantly hold of laid way. killed. and the next day land coming in sight. Bohemia and Dobruja. for that purpose. I threw myself on the ground. and he settled afterwards at Paravadi. again present of four slaves.

EVLIYAEFENDI.
Dobrüja a
allotted

dragon, to which even the two daughters of the King were
Sciri
Sciltik agreed to deliver the two girls, on condition

terrible

as

food.

that they with their father

which they were
Dervishes,

7I

would embrace Islam.

tied as victims for the

who were

He went

to the

column

to

dragon, accompanied by his seventy

beating drums and swinging the banner

;

untied the Princesses,

wooden sword, expecting the dragon himself, meanwhile the seventy Dervishes beat the drum.
The dragon coming near, Sâri
Sâltik addressed it with the verse of the Koran beginning;
" Greeting on Noe
and then waited with

his

in

both worlds," and then cut off three of his heads, so that the dragon

to press

him against

Saint's body,

The beheaded dragon began to struggle with the Saint and
the rock, which gave way so wonderfully as to receive the

which place with the marks of

The dragon having exhausted

shewn.

to their fixther the king.

ears of the three heads cut

monk
monk

hands and

feet are

actually

still

ground dead, and

wooden sword, now

led the

two

girls

Previous to their arrival a cursed monk,

who had shewn
and picked up there the tongues and

to Sâltik Sultan the road to the column,
off,

had

Now, though

killed the dragon.

his

his strength fell to the

the Saint, with his bloody breast and bloody

had

with

Sari Sâltik followed

of which he cut off

dragon into his den.

fled

him up to his cave, at the entrance
the remainder with his wooden sword, and followed the

the remaining four.

laid

them before the

king, boasting that he

the daughters asserted the contrary, yet the

persisting in his boast, the Saint proposed as a proof, to be boiled with the
in a cauldron,

and though the

monk

did not like this kind of

trial,

yet by

order of the king he was obliged to undergo
Dervishes, and the

an immense

it.
Sârî Sâltik was tied up by his
companions, and both put into a cauldron heated by
was at this hour that Hâjî Begtash, who was then at

monk by
It

fire.

his

Kirshehri in Anatolia swept with a handkerchief a dripping rock, saying

Mahomed

Sâltik

is

now

in great anxiety,

salt-water has dropped from that rock,

Begtash

is

produced.

The

Balkan'.
:

assist

him

Ever

and from thence the

:

"

since that

salt

place where this cauldron was heated

present day, and the mountain

saying

God

!"

is

My
day

called Hâjî

shewn

at the

mountain of the cauldron Kazan
The cauldron being opened Sâri Sâltik was found sweating and

" Ya Hayî,

O

all

is

called the

vivifying

black coals and burnt bones.

;"

and of the monk nothing remained but
of Dobruja moved by this miracle,

The King

embraced Islam, with seven thousand of his subjects he sent ambassadors to Sultân Orkhân, and received from him in exchange, the appointment
of a Judge, a tail and a banner.
His name was Ah Mokhtâr,
In the same
instantly

year Sâri Sâltik

;

made

wherein he commanded seven coffins to be made,
because seven kings were to contend for his body after his death.
This haphis will,

THETRAVELSOF

72

pened indeed as he

washed

foretold, because being

after death

and put into the

seven kings claimed to have the true body, which was found in every

coffin,

one of the seven

The seven

when opened.

coffins

name

great veneration under the

of Svîty Nicola

now

;

;

is

Bivanjah

at

a large place called Baba-eskissi, and

who

travel from Constantinople to Adrianople.
it

held in
his

The

(?)

is

fifth

the Convent of the town of Ba-

in

which

buried

is

King of Poland, where

the

Sweden

in

tûria

who

Sâltik

the King of Bohemia, where his coffin

tomb is much frequented at
shewn in the town of Pezzunijah (?) and
King was of Adrianople, where his tomb
Danzig

Moldavia,

desired to be pos-

body were the King of Muscovia, where Sari

sessed of the true

is

who

kings

The

visited

is

sixth

by those,

King was that of

a shady place near the Castle of Bozâk, where Bâyazîd

in

the conquest of Akkermân, built a mosque, an imaret, a college, a bath,

II. after

a khan and a

monument

pleasant town

all

Sâltikdedeh

for Sâri

;

this

town

is

belonging to the endowments of Sâri Sâltik.

called Babatâghî

The seventh

;

a

coffin

was taken possession of by Alî Mokhtâr the converted King of Dobrûja, who
buried it at Kilghra in the cave of the Dragon, and hence he is called Kilghra
Sultan

;

Kilghra

Of these
which he

signifies in

Latin a seven-headed dragon,

it is

the purest Latin.

seven burial-places of this Saint, three are in the Ottoman Empire, from
is

called

Baba Sultân

at

Babatâgh

;

Sâri Sâltik Sultân at Baba-Eskissî

and here, Kilghra Sultân in Christian countries he is generally called
is much revered and the Christian monks ask alms under his auspices.
;

The Convent

is

The

proboscis of an Elephant.

Khirmen, Kostenji, and
those of Sinope, and

if

St. Nicolas,

on a cape which extends into the Black Sea

situated

Kill pass

that

ships

sail

;

like the

from Constantinople to Kara

along these rocks of Kilghra directly opposite to

the weather

is

clear, are

mutually seen from both shores.

The cave in which Sâri Sâltik killed the dragon is at the same time his burial place.
The convent was built by Al Mokhtar the wooden sword of the Saint, his swing,
;

half-drum, kettle-drum, drum, banner and sanjak are kept here, numerous cells

surround

it,

occupied by learned and virtuous Dervishes,

who

reside here

on

their

more than one hundred. They read
with me more than eight months according to the method of Hafss. The windows
of the Convent, and of the monument, all look towards the sea. The maghides, all true Sunnis

and

faithful believers,

nificent kitchen like that of

Keikavus

is

worth seeing

day and night the

;

fire is

kept up on the stove for passengers and strangers, they have no endowments but
live

on alms

;

they are

all

purified

by mystic divine

love.

many wells in the rocks. The
Mount Bisûtûn are excavated at the base.

of the mountain are
like those of

To

the right and

left

so lofty that ships with topmasts an hundred yards high

rocks being perpendicular

The

may

projecting rocks are

enter here,

and come

EVLIYAEFENDI.
to

brought
rock,

waggons

in

of these ships take in barley and wheat whicli

The masters

an anchor.

mouths of the

to the

73

and poured down them

into the holds

who were

times by Infidel stonecutters,

is

aforesaid shafts which are cut in the

these shafts were cut in ancient

;

like

many Ferhâds

so

and

;

it

is

a

peculiar sight not to be seen elsewhere, and saves a circuit of between three and

There are no such

four hours in bringing the barley to the foot of the rock.

high and dreary rocks any where

in

During southernly and

the Black Sea.

easternly gales, the sea produces a roaring in the excavations, which
as Iflatar

and ilhanlar near

heard as far

On

a day's journey from hence.

Silistra,

is

the top of

these rocks are nests of eagles each as large as a sheep, they are even killed

Near the Convent

eaten by some for mutton.

is

the Castle of Kilghra, which

was taken by Miissa Chelebî out of the hands of the
district of

west,

Bâlchik in the government of Ozakov.

on the seashore, twenty paces

castle

it

It

Infidels.

It

cliff it

hundred fathoms
the convent.

;

has no ditch on one side
the lower

When

;

belongs to the

a small but strong square

is

in circumference, with a gate

has neither mosque or khân, commander or garrison.

a limestone

and

on the east side

opening to the

Being situated on
is

a precipice of one

part of this castle is also excavated, like the rocks of

Nassif Pasha Zadeh Hossein was governor of Ozakov, these

shores were sometimes infested by the Cossacks and Infidel Russians,

Hossein Pasha then renewed

prisoners of the inhabitants.

expense, and garrisoned

it,

this castle

so that the shores were protected

the Great Vezir Kara Mustafa Pasha, having taken

away the

mortify Hossein Pâshâ, the castle remained deserted.

from inroads

commencement

conversation,

and returned

to Constantinople.

Return
In the spring of 1054,

1

of the spring

but

Praise be to God, that after

bird of the soul left the cage of the body, I passed eight
at the

;

garrison in order to

having escaped the dangers of the sea, and being delivered from

till

who made
at his own

I

it

before, as the

months here

took leave of

in

my

sweet
friends

to Constantinople.

took leave of Kilghra Sultân and embarking with

my

four slaves coasted the shore of the Black Sea, so that at the least storm I

could

come

Ahieboli,

to an anchor.

Sîzebolî,

Thus

Missivra,

I

passed on

my

road, Kavarna, Bâlchik, Varna,

Bûrghâs, Chenkina, the island of mirrors (Aina

adassi or Inada) and the strong castle of Torkoz.

Near

this place is the flowery

meadow, and pleasant place of Skumrf-jair where the janissaries and kürûjis are
encamped, and from hence watch over the security of the adjacent villages, because
some years ago these shores were infested by Cossacks. From hence we came to
the black stones (Cyanies), a rocky ground outside of the mouth of the Bosphorus.
VOL.

II.

h

;

THETRAVELSOF

74
It

was changed into stone by a woman's

it,

and

distaff,

Castle of Kavak.

The length

Abaza are seventeen hundred

Assov two thousand miles

The

it.

We passed

a curious sight.

largest

is

and to the corner of the sea of

miles,

seventeen hundred large and small streams

;

Siilina,

and Kara-khirmen
the castle of

;

five

Tamân, the
to

Caffa

is

Wesnesday

its

Tûlja,

at Kili,

river of Assov, the river of

on the Asiatic shore the Kizil Irmak, the

;

branches,

The

the Phasus, and Chürûgh on the Asiatic side.

From Constantinople

Sakaria.

fall

the Danube, which receives seven hundred rivers in

and disembogues into the Black Sea by

the Dniester

happy escape from

hundred miles, the shores

fifteen

is

course,

Kuban near

for the

of the Black Sea from the Bosphorus

to Trebisonde at the mouth of the Phasus

into

is

went on shore, and thanked God

I

the dangers of the Black Sea.

of the

and

God's name entered the channel of Constantinople, anchoring before the

in

Ozakov, and

and the

river,

reckoned one thousand miles, to

Baliklava eleven hundred, to A'kkermân fifteen hundred, to Varna five hundred

from the point of Kilghra to that of Sinope

five

hundred, from the mouth of

The

the Bosphorus to Amassra one thousand, and to Heraclea one hundred.

whole

Black Sea, with that of Assov,

circuit of the

and

miles,

if

made by land

is

one hundred and

fifty

is

thousand and sixty

six

days or

months journey,

five

As soon as
more the Koran

each day's journey to be reckoned twelve hours.
Constantinople

I

performed which
I

hastened to
I

went to

my

Eyyûb

to read once

parents,

who

received

me

its

Imam

all

the faithful people of

compensation for the loss

friends,

slaves

misfortunes

of the Inspector of the mouth,
I

May God

Mohammed.

I

guard

then became the

sustained in the Black Sea, of

my

my

eighteen

1055

(1645).

and other things.

The

Kizlar

Agha

embarked

for

of Sultân Ibrahim Sunbul

Egypt with

fifty fair

THE YEAR

IN
Aghd

slave girls,

after his dismissal

riches for three
five

sailors,

months

into the six magazines of this Caravel,

hundred armed men of

and Ezuî

Mohammed

his suite, three

Rodos they met

six

He

Maltese Galleys, with

stowed

all

his

and went on board

hundred merchants, two hundred

who was exiled into Egypt
who sailed on Friday, trusting

Efendi

thousand three hundred persons,

from the

and as many boys, and forty

horses of the best breed, in the Caravel of Ibrahim Chelebi.

with

at

there, having

and soon found by the presents from

EXPEDITION AGAINST MALTA
Serai,

arrived

with the greatest kindness.

swore never to try the navigation of the Black Sea any more.

from

I

whom

;

altogether one
in

God.

Near

they had an engagement of

EVLIYAEFENDI.

75

twenty four hours, during which the horses getting loose increased the confusion
The Caravel was dismasted and dismantled, and except two hundred
of battle.

men

all

the rest

said unto

him

fell

The owner

martyrs.

" Cursed Arab did

:

not

I

of the ship upbraiding the Kizlar Aghâ,

thee not to put horses into the ship,

tell

but rather to take in stores and ammunition
order, hast overloaded the ship, and in that

;

but thou didst obtain an Imperial

way given up

to the Infidels."

saying, he with his sword severed the Kizlar Aghd's head from his

himself at the same

moment

cut into pieces

The

rushed on him with drawn swords.
ship, fought for three

Ezîrî

by the

Thus

body, and was

suite of the

Eunuch, who

Infidels witnessing this fact,

hours more on board of it, made the rest of the

boarded the

men

including

Efendi prisoners and took the ship directly into the harbour of

Mohammed

Here they remained a month selling the
Some prudent monks and patricians
horses and slaves, and violating all the girls.
" Woe to us, better would it have been not to see this Ottoman ship in this
said
Canea, where they came to an anchor.

:

town, with

its

horses and

the island would

fall

girls,

into the

because a prophecy

exists, that if this

happened,

This rumour being spread

hands of the Moslims."

was the cause of many famihes emigrating from the island, the population of which
then consisted of four hundred thousand Greeks, and seventy six towns and castles
were garrisoned by sixteen thousand Soldiers.

This

is

the account obtained at that

Lord Alî Aghâ the inspector of the custom house. The Emperor
being much hurt at the unhappy accident of the Kizlar Aghâ, immediately sent
for the Venetian Bailo, accusing him and his whole mission with a breach of the
time by

my

peace, by allowing the Maltese to
kissed the earth and said

your Imperial

fleet

:

God

were forced by the Maltese

hundred

assist

ships,

Ottoman goods

in their harbour.

They
if

conduct prizes of Infidel ships into our ports, we are to

receive thein as guests.

they would

sell

" Gracious Emperor, our capitulations stated, that

forbid that

Infidels to

him with men and

we should

intend to break the peace,

The Emperor then

admit them."

ships

;

we

asked,

if

they promised readily to furnish three

on which they were invested with robes of honour, and

lulled

by these

Three thousand purses were issued from the
Imperial treasury for the preparations for war, and Kapijî-Bâshîs sent to one
hundred and fifty districts on the side of Jâînak, Sinope, Amassra, Ergelf, Koja Hi and

means

into

the sleep of hares.

From the mountains
A'alemtâgh and Kapûtâgh (in the neighbourhood of Constantinople) wood was
brought in abundance, so that all the magazines of the arsenal were full of it. The
Isnikmid, to buy and get ready timber for three hundred ships.

ship-builders of

An

all

the Islands were called in, and every

Imperial High Admiral's Ship (Bashtarda,

built,

Head

and the Arsenal swarmed with busy men.

week a

galley

was launched.

and ten Maunas were
Vezirs were sent into Rumeli
tartana,)

and Trebisonde. but Peace with the best. Mera'ash. possession of Moslims. of artillerymen. wrest them to the Mussulman ? — God Atiswer if advantageous to is useful. and then went to the Arsenal. with twelve thousand ducats of powder-money. The Emperor has but imitated the Sunna of the Prophet. can the Emperor of the Islam. and conquered Mecca. in anticipation of victory. were also commanded to the Dardanelles on the Asiatic side. if with their superstitions. was twice girt there . This was written by the poor despised The Emperor the same day Abu Sa'id. they have defiled if its which was formerly in the mosques. Haleb. but the Emperor. Diarbekr. amounting to five thousand five hundred and eighty-nine men. colleges and oratories they plunder Mussulman merchants and pilgrims. who had been sent to collect Sivas. Khassekfs and the standard-bearer of the prophet were dispatched to Algiers. that It them to join the Capitan this expedition Pâshâ was planned against Malta. Semendra. were embarked in great transport Mauna. is but legal. were ordered to embark at the castle of Benefshe Morea. Karaman. and with the Jebellis of twenty-seven thousand men. the Timariots and Zaims forming an army of twenty-two thousand. with the Jebellis and the household of the Pâshâ. took the field against them in the 8th year. The governors of Damascus. or it by the example of the Prophet. where two hundred were ready saries. who having concluded peace with the Infidels. . he went by the Mufti with the sword of Omar. God bless his victories. Adana. altogether in the island of twenty thousand men. Sirmium. at the landing-place of the Flour-hall Fifty other galleys thirty-six regiments of janis- . the Vezir Kara Mustafa Pâshâ and the Mufti were alone The in the secret. and add territory by the Mufti. rescripts exhorting was generally reported. if not. all galleys The governor of Rumeli with the troops of twenty-four sanjaks. and Herzogavina. Tunis. which was broken by Alî in the 6th year of the for This ever. was ordered to repair to the Dardanelles the troops of Morea. with were fitted out and filled with troops. and the men of one hundred and ninety-nine military fiefs. took this Fetva and stuck to to visit the it like to a cable of safety tomb of Eyyub. is justified Hejira. and Imperial in the spring. it is knows every thing all Moslims. At the same time that the Kapîjî-bâshis and Khassekis. and Tripolis. be not legal at Infidels all. and ten of armourers. ten ships. Query : — following was the Fetva proposed and given If the Infidels are possessed of a land. it is also allowed to break the peace. Bosna.: THETRAVELSOF 76 and Anatoli to collect armies. The governor of Anatoli with the army of his fourteen sanjaks. As soon as it concluded for a fixed time. . house of God. moved by his zeal for the these countries from the hands of Infidels. with seventy thousand men received similar orders.

Sultân board. reported that they were ready at the Dardanelles. Zeheb. Shaika and Karamursal. I a secret to take that direction with remain a couple of days on the shores of Morea. have Keep sail disembark the troops before daybreak. 77 those troops. . spring. to. going to war. and Colonels. galliots. Shaitie. so as to have a firm post. maxim. was messmate of Ibrahim . which commands every man to Keep hide three things. I. the great Vezîr Kara Mustafa Pâshâ and the Mufti alone remained with the Emperor. He went thee. and Mezheb. like Abraham the Commander-in-Chief saluted the ships followed like a row of cranes. astronomers of the Court having fixed the favourable will assist Bashdarda. one hundred galleys. consisting of two hundred Mauna. by the destination of the all vivifying. Malta . his gold. gether seven hundred ships. : " If please it God. the rest having already gone on Ibrahim took the Vezir and Commander-in-Chief each by the " Yûssûf. the tartanas. the music playing the tune Segah. if (if it God) please appear with a brilliant face before God. from the Admiral's ship the shouts of and the skies were rent with the noise of muskets shouts and salutes were repeated three times. viz. " Go now with God. were invested with magnificent dresses. this . and moment for getting the under weigh. the cavalry had been embarked at Constantinople. and continue to say thou the fleet first. reward you to a degree that you thou return victorious. At the beginning of was ready. who High Admiral's ship. his walks. Caravella. Captains. Begler-begs. keeping heaven found themselves so in the oven of Nimrod. with a great number of pioneers and miners on board. Yûssûf Pâshâ. ! hundred clarions sounded pierced the The air." Yûssûf Pasha answered. accompanied this expedition as Chief Moezzin of the Commander-in-Chief. and take possession of Todero." and Ibrahim replied. were anchored before the point of the Seraglio. thyself. Alto- At the Sinan Koshk the U'lemas and all the great men waited on the Emperor the Vezirs. and then back to Candia St. according to the the and Sultân Ibrahîm other. The Commander-in-Chief Yûssûf Pâshâ.EVLIYAEFENDI. his sect. went with them into a corner. . and the other up such a heavy fire." After this instruction Yûssif Pâshâ was invested with two golden robes one above I'll shall your secret well. art going to standing. Aghâs. whole fleet twelve large Butâj. and at the same time Allah Î five allah and guns. where art thou going hand. pinks. and the Admiral's ship took the lead. from whence to begin the siege of Canea. Firkata." on board said the . galleons. Passing the Sinân-koskh Emperor and the Great Vezir. and said " To Malta if it please God. Zehâb. poor Evliya. that the birds of many salamanders in the midst of fire. the Commander-in-Chief gave the order to the High Admiral. one thousand seven hundred individuals. all given to thee the destination to go to the island of Crete. These are my instructions.

THETRAVELSOF

78

Chelebî, Clerk of the Treasury, on board of the Bashdarda, and passed

my

time

pleasantly eating dates and diavolini (Kotrobunîit).

Station of Gallipolis.

The

fleet

the whole

anchored here after a salute

The Mussulman

fleet.

from the

fired

went

victors all

embarkation of the European troops on board of

fortress,

and repeated by

to the arsenal to hasten the

barbaresque vessels, and

fifty

on the opposite side in the harbour of Chârdâk, the Asiatic troops were also
doing the same. In twenty-four hours every thing was completed, and next day
the fleet weighed anchor again amidst the noise of muskets and guns.
We passed

Tenedos (Buzja Ada)
look out.

be

to

ten Firkata were sent on ten miles a-head to keep a good

Their captains were invested with robes of honour, and promised

We passed Tine
which belonged to the Venetians, who sent presents on board the

made Begs

(Istendil)

;

of the

Imperial

arsenal

(post captains).

Admiral's ship, but no notice was taken of them, and we sailed by. We passed
Thera (Deirmenlik), an Ottoman island belonging to the khass of the Captain

Pasha, weathered the point of Temashalik (Sunium), passed Athens, the castle
of Termish in Morea, and stopped at Napoli (di Romania), a strong castle at the

end of a great port, where we took

Rumelian sanjaks
port;

;

we

did the

twenty-seven

in provisions for the troops of

same

at Benefshe,

passed Candia, taking no notice, as

if

which

is

an open place with no

we were going

to

Malta, passed

Cerigo and Cerigotto also belonging to the Venetians, the fortresses of Coron and

Modon, and the
Navarin.

This

is

island of Borak, a small island near

Morea,

till

we came

to

a large port defended by two castles, one on the shore, the

other on high rocks.

Here we came

to

anchor and discharged the lading of ten

heavy transport ships (Chakâlgemî) of the Arsenal,
troops and artillery on to lighter ones.

shifting

their

cargoes of

During our stay here, the commanders

of Zante and Cephalonia, Venetian Islands, sent presents of

powder and lead

to

him a happy voyage and success in the exseeing that every thing was directed against Malta, they returned with

the Commander-in-Chief, wishing
pedition

;

great satisfaction.
also

We

took on board here three thousand brave Albanians, and

took in water, because a great fresh water river disembogues into the sea at

the extremity of this port.

On

the third day the flag was hoisted, the trumpet of departure sounded, and

nine hundred small and large ships

left

and Dûrâk with ten small Firkata were

the port.

The two

captains Karabatak

at the head, as look-out ships, leading

towards Malta, which was thought by the whole of the

fleet to

be

its

At noon the Commander-in-Chief turned round on a sudden, made

destination.
signals for

EV L

I

Y A E FE

ND

I.

79

the whole fleet to do the satne, and again passed by Cerigo, the Castle of which

now began

to light fires,

and

At sunset we were before Candia,
anchored opposite the castle of St. Todero on
guns.

fire signal

and before daybreak the whole

fleet

the north side of the island at the harbour of Suda.

Troops and two

light

guns

(culverines) were disembarked with the necessary ammunition, the castle assailed,

and

in less

than two hours forced to surrender.

and were embarked

The

in ships for Cerigo.

At

ships

were now secured

garrison,

left in

and the whole

great guns (Balyemez),

forty falconets,

Lazaret safe against

all

The

possible winds, and the

fleet

was commanded

also
to

distance from

of St. Todero, was

Morea.

their cargoes,

watch over the security of the
Praise be to

west side of Canea.
miles

now disembarked
God,

Cape Kabâjâ

first

it

in

The Shaikas

was taken very

thought necessary

and the governor of Sivas

port,

Morea, and

its

anchored

Begs (Captains)

of the Barbareses received orders to cruise with seventy Firkata.

and Kara Mursal

with their

and two hundred small

guns (Shâhitop) and encamped out of reach of gun shot.
in the port of the

of

anchored at the

fleet

The whole army disembarked

harbour of the Lazaret, close to Canea.
tents, seventy

in the port,

The two governors

and large guns placed behind gabions to defend them.

Karaman and Adana were

marched out

sunrise the Infidels

which

easily.

is

situated on the

It is situated sixty

conquest as well as that

for the facility of passing troops

from

Great batteries were raised and furnished with large guns to protect

the fleet lying in

it,

meanwhile Firkatas were keeping the open sea

at

twenty and

thirty miles distance as guardships, (Karaul Kullik).

Siege of the Fortress of Canea.

The camp being pitched round
and every

man

the Castle of Canea at a gun-shot's distance,

having taken his post according to the orders of the Commander-

in-Chief, the janissaries first entered the trenches.

The next day

the

in-Chief held a grand review in sight of the Infidels, and in defiance

were confounded

at

this

show

of the

dismounted at his tent, forty thousand

on the trenches

Aghâ

at seven points

of the janissaries, in

entered the trenches.
Zagarjî-bashî.

Samsünjî-bashî.

Khasseki.

(5)

the trenches.

(2)

Ottoman power.

men

round the

as

he had

with shovels and axes began to work
fortress.

The governor

(1)

On

the south side the

of Anatoli, with ten regiments and the

The governor of Rumeli with
(4) The governor of Sivas with

(6)

As soon

whose company the Commander-in-Chief himself

(3)

On

Commanderof them, who

ten regiments headed by the
five

regiments headed by the

the east side at the silver bulwark, the Barbareses opened

On

the west side at the golden bulwark, the governor of

Haleb, with three regiments of Zenberekji.

In short, the attack was carried on

THETRAVELSOF

80

The north

from seven points.

side bordering

on the sea and the port was alone

unable to be attacked by trenches, which were opened on

The

compass.

and

men became martyrs

seven thousand

;

their property taken possession of

encouraged by the presence and the

by the

Cyprus,

During seven

in the highest state of perfection.

days and nights they fired forty thousand guns and

musket-shot

other points of the

Infidels having enjoyed peace ever since the conquest of

and arsenals were

their artillery

all

many hundred thousand

being killed

in the trenches,

But the Moslim

fiscus.

victors

the Commander-in-Chief, advanced

gifts of

with undaunted steadiness, and arrived on the tenth day at the edge of the ditch

Seven

guns were battering the walls on seven

batteries with large

twenty days and nights the

began to

at last

fire

mounds

raise

This

practicable,

way

of earth on the side of the sand bulwark, which

of continuing

up, and with

it,

is

more than an

men

The

hell.

into the air

hour's time.

;

The Mussulman

the west side of the

the Infidels upon

witnessing this

so that the air

mounds

who were

it,

artful

mining,

of earth with a

was obscured by the dust

for

victors not caring for this, exhorted

in

heads and prisoners

whom

they

The Commander rewarded those who brought heads

men and

distributing ziamets

and timars.

Faithful devoting themselves with heart and soul, penetrated sometimes

whence they brought heads and

into the interior of the fortress, from

and amongst the

last

even the son of the commanding general.

was a bloody one, which cost many

One day an

Infidel

But

prisoners,
this

day

lives.

descending on a rope-ladder, came into the Commander-in-

Chief's tent,

and

safety of his

house and family.

said

he had good news to

what he asked, and promised to

He

all

On

of three mouths was blown

and those who brought prisoners with an hundred ducats, making them

besides a present of the

The

im-

Infidels

one another, and the volunteers brought
caught at the breaches.
fifty,

above ground being found

they passed under the ditch and blew the

couple of hundred

with

and

estabUshed, a mine

seventy yards of the wall, with

it

through the sky to

sent

imitated

the siege

Moslims with

shells

the

was carried on by mines under ground.

it

town, where the Lazaret

During

The Moslims

continued to rage from both sides.

being perceived by the garrison, they burned
grenades.

sides.

tell

him,

if

he would promise the

The Commander-in-Chief granted immediately
give him the command of the Infidels besides.

then confirmed his promise by an oath, and tied a handkerchief of pardon

round

his neck.

the Greeks

Then

who wished

themselves to the

last

the Infidel said that there were two parties in the castle,
to surrender,

man.

The

and the Venetians who wished to defend

latter

were assembled on the side of the

harbour, where the fortress had not yet been battered, he advised, therefore, to

evliya efendi.
them by a battery

disturb

some arrows

raised on that side,

and

81

throw into the Greek quarter»

to

only, with flattering promises to the Greeks.

This advice having

been followed, ten Greeks came, who embraced Islam, and received Mussulman

The

names.

side of the

siege was, however, continued with the

same

On

zeal.

the east

harbour a great bastion was raised, from which the high houses

were battered, and where

Infidels near the port

and palaces of the

The same day

lamentations pieixed the skies.

orders were issued to

and

cries

all

Captains

of the Navy, and to the Begs of the Barbareses, to keep a good watch, and twelve

Maunas were ordered

raised a great outcry there, but

were issued to the chief
fire

and

some of the shots

gunner of the

their stratagems, there

martyrs.

It

and the sea side of the town.

to batter the port,

injuring the camp, other orders

The

fleet.

to relate all the

in their

memorable events of this

one day the Infidels seeing forty thousand brave

in short,

never relaxing

Infidels

was no day without a couple of hundred

would be too tedious

This

men

falling

siege

;

with drawn swords

and heavy shields, ready to assail the walls, hoisted the white flag of surrender,
crying, " Aman, âmân, O exquisite family of Osman !"
No regard being paid to
this,

and the

firing

continuing as before, some Captains

asking for a respite
will

of ten

them remained

of

The Commander-in-Chief answered, " You

days.

walk out to-morrow, or

Some

all

fall

came out by the breaches,

victims to the sword."

in the tent of the

This was agreed

the castle and returned with the answer, that next morning they would

The

ready to surrender.

Janissaries, Sipahis, Jebejis

all

salutes of

guns and muskets

time during three days.

The next day the

fired,

The

em-

was proclaimed,
and those salutes repeated thrice from time to
Islamitic prayer

ships of the Infidels steering eastward to the Castles

of Retimo and Candia, their General

when he heard

be

and Topjis, instantly took

possession of the walls and the artillery, and during the night, the Infidels were

barked for their cursed country.

to.

Commander-in-Chief, some went into

when he saw and heard

these rejoicings,

the profession of Islam proclaimed from the belfries,

the crosses upset and the green banner of

Mohammed

could not bear such a sight, but blinded himself.

when he saw

waving on the

The whole

fleet

now

spires,

entered

the harbour, and messengers were sent to Constantinople with the good news.

Seventy-seven tartanas and

and

ships, came to an
ammunition were disenibarked, and large batteries
raised on the shore to mount the guns on. The troops were occupied in cleansing
the trenches and ditches, and repairing the walls
thus the castle became ten

galleys,

fifty

barbaresque

All the stores and

anchor.

;

times stronger than

and the
streets

VOL.

first

it

was before

;

all

the churches were converted into mosques,

Friday prayer performed in the mosque of Sultân Ibrahim.

were adorned with shops and lighted with lamps during the night.
II.

M

The
The

THETRAVELSOF

82

sounded

clarions

the prayer was performed, the shouts

after

of Allah pierced

the skies, and a triple salute was fired, the report of which shook not only

and

whole of earth and Heaven.

Irak, but the

The

sixth

day

after the

conquest of the castle, a

the Venetian, Tuscan, and Popish flag

came

Ottoman
when they saw the

they saw the port
cruising before

Rome

full

it,

of the

fleet,

fleet of

a hundred

to the assistance of

sail

it

;

bearing

but when

and the ships of the Barbareses

belfries

turned into minarehs, and the

Crescents in the place of the Crosses, they sighed heavily, " Good-by Canea!

Good-by Canea

!"

and

the conquered fortress

all

;

victors

the slaves and girls of the late Kislar Agassi

on board the galleon of Ibrahim Chelebi,
horses

The Ottoman

sailed in despair for Siida.

all

his precious things,

found in

embarked

and high-bred

they revenged the blood shed, and turned the Convents of their monks

and nuns

into those of Dervishes.

heavy and bloody as

contest at this siege was scarcely so

Erivan and Baghdad, which have been

at the sieges of Assov,

celebrated by eloquent writers.
letters to nine

The

towns and

The Commander-in-Chief

fortresses of the island,

of the island in the mountains of Assfakia,

sent messengers and

and to the Rayas

summoning them

in the interior

to pay ti'ibute, to

surrender to the Sultîîn the keys of their castles, and to enjoy ease and plenty

under the protection of the Emperor; threatening those who would not comply
with this demand, with the havoc of their lands, slavery of their families, and

death to themselves by the sword.
deputies from
presents.

all

The

Within seven days came three hundred

places and villages in the island to pay obeisance and bring

rest of the island not having submitted, the Vezirs

and Begler-

Begs received orders to send the Ottoman victors to

collect the legal tithes.

men were immediately

dispersed over the seven

From

seventy to eighty thousand

hundred and seventy miles of the island, taking booty, day and night, in the ways
of God.

Gold,

silver,

immense numbers
a boy or girl was
seeing such

brass vessels, fine boys, and pretty girls, were carried in

to the

Ottoman camp, where there was such an abundance that

Some thousand men of
Kuchuk Hassan Pasha with

sold for eighteen piastres.

plenty, settled in the island.

Begler-Begs, seventy Alai-Begs, and

all

the army,

seventeen

the Zaims and Timariots, remained at

Canea, besides the garrison of regular troops, consisting of twenty-seven regiments
of janissaries, ten regiments of artillery, ten regiments of armourers, four re-

giments of

cavalry,

and

three

seventy-seventy thousand men.

thousand

fifty firkata

troops

;

altogether

In the castle remained seven thousand seven

hundred Azabs, and forty ships were
keshe, besides

men, Egyptian

left for

the transport of troops from

manned with an hundred

The Commander-in-Chief, Yûssûf, took leave of

Men-

stout lads.
all

the Vezirs and great men.

was found to be a column of yellow stone. and a sword and cutlass set with jewels. This is the stone which . and next day arrived at the Seraglio point. in the course of ten days we touched at different places. and garrisoned with the necessary troops. The same day the Island of Tine was plundered. destroyed the repairs of the Mainotes at the Cape of Maina in Morea. He before Cerigo and Cerigotto. which had been said to be a golden tree. " My Yûssûf. fleet was Istendil (Tine). with such demonstrations of joy as cannot be expressed. an Imperial rescript arrived from Constantinople congratulating the Commander-in-Chief on his victories. and the Castle of . From Tenedos we arrived Commanders received strict and one night. caused the death of Yûssüf Pasha. Lemnos. Envious calumniators informed the Emperor. and a golden column . because persons afflicted with jaundice three times on a Saturday. infinite soon share thy fate !" and. Mitylene.EVLIYAEFENDI. and the southerly wind being favourable. but no great booty found. " how white he was !" and fell a When Sultan He added. in sight of Constantinople. that Yûssüf Pasha had secreted from the treasures of Canea three great tubs of gold. After his death nothing was found. he said. three millions of money. the signal of departure was immediately Its castle given. had not given a drop of the ocean nor an atom the Emperor. IV. with the Castle ofKilli situated on the same point passed the Cape of Capospada. belonging sailing. being strong and high. where we took water. we reached the at Gallipolis. was decorated with Imperial robes treasure of Egypt. in two days Prince's Isalnds. while saying so. and Tenedos. these castles were put in repair. who have played thee this trick crying. was resolved to lay waste the Island of At the moment the to the Venetians. and came to anchor was held. and offered a those of Paradise. and rewarding him with an Imperial robe of honour. But he was afterwards calumniated and killed. that he of the sun of his treasures to and the column wrapt up in felt. and where orders to be watchful. ! Cause of the Death of Yiissi'if Pctshd. His death caused general complaint and lamentations. and youths like worth that of honour. besides an number of presents. Menkeshi. such as Chios. and weighed anchor with a favourable wind. he looked at his favourite Jinji Khoja. may those. Yûssûf Pasha. kissed the ground before Emperor. the The conqueror of Canea. Ibrahfm saw his body. and it After a stay of three days a council at Napoli. and there was but one God's mercy be upon him voice of sorrow. and passed with a fleet of two hundred sail 83 sailed for Constantinople. the number of From hence. which was afterwards used to support the oratory of the mosque built by the mother of more precious indeed than gold and are cured by touching it Mohammed It is a stone jewels.

Evliyfi. with the soul. you have Pray now for been present at seventy battles since Sultân Suleiman's time. and returned safe to my parents' hands. surpassed even that which was given at the feast of circumcission of Sultân Ahmed. an enterprise so God that poor I. foundations Mahmud . Evliya Efendi retired. but requires to be it Scutari said. witnessed such a famous siege. The assembly having Mahmud Efendî of Scutari. Secretary. which tent on that part of the courtyard of the mosque. only God this mosque shall well endowed. " If thou returnest victorious I'll reward thee according to thy merits:" and indeed it happened because so. where there then remained only Here a single painted Koshk belonging to the Serai of Koja Mohammed Pâshâ. exhorting me I kissed his to listen to it hand. it place. They dug and the walls of the foundations having reached the level of the earth. crown. and the tongues of the people are the pens of God. and our Khoja (Evliyâ's reading-master) Evliya Efendi." the following story. My father said. Kalender Pâshâ was named inspector. Praise be to the Martyr's then who first granted him the conquest and the conquest of Canea. could equal such merit. Kara Sunbul Alî Efendi. there remained my master. and with the prayers and ceremonies usual in similar cases the position of the mihrâb determined. undertake a military expedition. difficult." The be finished. I kissed native city. and be a Evliya and Sultân said fine praying Mahiuud Efendi of gracious Emperor. in the reign of Sultân Ahmed I.. was granted to Yûssûf Pâshâ before the arrival of the enemy's fleet by a special favour of God. sitting on our heels. you have grown old. " My dear father." I said. " The campaign thou hast made now renders my going into the field superfluous. and forty other men with fine voices. but the glory of Martyrdom. " My Omar Gulshenî one of the thy poor father. the Sheikh of Scutari. and pitched his Mahmud Moezzins of the foundations. Ibrahim Efendî the senior of the surgeons. Dervish favourite singers and I. Kara Chelebl. unto us. who me and he then told ears of my shall go into battles instead of you. your beloved son. the Sultân gave a feast to all the Vezîrs and great men of the capital. he said. Kara Sunbul Alî Efendi. a great assembly of seven hundred Vezîrs and great men was held at the Hippodrome in order to lay the foundation of Sultân Ahmed's mosque. the Ulemas and Astronomers were assembled." When Sultân Ibrahim disclosed the secret of the expedition to Yussilf Pâshâ on his departure. the from forty to fifty cubits deep. THETRAVELSOF 84 " The servant proposes and God disposes. my son. " In the year when thou wast born. the One day Sultân Ahmed came. who wished me joy on my my safe return. and no reward He was beloved of God. Mahommed Efendî. " If please in the Sultan's tent. was imâm named of the the Sheikh Agha. and then .

a good and eloquent speaker. having kissed the ground were read by the Interpreter in presence of Efendi of Scutari.evliya efendi. and mosque. Evhya.' This prediction was accomplished by the news that Murad Pasha had filled all the pass away Hke a wells near torrent . and obtain in history by this deed the name of Murad Pasha the well-maker (Kiiyiiji). ' If " Sultan Venetians. your Majesty should undertake an expedition against Creta (Kirîd). it please Ahmed is it senior of the surgeons. Stancio. with He made presents. Mahmud sent Kûrd-Chaûsh. hundred and of seven hundred and seventy miles circumference. all mosque. Haleb and Azez with the bodies of the rebels. with seven mines of gold. present. Toghani. Jûnûbî the Sheikh of the Mevlevi's at Kâssîm Pasha. as your built If is. and at the end of seven days arrived at Venice. making his public entrance on the eighth. Efendi of Scutari said a Fâtihah for this prayers of which were repeated by seven the Mahmiid The Infidels. on the third day all the rebels be beaten. being Venice to ask that he should give up the island of Creta. thy poor father. Dervish Omer Gulsheni. this idea. you would protect the passage of Ottoman merchants and pilgrims from the ships of the Ibrahim. great haste. Kalender-oghli and Jennet-oghlî. therefore.' At these words and the Mohammedan shouts (Allah all Î those Allah !) who were rent the present read the air. Scutari availed himself of this opportunity to remind the war. all who finished it by prayer shall be granted. devoted their revenues to his the best endowed of the Imperial mosques. and suggested to him. Ibrahim. silver and other metals. your most Güâb. give. 85 new devote the revenues of the conquered land to your who having ancestor Suleimdn did. learned gentlemen. particularly now. with which Kûrd-Chaûsh was sent back before the Mahmud Emperor. the Cretan first to send an pleased with Efendi of Emperor of the project of embassy to the Prince of Sultân Ahmed. me m the Principe. and saying. the Senate consented to the demand. in person conquered Rodos. we are at peace with the decent for a Shehin-shah (king of kings) to encroach on treaties of Under what pretext shall we break it. and letters were out. Guzelji of me. which we are ready to Fatihah. seven hundred and seventy villages.' ' But. Sunbul Alî. and read his letters in public council made . Kûzû Alî Aghâ. they shall shall Murad Pasha shall fill wells with their dead bodies. as ambassador to Venice. Ismail Efendi the Commentator on the Mesnevi. and You have asked from servant. good intention. the following form and tenor. humble * Abdî Agha. the island of Creta. and you shall receive the good news on the twelfth. the letters . . ' My Emperor. Safd Arab. with six thousand inhabitants. God our then said. which different other islands. when Anatoh is kept in rebellion by Kara Yaziji. against whom myVezîr Murad Lala is marching ? How shall I then think of the conpeace ? quest of Candia ? ' Evliya answered.

that he had understood well the word Creta.' THETRAVELSOF 80 " The end of the Monarch. that most certainly be conquered. said. Mohammed ?' Mohammed said. " Sultân Ahmed has hurt thee. it : — and began to and the Mahommedan shouts (Allah please God. rebels. praise to God.' Now . Osman is thy brother. ' But we poor as rich as that of Creta. should your Majesty be they were ready to give up the island.' Efendi. and then of the with him. giving to you the favour of you.' and saying When conversation. followed by seven Princes. to dissipate the melancholy which the answer of the Venetians had They played caused. and hurt his neck so that blood was flowing. and he turned giddy. but that there was something mysterious in Now Prince Osman came up pursuing his answer about the white Russian girls. and of the old seat of our rehgion. he asked him. according to which they shall be obliged to yield the island. sons. who kissed the hands of the Emperor. touched turban. and the Kislar-agassf walked out. ' ' conquer the land of the white Russian he continued to play . Then they was again read so.' He wiped this is the course of the world and having seated him at the foot of the throne. the Pi'ince strongest and stoutest of them. shall it happened to be in versing with the this God who has dictated these words to A repeated. sheds ' : 'Will you conquer Creta. Osman ball. his blood off. Saida. Look Mohammed. God. to .' . his brother self. where and having crept forth again. Mahmüd observed. would be more reasonable to dehver your hereditary countries from the who infest Ahmed than to form such strange demands it. them. ball. Mohammed which Osman threw my blood quest begun by me.' ' my Gentlemen. an island letter said. and the Sultân said. Beirut. he asked him. most humble He servants. letter ! they began by saying. Why ' afflicted. Divân. Mohammed even under the throne. are your !) Fatihah was Emperor his innermost garden at the place called ChemensofFa. what secrets are revealed to-day my ' con- Praise be to but nobody yet understands them. the his gilt sheltered him- at him. it we can cede only for this purpose It is you the to island of Creta. con- the gate of the innermost Sheikhs. if it is not me. hearing this answer was deeply Efendi said. who were said. the at the ' If it they changed the At abovenamed learned and virtuous gentlemen. another Mohammed will The Senior ' but 1 brother finish the of the Surgeons. was superior Osman Creta ? Saying ! wilt and Osman. great make to us a present of the ports of Acra. the Princes then ordered that they should play before him. I will. and yet he strike him in your turn. Evhya girls. afflicted is Our comphments and this moment Harem opened. Ibrahim said. I will so. we beg fellows. ' What shall I do with thou conquer Creta ? to the rest. and shed blood there. Coming near his father's throne. My The Prince answered. Jerusalem. you Mahmüd cry. the innocent boy could not reach the meaning of the Emperor's words.' said.

Sultân Osman who hurt his brother Mohammed's neck. who was hurt by Ibrahim's ball in his groin. and Sultân am fallen it. but such the play is because they gained upon me. " 1. and said. which and retreated under the throne.' Ahmed Sultân replied. how letter it now curi- has been read. Sultân Osman. and into The Prince ! ' All my my Ahmed who were said.' said martyrdom. and threw a ball at them. if it might happen. Bayazid cypress. him till " 3. for in ' to indelicate play.' God's name. which hurt from their noses. had rather ' he then issued without ous I ! he received as boldly as the shall ' way by Ibrahim The play continuing.evliya efendi. so that blood dropped Murad. pleases God. so that he knocked off his turban and set him crying. Sultân Ahmed under Yüssûf the Prophet's favour said a Fatihah that this fell time. but turned round a moment. ' Have Murad was beaten crying on the ground. which he undaunted.' and then I ' If an God son Yüssûf present 'Now. when one Piniâl tortured he died by compression of the scrotum. ' It ' My was not 87 Siileimc'in were chasing each from the place called the black them both. I was obliged to do my to take Now came place ! ' Omer said. saying.' asked him. were strangled in . " 2. died after his unsuccessful return from Hotyn. than have been to the surprise of all the Wilt thou conquer Creta. sat at the foot of not aimed a good ball at Murad. and were going it Gulsheni said. ordered him to be noses. Murad again pursued Ibrahim. ! executed when going to Khotyn. assists father's throne. feigned to direct his ball at Bayazid. by Princes. Murad sallied forth cypress. and threw it at Murad with such violence. brethren The Prince so. till Ibrahim has at once chased away my spleen by saying that he will conquer Creta by his son. that he was for some received in Ibrahim now ran to his time senseless. The two and Suleiman. overtaken by Murad at the black the same place. and his ear. There * Where have you been my Ibrahim ? 'I. when once.' entered wildly and threw a ball at Sultân Osmân's head. at the Seven Towers. they got bloody necks and and made me more melancholy than before. why dost thou beat thy my intention. really happened. first his caught hold of it is. endowment my mosque for me. some mystery Sultân : ' Ahmed in that. and am now come to wrestle and * ' also is Prince Ibrahim in a ruby-coloured dress he. of the woi-ld. children's play. conquer it that I said. the Princes continued to play at ball other. from whence turban and in a state of undress. the ball at him. Prince Murad now threw a ball at Ibrahim. melancholy since the Venetian that wishing to divert myself with said. died. the blood dropping from their noses. and make of Mecca and Medina. and helps me.' God's mercy on Sultân Ahmed All that had been foreshewn in this play. and threw in that beholders. Prince all at Bayazid and . have taken the ablution of play with all my He brethren.

woe to parties. Dervish my its son hast witnessed the entire conquest. he was named and the Vezirat given to the Defterdar Sâleh Pâshâ. Ibrahim's presence. him ! As some thousand patiate too much on Jowanji Kapûjî Mohammed Commander-in-chief who bestowed on tails . " 4. twenty-one years after this play had happened in their father's presence. was present at the prayers then said at the suggestion of this conquest. " 7. The ball received be. and have waited ever since for the conquest of Creta promised by Sultân Ibrahim to his father. by Ibrahim from Murad foreboded that Ibrahfm' would Murad's successor. I. Ahmed's tomb. that he would conquer Creta with his son Yûssûf. who had been Khazinedar. when he sent Beshir Aghâ to ConstantiThey were buried in their father nople with the news of the conquest of Erivan. and saying. showed the luxury of weddings and pleasure his reign passed in " 6. and I prepared my tents for was invested with a robe of honour (caftan) in Sultân He bestowed on me the journey to Erzerûm. and thou fulfilling was It of it. Pâshâ the great Vezir being deposed. at Creta. poor Evliya. the governorship of Mohammed. related the story of the Princes. the governorship of Bude with three and on Ibrahim Chelebi. The son of Sâleh Pâshâ. when coming forth from beneath his father's throne. all sciences.THETRAVELSOF 88 Sultân Murad's order in the year 1045. I. Canea but have related what I the chief of the God's mercy upon exist. Ibrahim's indelicate play at the foot of the throne. " My son. thy poor father." Mohammed. He was a man of generous. this Pâshâ. brave. great acquirements in and statesman. was appointed clerk at the custom- house of Erzerûm. thou shalt witness also it manner in this that my father. goldsmiths at Constantinople. Moezzin and companion to agreeable conversation. and now fulfilled accordingly. His having then said ' . but. with the character of Vezir. If please God. he was sent as ComBaghdad. as he did not accept of it. is to be understood of Yüssûf Pashd the Commander-in-chief of the expedition to Canea. I would not ex- witnessed in a plain way. a poet rich presents. giving him the Imperial rescript. God knows my son (continued Evliyâ's father) whether the name of Yûssûf may not be applied to Ibrahim's son. as he was. who finish the shall conquest of Creta begun by his father. his brother. my was the forerunner of the cullies. The reply given by Ibrahîm. Murteza Pâshâ. " 5. " 8. was made Aghâ of the janissaries. descriptions of the siege of this subject. He I said unto the Pâshâ.' infamous disease of which he died. . known by the name of the hanged Defterdâr-zadeh Mohammed Pâshâ. Chelebî mander-in-chief to Erzerûm. all these mysteries I witnessed in Sultân Ahmed's presence.

From hence the quarter-master with the inspector of the kitchen (Mutbakhemini). VOL. At the time when Sidi Battal besieged Con- stantinople. had returned from his travels in Africa and most happily Suleiman Pâshâ. that . if they should under thy command. JOURNEY TO ERZERUM. led the van with five hundred men and a tail. sent express to Erzenim at Scutari. and a great number (Konakjf) of other valuable presents. ten horses. We set out from India. ten purses. but Scutari in the early part of Sha'abân. took possession of the governorship. This was formerly a large town.EVLIYAEFENDI. " Thou become He art my rebels. and the purveyor at market (Bazâra giden). The same was day. and everybody for conferring this governorship vailed. a great convent existed at Constantinople. Mustafa Aghâ. to Malatialf Silihdar Aghâ one of the relations of the Pâshâ. two sable fifty 89 the Persians as far as Erivan is mules and as many camels We passed pelisses. one of the Imperial armsbearers (Silahshor). Having remained a month minutely described in our in first Scutari. and his place given to Ah' remained a week Suleiman Pasha. Cherkess Derzi Mustafa. During our stay Pâshâ Dilber Chelebî was deposed by an Imperial firman. the treasurer of the at Scutari. the governor of Erzerum (predecessor of Abaza) killed this pretender and sent his head to Constantinople. which town have been the news arrived that the Mossellem (substitute of the Pâshâ) had happily taken possession of the governorship Pâshâ immolated victims. II. it march belonging to the foundation of Kirechji- numerous gardens supply the Capital with vegetables. N . set out we on our journey for Erzerum. and then. because the principal reason on Defterdar-zadeh was the rumour which pre- Abaza Pâshâ the famous rebel. and chief of the cellar (Kilârjî). where we pitched our tents . gave h im absolute Vczir and all splendid tent. whom Sultân Murad had spared." for the journey. the rejoiced. on the first day of Rejeb. the buildings of volume . Commander against the army of Anatolia five purses. contrary to the wishes of the troops. a under Sultân Ibrahim's blessing at the place called Aghâchairî. and to Scutari. within the gate of Sîlîvr. and arrived at the end of seven hours at Pendik. a great village bashi at Scutari. and the Mosellem. Its on the seabord. Here our master received from the Great Vezfr Sâleh Pâshâ. Gehize.

Koja Sinan. still it might not the conquest aspers in the which bears whose administrator (Muteveh) of the place. threshold is is The mosque has but one gate opposite the altar. mihrdb (pulpit). herbs fill a delicious garden. and nightingales enrapture with their warbling notes. and retired to Malatia Mohammed was conquered by It be a refuge for the infidels . I1Î. . hke that which is seen here on the left of the the A altar. on the written the chronograph in the writing of Kara Hissârî Hossein. mosque by Mustafa Pâshâ. but Sultân now sanjak of Koja Mustafa Pdshâ. which has no equal the world. therefore it God is the light of The interior of the cupola is adorned with circles of lamps and a The Egyptian carpets on the floor vie great number of suspended decorations. who showed his skill here most the four sides are composed of small painted glass. each of which is worth an Egyptian treasure. mosque is is was lined with marble not to be seen in any other (altar). On it be at the mosque of Sultân Ahmed both sides of the gate are six cupolas supported by as at many . The pulpit the preacher with those of Heaven. built the bridge It lies fifty is visible. who when governor of Egypt had the this The stones came and granite The The minber of the Moezzins are of most describe to those first is that in who have not seen The windows on it.THETRAVELSOF 90 now mosque of Koja Mustafa Pâshd. the by Sultan Suleiman. called the who commanded the garrison of the said fortress. the bridge builder of the bridge called adorn built built is impossible to by the architect Hassam." Outside of the walls shell. outshines the mosques of the Vezirs at Constantinople . in the ancient style. top of a dry mountain II. which illiberal finest stones cut in plates to interior of the men. and mahfil (oratory) workmanship. in order to keep The inhabitants of Gebîze having killed some men belonging the infidels in check. built a mosque officer here. it was (Namerd). which It in to the landing-place of Darîjî. from Egypt direct where they were disembarked. the of the mosque. and made a stone candelabrum of them. is not to be found elsewhere. he laid the town of Gebize in ruins. where flowers and odoriferous the air and brain with perfumes. rebuilt it after a jurisdiction of one hundred and It is commanding destroyed the castle. built a fortress here and garrisoned it with three thousand men. and in mosque seventy Korans are kept. at the there are about one thousand houses with gardens. the largest of which covered with lead. which to the height of three in the capital.. excellent assistant to the architect minutely. at tlie place to Sidf Battal. of (Kursi) is inlaid with pearlIsfahan. who I. copy of Yakut Mostea-assemi. sunshine illuminates the mosque with a most delicious you read on the middle vault the verse of the Koran. " light. his at the name in same time an hour's distance from the sea. that Mohammed of Constantinople. Hardn-ur-raslud. who Rumeli. three mosques. traces of this havoc are . except Constantinople.

all the work of Sinan the air all and at the Caravanserai. every A mule or camel. its villages adorn its shores. . the water of the wells from hence Herke. of the lake there are melons and water-melons of such a size that two ass-load. conquered by small castle. mosque and bath covered with lead. The Harem the seventh. woods here by the plough. large the We advanced Besides this and small khans. of Its five is a little Mohammed immense I. good. which is baked in a shop underneath the bath. we seashore. ass. which has been already minutely described in our former journey. water are of ruddy complexion. and which keeps its flavour and does not become mouldy for the space of six days. and obtained general approbation. is it was first cultivated. it is renowned for its white bread. Its good qualities are due to the water. called so from Sabânjî Koja. is vallies. on a cliff gate opens to the north and has It is a nice between two The no houses within. and two thousand horses. is at the same time the first public oflBcer of the place. gallery. Rostem Pasha founded a khan here with one hundred and seventy fireplaces. After a day's rest we again started and came. and the products of there are no vineyards. and the cupola immediately over the gate is 91 courtyard. In the dining-room (dar-ul-ita'am). a loaf of bread. and a bag of forage covered with lead like Caravanserai shops. In Suleiman's time cleared the thick and . columns. On the lake are from seventy to eighty kaiks and boats. at who the end of six hours march. the a Cara- is thousand men. which . and about one thousand houses faced with brick built by Koja Sinan. and one hundred and eighty mosque in the market is an old simple building faced with red bricks. all thei'e are forty the houses are in plenty furnished with a dish of soup. Sâri it. The administrator of these endowments of Rostem Pasha. is accommodation affording for three is adorned with Close to the well proportioned. every fire-place for every horse. built on the seashore. stones. thick. district At the end of eight hours journey along the arrived at Isnikmid (Nicomedia). the other buildings of this foundation. has arrived fresh. and seventy-six . It has often been sent by couriers to the Shah a pleasant of Persia. old and yonng men and women dine evening. with one vanserai. Besides its white cherries. Sumiin. with a stable appropriated for camels. but a great number of gardens. a candle.evliya efendi. to Sabanja. but hours towards the east to the Castle of Helke or belongs to the sanjak of Koja Il. bath is attached to . Praise of the Lake of Sabdnja. mosque or trees. with considerable loss of men. minareh. as spacious as those of imperial mosques. Its circumference The people who is drink of the land are abundant On the borders make an twenty miles.

at two hours distance. with woods. a market. a branch of which goes down As number of workmen were employed to the salt-marshes of Nicomedia. It is this water which gives a whiteness resembling cotton to the bread Sûmûnî. paved the road. this town would be quite an inland port the timber and wood might be brought down to Boll. to whom and to was whose descendants it in Osmân's name by was given as hereditary by the Greek Commander of Brussa. fish. a mosque. with a khans founded by Shemsi Pasha. an ofiicer of the janissaries. passes the river Sakaria. small place belonging to the territory of Koja Il. passes through Koja Il. conquered Sonkor Bai Shemsi. a khân. in a mountainous region. On the east side of the lake. and it would cost no more than five aspers the quintal. a judge appointed with one hundred and fifty here. which disembogues into the Black Sea in the province of Koja Ilf at the place called Irva it . along the seashore. many villages. twenty fathoms. the washing without soap. property (Ojaklik). a khân. who woody marsh over Arabia and Persia. mountains. There are a great number of most delicious water clear is and and excellent brilliant. by of this river. III. a long and a Sûbashî. this river Black Sea near Irva. and two hours beyond the river Melân the place of U'skiibi. is aspers. a great a communication between the gulf of Nicomedia and the lake of Sabanja. wooden bridge (causeway) famous marched twelve hours further on through thick the first all In the forests. The judge Mohammed II. ing to the division of Sultan of the Beg amounts to three fourteen ziamets. Nine hours further on we reached Boh. West of this place on the also We and came to Dûzje-bazâr. place belonging to Boli. . through thick forests. ! called " Ocean of trees. it is Accord- The khass hundred thousand one hundred and twenty-two aspers. If the Sakaria were united with this lake. God make it easy We marched to the eastward six hours. a khass of the territory of Boli. mosque and two In the neighbourhood are is side of Akcheshar. Its castle a small ruined on a high mountain without vestige of cultivation. and the lake with the gulf of Nicomedia. gardens. would require but little spirit Mohammed early as the reign of in establishing means of enterprise to unite the lake with the sea. fifty-five is built timârs. The A Statio7t of Khandak-bazdrt. it is the seat of a sanjak. and goes into the .THETRAVELSOF 92 are employed in the passage from village to village. castle." and crossed the Sakaria by a wooden bridge issues from the mountain Chifteler. and a bath. with the Jebellis two thousand eight hundred appointed with three hundred aspers : five districts belong . a bath. and swords. but the undertaking was given up at the request of the inhabitants. with a mosque. for and Its for the transport of depth is wood.

The book Mohammedieh is much read here they have also story-tellers who recite moral maxims (Oghuz). to it. and a yet there is a great a large town of thirty-four quarters and as It is many mosques. The mildness of the air contributes to the beauty of the inhabitants. nine quarters. the district Kerde round the town of Boli. some of which are faced with bricks . two hundred . In the market-place is that of Mustafa Pasha and of Ferhâd Pâshd. number of merchants. they are very no college or school of tradition. re- and . being composed of fir-trees. We marched twelve hours to the east.EVLIYAEFENDI. know of. The town consists of a a large valley. decent and modest Of its There are a great number of gardens and vineyards. forests The inhabitants for the most part are merchants. amidst the gardens . fifteen But the thousand. and those of the Beg The annual Yaflije. bath. an is officer of the janissaries. through cultivated villages to Kerde. revenue is five 93 thousand piastres. but . like the living spring . and three convents. all Places of Pilgrimage at Bolt. The convent of Yuzghfid Baba near the hotbath. of the Sipahis. much frequented they are both the work of Koja Sinan the great . eatables and products the cherries are the of fir-tree refresh those are called Akasik The surrounding who them drink out of The water-cans most renowned. some serais and mosques. the inhabitants are Turcomans. ladies. The Safien fifty knife-cutlers of this place.built houses eleven mosques. because if they commit the smallest injustice. judge and Beg are obliged to be very cautious. besides the Mesjids shops. which are much esteemed at Constantinople. nowned for the knives and in aspers. the seat of a Sûbashî subordinate to Boll . Two those of a small hot- is It purifies the stomach degrees flock to this hotbath on waggons. People of The hotbath the sanjak of Boli. and more than two hundred of whom know the Koran by heart. a judge with one hundred and thousand wooden and brick. that of S^zak and that of to the left of Boli. as far as I . Though Nakib-ul-i'shnif. these cans and Podiich. and seven coffee-houses. architect : the best and most pleasant bath seven fountains. that of Tûrtir-divân. but there are seventy schools for boys. The women wear Ferrâjîs and large head-dresses. lies and Hissarogi. and four hundred elegant shops. journies to the west from this place Eregli. the inhabitants live by cutting and making planks of them. the Rayas can reach Constantinople in three days. and tanners of Kerde are The air is pleasant. Bartn. is the landing-place of Akcheshar also belong to on the outside of the town . to the south. and complain There of the oppressor. all that of Shemsi is founded by Shemsi Pasha : seven khans. viz. extremely hot and particularly useful against the itch. and cleanses the body. three khans. three thousand well covered houses. that of Gokjesûî.

Alaja-ûzu. buried here. and came with a thousand difficulties at Jerkesh. on the south towards Kânghrî. at Ortakoî near Nikde. to the particularly named Beg by Ala-ud-din the Prince whose Infidels. called Boghâz. its tanners. A traveller marked one of these trunks by fixing a nail in it. From Kerde we travelled to the eastward for the space of eight hours. the seat of a Subashi in the sanjak of Kânghrî. The name is of the Seljuk he conquered. Here Murad is and Sipâhis. of three hundred houses. Here are three hundred covered fifty aspers. khân here of fifty consists Mustafa fire-places. to the village of of one hundred and steep mountains cost in the district of Boli. whose inhabitants are a rebellious people. Karajalar is renowned. travelled thence through a straight. granted kettle-drums. At the four points of the compass. Ikî-divan. speaking a peculiar language of their own. for which before. through Bayander cultivated villages. gratis. old. and when he returned three years afterwards from the siege of Erivan. a jurisdiction The conquest of these villages situated amongst much blood to Osman. every night. ali in the The name mountains. which lively stout is . of Divân given to these districts originated in the time of Ertoghrul. the privilege of districts thus preserved in seven districts. a mosque. Uch-divân. the sword-bearer to Sultân Hamâmlî the end of nine hours to the place IV. so that you may be compelled to lay out ten aspers in brushwood it on fire. who. a ziâmet in the jurisdiction of Kânghrî. the inhabitants healthy Thalebî). which he had tried in vain to burn three years to set Thus they will sell a trunk forty times. Once a week a great market is held here. being family. Pilgrimage Habib was born to Habib Karamdni. built a fifty a judge with one The town shops. and Turks. We is allowed to stay. Aleh-divân. but died before it was finished. particularly in girdles. and so on to seven Divâns. they gave him the very same trunk. a khân where every passenger straw and water.. a bath and from forty to Pâshâ. The names of the districts are. are cultivated districts inliabited by forty or fifty thousand Turks. three hundred houses of poor but very obstinate Turks they will sell a trunk of a tree forty times over. and receives wood. hundred and fifty aspers. houses. putting it in the water . Bir-divân. an officer of the janissaries. Kizîl-ûzû. and one hundred shops.THETRAVELSOF 94 they are mostly students eager for information (Sûkhte a common saying that Kerde is famous for its thieves. and praise it as being forty years They also trade in different small articles. Seven hours further on is the village of Karajalar. and its It is winter. Hamza He died a Sheikh Efendi was one of his . compared to that of Erzerum the inhabitants are a set of . of the Beirâmî in the reign of and Mohammed is II.

number of gardens. Nine hours further on. seven khdns. attempting by getting hold of a willow. where of which alarms is opposite shore to the cross it. and the a precipice. but few distinguished cross the Kizil-Irmak of a strong architecture. It is it was the seat of a Voivode belonging to the sanjak of Churum.EVLIYAEFENDI. We left Karajalar. disciples. In the year 795 taken out of the hands of the Turks by liderim Bayazîd. the noise the river rushes on with great . left some places must be to the Castle of Osmanjik. and is it is not navigable. Our road now led for eight hours. Outside the town in a fine inhabitants are Turks. meadow is the tomb of Sheat Baba Sultân. After eight hours say that Osman was born his successors. The town of learned divines. . a Turkish town. we reached the town of Tussia. horseback I for. but very kind to strangers. so that on the right side are the cliffs. the companion and disciple of Habfb Karaman this village was his birth-place there : . Irmak Kizil men impetuosity. there more a Serdâr and Kiaya-yerî. a Mufti and Nakfb is a great number though . among Its it in was upset with the eastward thunder like the rolling of laid out in from the mountains of Churum and issues enters the Black Sea near the village of Bafra. twenty-one mosques. colour red both in winter and is to my horse in the middle of We Hâjî left forms a cascade. at the bottom of which castle built by Some crossed. and of a judge appointed with one hundred and fifty aspers. are . and saved with Hamza and summer . three hundred The KiizK and Leblebi famous. conquered by Mohammed I. which in march we came at this place. great it is than eight hundred paces in circumference. remains only an ancient mosque on the great road. and a Bezestau with an iron Halwa (two and eleven gate. and has a judge with a salary of one hundred and fifty aspers appointed to no Mufti or Nakib. on difficulty continued our road to the mountains and along the Kizil Irmak. besides the mesjids. It is on the banks of the Kizil Irmak. The public officers are a commander of the janissaries (Serdar). should no longer afford shelter to the Infidels. the other houses are in ruins. The road winds along the rocks at the base of the high mountain called Sârîmâshiklî. the seat of a Sûbashî. sorts of sweetmeats) of the place. no is inhabitants. yet there it is situated on an elevation. and on the flows the Kizil Irraak. an officer of the Sipâhîs (Kiaya-yerî). and destroyed and 95 in the year 708 by Osman. to which pilgrimages are performed. the opposite shore of which The elegant gardens. The air is heavy the and forty shops. a cruel water. is wooden houses faced with consists of three thousand brick. we came to Kojhissâr a after nine was conquered Its castle jurisdiction of Kcinghri. amongst the mountains along the border of the Kizil Irmak (Red river) when we arrived at the village of Haj Hamza. There are You it . by a bridge but a to the castle. order that in it hours walk. there are quarters.

the carpet (Sejade the halter (Palehenk) . head-dress (the this conversed with all all the keepers of the sight Crown my covered had head with shout his cap. poor happiness in both worlds. . felt The cupola it. of felicity) being put on my and was only head. . vinegar many mosques. (Father of the Dynasty of the Sheep. swimming suffered cruelly. is days and nights. and I have ever since kept the symbols of Dervishship. which with the golden crescents in the Black Sea. for three " Es-selam a happy journey. Inside of the cupola are different inscriptions by the visitors. and a small bath. with good sight. a caravanserai with kitchen and All these establishments are covered with lead. very agreeable to the senses of visitors. and dined with them. sprinkle who watch and Evliya. the drum and the head-dress or crown. I then the poor of the convent. wishing (Allah . viz. successor Sultân to Bayazîd. as kissed the threshold. a mosque. is Raisins are In the sand grows a plant soil. I but only the outer town or suburb. a meeting-place for the Dervishes. thanking rose-water. (kitchen read the Koran. (Meidan). and perfect health and a wind blowing on both torches. there are seven quarters and as three khans.THETRAVELSOF 96 As with an iron gate. consisting of a thousand old Titar houses covered with planks and earth. pray at the tomb. arrived here. saying. Pilgrimage He was to the the true tomb of the great Saint Koyun Baba. As soon smoking day and night. it is situated so amazingly high did not see the interior.) the standard (A'alem) the stick (Assa) ." and entered the tomb. a convent. (Taj). he ordered him to build a cupola on his tomb. . in great use. I. Kizil three sides of the town very sweet here on account of the heat of the called almost Kabre (Capers) which preserved in drawn from a well supplied is sandy ground. the water of which by the On Irmdk. and my Since the shipwreck which by whom The preacher and the other Dervishes The Dervishes and read a Fâtihah. poor Evliya. I eyes were lighted up like Arab had suffered I my Mohammedan uttered the When the Sheikh my ears. the habit (Khirka) (Tabl Kûdümî) . because all one of their pnncipal Saints is buried on the west side of the town on an elevated spot. on mausoleum Begtashi to visit I I The imaret at a distance. said prayers on the head of me. on them dazzle the eyes of beholders even for the poor) I went to aleik. is The poor and the inhabitants are Dervishes of the order of Hajf-Begtash. to which I added .) Having appeared of Haji Begtâsh. which I received at the Convent. is visit this cellar. where me he had granted which place of pilgrimage is also me !) naked restored God for the grace perfumed with musk and amber.

to fall known It is in all Asia. of the galaxy. amidst frightful mountains. which bear the inscription of Amasia. then again crossing the bridge. devout. and marching towards the west. a ruined village. the architect built which souls are to pass on the day of the it and fifty paces . and himself threw example was instantly followed by the whole suite. Arabia. of Mârzivân. its it to others. with trees).evliya efendi. which encumbered them down man one and called Diregli-bil (the pass Here our gracious lord the Pasha descended from meaning people. a marvellous pile of building of nineteen arches. my own one of 97 The name of Koyun composition which suddenly occurred to me. this defend threatening which were placed there by well- taking some of the stones out of the road. because the mountain being excavated down. Kosra. which by the Amalekites. is At the end said to have by Ferhâd. the frontier of the sanjak of Amasia. which was of the order of Begtcish are generally in convent are indeed meek this all in travels in Rdm. and in my Haji in twenty-four hours. march from Osmanjik. and coins were struck. but those of praying people. The it. the mountain was conquered by Sultân Melek Ghazî. field Amasia. work of Bayazid bridge. who . very well situated for cultivation. and Persia. when he came from Khorassan to this Saint. . and the precipice four hundred men. of VOL. according Dânishmend of Kerkiraz. I met nowhere a more worthy convent. if may rock. bad repute. with a khan in ruins. belonging to village mosque. because Baba was given Begtash's company. From the hands of the Dânishmend family it princes of Azerbeijan laid siege to without being able to take thus prevented also falling into ruins. last halted here for a day. the rocks are supported by trees. mountain town of Amasia. The miracles. Its and although straight as the bridge of Sirat (over We Judgment). his horse. He then made his son Issa Chelebi governor. Pilgrimage A is great Saint renowned to the many for Tomb of Burhdndedeli. shouting Allah. we reached though the of eight hours built cutter. of the more than once. with sixty been it is villages. is four hundred the river was so rapid. in many places. he to the top of the only ascends which. II. it. and. who hands of Timur. and rolls stones down. a II. we came to the village Hâjîko. like sheep. a we came and the to the In the year 476 (1083) family. each arch gives an idea of the Tak rainbow. and khan. cleared the road of the stones. or of the length. dismounting. passed into those of the Seljuk. pious. of the girdle of Divine Power. he bleated like a sheep once The Dervishes the signal for prayer. Six hours further on It falling into the it was then conquered by Sultan liderim. After nine hours with the clarions sounding. from one end to the other. we arrived at the small pass of Direglibil against a thousand men. o .

. nineteen ziamets. yet a should gain Kapu. looks in the same direction . The number of the houses is not known to me. it has an Ala'i Beg and Tlie Cheri-bashi. resembling the pit of hell sreat calibre. THETRAVELSOF 98 the purest silver. called Chapân cistei-ns. with forty-one towers.. Werai. a small castle. Kildighdn. It The gate Serkiz leads over a wooden bridge to the river has three the second Ma'adenos Meidan Kapû. Gumish. which empire by Sultan is At the found in three mines here. and was obliged to and seven There are four iron gates has no luarket-place (Charshii). and it is only at noon that the spires of the mosques. There are many learned divines and rich merchants. in the rock. and those of the Pdsha at seventy thousand piastres. extremely strong. with the Jebelli. the Sheikh-ul-Islam. but of no time of the AnatoUan effects in the army for Though it is the space of seven Timiir besieged this fortress with an innumerable retire in confusion. or market (Bazar). aspers a day. pentagon. Veraî. and a mar- and seventy cannons. as it is . and Zenûn-abdd. its khass amounts to two hundred thousand aspers. leading It down There are magazines. Merzifün. amount to three thousand men. Samara. Mohammed II. situated in the midst appointed. Aktâgh. is It has sometimes been given as Arpalik to Vezirs of three tails. and viz. and eight hundred battlements altogether. and Kara Said. The annual revenue of the iudo-e is valued at seven thousand piastres. the Nakîb-ul-ishrâf. Aine-bazârî. This castle has six wonderful caverns. commander (Dizdar) and The lower castle is possession of it. by Sultân liderim. a garrison of the province. worthy of being a work of Ferhâd. to me. . to the water. months. where the rich inhabitants hid their valuable rebellions of Kara Yaziji. steps. lest rebels on the banks of the known Karânlik Kapû Tûzânli. and the Kiayayerf of the Sipahis. and the roofs of the houses In form it is a Its circumference is nine thousand and sixty paces. are visible. crowning the height of the mountains are always veiled with clouds. Amasia division of the described as the seat of a Beg. to the from whence a great bridge leads to Gok-medresse. built is and the is not . the jurisdictions those of Koprî. not a frontier fortress. and forty-two timârs . Lâdik. Zaims and Timâriots. whose circumference gates. looking to the east. Shehrbah-bazdr. and Kafâla . the judge has three hundred The districts (Nahie) are those of Aine-bazar. Siiliova. According to the Kantin. on the opposite town. and a road cut Yoli. Bûlâk. Zeitûn. Kerkerâr. Akt<Cgh. Five Sübashis are attached to the khass of the Pasha. of three thousand In the castle is a mosque built vellously deep dungeon. the Serdâr of the Janissaries. Its magistrates are. Form and size of Amasia. mosque west side of the of Ghariblar. third. Its towers. the first opens towards the Kiblah.

and in the middle of the court-yard a water-basin for The mosque of Kuchiik Aghâ. Aine-bazar. covered with of its Mohammed Pasha. through the pass of Ferhâd to Amasia. issues from the mountains of the same name above Tokat. many and below Nîgissâr. but adorned. where it joins the river Chekerek. river Tûzîinlî. close to the many Bayazid. . he mosque. and turning its on both sides of A it. besides palaces. In his youth Amasia . The cupola is of elegant not very large. applied to is in the is it village of Amasia is and mountains bordering on Bayazid. the hills work of Sultân This river comes to Amasia from the south. opposite the great stone bridge. fifty gardeners. it ablutions. Chcngellî-bîl. Chapan. and mahfil of the Muezzins are : workmanship. and five of Christians which . Below the western side of Samsun. made governor is the . springs. quarters of Moslims. Amasia are not at is less to divided into forty-eight there are altogether five thousand houses. and joins the Tuzânl near Amasia as aforesaid. it fields. which passes through the town. It is vulgarly called Yava the proverb. one hundred the mihrab. Ma- having died at Maldepeh. and hommed Pasha forty mosques. throne. with circles for suspending lamps and other ornaments. and made Emperor built this at Amasia. stream by those of seven other this river. The Serai of the Sultân situated on the banks of the river. . passes by Eski. curious trees. but gratefully remembering that he was feet it within the castle others. gardener (Usta). faced with brick Among them . surrounded is delightful gardens. the castle of Tiirhfil. crosses it is joined by several receives the river it Kerkük . covered with lead. by by a master cultivated The is Serai of the Serai of Sultcin there are altogether two hundred mosque of Bayazid of Trebisonde. all contributions. the river Chekerek the and paved with marble the mosque and one minareh . the Black Sea. and and is and many seats who wear mosque .EVLIYAEFENDI. The chronograph on the gate opposite the Kiblah gives the date of 892 (1486). opposite mosque of Bayazid Pasha. running north- it. This river Ladek. Amasia. and after irrigating thus it rivers. defiles Amasia drinks it. the mosque of Khizr lead. Amasia . like those of other imperial mosques. and houses are six hundred. After it. " Tokat springs from the lake of . and then of II. Bayazid was Mahommed first II. and on the bridge worth seeing. built flows from Tokat to it Chehâr Shenbesü (Wednesday's disembogues reaches Samsun. his father. many ward. The number 99 The of mosques." has passed Amasia it water). Sârikûsûn. minber. he went to Constantinople to ascend the freed the inhabitants from square is yellow caps. palaces. conies from Suliova. on the in Chehâr Shenbeh province of Sivas. the bridge of Davikavf. after having increased The town because it called and water-wheels mills be praised than those of Hama and Adana. has two minarehs. building. . Kargol.

red-faced and fresh- the Zaims and Timariots . on account as useful in medicine as terra sigillata. Provisions. as also vent the minareh is mosque the . ruby-coloured cherries. formerly a Christian church and conYogurch Pasha. the Imams. of the . common people is harsh. the and Ferraji of . till . so that those own who do not come home who are within cannot go out (Khoja). Bayazid all is covered with lead. Rûmî. but the tailors and cotton . with iron gates. who was Vezir to Mohammed I. judges. there are forty sorts of pears. Khatibs. which. Chakil . merchants and handicraftsmen. mosque Fethie. and sent to Princes musk Sherbet of must. called Khardalie. which at that of Sultân Of the Caravanserais. with well-ranged teeth and words. . kind of handicraft. as is some of which for Dervishes. and seven sorts of grapes and quinces. is . are exported into Persia The workmen are clever in all . place is There are many distinguished inhabitants. The wealthy dress in sable The women are cloth. . There who speak with great eloquence. heart) ten houses of tradition . well-bred highly -finished but the dialect of the pelisses may all secondly. &c. — first. Büldâklî. gentlemen. covered with lead. are and are inhabitants are a set of merry jolly fellows. built of wood. . the best of . with vaults of stone like the The market Bezestan with four iron gates. slabs. are lead-covered.THE TRAVELS OF 100 covered with lead Elias. Muezzins. their occupation and the Pasha's court many be thus described and . the the mosque of Gokmedresse. Inhabitants. but without a minareh besides a There are ten colleges. that of Sulttin also that of Bairdm Pashd. In the market-place (Charshii) there are altogether one thousand and sixty shops. is . The sherbets a pleasant white beverage. sherbet of quince jelly. the most elegant of which is great number of Mesjids. From the district of Kfighla comes a sort of corn called Dârdevedîshî. there are those for single men (Mujerred) before the hour for closing are not let in. thirdly. and ten dining establishments that of Jelâl-ud-dîn Bayazid and two hundred schools . of which most excellent bread is made. The coloured . and those the gates are thrown open in the morning. as a present. . mosque of Mekkeme. and one hundred and sixty different A market place of Brussa. Language. ^c. and are shut up every night. Turkish beauties. Kerde. the poor The Khans IV. Dress. and professors . paved with large workmen. of which a far-famed robb is made. these last have their when eveiy person goes to his work. scented with of its heating quality. called Levasha. nineteen houses for reading the Koran at that of Sultdn that of Sultân Bayazîd Bayazid there are more than three hundred Hâfizes (who know the Koran by . the divines. There are forty convents are covered with lead. a large building. the middle classes in Bogassin. besides those for merchants gatekeepers. for boys. the Vezir of Murad dine twice a day.

two Mohammed. Molla Kassem Khatib Ben Yakub. Ottoman Molla Abd-ur-rahman Ben Ali Ben Moyed. the din Gomishli-zadeh. The water cultivation. as well as the barbers and confectioners. and Persian poems. he of Khalveti. His tomb is near th^t of Pr Ehas. in . born and Princes. when Governor of Amasia. he improvisated Arabic. round the neck of Prince Mohammed. he was the the whom many it nephew of Fir Elias. and was one of the Vezirs of Prince Ahmed. was it cut these mountains like cheese. near the tomb The Sultan of poets. The excellent female poet. Simorgh of truth is first and buried at Amasia. their Khalveti. the river Tûzânlî did not pass through the town who Ferhâd. kissed his feet. and was buried near her grandfather. is which Ferhâd carried to the town from the opposite mountains is delightful. and the third. Molla Ala-ud-dîn Molla Abd-ul-jebbâr Ajemî. Munîrî Efendi. Mihrmah Khatun. of them three Princes. it is distributed from house to house. situation of this town in a butes to the mildness of the air. deep valley. sons kissed his hand. I The tomb of Ottoman Princes. 101 beaters are the most famous. the lover of Shirin. she left a Divân. Yakub Pasha. and Pilgrimages or Tombs. born and buried at Amasia. was a virtuous lady like Rabie Adiiye. and the traces yet to be seen in the mountains on the west side of the town. descending from Pir Elias's family. by which means he was killed. river. Ilîkâmi. and on the banks of a and the riches of of the houses look to the west and north its the winter . and was a dervish of the order The miracles are related. and beat the most learned men in disputing her true name being Mihrmah.evliya efendi. of his work The is In the . who do not know the tomb of Zekeria . different walks the . having visited this Sheikh. first is so called because a wicked old Ferhâd here. of Sherin's death. and some theological treatises. and admonished him to This Sheikh has left many poems on name is Hossami. divine love Pi'r The pilgrimage of the Sheikh Abd-ur-rahman Ben Hassâm-ud- Murad II. The Sheihk on his neck. Elias. she took the name of : Mihri for her poetical surname . he threw that of the bloody fountain (Kânlî woman having brought false news to his hatchet into the air. of are buried in the cypress wood. tied names disciple of saddlers' shops (Serrajiler). Of the There are seventy binar . and himself down the precipice. who knew seventy scientific books by heart. . Turkish. buried at Amasia. Sheikh Pr Elias. who was his poetical the convent of born and buried at Amasia. and is bvmed near the Sultân of the faith. time of the Amalekites.) it is Walks. one of the deepest of learned divines. contri- The windows temperate. born of the of took the handkerchief (Reda) he wore take care of the Moslfms at Constantinople.

buried between him and . when his one of the Sheikhs of and went with Timur to Shirvân. strong-built castle. Strangers and poor II. where he He near Amasia. .. one of the that is. His mausoleum. a Sheikh of the Mevlevis. said pleasant place. and a bath. which grow on the tombs of Ferhdd and Shen'n. laid siege to it Its name is a corruption of Ng-hissâr. of the Danishmend their second residence was family. the good an ancient. west. hundred and sixty the three gates face the east. is visited and at each. pilgrimage of Kelij Arslan. after six hours the station of Kânlî-bînâr. from whence he returned to Amasia. Pr the column of the Princes. paces in circumference. It is who anxiously wished to possess it. : five several castle. and pitched our tents. and a mosque.. The next day we reached. a khan. with a luxuriant spring of most delightful water. We march. that was so I The a complete lecture of the Koran there. three hundred houses with gardens. a mosque. of an hexagon shape and south . and travelled the same day through the mountains of Chengelli-bil.THETRAVELSOF 102 Pilgrimage of the Pole of Poles. is famed for buried on an elevated spot. the seat of the the old town and stronghold of Nîgissâr. the Sheikh. in honour of their souls. times without success. woman who was The on the tomb of the old woman prevent the flowers thistles the cause of his and thorns which grow uniting. asking for their spiritual assistance. par excellence. his birth-place. he straightened the hand which had been placed crooked by the washing-man. which he cut death is pilgrimage of Ferhâd for the love of Sherin. and to finish it. a district belonging to Amasia. it was conquered in the year 476 (1083) by Sultan Melek Ghâz. corpse was washed. Its builder Ddnishmend family. is many most celebrated miracles. Amasia. Sheikh Sultân Bayazîd I. We arrived at the village of Ezil. son of Sultân visit it. The Town and Castle of Nigissdr. he is buried on the top of the mountain and the old his mistress. I the third day of our stay of our friends.. was a Greek Emperor . There are a great number of pilgrimages of great and holy men. Praise be to persons are here most liberally entertained. and continued our road next morning towards the north for seven hours. with Mohammed was erected by Bayazîd H. the cream of saints. and became the seat of this dynasty . which the spot where Ferhâd killed himself. buried in the convent of The that order. He was Elias. On the Siira Yass. called Sevddie. on a limestone rock. reaching. happy as to the foundations belonging to all God. It is a watered our horses here. in eight hours time. but only those I have given an account of. the clarions of departure sounded we took leave . within the castle are three hundred houses and magazines. The Seljuks.

its garrison ]03 is a Mufti. and then return and arthritic diseases. and some the principal streets are paved with large slabs.at baths in the palaces. women amongst them. and castle. coloured lively looking Turks. Efendi. which move as many corn and hundred elegant shops. thin. wherein the Khutbe The mosque of the castle was formerly a church. NakflD. seen elsewhere. the and there aspers. the eatables. a frontier fortress large town. viz. is a college. is place of worship. in the valley. a is hill. The Hot-spring of N'lgissdr. of which nine are Friday mosques. it and to the market-place. there are seventy schools for boys. is useful as a it is . The which was formerly a church. women and boys the a well-flavoured water. and on the There are three baths. also outside of the tl. Among much famed they each weigh an occa. much as five . number. has no sulphurous in leprous every year. well-proportioned minareh it . a small hot-bath outside of the town to the south It is the town wash their clothes here and smell. faced ascending either with that of the Mufti in the castle. castle. are two thousand seven hundred earth or bricks. besides forty-five private not to be At the west end the mosque of Khalil also outside of the castle . remedy month. is one above the other. the great convent of Chevregî of people. difficulty that waggon small in number. an ancient To the mosque of Melek Ghâzî. faced with brick The houses of the Mufti. but no Bezestân.. shops . hundred dirhems. is lined on both sides with shoemakers' The inhabitants are freshwho pay great attention to strangers. in the month of July. Tlie narrow number of also five of inhabitants are an honest set of people. The . pomegi-anates are even as who amuse them- springs which leads down from the street. and but no kitchen for the poor There are seven convents. evliya efendi. that of the Infidels. Pcîshâ of Sivas. house for reading of the Kordn and tradition. and Kiaya-yeri. . with sixty mihrâb (Jâmî and Mesjids). fifty The town comprises Serdar. is faced with bricks. forty-three quarters. not it is and going continually up and down streets being narrow. just finished. by a great selves for a . of the town is The mosque of Chaplakdneh the mosque of Juregf . of Chaplakhaneh outside of the castle. the visitor descends by five or peiformed. and are of the size of a man's head. the residence of a Sübashî of seven judge the lower suburb . six steps has a slender. the that of Elias-dedeh is first of not less famous. because is they only keep watch against rebels . number to their The with some beautiful which is There are a great fulling mills.. hundred purses' revenue. : in is the mosque hill. but is with to do so is a horseman can make his way appointed with one hundred and is for a This town belongs to the khass of the out of the question. There It is visited and fountains. its equal outside of the castle is of the town. homes.

on the borders of the lake Wan . the Defter-Eminf. Kariebash After six hours march we reached the frontier of Sivas. and in the field of Terjean. with two hundred Armenian houses. of one hundred houses. the rivers were flowing from that direction all show on what high ground Erzerum is situated. Kufte and Passdagh of this place are famous . ! the east. which was our allotted province. and With great difficulty we traversed the rude pass of Iskefser. erected by but the truth . is a village in the jurisdiction of Iskefser. defeated him with twenty thousand men ascended towards the east. north. and west. and the inhabitants of Erzerum. it The is the village of Chadar. as soon as we trod the ground of Erzerum.. and to him. derive their Uzun Hassan.. fear of Mohammed II. built the Envious of the conquest of he began to trespass on the in defiance of frontiers. and shall now describe towards us . in different directions to the south. and built the castle of Akhldt. conquered Trebisonde. an Armenian village of two hundred houses. east. this will the stations of these our excursions. here bordering the governorships Chiftlik. Ertoghrul and Suleiman. and. . with one hundred houses. the Timar Defterdar. of Erzerum. beneath a cupola. Five hours further on in the jurisdiction of Koilî. Mohammed II. of the Danishmend family. The Governorship of Erzerum or Erzenrum. according to some. and a ziamet. Constantinople by violate the peace. and in three hours we reached Shakhna. The next day. after his name. castle called Hassan. God's mercy be upon him We left this town and advanced towards the great mosque. in the pro- . came to meet us with presents. Pilgrimages of Nigissdr. It is situated in Nurshivan Azerbeîjân and Armenia. we offered up a sacrifice of two hundred and seven camels. with the Kiaya of the Chaushes.THETRAVELSOF 104 cheese. where the Armenian girls From Constantinople to this place we had constantly are wonderfully pretty. ha\ang become master lineage from them. distance from this place. Tekine a ziamet. Melek Ghâzî. whose ancestors had come from Mahdn. at Erzeröm. of it White Sheep. and other gentle- men Divan of the at their head. castle of Koilf was built by Usun Hassan. The conqueror of Nigissdr. and the ancestors of the Ottomans. from belongs to the sanjak Shuban Kara Hissar. is buried Chevregî-boyûk Sultân lies near near the castle gate. the Chaûshlar-Emînî. From Shakhna we crossed the Governorship of Ezenim. the dynasty of the is that was by Erzenbai Ben Softâr Ben Kunduz. they are all buried at Akhlat. through mountains and forests. of Azerbeijan. the environs are laid out in The Black Sea is two journies rice plantations (Cheltuk). Mohammed II.

guarded by two swords. consists of one hundred houses. in the ter- village surrounded with gardens. its an excellent fresh- is banks. and situated is 105 I it . the Tekman. river of that water I'he village of Doiran. but the cave still is I have not seen the village Yaküb. E vince of Erzerüm hundred paces . in the valley of Akshâr. the giver of his life I also it. Ahmed Agha. outside consists of one on a high rock. which were continually moving up and down. we reached the Chiftlik of Taban Ahmed Agha. three thousand sheep. Five hours from three hours further village of Barii . imprisoned the Kiaya's room. on the frontier of Shuban Kara on. seven strings of camels. . an Armenian ritory of the village of Ezbeder. river. and after seven hours reached the village of Doirfln. after which closed by the winter for seven or . hours. which a is In the reign of Ahmed famous is . which P is many times a magician has since got pos- There remains to be seen. meadows are scented with musk the environs being gardens and flowery extremely favourable to bees. Two hours further on lies Shuban Kara-hissar. besides. Oczakov pillaged this place : Baihssa-bazârî. that of Korkun we came through VOL. the Cossacks of I. on the shore of the Black Sea. The met us with presents saluted us with seventeen guns. another talisman somewhere hereabout. and the pass of in one hour more. by which opportunity got a horse. was . all it. itself. and there are one hundred houses here built Armenians. it an iron gate opens to the west . and bought in by the payment of forty purses and seventy camels. was a great it In recompense for this great festival.. but hence . which passes Amasia. a mast has been put beneath them and instantly cut through session of the treasure. VL YA efendi. the torrent of Tilismât Za'aba issues from the neighbouring mountains. and the honey of Koilî-hissâr. hundred houses. falls upon rocky ground A cave is still shown in which there was . man on castle . Kiassî. and the inhabitants north of this village. and ten purses worthy of the Ottoman court festival. a village of one hundred houses. and ambergris. in the valley now went towards of the east four Shuban Kara-hissar. Having marched two hours towards the east. where the Pasha was on the of frontier presented with an Arabian horse. is. situated on We Akshâr. II. one thousand three is hundred houses and magazines. to Anderes is joined by several and below Chehârshenbe by the The Kerkük name. The here river issues from the mountains of streams from the mountains of Koili-hissar. a mosque and some shops. seven of mules. descended a deep precipice. may foot reach in one day. We the inhabitants are a turbulent set of people. into the river Akhlat the subjects here are formerly a treasure. and with twenty horses for his suite. has a commander and seventy men the suburb Inside are one in circumference. for which they received ten ducats. Kerkük. they Two stations slaughtered ten sheep as a sacrifice. Four hours further we reached the valley of Tilismât Za'aba.

they surprising that they were enabled to prepare such a the Pâshâ had arrived suddenly. and crying " it. oghlikoi. Two . and by a by-road.THETRAVELSOF ]06 After having got through eight months. more we came to the plain of Terjân. it is hours to the five the village of Keremli. lighted of more their hair long. foundation. and wear devotion (Sema'âkhâneh). Shuban Kara it in four is the castle of Shiran. It and read the Siira Yass there country abounds with are exempted by Imperial diploma from all taxes a reverential place. and gave them a present of one hundred ducats. some of them retiring to their cells. hours the for hours were crossing the great plain of Kerkük. and began to dance and " Allah ! This '' motion being continued for an hour. the dervishes of which go bare- The people carry wooden clubs They all came to wait on the in their hands. their The Pâshâ asked from grants of exhibit the to Pasha. inhabited by Moslims and Armenians on a in which we traversed with considerable trouble. as their In sixteen hours of Sultân Hassan is a praise- . an frontier of Armenian . censers (bûkhürdân). Here the Pasha made an excursion (Ilghar). with two hundred houses and a Shuban Kara-hissar . constant ! the flames of which O ! all vivifying " At came out of the fire. and mosque. crying " all fire. opposite to . at the end of twelve hours. instead They then gave a of coming before the Pâshâ. without from commauder and garrison. It was feast to the Pâshâ. is adorned with several lamps (chirâghdân). and whence they dated their immunity. on the hours the village of Kara Jalar the village of Sârîchalar. through the sanctity of this saint the I visited it. with three hundred horsemen. the Castle of Dermeri. who was Mohammed a great Sheikh in the time of Sultân His tomb II. is . without the least hurt except the singeing of their hair and beards. is . and we arrived. circular Hû fire. and entered the towered where a great forty victims like the pile of Nimrod. some of them crooked sticks (litui). at Chaghir Kanl Sultân. and vases for sprinkling rose-water (gülabdan). and They assigned a place for the Pâshâ at a distance from the round playing their drums and flutes. with much Four hours further village. and they invited him to visit their place of headed and barefooted. . The mosque short a time. on the frontier of the east we reached Kâzî- difficulty. ! " fire was sacrificed. At the end of this five the village of Genj hill. about an hundred of these dervishes naked. built in the reign of Sultân fear of the rebels . lies hours five in eight Mohammed district of Agha. where prayers are put up to Heaven. with a mosque and a convent. the end of half an hour. cattle. candelabras (shemidân). which was even greater than Ahmed Taban's feast. We followed them to a large place than forty waggon-loads of wood. feast in so The Pâshâ confirmed immunities. took their children by the hand. the pass of the space of plain is it. who remained much astonished. Ahmed a small castle with a gate to the north. inhabited by Moslims and Armenians village of Sal lit. Chiftliks the village consists of three hundred houses.

which is also situated at the western the plain of Erzerum. seventy slaves were clad in showy dresses. It a very useful bath. or cypher of the Sultân. Pilgrimage of Mama Khatun. which was fought was a scene of great slaughter. a quiver. Some of the former princes have built a dressing-room here (jâmeghân). men of it . five five purses. Our journey we had made since we had been master to hot-bath was exactly the seventieth many fur. and eight hours reached the village. further. Uzun Hassan. she Six hours further bath. caparisoned with jewels. a mosque and a bath. At three Georgian slaves. gave also to me. ten Khatun. This lady is buried beneath a cupola. He piastres.. here presented the Pâshâ with an Arabian racehorse. a sable pelisse. like so dise. all his We field. mounted by ten Georgian boys. find bones crossed this plain hastily. all armed. ten purses. but without marble coffin near . ]07 worthy monument of Uzun Hassan. The troops of Erzerum paraded on both . who by Indeed. and four hours in we reached the end of five hours Armenian village of Agha gave a grand repast Alî accompanied with a present of ten horses. Habs. lies . to this place with proceeded with a large retinue for the space of five hours. consisting of one hundred Mussulman houses a free ziâmet. and presented him with five horses. destroyed this plain by the famous projects and hidden treasures when ploughing the in battle. a dagger and a girdle. and a sword set with jewels. a The Motesellem Mustafa Agha. which outrivalled in brilliancy those of the greatest Vezîrs. and ten racehorses. but it stands alone here. a sable because I some waiting youths in Paracloth. of Terjânlî Alî Agha. where the Kiaya of the Chaushes had provided a great feast for the Pashci. All the principal We she was the daugh- buried here with to her mausoleum. evliya efendi. at the western end of the plain of Erzerum presents to meet the Pasha's Divân. an that hundred houses. to the village of and Mama Erzerum. poor Evliya. and where every year some person or other is the village of one hundred and consists of Erzerum came her buried in a is is all is end of drowned. but too warm to be used without a mixture of cold water. the Pâshâ was a Commander-in- Imperial rescript (Khatti Sherif) was allowed even to use the Tughra. and ter of children. but Sultân liked the situation. His three hundred and his son for arrival at this left Constanti- nople. at the foot of a rock one of the Princes of the Aiik Koyünlî. who town here bearing his name. any keeper attached it is a mosque and a fifty Armenian houses. and basin (havuz) the climate : is pleasant. it is We of mules. and an entrance in grand procession was organized. strings of camels. went from hence nine hours in the district of and the village of Pûlür. three here. Chief (Serdâr). even now the peasants it . intended to build a Mohammed on H. to the hot-bath. and one hundred some time.

as Muezzin. and I lived quietly. and splendid On the peacocks of Paradise. as a selâm aleikum.. armourers. Behind us followed the treasurer and the standard- poor Evliya. and various other trappings. I and protocols. the chamberlains. which compose the skies artillery of the fortress. the twenty-seven Aghas of the men. Four hundred Ulemds armour were headed by the Imam. Pdsha walked the Mataraji-bashi (keeper of the leaden the right and bottle. The governor then most graciously assigned me Pâshâ. the I received a caftan in my relation of many castle. the Pasha himself entered the gate of Erzenjan. clad in all firing the great guns from the highest tower. sacrificed. walking like in their who wore golden caps hands. after which the Janissaries fired But when the guns of the inner castle. artillerybrilliant robes of honour. a lodging in the palace built by Tekeli Mustafa at others discharging the functions of clerk of the custom-house. began to salute by fortress I. As soon as the procession drew near with the eightfold Turkish music. where sometimes keeping company with the Governor. the way from the gates of the town to the gates of the palace. passed between two greeting both sides. by one million. two hun- . bearer. their . The Pashd was surrounded by eight body-guards (Shatir). It was wrested out of the hands of Kara Sultân Mohammed II. Erzerûm. and the Seven regiments of Janissaries Hned were rent and the earth trembled. as soon as he had entered the palace. who. and so continued during the procession. or head of the fuzileers. sable pelisse. called Kessik Kala'â. the all clad in armour. had golden girdles. was saluted once a general discharge of the artillery on the walls. and a divân was held. carried battle-axes caftans. lines. wherein. and a splendid repast equal to that of Many hundred Madi Kerb more by victims were followed. left of the which contains the water for purification). which this town is six hours distance from Erzerûm. after the decision of lawsuits. horses being adorned with knots of sea-horses' bristles. After din- ner the music played. the Müteferrika. with a green degree of clerk of the custom-house. on their heads. up with cuirasses and casques. the six hundred and seventy guns. bearing a The Pasha water-bottle set with jewels. &c. and Emir Bokhara. bearing long lances. as was allowed to see all the kanuns. passed. those of the Janissaries. were invested with seventy Molla Chelebî Efendi. Yusstif. were all discharged at once. registers. and muskets of costly workmanship. ready to salute the Pasha. the son of The khass of the Vezir is fixed at Uzun Hassan. and the people returned his salute. and the Tufenkjî-bashî.THE TRAVELS OF 108 sides of the way from to the gates of the hot bath. and The Tatar troops. I had full op- portunity of acquiring the most perfect knowledge of the state of Erzerûm. Description of the Fortress of Erzerûm.

are furnished by the khass of the Pasha. in rebellious pos- Mohammed Timur Kâzîk Khalü Pâshâ. artillerymen. makers. such as Cherkess sein Pasha. with of the Janissaries. because Silihdâr Suleiman Pâshâ cut his head off on the to be killed. in defiance of seven Vezirs. and twelve Aghas. he ordered him tomb of Murâd Pâshâ. I saw his blood even before my own door. Kûrûjân. 'and — The sanjaks are as follows Kara-hiss<ir. the government . The officers . Akii. besides two thousand The judge is The soldiers of a Molla. called loudly for Abaza Pâshâ. and at the gate of Tabriz. Since the rebellion of greatest attention has been paid to this important post by the Abaza. two hundred. Siper. an and one of the armourers. coming to the ears of the Sultân. Mâmrevân. The troops rebelling at that moment. until Khosrew Pâshâ assumed the command he took Abaza prisoner. a Kiaya of the Defterdar of the Timers. thousand two hundred and seventy-nine swords. Pussin. hundred aspers. however. The khass of the Defterdar of the treasury amounts to one million and a Cherî-bashî. &c. He obtained a general pardon. Melazgerd. placed there by Murâd IV. are twelve large cannons. except the Agha. who was absent that night by accident. an Alai-Beg. which he retained up to the time of the expedition against Erivan. and was first made Governor . and put the whole garrison of Janissaries to the sword. the feudal militia that of the kiaya of the An Agha rebel. so that the whole garrison amounts to two thousand five hundred men. Tûrtûm. ]09 the whole province divided is are a Defterdar of the treasury. re-appearing at Erzerum the same year that we came there. twelve thousand men. or Pasha's substitute. and that of the Defterdar of the There are and the who number Jebellîs. a Kiaya and Inspector of the Chaushes. and consequently escaped. EVLIYAEFENDI. dred and fourteen thousand six hundred aspers into twelve sanjaks. Hassan. and buried in the arrival of our Motesselh'm. to twenty thousand fiefs to fifty fiefs and two thousand two hundred and nineteen timars fifty-six ziaraets. who are Abasa Pâshâ. but owing against him Dishlin Hos- to the strength of the they were unable to reduce the rebel. which. of of Bosnia. in the centre of the two fortresses.. a commander of the castle. and wandered for some time in Arabia and Persia. the famous five Erzerum this men fortress. afterwards of Bude. Tekman. it has been strengthened by an immense artillery. and six companies. Dizdar. brave fellows. near the market of the inkHe escaped. and finally of Ozakov. session of it Abaza remained for ten years. fortress. with a revenue of three subordinate Naibs or Vicars. who marched with the power of absolute command. in five time of war. and carried him with him into the presence Sultân Murâd IV. : thousand nine hundred aspers fifty-two . In the inner castle are one hundred and eighty can- nons. Agha in the interior all one night surprised are stout. and Erzerum. Mujtekerd. The fortress is situated at a gun's shot . of the fortress. thousand.

as follows: —"The Another last day the Euphrates flows not from a mountain of gold. within their walls. Bûmbüja.' " The Euphrates and Orontis (A'assi). and Kufa . are the only two rivers which touch the frontier of the Holy Land. receives an infinite rises east of number of springs. it is two months many a sweet clear water. causing in its way many marshes and canals. and goes to Hossnî Kaifa and Mossul. which by Indian from Bassra ships hundred farsangs it . Ania. . a flowery fertile field. passes before the village of Kiân. . it is joined at Kaverna by the Shatt-ul-arab (Tigris). they would build a wall on each side of tradition is reported to have said in praise of this river Rûm and inhabitants of Irak is river is Whoever bathes it. and perhaps it is I who may be saved. Ehyâr. your Paradise. Takuk. Diarbekr. The Its great river Euphrates flows through the middle of the plain of Erzerûm. that the Tigris and Euphrates tains of which The assistance of Angels. Tigris is the Shatt. Description of the great river Euphrates. is ascended windings. through the Yaila of a thousand lakes. ' . bottom of the pilgrimage of Diimlibaba. though they have the spring." reported by Abûhoreirî. was of the It river Euphrates that the prophet —" O inhabitants of Cufa. between Torjil and Miafarekein. but it freezes in the winter so that during never freezes south of Erzerûm . Rakie. This river unites the upper and lower Zarb. the whole extent. and passes like a sea in the neighbourhood of Malatia to Samosat. many diseases.THE TRAVELS OF no from Mount Egorli on the north and north-west extends the plain of Erzeröm. and thus becomes an immensely large river. were dug out by Daniel with the Makrisi says. Bireji'k. Helle. source Georgia is it . The Euphrates caravans cross it. inhabited by the Curds IzuH. two miles square. well worth being recorded in the " And we gave you to drink of the water of the Euphrates. Kala'ai Ri'im. and a great comfort to the inhabitants of Erzerûm. the castle of Kemani. with all its passes four hundred towns and villages. covered with villages. ninety-nine shall be killed out of each hundred. on the east side of at the flows towards the west. and becomes a tremendous and roaring stream which the mad said : Zarb. Hita. Ja'aber. . shall not arrive men may were acquainted with all be certain of being cured of on the Euphrates till is called reported to have Euphrates takes up two channels of : —" If the the excellent qualities of the Euphrates. Kar- Bâlissa. on which are killing each other yet every one shall say." Imam Ja'afer therein three times. the bridge kessia. called the Source of Paradise. Rahbie. joins the Murâd (the name of which it assumes). is four In the plain of Erzerûm its water is very sweet and palatable." Koran by the verse no less than seventy-two rivers descend from the mounEuphrates Besides the : — Erzerûm and Diarbekr.

In the which is It has the reason that the greatest part of the houses are built of one story. watchmen the court-yard . months in the year. built by the Princes of the . above the a spacious place where that of the Divân. first. close to the walls of the inner castle. . that to the west crossed by a bridge the third to the north. for the Divan and Koshks . and seven of Infidels. are the they play the rooms jerid. is is the outside. all covered with earth (terrasses) in the ancient style. the oldest is the great mosque inside the gate of Tabriz. one is a secret gate. is there are two hundred and ten strong towers. The height but is a high wooden skies. and seventeen hundred houses. the distance between the two walls It consists is Ill . opening on the It quarters of Moslims. as as is it not so deep is . with a bath and a stables.evliya efendi. the other for the . . is the second to the entered by crossing bridges. in all directions. with a minareh in the ancient style. Erzerûm contains seventy There are no Armenians. are likewise that of Tabriz. Praise of the Palaces of Erzerûm. Of There are seventy-seven mihrabs the Mosques. like a bath. on the top of which intercept even the flight of birds. always kept shut. and a felt door on the top. and the gate of Erzenjân. and which is the Georgian gate (Gurji). The palace of the Pasha has no less than one hundred and ten rooms of various sizes. on is the side of the Gurji and Erzenjân gates. it is . the ditch eighty paces broad. Koshk cubits high fifty . it is the whole : has three gates. Jews the two finest are those of Tayâr Pasha. and two thousand and eighty battlements round the castle. where the ditch east. and of Benlî Pasha. like that of Erzenjan is is name castle is an immense tower reaching to the of Kessik Kulle. most of them sharp and the winter severe. Copts. has two gates. but. quarter called the Source of Paradise the houses are built of stone are only one story high. great road. or any make their appearance they run the risk of being killed. the ditch circumference is eighty thousand paces. only a single one. so also are all the villages which I saw in the whole govern- ment of Erzerûm. if On fine fountain. of the last. and twenty deep. because the air been known to snow here is for ten or eleven . of the wall of the inner castle the other walls are but from forty to . with win dows. of two castles of a square form. ten guns pointed from thence seventy cubits The pointed towards the quarters of the town Daraghaj and Gumishli Kunbed. The guns are all Within the outer known by the double. Of the Form and paces seventy Size of the Fortress of Erzerûm. one hundred cubits high.

a the windows are guarded with iron gratings. and outside of on the fountain of Mustafa Pâshâ the edge of the ditch. boys. It is the work of the great over the empire He its Imam a high-minded priest. built by the grand Vezi'r of Sultân Suleiman. feet square. Koynlî. minareh. eighty feet square. two hundred the ancient style cupola Erivan is also of wood is kept. The mosque of Ldle Mustafa Pâshâ. outside the gate of Tabriz is this inscription on from the Koran . stone bench. a second Na'amân. skill on ropes extended between these two high minarehs. before the gate of grant it may be repaired ! the Serai on the great road. which has been cruelly damaged never been repaired because are also in the biscuit for the garrison of the east side of this mosque. on the edge of the ditch. one of the most learned divines. Jennet-bunâr Camel fountain . Within the gates of Tabriz are it minarehs. is whose reading plunges those who heart. and if the Muezzin." all hearers begin to tremble. is . with one Besides these great mosques (Jami'i). the gate of Erzenjân is is the the Source of Paradise. Outside of the gate of the Pasha's mosque. and outside of the gate of Tabriz. whose renown by Its built in the style of those of Constantinople. and proclaims with David's voice Mahommed's shout. while others some say . is narrow. is the mosque of Mohammed Pâshâ. with a high cupola and gate. God is great. there are also seventy-seven mesji'ds. converted the ruined mosque into a cannon foundry. Fountains. and famed commentators. listen into the called the is of the Janissaries . and houses for reading the Koran. an old mosque much frequented. and is who knows Imam spread the whole all Koran depths of meditation. and a most perfect musician. but the courtyard Sinan. mimber. lege with two minarehs two The mimber and mihrâb supported by two hundred columns of is it . an eloquent man. God Sultân Murad IV. and with a terrace. and the is an old col- that they were built by the Princes of the ascribe tliem to Uzun Hassan place. in . tall fir-tree. Its Its sheikh is Outside mihrab. Jafer mosque. " God is great. a second Belal (the Prophet's Muezzin) ascends the minareh. close to the wall. pious is a pleasing new courtyard and a spouting fountain In the inner castle Erzenjân is is built . in short.TIIETRAVELSOF 112 Akche Koynlî. and hastens to the mosque. Efendi's mosque All the inhabitants of Erzeriim are devout. . one hundred and ten schools for convents. Akche an old prayer- it is the different sieges of Erzenim. On the market-place. covered with lead. cupola is covered with lead. and was never endowed. is a architect Warn' Efendi. and mahfil are very simple. On on one side of the mosque . every person leaves his business or repast. the shining porcelain of which dazzles the eyes of beholders tumblers exhibit their . men.

pleasant . Genealogies of Erzerûm." Baths. Q is the quarter . Caravans (Caravanserai) for foreign is it 113 eight ten. the water is men principal . 8çc. unmarried workmen (barracks) workmen There are seventy Se- (Paradise). one workmanship of the tailors fruit Water Seeds ripen vivifies all things. Turkomans and Armenian kurds. The walks of Gumishli Their beverages are Sherbet of Ribbes. west and north sides. it this wall and the castle is side. fortress. but after that they quickly become The inhabitants are all The hairy men. — saying: '< there are flowing fountains in where water billchdneh. and bring forth are seven sorts of corn. goldsmiths. tliere are seventy khans. and vigorous in old age." from eighty to one hundred fold of which is and goldsmiths is as white very as skilful. . the suburb divided into seven quarters. and the Convent of Abd-ur-rahman Ghâzî. . find some of that of Ja'afer Efendi. buttonvery elegant. Outside of the gates of the fortress on the east. there teeth. The suburb of the Georgians on the north side. strong in youth. middle size. four gates and a stone cupola. white and excellent pastry (Chorek). or places Of the The most them some for elegant bath distributed. &c. Products. inhabited by more than thirty thousand Rayas . merchants (Khîins.evli YA EFE NDI. jmr excellence) of the latter there The Bezestan has accommodation. whoever drinks of the spring called the Source of Paradise in the summer. makers and tailors are Of the Inhabitants. the verse of the Koran. and that of Duliikler to Gumishli Kunbed. good natured and brave. Khdns. II. white bread called Kolâj. From ten to twentyfive years of age they are extremely fine. it is the from been Between Tlie suburb of the Tabriz gate extends from the quarters of Daragach. dress in sable furs. the the workmen wear During three months the sweet and extremely wholesome for the mild and air is women abbas. is . Climate. " here in sixty days. Ulemâs in ferrâjis of cloth and caftans of Bogassin and sometimes a caftan of Bogassin. The mint is near the gate of Erzenjan. are . are the place of the Jerid Kunbed (the silver vault). of lively complexion. understands in its full sense. had would have made Erzerûm an amazingly strong finished. and meat roasted on stoves. at the mills in the meadow the place . one of chicken and the other of a sort of vegetable called Cheresh . suburb. . VOL. The They make two kinds camel's of pies here. where hundred shops. some for . Market-places and Markets. on the south the gate of Tabriz to that of Erzenjan a wall has been begun. stout. The markets of the saddlers. and excellent Buza.

" By God. in society full use of all may many men be found their faculties. that a cat. the only fruits dance in all the cold. and blue their Infidels wear variegated turbans. women . Plane-trees and willows are in abun- in the rose-gardens . Indian. that all the horses broke away and ran half mad to the neighbouring villages. but their and poets speak with great eloquence. became froze there while in the act of running. and cannot be separated without tearing . they asked. The suburb of Erzenjdn extends. They past seventy years of age. " Erzerum. however. and the lower classes wear felt. and by Chinese shades. ' Miau ! ' and fell down:" It is really a fact. and the Musselmân women coats.THE TRAVELS OF 114 of the rich merchants here . for his uxoriousfamous was Allahân-dede many Santons and holy men. in out at grass. they continued to ask " whether severity tale. with generally speak a peculiar dialect. from the round it are the houses of Persian. long-lived. thunder. their teeth as well arranged as their words." said the Dervish. its and blessed with productions of Erzerum one of the cheapest gardens nor vineyards. horses were of month the I was at Erzerum there happened." is explained by the following " he said. with their The men are beautiful hair. and their story-tellers delight There are also intelligent people by their tales of Hamza. At the time and short summer. walks and kind. the cat began to thaw. " what was the naine of the place " may be spelled Erezolura (cruel to man) . the sowing and harvest is over in when the July. the people said that summer was coming. Camel The menians. that if a man This tale has become a common touches a piece of iron with his wet hand during winter. which ran over the roofs of the houses. yet its vegetables are abundant. velvet trowsers and yellow boots : they are extremely pretty. when the spring arriving. next to the custom-houses of Constantinople and Smyrna. all . and remained so for the space of nine months. " from the snow of " a Dervish from whence he came ? . This suburb being mostly inhabited by Ar- fountain to the mill of Alî. with coarse shoes called Chârk wrap white sheets round their heads. on the eastern side of the castle-gate. of whom divines ness." The Dervish said. It happened. of the winter here which he had seen any summer there. I remained there eleven months and nine and twenty days. cried proverb. but I did not see it. they freeze together. The length and They asked Divine Mercy . famed for roses which are found here. yet is it is which makes Though Erzerum has neither some winter apples and pears are places in the world. soil Though the air of being extremely Erzerum fertile. dragging a thousand lovers after them as slaves. on account of their long winter two months. there are thirteen churches here. that of Erzerum is the most busy. wear pointed caps of gold and silver stuff. the custom-house where is I was employed as clerk : and Chinese merchants. such a storm of lightning. hail and snow.

by subterraneous fire. place the stove in the middle of the house. saddle-mountain (Egerlîtâg)? art writer. I saw on the top a large tomb. brought from mountains at two journey's a mast of from thirty to forty cubits length . Praise of Balaam. however. earth within it. diseased for forty years. which arrive An agha at the custom-house. when myself. Where my servants. lies buried. and galloping full speed ascended it.evliya efendi. fruits and grapes are cots. a learned and elegant any more. because feet. is no wood. and they cook fire. both At the foot of the same mountain. the scent of Oculists air. and the people are. the son of Baür. on which I and having measured who from the horse. Abd-ur-rahman Ghâzî. I my steps. sold at the weight of an occa for a para water-melons may be had at Assov. the standard-bearer of the prophet. off the skin. Erzerum. but I never The very healthy. very disagreeable both to being black and greasy. is it is derived from abounds in which perfumes the it cure people plants its form. with two columns. on the cattle stand their bones and offal on the has the inspection of the wood the house . which is like a saddle (Eger) . and having related this place . when a a bad smell and I fell thou now. Eatables are found here in for ten paras. was boihng like gruel in a pan. is as warm as a bath. its top is bifur- medical herbs. warned me not to visit was the grave of Balaam. and Erzenjân . first said a fatihah. who have been and scented flowers come here to collect the plant Tutia. I it by held the horses returned. Ja'afer Efendi of " mounted another horse. . particularly in the Tiitia flower. brought to the town by the camels of the caravans. I found situation of the it eighty paces in head and the my it me looked on the grave. Tortum. a high mountain. I once played Jerid at the foot of this mountain. the poor people . and whose grave was now boiling. which the sides of wood . which marked the I was looking on the tomb. apri- but there great perfection. and saw that the I then adventure in the Pdsha's company in the evening. have passed forty days in the coldest weather I the desert of Kipchâk. This its name cated. at half an hour's distance on the south side of Erzerum. melons or 115 cold like this felt come from Isper. in peaches. in winter and summer. the mountains being naked nevertheless very cheap. a waggon-load o^ . One day i had died an Infidel . and senses I length. " in falling said to my Having recovered towards the mountain. Description of Mount Eerli. arose. fills The odour and with of aromatic the atmosphere. who by the curse of Moses. the son of Baür. as it is tance Pasha's wood is is is dis- The sold for forty aspers. The Rayas burn cow-dung.

It distinguished from the body and two hundred paces. who was tower within Opposite to the Pasha's palace. where he the gate of Tabriz I visited the Erivan. the figure of this black dragon is easily into black stone. when saw on the second top of this bifurcate I mountain a tremendous dragon turned measured seven hundred and seventy paces from the head to the tail. which I had no . in . summer it lies on the plain like a cupola and mouth every time it . the tail to the castle of Melaz Kerd. the seen very is snows. If snow falls on the mountains. his tomb-keeper Abu Ishak Kâssim. tongue.THETRAVELSOF 116 ascended from the south side of the convent about two thousand paces. killed is . because no black stone. saw when who was Gaznevi. Abu Ibrahim. when it came to swallow up the inhabitants of Erzerûm as food that this for its young. Fîrûzeh a white-bearded woman. In his travels he visited Brussa 352 of the Hejira. the standard-bearer of the Prophet. and near him his sister Pasha. and size. its tail is when windows of the Pasha's palace It four feet remained whole the south side towards Melazguerd. and emits The legend and exhales a pleasant odour. called Gumishli whom shut up seven months in Outside of the gate of Erzenjân. and one of the eye-balls rolled down on it about. because it was once faced with the Gasnevide. lies Sultân is settled in a great visiting. Jânpûland-zadeh. each of is its raised like a minareh. the head looks to the field of Erzerûm. snow . his surname where he was born in the year Ishak. so that its fragments now lay scattered The head was then split asunder. Pilgrimages His name is . Tomb of Sheikh Kdrzuni. who were shut up in a cave of Mount Sijan. on the borders of the lake Van. a native of the town Kârzün. nose. it is stone In winter the it. until the reign of Selim I. and renders more promi- this colour nent the black vapour the circumference of remains in the petrified head. who Mohammed of Egerltâgh. is my father and buried at the foot Outside of the gate of Tabriz. after the He conquest of Erivan was killed was a protector of Abd-ur-rahman. There word Mahmûd. above the camel's fountain. at the place (the silver vault). but melts away. written only the other pilgrimages. Shehid Murteza Pasha. and Adrianople and returned to Erzerûm. on whose marble coffin are besides many is silver. with Abaza Pâshâ. reports most tremendous dragon was changed into stone by the Prophet's standard-bearer. yet distinctly with its ears. in a fine convent. where same eye-ball of the remain on will its men put together. becomes hot. as large as ten was broken by an earthquake. left is of cold. buried at the foot of vault. lies Mahmud Mustafa Pâshâ. the son of Khânum. in a pointed by Dishlin Hossein Pâshâ. by the grand Vezir myself. Kunbed Mahmûd. tomb. reposes Sultân opportunity of I Karzûnî.

where Ja'afer Efendî. and is now The khass of Passin. and Bakî Pâshâ. and as he did not after seven months Erivan soon enough. and three boys. it is In winter time snow field of Passin. Captain. gave an entertainment to all the Begs pleasant meadow. also the commencement of the here to the height of a minareh. Timariots and Zaims were and to assemble to take the field with half of their contingents. The fixed. and Yuz-bashî (Colonel. that fortress was taken from the Osmanlî's Three hours further towards the east. we arrived at the siege by the Persians. many caravans have been lost in it. are Alai Beg. It is a We marched five houses. Pasha was or leader of the rearguard. renovated hours across the plain of Passin to the strong fortress of castle which was taken by Uzun Hassan. was named Sîdî Ahmed master (Kondkji-bashi) he took the van with the tails and tens.evliya efendi. to there are six Zaims. or leader of the vanguard. with a thousand horse. with a present of three horses. and Lieutenant). amounts In the time of war. where the hours march it reached the place called the Camel's Neck and Beglerbegs. with a great noise of guns . The regulars. with seventy banners of Silver vault. Pasha. as soon as his tent was s army. to Erivan. Shushik. The army set out from the Silver vault in such perplexed. and was the snow that prevented Tabâni Yassî lies It arrive before Pâshâ from passing the Deve-boinî. named Chârkajî. the Sultân of Azerbeijan it is a lofty . summoned The sanjak Begs. aspers the seat of the sanjak hundred An Beg . After four order that the Persian Envoys and Khans remained quite (Deve-boinî). entertainvintage Ja'afer Efendî. Dûmddr. this is a horses were refreshed with excellent trefoil. in the province of Erzerüm. saw this immense army he repented of his complaint against the Beg of that this army might receive orders to lay siege collected. where our after which every one retired to his tent . its owner. well cultivated Armenian village of three hundred Rum Hassan. and three hundred and twenty-five Timariots. Segbdn or Seimen and Sârija (irregular troops). because he was afraid QuarterAlaja Atl Hassan Agha. by Sultân Suleiman out of the hands of the children of Kara Yiissiif. according to the canon of Sultân Suleiman. and four thousand the orders Beglerbegs assembled around him. gave a splendid Mohammed ment to the Pasha. the officers of the feudal militia. commander-in-chief. stating Letters of complaint arrived from Genj Alî Klân. 117 Stations of our military expedition to the Castle of Shnshik. Khdn of Erivan. twelve thousand four amounts. Cherî-bashî. the half of which now joined the Pasha castle saluted the Pasha. issued. at the The Pasha himself fixed his tent there. the broken the peace by inroads that the rebellious Beg of the Castle of Shushik had into the Persian districts of Erivan. pitching their tents according to When the Persian Envoy It was an army of seventy-six thousand men. . the number of the troops to fifteen hundred.

putting the finger of asto- nishment to In the inside of the castle. Suleiman. the Muezzin. by armed men. built for is Murad IV. as he wished to enter in state. with as there is . Koshk down from men (Ayan. visit the Serdâr of the Janissaries. the gate of Erzerum. THE TRAVELS OF 118 and muskets. the Sultan's bed was set castle is who was removed from fire to by a spark one one thousand paces.e When we garrison under arms on the walls. walls. the Nakib-ul-ishraf. entered it shouts of Allah rent the skies. wards the south opens the plain of Pâssin. without a ditch . and be- ginning from the hot-bath gate. are consists of nine quarters. stone-built winter houses many mosques. on the gate of the and sixty large and small guns. The Pâshd sent an order to the commander to place the who. both sides of the road were lined. of the Muftf. after which the Pasha returned and the balls were thrown as far as the Here the company sat down where he received the fifty aspers). which houses. his office because the coverlet of The circumference of the night. Size and cliff. the north side. were Bridge of the Shepherds. and the reports of the guns shook them. two deep. or Horses and asses cannot get up to this place. and when we left it all the walls were covered with flags and banners of The Pasha entered the inner castle. no fear of Its three the west side. sides the ditch is very deep. but they are double. Shoban dinner. The mosque : the of Suleiman . a great gate with iron wings hot-bath. where the guns of Sultân different colours. on the northern side of the field of Pâssin.) on an isolated high the side of the hot-bath makes the head nobody but the Imam. shut to the east side hundred men. so that there is the ground being marshy. below the upper or innermost castle. fired. of forty four spans length. with a well-filled arsenal.. that to look commander. who gave the salute. and the Dizdar. an enemy gates are : all is a garrison of seven To- The seven journies long. no trenches can be opened. to his tent. town hundred and ninety in number. and on three The is six thousand paces. the Kiaya-yeri Form of the Fortress Hassan. five On an iron gate opens to the west. with one hundred and Jissri. the space between the outer and his lips. protector at the time of the expedition to Erivan. The of the judge (appointed of the Sipâhîs. and other principal It is situated to a splendid Beg and Dizdar were invested with robes of honour. of a walls are but eighteen yards high. who. . There is a small Inside there giddy. having succeeded the former sword-bearer. It is another castle with two is an oblong square. so high. whose circumference shining whiteness. inner gate was set round with armour and different kinds of weapons. was the imperial sword-bearer. by our Melek Ahmed Pasha. so that the Persian Envoy was quite perplexed. and a secret gate. The prayer of Friday was performed in the mosque.

evliya efendi. The khass is forty -eight thousand four hundred aspers. is the village which lies three days over the After seven hours state. the castle of Khinis. but zesttin or six schools for boys. nevertheless. mules. appointed with one hundred and Kiaya-yerî. commander's house. a village of Eight hours further to the belonging to Khinis. at the melting river. con- Three hours the field of Passin. sheep. the uncle of Uzun Hassan. with the Jebellis. two ziamets. rages like the sea. myself. and is now the seat of a sanjak Beg belonging to Erzerum. and those it. two thousand men. with the Great Artof.) so because it was It is vaulted like yaila. khân. sisting of these hot-baths with leprosy are village of Sefer further on. and four hundred and twenty-five timfirs. in the sanjak of Khinis. a . each place being used for different animals. camels. became thought of throwing myself down from the in half castle. is ]19 a low terraced mosque. tribe there is Mahmudi. and others. supplies water to hundred many below the Bridge of the Shepherds. to the east from hence. a rainbow over the river Aras. there The is no Be- inhabitants There are some men of wit and Nefii Efendi was born here no gardens exist are a brave set of people. we came to the one hundred Armenian houses. joins the Zengi river below Erivan. Kurds of the aspers . or Nakib. but there is all fifty a Disdar. the water is boiling in the open air. village of houses. . was built by Shah Shapur. before the village of Artof. vegetables Bread and honey are rather to be suspected. poet great because here in abundance. on the Kiblah side. the Prince of Azerbeijan. The round the castle. no Serdar. are several hot-baths seven of them are covered with small cupolas. Pasha himself in is grand which. is carried to distant places cured if they drink of Three hours on camels. of the dynasty of the shepherds (Choban). passes under Melazjerd. and in eight other places . On the south side of the lower town (Robath). an impetuous The army passed during six we came to the one hundred Armenian of Küzûlî Sultân Baba. Agha. and a bath. river Aras (Aranes) of the snow. which comes from the great Gokbuilt and flows to the east . kind to foreigners. It was conquered by Sultân Suleiman. Mufti. east. poor Evliya. learning. hours further on. is it too cold. having eaten some honey an hour so giddy that I in the are found for I. in It is called by Melek Sultân. . beneath the bridge of Altun Khalkali. with one minareh in the ancient style Medresse. The castle. bridge. besides one thousand The judge is men of the Pasha's troops. which falls into the Kür (Cyrus). and with it disembogues into the Casvillages The pian Sea. The water of who are afflicted such as horses. Description of the Hot-baths. is the great Bridge of the Shepherds (Choban Koprissi.

and took the van of the army. surrounded on The sides by lofty mountains. and arrived after nine hours at the castle of Atik. advanced with two hundred horse to the castle of Zia-ud-din. in the neighbourhood of the castle Zia-ud-din. in his quality of sanjak well-armed is it all In the eastern north. Beg of Melazjerd. it boils like gruel. The height of the castle wall Mahmûdî Kurds. is castle. and preGhazî Sîdî Ahmed Pâshâ. it. a khân. with terraces and lower stories only. at some Here in is It is of is a famous a curious fact that them the water a spring is as so cold that the which eggs and sheep's feet are covered with a cupola.THE TRAVELS OF 120 Size and It is three journies distance Form (if of the Castle of Khinh. and seven mosques. and the inhabitants were exempted from and Kiaya-yeri to to Khdssîk. field for six hours. in the centre of a piece of high table land. a bath. sented with a Chelenk. nine hours further territory of Azerbeijan. in the the frontier of the It is keys were surrendered to the Ottomans after the conquest of Van. which intercepts the stream. There is no Serdâr a mosque and six hundred houses. Between the river Aras. The castle twelve small streets gate of the castle is near this spring . by the Princes of that name. our master. was invested with a robe of honour. a strong castle it is . and distributes the gardens. its . a Kurdish poor Evliya. built like the former. is is Below the a clear fountain. village of I. and the castle of Arjesh. you walk from Erzerûm. We now turned to the west. and from forty to fifty shops. two hundred houses. built We now marched of Khinis. is strong built castle. the Prince of Azerbeijan . a bath. six at the foot of the its water into there are within the hundred Kurdish houses. hot-bath. every one is one is large . and no bricks are to be seen. along the mountains of Sûnjâb-Ainî. Mahmûdî all Kurds. The inhabitants are brave and honest. an iron grating. ten cubits. commanding an army culverins. thousand paces circumference. we came till sanjak of Khinis . the lake of Van. rich sheep and goats in they repair with their cattle to the mountains of Boyuk-gol-yaila. a khân. the houses are inhabitants are all covered with earth. in others hand cannot bear cooked. by Zia-ud-din. He every year . and close to it Only one of these hot springs exposed to the open air . the rest are enough to drive a mill. the springs rise in five or six different places cold as ice. Here the Beg came with three thousand of Erzerûm. and fast) a square. Description of the Hot-bath. and some . with twelve guns and two march from Khinis remained with twelve hundred men on the the east. and and the Pasha. directed his of fifty-three thousand men. to Shûshîk. there is all duties. . with a gate to the in quarter of the castle wall. through precipices. it is a square castle on a rock.

were ordered to go in search of the Beg of Shushik at the castle of Magu. We war of Cighalezadeh. lest they Aman were Beg of Shushik had fallen into the hands of the Persian Khan He of Magu. Beglerbegs. Sidi Ahmed men Pasha. with sweet words and presents and himself making all possible exertions. interior of the country in search of the Beg. I. Shushik. Mohammed Beg. up to the Persian frontier. exhorting the Begs. and other officers. and Dilawer Pâshâ. which pay tribute to the Beg of . with his gave no credit to he fettered them. and Sultcin The camp was the top of a high rock. whose nose and ears were in the the castle this report. first Piishâ. brought four cannons on to the heights opposite the eastern side of the castle. disarmed the Kurds. and seventy The Commander. " and fled to the Persians. ground as martyrs. and to the Persians. deserted the Ahmed Pasha to find their Beg. fell to the all Hassan. It was built by Zia-ud-din. Katgâj Pâshâ. from which as hostages . and was imprisoned there. and at the end of eight hours. ir. the son of fixed at the the castle. a Persian. The same day the Mohammedan shout (Allah) was protwo thousand muskets and many guns were fired as a salute victors enriched with the booty of oxen and mules. in short." told them On this night Sidi Lord. six district of and the Moslim might have their hands cut moment and like sheeps' feet castle. opened the trenches. went to the gates of the castle. said that the O came out seven Kurdish Begs thousand swords and other arms. a square castle. on is distance of a gunshot from As soon Mussulman as the victors the guns were fired from the castle. saying that he had something of importance to communicate to him. put seven hundred men into the found ! Mustafa Beg. 121 Description oj the Castle of Shûshek or Shûshlk. but only found a spy. and the next day the flags of truce planted on the battlements. which being fired. and buried advanced R for at this seven hours through a woody . killed of the Beg castle. and chosen family of Osman all the Kurds were crying The commander. was ravaged and pillaged. ! Ahmed Sidi Colonel. but at the executioner was about to cut off his head. the siege lasted twenty-four hours. spot here are two hundred Armenian houses. evliya efendi. poor Evliya. with the Beg of Melazjerd. goods my . collected three thousand in the palace muskets and Aman Pasha. and the siege began immediately. was also in the expedition. they said. with three thousand men. Men were sent into the some hundred thousand sheep. the nephew a great lamentation arose in the began to ascend the breaches by ladders . Bdki Pasha. claimed in the castle the whole first place slit. killed in the Shushik. he implored the Pasha's mercy. reached the who was tomb of Tahmurass Khan. and sent the merry news to Mohammed ! of the Beg. We marched across the Minvaldereh amidst the mountains. victors Chenddn Beg. confiscated all the . and the Ottoman At the same moment of the castle.. our Beg. VOL.

who came on the seventh day to Khinis. the base of which into the skies. and named on this commission for settling the frontiers and renewing the peace. and arrived at the castle of Magu. The Ottomans also took possession of Magu. dinner. The Kurds submitted to Suleiman. by ropes of one hundred men (Diz- choken Tülünkî). my after the in order to settle the conquest of boundary . went to In the time of the subordinate to the governor of Melâzjerd. but his castle fifty was given purses were taken to Mohammed the Beg of Melazjerd. who. is raised the water is raised every night. and gave each of them of the . Afiun Kara Hissâr. Under the pretext of the rebellion of the Beg of Shûshîk. built by Nûshirvân. Forty thousand sheep. who spared his Hfe. which is a fortress. A'adil Jiwas. under the of Bayazid. in the rock like a thin is There is and narrow. and Amasia. who made a present of this castle to the Beg of the Mahmudi tribe. The Ottomans had laid waste the castle of Zalim. Size and It is situated and towers Form of Magu. twenty Georgian slaves. to the Khân (Pasha. in the province of Shehrzol. dred houses afford lodgings to two thovisand musketeers of Mazenderan. and gave a grand entertainment to Bakf Pasha. river. Kara Mustafa Pasha. twenty strings of mules. and delivered him to Mohammed Pâshâ the governor of Erzerum. . on a high and steep rock. gracious protector. and the Persians that of Kotur. but one gate to Seven hun- minareh. and transferred the Beg and the garrison to Meldzjerd. in the province of Van. on the border of Aras. forty horses. being inaccessible which you ascend by a small staircase cut on all sides. and for two them. was then Governor of Diarbekr. and consists of three hundred Armenian reached the village of Alajalar command houses. com- manded by a Sultân (Beg) subordinate The drawbridge which leads over the and it thus becomes entirely isolated . to the Castle. like the castles of Van. and from him. who furnished twenty purses. Baghdad. a great number of furs and skins of lynxes and leopards the Moslim victors returned in On the same day after seven hours. and he was carried to Sidi Ahmed Pasha. and it is now grand Vezir of Sultan Murad IV. Derne and Derteng. requested that the : seventeen strings of mules. Melek Ahmed Pasha. Shuban Kara. my lord. he was afterwards released. we safety with their booty to Erzerum. The Khân descended with one thousand of his serving Beg of Shûshîk might be given up to him this was done accordingly.THETRAVELSOF 122 more through flowery fields. but put him into prison. Envoys of the castle . after fathoms length. Mardin. the Persians laid hold of Magu. it is situated Here our gracious Lord gave a grand entertainment to the Persian Khans of Erivan. The Persians took it from country. Tokat. Nakhshivân and Tabriz. governor) of Erivan.

on sent us a high rocks. consisting of three produced here. a purse of money. is square and beijân. I received myself. Sixteen hours further the banks of a torrent called Okhdere . beads of coral. with a couple of Arabian horses. and arrived at the village Yailajak. Pâshâ. We saw the castle of Shûshîk. meadow amidst beds of of Erivan. They elegant yet strong fortress. who went to Nakhshivan.EVLIYAEFENDI. and a robe of honour. the inhabitants are Kurds. while I poor Evliya took the road on the right After having travelled thirteen hours through a mountainous It was built by Sharokh. and ten men of all arms. if not. the Karish. and a magnificent quiver. and were saluted by it with seven guns. in town at our leisure. handkerchiefs. beads I took two horses richly caparisoned to the affairs. and I poor with letters and Evliya in quality of Clerk of the Custom-house was named to go the commercial presents in the third Envoy's company to Tabriz. on pitched our tents here in a flowery Twelve hours further on is the station of Chaghla our left on ghurna. bow and order to in and Venetian cloth. to the left. that he as Commander-in-Chief The three envoys kissed the ground and were Erivan and Nakhshivan. He told them in his speech. an Its castle is situated on a high peak. subordinate to the Castle of Anek. and set out trusting in the Lord for Nakhshivan and Erivan. Alaja of pearl. we came to tulips. but that he hoped with equal faithfulness the con- and therefore evacuate the castle of Shushi'k. and was I took leave of the servants. garrisoned by one thousand Dizchoken Tûlünkî. on setting out on my accompanied by ten journey. the report of the castle. The Keldrji Velî Agha was sent with the Atl Hassan with the second to Nakhshivan. Envoy to Erivan . foot encamped at the re-echoed among the neighbouring hills. the first town in Persia. altogether forty-five men. but is now in suffered at the time of the expedition to . to arrange Khân. Further eastward we came to Khâneh belonging petre is to the Castle Shûshîk. we is hundred houses the station of Kendush . Description of our journey along the Aras to Persia. by firing eighteen guns. the Envoy quantity of provisions. and give it back would ravage the districts to the Ottomans. 123 arrows. ditions of the peace. consequence of the pillage It it was formerly a large town. Azerson of Timur. The new Beg also Here we parted company with Kassim Khân. of which was saluted us contrary to our wishes. and Genoese satisfy the now Khdn of Erivan he had reduced the that the Persians on their side would Beg fulfil of Shûshîk. of invested with Persian sable pelisses. partly towards the east. that letters of amity. partly Armenian and Bariid Moslim. first we travelled for the space of eight hours along the Aras. On the day. salt- Kia. and then came into the power of Uzun Hassan the Prince of built of stone. tract. We and visited the ruins.

tlie The Agha and our horses with difficulty which issues of the Castle invited ascended to the castle me with the envoy to a feast. where we saw immense trees. one thousand loaves of white bread. an hour. who eat nothing but dry roots. to the station of the village of Kend Massir . The town is from Mount Sükûn. van. and presents after dinner. treated us to eleven he presented me. Achika and Karrs There are seven mosques with revolted. when the troops of Erzerum. hours through a wide valley. thirteen hours towards the east. with leopard skins. Returning from the garden we took a view of the outside of the mosque of Evhad Allah. The next morning three hundred Persian horsemen joined us. dates and sweetmeats to strangers. and gardens and vineyards in abundance. but they serve milk. These three Armenian convents are celebrated amongst all Christians. which is now inhabited by hundred nuns. Kend is Persian word signifying the same as the Turkish Kassaba (small town). a present of fifty when we had sheep. remained a couple of days. three baths. and minarehs. and consists of one thousand houses with earthen roofs. and seven Khans. We kept the great feast (Bairâm) here. which led through a monntainous tract. the and the seat of a Kelenter (provost) subordinate to Eri- We advanced fourteen hours to Kend Ziih Khân.THE TRAVELS OF ]24 Eiivan by Sultdn Murad IV. and were then entertained with a sumptuous dinner in a garden. invited us to his house. the envoy. to Uch Kilisse. the second by selves here. from which a beautiful view may He be enjoyed. surrounded with gardens. We now proceeded for seven Persian boys. envoys. such fine and brilliant eyes. and a great number of other good dishes sorts of pilaw . on the frontier of NakhHere we took two shivan belonging to its khass. and from seven to eight mule-loads of delicious fruits. in each of which lodge a couple of hundred priests and monks. incomparable mosque with a well-proportioned minareli Tâj-ud-dîn Munshî. from forty to fifty them are from five to ten guest-masters. . who delighted us with their songs. and are more than five therefore well endowed. in half The Agha of the garrison dressed in an odd way. On the top of a mountain are three great convents. and sent after us returned to our tents. and take care of their goods and horses. situated on the banks of flows to the Aras. that The beautiful . three hundred shops. the Greek Emperor. it is a flourishing small town. a grand entertainment. and accompanied us on our way. and The Abbot of these convents gave to me and the In each of cooks. river Karish. the third by an Armenian lady. with several sorts of sherbet. situated on the border of Mount It is It is Massîr. and Alaja Atli Hassan. Fine youths serve the strangers who divert them- One of these three convents was built by Nürshirvân. and plundered this town of Karish. and giving us welcome. seven mosques. three baths. near women it is it an is the bath of of the place have one glance from them delights the heart more than a thousand from others.

carpet then passed into the hands of Nûrshirvân. said to his sister rock) the ! abundance of asbestos linen which having become . It is a great Convent of Begtâshîs . by the prayers of whom I was restored to health. which. poor Evliya. and throw them into a boiling kettle these herbs remain boiling more than an hour in old carpet being spread on the top of the mountain. threw into the fire. and arrived after eight hours march town. a stone which who when to I. Curiosities At the grand convent assemble from Infidels built all of Uch 125 Kilisse. every year forty or fifty thousand countries of Christianity. when it became as pure as a white rose. the same carpet on which Jesus gave a dinner to the Israelites. shirts. of opinion that it is It is neither cotton am Cyprus. when dirty. wliich receives many thousand whom The spectators. but as I like a small was indisposed I well. God knows whether this carpet is not We left Uch Kilisse and passed towards the also made of this Cyprian stone. they cooked their herbs on this power of Jesus. in the me such presence of Melek Pâshâ. restored a dead man carpet. Melek Ahmed your name is rocky.evliya efendi. so that we did not see a cubit of ground which was not productive or cultivated. tlie great astonishment of amongst the people. Pilgrimage to Mohammed Shdh's Tomb. which to witness the miraculous It is life. &c. who assured me that the carpet was the same on which Jesus fell when issuing from Mary's womb when shut up in a cave some of them carry to their . with his twelve disciples for fear of the Israelites." and really gave her a shirt. others eat them on the spot. was cleansed by throwing it into the fire. : . at a well cultivated village We counted no did not examine it less on the border of Mount Sokiin. men found The building the Convent Sultân Suleiman went to the siege of this carpet. Great men have Kia Sultân (Kia signifies " Lady Rockby as Pâshâ. east through cultivated fields and populous villages. and worked into Hnen which are brought as presents to the great Sultân Murâd Lady of my gracious Lord. Captain Hassâm-zadeh gave dirty. of asbestos. in the island of nor silk. medical herbs growing on these which stands upon this carpet . to witness the solemnity of an They collect all useful and mountains. herbs are then distributed own countries. I a handkerchief. by Nûrshirvdn. but of variegated colours and very heavy. I'll give you a shirt of stone. to the kettle on the carpet. handkerchiefs.. more than three hundred came with drums beating and banners flying to give us welcome a crowd of poor fellows all in Next raptures of divine love. Erivan he performed a double prayer on is and paper. I talked with the monks about this. no harm. than eleven minarehs. gave it to it as an When endowment. of Constantinople.

all of Nakhshivan. the gardener brought us twenty-six different kinds of pears. it is Our servants counted forty our Mihmandar it consisted of ten thou- not as an atom in the sun. havoc made by Sultân Murad IV. Ahmed Zaviei Beg. The mildness of the variety of fruits which Taking a walk with the Envoy in a garden. when governor This (zavie) of is the reason Ahmed Pasha . endowment cultivated Kents first built by Menu- the seat of a Sultân (Beg) in the territory of Nakhshivan. which when eaten. a Wakf of Imam Riza in the territory of Nakhshivan. and our horses feasted on trefoil and if they were The other luxuriant herbs. and according to the report of sand houses with gardens and vineyards. pitched our tents on the bank of the great river all the Kents of the neighbourhood. It is a flourishing Kent of about one thousand houses surrounded with gardens. and seventy mosques (forty of which have minarehs). to The town covered with a large cupola. but in is . and then joins the Aras. so that their bellies swelled like wine-skins. this we came the territory of in built east. Fourteen hours further to the Here are three mosques.. where the people of At the it. inundates the mouth and . which falling We (Cyrus) runs into the Caspian sea.THETRAVELSOF 126 day we crossed a plain southern end of this and halted three times on for thirteen hours. . nor a drop in the ocean. the best are the Meleje. Suleiman Khan different times for five or now comparison with recovering from the its former state. baths and markets. by Zâl Pâshâ-zadeh the Persians called this Kent (borough) the cell the whole borough We it Shi'is. flocking together. and in the large basin the Persian is youths swim is is appropriated to the passed during sixteen hours through many the large town Kara-bâghlar. so that our servants feasted as as many Ma'adî Karbs. chehr. . it was wrested from the Ottomans by the Persians in the time of Mohammed III. in the style of the mosques at Constan- of this mosque. the air contributes to the beauty of the inhabitants abound here. we field Zengi. The hot-spring of Sîdreghî hot-spring outside of the like silver fishes . inhabitants are close to the vineyards they amuse themselves by disporting in the water. Abbâssî. brought us abundance of provisions as presents. why (boroughs) until we reached is five hundred houses. issues supplying water to into the river many thousand Kents. and singing with melodious voices. Timur passed a winter in perfect quietness at Karabaghlar and other commanders-in-chief were stationed here at six months This place in the greatest affluence. one of which was Nakhshivan. and came at the end of ten hours to the Kent Sidreghi. minarehs. Ordûbaî. is no where else to be met with. consisting of Ahmed. so that now ruins are only to be seen. Zen"i on the south from the mountains of Khârân. flows to the North.. a great number of Khans. and laid waste by the army of Sultân Murâd IV. tinople. Kuf continued our journey hunting hares.

The women wear which they wrap white muslin. and other such at the towns of Iran Khan the seat of a is it . one of its air is mild. otherwise Kiatib) where After having taken a heretics. Hunifites. but few fruits. but Ja'aferites. The and one thousand shops. hands with rich and in The cooks (fricassee). was populous and cultivated castle with the dust it Agha originally built it : an Itimad-ud- . Jeberites. red and orange -coloured papushes. and boots of various colours. its all fair Above Its barley is all its it has few gardens. but mosques. young men wear pelisses of Isfahan. In the cleanly cookshops you find pilaw of Erivdn. Zimi'nites. every one of which may . devlet (minister) and a mufti. and green. is recommended. praised every where. of the Dizchoken be buried ancestors are said to his (answering to the Turkish Its officers are Kelenter. and white on account of it cotton of seven colours. forty mesjids. seventy mosques. are a great many There are also all in Shi'ites and Jews being the sect of the Teberraites and Karaites. pointed caps on The to be of the a foul five dignity. it consisted of twelve thousand houses with terraces. is Chit (chintz) deserve to be gardens are repositories of melons and water-melons. Taj. twenty khans. time of the state of the is world where nothing remains unchanged. Mulhads (impious) Zindiks. ruby-colonred and of the purest white. their times was extremely it was then pillaged by the Moghols. which by some is spelt Nakhjîvân. but every thing perishes except His After Sultân Murad's conquest (God's) face. excellent air. and again conquered Sultân indeed . best products. and in seven hours reached of Nakhshivan. yellow. Karabâgh we departed. It a Darogha. a Mûnshî. with excellent granates. lie. seven baths. . levelled the Mohammed was taken possession of by Zûltakâr Khân. and in the reign of Murad IV. (atheists) Ja'aferites. (provost. but as it is The youth they wear the Persian turban. Persia. (the cosmetic water good view of the gardens the fortress rebuilt it. that its has also if its of Nakshivân a horse eats four grains of it. hen'sse juice. and walk with great but they are wholly attached to women. like jelly or sirup 127 in the III. except a few travelling merchants.) Pasha) on the frontier of Azerbaijan and Avjdn. the whole of Persia eatables are never sold by Armenians or Greeks there are no Greeks at of there are also ruby-coloured . . satiated are . keep the regular prayer hours never in company. and the cupolas are shewn in . by Taban Yassî Mohammed Such Pasha. but there Kadrites. however. in Turkish Sbashî) . troops) a judge (the by Shah Efrasiab. The corn and wheat painted linen and so rich. (secretary. an . black. all pome- are extremely clean because they are all Moslims. They have some very fine fashionable pomp and The people pretend orthodox sect of Shâfiî although they are Persians. they are times a day. who Shah Ismail .evliya efendi. and robes of painted cotton and Chit (chintz) breeches of different colours. this is who.

or pure but less elegant Persian . had been the treasurer of Sultân Sifî. the walls are faced with porcelain. two ancient dialects. ud-din. and the floor paved with jasper. trade by land and sea. whose crystal white bodies are set off by the dark blue of their aprons. who came as envoy from ment. " and Michael replied. books which Abraham received from . companions excelling He The in various arts. each all given to pleasure. . is tendance . it be possible me. ten tomans of Abbâssî. After dinner he gave to Alaja Atli Hassan. it is " whether God ever spoke any thing that there were some passages in reported that the Prophet asked Michael in Persian the . as guests. Near the house where we lodged. and his name was Devlet Murâd Khân. and the floor is exactly resembles that of of Jenânî paved very pleasant. which also a soul -delighting bath. . there are polas are covered in the of those of Constantinople Rostân Pâshtl . In the large basin ten feet square. The Khân. Rich merchants are established of is thus they sport and play like peacocks and doves. a person of great repute. investing his delightful own envoy also with a caftan. carried us directly to one of his gardens. they are lined with painted pottery. " yes. thirty-three minarehs in the style are faced with porcelain. who had delivered the castle of Baghdad to Sultân Murad he was a man of great judgment. In the commentary of Dilemi. The languages that are the Deri. the Pâshâ. but they have poets speak the Pehlevi and Moghol languages with elegance. brilliant robes of honour. and a horse. and The Khan pass part of every day in each other's gardens. the walls is the waiters are . has from forty to inhabitants of this fifty town who generally speak the dialect Dihkani. where he men read our letters to the principal of Nakhshivan. a basket of rose-leaves. or of peasants. Risa- having met us. of Georgian extraction. their nakedness being covered by rose-leaves for the bath- which attaching themselves to the bodies of the bathers forms a kind of veil which coming : is whom is as rich as Karun in the market. underneath the cupola. spoken here. or court language . attended by so . in short this bath Hassan and Selman could not is very be- delightful that such poets as so sufficiently praise how then could it. that it was equal to the feast of Hossein Bikara. and to me. and granite of various hues. . the young people swim keeper every day pours into tlie angels of the sea like basin. which marble. and gave us an entertain- many singers and mvisicians. owing to is water and excellent at- fine its the bath of Zâl Pâshâ. Ahmed Pâshâ that of The bath at Constantinople. the inhabitants are . poor Evliyd^ to succeed. the cu- same manner. are the Dihkânî or rough Persian Farsi. the the Ghâzî and the Pehlevî. after who of Nakhshivan. black-eyed youths from Khoten. and at some.THE TRAVELS OF 128 be compared to Eden.

and Ak Kermdn. without having leisure to The names examine them properly." Turkomans. that it was the tomb of the son of Hossein Bikara. the latter and sixty sanjak they all Amen ! remain the residence of the is Begs. three mosques. VOL. Shahin Kermân. Santmarton. The inhabitants of the kent told us. Ghâz Kermân. Kiresh Kerrnan. The whole Ottoman Empire consists of seventy seats of Begler-Begs. JOURNEY FROM NAKHSHIVAN TO TABRIZ. by Molla Kotb-ud-di'n All these settled in the different dis- of these castles are : — Alanjak Van. Saksvvar. and arrived for eight Kunbed. some of which castles. Sersu. in the The names power of the Ottoman family until the May end of the World. and Semaravân. and Karabâgh. " whoever 129 ridicules the Ghâzî dialect is an Infidel. The German fortresses are Iran. Posonium. Kermân. Pilgrimage of Rza.evli YA efendi. but on the marble coffin was written Hossein Bakara. Amongst the names of Ottoman towns. Papa. which was built by one of the princes of country. In Kerman. containing one thousand houses with gardens. &c. built by Mervan Ibn-al- of Persian towns almost all terminate as follows : — in Tar- Kermdn. The names tary the castles are named. flows to the North and joins the river Zenghi. II. a Khân and Hamam. From Nakhshivân we proceeded at the place Kessik hours towards the Kiblah. and Alunjissa. districts are defended by strong passed on hunting parties. the Son of Hossein Bikara. three hundred (Vienna). We is one of the de- continued our journey from hence seven hours along the Arash. Comoin. The names of Polish fortresses are Kamanija (Kaminiuk). Bedj German Emperor. tricts. and ruined by Koja Ferhâd Pasha one of the Veziis of Sultân Mohamfor the conqueror of Erla. It is Murâd Ibn Behâder Shefâd Ibn a high cupola. . Gokdülâk and Moghols. those of the Holy land are the most sounding. as Sakmdr. I The names himar. The traces of S havock are still to be seen. We now advanced arrived at this med It may be some time amongst gardens. which rises in the mountains of the Curds Bînpânshî. and the tomb-keeper scendants of Hossein Bikara. Uzî Kermân.a town of Azerbeijân. built Seran. . of Persian castles will be given in the course of our travels. and thirteen hundred and eighty strong castles. in the province of Van. crossed on horseback. Oivâr. Cherkers Irbât of fortresses in Transylvania terminate in âr. Tata. who are Tlie again speak other dialects. Heaven " : and the Prophet answered.

eighteen sorts of cherries some . We now passed to . the Kiir into the Terek. who commands one thousand men. there is . tribute annually to the Shah of Iran an hundred camel-loads towns short. we After a march of nine hours towards the Kiblah. . a khân. they are all . different of of both the air salubrious and the Among adorned and surrounded with gardens. and Dizchoken-agassî. hours further on. the Aras into the Kür. Its officers are a The town is Darogha. and bath. of which their plain produces a large bogassins of various colours are manufactured here. Mûnshî. one thousand well-built houses. Kelenter. sorts quinces are of the size of a man's head. it It is the fruits of Tessüî are cele- by gardening. a mosque. and sexes are pretty water excellent it . to is minarehs are conspicuous. of architecture. that at the place amidst a thousand Punyanshi (Bînpânshî collects a crossed it from the mountains of waters its Three Biredos. where the difficulties In Karabâgh. . pointed. is mosques. which is just now rising from its to ruins. the Zenghi into the Aras. its waters are carried in some places through subterraneous conduits. situated on the it is and has three thousand houses with six khans. of dried fruits. the fruits and of ruby-coloured grapes. The youth hundred shops. but the inhabitants are extremely cotton weavers. seven plain. seven baths. and twelve farsangs distant from the brated. the seat of a Sultân. there are three garden resembling Paradise. arrived at the kent of Ten Zeneves. It is Murad Sultîîn he again pillaged the town.THETRAVELSOF 130 When this country. After having crossed the river ( ? ) we came situated in the province of Tabriz on the and the Terek into the Caspian Sea. and arrived The time.. and thousand armed was is Merend. by Murad IV. stations below the plain of Nakhslivân the Irs runs into the Zenghi. on his expedition to the conquest of Erivan. is deserve to be mentioned twelve Its came IV. three baths. frontier of Merend and terraces. but there are altogether inhabitants have been exempted from the payment of all on condition that they would rebuild the town duties. six the products good and plentiful . which is now recovering from town of Merend inhabitants are Shiites. three khans. and are most refreshing style in summer different colours eleven . ten mosques. and Baghassi. mosques.. is went from hence turning towards the Kiblah. The seventy mihrâbs. it . Bnbâsh. its ruins . towards the Kiblah. who live . Its Sultân commands one a Kelenter and Darogha. seven men also destroyed The the town of Tessûî the bank of the Irs. a khan. . gifts and cupolas of the mosques are built in the old and are covered with china of say. a Mûnshî and Kadhi. ? ) We river Irs joins that of Shan. consisting of three frontier of hundred houses. situated on a beautiful wide and consists of three thousand houses. and a bath uncivil Persians hours to Kent Kerken. each of which in Azerbeijan called We they only con- . in six quantity .

belonging We to the Secretary of the Khân of Tabriz. Its between here and Tabriz interval of fourteen farsangs Merend well cultivated ground. said a Fâtihah to his . on the Kiblah side. at Kent Kuhen'n. Its streets are all inhabitants of Tabriz have their koshks the inhabitants of the place pretend to be young people and the air of the place As we continued our journey. sheltered against the rays of the sun. his soldiers well dressed. (Siik). a Persian. the . which I they should kill six an extremely all Shiites. also of Alî received presents from the Sultan of this town. walks and gardens. and two great palaces. all authorities are a Kelenter. curses uttered against listen quietly travelled in the halted at the wells. even if We Khân first was obliged to I kill destroy it ! the rascal. sexes are pretty and eloquent. the high all praiseworthy. solemn entry. and is was formerly It a hunting place of Shahrokh. but Murad Sultân IV. five there are . Sheikh Süsemâri. and pleasure-houses Shâfiîtes. no colleges nor abecedarian schools but praise must be given to . three baths. and went on seven hours. all the sect of the Shiites its Its seventy fine youth of both inhabitants are for the most part military on the Kiblah side of the town is Khândî. and because Omar. . each of which outrivals those of Eden. lies Munshi. which is the khass of the of Tabriz. I heard here for the them ! mind to sibility. and the seat of a Sultân commanding one thousand men. consisting of one thousand houses. the residence of the Khtln of Elvend. Darogha. to the east of Tabriz. conspicuous at six memory. and before me forty persons composing my train . but no Bezestdn. is It is might have done without incurring much respon- because envoys travelling from now marched because they are time. and Alî-ud-dîn. May God flourishing kent. the towering into the skies. laid waste it mosques. six mosques. three khans. through roads we always planted on both sides with willows and planes. situated in a plain. seven mosques. Allah confound those obloquies. 131 I the south. drinking fresh water from wells. the son of Timur. The Dizchoken Agha. of one thou- sand houses. and was in a flourishing state. a khân. hours further to Kent ehlân. a bath and some small markets The planted with willows and planes. because the greatest part of the water we reached here subterraneous. I and the Envoy of Tabriz side by side before the envoy marched hours distance. seven baths and six hundred shops. The men. we saw on our right. and After three hours we mounted our horses for the sent a messenger to Tabriz. cupola of Ghazân cursed Rafedites Mohammed Shah We .EVL YA efendi. now three thousand houses. though to Rum I had a great to Persia are free in all their actions. one of the ancestors of the great Teftazânî. and at the end of twelve farsangs is the town of Merend. and arrived but are in this kent . so that shade. We tomb the of Hossein Teftazânî. halted on a fine meadow.

where (master of the ceremonies) then Mohammedan stood in the gave the letter to his secretary (Mînshî). with which he was no less satisfied.) " With the aid of kind greetings and words. it all stood up praising the Prophet. giving it. but at the mention of his four friends. that he has added to He their appear- rose up. who kissed with a loud voice. with an elegant saddlecloth. who got up and kissed into the The Ishek Aghâ I Mohammed The Khan fashion. and the Prophet's name.THETRAVELSOF 132 Kiaya of the Khdn of Tabrfz came to meet us in solemn pomp and (istikbâl). it and read of God's name. the Persian music consisting of kettle-drums and trumpets were three After the music was over. At the mention Pâshd. and times sounded. riding withoijt stirrups horsemanship. and the Venetian may stuffs. and Kelenter. " Bismillah ! " I gave the of the horse into the hands of the Khan. where many thousand persons in the market were collected to stare at us our march from the . adding " Mobarek-bâd prosperous ! The Khân took some ) in the fashion of Persian we the horses richly caparisoned were on the signal led into his presence astonishment of . said I. a caparisoned horse (Karajabuk). garden. where a great Council was assembled. some looked askance (not liking to hear The to my Omar mentioned amongst reading being finished the Khan said : them." the end of the room different him. and sent it to his stable. the quiver I to me . a caravan of a hundred horses. my drew forth from breast the letter of Defterdar-zadeh governor of Erzerum. Darogha. throughout the town. and the troops paraded. he made us repast to be brought in. I then presented him with the second horse (Yelkendiz). Khdn town-gate to the palace of the for The Khdn two hours. respectfully. and ordered the not appear before your Excellency with empty hands given by bridle to Then adding " the Pasha has furnished these two Arabian horses of high breeding. At a signal by the Khân all our servants were served with sherbet. I will honourable brother the Vezir of the Emperor. I got up. rosewater and incense was repeated and we were then given in to the care of the Mihmandar. and seven camel- The pubUc cryers now published. all me with. where we remained. Kûrûjî-bâshî. The latter conducted us to his . saying. and : they came dancing and capering to the great the gentlemen of the Divân . and put on it me my shewed it his head. place. I God " (Be it turns on the horse. which. sit down close came send if delivered the pearl beads. an Khân to make known that an Ottoman embassy of Sunnis having loads of provisions. before a month elapses. now make your Excellency would be pleased to see them. which shall ance. order of the . town at the other extremity of the lasted received us in his Divân. The Khân sent me forty tomans bath-money. and one of a hundred camels. accompanied by him we made our entrance into the town of Tabriz. After dinner. the hand of the Khan.

when pregnant with on account of the excellent air. it. it it took was ruined by an Motevekel came himself from to rebuild the town at the expense of Baghdad immense treasure. and is Ibzârgîn Shah transferred new built town. The timber cypress and aloe wood. completely where no fever also a place . the fortress of Cairo is air is so salubrious. these dialects. to the Ottoman Envoys. and surrounded it with a wall. In the reign of Murad III. Uzdemir-oghli Murad Pasha undertook the expedition into Persia with an immense army. viz. because the in the . Afterwards a large town was built at an immense expense. on a third side upon mount Senjan. and six gates. on camels to his used in the buildings was with china ever since. tab signifies all Ajan so good. of Serzud. one of his generals. terrible The same day the Khân sent us ten fine youths all dressed in embroidered cloth. and they cannot refrain from injuring him by slanderous words. every by the I33 body should be cautious of insulting them. and called Tûris is it the Farsi. Sunni's. five hundred watchwas Hulagii. which required four days to make a tour of it. Descriptioti In the of the Capital of Azerbeijdn. Ajan. arrived. but made a present 959. on another side upon mount ehlân. The actual circumference of Tabriz. The embellished third builder of Tabriz it wonderfully : Mohammed Khodabende the whole palace. of it it castle or citadel of the was taken by Sultân Suleiman. Mamun. the ancient town of Tabriz. They were led by our Mihmandar to kiss our hands. who did not ravage to Shah Elkass Mirza. and of Shâmnemâzân. in the prevails. in Derî . lest they might be killed They curse neither Abubekr nor Osman. who extended the boundaries to the mountains of Senjan. Tabriz was founded by Zobeide.. The town formerly built by Motevekel became then the inner new town. earthquake which destroyed forty thousand men. and ri% pouring [dispersing]. but Omar gives them a head-ache. three thousand battlements. Hariin Rashid's wife. of Berservân. Moghol language Dihkânî.. Pâshâ. each of which guarded by men. built a pleasure-house here and the water of is to be found. it was taken by the Persians. In the year 994 (1585). Osman the town of Tabriz out of the hands of the Shah. In the year it. and they have been faced fourth builder was Mohammed Shah Ghazân. took . Tabriz . who resided here seven years. who. there are three hundred towers. It rests on one side upon mount Ajan.EVLIYAEFENDI. and on the fourth upon the Maiden's mount (Kiztagh). and of such extent that three days to go round In the time of Calif Motevekel. and ehlân. according to the ancient etiquette by which the Khans of Persia used to send ten fine youths as servants We now began to take a view of the town. the van of which was led by Jighâla-oghlî Sinâm. that people who come from regions where fever recover here TîCrz dialect. Tabriz in : fever. is six thousand paces. all The that of Ajan. built by Hûlagü.

which seems as though gate of which the name Uzdemir of and Uzdemir Pasha. named Khandin Ja'affer Pasha. yeyen Aghâ (another sentinels). it troops). walls of which are all The mosque of Zobeide. it to its former now the capital of Azerbeijân. Shamâkhf. the INIolla (Judge). and the seat of the Khan its Governor.. Kelenter (Lieutenant of police). one minareh. and garrison). remained a week at Tabriz. The mosque of . (Secretary). Shah Abbas remained . is finished the castle in thirty-six days. so that These justice prevails no person can take a grain of mustard- seed from another. Description of the Mosques of Tabriz. It is or head of the Seids (Emirs). that at the time of Sultdn in his reckoned eighty thousand houses. conciliated the and began to restore inhabitants. Tabriz According to the description made Ghâzdn. its faced with china. Darogha (Provost). which when made acquainted with the news. the cupola and inlaid with china (fayence . Aghâ and Ishek Aghâ (Master of the Ceremonies) public officers keep as officer (commander of the Chiyek- (Inspector of the Mihmândeir. returned. prayer. after which havock he returned to Constantinople. it is now minareh is also entirely a mosque in the old style. ransacked the towns of Nakhshivân. Nakhshivân and Tabriz. conquered the fortress of Erivan in seven days.THE TRAVELS OF 134 To defend this town a strong citadel was then built of twelve thousand seven hundred cubits. levelled the palace of Shah Abbas. it happened. who commands ten thousand men. fifth builder. Yassul of the good order in the did in the time of Nûrshîrvân. and set fire to all the wooden houses. exhales the sweetest perfume inlaid with china. having died before had been inscribed. There are altogether three hundred and twenty mihrâbs. with In the course of time called Meshkieh. Its officers are the Mufti. rison of forty thousand it their commander. Nakib splendour. town of Tabriz. Merend and Karabâgh. Shirvân. Erivdn. under whose government the flourishing state of Tabriz excelled even time. and a gar- But he was not so happy as men.) the mortar of the Mihrâb having first is the old been mixed with musk. necessary stores. Dîzchoken Aghâ. so that only stone buildings. is and is . who was not however confirmed in his place by the Porte. that the Persians became masters of Genje. until the time of vengeance arrived in the reign of Sultân Murad He IV. formerly Governor of Tripolis. and three hundred thousand During the troubles which took place soon afterwards by the inhabitants. the with filled it by Ferhâd. which the builder's The mosque like the name has been of Motevekel former lost. Kürûjî-bâshî (chief of the guards of the woods and heaths). rebellion of the troops. such as mosques and baths. Mûnshî. and on the built all to perform the Friday's army proclaimed Jighala-zadeh Sinâm the whole it. nineteen of which are Imperial mosques.

evliya efendi. Mohammed to II. sciences for reading the : There are seven houses for reading tradition (Dâr-ul-hadîth). where boys are taught clothed once a year fountains. elegant sculptures and same who and who of Erzerum. or . gallery. each of which two columns have no equal. gate to the mihrâb opposite. was built the fortress of defeated it is quite equal to the that style in it Above ornaments of the great gate. all of a yellow stone. but the greatest masterpiece by Sultân mahfil are adorned with such carving. Colleges of Tabriz. a fine garden. is is of the present day conspicuous the arabesques and in the gates and windows are inscriptions in On the character of Yakut Mostea'assemi. the Hassan Kala'a Tak that of is Emin the mosque of Jihan Shah . in the the He of Terjân. where lectures are held on the first is Koran that of the lady of Shah Jihan (Dar-ul-kira) but they read it all and twenty rooms wrong throughout all Persia. east field of which are inlaid with china inside and out would not be Chinese paper. the Prince of Azerbeijan. in a high building with a 135 the side of the altar are two columns worth the revenue of Iran and Turan : these The other either in Egypt. Mohammed Shâm Sultân now is decay falling into name is its . Shah Ismail. and the great mosque. as those in community. one to spell and read the Koran. six besides furnished with seven canals of water. the scent of which perfumes the mosque of this fine an obscure place dome vying with of Tâher Bibars. and Dihshetf-Behesht (terror of Paradise). paved with marble and adorned with paintings and suspended ornaments. Uzun Hassan is that of Shah Makssud. Syria. There are forty-seven large Colleges. the mosque of Abbas the first. because they confine themselves to the tradition of Alî and the twelve Imams. Imperial mosques are also faced with china. splendour. six hundred schools. or Persia. mihrâb and Sultân Hassan at Cairo. The town is . which all issue . so that each These five is quite a Chinese mosques are not however so much frequented because prayers are not performed in Turkey. is mosque Kesra. but the doctors of tradition are not much renowned. and have some thousand books on the traditions of Alî alone are .. which was formerly a splendid mosque. is The The mosque . that the greatest masters able to finish air. and hundred and sixty convents of dervishes from mount Semendan. Arabia. but singly by persons. like the walls are white polished like of Sultân Hassan. mosque of the windows shine with unparalleled . and there are one thousand and forty Sebils. at Cairo before the Mihrab Ghazân. buried at this mosque. the son of Sultân Hassan the old mosque of Chârmenân. a man can hardly be distinguished. and near it that of so large that from the great . the cupolas The minber. who Opposite to the mosque of enter and leave abruptly.

by wearing an asinine phallus in his turban. away all fevers. the inhabitants never do any thing but their sect eloquent poets. number (impious). and prolongs issues life to the age of one from mount Semenden. he would commemorate the circumstance. Turcomans. By the mildness of the climate the inhabitants are red cheeks and black beards. or crown. are may well be applied to them. " the old is company. with fairness of their skins are age are of sweet in all in this town." or Shii's Mulhad Sheiks. that had seventy fingers. of them wear the also Mohammedan pointed. is not exactly known. which are well The town is divided into Derveze. which yards long. whom no person ever saw eating. whom are excellent There are more than seven thousand pious surgeons and oculists. Praise of the Air and Climate. This is the reason and why The their why and by imitating the cries of the animal in music. is workmen . music resembles the braying of an purity of the air drives hundred and seventy years. advanced sweeter than the young. is is always more than two sable. because they wrap red sashes round their heads. he swore. amongst and Gokdûlâk. The water ass. One thousand and seventy palaces of great men. a great much esteemed without consulting them.THETRAVELSOF 136 places for distributing water. of which are vaulted like those of the seat of the richest merchants. the Persian crown and head-dress have the present shape. lips like healthy and stout. Account of the Persian Crown The shape . though many their time. the founder of the dynasty of he dreamt that he bore a child to an ass. seventy khans for merchants and one hundred and ten for single many seven thousand market streets (Siik) Haleb and a great Bezestan. with four iron gates. the women are extremely proud those so that the proverb. . This dream having been interpreted as foreshadowing the Empire. one thousand and sixty quarters which are called (serdab) which was cleaned by Uzdemir Pâshâ furnishes the water of the canals. and is . authors of Divans. and and conscious of the pretty. merry faces. The inhabitants are all are Dumbûlî. which . Yâr and Eighty-two most Shâbî are the Saîb and Unfi of Of the Mujazib or Santons (Saint fools) we saw Sherimî. who rose-buds There are two thousand Ulemds. {Tcij). The water magazine covered. is but the cap called Taj. doctors. The great men wear white turban is Sefî . and that of the Ulemas. that if it should be fulfilled. bash or red heads. . sleeping. or performing any of the The Persians are generally called Kizilnatural offices of life for seventy years. two hundred caravanserais. lying down. Khaljânî. founded on a dream of Ibrahim. drinking.

architects. There are some dining establishments Yakiib. it and singers exerted themselves that of Eleven times in the practice of their resembled an evening party of Hossein Bikara. of Sultân Motevekel. 137 more than nine hundred conduits and pipes. poem of Foziili. but in the hands of the Persians they have The all decayed. are from forty to winter it warm. it is . Palûde. There are twenty-one pleasant baths each with one or two basins. and of the for the The beverages consist of seven sorts Royal grape. The number of gardens amounts to forty-seven thousand. There some of the wells is also good water in wells. the common people buza of millet and rice. fayence of these baths. at noon at a farsang dis- tance from Tabriz. and that for this reason. but the water of the canals is better distributed into . Fruits. the Herisse and sweetmeat. Gardens. goldsmiths. and Murad IV. such as the imaret of Shah Lady Zobeide. the bath (Kassidei is and are fine youths. the water like angels of the written the famous Hamam). and Hke the air is rather cold. times disturbed and ruined by rebels and by conquerors. cracknels. Precious stuffs manufactured here go much renowned. sofFa. and of Sultân Hassan. provisions and Sumun. The water aids digestion. of for the poor. called the Arts and Handicrafts. the china Painters. so that VOL. the common wine cherry wine. large buildings with kitchens worthy that of Keikavus. as here. where the silver-bodied youth swim is in the Astrologers say that Tabriz was built by Zobeide. Gengfz. Hûlagü. forty different with spices. Besides the public baths there are seven hundred private ones. There are On sea. where the Khân gave me a splendid entertainment. the velvet consist of the white bread called Kerde. and sorts air The tailors are roasts. seventy dancers art. to be found so perfect over the world. and oxymel . Provisions. principal walk the sea of is Rumie may be the mount Surkhab (Red-water) near Tabriz distinguished from the top of it . Beverages. are excellent. T is This garden owes . Among kinds of pilaw the abundance of deli- cious fruits are particularly the pears and exquisite apricots. is has been so many their water is cold. of of corn growing at Tabriz. II. such as Timur. which furnish the town with water. pastry. in the day. poem There are seven besides an abundance of barley.evliya efendi. a half and fountains The attendants (jets d'eaux). under the influence of the sign of the scorpion it summer cubits deep. the pomegranate. in the fifty chicken pies. of Muscat wine. the finest Shah Yakub. and when ruled by Mars. they are not found in such perfection even at Constantinople. nowhere all 8^c. or also seven sorts of cotton.

carried round in same time singing Some of the purest beverage. and They then finish the The town compared carry Hossein's body away from the ground with much pomp. of The Wamik and Azra. a curtain opens behind him. when there of cries and lamentations that everybody loses his wits. be the seats of Sherin and Ferhâd. at the garden was preserved by the Osmîn Aghâ. Ferhâd built this sweet (Shirin) palace." vases. two immense columns it every Friday a silver plate shoot at is lift their tops which put. the all encouraged by the presence of the Khân. it. The care of the walk of Shah centre of Sefi cannot be praised enough. has numerous fine walks and pleasure grounds. The Chronostic of the koshk where we dined. and breasts. with which they cut the arms and breasts of all loving behevers. representing that of the Imam when dead. each of which to the gardens of Ispuze and Meram. by camels. being the bowmen. and where a in and cups of cornelian and certain verses. in martyrs of Kerbela sherbet. Hymn this like "Their Lord gave them day carry cans and tankards common Khân. of the Ma'il feast of A'ashura. hundred men mingle in the At rises such an uproar this moment some crowd with razors. in the Turkish and lamenting. that the ground appears as if it was blooming with tulips.. asses. this and . and cocks. and go about distributing water finest remembrance of the all where Hossein is But the the great men on the death of Hossein on the Prophet's birthday sighing porters. buffaloes. who desire to shed their blood on this day in re- membrance of the blood shed by the Imam they make such deep incisions and Some thousands scars. where in the variegated tent of the Tabriz are assembled. all the population of the town assemble under tents in this large place. is thrown on the ground. Governor of Tabriz under Sultân Murad with numerous koshks. the These Year's day this place by horses days. bowers and pleasure-houses time of the pillage of the town by Murad IV. It is the place up aimed is Heaven to at by dogs. crystal show is men on manner the same The mosques. arms.THETRAVELSOF 138 Koja Ferhâd origin to its who adorned it Pâshii. and a severed head and trunk of a body. brand the marks and names of Hassan and Hossein on their heads. but when the reciter killed is by accursed Shabr. .. who On New (Nevruz) or the beginning of spring. such as of the great round their necks. says that. on one of them . beautiful koshks may be worthy to are every where renowned . alluding to name of the builder. . which turquoise : is at the these dishes are distributed with an abundance of sugar- . ceremony with great bowlings. month Moharrem. fifty Every year on the tenth of fights are peculiar to Persia. III. as the hearers arrives at the passage Hymn listen. and during three days and nights cook many thousand dishes of A'ashura (a kind of hotch-potch). battles are fought in trained in the dark during forty or in the . sheep. of is recited.

follow be excused by you." said the Khân. " By God with God through God and by All's purest spirit. a hundred great kents with . which now shall I visited in the I I ! I other spent give the description of the districts Round Tabriz Khan's company. that of that that of is Rûdkât behind mount Sorkhab. khans and baths. twenty seventy the hunting and pleasure parties on for the space of twenty days. therefore. mosques. of this Lord. hke Isfahan. large district is that of Sera- towns finest it from ruin it would alone in the world. on the west side of Tabriz at only a farsang's distance The cultivated villages. markets. One day vnne. whose districts. I many have yet so remained here two months. from Erzerum to Tabriz. has expressly forbidden prohibited to nie by the express the Lord of Lords. evliya efendi." I beg. of were to describe minutely accompanied the Shah book. " replied I. My " it is five months journey from you forty days distance is a drop of wine it my to you. none of our family have ate or drank any thing of an intoxicating quality. and north of Tabriz." I it my Khan. if it . your Emperor. I drink " Very well. what do example." it is work my : ' it who is is care for that. which furnish military men. says in the Koran. he Pâshâ). Khânumrûd behind Rûdkât Bedostan . Î ! never drank wine or any other spirituous liquor. and in full pleasure and castles. and since our I secretly me to drink and delight in it your Shah has prohibited command of the Shah of Shahs. . . &c. and Sa'âd-abâd are Isfenj-kent. what are you afraid of ." " By God ! " You are. from at a farsang's distance The elegant villages. 139 office to train birds is are seven and dogs for hunting. towns. The fourth district Ardenik. gaming and fortune-telling are afraid. vurûd on the west third district side of Tabriz like containing eighty well cultivated villages. which be thanked and delight. five farsangs to the east of Tabriz. . If I The that of Dideher. the first is places Koraükendrüt. I since I was born ! great ancestor Khoja Ahmed Yessûî. being in company with the Shah he presented me with the purest said. The which I seventh. The second with numerous mosques. khans. four farsangs south-west of Tabriz. Shah of Iran and the dog of Al. The three the district of Mehrânrûd. that " a rigorous Methodist (Mutea-assib). Satan's I I said. Khân said. of district is that fifth gardens. twenty-four is kents with mosques. but I must from their praise and description. one of the Ottomans^ and keep gi-ant its possession to the it sixth district.. baths and gardens. as refrain God things to mention. a fill God ! Account of a curious Conversatmi. because Tabriz is all thirty well . " I am no Me- . to beloved and darling brother. wine. villages. am ' if The if it is of Khan (the The Khân of the of your Shah.

Come of his hand. because you say that the man plants the seed. who Moslim relapses to servants. and a reply the whole company became thodist but only a true follower of the orthodox sect of At true lover of the Prophet's family." the silent. which says." said. and salute to . are as pure as the glass of a mirror they are not true to friends. but only to their equals. beg you will have a half-drum to accompany my own song. but the first thing is " . me. and I though given to pleasure." and I said " he. and a Georgian slave as a present. him So saying. the worthy of all not plague I will continued to enjoy his con- versation undisturbed during a whole month. let of delight in this I returned yet did I implore at the same time Heaven's assistance. what then becomes of the children. General Praise of Tabriz. warm my a present of drink a glass. " The people of Tabriz. my brother . merry. and sang three tetrastichs pleased. and a racehorse (Karajubiik). . pelisse." to drink wine. he you Khân rose up with My " said. invested me with his own sable a thousand praises." THETRAVELSOF 140 Na'amân Ben Thdbet. me. time observing on Divine the hearers appear as though they were I spent this good order and govern- possible recommendation. . saying : — " You take Infidel girls . It is in their praise that the verse was composed. in order to show you how people get good-humoured in God. but orderly people. which made drunk. their salutes would you love red Alî and the twelve Imams if the youths all close to favourite servants you drink a cup of wine out if of head and tender of heart. which of these like to have. as though The second praiseworthy circumstance Mohammed do not give is. in make you down youthful attendants. and if you say that the mirror only reflects the really appears. you any more with a request "Now. " for Ali's sake bring let me a half-drum to Evliya." said he. feasting every night." " Be it so. answer to his further pressing requests good humour. The and most agreeable properties of Tabriz first is which means the streets are washed and cleansed from New continually Year's day. and sitting dear Evliya Aghd. you must object before it as it know . by all dust. and then . I will us be all his this came moment me. in the tune Sigâh. who were first Infidels and afterwards converted now if this new into his former error. ten tomans of Abbâssf. all ment of which is that was worth seeing at Tabriz. being extremely gave me took all it. Sherifs or descendants of the abundance of water. it was that the their daughters indiscriminately They proposed the following nice point to as women. The inhabitants are never saw a drunkard in the streets. and that is very well but you also give your own daughters to Moslims. You drink wine to get into good-humoured to be in God I . let us enjoy a perishable world. The Khân. " I Love.

and is name the that Erdebil. scales of yellow brass are suspended. and stewed meat (Herisse)." and cans and smart. is Hamadân. stand with pewter dishes under " No nobility above the like the following waiters. estabhshed in tents made of Another bad thing When the army in that more takes the way is at a fixed or to furnish a grain field. and their is it . Baghdad. although their dinner very bad. but vulgar people under their who right. with the tradition of the Prophet. and that no foreign in the coined in seven towns. therefore. even corn and wheat are sold by weight.evli YA efendi. but the Darogha and Mohtessib (two officers of police). they are opened with prayer as usual in the morn- . in Persia is that they do not kill or hang their delinquents. on the " . The army has its cooks. but always remain. " There God Prophet. viz." and who dares to cheat blinded by a heated stone drawn over his eyes. Islam filled by weight. same material and then also sold . which says. all the rest eat from the market. which are never taken away. though and mother be a true descendant of the Prophet. but that they are afterwards seduced into error by their parents. they bear only the place of the coinage on one side. " " The inhabitants. fitted-up with china and furnished with plates of the ing. with the epithet of Alfs There are transacted with all sales country. clean on which are inscriptions their arms. the kitchen is felt. things in Iran. may become apostates their the land of the Infidels into fly 141 " ? I answered. who cook price. its left shoulder. on one side is. so that they are are not allowed to take a grain less than the established quantity. a bad custom in Persia that only twelve classes of the troops and as many of the Ulemâs and the other ranks of society are allowed to have regular kitchens in their houses cheap it is . " that even the children of Christians and Jews are born true Moslims. is reverse good thing dog Isfahan. bring them to the public . and the nobility of the in- left (Tolûnkî and Tokir) wipe their right hand hand under the Bad and reprehensible It occupies After dinner these waiters bring clean basins for washing." was no reply Tiflis. Mohammed but God. The fourth good things are the cookshops. with all The kinds of pilaws. at The the is is inscription coin received. is in the Before their shops and markets. and Alî the friend of of the Shah. and the date of the year on the other written the words. and all cording to the fixed market prices eatables and drinkables are sold by weight ac. which are : " The nobility of the place depends upon " nobility of the house depends upon habitants upon their generosity. and Tabriz. is no God. their small coins : or pennies are called Kaziki. " There name of God is on their measures and weights are also : no God but God. The money coined Persian Money to that. third Nehâvend.

there buried in the neighbouring the Saint Khoja Mohammed Gûchûchânî. Zahîr-ud-dîn Faryâbî. Khakânî. . I asked him. no less than seven hundred learned writers. press nails. I said. and fasten other delinquents to seven different kinds of gibbets and pales. noses. two children of ancient and modern sciences and in mystics. who was carried wounded from the battle of Nehâvend to Tabriz. marrow : they fire. put iron kettles on the head. which them bore holes most cruel manner them three hundred strokes their knees. and Felekî of Shirvân." THE TRAVELS OF 142 place. abdd. and then pour melted lead in the holes so that in the lead runs out with the ! during three of the whip and Korbaj. . They inflict give first under their the whole body with it . suspend the delinquent and perfume They if the elbows and knees. and leave them so exposed during three days The Khan having one day glorified himself with these cruel tortures. and retaliation in cases of murder keep the people was right. paralyse thieves by cutting the sinews. where the executioners torment them days and nights. and inflict forgive us our off" the ears. people are in terror and awe. The Sheikh Sejid-jan Memi. the and Sarut-ul Prophet's companion is buried near Tabriz on the martyrs' mount Jebel. as law. on them three hundred and sixty different kinds of to swallow greasy rags with a rope attached. and that this was quite sufficient was obliged to acknowledge that These additional tortures have been contrived by them. feet tight they cut pieces out of the back. they torture. in " That death being pronounced on these culprits. Of Gûchûchân villages. introduce reeds force in a They cut . because all riotous and heretical. . dragged out hands and feet down. died here. that they So they established it may be kept in order the I their easier. " What was the object of such manifold cruelties and nights. because the text of the Koran states no other punishment for thieves but cutting off" to the hand. my presence. such as Enwerl. the nose testicles. Pilgrimages and Visits in the town of Tabriz. . " That it was not lawful. nail their the four tie so that the poor mens' cries pierce the skies attach burning candles to the shoulders . Saints the village of are. the brother of Hamza." He . the cemetery of Sürkhâb are the tombs In of poets. the tortures were added. and hands and and toes him with sulphur and together. a writer deeply versed in On mount Sûrkhâb. In the cemeteries are many places of pilgrimage of great and holy men. of false witnesses. first fingers they squeeze the asses' urine." he said. tickle and blind the eyes God even more horrible tortures than those already described. cauterize again brings the stomach and bowels with sins . in in the village of Sabad- Essâma Ben Sherik. in order to terrify others by the example. and with pointed thorns. Felekî of Shîrâz.

Within the the eastern one Pasha. which abounds are is when beseiged by . which has no equal either in Arabia or in Persian Irak. one to the east and one to the west . a mosque and three convents. Mount Wehan. and we contented ourselves with these. in gardens . 143 long to describe the all monuments which exist at Efasidb's head would be too It Tabriz. this place (bitter water) because its water We brackish. It was from the troops in rebellion. reached after five hours from hence. called A'jisû is continued our road next country bears great resemblance to Damascus (Sham). saw I a is it called so because Mohammed Ghâzân with from ten to twelve thousand subjects it then built this monument. The waters of this plain are subterraneous. built by Koja Ferhâd Pâshâ. At the foot of it is the Kent-WeUan consisting of three hundred houses with a fine mosque. hundred houses and a mosque town of Kûmla. is . and is it it. said a Fatihah. buried. half way to Kumla^ two hundred houses with gardens belonging to the Khan's khass. Murad III. and read the inscription on the marble cofiin. flowing from village there are some thousand wells on the great roads. whence Sham originated. He made a afterwards built this gate.evliya efendi. it a tower was a monument head lifting its to the skies damaged on the little well worth seeing. founded of is a corruption of the We by the Vezir Rashîd-ud-dîn Dembolf. this place that Ja'afer sally at night. khan and bath. Moghol language. It is the Castle of Kûmla. Shah free a Mohammed Sham Ghazdn day to the burying-place of this is to village. the Vezir of Sultân in the year 998 (1589). it is . Ali are buried Serde the place in the quarter of shown where is Sheikh Nassr-allah. inhabitants of Persia. little built this castle. Description of the Expedition We left we undertook with the Khdn to Shdm Ghdzdn. it with More outside of the gate. a well ten yards summer. rebels. many thousand sheep who have deep affords refreshing water The name in Sham Ghâzân . it is a square castle at the foot of eighty paces in circumference. I side of the entered the Khan. has seven towers. and two gates. and after a march of five hours through flowery gardens came to Kent Ajisû. When gate by an earthquake . like that of Galata. from all and peopled He duties and gifts. that leading to Tabriz. eleven of which are Jamiis . Tabriz accompanied by one thousand horse. than two hundred Dervishes inhabit the convent sheep's heads are erected. The castle which bears his name on Mount Welian is now in ruins. and completely routed the castle are seven much celebrated. in which this Prince is called Shanb. the son of Ak-Shems-ud-din. the suburb forms the the grapes and pears of Kûmla There are seventy mosques. piles of being immolated here by the great confidence in this place .

Beg. is the Kent-Lakid. of Dervishes. forty khans. a khân. which in as Hülagü's time. eleven it and three thousand excellent Bogassin. Description of Merdgha. and the Aghâ of the Dizchoken the same as an is Aghâ Mihmandar Kûrûji. which we passed in hunting during three days. a Sultân a Khan (Serdâr) It is here the same as in Turkey a Sanjek Beg. chief of the forest guards. It is the seat of a Kelenter. were entertained here during a whole night by the Kelenter. The first Munshi convents forty inhabitants are all weavers. hours to the river of that is name. six the Armenians have three churches . the best is A of a Sultân subordinate to Tabriz. it was built in town of Azerbeijan and its the earliest time by Hûshenkancient capital. a mosque. Himâr. the seat Kelenter and Darogha keep public order. We and bath. are advanced from hence hours to the five Serawerd. and has a Judge. the it intercepted the . are everywhere renowned. district of Serawerd on the one thousand houses. there are two thousand houses. The shops. five on the mount of Serawerd stands a hundred houses. that . Darogha and shâh. suffered from the the time of Islam was Mervân Ibn army The of Sultân Mohammed Al- extended to Mount Sehend and comprised seventy thouit was destroyed by the Moghols some distance from Mount Sehend. it but since buildings are at eleven mosques. Ferhdd Pasha. a mosque to the district of district of Rudkât on the north of a hundred Kents. khân. and continued our journey next day. the khass of the inhabitants are Armenian weavers. a great Kent north-west of Tabriz. Three hours further and three thousand houses. eleven farsangs distant from Tabriz sixty mesjids. is same as Sûbashî or Lieutenant of police . district of The names of the janissaries in Turkey. and three convents ruined castle. beautiful youth of both sexes at town has risen Murad III. that of is here named is Itimâd-ud-devlet tails is called Sipehsalâr Kelenter is the same as Alai Darogha is the Mûnshî answers . with the Kent of Kânidlis. a khân. in from its whose time sand houses . and a Begler Beg is a Vezir of three . where we dined and halted a Kent-Jevlân Doruk in the We little. Chaushes or ushers here takes the name of Yessaiil Aghd.THE TRAVELS OF 144 (wherein Friday prayer said). hunting along the river Serawerd to the Kent- Dusht. and the head of the . of or travelling commissary. and fruitful is the . with a mosque. a . is called a Commander-in-chief to the Turkish Reis Efendî to say Colonel of the Militia. and common We both to Turkey and Persia. a bath and mosque. Sultân commanding a thousand troops. surrounded with gardens. MosUm three hundred houses and a mosque . Rokhshâh's Lady proceeded for of Kujabâd has now went eastward Tabriz behind mount Sorkhâb. Further on The Kent We and a bath. baths who manufacture Merâgha ruins since the havoc Its builder in .

and. who took seven thousand prisoners from him. This was completely routed by thousand heads and VOL. water. and Kizilorân faces a great part of . The next day Ja'afer set Kehrevân. within it are one hundred houses. built by arrived at the castle Shah Tahmâss. tants were transferred to Tabriz of two thousand paces it . : Serajûn. Jeriit. a volume. each . altogether five hundred and sixty kents. outside there are three thousand houses. the kent of Petiker of one situated in this district. was the The reason that the air of its 145 former situation was so heavy. of sixty great kents. who Khân Meimendî made Pâshâ against during seventeen days. They mostly speak Pehlevi secretly follow the orthodox rite of Hanefî. north wind. the inhabitants Its are white and gazelle-eyed. convents. however. of sweet words them furnishes viz. wherein the town of Ajan thousand houses is if we could undertake it Meragha and entered the district the description of which. On the east side of mount Ajan a large town was Keiumerth. but escaped the havoc of Sultân Murad. Behsând. We remained one night here and next day proceeded seven hours towards the south-east to the Kent of Mâhkür the daughter of Khodabende . Engûrân. district containing from eighty to one hundred cultivated kents. they are merry fellows (Ehl meshreb). three baths. out of fear of Sultân Suleiman. who its inhabi- also built a castle circumference on the edge of the mountain. was fell rebuilt built by Peshen the son of into decay. which was ransacked by Sultân Suleiman in his way to Baghdad. to the rânberûd. a large kent of two thousand houses. and shining is divided into eight districts. being ransacked by Hûlagû. issues from the mountain. seven mosques. and seven would alone in detail. Hestrud. Penajun. and Saîdabâd. having seen the town we continued our journey. but no garason. are Shâfiîtes. nine hours further we Mân. as soon as he arrived at Baghdad. by a Vezir of that name built district of We in the After Meh- passed those time of Sultan Tahmurass. and no rigourists (Ehl The Armenians have two mezheb). seven mosques. of Werd. but keep their doctrine secret. Description of Ajdn. seven khans. hunting. castles We of Tûrnachairî. the whole country the pomegranates and cotton are famous. he of Kehrevân built by sent the General Solak Ferhâd in vain till at Tabriz he five Ja'afer men for the siege of u besieged the castle continual inroads. At the time of the expedition of Kojâ Ferhâd Pâshâ. out with seventy thousand II. Kaodul. with an in iron gate opening to the east . Pâshâ of Tabriz. . sixty towns. this place. so that all by Ghâzân. evliya efendi.. which was taken on . and The water comes from mount Ajdn hundred shops. a khân and bath. six the inhabitants . five Isfej farsangs to the east of Tabriz. and abundantly houses and gardens. fill left situated is .

is which shines like silver in the town a very digestive water. and Khân. but gardens for vegetables it is the water of the The chmate much resembles lake near Tabriz on the east side on the west boats. close to a lake. The that of Erze- the corn multiplying eighty fold there are seventy sorts of fish Rumie. seven baths. so that two farsangs are equal The top of to twenty-four thousand paces. The suburb thousand well-terraced houses. is greater than the water of the lake of sweet as the water of life. when the vault . but this cubits. and furnishes inhabitants pretend to be Shâfiîtes distance between Tabriz and Erdebil horse rûm no may be gone over in two days. after Sultdn It is situated Murad on a it : hill Murad there . and is surrounded by high mountains it . the equal to twelve thousand ordinary paces. and villages are interspersed in the Dûmbûl . a man may go round bitter as poison. fertile valley Omar's power. the boats on the lake also trade to the circumference of this lake it in ten days . hard winter. Sultân its in thousand south. eleven khans. . is . to a large kent embellished by a mosque of Jîghâla's son and nine hours further on we arrived . Abubekr and Osman. twenty-five farsangs. one to the north . which enables the inhabitants to feast hke it . is Ma'adikarb. and eight hundred prayer is shops the sheets and blankets manufactured here are celebrated. the mosque named Ottomans. and a . which with a good vines. his ear was cut his property confiscated and himself hanged at the gate of the off. Wan. and sixty mosques. all is . Meimendf being brought into the presence of Ja'afer Pashd. Dûmdûraî and they are great hars. from which now same distance by an Armenian King so is is at the that Sâriet-ul-jebel to dislike mount built why Omar one of the principal reasons do not show so much was is first farsangs distant . who commands three thousand men Seilân. who much This town formerly ex- now two is Ues in a it . the seat of a a day's journey from mount . even is We advanced seven hours further eastward. town of Erdebil.THETRAVELSOF 146 the third day. and has two gates. is It same year in the tended as farsang is far as Seilân. fishing- between Erdebil and covered with wood. at the large residence of the Persian Shahs of the Safî dynasty. was sent it in fear of Nehavend to this hated by the Persians. remained eleven years on the road to Baghdad paces in circumference. the has been taken and It retaken several times by both Ottomans and Persians. fruitful soil. Seilan always covered with snow. keys of which were sent to Sultân castle. The middle of summer. is that of is is : there are and rosebeds. six is it now a hands of the in the . and one to the consists of seven eleven of which public performed on Friday. Its depth is Wan seventy This lake was produced on the birthnight of the prophet. commands one thousand men. covered with but a farsang's distance from Rumie many hundred . fruit-trees The and the lake the country forest .

Khân to the I was to pass Pasha made ready. so dear that they are sold in some of Dîvrîgui . marched nine hours further first five who enjoyed the Shahs who coined to the north. where I remained some days more. dreamt of concubinage with an Sheikh Safî his grandsire rights of sovereignty money. dried raisins. it rolled away. immense number of mice which fetch the price of a hundred piastres. but a six hours further to the north. the son of Sheikh Khoja Alî. day and night without ceasing marvellous stone reposes Some the stone Heaven never it The replaced. dried pears. and ceases not until the stone this . fall a large round mass of iron. three quintals the weight. . the son of Sheikh Safr-ud-din Erdebfl. the founder of the dynasty hundred dervishes. covered with strange inscriptions rush forth. and came to Kent Rarâm. I47 of Chosroes. well bred. and that of Ayd Söfiyah. therefore. a large foundation. and the presents sent to him consisted of ten camel loads of rice. ass. out which steals not ! Places of Pilgrimage at Erdehil. sense . . his son Hyder was his successor. of in a spiritual and Ibrahim the son of Hyder having possession of the Empire was foretold by indeed Sheikh Ibrahim was the . others believe that this miracle is is till to and from which as soon as the iron mass also has twelve holes. After eight hours. the river banks of the river Seilan lies Kuherân and others earth- the river Seilan which . the large number of shops and a weekly market Kent of Merzdde Amâd in the district of Dîdher. his Sheikh Safî governed only from Sheikh Safî to Shah Abbas are Erdebfl. we arrived at Tabriz again. the all is son of Sheikh Sadr-ud-dîn Mûssa. The were now written through on my for the return. a kent of six hundred houses with gardens eight hours further we came to the Kent Yâr Alî. affords water to Erdebîl. We left . a mosque. but they are short-lived like all cats of Erdebfl. three hundred houses. The cryers at the auction call " A good hunting cat. eight hundred houses. in extremely well polished. persons assert this to be the stone which Moses struck in the desert. ing from one khans and commanders of the places letter of the Letters entertainment to another. begins to two arms up is performed Erdebü a great talisman. and two race- . no khan or bath. Abu Ishâk His tomb-keepers are some of the Safis. a good companion. . an enemy to rats. The first of the tomb of Sheikh Safî. water returned to its place. cages by public auction in favour of Sheikh Safî famous for its be it as it may. and the idols of Mecca fell down by an quake and small springs flow into it forty-five large . pass. on which ancient philosophers have written a kind of Hebrew wanted inscription with a figure lifting its this stone is carried in procession into the town. pomegranates. on which basis is is is to rain fails a large rock. On into this sea. is are great destroyers of cloth." EVLIYAEFENDI. is rain if . it Cats are.

men . memoration of the murder of Hossein people are more by Sultân Miirad still Kent Keremish. Nakib. and after two hours travelling reached the castle of circumference is The castle a thousand Darogha. were given to Aghd. with Persian bridle and saddle. This river issues from the mountains of Nahkshivan and joins the Aras. which was formerly a great kent. a fine town of Azerbeijan. a khân and bath. three suite received of Alas. the Kelenter took leave. four trotting horses. and Tabrfz in grand procession with the khân. on the Nakhshivân frontier or Our way now thousand houses. five tomans Abbâssî more. built in a square the ditch gates one leads to the south. know their names Moharrem on the day are buried here.. five Further to northward writers more than twenty are of A'ashura. In God's name we from Tabriz to the north. a bath and royal market-place. the other to the west . the the north we reached Mezîdkhân on the is two mosques. and reached the Kent Haji set out Harâmî. six turbans. Seven hours more to the very spacious khân. suffered much from Khui. precious cloth rice. a terraces. contains a hun- . frontiers of Tabriz . a led northward through marshy grounds.THETRAVELSOF 148 horses of the breed Karajubuk. but has since been ruined by the it is Mogols and Some a delightful place on the territory of Tabriz. JOURNEY FROM TABRIZ TO ERVAN. seven hundred paces who commands is . Mûnshî. seven mosques. is it form on not very deep. accompanied by the Royal We music of trumpets and kettle drums. of three hundred houses surrounded with rose gardens Sham Ghazân. embraced me. grand dinner. Kürüj and Dfzchoken Aghâ. compomp. the plain. and six turbans. a Persian camels. . and we pitched our tents on the borders of Wishlechai. the seat of a Sultân. where a to the care of a Yessavûl with three hundred men. a Persian dress. month of all Shâfites. but I don't In the cupolas. a piece of velvet. Mufti. the feast in celebrated here vdth great hundred houses covered with the station of IV. Kelenter. and My the journey. and returned the road to Erivan. to Tabriz. next day and a string of pelisse. and two boys dressed in To me he gave perfumed with musk. whose tomb may a foundation of . who was to escort we took The Khdn recommended me me me for the expenses of twenty tomans of aspers. loaded with ten tomans Abbassi. the public authorities are a judge. is men and learned there . left Karajubuk. and we continued our way to Kent Safian. The next day be seen from hence. a trotting one a black horse of the race (Chapâr-âtî). Georgian slave. Of its two its We dust here. while halted at the place Ain Alî. a I took leave of all my friends.

the inhabitants are all Some Its districts historians call this Shah Ismail Tiih). three mosques. and a thousand shops with gardens. and 149 has been sacked more than once since. The hours further northward. ten is and favorable therefore to the culture from Mount Selmâs. way from Antiochia to Isfahan. within the castle there is hen Hassan Pâshâ. its ruined and was ruined by Uzun Though situated on a hill. . and arrived at the end of nine hours at the town died in the year 495 on his of Behestdn. but the old town was Its builder by Shdh Haider. of which that of Uzdemir Osman Pâshâ and Ferrûkh-zadeh Shah Ibn Timur are the best The young people . and eleven mosques. who commands two thousand shivan twelve public officers in honour of the twelve Imams. bath and small market. two baths. built was Ferhâd Pâshd. is It was first built Shah of Azerbeijan by Murâd IV. with eyes like the roes of Khoten. the foot of a high mountain. after having been overwhelmed with presents. a and pentagon. in this town of Khûî. seven khans. simply walled and therefore not very strong. we continued our journey with two hundred armed guards to the north. Owing delicious taste. Shâfiîtes. which have no equal in sweetness are innumerable. . the who paid a capita- their beards grow (Sakal inhabitants of which are for the most part Sunnites. and the women boys measured the circumference. seventy mosques. Tabriz but was ruined by Hûlagû . and by half a look make as many Mejnuns of them. After a stay of two days. who. above fruits are and I The Seff. with innumerable gardens. It it is was anciently a now town of the size of a small place of a thousand houses. The outer town It has a gate looking to the no remarkable building but the mosque of Rusconsists of seven thousand houses. there are three mosques. my and issues famous. and two hundred shops. are extremely pretty. parts are now chalked off [fenced off?] like a Palanka. like peacocks of Paradise. all their lovers lose their wits. reckon one hundred and eighty villages. a judge castle. we reached the castle of Joris on the seat of a khan. sweet- tongued with merry faces. the seat of a Kelenter. seven khans. a khân.evli YA efendi. and flows into the Araxes. which warm rather is all to the mildness of the climate. dred houses and a mosque. air white. On the fourth day we continued our journey. thousand paces. of The river rice. Three the frontier of Nak- troops. it This suburb or outer town consists of seven thousand houses with terraces. situated on a hill. but for the privilege of letting have been exempted since the time of Shah Pilgrimage He Tomb of Shems the to town Ashâristân. Irânistân or Türkistan. make if they walk dressed in red embroidered dresses. eleven of which are Jamis. continually entertained by music. Tahrizi. tion tax to The the Prophet-pears. We spent three days and nights here with Eyub Khan the Khan of the town. Hassan the yet the hill itself is at south-east .

crossed eastern bank of the Aras houses. meadow. who belong its . and some plantations of rice. we came after eight hours march to the pleasant meadow of TutoThe Daroghas lümî. who com- mands one thousand horsemen there is a mosque. five hundred houses the Halli river. and then joins the Araxes river may be crossed by sheep and goats. summer months in the this advanced to the north amidst on the frontier of Erivan with gardens. it .) which was the Kiaya of we made our entrance the Khân of Erivan who was sent to meet us (istikbâl) into Erivan with him.THE TRAVELS OF 150 We passed on towards the east where the river of Karajubûk issues from now the mountains of Joris. and a bath name from the inhabitants. and three hundred number of rice fields. Description of the In the year 810 (1407) Khoja settled here with all his family Town of Erivdn (Revdn). Erivan. a khan. a mosque and a bath. and lodged in a palace of the halted on a . a khân. We takes its passed through sandy ground reached Kent Ashdrli nine hours to the north. next day crossed a lively river. of a thousand houses. and belongs to the khass of Erivan. by Seifkülî the Khân of Erivan. and next day continued our necessary provisions. there are a hundred and eighty houses. on the banks of from the mountains of Sepend and joins the Aras. . is Ashârlî. and territory of Erivan. with a great with great dust. a bath. in the thousand houses. the seat of a Sultân. After ten hours we came to Sherab Khân with five hundred houses. it and came to Kent Kagâj situated on the has a mosque. which issues Passing on to the north through woods. a khân. a mosque. cut down seventy thousand trees which were used as bulwarks. reached after seven hours the town of Shüreglî. and I occupied myself in delivering those for the Khân of Khân. to the tribe we Travelling along the Aras through well cultivated fields and gardens. Five hours further to the north along the Aras is the Kent Tîlfirâk. . by Five years later Shah Ismail gave . and on the banks of the Aras. a was built mosque. a rich merchant of Timor's suite and servants. Murad IV. We of Erivan. a mosque. for four hours to Kents Kent Halh'. rice. with a product it it. cultivating plantations of which means a great Kent was soon formed. where there are some hundred shady trees. a khân and a bath. . a bath. and met a great procession (Alai. a mosque and a khân then to Kent Seif-ud-din on the frontier of Erivan. but since that time an immense sent a message from hence to the Khân number of trees have grown again. were saluted by twenty guns. rice . At the time of the sie^e of Erivan. a convent. and plantations of rice. journey along the Aras. Hassan Beg went on from hence with the letters and presents of the Khân of Tabriz to Erzerum. but no village. Khân Lejchân. and Kelenters of the neighbouring kents flocked together to furnish us with We passed one night here. We .

and the sword-bearer Mussa Pâshâ to the post janissaries sipâhîs. and assembled a council of war to and begun By Zenghi from south to north. killed a great number of Persians. immense booty. : zadeh Mustafa Pâshâ. fixed his deliberate on the camp siege. destroyed the palaces of the son of the Shah. in the year 1037 (1627). In the year 101 1 (1602). completed his Imperial camp of Scutari according to the canons of the Empire. with the greatest splendour and pomp. Karss. Cheldir. after the eastern bank of the Zenghi river. and of brick and stone. that his Lord The Nishanji was made Silihdâr. Emîrgûneh. his general. to his residence with Ferhâd Pâshâ. in forty it by digging a ditch on the bank of the the exertion Han'm. of Quarter-master General. to Revân Kul. In the following year 1044 (1634) Sultân Murad IV. days. the Persians having usurped the possession of the castles of the Genge and Shirvân. and at the same time the Imperial tails fixed at Scutari as the signal of Asiatic war. pillaged Kenje. Kaima Khâm at Constantinople. In the reign Shamdkhî and Nakhshivan. marching over Konia and Kaissarie to Sivas at which place he appointed his sword-bearer Mustafa to the office of Second Vezir. Chokadâr (First to him. and the neighbour- nople. Revân. the Silihdâr Pâshâ . was named the Commander first of all the siege was finished who had been Jigâlazadeh Yüssûf Pâshâ. and moved on the 5th of Shewal from Scutari.EVLIYAEFENDI. In the same way the castle of Erdehân and Akhichka were garrisoned. Akhichka and Erdehân. him. months after a siege of seven . bred in the Turkish of Erivan with a garrison of seventy Ferhâd Pâshâ took care of the repair of the castle of Shûregl and Karss. and returned pillaged Erivan. having undertaken the expedition against Nakhshivan. before the castle. the governor of Rumelf. and Ferhâd Pâshâ returned to Constantithousand men. ambassadors were sent from the Khân of Persia. forced the garrison of Erivan. When he entered Erzerûm report was made army then amounted to two hundred thousand men Jâtplâdin waiting). an order was named 151 to build a castle here. heaped presents upon his forty thousand and twenty-two thousand Bairâm Pâshâ. Revân or Erivan. and filled them with Moslira troops. ing villages grew thereby populous. with seventeen hundred excellent horses Khalil Pâshâ the Governor of . to the joy of his enemies. which had received no succour from Erzerûm. one of finished in seven years. Erzerûm fell into disgrace. left . having infested the districts of Kâghzemân. and complaints having arrived from the Begs of Georgia and from the Governor of Erzerûm. to surrender to Tokmak Khân. the town of Erivan was even in a more flourishing state than in Suleiman's time. and Melek Ahmed. Under the government of Jigâlazadeh Yûssiif Pâshâ. his Khans. is which being It is situated on In the year 995 (1586) Suleiman Khân. the Khân of Erivan. alone mustered thirty-one thousand men. of Murad III.

battered the castle and the Kapûdân Pâshâ. were placed as sentinels on the side of the Mussa and Cana'an Pâshâ with the Moteferrika kept guard over the Imperial tent. and each received an The Islamitic prayer was proclaimed. on the right Gûnjî Pâshâ with the Asiatic troops entered the trenches. and to return with the garrison to Nakhshivân. by birth kissed the Emperor's feet. Sultân Murad appointed the . crossing the river on foot by the side of the Sultan's horse. of Erzerum. Murteza Pâshâ. and the 21st day after having fixed its camp left Erzerum.. but the revenues. The castle was repaired in and Mustafa Pâshâ appointed Governor of Erivan. the Sultân having rode after him. until the death of the Sultân. and every day many thousand Sunnis came to claim mercy. Emirguneh. Kchök Ahmed. THETRAVELSOF 152 and Murteza Pâshâ of Damascus. Delî Hossein. and similar batteries were of prepared on five sides. On the The next ninth day they asked to capitulate. was allowed to kiss the Emearth castle. Emirguneh remained the favourite of Sultân Murad IV. Mir Fettâh. the The before Revân. caught hold of him by the necklace and dragged him out of the river . anecdote this is much crossed. this occasion happened that it one of the Solaks (bowmen) of the the Sultan's guard. from thence by Karss to Erivan. battered the castle day and night with a battery of twenty guns. and in the midst them the grand Vezir Taban Yass Mohammed Pâshâ took his station the Aghâ of the janissaries Kara Mustafa Pâshâ. with the Sipâhîs. the trenches were opened. from the north The governor side. while peror's feet. with forty thousand Khân Emirguneh first governor of Haleb. with which they On endeavoured to annoy the Ottoman army. and fired a good shot at the Khan's palace from the gun called Karabali. and Emirguneh brought the keys. but afterwards removed him and gave the government to Kuchuk Ahmed Pâshâ. observed it was carried away by the water. a Georgian. as garrison. and at night a number of candles and lamps were forty days. and Aded Khan Imperial tent as a present. and Janpülâd-zadeh river being Pâshâ entered them with the Rumelian troops from the side of the gate of Tabriz Mahomed The celebrated in Persia. after each shout (Allah) was repeated three times. river long guns of the Persians. the government of Erzerum was conferred on the Governor . from the hill of Mohana-depeh. . with his Kiaya. were given to The army marched SiHhdar Mustafa Pdshâ. One day Sultân Murad himself entered the trenches of the Rumelian troops. all and standards waving during seven days and nights on the walls prayer the great . men Mohammedan the banners lighted. when he was killed by Kara Mustafa Pâshâ. army of two hundred thousand Zenghi was crossed On men in spite of the in three days to Hassan Kala'assi. Kuchuk Ahmed. as barley-money. The castle was surrounded by troops in the space of five hours. day the Persian Aghâ of the Fusileers.

but however is many . Khûî. by Sultan Murad bounded from it of these balls are even now seen Ferhâd Pâshâ are forty royal cubits high it has no ditch cubits high and twenty broad . because Azerbeijan. Dîzchoken Aghâ. after Pasli^. hearing this sad account. has a wall on the south. which remained from the time of the Ottomans. Behestân. to the west. the north. who the in could not however resist an assault of the days. of seven months. three thou- men of the Khân. because for seven situated Imam Na'amân out of the hands of the Infidels. half naked and starved. It fifty it . and seven thousand men of the province. The towns 153 of Shucglî. the best embellished by Emîrgûneh. side of the Zenghf. those built by increased only surrounded by a simple wall. Merend. A judge. it is it little breadth. which not deep. the gate of Tabriz Ottoman walls built by Tokmak Khân. Erivan for the space laid siege to on account of the enmity existing Taban Yass and Murteza having no subsistence latter which havoc he returned by The Shdh then and Diarbekr to Constantinople. Erivan meanwhile its of the great It has three iron gates to the . which received no between the Grand Vezir The Erivan. Darogha. at the bath. girt himself on two sides with the sword of religious zeal and high enterprise. the gate of the Meidan called Yaila Kapussi. north and east sides. extending from having so on the hands of the Persians. The town consists of one thousand and sixty elegant bouses covered with earth. Nakib. Kuherân. Ajan. of to Karss and Bayazid. on this spot they play Mail . num- themselves on the mercy of the Persians and were killed by them. Ishek Aghâ. a great ber being driven into the Aras. and a suburb with (1635). It is garrisoned by three thousand men it is the frontier of of the fortress. the old town mosque and VOL. shut up in by swallowing his and the next day the whole garrison. Knujî. with the tomb intention to conquer Baghdad. Ordûbfiî and Tabriz were pil- laged during seven days and nights. together with the castles of Bâgjenân. it is the palace of the Khân much the mint where large and small silver coins The suburb head of the biidge In the year 1015 is is is called the Khan's garden. Yessaûl-aghâ. Near (Abbâssî and Besti) are coined.evliya efendi. and to deliver the Ben Thâbet state flourishinir army remained . south. X outside of Yaila Kapûssî when the Persians conquered this . keep public order. there are seven hundred cannons large and small. II. Joris. that the balls fired on one extremity of the town to the other The fixed in the towers. and Selmâs. Kûmla. fled whom a few being saved by charitable Sunnis Murad Sultân IV. and an immense number of other stores. . Sometimes its Khân enjoyed the title of Khân of Khans. who was killed himself left. diamond relief Betlis. Kelenter. to is the south to the north. the gate of the bridge . threw ring. on the bank of the Zenghi. sand Mûnshî. . being a marshy ground. seven Mihmandârs and Shâhbenders.

Twelve thousand Moslims. thousand men. but the Shah it remained destroyed its in the possession of the Persians. a khdn. and continued our journey with about on our right was the Khânlik of Loristân. who commands three public oflBcers (the honour of the twelve Imams. the khass of the Khân of Genje. is is a mountainous tract. from Erivan to Shirvan. the plain round Genje are seven districts of Infidel villages. At the time when Mohammed Pasha the Kiaya of Sari Ahmed Pasha was governor of Genje. formerly a town. who had surrendered the castle by capitulation to the Shah. along the river Zenghi to travelled to the north Kent Khoja. who conquered is . a khân. Description of the important town of Genje. and the foot of the cultivated in gardens and vineyards . with a mosque. it is now an elegant town of six thousand houses with gardens and vineyards. through cultivated Termîs. fine . here are rich and beautiful youth of both sexes famous than the silk. a Khân of the We by Murâd IV. situated in a large plain. It was destroyed of Erivdn. the khass mosque and a bath. Kür . but now a kent of seven hundred houses. castle. fields Ara was looking I Khân His Kiaya gave of the circumcision of his sons. worshippers the horse-shoes of Genje are not less governed by a Khân. they also built a castle on the east side. was wrested from the hands of Shah Tahmâs. Tiflis. were unmercifully killed. the silk of Genje is famous. which even more solid than stone. We remained three days as guests the town. then fourteen hours further to Kent Demiji Hassan. with five hundred houses. On silk and fire) rice are cultivated . arrived at Gilkzâr fifty companions After seven hours march Ahmedf. a bath. and a bath . first of rice. Ottoman governor was Khâdim Hassan. which joins the the Kiblah side of the town mountains of Its The town (ancient Persians. and killed It the whole garrison. and are now buried outside the town in a place called Shohedai in the khân of to the north we . Berda'a. Pilgrimages {or Tombs) of Martyrs. where cotton. and by Shamakhi. The in gardens are watered by the Kürek.THE TRAVELS OF 154 fortress. by Koja Ferhâd Pasha. in the year 1014 (1605). and is even now inhabited by a Turcoman tribe. to at all the cuat the assist cere- ten tomans of Abbâssî. Since that time a large town. riosities mony received an invitation from the I expenses of the journey. Moghs Its first Khân included) are twelve in number. with walls of clay and straw. which was anciently a town of the Turcomans. arrived at last at Genje. the Shah besieged it for seven months. is of Erivan. Ervam (martyrs of Rum). for the At the time I began me my journey We and Baku. and imaret.

which three gates led through this wall of clay. sixteen baths. to succour the town. and of Kara Sinan. of its situa- mountain. The youth are gazelle-eyed. with a mosque. Murad From Ferhdd Pasha. Persians. though Dâghistân. and after eight hours The town . manufactured here. by Kara Mustafa Pasha. the weight of the fugitives The Turkish lies in ruins. is we reached the the opposite shore of the Megûchûr. the The name and the districts of Aras governor of Aras. the frontier town of Aras. of Dâghistân. royal mount. like that of It consists of ten Merend fell into the hands of the many mosques. the bridge having broken down under Turcomans. the most populous is that of Levend Khân Achikbâsh. hundred houses. Dolaks. silk is Nine hours further. where a castle of which I do not remember. On crossing the bridge of Uzdemir-oghli arrives at the district of Palvanai. who had been brought up tion at the foot of a in the Harm Murad. Dadiâns. it all his arrived taken he fought troops consisting of They were routed for the second time by the Kiaya of Uzdemir-oghli on the banks of the Kur river which swallowed up a great number of them. the circum- nine thousand six hundred paces. opposite the town. the traveller of Shair Abadan. pronounce the reign of Sultân Mustafa. because their women are Georgians. was It finished in forty days. and enclosed the town with a was outside of the town ference of which is . On in boats to of Aras was built by Keyiimertli. including the garden Shah Khiaban. eight hundred shops. is seen on a rock. great (1577). near Aras. and forty mosques III. in the castle are those of The Turkomans and Komiiks In the beginning of the of this town Arash. and conquered in the year 985 with forty thousand a Megûchûr of seven the Kent of fine garden. Koks. wall. with faces shining like the sun. and seven coffee-houses. surrounded with gardens of fruits and flowers. conferred on Kaitass- Beg. Sheki. The Khdn it Pâshâ. the Vezir of battle. with the rank of a Begler Beg. Around it are seven great districts each of which reckons one hundred populous kents. and Shûshâd. in heaps. and the bridge still general having convinced himself of the importance of the town of Aras.evliya efendi. and a Kiir is a great kent called Kendere of Genje. and Georgians were dispersed. Forty quarters may now be reckoned. and the governorship. .. vineyards and rosebeds. which is now governed by the the also that of was sometimes ruled by the power of the Princes of of Aras leads twenty-three thousand men into the field. we passed 155 men Murad Emir Khân III. the town resembles that of Brussa. situated between Genje and Shirvdn. collected masons and work- men. Amidst the district Osman is is summer abode of the Turcomans. bones are yet seen their . of Sultân thousand houses with terraces. this name town . and as The air is mild and the water of the royal mountain (Shâhkûh) most excellent. and finding which terminated in his being made and prisoner.

that it was on this spot Murad III. its circuit three thousand paces. flowing into the Zenghi. and flows into the Kur. by the Persians the Mahmudabâd consisting of which produce a thousand Yuks of The inhabitants are Fâtihah for their souls. of Mirza Alî Beg. the governor of surrounded him. our companion Yasser Alî Aghâ told us. the Vezir of Murad III. Turkomans. where a great many of them were drowned. the governor of Haleb. the son of Levend Khan. of human bones . Nakhshivân. is was a market Ahmed Beg In the gardens great quantities of decay. by Alexander a Prince of the Shushads. from whose hands it passed Lala into those of the Pi ince of Dâghistîin. the general of Lor. in the castle that of Lagûsh-oghlî Murad III. more so as in the . In the beginning of the reign of returned into the possession of the Persians. THETRAVELSOF ]56 Twelve public this officers keep order After a stay of three days in the town. (Aksu). and on the third by Mustafa. silk At a journey's distance east of this castle passes the river Kanuk. . who with more than two hundred thousand men that Mustafa Pâshâ. and then into those of the Persians. Advancing to the north. and Sultan Mustafa it seat of a Sultân. who commands one thousand men. and it was Kara Mustafa Pâshîi. on the second by Mohammed. rock. river we passed of Gilân. and Ettels. Description of the Castle of Sheki. Moghols. is falling into the on a two gates are builder its there are three thousand houses. piled up who cut to pieces as an everlasting crossed the sheep's ferry. and seven mihrabs mosque that of is now though situated on the frontier of Dâghis- Georgia.. and drove the rest like sheep to the ferry of Koyun-gechid. a ditch that of Genje and that of Shirvan tân it Georgian is the . and Further on to the north mountains of Aras. was attacked by the Khans of Tabrîz. which is called monument . In short there remained altogether more than forty thousand men on the field of battle. where we saw piles are produced. which was instantly made on one side by Uzdemir-oghli. each kent resembling a large town. in town. It the white river comes from the At the end of three hours we entered two hundred highly cultivated kents. the district of said a I silk. we crossed the river of Uzdemir-oghli Osman Pâshâ and arrived at the place Koyun-gechid.. was It built on Erkelâd Beg. Dulâk. Kok. whose bones are Mera'ash. some in the river Kanuk and some in the Kapur. and Karabâgh. Koja Lala Mustafa Pâshâ ordered a general attack. and after two stations reached the castle of Sheki. It is a nice castle built not required its . conferred conquered it. we advanced to the north. more than a thousand men. the reckoned to belong to is .

of which I could only collect a few words. Persia. are about twenty thousand men on sometimes come to the towns of Aras and Sheki . saluting on both sides with great dignity. fixed his winter quarters here. to The Kaitaks gets with child.VLI Y A EFEND E I. on the frontier of Shirvân magnificence are yet extant. whom It is a certain fact that they drink out of the they are most obedient. when he In the reign of It is a thousand men. the Ettels are keep neither prayer-hours nor Seven or eight of them share a God. tinguishers it if she . with heads in the form of kettles. : their turbans of the size of a cupola. without any being allowed to raise pretensions to her. lies in ruins . za's sect. and red faces. which which tains. They pretend to be Shafites if they come to the market of Aras and Sheki. who united with the Kaitîiks of Dâghistân. . large .. 257 Account of the Tribe of Ettels. because horses and asses could not carry their weight as they pass with round eyes. her seven or eight keepers after some time assemble. easily stand heels. brows two fingers man may broad. irrehgious robbers. with forty quarters the seat of a Sultân There are twelve magistrates Kelenter. and henceforth child gives (Mum gives an apple reckoned to be the The famous man sect of the candle-ex- söndüren). with six hundred houses of Turcomans and Oghuzians. a strange race of men who like the beast of the day of judgement. great ruins of built . impure. a pity that its its more than strong castle six III. entered with the hairy Kurds. into the child's hand. they seem to be of the race of Dejdl (the Antichrist) true Oghuzians. Komuks and it and levelled the now the frontier between Dâghistdn and many mosques. shoulders so square that a upon them. the frontiers of Daghistân. as remained but two days among them. tongue of dogs their war-cry. Ettel signifies in the Mogolic language. a khân. in the Melek Ahmed Pasha. I is Near Mardin. ancient Ferhâd Pasha left it in the spring. woman amongst them father. or ride on bufFaIces. I saw these people Mahmüdabâd. there are is Murad castle. and as who commands according to the statement of the thousand houses surrounded by gardens. bath and market-place. the a tribe like that of who pretend else. impious. must be a branch of them. and therefore speak the Mogolic language. woman is Hani- and of exclusively to him. are Mogholian Turks. Further on by Yezdejerd-shah. and the man to whom the the woman belongs to be of are ignorant of moral duties fasts. . the town Niâzabâd is was ruined by the Moghols. if God should again grant It that . thin limbs. name from sanjak of the moun- they take this a kind of howhng. and after in the district I of having travelled further to the north. come originally These Kaitaks from the province of Mahân. they come on waggons. reached the kent Chailân on the frontier of Shirvân on the banks of the river of Guilan. because I saw or heard nothing of them any where shoes of their Shahs.

Yessûî are liked in Persia the convent at this more than a hundred Dervishes. tracts are ruled by fall is and Dadicân of frontier. and to the south the Abaza tribes are settled to the extent of eighty journies. Zana. Mount Caucasus. : . twelve of the highest par excellence. a khân. Kûr all tribes. on the south. which its at this place. Mount Caucasus Ajîkbâsh. The mihmandar a mosque. Mount Sijan. the mountains in Germany at the source of the Danube the mount Sannir. the tracts of high that it is Mount Caucasus is Accord- two hun- seen at ten days distance.THETRAVELSOF 158 t be Ottoman power. But we shall now return to the description of our journey. paid five of this place advanced to the north amongst shady groves. Kûrdîl. No man has ever reached half the height of Mount Caucasus passing on our way through the districts of Dâghistân we saw its top wrapped in clouds. within Inside of inhabited by the tribes Kabartai. which coming from Ddghistân joins the Praise of The rivers which come from Mount Caucasus. On Again there to the extent of forty journies. world. the same as blue river (Goksii). forty journies. into the Black Sea. as the place is inhabited by disciples of our great ancestor the rites of Turk of Turks. a bath and a small market. is Shûshâd. Takakû. . eighty-one journies. dined at a hunting place of Shah Khoda-bende. all Pilgrimage of Ashdr-Baba. restored to the This town very strong castle. and on the monarchs. a general pilgrimage. It is We the inhabitants profess to be of the sect of Hanefî. Mount Demavend. hundred houses. might be it easily surrounded by an endless plain on is become a repaired. Khatûkaî. Mount Kamar. God has created on the surface of the earth one hundred and forty-eight mountains. the Mingrelians. and those towards the north. Mount Caucasus. Ashar-Baba was one of the Khoja Ahmed Yessûî. Bozadük. and four sides. and on the bank of the white river (Aksii) with me many We attentions. Mount Caucasus five different the Caspian into straight there are rivers on the south side. on the Persian the greatest mountain in the Georgians. where the Zeiro and the Dniester take their origin. dred and the east side on the border and the throne of the Alans (Serer-ul-allân) on the border twenty journies long to the north. Mount Bingöl. Shefâke and other Circassian ing to this reckoning the extent of It is so Dâghistân. the province of Tiflis Mount Caucasus. Kûr. Mount Caucasus is also Circassia Pultakaf. nineteen journies long . here took some compa- nions and advanced to the north to the kent Ferrakhzâd on the frontier of Shamakhi. Besti. are. and arrived at Nilchai. of the mountain are Again Sea. flow into the north side into the Kûbân. Memsûkh.

because sigh of forty Sultans . It has ever since remained in the power of the Persians. and sent the garrison prisoners to Constantinople. sians for by both powers. conquered in forty days to Kafa. We wear beards. " How it is possible that with such power your Emperor of the Ottomans should not be at the same time the monarch of Iran ?" Suleiman Pâshâ at Constantinople. after governor government. khan and bath. It remained in the it hands of the Ottomans till the time of Sultân Murad IV. being afraid of his brother. The kent of Kokchaî (the blue river) a great place with a Kelenter and Mih- is mandar. took flight with at Constantinople. He ravaged Persia as far as Isfahan in order to quench his thirst for vengeance. Shamâkhî was Pâshâ was named castle Lala Lala of Mahmûdabâd. a mosque. and taken Shirvân. and days from his Elkâss of died. and then repaired by Uzdemîr-oghlî Pâshâ. and is now . Khân of his prede- Nakhshivâ. seven hundred houses with gardens. cessor in this Genje. Mustafa Pâshâ was named governor of Shirvân. Description of the was by Yezdejerd Shah the Persian Monarch it is the centre of seven Khânhks. embarked himself and paid his In the year 954 (1547). The Perreconquered it and lost it again to Ferhâd Pâshâ. hundred kents towns Pâshâ was named governor of Shirvân : it in their it. two Vezirs Emperor's name. he said. Elkâss Mirza undertook with Lala Mustafa an expedition to Persia. tribute to through Shah Ismail 159 The inhabitants are Sunnis. inhabitants were a colony from and forty judges are attached like large of Sultân Suleiman took possession of brother. the Mirza son .evliya efendi. some spell it Sham Akhi (the brother of Damascus). and Elkâss Mirza. Damascus). till in the reign of Murad was conquered. to Ulama Pâshâ and Shah Tahmâs then besieged the town and gave the government to his younger during three months. Erivan. but then. The White River passes through the place and flows into the Kür. and some It first built Sham Ahf (the Damascus thirteen . on the Shamâkhî. for seven hours. fields to territory of Town of Shamâkhî. of one thousand houses. waters the fields of Shamâkhî and falls into the Kiir. seventy castles and Pr Pâshâ. Elkâss Mirza. came through the steppes homage to Sultân Suleiman his valuable things. and then took up his abode in the palace of Pertev Having witnessed the pomp of Sultân Suleiman's solemn entrance. for permission to who pay continued our journey the north. carried Elkâss along with him on the expedition to Wan and Azerbeijân. its first all . it comes from the mountains of Shirvân. and Ulama it. ravaged of a siege the provinces Shâh Tahmas having of seven Shamâkhî. and reached the kent Aksu. who remained three years at his post. Shamâkhî was then contested III. when the Persians took Derbend and Shamâkhî by usurpation.

but a Sunnf in .. Sunnis of the Hanefirites. the public baths. who liked society stuifs. and round is it mosque of Ferhâd Pâshâ are closed. Saff. in is on the bank of the hill river. in each of which public security danger. the coffee-houses are meeting-places for wits and learned . The convent Mirza by some. but the proper his mode body is is we called Pîr of spelling the seated in one of the corners of the convent in an incurvated position. there are private ones its Besides waiters are fine youths. is when he goes away on business There shops. and Pîr Mirka by word is Merizât. where of this place others. The in great perfection. because hours to the north Pi'r Merîzât. the adjacent villages are for the most part Dervishes of the order of Begtâsh. because it Uzdemîr Osman Pâshâ is a college. his face turned towards the Kiblah. In the court-yard cells for students the quar- . Marching thousand men. without corruption at all. cotton. liberal presented us with ten tomans of Abâssî. the interior consists of about seven thousand well built houses. the suburb is Khans of of the mosque of Shah the great rivals the vault of the palace of Chosroes. where the the mosque of the gates of the . in cleaning . Mufti holds lectures: there is a dining establishment of Sultân Khodabende's founda- seven pleasant baths. Meidan and Shabûrân being there are seventy mosques. stone walls. The that every man leaves his shop open. THETRAVELSOF -[QQ the seat of a Khan. There are forty cara- every garden. which signifies incurvated. a fine walking-place the view from which embraces all the buildings of inhabitants of three hundred Shamâkhî. which a basin. is there are altogether twelve hundred . belonging to the Convent of this Saint. the oldest Shah Tahmass. seven days a guest of the Kkân of Shamâkhî. his head recumbent on a rock. and good company. ters called an is number infinite of gardens.. each house provided with water there . pears. and terraces. who number of Shamâkhî with one to the pilgrimage of Pîrderkûh of the mountain) a great saint. (the old man Khân I many we came man. the entertainment of the men seven sorts of grapes. rice. forty schools for boys. He greatest part of the inhabitants Tak Khân. he set out from to the north are remained during a generous. and reached the station of were treated as guests by the Kelenter. mild and the land water-melons are fertile . is and twenty-six quarters the inner castle are the most elegant in who was one that of Div Alî. without the least vanserais. and perform their prayers secretly. in that of Shabûr. but nevertheless a great no Bezestan is valuable articles the air so great. His body The Dervishes who is light are busy all and white day long like cotton. and a horse (Karajubuk). but the exterior is The town decay. with numerous private rooms and a basin. pieces of silk Being himself invited to of Erivan. of stone. has no endowment . the best of which tion. one Tlie castle on a is very strong. We advanced from hence six through a cultivated country. is many thousand tomans of wares are deposited.

to the caravanserai to the . perfumed by the scent of ambergris. which uproar. Kodeks. us. sounding trumpets of Efrasiab. a Regal. I visited it. Genje. and many Sultans. There who came here Uzdemir-oghh' Pasha he had great lies Musek- the place Regal. and Cossacks. the inhabitants are for the most parts Turcomans. tunes in a style beyond and advancing VOL. Tarkhû. and find it empty morning in the without the least dust upon The it. is is beneath a cupola in . a great Khan. II. to meet all description. near Shamakhi. 161 and sweeping the convent. Lor. and playing Persian all in state dresses. it belonged a dependence of Baku. but this has a mosque. which Mussa equal perhaps only in the town of Meshlied its fills is feet of brains of those this Saint spent treasures in building this has his dress . good pre- hunting. all at river Regal. which as we approached proved to be the troops of seven great Persian Khdns. to the station of six trees. at the Riza. He Y . all who visit it thus always washed white who visit this place are who came from Erdebü to visit Sheikh Safî convent of Dervishes Begttishi. through gardens. \vho servation. like culprits appearing before a great monarch as their judge. wishes. Moghân. entrance Its with a sacred awe. of Kuzh. Klan. I am unable to quote the date of his death. a bath with gardens. read the Sura Yass in honour of the Saint. ker.evliya efendi. many exist in and afterwards con- once we saw a great troop coming from the Black Sea. that when he proclaimed prayers at the all moved in Sheikh Ibrahim touched his back bone. with a variety of dresses and arms. degree of sanctity. came five hours. We halted . faith in the Saint. the foundation of Shah Ismail . on the frontier of Derbend and then to the pilgrimage of Khizrzende. Whoever of his incurvated position and good preservation. seven verses of a Fatihah may be the cause is says at his tomb the sure to have for seven days the object of his Passing about a mile to the north of the convent. Erivan. viz. further on. Baku. Enderî. a small Kent. and three thousand houses with terraces formerly to Derbend and is now . Moghols. a great caravanserai with a ruined Kent. with more than ten thousand men of Turcomans. put every night a basin of clear water the Saint. which was covered with a cupola by Khodabende Shah in seven hours more. Koük. though on the border of the tinued our journey through the fields. the skies we Kent of Kharjdeh. and made spiritual acquaintance with him. another place of pilgrimage. as there is no chronostick on the gate but one of the Dervishes told me that he was the Muezzin of Sheikh Ibrahim Shirvanf. built this cupola because further northward in the district of Still on the frontier of ShaHiran. beating drums and kettle drums. the Khân of The Khân of Erivan leaving the troops Shamakhi acquainted me with it. and Thâlibserân these parts. they are not duellists. a khan. Valâcs. Kaitâks and natives of the towns of Dâghistân. Kalmûks. who had arrived at such a .

ignorant of. is Baku is I built went on a to hill and is of a square form of iron from Nakhshivan. and ten tomans of Bisiti my which. the height of the wall royal cubits me is no necessity is forty Within for a ditch. The the water climate all smells . being situated on a rock. ruled Russian Cossacks have several times pillaged vince of Guîlân and west- it Osman at the instigation of the Persians soon after its Pâshâ. Seven minarehs of as many am Mirza Khân. complimenting wedding the . from the walls and towers of Baku that fired it seemed So many like a salutes salamander in We met with Envoys who had arrived from the Russian towns of Astrakan. OF and then the KhiCns of Kîlân and Baku. and their bones are yet piled up on the shore. the festival all Khans and Sultans the . but without no khan. we After a grand repast Mohammed delivered the letter of Defterdâr-zâdeh Pasha the governor of Erzerum. The the town of Baku. . mosques and khans. is has seventy towers. they besieged conquest by Uzdemîr-oghlî were is all It is the by twelve magistrates. and we continued im- proving our acquaintance were S we till arrived at the town of Baku. This place being a frontier garrisoned with excellent troops called Shahseven and Dizchoken (who love the Shah and bend their knees before him. surrounded with walls on three sides Derbend the gate of Guîlân to the north . . ward towards the sea-shore is the harbour-gate. ten tomans of Abbâssî. the gate looking to seven hundred paces.1 TH E TRAV EL G2 me saluted first. there the castle are seventy houses with terraces. he then presented with a Persian dress. the circumference .) seat of a Khân in . Irak stuffs. during presence of him on the as a guest in his sister's palace. mild and favourable to the cultivation of rice and cotton . Description of the fortress of Baku. In the castle after . to the south . Heshdek and Terek. with The castle of the west it companions. the of Nimrod's fire pile. our gracious Lord. and six hundred battlements. when Kobâd Pâshâ was governor. . but cut down. mosques are names of which to be seen. the the most brilliant of which fortress opposed to Russia is is the gate of that of I there are three gates. the Khcins of Tabriz and Nakhshivan. and three baths. view the town. but on the shore of the is Caspian Sea the suburb (Robat) consists of a thousand houses with gardens. with the presents consisting I also delivered the letters of of beads of pearls. bath or market. and a fine sword. a a minareh. in the entertained me feast of his which he praised the presents he had received nights. mosque of Hyder Shdh. and the pro- the province of Shirvân. Khân and lasted ten days through me. to compliment the Khdn with thus we entered the Castle of Baku on Friday the first presents on his feast Moharrem of the year 1057 (1647).

therefore.evli YA efendi. if it catches . and salt. struction of the mines. who was married to the Khan of Baku. wluch. Georgia. which Near the town victuals. rich cloth. all . the the town. fill valuable presents. four days journey. red and black. of Naphtha which is found Rfneb do not use oil seven mines near the town. are many places. broad but not deep. of different colours. let for seven thousand tomans of aspers per year. in The yellow. from the Khân and others. which a portion of earth if cooking their in is is dug up much is fire Round sell their is to the north pirates. The people burn black Naphtha. If I were to describe some days at minutely all During a fortnight's stay I that took place at this festival received many would more than it a large book. Baku through passed to the south over a dreary tract along the sea. the black Naphtha fire it and at their burns to the should be ignited by a spark. Sedan. accompanied us when we Description of our journey from We expenses of the journey. and or grease. it and is great last all There are . and if one of them the people flock together and throw earth upon also mines of Naphtha in other places. viz. sometimes navigated by Cossack and Russian ravage the Persian provinces. where we saw mines Naphtha in seven places . and Guîlân. naphtha. It The men the merchants sell it to . . ambergris. The wan- the town of Shabürân. out of friendship. the district of Musekker in hot springs. on the surface of which it left . for the servants. inhabitants of the districts of Musekker. heaps of earth are piled to it and to be thrown on used by the Mihmandars for torches It is also Court of the Shah Baku jacks of goatskin with the most esteemed to the fortresses. Royal revenue carried as a houses are drop in from the surface of the to light the walls on dark nights. in silk. three Georgian slaves. the de- up near them. two camels. who bring exchange for which they take are sound they are for the most part Sunm's. town and Derbend distance between this 163 I remained Baku to witness the festival at the wedding of the sister of the Khan of Erivan. all made the torches at of Naphtha of to prevent. is belonging to the inspector of the Naphtha collect springs and small lakes. It is the town bursts forth. and some of them fine figures Three journies dering Turcomans. of We took leave of our friends. the yellow is fill the besiegers. who prisoners privately in the markets of a great river like the Danube. ten tomans of Abbâssî my and as much to be distributed amongst and the Khân himself. but and stout. quench the fire. &c. safian. boils it up from the earth on the seashore. and Tartars. seven horses. a Persian sable pelisse. a Royal lease. and it collects. peopled by is Baku east of . frequented different wares. and used . and is Shamâkhi is five journies to the east the port of Shamâkhî by Chinese. where used by the Caravans flows the Kür. Kalmüks and Russians.

and its to meet the vessels of the Franks in the all White Sea. Musker. three Archipelago and met with. I We did not see. ears fifty teeth. and arrived great town of Shabiiian. the other of the size of a cupola. but they are afraid of Russian Chaiks. and it .. fertile tract Whale with tail ears like an Elephant. Uzdemîr-oghli Osmdn first at the built by Pâshâ. which are necessary . told . that this kind of whale was the shore . one at the sea who belonging to Turcomans. a it. and covered with of Baku. and eyes of like beaver's Shamdkhî flocked together voyager in the Caspian Sea. Der- comprehended by a gulf of war or great Caravellas like those of the as there are only Cossack boats to be We at White. and Cossacks. committing depredations in the Russian provinces. forty of Cyprus. Creta. with like those of the Avars. and White Sea. east by the In winter-time the Kahniik Tatars pass over the ice of lakes and rivers which are frozen for the space of seven months. had strange creatures and animals in that sea which are strange kinds with square and pentagon heads. guns . and ruined by Hûlagû. the Vezir of took possession of this town after the conquest of Derbend. Derbend and there are certainly many not to be found elsewhere me to see ordinary According to fish. &c. length from north to south hundred cubits the western side in the district of the on the frontier of Dâghistân. in the district of it has no islands like the Black Sea forty islands are reckoned. and an Caspian Sea The hair. the size of a round table. it is like inhabitants Khoja Sarukhan. Black and Red Sea. one hundred and Sea with Moghols and whale had been driven on shore. the circumference of the twenty-four thousand miles which are great ones. which extremity its the castle of Terek on the river of the same name. is is . which was Murad depth the vessels are not large ships continued our journey eastwards through plain Isfendiâr.THE TRAVELS OF 1Ö4 however. and on the . Kalmuks. and carrying a great number of bend. but small boats of reeds with small there are no Mediterranean is is thousands of boats and vessels carry on trade. Rodos. wherein two thousand and The conflict . In the upper jaw end. common in that covered with bones and carcasses of immense number of extra- the reports of sailors. fields. with large towns and rivers. an elegant yet ancient town. is . Its On prisoners away. is four thousand whom they fight men miles. it an elephant. of the waves of the Caspian Sea is stronger than those of the Black bounded on the west by the Russian provinces country of the Uzbegs. beneath tents of Kûmüks advanced to the south. and halted felt pass the winter here . each a yard long. one hundred yards long. with two heads. Description of a A it is a of country. such great means of defence are not required on the Caspian. III. . and south to it.

as I can most my positively journey to the siege of Assov. that Alexander . as the . and which the Kiimiiks also see the . a bath. that situated in a is are seven. by means of join the Caspian Sea with the Phasus danger of he left this union. Its The town districts in marble. used to come every Friday prayers here . with five hundred houses. saw. became the In the beginning of the reign of Sultân seat of a sanjak Beg. with These of the in ruins and History of Tophet pretends that the Caspian Sea issues by subterraneous canals cut by Alexander into the assert. Rus. a caravanserai. The author triple triple ditches. IV. it is the seat of a Sultân a well inhabited town. fresh. known Gog and Magog. left. and reached the station of Kent Charkhi on a wide plain distance from the Sea. and arrived travelled at last in the dis- the pass of Alexander. on Mount Caucasus walls. We have already mentioned in our journey to Trebisonde. Murad at of a great khass of Shah Mikhal. those all who travel from earth. the strong fortress of Derbend. a mosque. and the people of Crimea and Kipchak. Uzdemir-oghli adorned with so many arabesques and carvings after the seven planets. that it . it. I. the Prince of Dâghistân. it it now is of Ashâr of Uziin Hassan Khân. the largest of which are the mosques of Khân and Uzun Hassan. and built three immense walls with three ditches as a it stronghold between the Black and Caspian Seas. and where is seeing ? bitter. unexecuted. the greatest architects are astonished on beholding and valley rich in bowers. and Turkey. with is seventy mosques. continued our journey to the south It is the named in the district Musker. The inhabitants further on to the south. the Persians became masters of it Beg in which the same is as a sanjak ]G5 again. a canal which was to but being advised by his Vezîrs of the Black Sea was a great deal lower than the Caspian. with which the mosque are no where found in such profusion. and as a line of defence against the Benî Assfar Sala'at. thought of executing a project for uniting the Caspian with the Black Sea. flowers We in Tokmak order to perform his fruits. for the are of at the capital it." EVLIYAEFENDI. is inlaid. I Phasus. when he It generally is that Alexander having designed to build the dike of arrived at this place. with a great train from Derbend. leaving Regal on our trict Musker of We most part Kumuks of Dâghistân. but because when found its this I water clear is an evident saw the Phasus on and blunder. in the poor Evliya. roses. This is a case for applying the Persian proverb " Where is hearing. of The fountains and china work. Crimea into the country of by the lapse of time some of the towers are choked up with ditches mountains of Irak Dadian. Description of Derbend the Gate of Gates. while that of the Caspian Sea is so salt and burns a man's skin if used for purification. and a market-place.

one of which looks the entrance to the town. judge and twelve public oflScers. and Shamâkhî. Size andfigure of the Castle. this its walls. town was Murad Persia. seventy surrounding villages. and the flourishing state. the son of Atika. Communications were opened with the Tatars of Crimea and Kipchâk. and the breadth of the castle built in a travels still to the fortress. as a broad thick wall. appearing with a great army before III. are also two gates. the daughter of Moavia. made subject to four regiments of Sipahis. the second gate Mount Arghan the it is itself is strongest I the same. ammuni- ten of armourers. sixty cannons. walls were built walls Jezdejerd Shah. ten of gunners. the intelligent architect distributed eastward to mount Safah wall which looks to . the Shah's commander. mounIt is ever saw during my into three parts. Description of the Iron Gate. are ment would undertake up is foot of . The by Herzshâh. Governor General of Shirvan. Tiflis. the Sunnîs who were inside bound Jirdgh Khalifeh. with the garrisons of Akhichka. it The length of the wall from the sea to the high pentagon form on a high hill. five hundred boxes of and tion fifteen hundred militia of it Erivan completed means its of defence. In the and two others leading to . cut off his head. was If the govern- would be easy to extend the harbour from these an arrow's shot. which remained up to the this by whom it Uzdemir Pâshâ repaired the The Deneb. the troops whose hands the seat of a is in at the khân and garrisoned by nineteen hundred good troops. and surrendered the fortress to the Ottoman general. which to be seen projecting from the Sea. Alexander closed time of Nûshirvân passage with an iron gate. built a strong castle and on the shores of the Caspian he built this gate of gates or iron gate. in the till beginning of the reign of Sultân rebelled and surrendered the fortress to the present time it is in a Shah of most prosperous condition. is The remains the gate of the harbour. Ismail Shah and was renewed. I occupied a place here on the bulwark of Kainâk khan.THETRAVELSOF 166 on the shores of the Black Sea at the mouth of the Phasus. it. Genje. in It a highly IV. and the whole district of Dâghistân with the glory Sultân Murad was then ennobled In the year 986 (1578) Uzdemir-oghli the Vezir of of Islam. mount Arghan and recorded by the Persian chronostick on of the wall of Alexander also. Yezîb Ben Abd-ul-Melek. took place from the Khavarej. tain castle situated at the foundations of the western walls are washed by the Caspian Sea. and was extremely well treated by the me khân who gave five tomans for the expenses of my journey. who was appointed by the He Porte. repaired the castle and One thousand janissaries.

with some khans and shops. is the mosque of Uzdemir-zadeh Osman Pasha. is third division of not so well inhabited as the other two. persons Mekûr leaving this gate di. contrived to interest the Ulemas in watching the castle array in this it has seventy students are allowed In this . near to it is . on the top of this mountain. as the barracks for the garrison are the only buildings. account of seventy large cannons. lift one of them. which defend the avenue. waggons with horses cannot travel. chants The practicable for those vehicles. to the men the the Circassians on the of Dâghistân on the south- east is the inimical district of for this reason the : side are Georgia belonging to of the garrison pass the whole night on Khoda Khob (all's well !) There is also a post of fifty watchmen (Tûlüngî) stationed on mount Deneb at a great distance from the town if an enemy appears anywhere his arrival is made known to the town by fires lighted the walls crying . and are so large that castle are fifty men at the present day. and a bath Near the gate of boats opening to the east. Crimea and in three days. The people get their living by cultivating . seven thousand and sixty battlements round the fortress on dark . all The other powerful enemies the beholders. Kazan and Desht Kipchâk are the fortress looks towards the sea . nights the whole fortress is illuminated with Naphtha. it is castle . however. called first is of that name. 167 because opens towards the it may waggons. and a fountain.evliya efen the lower town the . is a college and a mosque. but khans. and whose brilliancy dazzles the eyes of Tatars. but the roads to Terek. the architectural ornaments of palace in Persia . In Ddghistan. imaret. mosques and baths. but cut square. who come from Kîlân and Baku with goods the circuit of the whole fortress towers. of the mer- way they have there are besides these seventy towers. the Kûmûks . all enemies. in Another gate leads towards Kipchak. who come is a most necessary in boats and ravage all they cannot. with no built in the Ottoman style. Kalmuks and the Ottomans on the west south side . the worst of these districts whom are the Cossacks. at each of which The waggons are all put in eleven thousand paces. district arrive at Sharaakhi Circassia. and the worst of east or Kiblah side Tamaras khan . and are fed twice a day. come near the border of the castle on . all The Naphtha instead of candles. The stones of the wall are each of the size of an elephant. The suburb outside the castle consists of about a thousand houses. as the castle is continually threatened by no less than thirteen mortal enemies. close to the southern wall which are not to be found in is In the a large any other a great mosque with a ruined minareh. which precaution. Buildings within the Castle. could not two hundred well terraced houses palace.

who were killed on that occasion. May God bring it back to the possession of the Ottomans ! Pilgrimages. Kûmûk. I took leave . characters and in Tlniluth writing . I visited Several faith. who have no there killed Giirgi Mustafa Pâshâ . besides the revenues of the seven Sultans or sanjak Begs. are buried outAnother army came in the time of side the western wall at a mile's distance. giving an account of their lives in Jellî (great Neskhi) of and deaths. and Derbend. Kaitâk. made after the according to the description of Zal is Osman Pâshâ.. Damascus with a great army to Heshâm Ben Abd-ul-Melek. There are forty tombs much frequented by khot. in whom having seen all I The tomb of Derekhor- the people of Shirvan had great thousand great Saints are buried here. rich men. Thâbserân. The Pilgrimage of the Forty. son of Atika the daughter of Moavia. The martyrs who fell on this occasion were also buried in this cemetery their . conquest of Uzdemir-oghlî Mohammed. and twelve Sultanliks. and fine youths. and two hundred guards to accompany me on the journey. and Kuba Kalmâkh Khân with fifty or sixty thousand men wandering about in the steppes.) and a trotting horse (Chapâr). which conquered the provinces of Dâghistân. now is begin to come some of whom with Russian merchants to the harbour of Derbend. Yezid Ben Abd-ul-Melek. have mentioned. and Russians in great numbers. Tatars. and Moyunjdk Taissi Shah. . seven khânliks. The province of Shirvan at present consists of seventy jurisdictions. a great Saint. THE TRAVELS OF IgS silk. Khân. side of the Caspian On the opposite Sea are the Russian provinces of Heshdek and Kazan where twenty years ago further on Kipchdk and Heihdt. names are written on the tombs Amongst this crowd of martyrs seventy-five doctors of true tradition are buried. When it was governed by the Ottomans its annual revenue was two hundred and forty-seven thousand aspers. pushed their inroads up to the bank of the Kemûklî river and these Kalmuks are all Infidels. which frequented by Chinese. they are Sunnîs and Shafifs. idea of religion and faith. and the annual sums given to the Prince of Dâghistân for the This preservation of peace. and made myself acquainted God's mercy upon them the curiosities of this town I received from the all Khân ! After a horse of the race (Kâdhibeg. these in Cufic the inhabitants of Derbend boast that amongst tombs some are to be seen with inscriptions Ottomans. but are a careless slavish set of people. ten pieces of cotton stuff of Guzerat. but with those only that visitors. came from make war against the heretic rebels (Khavarej) seven hundred moslim martyrs.

and then entered the great district of the Avars a district belong- it is : ing to the khass of the Prince of Daghistan. fall of cotton. who which had Balkis and an we remained here but one is According was called the throne of Lan. . life II. left this place. there are a great The waters which west side of Mount some hours towards the . and get their living by cleaning cotton. of Daghistan are not allowed to leave the house. Darogha. on the extremity of the are few on account of the coldness of the climate vanserais. Prince of Dâghistân. was wrested it from the hands of the Princes of Daghistan by the Persian Shah Kor Khodabende. It much gates. at all here women the . eleven cara- of a issue for night. JOURNEY TO GEORGIA. all sell. now it border of Mount Caucasus. seven baths. it was Khan. or to be carried to the cemetery after death. not far distant from Tâyeserân. why signifying both a nest. or Georgia. Judge. belonging to the government of Aresh. Every Friday people flock here together to buy and but by exchange. give of Sunnis. and some mosques not and seventy shops impossible to see much of : as it. frontier. and set out on journey to Gûrjistân. excepting on a journey to Mecca. to the plantations Caucasus. and has a garrison of a thousand number his throne. and during three days journey we saw seventy great kents with mosques and khans. Description of the Castle Serir-ul-alldn. march of sixteen hours After a we to the south-east through woods. and Munshi. of a thousand fine houses and a mosque. I saw no women There are ten thousand inhabitants. who destroyed the castle that into those of the be used as a defence against them it is . army to view word a Persian situated but is Mount Caucasus .evliya efendi of my ali friends the Khdns and 169 my Sultans. and VOL. We is Niâzabâd. to fabulous history it was in this town that Solomon been carried through the air by Genii. arrived at the place called Kur. the residence of Mikhâl Shah. Kelenter. and fell Ottomans. into the Kur. Hormuz This ancient town was built by the son of Nüshirvân . up and one who walks or between the towns of the gate not set when he came with this is might not a large ancient town situated on the . The men We are hospitable. much cultivated as it is it of with terraces. and Sunni's Shâfiites. men from the marched z It there are three thousand houses the seat all immense travels. not for money. passed a ruined castle in the midst of woods. its gardens frequented. Shamâkhî. on the frontier of Dâghistân.

the it. . all Shiîs. and gardens. Description of the Old This town It was built pentagon is Town of Kdkht. but they shun frontier castle Ur belongs to the Persians skirted the boundaries of the castle of Sheki. accompanied me. which it on our formerly saw on I begins. no enmity amongst themselves. khdns. The of Emir Sultân. with . with mosques. Ottoman flying troops arriving at the battle of Châldirân. Divines of this country. spent a night. and all Gokdiilak. of Tiflis . and The climate being eastward. two Caucasus in circumference. likeness to the climate so and much built a that he remained here three years before the suburb outside of it. so that it bears much After the loss of this town destroyed and since that time many thousand loads of stones have been carried away by Ferhâd Pâshâ for the repairs of the Castle of Aras. governed by Yûssûf one of the Princes of Dâghistân. have communication with the Revâfes Here ends Dâghistân. and a khân. The Sultân of this place and we passed the night in Khodrai. a bath. Shamâkhi. and continued our journey on the fourth to the district of Zakhor. the inhabitants are Georgians. Shah Ismail liked its battle of Châldirân. west side of after irrigating the gardens fall into the . a kent of a thousand houses. pre- gave him three handkerchiefs I embroidered by Sultâna Kia. Tomb He was a great Saint. Armenians and Gokdülâk thousand soldiers. khân and bath. its silk is not much praised. so It is issue life. castle. The all Khân at we passed . gates. fourteen tribes of the thousand large paces and seventy bulwarks. many springs of a with one hundred thousand houses within the Its waters. and there are twelve civil commanders and a judge. a tract comprising three woody We hundred kents. left. three mosque. with a mosque. who commands seven thousand brave warlike sented me with and large villages fifty men skins of wild fifty whom we the Beg. to the district of Khata a dependence of the Princes of Dâghistân.TH 170 TRA V ELS OF E Kiblah. Armenians. a from the Kür to The rather cold. and the province of Georgia (heretic Persians). to the next station. Mount Caucasus. and my way to the kent of Zakhorie on the frontier of Tamarass-khân. out of kindness. and cats. town of Kaschau in the middle of Hungary. situated on the frontier of Georgia by Nûshirvân to keep the castle. remained here for three days as guests. consisting of a hundred and kents. and now governed by the Persians. in order. on the frontier of Tiflis. and arrived belonging to the all learned Doctors. the the Sultân commands a inhabitants are Georgians.

when after. At last the governor of Erzenim. and to put themselves into a state of defence. and fortress of saw I castle of that of passing through the plain of Kâkht. Chaldir and seventy castles. Mustafa Pâshâ. garrisoned it with forty thousand men. The garrison being in the greatest distress for food. that no Baku and Megû. I fell. Ottoman commander summoned an assembly held on at this occasion it it in all possible ways. Pâshâ with an immense army undertook the conquest of Georgia. its He sent the keys of no repaired. and came up with the Khân of Tiflîs at the Castle of Zekum. The Ottoman commander pursued them with the greatest speed. which were placed in the Magathe garrison. to stores completed. but the more prudent foreseeing that they would not be able to make resistance. eat their dogs first. greatest such an extent. After his departure the Persians besieged the town of Tiflîs for the space of seven months. On the town to surrender to his was advised back the to send bearer of the summons. Befits. then in possession of the sanjak of Kasteminî and he took twenty-six except that of Beg of Kerîm Lala Ferhâd his entry into Tiflîs amidst the province was given with the rank of a Begler paired. bringing three thousand camel loads of provisions.evli YA efendi. According to the author of the Sheref-nâmeh. and conquered Daud Khân. with seven regiments of his corps was sent to garrison Zekum was Kerîm also A taken in the year 956 (1578). Castle some of which he destroyed. in which no quarter was given by the Ottoman victors. and some he placing a Dizdar in each. by first built same name Betlis in the which for a long time was a Murad the time of Sultân in town was castle of the built the the Treasurer of Alexander. without entering Tiflîs. made He Georgia or Azerbeijdn fortified this castle to is equal to it. and left the Castle without defence. A great battle ensued. The . who was then governor of Tiflîs. Persian government. where he had entrenched himself with all the treasures carried away from his capital. and fortified the other side the Emperor. pursued his victory as though he had been on a hunting party great and small castles. viz. the few days have not seen the Castle of Zekum. Mohammed of Ferhâd Pâshâ. and the less . till Tiflis. who also name is now province of Van its . . its Pasha the son works were re- than seventy large and Ottoman Court and then returned himself to Constantinople. and forty thousand Persians were cut to pieces. the famine was so great that the dog belonging to the Sübashî Alî sold for seven thousand aspers. they all fled away one night. this great Lala Kara Ferhâd III. 171 Description of Georgia or Shûshddisfdn. but it. put the Persian General to flight and relieved Hassan Pâshâ the son of the Grand Vezîr arrived with a caravan. and small castles to the then the dead . The booty taken by the Ottoman army was immense the Aghâ of the janissaries . arrived with a flying troop. demonstrations of public joy.

light fires every night. officers in honour of the twelve Imams. some with and some without gardens. but no ditch . of the largest castle cubits high. that of Sultân Mustafa. the vegetables exqui- these productions prosper and do not require water from fifty towns and villages. that and sixty sources great castle waters are supplied from a thousand its the largest river in these countries next to the Euphrates. and feet are as those of Imam cooked therein. the palace of the Khân. this passes on its is falls. is on the south side rises in the moun- Erdehân. which it way. through the quantity of rain water which the Kur. passes Sea . a mosque and a bath. till when Persians united with the Georgians took the castle by surprise.) Though small of stone. the east side of the large castle a hot-spring boils out of the ground without the assistance of fire . and has Three thousand watchmen Khob (all's well. seventy judges. and gave the Shah and . Three-tenths of Georgia are occupied by the khan commands two thousand soldiers. . Products. yet and continually cry Khoda its inhabitants are for the most part Sunnis and Hanefis from the time of the Ottomans. Akhiska. in a square form with only one no Bezestân or imaret. has remained ever since in the hands of the Persians. castle was built by Yezdejerd Shah. there is no of Tiflis. and Azgura and flows into the Caspian the Persian historiographers say. The Hothath of On renowned Tifiis. The bridge leading from one castle to the other. and the peaches are but most excellent grapes silk. it is The a Persian town. with seventy bulwarks. In the castle are six hundred houses.THETRAVELSOF 172 zines of the small castle. It consists of two castles opposite to each other on the banks of the Kür which and which are connected above by a separates the rocks on which they stand. The circumference it is This river it. . it it the up It is to the capital of Georgia. the water-tower which supplies water to the garrison in time of siege is situated on the Kür. There are also Hossein Efendi. this fortress remained in the hands of the Otto- the time of Sultân Murad III. forty districts and seven tracts called province of Tiflis . and twelve public Oimâk. the case with an hundred and : all . to which belongs sixteen Sultans. Rizwan Agha. it is gate at the head of the bridge. mans from In short. the it has also a judge Size and Figure of the Fortress. terraced. of the Kiir and the small one on the north of tains of Chaldir. the wall sixty six and three thousand battlements. is thousand paces. sheep's heads several pilgrimages at Tiflis. The white bread site .

it it.EVLIYAEFENDI. chi'gdl. water. . at a great distance. : of the walls. Aras. and Mingrelia. then Dadians and Shûshâd. built it by Alexander. bishdl . all it is of stone used in the formation the river which passes below Akhiska through which falling into the Georgians. signifies the and was hill. . and only understand each other by the aid of interpreters. shudi. Araxes. revai kkarj . must have been is of a square form . khott. &c. because move one of them . who whom originated are all Christians. If the is that of the dynasty of the Moscovites should be extinguished. Though a small castle on a yet hill. Genealogy of the Georgian Kings. One. art. a bath. pari pears. the district of to right side in the mountains. This town being on the frontier of Gurgistân Shûshâd. bdk hazel-nuts. from the Castle of accompany to We same from that of Genje. the gardens are beautiful owing to the passes. weiw . . eight. . it is extremely strong and high of the oldest castles of Georgia built by Nûshirvân. issues from the moun- and waters the gardens of the town. . *am . and forty small streets tile built of the present age would not be able to and one In the Georgian language Azgur The immense blocks King of Kings. according to their opinion. Achikbash. ?W. kurzeni . egst: seven. atî . was seen on our castle Lorî near Tiflis but we passed it aud belongs of a square form. melon. They speak twelve different languages. The purest language. inikhli. five hundred stands on a high it . stands on a chalk It The Tifli's. inhabitants the oldest by Alexander. Description of the Castle Küsekht. and reached according to the author of the Sheref-nameh. it mildness of the climate tains of . and the the khân two hundred men 173 took from the and received three tomans us. figs. bread. ghita three. Specimen of the Georgian Shûshâd Language. grapes. otkhi. two. &c. uine. a khân. We Gokdülâk and Armenians. ten. four journies. is cliff. Their first kings were Jews. six. four. has one gate opening to the south. Azgur the old town town in Georgia. Shûshâd and Dadiân. five. leji . wine. Des cription of Sürdn. is proceeded four hours to the west. Jem Alî Efendî. a mosque. cherries. from the people of G Uriel. for the expenses of the journey. show that men Its inhabitants are it : speak Georgian. Tiflis is five hours distance from Kidkht. khiijrai. meat.

In the Imperial register would be too long different kings. and from the . we and Akhaskha. they descended from Keikavûs. It people. he lived on good terms with the Sultdn Selim Beg I. the Princes of Achikbash and Dadian. Mera'ash. was allotted the district of Tiflis vince of Bâghat man was an end. three parts. so that all To girl. which happened to be a sent him fowl-hunting on a frozen swallowed up. Ommiades. Okhaskha. and got with child. and Oksakha. otherwise To inhabitants derive their descent from him. Sultan Selim s conquest. have no books at all The Aiza and Cherkessians who are an according to the histories of their priests . the pro- the Dadiâns derive their lineage. and even Queen get rid of the ravisher. to relate The of the family of the army. its second. Akhjaska. and returned to Damascus. and the was talk about the matter at called The daughter marwho when of age. Description of the Stronghold of Ahhaska. ried a Prince Georgia into latter. the Prince of the dynasty of the Kara Koyiinli. according to the difference of the languages of the surrounding down by the name of Chaldir. . Simon. The He builder was Nûshirvân. now This Dadian homage the whole of Georgia pay When Trebisonde. and spent exempted by a Khattî-sherîf. Erzerura. This strong fortress of Akhaskais also spelled Akhachka. the great Persian monarch who built the Tak Kesra.THE TRAVELS OF 174 the Princes of Georgia would succeed. she was violated by one of them. Diarbekr. the castle of Azgur. first all it is laid the changes that this place underwent under moslim conqueror of it was Hesham Ibn Abd-ul-Melek. divided named Begdivdn. and Sultân Uzun Hassan became Paying homage to Tîmûr he was put in . the when woods and fields. he and gifts has only youths as presents to the Porte. and when he ascended the throne after Bayazid duties. well at Chaldiran all since that time it II. Shirvan. which then became the Capital of Georgia. and Derbend. and then from David. fled to Bayazid I. proceeding from Syria with an immense conquered Aintâb. a privilege they enjoy the and to the youngest. and had three sons. Kara Yüssûf. Arabic colony. the ice broke. night having drank with some young men. used to spend six months of the summer here. to the present been the custom to send annually falcons and We left arrived fine day . conquered Genje. canal. and He also this castle of Akhaska. not being able to resist the arms of Timur. who. There was formerly here a Queen who pretended to reign unmarried one . Haleb. the possessor of the castle of Akhaska. Prince was a just monarch. The first Prince obtained the district of Cotatis Bash Achik. on account of its climate. the inhabitants of Achikbash from up to was Governor of time in the castle of Cotatis. for assistance. Malâtia. and going westward through all some of Achikbash.

Portek. and Shûshâd . and hundred Khartîz. two six Lesâna. the officers are a public treasurer of the timârs (Timâr Defterdar) (Defter Emînî) government to a Pâshâ the frontier of Giirjistan (Georgia). (7) Mâkhchîl Khortîz. three ziamets. viz. tiraars. Erdehân. The ziamets and timârs are altogether six hundred and fifty-six swords. a eighty-seven timârs . He escape. (2) (5)Erdehân (6) Postkhû. Khass or Revenues of the Sanjak Begs. an inspector and a secretary of the Chaushes. Emînî. hundred thousand Shûshâd. that conferred upon him. hundred Ardenj. A then conquered the castle Akhaska.six thousand eighty and fifty six . Khass of the Beg of thousand forty. five Postkhû. . Türkistan. two Khajrek. as a an inspector of the . and As tails. making Portekrek. town this is was assigned it government. and many times pursued the Persian I. the power of Shah Ismail of the Saff family. : hundred two Erdehân. or Ojaklik. four hundred thousand. men . the seat of the Pâshâ. five . (Chau- . . the granary of the incursions up to came afterwards who chose Akhaska quarters and subdued the whole of Georgia.. Number of Zidmets and Timdrs. and pushed It side of Timtir's horse. thousand Penek. and subdued the whole of Georgia. evliya efendi. . Lesâna. was then governor of Trebisonde. three hundred and sixty-five thousand . . three thousand and nineteen . hundred and thousand six twenty thousand three hundred and eleven Ajâra. the number who 175 marched by the of eleven tributary princes. The Kiâtibî). which with the Jebellis form eight hundred fifteen hundred troops. in all thirteen. Sultân Suleiman. Having himself ascended the throne. hundred and thirteen Ardi'kh. and hundred two hundred . Nussf Levana. . four ziamets. in immediate contact with Persia. who had a narrow troops. sixty-five Makhjil. and nearly that of Shah Ismail. eight In the sanjak ziamets. . . Ottoman capital. . which cost the lives of one hundred thousand Persians. the province of Azerbeijan. and shlar kiayassi. . of which the following The it was declared a separate Eyâlet or the description in the is Kanûn-nâmeh of sanjak of Chaldir consists of thirteen sanjaks. three hundred hundred. he immediately began the Holy war. two hundred thousand thousand two hundred thousand and seventeen aspers Olti. and Kurdistan. (3) Ardîkh (4) Khajrek There are also four (8) Achârpenîk (9) Akhachka. sanjaks are as follow: (1) Olti . rolls a kiaya. He Selim his for his into summer ravaged the Ottoman provinces. survey of of three it was commanded. Sivas. and fought the famous battle on the plain of Chaldir. hereditary sanjaks Yordlik. and with the troops of the Pâshâ Oltî.

thirty-five timars . districts belonging tohis jurisdiction. the mosque of Khalü Aghâ. Khartiz. They possess a thousand and sixty villages on when called upon. Adana. commanded those of Erzerura. but after Erivan. oghli There covered with earth. . THE TRAVELS OF 176 forty-two timars Khajrek. there are twenty-eight mosques. tain lectures in all these private in very small is . condition of going to war he may however annually collect from the sum The Khass of eighty purses. with an immense army the fortress of Akhachka. thirty-two timars . (1634) the Persians became masters of Chaldiran. twelve ziamets. goes straight to the castle of Arghân. Mera'ash. in kept by the Ottomans. seventy-two timars . Canaan Pâshâ was sent by Sultân who conquered which is it hundred conquest of the Murad IV. the amounts of the Begler-beg to four the garrison consists of two thousand men. Sivas. Penek. with two gates and about a thousand houses without gardens covered with terraces. Khatla. . and The place of a judge with the rank of Molla was given to Ramazân Rakka. number of khans no vinea large number of gardens of . of the Jebeji and In the year 1044 of the Topji. well watered by springs. but there are no The Müderris (Professors) The suburb baths pleasant.. size It is a square castle built of stone. and put it in a good state of repair. four ziamets. with of the janissaries. there are cer- legal the mosques. the Pâshd to three hundred and twenty Ottoman purses. full . but in some places gardens (Bâghje) fruit of Kunbet- that outside the eastern gate of the castle. Isper. commanded by troops are feudal Sdszin. now it has a judge with three hundred aspers with Efendi (Captains). the annual revenue of which amounts In the time of Selim I. The old mosque upper castle in the is is also covered with earth. for these lectures. twenty-eight timars eight ziamets. the is waiters are fine Georgian boys and no imaret prayers a day. thousand aspers an Aghâ . the best its trees The water In the lower castle (Mushebek-bostân) of this place is tradition. fifty-four timars nineteen ziamets. two ziamets. . and the other to the west. Besides the is The mosque (religious foundation) covered with lead in this fortress. . waters the the town. Form and of the Castle of Akhachka. the students (Thelebe) are numerous. regular troops. ziâmets. seven ziamets. standing on a chalk cliff. and Ala'i-Beg (Colonels). and falls fields of near the Castle of Kurehkt . timars seven thirteen Postkhu. comes from the mountains of Uda. well built. there are a great yards (Bâgh). up to the present time. outside of the castle is five mosques on the Koran and rooms or establishments hold them castle and without a minareh. of this province. These Yuzbashi their Cheribashî (Lieutenants). One of the two gates leads to the east. fourteen timars. five hundred aspers. but the bath inside the . of valuable trees.

on the border of the river Jâgh. sometimes was created by him a hereditary province I. valley. and the suburb castle not surrounded by walls is 177 to Tiflis five is and mid east. situated the residence of the Sanjak-Beg of Burdehân. has no judge. is an Ala'i The castle of Postkhö. A A The castle of Jâghirmân near . together with the castle of Adhil. castle of Shatan. castle of Kizlar (of Odoria near Chaldir. the khass of which no ziamets and timars. by birth a Georgian. being fresh and invigorating its Pâshâ. Al near Akhaska. district of came was conquered . but no Bezestân of stone. the judge of which There aspers. which is Beg and is in the castle of Shûshâdistân Kharbe on the border of a is year 998 appointed with one hundred and Cheribashf. The passage between the into the Araxes. There are between Akhachka and castle of Khajrek. castle of the latter. The a magic castle. Ajikbash near mount Perirat. was conquered by Ferhâd Pâshâ in the year 990 (1582) . fortress of Akhaska is situated between them all in the plain of Chaldir.evliya efendi. was conquered by Lala Pâshâ a jurisdiction. to Genje five journeys direct east. people are strong and brave also of this place the Pfishd Sefer . (the Castle of Satan). castle. is three hours distance from Akhaska. is way Erivan is estabhshed the market consists of about . by a bridge the suburb . a conquest of Lala Pâshâ. Shshâdistân is the name is a steep castle. on a steep rock. The castle of Khartiz near Chaldir Lala Pâshâ. the conquest of Lala Pâshâ. II. It It is the is it The hill. The fifty of one Shûshâd. (Ojâklik). it is situated near Chaldir. and was conquered is Lala Pâshâ six ziamets The Perkan near Chaldir castle of between two high mountains on a high otherwise called Shûshâd. governed by a Begler-beg. by in two journies distance from Chaldir. The castle of Akhanji. in the province of is The The castle of Ardikh. the a mountainous tract full of precipices. VOL. the seat of a Sanjak-beg. Altun (gold). the capital of the proper residence of Georgia when governor of Trebisonde. and Selim Erdehân. situated castle of Cotatis is hither to divert himself. is is The temperature three hundred shops. and seven journeys to the north is The the castle of Georgia. by the Khass amounts to three hundred and sixty-five thousand aspers. The the seat of a Sanjak of the principal provinces of Georgia. The and twenty-two timars. Ottoman Court. one of the most wise and virtuous Vezirs of the journeys from Akhashka to the six From Akhaskha the Castle of Karss. which by mistake is called Sheitân Kala'am. amounts to six thousand and six aspers. and the the year 886 (1481). at a journey's distance. castle of Beg The castle of (1589) . journeys towards the north-east. the seat of a Sanjak-beg in the province of Chaldir. the maiden) near Chaldir. the conquest of Lala Pâshâ. Castles of Georgia belonging to the Province of Chaldir.

A company of armourers Mufti resides at Akhaska. indeed a fine and well is with two Georgian boys. the its water flows to Erdehân. conquered by Lala Pâshâ Nazarbdn. Captain. (Jebeji) of the Porte. commanding Dizdar. to one There aspers. . Tortum and Acharas This castle is five . it then in rich by Levend-Khan. . Dizdar and garrison . . and made the seat of a Sanjak Beg the khass . and three gates. it has two hundred and seventy towers. hill . which from the . and arrived No college. conquered by Lala Pâshâ 987 (1579) the castle of Kermek. Chaldir. I took I .THETRAVELSOF 178 by Lala Pîîshâ. the castle Kense Dusal The houses all the year 982 (1574) in in the district of have terraces . We passed the summer quarters of Ulghâr. sometimes It was built . the family establishment in garrison here. and at the castle of Güle. and Sheriffs or relations of the prophet) its The castle is built on a rock. gardens on account of the temperature. which was last arrived at time of Selfm in the we . which consists of two hundred officers the whole contingent in war time including the troops of the thousand men. . but a school for boys. presented me Georgia all this. a the seat of a Sanjak Beg. and is five hundred paces in circumference it is not commanded by any neighbouring height. conquered number Besides these castles there are a great of others seen on the great road. by Ghâzî Sefer Pâshâ latter built three is has a Colonel. In the town. the khass of which hundred thousand aspers come Sunnis. conquered by Lala Pasha in the year 982 (1574) the castle of Akharsin. three hundred thousand aspers. the castles of Mamervân and in the year 1053(1643). is rather cold. (Colonel) the Cheribashi. (Commander The judge Beg amounts appointed with a hundred and is no Nakîb-ul-ishrâf (head of the is fifty . and eighty-seven timârs is Beg. westward to Erzerum. eight zidmets. Stations of the Journey from Akhaslca to Erzerum. is Castles in the neighbourhood of Erdehdn. passed through a the Castle of Kara Ardehân. a horse. are men of the garrison. is (Khandân) of Kia Pâshcî the most renowned. meadows. is and Karss We woody ground. it is . of the castle) . Erdehân on a there no is by is castle of agriculture. the inhabitants are all Its fruits journeys to the east of Erzerum passed westward sometimes on a stony and Georgian Prince. (Captain) . The Wala. an Alai . castle of . and a hundred piastres an escort and began my journey who took leave of Sefer Pâshâ. and arrived at the end of four hours at the castle of Kinava on the frontier of Ardehân mountainous tract and at conquered I. and live one journey's distance from Erzerum by the way of Kargha-bazâr. After having seen cultivated country.

aspers. a Judge with a hundred and aspers. so that it is in it . the village is Further on belongs to the district of it Erzerum. it the seat of a Sanjak Beg subordinate to Erzerum. on the plain of is " I gave thee the Keuther. we reached hill. the inhabitants are almost Aide Mamervân. its Seven the Castle of Ulini. a delightful. We eat marched five God be thanked ! hours to in perfect . built by a Georgian king. whose Khass it is . garden. which issues from a cavern in the mountain of Dûmlî Sultân. and Georgians. protects these fish. is but a farsang below who them with never incommoded by them. Erzerum and entered who and inter- buried here. impossible to catch fill them . and school The inhabitants and came at the end beauties are celebrated. men there is a The water of the are a thousand no market nor garden." Sultân the Saint. a among Three hours further on poor people. is Beg feudatory militia with the troops of the judge with a hundred and I79 two hundred thousand And has a Colonel. verse it. for boys of two hours to the castle of Maver- van built by the Georgian Kings. there are eight hundred houses. and a khân. it is situated at the very source of the Euphrates. river is very good. a mosque. inhabited by Armenians and Moslims. a fine kent of a hundred houses on the border of a high mountain . and enters the Aras on the Kiblah The houses side. with two gates. hundred men . and ambergris . travelled direct north. Gokdulak. hill castle gate looks its . after its subordinate to Chaldir khass its . and the other to the west. a Captain. we passed the straight of Georgia and arrived at the village of Osmiidum Sultân. named the castle of Penek also Georgian builder. a bath. which waters the gardens of the town. and conquered by the seat of a Sanjak Beg. fifty the seat of a is it four hundred thousand aspers. is the castle stands on a chalk . a bath. judge is . are all inhabited and covered with There are a number of mosques. hill At the foot of the castle flows the river Olti. he is frequented. which seems to be alluded to Koran by the in the Trouts of a cubit's length sport spersed with smaragdine spots. a khan. hours further Sultân Selîm is and seventeen fifty . all village bleak mountains is to the west. terraces. much eat. standing upon fifty a to fifteen The aspers. aspers. a Dizdar. the village Karakunk. the of a square is to the Kiblah. From hence we .evli YA efendi. whose khass amounts to two hundred and three thousand aspers The mihtia the feudal militia. the brains of those however much a man may The Pilgrimage : their bodies are ruby-coloured Umudum they are taken by fishermen. an elegant castle on a chalk sanjak Its Beg Eight hours further to the west. subjects are Armenians. and conquered by Lala Kara Mustafa Pasha is its . one opening to the and garrison east. of the the officers are a Colonel and Captain of Beg amounts appointed with a hundred and form and gigantic size. refreshing water. to Rurali Sultân the south. are good moslims.

when a message arrived from the Khan of Erivan complaining that some of the soldiers of Karss had Aghâ might be molested one of his caravans. which he the custom-houses. and requesting that an convey the caravan safe to Erzerum. three small mosques. which has a Dizdar and a hundred and but no market . and gave him a detailed me assigned to on the extraordinary revenues of had remained scarcely a week. built by Lady Ken'm-vid-din. THE YEAR. and then to the west by a flowery meadow for six hours to the castle Bardiiz. a Dizdar. hundred and fifty we went southward men in garrison. my dress. towns. Gejkeran built by Nûshirvân to the castle of town of Diideman Gejkeran which of Pizen and Efrasiab. which me gave I I had seen on my a splendid dress and three hundred piastres bath-money. by the ruined convent called the seven churches. is the old in the ancient histories of the was ruined by Holagu wars same time as Baghdad. a judge of a hundred and fifty aspers. all the castle of Mishingerd in the province of Erzerum. an Aghâ of the Azabs and Gonulli. and from forty to fifty . We passed the inhabitants are it. twelve hundred houses covered with earth. two hundred houses. The karss of the Beg amounts to fifteen it is a square castle. I laid my gracious Lord changed I of Erivan at the feet of account of all He journey. through a narrow straight. the letters and presents of the the castles. through the valley of Khândere. and further on . (1647). there is a Dizdar and a koyûnlî. the daughter of King Azz-ud-din of the dynasty of the AukThe chronograph is written on the gate. the castle of Hassan Kala'a which to the east. besides two purses. passed to the east. village. According to the canon of Sultân Suleiman there are two thousand two hundred men including the troops of the with three hundred men Beg in garrison. khdn the Pasha. In consequence of this letter I sent to was sent back into Persia on the tenth day. a square castle on a cliff. in the territory of Karss. thousand three hundred and fifty aspers. a small bath. kents and villages. We a mosque of Sultdn Suleiman Khân. but flourished again under the government of Kara Yûssûf Shah of the family of Timur again destroyed it.THE TRAVELS OF 180 Before health. is 1057. mentioned is From hence but no garden. . an further IN . It was conquered by Lala Kara the Kara Koyunli. without a garden. this . and now belongs to the government of Karss. fifty men. the village Badil Jovânlî. through the plain of Passin. It at the Mustafa Pasha. JOURNEY TO ERVAN From Erzerum twelve hours has already been described Armenian hours the station of Meidânjik chalk is to the east. and reached in nine Ten hours Armenians.

Lala Pâshâ who is . within which time he completed that its munition. . and the last . and other distinguished men. of Karss has been given at different times to Vezirs of three money (Arpalik) ." evliya EFEN di. . repairing this ruined by the Persians. Khojûjân Zârshâd . a well at his feet was to be dug. Gejewan . his name was Abül Hassan Kharkanî. a Dizdar. Jebellis and troops of the Pâshâ. and Emin of the Defter. the garrison Karss. The tomb was re-covered amidst prayers. the government of Erzerum. Karss is amounting annually to seventy thousand aspers. . three thousand a Colonel. and gunners the Colonels reside for the most part at Erzerum . Kaghzmân . but is now as barley- a distinct province with the addition of There are seven sanjaks. The government there is of a Sheikh-ul- Nakîb-ul-ishrâf (head of the Emirs). III. and Karss the seat of the Pâshâ. which they placed on the gate looking to the south-east. and illuminate her tomb! the last builder of Karss. the garrisons of Their pay is collected : Wan. Silefka. Werishan. but no Kiatib Kiaya and Its tails belonged formerly to It sanjaks are . and which had the following inscription : — " This Castle was built under Vezîr Fîriz Akaî in the time of Sultdn Azz-ud-din May God repaired by his daughter Sultana Karîm-ud-dîn. armourers. and the blood yet. the karss is sixty thousand aspers. and which was as follows. a judge with three exquisite hundred aspers. a Defterdar Passin. of the treasury and of the timârs. and Lala Pâshâ raised a convent upon The government it. the Karss of Mera'ash. and from the villages Surilj and Bombiij at Haleb. placed this stone on the wall. on which was written " I am the martyr. There are three towns of that name . was undertaken by the Ottoman town generals. the Karss of that of Karatâshhk Düdemân. and days.flowing from his right arm. marvellous things would be seen. one is in shops. and an Aghâ of the Janissaries. if Some hundred workmen were instantly set to dig the well. divided into ten jurisdictions. that he was buried here. the castle of Karss. it after it and on was was this occasion a large square marble stone was found. which the second. there are seven ziâmets and a hundred and two timârs. a Kiaya. and eight districts Islâm (Mufti) . with the troops . saying. Emin of the Chaushes. . Said Kharkcini. out of reverence for its Lala Pâshâ repaired ancient builders. and from the produce of the ferry-boats at Birejik on the Euphrates. the present one. ]81 Eight hours further to the east we reached the frontier fortress of the Ottomans. is Murad In the time of The conquered by Lala Kara Mustafa Pâshâ. An old man appeared to him. an Aghâ of seven companies of Azâbs. Little Erdehân ." He was found quite fresh. consists of fifteen Akhachka hundred excellent men are decidedly brave men. how- ever. when they found a red granite tomb. it in seventy A soldier came to relate to him a dream which he had. a Captain.

Efendi. distance on the north side At a gun-shot this fortress rises on a separate The has five strong walls. and turned after Within the water-gate within the middle gate who when the covered with terraces. is the bath of Emir There are no houses the old bath. the which are schools for boys. mun situated in the plain. set of people Pâshâ Lala and on the south side of the town across the . One is gate of the outer or lower castle looks to the east. It is three journies from hence to the castle of Akhiska (otherwise Akhaska. . for lectures who are. there is There on the sciences. solely on account of being into a stable impossible to get is buildings consist of three thousand houses. mosque of Emir Yüssüf Pasha. and barracks The lower town of these gates on the west troops. surrounded by two is and has three iron gates which are adorned with strong walls. mosque of Suleiman Efendi. that is of mosque of is performed on Fridays Sheikh Hassan Kharkânî. at the foot of which is the lower castle . at the gate of Behrâm-pashâ of Beirâm Chelebi-zadeh are eighteen . . There that of the inner or upper castle to the west. which was destroyed mosque is five of Hossein Kiaya called the possession of the castle. market. hill a high mountain. Akhachka). gain their hving the . for however. the second or middle gate opens to Kaghz- . looking towards Erzeriim . at the water-gate which was formerly a church the from the the circumference of the whole forty-seven mosques. We all the water-gate. and two thousand and eighty battlements remarkable The lower the whole night. reading of the Koran or tradition. or for dining the poor. mosque bridge. From Karss to Erdehân is one journey by the way of . and two hundred men for the garrison of or any remarkable building. and the summer quarter (Yaila) of Olghâr twelve hours long. on account of the cold temperature of the climate. also called the gate of the middle gate to the gate of Behrâm-pâshâ. mosque the . Yüssüf Pâshâ named taken care of by private generosity red Persians got the . passed the village of Arjük and the valley of Baghirsak. the third to the east Watchmen keep watch castle only the house of the is or suburb is kinds of armour. possession of the fortress. built by Omar . but two hundred shops in which Indian and Persian wares are found.THETRAVELSOF 182 Size of the castle of Karss. the gate of Behrâm-pâshâ. and No gardens and vineyards The inhabitants are a lively by agriculture and commerce. the great the . lighting torches and lamps. which encircles is church . well no stone Bezestân. commander. all but no colleges held in the mosques. no bath. Omar. opening towards Erivan. all the most of Kâltâkjî-zadeh. and hence . surrounded by a lake instead of a ditch. is The thousand seven hundred paces. is . in eight of which prayer mosque of Waiz Efendi it it There are two hundred and twenty strong towers. travelled from Karss twelve hours to the north.

it . The Levend troops (irregular levies) sing Persian songs with harmonious voices. two horses (Mahmudi). nine hundred feudal . to built Shah the castle of Moghazberd. and notwithstanding the repeated oaths of the members of it. castle of Kaghzeman being The towns and reckoned to be on the frontier of Azer- situated on the Kiblah side of the Aras is The reckoned to be on the frontier of Azerbeijan. and we travelled towards the east it is a district belonging to Karss. EVLIYAEFENDI. saying " that they never had disturbed the Persian caravan. passed into the hands of the Ak-koyunli of and then into those of Sultân Suleiman . lakes) flows to the east. there are not a commercial town (Bender). the garrison consists of a . of gardens on some spots . aspers. As soon as I entered the town. the Divân assembled. abode hill The air is it to the west. after its builder. Korgha-bazar. whetting-stones. barbers. read the letters of our gracious Lord. the Aghas of Gule. who are paid by the impost on fifty salt . It is the hundred and seventy-eight timers aspers. but belongs to the Ottoman government of Karss. a militia. It is named one of the daughters of Nûshirvân.. but a frontier it is Mount Aghrî which appears town (Serhadd). I took seven Aghas of them with me to prove the truth of I returned. a square strong building standing on a seven hundred small houses . whole day to the The beijân. is one of the most near the town. and that it was a calumny of the Next day we mounted our horses. and then submitted to Sultan Suleiseat of a Sanjak Beg whose khass amounts to two hundred thousand of the hands of man. who excused themselves. proceeded for a inhabitants of Kaghzemân. (Yaila) of on the bank Turcomans. they were abandoned is there are altogether eleven mines. whereunto . Erzerum. praiseworthy mountains in the world. and a garrison of three the salt mines. and is is the summer temperate and allows of the cultivation the inhabitants are mild and some of them fair. that they had not molested the Persian caravan. on the Kiblah castles : Aras are side of the river Aras rises at the castle of all Kaghzemân. The mill-stones of Persia and Rum come from Kaghzeman the borax of the goldsmiths. and a quarry of on the west side of the castle. two places gold and in silver are found. . and the common whetting-stones are extracted from the mines of Kaghzeman mill stones. on the west from the mountains of Bingol (thousand and the Zenghi. by Moghdz a Persian Khân Ismail. 183 my journey. joins the barley river (Arpachayi). nine ziamets. the castle of Güle. what they The Beg and eleven said." Pâshâ of Erzertim. and arrived to the south. The castle of the Aras. I arrived at last at the object of and on the same day entered I it. a judge appointed with a hundred and hundred men. It was taken out Uzun Hassan by Shdh Ismail. and two Georgian slaves for nine hours. but only taken their custom duties. but as the product was exceeded by the expences. are . by their presence at Aghas presented me with a purse of money.

it Sanjak Beg subordinate to Karss hundred men bear in the time of war. there are three hundred houses with terraces. to which fire does no harm the balsam which is skimmed off from the worth seeing on account of its . is made here. built of stone in a is height . and it is enclosed by iron The explanation of this matter of this cave. and mingles castle to the territory of the Persian castle Shuregil. is Opposite to Moghfizberd. at a journey's distance. khân. the kent Thâlish. meanwhile . If This it is what please I. comes from the mountains of Georgia. bath and ten shops flows the river Arpachai. which with the Aras at the Kend The of Tekelti. The balsam. and a khân. called Mirûn-yâghi. at the foot of this castle . to prevent it if our guess. It is a convent well monuments and strange talismans. either from Persia . placed on the top of floor. a mosque. situated on a hill in a plain. belonging to Karss. profane. inhabited by about five hun- or six hundred horsemen. THETRAVELSOF 184 hundred and fifty men the castle . in it is. have been suspended by a miracle of Simeon the Apostle it vibrates. a convent. not the river Arpachai forms the limits : Moghdzberd it is the castle of Ana on a Nûshirvân. universal remedy. at a day's journey from Karss to the east on the road to Erivan. found out there rails : is intellect. and . arms. contiguous is which alone remained the districts of all of hill. a square mud by castle. built by the Greek one are Greek. this and castle . built by the Persian Shahs. divided into three parts. Karss pentagon form on a rock. a great convent at others Armenian nuns Nine hours further eastward in the these Three Churches and the Seven Churches on the road to Nakhshivan are the most famous convents of Persia. commanded by any neighbouring and vineyards . in a cave without being supported up from above below the Infidels beHeve . the inhabitants are Armenians mountains we passed . it has six hundred houses with gardens a mosque. twelve . built between Ana and Karss are two after nine hours journey we arrived at Zarshid on the utmost frontier. and a similar one on the my own weak The convent five it a strong wind blows kept in equilibrium between them. on the frontier of Erivan march to Emperors the . God. east we passed Kara Taib. kettle is put into and used through the whole of Frengistan as a panacea or In the neighbourhood of this castle is an iron bar suspended jars. the judge has a hundred and but a Dizdar castle is (Commander fifty aspers . in the power belong to the government of the eastern tract of this town Persian. and the western. shortsighted Evliya. almost every night by to being touched by the that the architect who made the vault a great magnet. a bath. of plants boiled in a kettle upon a carpet. Ottoman. in is is arrived after twelve hours Three Churches. there the seat of a is no Muftî nor Nakib is of the castle) and a hundred and fifty The men. so that the iron bar is is no blunder dred monks . of the Persians. the convent ..

went to the west through marshy ground. Aghas appeared to be innocent. to crossed the gi'eat rivers Aras and Zenghi. is said to town. its ruins. thrones. his sister at to the for the Charged with of camels. at the end of which the Baku. and a horse. of a long . and are entertained by the From hence we passed dates. arrived at kent . which had been ruined by Sultân Murad IV. The next day I repaired Aghds of Karss and Kaghzemfln. monks with or Turkey arrive here. gave the strongest terms. Journeys on our Return. houses . also some letters. a Persian village of a hun- dred houses. VOL. a ziamet on the frontier of Karss. kent Ayârân with We it is Begum . advanced to the north four hours to the inhabitants of which are Gokdulak . and reached after five hours the kent Abdallî. I set out to return to Erzerum. but seven high the ruins on the border of Arpachai. three sides of this old . where the Meimendi Khân. continued our journey to the west. laden with rice. gardens. it was ruined by Timiir. . this The singers.evliya efendi. which at the time of the conquest was fixed to be the frontier of We Karss. with their names. and five Divân with the of molesting the Persian caravan discussion ensued. honey and the east through level fields for nine hours. who con)plained. and the chronographs of their From hence we town are a great Yaila. me three days. passing over many it many hundred from hence through mountains of luxuriant vegetation to kent Sherâb-khâneh. and Takki Alî Khan feasted the Aghas tomans Abâssî. Gûndûzbai Khân and other Shâhs are buried. to the old castle of Shureger Hossein Bikara. it passed into the built this town according to the advice of Doctor Shûrgerî The deaths. where the just returned from the wedding of and lodged me at his house. ruins. castles. situated on a dred Armenian houses with five among . with a caravan of seven hundred persons toward the west. as they were in if life. II. 185 milk. Ashâr Khân. whose castle is in amongst have been invented by Shureger inhabitants all delight in music. and arrived for the second time at Khân had Erivan. and some meadows. hands of Kara Yûssûf and was destroyed by Timiir ruined it again . some seated on their Princes of the Ak-koyiinli. Pasha a string these. Otgabai Khân. at the time he and are famous and no more than three hundred houses with B B . some lying. fertile extant and seeing After four hours we Uzun Hassan Shah of that name built there are three hundred even now styled Beghum : houses of Armenians and Georgians still of three hun- the daughter of the Persian Princesses are arches are hill. Lala Kara Mustafa Pâshâ large vaults and masses are yet conspicuous The musical tune Shureh was building . We set out from Erivan. delighted with its situation on the river Arpachai. steppes. in their having been unjustly accused the men of the caravan to be calumniators.

of Karss yet marked. a bath. an Eight hours further in a plain. At this time the Capiji Al Aghâ Constantinople. a free Seven hours further is the castle we remained a night as guests with Alî Aghâ. with a Khatti-sherff of Sultân Ibrahim. and the spot his expedition to Erivan. a khan. of three hundred hundred houses. some of which come from Georgia. hours further to the west square and built of stone. next day to the village of Dushen Kia (the falling rock). it is (Moharerî Wilayet) at Erzerum Goz fir over Persia and Turkey for the three hours beyond this straight on the banks of the Aras. the name of which I am ignorant of. a mosque. some from the mountains of Azghur. by received the Imperial command arrived from which the Pasha to repair with all the troops of his government to . and the Alaii Wernishan resides here it . it Five the village of Bûlânik. the inhabitants are hours to Soghânlf Beli. to five hours. Shiireger . built level fields. village Efendi the land registrar the Aras is the station of all the seat of a Sûbâshî fifty Armenian houses. and on the west . the inhabitants planted trees round hours further to the west through fertile it. we advanced to the west.a Dizdar.THE TRAVELS OF ]86 now terraces are The existing. . woods for seven we reached the kent houses. It is a mountainous fertile tract of Georgia which extends northward to the Arasand Zenghi. formerly a sanjak. it is continued our journey through Kûmadâmî. half of being situated on the other districts its bank of Arpachai belong to the government of Erivan those on this side to Karss. is and made ground ziamet of Sefer Agha. where his tent was is a prayer-place. and forty shops subordinate to Karss an . and continued our journey . We then arrived at the Sultân Murad crossed this ferry of a river. on the frontier of sanjak Passn. assisting every night at the assemblies of the Pasha. of three hundred houses. and arrived at Hassan Kala'a. letters and caravan of the khân of Erivan. on the frontier of Karss. of two a garrison. river on fixed . an Armenian village of three hundred houses. through which has been already described. ascending and descending through high Wernishan on the frontier of Karss. the castle We people. opposite shore of the Aras belongs to the castle of Bayazi'd. obstinate is it . a straight famous difficulty in crossing Beg . of a hundred and Armenian . we passed by the dynasty of that name. my functions as Clerk of the Custom-house. six territory of Karss. and flow into the Aras some of the ground is marshy. to From Erzeriim. is the village of the ziamet of Ja'afer five hours further along in sight of the bridge of Chobcin. crossing five small rivers. is two journeys from hence to the north Akhiska is through fields to Zeinkhan on the . Passln. and along Mount Caucasus to the Caspian Sea. with two hundred houses meadows fir-woods and The of then . on the walk of Abd-ur-rah- man Ghazi . Four hours from hence we arrived safe at Erzerum. I and reassumed presented the camels. where we found our gracious Lord the Pasha.

which has . It was built by . ISPER. At Keifi. the inhabitants were ready to obey. Abaza Pâshâ their bones are the village of Gûrgî-boghâzî (Georgian straight). and vallies to the bridge of the Georgian straight. a bridge built over the hills. TORTUM AND AKCHEKALA'A. source advanced three hours to the north . a great saint buried underneath a cupola. on the top of a high mountain without gardens and seven hours further to Khâneh went which (silver all house). it . We it its is the Saint. We youth. . and a mosque . of the inspector of the silver mines and began to I Gumish and read the firman. took up his residence at a village of two hundi-ed houses. Erzerum with nine I left Erzerum. It is on this spot that the rebel him cut to pieces forty regiments of janissaries sent against piled up near the bridge hundred houses. in order to raise a commission to go to Sîdî Ahmed and collect troops. but from delicious source in the rock of Rûmlî Sultan unto Keifi its and most healthy water in the world. Rumli Sultân was a appreciating the good qualities of this river. through been described in our journey to Georgia. six been dismantled of its hundred houses. JANJA. poor Evliyii. to the castle of Janja.. I the west. otherwise straight to the Court of Justice. evliya efendi. one of the sanjaks of Erzerum. two hours to the hours more to the north servants. has two : in the district of Erzerum. to the village of Saûlû of a hundred houses in the territory of Janja. We passed to the north over flowery meadows nine hours to Rûmlî Sultân. which is above all praise. remained as guest in the house visit the town. and somewhat spoil the sweetness of the water most who it is . proceeding to the north in the plain of village of we came to Kân. castle has in course of time the It hes north of Tortum. are the iron mines. I. paid obeisance to the noble tiighra and instantly dispatched commissaries to Erzerum. Euphrates by Shah Uzun Hassan. when governor of Trebisonde in his proceeded six hours to the west. where iron shot are cast several . and has was destroyed by Bayazid II. a than. since it is mentioned with praise in the Koran. JOURNEY TO BAIBURD. built by Ulama Pâshâ in order to control Georgia walls and garrison. hundred little rivulets run from these iron mines into the Euphrates. to be ready for the 187 The Pâshâ Infidel Persians. war against the Karss. to Akchekala'a in the territory of the sanjak of Tortum. Here is the cave whence springs the Euphrates. of two hundred Armenian houses five the village of Sheikh Umudum. the governor of the sanjaks of Sânja and Tortum. Mera 'ash and Sîvâs. received Pâshâ. Six hours further to the north.

or bath . the place was called Baiyûrd. because they are obliged to labour in the silver mines. a mint here. Bingöl. conquered II. and Yenicher-serdârî. a Mufti. and stands on a high cubits. in the Castle . is it I I After taking a however. one of whose philosophers discovered the silver mines. by the sword it is Uzun Hassan after the defeat of in the field of here found in such abundance. because inhabitants are is there are three hundred old town. and a censer (bokhûrdân) of silver. a Nakib.THETRAVELSOF 1S8 Mohammed Alexander. the revenues of the judge a pentagon. Sipâh-kiayayerî. Its no Jews nor not far from the seashore. by which silver in the they became rich (Bai). a . first settled here. II. . in of transplanted hither a is the market that of Zâhid Efendi. and nine of Armenians of Greeks. the European ones are the following Sira. there are nineteen gipsies. good men. its houses. Silver The plate. II. but their veins are thin silver . and with the ancestors of the and having found a rich treasure of with the to Rum. opening to- and one to the west. exempted from all taxes. of Kaghzeman. per- was presented by the principal men with three hundred piastres. mines. by which you descend to the lower quarters of Moslims. that every child has a silver inspectorship let is seven million aspers for the inhabitants are . Danishmend family. and Merzifun. which was changed into Mahmiid Pasha the Vezir of Mohammed Baiburd. the Castle. Form and size of It is amount annually it is men very orderly. good view of the town Kaissi those of Jânja are as big as an arm. Terjân. A great but a great number whose descendants are mosques are pleasant. colony of three thousand . These are the richest silver mines in Turkey. pure silver : There was also mines of the Otto- on the frontier of Bosnia. Sanjar. its forty royal gates. but no market. man Empire . seventy of which are worked. : Novaborda near Pereshtina. the most frequented of them that of the conqueror. the height of the wall hill. position two . Aswan. of the inhabitants of Tire. a jurisdiction of a hundred and There is fifty aspers. a vase for rosewater (gülabdan). on account of wards the gardens. got some aspers with the inscription. conquered According to the description of Sultân Süleîmân. Sidr at Karatova. it has no ditch. and two days march through mountains and after fortress of Baibiird. Berinjesse near Uskiib near Salonia fectly . is it from it the Uzun seat of a Subashi separated from the khass of the Vezir of Erzerum. khân. Akar. the others are those These are the Asiatic and African Libanon. one to the east. Hassan. Mohammed Turks and Turcomans. but now abandoned. Hakkârî. coined at Jânja. consisting of more than a thousand houses with terraces number to six purses. The Princes straights I arrived at the old who came Ottomans from Mahân of the family of Akkoyûnlî.

there are three convents : mosque of Kâzizâdeh before this kh. fruits. light. The qualities. and putting on it town of Baibiird it spirit) a name it well deserves inhabitants of the town cut their a private mark throw it wood on into the river. a large river. supplies water to a great straight to the lower its name is corrupted from Jûîrûh (river of most excellent down floats until east. Of the second. provisions. I YA E F E ND terrace in the olden style . horseback in four days. elegant palaces and koshks and gardens. fresh butter. and a great there its khân is most excellent close to the first the third. by footpaths. well-coloured. a market every Sunday attended by from five hundred to a thousand is hundred shops. in two days. that of Alî Shengâh . out his wood. is the mosque of Chelebi.EVL mosque covered with a ing of bricks at . the mountains of Erzerum. Pilgrimages. the Imperial dyeing-house and its left Near to the women's bath mosque of Kâzizâdeh Mohammed near the river Jorugh. is the . of Dervishes. which are exported into it provided with from the neighbouring places. Mengesila. passes This river comes to Baiburd through many well-cultivated and flows at the bottom of the Castle of Conia.in . it is where each person comes from the number of fields. who The countries. . an elegant Bezestan. it is the burying-place of Abd-ul wahhab . the red . and a kind of wheat called camel's three persons. 1 minareh its is 89 a slender build- are the Court of Justice. who losing their teeth pronounce with difficulty the letter women are very eloquent. where the inhabitants delight the mountain. white pies. for boys. navigate this river to Georgia and Mingrelia. is facing the mosque in the quarter on the opposite bank of the called the parrot's mountain. fruit and seventy schools is all not very favourable to flowers and being rather cold. . the two banks are adorned . the is the bath at the bridge bath the temperature of these baths . which are called Sarpiina and villages. Some hundred boats of the Lazes. into the Black Sea. to fetch washes the rocks of the castle. Description of the River Jorugh. a dining establishment and college. fanciful carpets. an old but sweet mosque the part of the town beyond the river Jorugh is called Yoris Shengel-baî the Flour-hall. The mountan Jorugh. Mahallessi is there . and on of a hundred and S. but the hence. Erzerum is two journeys direct north from A man may go from here to Erzerum. and some coffee-houses. are quick and clever . It rises in and flows with many to fish by its . with three baths. I. and exchange their mer- chandize for slaves. air it is amply There are some pretty faces. which stopped in the middle of the town by a great rake. much renowned teeth are so are also the carpets and felts of Baibiird. the old but men hve to the age fifty.

are than that of Fuja. higher is In the cemetery to the Kiblah of the town. it in the register as the seat of a sanjak furnishes sixty thousand men. the The Pilgrimage of Osman Ghdzî. the distance being too great. their annual revenue to three thousand piastres. Asherd. and having collected the After number of troops fixed received from the Sûbashî a present of three hundred piastres. many thousand buried Near miracles. people yet an able architect this place. so did seventy-six villages. and the Bevâna with three hundred vil- and the inhabitants remain Ottoman subjects even to the pre- castles Isper also the district of small The Begs of the Akchekala'a paid obeisance. by the firman. built the river Jorugh. and by Selfm Georgians. and is commands the town. He and then II. It was built by the old King of Georgia Mamerul. and the two castles of Nejakh and Mirakhor sur- Trom hence he proceeded rendered. hands of the Ahmed Pasha to recon- and an assault of seven hours. then advanced further into Georgia. his fir-tree across be compared is great men. was conquered by Uziin Mohammed Hassan. I and continued my journey accompanied by fifty armed men. and the Pasha's annually to twelve thousand piastres in a hundred and fifty aspers. opposite the mosque. the principal of which are those of Bervâna. Dadânlî and Isper. to Akchekala'a. but cannon from hence. lages did the same. The which being a stronghold was castles of district of Penkerd. The sent time. Suleiman quer it. and Tortum was put down Erzeriim . greatest credit with the inhabitantsof this town. and Sultân despatched his second Vezir after a siege of seven days the Infidels to pieces and providing . fair way : Its judge and there are nine well cultivated is Beg belonging to revenues amount appointed with a districts. in half underneath a an hour. shot cannot reach which hill in rises town. and the river Jorûgh it The flowing between. it again into the fell when Governor of Trebisonde. as he isa recent Saint having witnessed alive a bridge of which the and finer . it He with stores and men.. . large and the castles of Tekkhiss and the valley of Bersâssa were conquered. Description of the Castle of Tortum. .THETRAVELSOF 190 A'aî. who took all it retook first I. and fifteen castles. and Pertekrek yielded to ihe Ottoman power Dadânl with . to bridge over the Duina at Fuja Shehri in Herzgovina can alone fir but this bridge of Baiburd having only a single arch. taking a good view of the town. not taken little till the seventh day. ascended This high mountain a general walk. but I have mentioned only those I visited. who is here buried The Pilgrimage of Jâghir Kânlidedeh has the cupola of bricks. cutting lost it again. amounts . in the shape of a swallow's wing.

on a high rock It is built in the castle is an iron gate opens to the east . the The Moslim troops on their side prepared every and made ladders of the masts and rigging of the captured . as of fruit to that place full the river which flows through . they consisted of three : here hundred well armed horsemen with about a thousand riflemen with flying hair.evliya efendi. was collecting troops I Ahmed. the mer- it is ley. is news arrived here. grapes only two journeys from Erzerum. a mosque of Sultan Suleiman's time. and in the lower town . and arrived next morning at the castle of at the Gonia on the Black Sea. the Zaims and Timariots who expedition. two khans. some ships. ! (Jesus) . fire. the opposite shore were received by the muskets . the inhabitants are righteous. that the The Infidels which were left overloaded went to the bottom. Some fled to of these boats being who by swimming reached made from such courage and had not time to recollect themselves. and which had joined him on the way. that the Cossacks wished to volunteer in to Ghâzî assailed the castle of armour. and We night. mounted on horseback. started with his troop under the triple shout of Allah. intg a prisoners. between forty and with strange figures and ugly faces. a square form. and peaches are much praised chants send chests men ble of . cutting down making or and towing the Chaikas Infidels. Tortum saltpetre it . from the castle . those spirit. attacked were moored behind the all ! filled castle. hospita- goes into the Black Sea While produced for Government. the Pâshâ flattered with good words- This night we passed along the river Jorugh. and the assault was Pâshâ led the assault himself with on the Jorugh. The Mingrelian and Georgian troops entered the trenches in broad day- the walls were fired upon. Jasus the troops Jasus with Infidel Cossacks. which came to join the received. with loud cries of Allah. had place. who seventy Chaikas The Pâshâ with a hundred and fifty Aghas. but those who were they could not escape in their boats. the ships lying in the river. the Pasha Sîdi of the he instantly put on his . and pears. and visiting the town. fifty lances. light. and let the boats float out into the Black Sea. imaret or medresseh. and years of age. twelve schools and The seventy shops. and halted next morning in a val- We continued our course to the north for the whole of the second day. whom we met and were honourably Pâshâ. but no stone bezestân. this summoned all Gonia town in the . ]g Size and Shape of the Castle. assembled about a thousand men. in seven is hundred houses and seven mosques. marched a whole day reinforcing our number on the road. acted like swine that are laid and began to thing for an assault ships. bay left at a gunshot's distance to guard the boats. all sides. seeing hold of. cut the cables. which we saw moment they saw us roared out. two baths. passed on to the frontier of Trebisonde and entered that of Gonia the Mingrelian troops.

iii^x of tbe castie. . ^ rib. \ ma._^-_^. daring w._ -_. ax chr *- - - FrtKn ^ eartf : - __: — ^__ L ^^^w^ back CT-o. tfaej joioed the Pâ^â. :.. Thus a crowd is brfore tbe castle. 1.e rUt tJi Erzerdnu and "XSKSOkkA tZIB --e casüe was who ak«ç captnred and drowned aba«â was thus crowned with three Tctories 2. march fironi '^T _ _ i . ^ed by S: iî Ghizf Pâshâ. on which - er Lizes sxmed : Tbe Pâshâ now this trij^ asault. wbo cooM not re-ester the castle. ît with all provisi'^îîs aiî-d :_i ir nights. t: - . r_:.-5eTeii _- îfter a flvin^ of Eviira. - - ee days . bot ---^gsfng thetn in the Cnrrssâa laz^oase.: tüTûT Ol SûT _^ -yt~. and began to : ' - up 2:îed befiire :. {leessed tiie snirxl of tike troops amred s: — '~ tibeir hsl-^' tne FîzkaDy there motets» aad soo wfe^ witii Isoces. Mo^ms fell mMl»ti» in from Ûne dasintt o£ Sanjâk Baiam. rTer. - . - - s' were i - i - . were taken sef^oity peisiiEiieis . _. sod two fignodred InfiMs. Tbe^ ^e t s: r Töe .' THE TRAVELS OF 132 of dheMo^BBsandwena to Hel: seicnleeii of tiie ships on the J(xûgfa were hmmia. ibrcT-sere "" uCâls Ci --:::--—- .^._. ?• : the ctHxpest of the 3. _- ~ At -_ :. The Fâ^tâ k& tiian oot a mcnöent s rest.ntains re-echoed the - tw^s. mtûîs. b^'orr- Çr''vj:2. r river.the . sDonBaned by tbe . with wtnte basoos wztd.: e: i Mingreli: :: s. had the lonqoest. This î. casques. . . et«iC|LMcât " ^J. and three r "^?d -f KiT^"?. .-_:ped . Urwer Gossans with proMoslim The inght was again r arruHigst the . &: \ .

Having waited on Sîdî honour. his head. not hanng The Divân Efendî made out the account of the conquest of Gonia. well shields. least journeys distant fi-om but I did it for the sake of the faith and the Empire. should tails . he keepmg on the they approached the castle a general salute of guns and musketry gave them welcome. was a spears. and then rode on his right. Ahmed Pâshâ SîJî being acquainted with his arrival neither went himself to meet him. who came with three thousand seventy boats (sandal) and a hundred ships of the Lazes. it kill righteous. with flying hair and strange himself came with the train of his guards figures. according to religious duties. and the accusation against the Pâshâ was signed and sealed by the three Begler-Begs. armour dazzled the eyes with the Georgian army in Sîdî . Akhiska and Kaighi constitutional law. who are the Governor of Trebisonde. orders were given to put seventy of the principal oflicers of the troops of Trebi- sonde into prison. and Begler-beg of two and not arrive till The Pâshâs tails. nor sent anv He halted Ahmed Pâshâ troops to perform that ceremony. replied. and the other Pashas to to see these troops on armed with fine horses. when the inhabitants of of Trebisonde VOL. whose gUtwas that of Koja Sefer Pasha. Tufenkji. and muskets. Pâshâ. for I if ! its if it is kill interfered. for urged the Pâshâ to hasten to the deliverance of Gonia. why did vou at only . but relate the business to the Emperor the Divân Efendî (Secretary). that Pâshâ of one tail. castle. Mengesila. within these seven days to of Passn. swords. You. The next day clouds of dust rising on the side of the Jonigh announced the arrival of a new army. good troops it in ." !" was against one of two. south of Gonia. ^lingreha. Lâz. of vour him. passed with illuminations and feasting 193 the shouts of Allah. \Mien Sefer Pâshâ (Mataraji. I'll cut off however. and the sounds of the . he carried plenty of provisions. the Vezfr of Chalwho summoned by the command of our Lord the Pasha of Erzerum.evliya efendi. arrived tering dir. it Shatir). and they were accordingly shut up in the castle. by the Judges of Gonia and Trebisonde. and was not it my with his troops on one side of the he received him without the from tour to is duty to hasten to five assistance its . but with the following speech. "By God even intercession. now Provisions arrived in abundance at the Imperial camp from Xext day fresh troops appeared to the was the Pâshâ of Trebisonde. he be a Pâshâ of seven won't Quick. Baki Pâshâ left. call quicklv "While the dispatch was being drawn up. executioner assistance. it c c . and ten guns. speed to the assistance of the Castle of Gonia gi-eat Ahmed Pasha went mth grand sight it meet them. called Georgia. . which Gonia. that he being only a He two journies from Gonia. " I am the Pâshâ of Tortum. When . saying. and Batün. Ottoman drum interrupting the silence of the night. and received Sîdî Pasha's salute. II. and was ready to be sent off. in consideration.

hatchets. and Administrators of provinces. who had (substitutes). sonde should give forty-three purses of money. they rode them came Hassan Atlî Aghâ himself. a squadron of two hundred Châshnegîrs (carvers). and the guards of the Sârîja (irregular levies of the Pâshâ). By sword set with jewels. seventy tables were spread. all the solicited the Pashas to intercede with the Commander-in-chief Sîdî Ahmed and it was ultimately arranged. led by the Key-keeper (Miftah They were also followed by forty chamberlains. were put into it . vases bridles. and lastly a squadron hundred Ichaga (indoor servants). MotesseUims (Vice-governors) and Sfdi Ahmed Pâshâ gave them a great repast. The side of the castle that was damaged by Seven hundred the fire. the silver. twelve girls with eyes like Narcissuses. six squadrons of Tatar horsemen. a work of goldsmiths of Trebisonde. Kiayas quality of the in seen service these chamberlains were men. Ahmed Pâshâ persisting The principal men in Pâshd. a silken tent richly embroidered with gold. Kaima Kâms (Lieutenants). by another of Gonullî (Volunteers). and day and night was spent in festivities. Alai and Sanjak Begs. supplicating not to his resolution. forty banners of Segbân and by their colonels (Boluk Bâ^hî). and the mosque of Bayazîd H. The Zaims. mare. who had hastened to the deliverance of Gonia. Timariots and half the garrison. surrounded by from forty to fifty men clad in armour. a of silver. squadron of two hundred Kîlarjî (men of the cellar). seven quivers. these gifts they obtained the favour of not being Emperor . under the com- mand of Hassan Atlî Aghâ. with All his encampment on the border of the fortress. twelve beautiful boys. and a hundred and twenty horses. and took up next day assembled all after the architects of the country to repair the castle of Gonia. and this report was sent by Gurji Beg Zadeh to Constantinople. They were followed by a squadron of Deli. showed of Trebisonde however. a squadron of two hundred Serraj (saddlemen). on horses of the finest of two breed. three of mules. led Jebellis of Erzerum with Pdsha. The Turkish music played from seven sides. and of sweet language. men forming a new garrison.. THE TRAVELS OF 194 Trebisonde threw themselves at the feet of Sîdî Sîdî be accused to the Porte. and ornamented with sea-horses bristles . each one «Thûlâm agassî). clouds of dust announced the arrival of fresh troops on the banks of the Jorugh these were the troops of Erzerum sent to the succour of Gonia. three sable pelisses. and immediately trumpets sounding. to whom named in the report to the only were mentioned the Begler Begs. as Commander. candlesticks of three strings of camels. with a new Beg. that the Pâshâ and principal men of Trebi. caparisoned with silver. but at the moment he was setting out. a squadron of six hundred Moteferrika. after three days negotiation. two and two. was first put in repair. obstinacy of a Circassian. Another Kapijî Bâshî was despatched with the same news to the governor of Erzerum.

evliya efendi. for boys and arms. which was taken by till they arrived under the walls assault. was so fortunate as to proclaim the walls 195 prayer on first Thus the castle of be praised that its I. towards the Kiblah. and I now intend to take vengance on the Mingrelian infidels with this army. together with those of the Rus- wait in the port of Gonia for the Emperor's decision. the sanjak Begs of Khinissin. made seven hundred prisoners. who were then The Council broke up with this resolution. We marched this day ten hours to Zârchairî. the troops of Pâshâ. Evliya. pursued the lost seven men of castle of fugitives in as martyrs. with the loss of seventy Moslims. proposed that of all the horsemen should join the foot and undertake an inroad for booty. The army having halted on the bank of the river Joriigh on a large meadow surrounded with trees. lions. and Darna the twenty-two companies of district of . for The cryers gave notice. that we took sians. may now their boats I have related to the I have also many thousand Cossacks and Mingrelians have Ottoman to the share of the thouch which." its at the The governor Mingrelians. and Sfdf Ahmed Pâshâ said — " The : belonging to the Province of Trebisonde have rebelled. then began to sixty march along the banks of the river Jorugh towards Erzerum. Moslims who wished for booty. The troops proceeded Merava. Sefer Sârija Lord. poor newly conquered ! The Bâtûm were troops of the sanjaks of Trebisonde and the castle of Gonia. Tekman and Melazjerd were deputed to provide the forage. Ketgâj Pâshâ led the van of three hundred men. and the whole army of the safety of left for thousand men. girls. followed by three thousand men of Georgia and Akhaska. should be ready in Moslim victors roared like Commander. breeches and horses. Minsfrelians. that it may gain some booty Georgia. and the sanjak of Batiim. for This notice produced an astonishing the happy execution of which all money and effect. at the Bakî Pâshâ commanded the rear of three hundred head of nine thousand men. the armed and washed themselves. as prisoners. and waited also to share the spoil. and Gonia shone forth all in greater the arms taken from the enemy. Sefer Pâshâ. victors. a council was held. with sufficient stores. Pâshâ began to pillage the The next day we passed the Jorugh. the Moslims of Akhiska and Georgia leading the way. for the orders of the Account of our Inroad into Mingrelia. as compensation for who was very angry journey. God splendor than before. acquainted His Majesty that so fallen . and (irregular levies) of the Pâshâ. and by Sidi . men Ahmed Erzerum and Kara Hissâr formed the two wings . a pleasant position between Mingrelia. and Emperor. . ready for expedition. our gracious men. two thousand two hundred brave the mountains. that I said a Fâtihah.

and six seven hundred men. presents. and from thence to Trebisonde. Merkhor. were taken prisoners. . where Sultân was seated when Governor of Trebisonde. Begs of These were passed by tracts. in the The booty was for their praise. " seems to have been revealed only finest sliape. . for half a piastre. an for five aspers. and sent them fifty castles and villages whom the commander-in-chief bought for a thousand to Sultân Ibrahîm with twenty other were so beautiful that the text of the Koran. Akchekala'a. that a slave was sold for ten piastres. far as the districts of Georgia. a boy and girl. and on the frontier of Mingrelia. . also gave hours predatory march at a plain. Many of them returned bringing their booty to the Castle of of which I Gonia. . the inhabitants of which came with presents. We of Bâshajik sent to the Commander-in-chief a present of and by the Beg of Mingrelia. girls. Penâk. were made prisoners. met the Commander-in-chief. maidens fine was ruined by Uziin Hassan. am ignorant of. Asherd. to Batiim which all it me in Chepek. great thieves two hundred and . We halted underneath the castle of Tekrek. whose son with a thousand Selim I." so rich. the names the danger of the pillage.THE TRAVELS OF 196 who drank two hundred pushed as martyrdom the sherbet of girls. shown. shared the common fate of havock. pillaged districts all Ahmed the Pâshâ. thousand beautiful piastres. that each of . and nine Ketgdj Pasha. five Perkân. came with castles being situated ox man have created they . the district of overrun for the space of seven days. and we halted before the castle of Akhâr. and led the whom he was with further against the Mingrelians. a small round castle on a hill. The hundred boys. hundred women. furnished such beautiful boys and them was worth a treasure of Egypt. and we arrived here a Soffa (or . were pillaged. The Ottoman victors were now so loaded with spoils and booty. angry. but the villages situated in the plain were Yuvana. Kûchük Akchekala'a. Nejâkh. . they were threatened with girls. and a sheep We arrived after eleven the middle of which was a building raised We Penkerd. Two spies sent by the Prince of Mingrelia. that it became impossible to carry it all away. the inhabitants are not very brave. now is contiguous passed the Castles. ravaged . alone took two thousand prisoners taken. The Selsel. and in Sidf woody indulgently. but by Hormuz the son of Nushirvan Samârgha built were those of Pernak. at the field of Boghdii five meadow at the seat) is was pillage end of nine hours. Cümle. and they showed the way (the necessary pre cautions being taken) to the district of Tamaras Khân. boys and The Beg five girls. horsemen and two thousand Ottoman party of pillage infantry. the leader of the van. to ward ofT six districts more. paying obeisance to on high mountains.

evliya efendi.

197

Of tle Language of the Mingrelias.
Georgia

inhabited by seventeen christian tribes, the principal of which are,

is

The Mingrelians

the Achikbash, Dadiân, Shüshâd, and Güriel.

most despised specimen of
four,

dmekh

khoti;

five,

;

Bread, gûpdl

ten, weit.

derkdt; head, dudl;

ajim; swine, ghdj

wai

;

dids,

man, chai

;

;

six,
;

pishhU

fire,

ass, kirût

;

shield, pi'ir

;

dog, jogkûr

hear, nut;

;

down, dakhûr

;

tine

MZ;

dialects

;

is

inhabited by a great

number

of different tribes,

there are seventy different products

breed of horses (Kohailan) are renowned

nine, jitg/ûr

ashkhori

:

girdle,

;

;

salt,

come,

;

come mother, wai

;

;

its

;

who speak

wheat are

corn and

scarce as

hardly

there are neither mules nor asses in the

any thing but

on the high mountains are many nut and

;

inhabitants, like those of Mingrelia, Abaza,

mountains

;

different

sheep, goats, swine and fine

whole of Georgia and Mingrelia, but a great number of foxes, wild

The

;

curds, ?ner/m«

go, halawli

;

three, s fiunii;

ox, klijâ; calf, k issin

;

cheese,

girl,

sheej),

;

;

&c.

Mingreha

sown

are the last and

xheri

seven, ishküi; eight, rvo

ddjkhir

wood, deshke;

sit

art; two,

their language: Qr\e,

cats,

and Lazud

millet

fir-trees,

and martens
(?)

;

is

box-trees and cedars.

and Circassia, are settled

in the

they have castles with gardens and churches. In short, during seventy-

we made the tour of Mingrelia and Georgia, after which time the
Ottoman troops took the direction of Erzerum on the third day we came to
seven days,

;

the district of Darâtlî, which
rity

Sîdî

is

contiguous to the sanjak of Tortum.

Perfect secu-

being restored, the troops were licensed to break up by the Vezir of Akhiska,

Ahmed

Pâshâ, and we then went with the Georgian Begs towards Chaldir.

After fourteen hours
Isper and

we reached

Tortum met

the valley of Yuvana, where the inhabitants of

us with presents.

At the public entrance

Cossack and Mingi-elian prisoners were dragged along

Tortum

all

in

chains

assembled to form the istikbâl (solemn meeting.

Srdi Pasha himself wore the plumes of honour

Erzerum had

(Jîghateiî)

;

into

the inhabitants of

See Morier's

sent to him, put on his well caparisoned state horse, trappings of six

fashion, clad himself in blue steel

of stupendous

size, like

O victor,

in the

Moham-

with armour on his thighs, and, looking

a seven-headed dragon he passed through the crowd

received his salute crying, " Aleik awnallah ei ghâzî seifollah

be upon thee,

travels).

which the Governor of

pieces of steel of Nakshivan, wrapped round his head a red sash

medan

Tortum, the

sword of God

!"

The guns

and the mountains re-echoed the thundering

!"

of the castle of

noise.

who

" God's assistance

Tortum saluted

Sîdî Pâshâ repaired to his

palace, and Ketgâj Pasha, Bakî Pâshâ and eight Sanjak Begs encamped before

the town for three days, and on the fourth the whole of the troops

Erzerum, the territory of which we reached on Kassim

(St.

moved towards

Demetrius' day) and

THE TRAVELS OF

198

passed the straight of Ghâzî-boghîîzî.

Gumishlî Kunbed

his tent at

(silver

The governor expecting the troops, was in
vault) where Si'di Ahmed, Ketgâj, and Bakî

Pasha were received with the greatest

distinction, treated with

and invested with

Here the Pasha and Sanjak Begs

great

pomp

pelisses of honour.

The

their presents before the governor.

a splendid repast

season being

vanced to think of the expedition against Erivan, we remained in

The Governor, my

ing our days in pleasure.

now

laid

too far ad-

spend-

this place

gracious Lord, being a

with

little

angry

me on account of my having accompanied the expedition without leave, Sidi
Ahmed Pasha interceded in my favour, saying, " If it is a fault that I took Evliya
with me to the siege of Gonia, it is he that proclaimed first the Mohammedan
with

prayer on

its

he

walls;

a traveller of the world, a good companion of mankind,

(who knows the Koran by heart) and a warrior

a Hafiz

Having asked pardon
was

is

me

for

and not

to collect troops

in

to assist at the siege

of Gonia,

unless he finishes in eight hours the recital

sherif)."

I

began with the Bismillah and finished

him a sable
I

now

kissed the earth before

I

pelisse, a

spent

all

my

The end

of

all

joy

no doubt about

my

thorough bred horse, two

in

I

will

not pardon

(Khatem
somewhat more than nine
of the Koran

gracious Lord, and received from
fine boys,

and a sinecure

;

so that

is bitter.

There

time both day and night in pleasure.

Moral

is

the ways of God."

gentle manner, the Pâshâ said, " His duty

this

this fault

hours, after which

in

is

Reflections.

disappointment, and the end of every day

this.

So

at the

end of

this

1075th year we received the news

by a swift messenger despatched from Constantinople, that Sultân Ibrahim had
killed

without reason the Grand Vezir Saleh Pasha, and had appointed in his

place Tezkereji

he kept

it

Ahmed

Pasha.

Though

this

news greatly

secret not to spoil the pleasure of the

of his business at Erzerum.

Saleh Pâshâ,

who had been one

of the father of our Governor, had for this reason given

Erzerum

;

but the present Grand

Vezi'r,

Kara Mustafa Pâshâ, had become
secret to himself

and continued to

his

afflicted

mortal enemy.
his tent with

rest

of the favorite slaves

him the government

ever since he had been the

feast in

the Pâshâ yet

company, and transacted the

He

of

Tezkerejf of

kept however this

his guests, Sidi, Ketgâj,

Bakî and Dilaver Pâshâ.

{Here follows the separate history of these four Pdslids and of the Governor,
In the chapter of Sidi Pdshd it is mentioned that playing at
which we omit.
jerid one day with Evliyd

lie

broke four of his teeth.)

evli YA efendi.

199

Account of our return from Erzerûm to Constantinople
month ofZUkadeh 1057 (1647).

We left

the town by the gate of Erzenjan and halted

first

in

in the

the plain called

the circles of Bazar-bashi, where farewell presents were lavished on us by

Aghfis and principal

men

around the tent of the Pasha.

Baghdad, accompanied by an hundred and
Kapijî-bashî, seven

all

the

who both by day and niglit formed their court
The Kiaya of Saleh Pasha, the governor of

of Erzerûm,

hundred men,

Sârija,

fifty

Aghâs, an hundred and seventy

and three hundred Segban, arrived here

with the news of Saleh Pasha having been killed.

The next day

a messenger

Khattf-sherif conferring on governor -Mohammed

came from Constantinople with a

Pasha, our gracious Lord, the Governorship of Karss with the obligation to take

The Governor, our
the frontier.
without
paying
attention to the
now
it
may,"
and
it
as
The first station, three hours
his way to Constantinople.

the field against the Persians by defending

gracious Lord, said, "

Be

Khatti-sherif continued
to the vvest of

Erzerûm, was the

midst of the plain.

Kân, an Armenian

village of

Five hours further westward, the village

Ilija,

village

in

the

possessing a hot

spring, covered with high cupolas by the munificence of the Princes o£the dynasty

The

of Akche-koynnli.

basin

not paved with stones, but only strewed with

is

The water is of a moderate heat and smells like that of other hot
springs, but is more conducive to health than the warm spring of Zia-ud-din.
From hence we advanced five hours to the westward to the village of Khinnis, an
Armenian village of two hundred houses, and in five hours more came to the
This Lady
village of Mamakhatun, a mussulman village of two hundred houses.
white sand.

was a pious Lady of the Akche-Koyûnlf family, and
children

beneath a high cupola

Advancing

there

;

for five hours over valleys

and

is

hills

we reached

salt of

Castle of

Kumâkh was

king of Azerbeijan,

it

besieged disdained to
After the defeat of
ing three

to

built

the hands of the Akche-koyûnlî.

the Castle of

When

crossed by a bridge of

me on

fir-tree.

a mission to Mirakhor

Kumdkh.

in

the possession
for seven

of

Uzun Hassan,

the

months, during which the

a single shot or throw a single stone on the besiegers.

Uzun Hassan

months without

of Ketur on

by the Greek Emperors and then came into

was besieged by Timur
fire

tlie village

Kumâkh.

Our journey
The

is

halted here for three days, and sent

Aghâ, the inspector of the

her

a mosque, an imaret, and a college.

the territory of Erzerûm, where the Euphrates

The Pasha

buried here with

lies

success.

it

was also besieged by

Selim

I.

when governor

himself of a good opportunity and conquered

it.

He

Mohammed HL,

dur-

of Trebisonde, availed

then crossed from Trebi-

THE TRAVELS OF

200

sonde with three liundred ships

to Caffa

and Crimea on the opposite shore with

the intention of wresting the sovereign power from the hands of his father, Bâyazîd II. assisted by the Tatars

Hâjî Oghlî-bazar

in

The Father and Son met near

of the Crimea.

the valley of Oghrash, and Selim being defeated

left his

son

Suleiman, Governor of Trebisonde, and went himself into Persia, where he visited
the tombs of great Saints like imân Mûssa and played at chess with the Shah, who
Selim then defeated his father at
at this time had taken possession of Kumâkh.

who

Chorli,

exiled to

Demitoca died

Selim

at Hâssa.

received at Yenî-bâghje

I

the obeisance of the inhabitants of Constantinople, and instantly fixed the tails at
The castle of Kumâkh was conScutari as the signal of a Persian expedition.

Mohammed

quered by Bikli

Pâshâ.

It

is

one of the strongest fortresses of the

Ottoman Empire, like those of Diârbekr, Mârdîn, Van, Sn Kara-hissâr, Afiûn
Kara-hissâr, Megu, Eremnâk, Merkâb, Hassan, Karak in Asia, and in Rûm
than

all

noon, from clouds which pour frequent showers upon

it.

Mengesha, Napoli, Misistra, Rodos, &c.
till

description of the country

it is loftier

by Sultân Suleiman

Three

Voivode, subordinate to Erzerum.

it

districts

was

set

these and

is

invisible

At the time of the

down

belong to

it

;

as the seat of a

that of the town,

ofGerjanis, and of Kûrûchaî, from which the Judge gathers an annual revenue

The

of three thousand piastres.

dred men,

Nakib

officer

rules the village

of

Gomur on

Euphrates, which consists of seven hundred houses
of the salt, which

The

A

is

sweeter than the

salt of

tents.

which

There

is
is

no where

else to

be found

in

this officer

all

is

their salt

such perfection,

a proverb in praise of the linen of

The

:

the other side of the
the Inspector

Hajî-begtâsh.

inhabitants of Türkistan and Turcomania get

linen

hun-

an officer of the Janissaries (Serdâr), of the Sipahîs (Kiayayeri), and a

another

;

Castle has a Dizdar and a garrison of five

is

from Kumâkh.

made here

Kumâkh, the sheep

for

of Erzenjân

Komur, which passes through the gardens
of the village that bears its name, comes from the mountains of Jerjânish and joins
Near, and opposite to
the Euphrates near the convent of Melek Ghâzî Effendî.
The
it, is Mobarek, an armenian village, the khass of the garrison of Erzenim.
water, which distils in the caverns of the mountain freezes in the summer time
and the

and

girls

of Baiburd.

in the winter

is

as

warm

river

as a hot spring.

caverns their cheese called Katik-peiniri.

Tlie inhabitants keep in these

In coming hither from Erzerum you

cross the Euphrates over a large single arched bridge, ascend a height of five hun-

dred paces and pass along the rocky tract called Keban.
are on the right, as you ascend the castle and on the

There towering rocks
left

are deep precipices.

The small river Ain Manzar here flows into the Euphrates. This river issues from
Mount Manzar, unites with the Sâterdereh, a torrent which supplies water to the

;

EVLIYAEFENDI,

201

gardens of the town and joins the Euphrates below the rocks of Kepân.

water

clear

is

and

Near

fresh.

is

it

a rock called

here
it

weary limbs

his

Kullikia

above

;

gardens, are

all

is

have rested

said to

is

a stone like a magnet, and the inhabitants

is

it

;

where people

All's rock,

believe they are cured of pains in the limbs, because Alî

The

The

the suburb of the Infidels.

covered with earth.

The

call

houses, with and without

Armenians

subjects are all

;

there are

three hundred shops, but no bezestan of stone, two khans, two baths, and a great

mosque

the bath near

:

round

tion (Robat)

it,

called

it is

but above

The suburb has no

Chorbdjî-hamâm.

fortifica-

a great castle.

it is

Description of the Castle of Kumdkh.

This castle

is

a pentagon of stone situate on a chalk

to the castle of Sin-hissar

of the Euphrates
great to

on the

make

right

it

and

of consequence.
of the

left

first

it is

how

They

and a bow of

Alî.

and their

third gate

The number

is

laid

flat

stones.

;

though

On

There are three

;

town

is

it,

;

is

a large

mosque

on a rock, yet the houses are

by which they fetch the water at the time

saltpetre

and the third

is

very

first is

salt.

full

called Katik-peinirî,

which

The
is

in great

its

linen for tents, the white salt

better and sweeter than that of

Mytilene and of Koreisha at Damascus, are famous

summer come

of

Though

a town of Türkistan, situated on the territory of Erzerüm, yet

and the cheese

in

the Beg's

here near one another, the

inhabitants are goodnatured, sound people.

which

hundred, but

with rice and

from the gate of the Martyrs, a water-way cut

cisterns

good water, the second smells of
this

six

is

filled

which seem as though they had

this castle is built

rock leads down to the foot of

of a siege.

The

the tower called the Martyrs towards the north are

thirty-two large and small guns
in the

I.,

There are eleven mosques

up but to-day.

paved with

-,

suspended the mace of a Pehlivan,

Five magazines have been

millet ever since the time of Sultân Selîm

been

balls of three quintals weight.

of the houses great and small

they want gardens and water.

with a minareh of stone

them without complain-

are of the time of Sultân Suleiman

they succeeded in bringing such large guns to so high

At the innermost or

a place.

too

is

gate are two brass guns, well worthy to be seen,

their length twenty-seven spans
is

distance

has three strong gates one behind the other

It

ing of the narrowness of the place.

wonder

be compared

the opposite side

commanded, but the

of such dimensions that a cobler might very well work in

greatest

On

on the frontiers of Erzerûm.

a height by which

is

may

cliff; it

all

over Asia.

numbers, the inhabitants preserve

in

The

quails,

vinegar for

the winter.

Near the magazines
VOL.

II.

are the pilgrimage of

D D

Kend

Effendî and at the head of the

In the reign Shah Ismail . and Erzenjan. heard of the conquest of Amasia. which has two hundred houses Jebjeh-khân ten hours further. and the coinage struck in his name. an Armenian village on the plain of Erzenjan from whence we arrived at . which remained in Uzun Hassan until the time of Mohammed H. Erzenriim commonly I. when and garrisoned it with Ottoman troops. prince. together with to is still extant near the convent of the of Bayazîd. to the village of Jemen. repaired to this till in (Jezire). spot. shelter at the throne of Sultân mander Kara Yûssüf and fell into the became this refusal by the Princes it into His mint the defeat and death Issa. He repaired the after the defeat of castle of Sultân Zahir-ud-dfn of Bayazîd II. Mevlevîs. which joins the Pâlava. who took possession Uzun Hassan on the plain of Terjân. then leaving the Euphrates to the right. Ekin. This castle belongs to Erzerum and not to Azerbeijân. Mussa.THE TRAVELS OF 202 Melek Ghazî.. or Diârbekr can only cross in a it Murad river. but was the chief cause of the war between them. on condition that Khutbeh be performed. . Bayazîd refused. As this town is not caravans do not pass here. collected what was due by the Voivode to the Pasha. until Timiir overrun Asia. Jelair afterwards fled also Prince of Erzenjan. I returned in five Kumakh and days to out next day northward along the Euphrates to set Shurim. Description of the Castle of Erzenjdn. travels boat. who held it for seven Kara Yûssüf fled from his residence and sought years. viewed I town this for three whole days. the possession of Bayazîd viz from its There are four towns. on the great road. Ahmed Timur required Bayazîd of Baghdad. and received from him an hundred piastres as a present of arrival (Küdûmie). Zâhir-ud-dîn. Erzenjân. Sultân Seh'm was governor of Trebisonde. which bear the name of Erzen. and Bayazîd. to the station of . situated bridge. that of Whoever Euphrates. Suleiman and became absolute Lord. but was unable of Com- Egypt to Sultân Berkûk. Akhlat. the to deliver them up to him. who being already Prince of Azerbeijân After the hands of Jelair. Empire was disputed the latter obtained it and conquer Erzenjan.. the very same day he town and delivered to Sultân Bayazîd out of generosity returned the keys to Zahir-ud-dfn Bayazid the keys. Kharput. The Euphrates on the comes from the moun- east and flows round the rock towards the west to the Izûlî tains of Riimli Sultân the Alps of a thousand lakes (Bingol) comes the From Kurds. It is Erzen a delightful the year 855 Sultân who. Zâhir-ud-dîn died three years afterwards and the town was taken possession of by Kara Yûssüf. from Malatia. the Mohammed. Erzenjan hands of Uzun Hassan. received it called Erzen : in Mesopotamia Erzerum. the Prince of the dynasty of Kara-koyûnlî. which occasioned many wars.

Kiayayerî. forty abecedarian schools. and favourable to roses and flowers. pious. This convent built the olden style in situated in the midst of a delightful Persian garden. which con- hundred houses. great suburb consists of eighteen hundred houses with and without gar- all covered with neat terraces and but few of them having upper stories mosques great and small without cupolas. sweetest men. rough and very cold. preserve here Jelâl-ud-dîn's habit.. Nakîb. the Dervishes. At the time of the rebellion Abaza at Erzerûm. 203 its first Lord after the battle Erzenjân was then made a part of the . the son of the seventy-six . the most renowned of which is that of the Mevlevis Chelebî EfFendî. and the convent They is music-room (Ima'a-khdneh) are the endowed with a good kitchen and hymns in the cells of the cellar (Kîlâr). fruits. The youth Rabia. but remains no gardens are productive of the finest flowers and the . learned. and intoxicate them with divine love. no houses . are found tradition and lectures are read many in all the mosques. eleven great khans. It has an iron gate. which returned to of Chaldirdn in the year 921 (1515) revenues of the Pasha of Erzerûm. of various colours and also in silk. a Mohtessib (judge of the market) and a Shehr-naibi (inspector of the town. magistrates are a Sûbashi and a judge Its who may collect annually six The purses. well-bred short dresses. evliya efendi. Amongst clever. a Kordn. The second convent is that own Sheikh Abd-iil-kadir Gîlâni. great is Mevlana Jelal-ud-din. while they themselves are singing mystic Round tunes of love. and wear is when walking boots and a pointed From The climate is two journies.) The and castle is situated in a delightful plain in the midst of woods. and a Mesnevi written by his hand. who who they are prohibited from walking in the market-place. the nightingales of which with their delicious songs feed the brains of the poor Dervishes. and the communiof cation from the fortress to the suburb is by a bridge hun- in the castle are three . with one hundred and fifty aspers. Erzerûm the inhabitants of both sexes are pretty. while that of Erzenjan on the contrary longer than three days. but Abaza Pasha became nevertheless master of it. gates its walls are very low and its fortifications very old. and the hence to Erzerûm situated beyond the mountains of (Dar-ul-hadith) nor poor (Dâr-ul-ita'âm). but there are a great number of students for dining the (Talebe) Koran (Dar-ul-kirayet). a khân and a bath. Serdâr. took possession of Azerbeijan. of Châdirjî There are various excellent baths. ladies are chaste as Adiiyeh cap (Arakjin) tains six . other officers are the Mufti. but no silk with the exception of the soldiers. goodnatured. and seven convents. dred houses with and without gardens. mild. The dens. the ditch was cleared and the walls repaired. is buried here. w'ear dress in cloth Precious articles are kept in a small bezestân. for reading the Its Snow falls is sometimes. a mosque.

and a Fâtihah was on with a foraging party said to that intention. with raisins and apricots much renowned and when its ." (the grand Vezir). the convent of Sheikk Khaled and the tomb of Himmet Pâshd. from two days. who . and the levies (levend) having determined to follow the auspices of the Pâshâ. great and principal military corps. was killed on I of Khizr. received its "a journey full application. Chelebî Kiaya. whence they are transported in provided with is from fruits this town. . there the heads of the Vezir. one of the vezirs of Sultân Selim. to be Vârvâr Pâshâ with the declaration upon oath quite perplexed and out of knew not how to dispose of. remained here for three days to collect the sums due from the Inspectors of and the Sübâshî of Kürûchai." to leave my things in safety . of Georgia. We is I Alaja Atlî Hassan Aghâ was sent quarter-master general. which in the midst of winter. because did not send to the Sultân the wife of Ipshir Pâshâ. Seventy sorts of pears are produced here was far sorts of pears presents to the offered as mulberries both white and black are The to all countries. Whilst the inhabitants were giving feasts to the Pâshâ news arrived of the rebellion of Vârvâr Pâshâ. a portion of hell. know where it and the I tradition but a farsang's length. but I happily escaped from them. from Constantinople to try our Ahmed Pâshâ shall This fortune. dried are exported sherbet of mulberries seasoned with different spices gives Erzenim to the soul. the Three Kapijî-bashî came with orders my to take I have now received letters from all the men at Constantinople. be did not poor Evliya. and from the officers of the seven summoning me to come with my troops to Scutarf.THE TRAVELS OF 204 Praise of the Eatables and Beverages. Chaiish. and letters were sent to I were to join him. Pilgrimages. and to demand head. had so many things and goods. the daughter of the Prince Lady Perikhan. yet we now saw seventeen various life Pasha. a convent of Mevlevîs way his to Chaldiran. seven Begler-begs and eleven Sanjak-begs ready to march against Constantinople. of Jenji Mossleh-ud-dîn Aghâ and Kara Khoja. of the prophet. the resolution was taken to join the party of the rebels. march our united letter having been I invite forces to received at Erzenjân a council was held. Begtâsh Aghâ. advanced at the time of our stay here. new and though the season of winter . was I. The convent Efendî salt . with a letter to the following intent : " My son Hezarpara ! me has killed eleven Vezirs and deprived I Ahmed Pâslâ the Vezir of Ibrahim of the Governorship of Sivas. my wits. I am now united with three Vezirs. If thou wishest to save thy head from whence we thee to join us at Tokat.

this bridge on tomb and after a my way said the march of and from Erivan. teen thousand aspers its men I. and then into that of Zâhir-ud-dîn. was built castles. eight hours to the north to Ezendeler.. and villages belonging to itself after left days was ordained. place with Behlul of Samarkand. together with the being called the Prince of Azerbeijan and described as a sanjak belonging to the government of Erzerum. It Shdbm its mountains Shabîn from Shab (night. and there are In the time of Sultân Selîm thirty-six ziamets timars. built the bridge of Tiflis and near Melazjerd the bridge with golden rings over the Araxes. that Kara-hissdr. feast for ten I took leave of the Pasha and proceeded with the Shin Kara Hissar. II. so is that travellers lodging there time the is so called because a coloured). We moved from Erzenj^n first Bâshkhdn . who conquered Shabîn. the hours at village. mine of alum (Shab) was found the stones of the castle being black. Description of the strong Castle of Shin or Van men travelled towards the east through along the valley of Kara hissar. as a rebel. buried in the same is tomb being opened. bridge I have sometimes passed the builder's I visited Bârûgûnide and came have the pleasure of fishing out of their windows. It it on a dark night. where a to the station of I first more Ottoman Empire various Kara-hissar. two thousand . near which at Bârûgünde tomb of Behlul tâshîs and . six hours further to the village of Sheikh Sinan. This We soul. hissar it. The two Kara-hissârî. Chobân Kûrüdûmân with his family all He was talismanic virtue. the windows of which look on the river. others are Develi' Kora-hissâr. dark fell into the power of the Greek Princes of Trebisonde. King that the was burnt by a that issued out by fire a Prince of great enterprise. and after four hours Here Adjoining the a magnificent caravanserai. the Prince of Erzenjân. Hassan of Samarkand. It is said. a convent of bareheaded and barefooted Beg- three hours further we crossed the bridge of the Shepherds near Shah Kürtidûmân of the Chobân family Kala'assi. a cultivated village in the district of Terjan. and only with my 205 my horse and sword accompany the Pasha. which passed into the power of was taken from him by Mohammed is another reason given for Uzun Hassan. to Sura yass. for his Tapan Ahmed Aghâ. to the north Ahmed Aghâ of to woods and deserts and reached the town a nine hours march. khass it was is thir- and nine hundred and forty Its belonging to the Beg. . which furnish. are superior first to the also called it is by the Armenian kings. Adalia Kara-hissârî. which bear the name of The before us. evliya efendi. and halted to the north hours further. the most renowned of which is There are in the Kara-hissar called Afiun is (Apamea). gracious Lord. to five after seven an Armenian village Erzensî. in and Shâbîn Kara- others.

and Tûsdereh by which I gained a horse. of the Pâshâ amounts annually to forty purses. because the inhabitants of the villages along the shores of the Black sea send all their best goods into the ditch. A small mosque bearing the name of Sultân Mohammed II. hke those of the Sultans at Constantinople the one within the market place near the court of justice is much frequented three convents. not being commanded by the neighbouring heights. hundred houses. Mohtessib. two baths. the .. a Nakîb. There are forty-two mosques. thieves and bad men. Subashî. which. consists of sixteen towards the north . appearing of an architect The judge is appointed with an hundred and make four thousand piastres from the different by himself. The height of the walls on all the seven sides is seventy cubits. in case of siege they use the water kept in The magazines are full of millet and rice. two red mules. none of which are covered with lead. like a who was man is invested with timars. has some- It times been given as a supplementary allowance (Arpalik) to Pashas of three It was so given to Ghâzî Sefer Pâshâ. Watchmen keep guard things are deposited there. its establishments are not very elegant. there it them from the inroads of the Cossacks there are seventy houses but they suffer from want of water. every night because many precious . It is It is the work one of the twelve fortresses in Ottoman Empire. a Serdâr. of a heptagon form and stands on a high of war dismantled and dismasted. as this place does not lie on the great road. a khân. being surrounded by precipices. with seventy bulwarks and seven hundred The whole circumference is three thousand six hundred paces battlements. boy me and may presented to . but on one side of Tapan Ahmed Aghâ began a new bezestân with eighty shops on both sides of the main street it is sheltered by a roof against rain and foul weather. a sword. and protected by two gates on each side against it. This suburb. the vezir of Akhiska. a second Ferhâd. : and fifty shops . and a Georgian Akhiska. There annually a Mufti. seven schools for boys and an hundred . It has three strong gates is no where the garrison keep watch day and night. it. a Georgian and He once sent me on service to the vallies of Mendvdl powerful commander. the windows of which look terraced the courtyards are spacious. As it is not a frontier fortress the artillery is neither heavy nor numerous. aspers fifty districts. with gardens around cisterns. and have been for more than a century. which is obliged to be brought castle to protect with terraces. Kiaya-yerî. is a Dizdar and an hundred and The fifty men Shabîn Kara-hissâr castle of mountain. His administrator (Motessellem) was Dei-vish Aghâ. four khans. asses from the river below . seem to have been built by the hand of Omnipotence. bath and market are in the lower town or suburb. upon .THE TRAVELS OF 206 The revenue men. . in addition to tails.

the mountains of of this part. these mountains. and two downwards to the under coloured but like the lips of a camel . Helle. by. and the hair crisped like that of black Arabs. of which resembled arrows . yawning like a seven-headed dragon. and men are scarcely able to fetch A tains because they are so full of ferocious animals. as were also the eyes. The arms and breasts were those of a boy's of his years. as sharp as its tail cattle of the neighbouring country for seven by a brave man. It is a terrific beast. foxes and jackals. the nostrils were like those of a snorting such an astonishing width. it was a boy standing before a the boy was about eight or nine years of age with a stupendous head. of his teeth two were curved outside of the towards the upper. with their yellow coloured hair of a span's length. Jevazer it . which not being capable of bearing such an enormous weight the head was supported by a which was fixed the ground. wild sheep. the fingers his mouth. but of immense horse it wooden mouth opened the nose was . and Kavarna. before a barber's shop. like the heads of the people of A'ad and Themud. measures from It when it and teeth instead of a tongue. laughed in the the brows were of two fingers breadth extending to the ears. is bezestân. lip . It in this on way (Bâdinjân) of Morea. abound with leopards. In this town I saw another marvellous thing. felt tain lion continued his years. when to once a small water melon size. far as wood from the party of Cossacks. lynxes. like Angora-goats. the gate leading to the outer town a Hon. this one deserves so all much the more to be The mountains noticed. Lions being generally the inhabitants of deserts. Upon seen. and ever town has enjoyed since the perfect security from the roving Cossacks. 207 Description of a Lion. on a neck no thicker than an arm. that he was able to swallow . the lashes somewhat of the shape of a Melonyena breathing. . held up faces of all who passed wrapped round it. and at the the weight of the head rested. who begged alms barber's shop with his father . like the head of Salsfil (?) at Akgermân or like pumkins of Adana and cabbages of Van. fork. and placed by the order of Ahmed Tapan new built with feet resembling upon the gate of his columns not so beautiful as the lions of Baghdad. moun- who had became the prey of wild intending to devour men's goods they were themselves devoured. wolves. with it a piece of red Arab lances. who availed themselves of the vicinity of the Black Sea. had no turban but a kind of coarse saddle-cloth which were of human form. martens. the lips mouth were ruby- the spittle was continually running out of The physiognomy was that of a Kalmuk.evliya efendi. has oranges in the place of eyes. being covered with thick forests. stuffed with cotton. and in This monstrous head. once pushed their inroads as beasts . to be is was its nose to havoc on the killed Turcoman daggers or This mounforty-five spans.

which flows into the Kerkük.THE TRAVELS OF 208 This was a case to apply the verse of the very thin and the feet like sticks. which flows through Amasia. to where the river." I." that The " father said. fair. enters the Kerkük. " If it please God. where if shown to the Vezirs and great men of the Empire he may easily gain two thouin a year. horse- shoes and some other necessary things and then returned." I said. for size of its brother's. through steep and stony ways and the tremendous pass of Boghâz-kessen." sand piastres Praise of the Alum. and Kürd-dereh. the head of the child should grow to the tiie world might cause an inconvenient you most are joking. said. along the shores of the Kerkük. fell and her figure in- creased in size daily. and Mând. and went on my business. which fore called Shâbîn Kara-hissâr The countries. Yâl. On our journey we passed a great whose waters collect from the hours march to the west vallies of we reached river. This is a reddish alum produced in the mountains of this town. we there enjoyed a shepherd's hour in most pleasant conversathen left her reposing under a tree. the real produce of to be it The man answered." still he said " Bandage her body said. that it should still grow to a larger size. poor Evliyd. is It . was so easy that of this boy laid in with him. you must come to Constantinople. until at the end of a year's time she was delivered of this boy. " But never has there been created a creature with such a head. three days as guests in the palace of there- hundred thousand aspers a year. . excellent qualities. I asked the I alive. when the mother if into You was child child. The temperature of this town being mild the We quinces and a kind of small bread are famous. called Solomons Alum. the birth she was aware of nothing at all and thanked God for such an easy deliverance. such a face and such teeth do you believe ." likes. and falls into the sea at Ener. when your loins?" wife to tion. It breaks up Inspectorship into pentagon the goldsmiths use many are it Its it is much sought is let at seven after by the goldsmiths of of like the seal and the surgeons all Solomon for plasters. she got home she me pursued by a naked sick. tall as the fir-trees. I I suddenly heard her cries. " God does what he Koran to father whether' the mother of this : and orders what he wills monstrous " Yes. and saw her running towards When giant. whose head grows bigger and bigger every day. and sexagon stones shaped to brighten the silver. has inhabitants remained here Tapan Ahmed Aghâ. its entrance enlargement. purchased coffee. but I assure earnestly. and that she was actually again with may that she tightly. the village of Yakûb-aghâ After six and further on." Having once gone to the mountain with my cut wood. miscarry. Having passed it we continued our .

who came from Mahân with the conquered both Nîk-hissâr and Lâdîk in the Ottoman Empire. and in five at the village of Hamîd. a mosque. village Sontissa. hours more to the west. being a great convent at the tomb of a Dervishes are almost all formed with the Pâshâ the prayer of in five hours the pass of which has a mosque and gardens . at which he is a khan. Lâdîk surrendered its After the keys to Timür-tâsh with the good wish that the inhabitants might live B E . khan. the Pâshâ of the strength of Shâbîn Kara-hissâr. that the third. From hence we ascended a high mountain to the north and came in six hours to the village of Chatidâr more to Emirler. bath. of two hundred houses. surrendered Mohammed H. Lâdîk of Amasia. frontier of Nîgissâr. in the the castle of Nîk-hissâr (good castle) and five hours further the Kazan -kia in the province of Sîvâs. at Lâdîk. in on the more to frontier of the station of Erzerum and which has already been mentioned on our road to Erzerum. There are three Lâdîks quite ruined by rebellions. Kûmânova in in the jurisdiction of Nîk-hissâr. and bath and in five hours more to Zavâdî-tekiessî. Melek Seljiik family. viz : that of Konia of Korlâdîk in the province of Van and conquest of the town by Bayazid Pâshâ. morning of the Prophet's family. Lâdîk Its . in five Bâsh-chiflik also in the jurisdiction of Iskefser Sivas. consisting of two the jurisdiction of Iskefser.. the vezir of Sultcin a high and steep castle like that of Kavilî-hissâr. There are a great number of nut-trees. This castle was built by one Havîk one of the Greek Princes of Amasia. Description of the Castle of Lâdik. Pâshâ. in the I. Mahmud keys without contest to is and valleys and arrived for eight hours over hills 209 at the Castle of Hdji Uzun Hassan it Murâd. we came through passing to the west by Boghâz-kessen village of Further to two hours more to the great thick woods to the on the hundred houses. to . way by Uziin Hassan's built its It After the defeat of vezfr. but no market. Ghâzî of the Dânishmend family. in seven . be superfluous. we passed the next I'idî-asha The tails of the convent gave us a repast. here informed I was surprised. hundred houses. of a thousand paces in circumference and without a ditch. and arrived Setlî-pûlî. a great foundation. with three frontier of great saint. VOL. who accepted them II. which from its on a situation In the castle are seventy small houses. the west is village of Still territory of to the west to the on the border of a high mountain. On the border of the Kerkük. on a high mountain on the . which flows at the foot of the castle in a deep valley The Sûbashî would hill resident here is subordinate to Shâbîn Kara-hissâr. a village an Armenian village in four more Shâbîn more in five . same now year. college or imiiret. I here per- (Kurbân-bairâm) and the Sheikh having been sent on. village of Kîlârjî Veliaga. .evliya efendi.

the mosques without three thousand and twenty houses .. four hundred shops. a commander or garrison Castle is an old pile of building. not equalled linen excels the linen of Mossul and Lekefur in Persia. which has seventeen quarters are jamfs and three of them Imperial ones markable of which is Ahmed caravanserai. boots. I. Kebir Davud Pâshâ now forty-seven Mihrâbs. the water The side is is Hossein Pasha built a koshk by the splendid is so cold that people rivulets cannot take out of it formed by those two sources of Ballf and Frenk-gozi flow through the town supplying water to the palaces. either figs. but outside. three stones consecutively. Another famous walk on the east a pleasant walk on the Kiblah side. and mills. passed six months of and made a delightful garden. which flows through the town. which is kept in order by Bayazid the year in this place is still II. all duties and gifts. The Walks of Lddik. The judge of three hundred aspers. of the inhabitants. a kind of bread called bread in the world after melons. the Frank's eye spring which arises here . and kontosh of and the women velvet trowsers. purses annually from the districts. gardens. who entangle lovers with sweet words and gracious behaviour. The governor The Naîb and Mohtessib. and a bezestan . houses where they pay . : there are called Tâghbâlî fine cotton is no is the raisins. first delicious cherries. college.THE TRAVELS OF 210 Tlie blessing of this wish long. watch the town. white veils in the and pointed caps . of Malatia. because it is wakf the of Bulbul It a town free from is Khatun the mother of Ahmed of Sivas has no right to interfere by his officers. The head fountain of the water Bâllî-kiasü. built by Ghâzi forty-one palaces of Vezirs and great men. . water-melons. Serdâr. Kiaya-yerî. a fountain of cold water. Its Nissû. six of which . called Frenk-gozi. Another mosques. they are no where to be seen but in the bath and They visits. Kurüjî and Tablakjî. which . which does not flow through the town. lovely creatures. the merchants ferraje ferraje of cloth. The Noblemen wear cloth. Khûî and Memejik-ekmek which of Sapanja The white honey &c. Adana or Sicily. the most re- two baths . seven convents. eighteen schools for boys and two . and terminate in the lake of Lâdik. eatables are large pears better than those Its Merend. khans. All these sources rise in the high mountains to the north . Sumun the by that of Creta. evident in the long and prosperous lives when governor of Amasia. a Master (Usta) and forty Bostânjîs. but lectures are given in all . are most modest. no particular dining establishments. seven khans all having baths . . but may collect in a fair way six and pay has the rank There is a Muftî. walk is that called Akbînâr. covered with bricks and surrounded with gardens that of Seid is woods and heaths and the Bostdnjis run over the sable pelisses. Nakîb. a large .

limpid spring. from the districts of Zedai. The warm baths of Lddik. square and is such a delightful sight that water rushes forth from four water is is are cured in the in this . fall it In the same bath (Kiz-gozi). it like is cheese and is that of Bfngol eight hours to the south of Lâdik. called the maiden's eye it. below which Irmak into the Kizil falls In the cherry season this place renovate their health by God's into the river Khalliz bath (Ilije. which elastic as is lake on this sides. called Khalliz. This is a large lake to the east of Lâdik. in so extremely hot. hot bath flows this not very warm. turns The warm bath into the lake. which in being situated behind the mountains of . where the principal men come to meet the pilgrims returning from Mecca. Boghâzi-koî. which empties west of Lddik on a flows as a small rivulet. those to who distance between this spring. the description of which would be Twenty-six springs and rivulets flow into too long to give. bath. where thousands of cherry season. command. renowned gum. who here of Khalliz by thousands of visited Arabic in the jurisdiction of Kaiiza. Sunssa. that sides of this great basin of lions' is . which are at the four corners. and the hot spring drink is but a yard. in . Ilissi The Mogolastân. Kerenda Rumeli is Kauza It is a have their separate bathing places. much renowned. mouths. An itself into . a pleasure-place called the monastery. and the other passes by the pilgrimage of Balîdedeh. evliya efendi of the town and find their way 211 On into the lake of Ltidik. Kauza and Zeitum . . (thousand lakes). the west of Lâdik. On its border for its kaimak (cream). is Humma. and the village of Otuz. which would take a day to go round eleven different sorts of fish are found in it. Description of the Lake of Lddik. which gives fresh is life a cold. no man can bear a small one is On it. is the castle into two branches. Bagno.) is on the west country the name of a hot Tartary. a delightful spot with a water called Râmja. Lâdik and cannot it hour and a half on the situated one is a village.. it its four has no outlet. the four under vaults are eight bathing troughs. cold as ice. and to the . Lâdik Turkish . which These united sources divide below sweeter than the water of Ma'avia. If is no where better . it can be cut any Kaimak can be compared with Amasia lies it. but in addition to this great basin there the water of which men The is from outlet Germâb. one of which waters the gardens of Kowa-mahallessi below the pilgrimage of Khizrlik. men and women double bath so that basin in the men's apartment it side of men might restore dead to is ten feet The The life. people. Another warm the Kizil Irmak. a pleasant village. A hot spring high hill in some mills. Persian called Kainarje and Frangistan.

in the sanjak of Amasia. appointed with three hundred aspers. Its public belonging to Sîvâs. and Pirdedeh and is . to it is the harbour of Samsun and further on Sinope. bearers of the Imperial rescript. may annually collect from the different districts six purses. Khatti'-sherif to the government and was found but a Pasha of Baghdad. when the tails were about to be carried five hours further on forward. is guarded by watchmen. It is now a castle in good condition and useful against rebels. The next day. where Kâssim Aghâ gave a grand feast we reached the village of Korkof. were set at liberty and continued their route to Baghdad. Sheikh Seid Ahmed Kebîr. the town of Koprî and the jurisdiction of Zeitum at a journey's is North distance. Description of Merzifun. Constan- received an hundred ducats to join Murteza Pâshâ and on the fourth day the Khasseki and Chaiish. with all speed to him. THE TRAVELS OF 212 eastward To is Nîk-hissâr the west is at a journey's distance. him to Constantinople in order that he The same day his might be made the Pasha despatched his messenger Saleh to Murteza Pasha. who were the . of two hundred houses. two Chaushes arrived as messengers from Constantinople to whom On the Pasha arrested. Pilgrimages of Lddih. their being searched nothing Diarbekr. removing him from recalling Kâpûdân Pâshâ. It was built by the Dânishmend family and conquered by Bayazid T. but beware of the snare invitation to Constanlaid for and join instead the party of Varvar Ah' Pâshâ. built at the is by himself in the Beneath the meeting place of the also buried here beneath a lead covered cupola. is and Bâli-dedeh Ghâzî Taydr Mustafa Pasha caravan of Mecca. I remained at this place three great feasts were given. the governor of Baghdad. also buried here in the old Wiidiid buried. to acquaint way with an him that couriers from the Porte were on the tinople to which he should pay no attention. was the disciple of Sheikh Ekber who is year 952 (1545) he was one of the Sheiks of Sultân Orkhân. a mosque and gardens. Sheikh castle Ya . The judge. buried in his own convent. the brother of Saleh Pâshâ. Saleh Pasha. the seventh. of three hundred houses. the jurisdiction of Kavâkelî . the Pasha. mosque. As it is an inland castle it has neither commander nor garrison. and then days with marched my five gracious Lord.. to whom hours to the west to the village of Shabfn-dghci. when after The Pâshâ remained six days at Korkoî and moved on five hours march we reached the old town of Merzifun. The town is a wakf of Saint commanded by the Kizlar Aghâ. who was marching The Courier Saleh tinople.

. The colleges are. When bath and saw Pirdedeh walking about with an apron round his him things.. officers were lodged in the town by (Ydfteh) and lived with their hosts in perfect harmony like fathers and billet sons 213 four thousand . The water is Mohammed and has safian makers. them hidden forbidden in the Koran.. the odour of which pervades the whole so dry that neither a drop of moisture collect. was chalk mixed with musk and amber. building and renders built warm and it not is light. Mohtessib and Naîb. divided for more than seventy troughs who men and women. the enemies of Pirdedeh calumniated him by saying. where lectures are held also on tradi- and two dining rooms.. who a Mufti. by Round it dwell the felt and The walls of the bath are or basins. though Turks. On the Khans are in the market.. but limpid. such as whether they would Murad II. the Silihdflr of treated the Pâshâ and fourteen hundred greatest hospitahty : men Taban Mohammed of his suite for ten days witfi the so that not even a bag for the horses nor a cup of coffee were The provided for by the Pâshîi's people. yellow and red safian. Nakîb. that of Murad II. angry at such scandalous behaviour. in with for mingling with the women in the he came to the loins. are of a gentle and mild temper. We were Pâshd. the oldest of which is that of Murad II. Praise of Pirdedeh. and is much visited. Description of the Baths. lie which are a boy or girl. The old bath. At an hour's distance from the town is the Convent of Akasha. the left corner of the gate of the old khan is suspended the mace of a Pehlivan. men of the troops were provided with lodgings in the neigh- bouring villages. it rather dark. forty four quarters and seventy mosques. tan blue. that he accompanied the 11. When Murad Mohammed was building a mosque and college here. in the marketplace it is in the olden style with one minâreh. and in the towns are those of Abdul Kadir Jîlanî. . seventy schools for boys. The town here found in abundance. officers are here the guests of Dilawer Aghâ. women the father of into the bath and foretold to II. Kiayayerî. evliya efendi. he upbraided bath and rubbing them instead of letting . and one of Khalveti's tion. Serdâr. one of which is at the convent of Pirdedeh. life is is Every necessary for sustaining situated on the border of Mount Deshan and contains four thousand houses covered with brick. and give freely of what they have. very I.. lined with all on the walls nor on the windows does Being an old building.. took his sword with the intention of performing a meritorious action by killing the accused. the inhabitants of which. however.

and the other to his son Smyrna to the first and that of Con- to prediction being fulfilled." " Such is not the act intended for you sword. one each other for the in sake of the water. Deshan . " I a legal way. " your sword is destined to came hither Dedeh to kill you with this sword in conquer Smyrna. which Timur was unable to subdue saying like this. Its inhabitants are the prevalence of easterly winds. the inhabi- and sources of Mount Deshan flow fields of fold are under the inspection of a particular Aghâ. therefore. to the sons of Deshan and are now in possession of one of their descendants. so that the whole town of Merzifiin belongs to this foundation. On . kneaded them dough and presented them bread. Every year a Mütevelli (administrator) from the Kizlar Aghâ. Mohammed II.. who receives a duty for the many hundred thousand head of cattle." replied the Saint . service only to women who My " I do such are pregnant with great Doctors and learned men. that however copiously it may rain. and the place saying. water all the fields and gardens of the town. not productive unless watered by the so fertile that the corn returns an These rills rills would kill if and gardens and another still . for tants of Merzifiin rills hundred of Koprî in A part of the and water its the valley of Lâdik northward to the valley of Osmânjik. In the sound and healthy on account of summer Mount when the the inhabitants repair to Deshan for summer lodgings (Yaila). Danishmend family came from Mohan in Khorassân. The nature of the soil is such. The houses look towards the kiblah. he entered is yet shown where The Sultân then he passed through before the eyes of the Sultân. pieces of white marble bread are actually the Saint passed through This bath shown fixed into the wall. its revenues among the dervishes and other poor men." him. and conquer Smyrna and eat the hands of the Greeks. for . These alps were given of old. twenty-six years gave to his convent an endowment of three hundred and sixty-six villages. one afterwards but which has fallen into Go. Some hundred rills and rivulets. said." he took up two pieces of marble lying before the bath. flowing down from these heights. The town of . the pasture of fields are become eighty. Princej Thus way. the direction another into the district of Kauza to the but then they kile at least who regulates such a magistrate were not appointed. a place for miraculous cures. the distribution of them. adorned with Shâhneshîns (projecting wdndows) all it. is counterpart of the bath built by Avicenna. Mohammed Murad II. stantinople to foretelling the conquest of the This second. . who is the Nâzir accompanied by three hundred horsemen. and where is the of the town. comes to take possession of (inspector) the village and distribute The two this bread. and Pirdedeh therefore enter not the bath in the common through the stone wall which opened for said..THE TRAVELS OF 214 it be done by the waiting women.

crown. Iman His habit. who came with Haji Begtash from Khorassan by permission of Koja Yessiii.evliya efendi. sling and strap. Pilgrimage The first of all to the Saints of Merzifun. blankets. his So great a number of candlesticks. 215 is the harbour of Merzifun. and the white bread of Pirdedeh occupied by dyers. tomb. which it is town. carpet. mace. sweet six hundred shops almost finer than the Persians. the Saints of this place is Sheikh Pirdedeh. The second pilgrimage who was . drum. vases for rose water and censers are not even to be seen at Riza. and and sea have here suspended their slings many thousand travellers both on land and maces in eternal remembrance. is day building is that of Sheikh Abd-ur-rahim the disciple of Zein-ud-di'n Hâfî at Brussa and composed the work. candelabra. Its shirts. pure as that of Aintab. which is a Turkish cap of felt. cushions and other printed articles are also in good estimation. are preserved in boxes. from Merzifun along Mount Deshan being nearer to fifteen stands you march If northward you arrive at for five hours to the Kopri. looking upon the town of Kopri. of Merzifun to the north on a hill. say a Yass in honor of the deceased and perfume their brains with the sweet odour of musk. and spent from the time of Orkhan to that of larger building than even that of his Mohammed Koyün-bâbâ at He dwelled outside days in the baths as a Santon His convent which II. Osmanjik. on while resounding with the cries of Allah entirely covered with lead. three hundred travellers which exhales from . spun cotton. Crimea and exchanged of Crimea are made all raisins. Must. site Amasia On the northern border of Mount Deshan the castle of Koja Kala'assi. living of eight aspers a The at the mosque of Sultân Mohammed He I. Gumish this eight.. Wassayai Kudsie (Mystic Admonitions). being a great friend of Dervishes. barefoot and bareheaded. I. Osmanjik sixteen. and in three journeys further at Samssun. than Sinope. serve their guests who visit the tomb of the Saint. the treasure of these dervishes. Merzifun stands on a hilly hours on the kiblah-side of ten. and Kerkerân backed by Mount Deshcin. lamps. Its cotton for prisoners stuffs who dye . my head the whole convent mean- and pious prayers. Ltidik twelve. it Products. according to the Prophet's " Poverty is my glory !" put with their permission the crown of tradition : Pirdedeh. Ben Emir Merzifûnî. poor Evliya. of the stuffs of Merzifun. a peculiar blue even are exported in great quantities to the ferrajes and dresses of the inhabitants . . banner. is is a provided with a kitchen and cellar (Kîlâr) and affords every night lodgings and food to two or two hundred dervishes of the order Begtâshî. accepted a at Merzifun.

In his mystic poems he has taken the name of Rûmî. The head who should beware of your is now at the Mehkemeh. tunate Vezir we are servants who but do what we are ordered. took out the firman and executed it. reached Murteza Pâshâ before your messenger. for which good news they received a sable ])elisse his and a purse of money each. passed the village of the town of his birth at Kilis.* the water-bottle. Kapûdân Pâshâ where did you hide the order for his death ? Pray. Health to you " The Pâshâ satisfied with the Khassekfs answer gave him a purse of money. and then attacked him suddenly and severed head from his body. their hands grasping the daggers in their belts. " Sâleh was struck by apoplexy at Nissibin and remained there. that his messenger. but " Man Sâleh. commit the deed. We remained . in We says.THE TRAVELS OF 216 tomb is now a place generally visited. The Khasseki and Chaush trembled like leaves. the Pâshâ upbraided them saying. Journey from Merzifun We in Vârvâr Pâshâ and in Begorân and to Kopri." They said. a northerly direction along in six Mount hours reached Koja Kala'a a small castle on a rock accessible but by one road and one gate. Aghâ who was who was then set out on the 10th Moharrem Deslân. who had been put into prison for four days by our gracious Lord. wrote letters to Mohammed (Kopri) and to Hassan Pâshâ. and the command is yours own head. " Most for. saying. and nothing was found but the diploma appointing Murteza. and began to the search. " Infidels. Murteza Pâshâ? All your things and saddlecloths had been searched. arrived at Murteza Pasha's lodging him at Diarbekr. we there opened the bottle. and after having prevailed on him to return from Baghdad to Diarbekr. the Pasha. and then came who was surrounded by all his men. his ten days in this town to look at its On curiosities. might arrive first . . despatched before them to Murteza Pasha. why have you killed this unfortunate into the presence of the Pasha. speak the truth. God proposes and disposes . the tenth day arrived Murâd the Khasseki and Haunizji the Chaush. The proverb there were not the Sultan's words the executioner would not hid the order for death in a leaden box. who started four days after him. presented first with the diploma of Captain Pâshâ. ! collect Sarija sent me and Segbân to Koprili (irregular levies). kissed the threshold of the gate and after having sat down on their heels. It was besieged . they are all in the style and cant of the where he hved and died Sofis. " Now get you gone. or God may send you misfortune !" The Pâshâ was now troubled about his own fate. while the two messengers of the Porte. where ' If We escaped it who was struck by apoplexy. which they there deposited. They now arrived at the Mehkemeh (Court of Justice) of Merzifun with the head in a box.

took the fortress. mosques covered with lead. is II. khans. and was replaced by this rivers fir-trees. covered with bricks . At an for a bridge in the language of night of the birth of the Prophet. to Its districts contain Tokdt. into the great by the Amalekites and was taken by Melek Ghâzî. The khan or bezestân. karadozen.. tanbur. &c. no less being a it the judge is than an hun- dred and forty villages with gardens. Nakîb. Description of the old town We make cans inhabitants which go by the name of boduj. but no bath. by now belongs to the government of Amasia. . were to come to us. the great borough Boghâz- and boroughs the judge annually From collects seven these hundred and thousand piastres. six on the border of Mount Deshân. Akdepeh-koî and Akoren-koî. cistern. we arrived at Koprî. After this w^ went to view the town. has a mosque. One of these is called Bogha-koî and flows past the bottom of the town The town called Astavoluz. ments to the district of and great bridge of Kopri. we then collected the Buluk-bashfs and ordered cryers to proclaim that all those who wished to have goods and slaves. and Mohammed delivered our letters to Koprili Pâshâ and the other principal men. where we stopped as guests. from the Greek Emperors of Trebi- Bayazîd sonde. yinghâr. of Koprf river the other is is situated at an hour's distance. and possessed breeches and a horse. they also manufacture musical instru- fir-tree. Said Arab and Kalender. name This town was first early which was formerly here.evliya efendi. magazine for corn and seven or eight small guns. broke down on the which flow past the town of Koprî unite below river Bafra. Kiayayerî. ziâmet and It I. built it wooden and fall The two one. the Prince of the Dânishmend family. the the Amalekites. Mohtessib and Naîb. the other remarkable places of similar extent are Baghjeh-koî. in a tract intersected by hills and valleys at a place watered by two rivers. It is a wonderful work constructed of period this town was called Shebender. dismounted at the house of Yûssüf Aghâ. capitulation. a Muftî. râdha. whole plain of Koprî their overflowing they inundate the name . It was however conquered by Bayazi'd I. after passing many villages of In hours more. Doyân-ko. Koprî is a fortress in good condition on the border of Mount Deshân. 217 by the rebels Karayâzijf. half of the other half a subashilik subordinate appointed with three hundred aspers. from the Danish- at different times mend family and belongs an hundred men. Serdâr. but never was taken by them. The stone bridge. and is At the time of the town derives its between them. but as F F it is an . called chekur. Koprî (bridge) from the great wooden bridge by which the Astavoluz is crossed. the abovesaid castle of Koja Kala'a. and from three to four thousand houses koî has three thousand houses all . and it now Koprî the garrison consists of . forty villages There VOL.

castle of Ardoghan hundred steps and fortress of Mardfn. covered with lead and There are various baths. fifty houses. The people generally are There are eleven khans. friendly to Dervishes. Melek Ghâzî. the first is that of the great Sheikh. cotton wares. the chalk lower story being built of stone and the upper of oak whitened with so that . but the shops and markets are outside in the suburb. divines. which are but a journey distant. and a minâreh covered with Of the convents lead. also conquered this It is commonly called Seddi town and it was afterwards taken by Bayazid I. which is is all like tall white columns give a The covered with red bricks. building of stone in the castle Mohammed Pishâ. medical men and students schools for boys are forty-eight. and the two have four gates. The harbours of . and a strong bezestdn with four gates. severe being all they are provided all to the town. with a water basin. now contains an hundred and castle The Turkman. grapes. a thousand shops. town on the shores of the Black Sea are Bafra and Sinope. mosque. wove and spun. a jet d'eau. it which is is ascended by five a single rock like the a crooked rock. the best of which endowed. In the stone castle is the mosque of Hâjî Yûssûf Agha. Precious articles are kept . the dyke of the Turcomans. candles and produce excellent fruits. with chimneys. is situated on a high therefore only accessible to The highest point is hill. The garrison. and the blue linen are as famous as its rosy-cheeked beauties. and of the Khalveti. that of Hâjî Yûssûf Ahmed is the double one of Pasha. two imârets.THE TRAVELS OF 218 inland castle and Said Arab fled commander nor has neither it and became To rebels. which These chimneys looking heads like white Minârehs. because its lawyers. which seems to threaten moment. a cistern. the Serai of Elhâj Yissûf bonneted their lift winter Aghâ built principal by Koprilî there are altogether seventy palaces. the conqueror of Nigissar. At five hours distance is the strong castle of Ardoghan. bezestan the . men . but having secure this town against them a second castle of earth was built close to the stone castle. and twenty mihrâbs. but there are none of the Mevlevi. which this I am now The about to describe. in eleven of which the khutbeh is performed. of Kopri consists of six thousand houses covered with bricks of two The town stories. Its gardens are in full cultivation there are also a great many dyers. and five colleges. The pears. richly is are Yûssûf the last builder of this town which he enriched by a great The most elegant was also his building. rebels Kara Yaziji been defeated at Erla they were natives of this town. good appearance The the houses dazzle the eye by their brilliancy. night their shops with who illuminate every market-place is that of the tanners. that of the Kâderites. ruin every . Aghâ may be called many endowments The numerous. and magazine for corn.

Six hours further. The inhabitants had all The troops were dying night so heavy a storm blew that the When remained ten days longer I time in collecting men. schools and numerous gardens. much from As the cold and in three hours. a very productive farm (Chiftlik) situated in the plain of Merzifun. castle is belongs to the jurisdiction of Koprî. (Kassaba) Karghu. with the is a mosque. levies. and bath. is snow was many companies of irregular to twenty-four other in addition whom gracious Lord. and a bath. on. the greatest confusion and the whole in town in where I found every thing an uproar. The again to Merzifun. employing my for the farm of This falling difficulties. We which has already been described. belonging to the sanjak of Kanghri. the uncertainty of the road and the want of pro visions. hours towards the kiblah to the village of Begoran on in six mount Deshan. shoes made money and encouraged some of the bravest to go through the midst of the snow. Six hours further. which they passed over in of horse-hair. made Merzifun at Moharrem left it reached in six hours. district Six hours westward station of Gol. because Koprili Mohammed Pasha had received orders from the Porte to march against the From hence I went rebels. giving them the and at this I brought two hundred men. where the distress was very great owing to the fury of the gale. though every one cursed the march. and on the 27th of Murteza Pashd. my was overjoyed (Boluk). the town of Tusia remained here one day and returned third day I arrived at Koprî. and instantly formed them into two companies names of the company of Evliya Guzerli and Habib together twenty-sis hundred men. Six hours further is the large place place in the territory of baths. the village of Sûrük in the jurisdiction of Zeitûn after a march of six A mount Deshân. 219 within this castle and in that of Koja Kala'a on the border of men do Dizdar and forty-eight The the duty. hours along the Yaila of Konduz we arrived at Zeitûn. mosques. of six hundred houses with gardens. and during the spans deep in the morning. and struggling with difficulty against the gale and snow reached the straight called Diriklipûl. to snow was the trumpets of departure sounded five we moved fied and there remained of hunger. a mosque. a large Amasia of two thousand houses with khdns. in the village. a village in the district of Zeitiin. The is rendered safe by a no market khan or bath. a village of two hundred houses with a ruined khan and a mosque. here whicli I they we suffered not even a cock . and . khân. a khân. This sort of shoe is called Pachila. He Pâshâ. which we had passed in coming but did not stop at. and is used in . the quantity of snow.evliya efendi. after reached Kulak Hâjî Koî. There drawbridge against the attacks of rebels. another six hours we again reached Merzifun and met Defterdâr-zâdeh the border of In Mohammed Sârîja. The Pâshâ distributed in search of the road.

the salubrity of the rendering one superfluous. their feet to The circle to give a greater surface to the foot in order to prevent of a circle It consists made fashioned into a shoe it of horse-hair round the shoe from sinking into the Provided with such shoes the troops entered the straight. after a six hour's of the snow had ceased. remained here three days till which we reached tlie falling hastened to the fire lost their sight for did not approach Seventeen men who first was impossible to pass the straight of Diriklipul and therefore obliged to repair with the rest of the troops and the heavy we were who and Segbans. hand or a foot by the excessive lost either a leg or a the leg or hand baggage being cut off. We All those who Gumish Kala'a (Silver Castle). of in the employed is town which that the most frequented. Amasia the inhabitants of Gumish met him. is in the greatest distress. retained the use of their eyes. hill is may collect in a ruined state being an inland castle it seven air market-place The judge. some time. for some were lost notwithstanding these Pâchila. and the stumps were dipped into boiling resin. the inside they put on this of which is walk over the snow. The which increase from day to day. it of the Pasha to march.THETRAVELSOF 220 Türkistan and Persia when snow has fallen to any depth. Its products are the purest silver and horse-cloths . inhabitants of the town are all the inspector of the silver mines. and yet it is a good white There are seven veins underground. and furnishes annually to the Porte seventy quintals of pure silver. and one thousand pair of horse-cloths. eleven mosques. like a sieve. and their commander appointed with an hundred and The castle of this all mander. so Description of the toxvn of Gumish. purses a year. and presented him with some silver It was built The vases and the keys of the castle. by the Byzantine Emperors and was conquered by Melek Ghâzî When Bayazid I. cold. the goldsmith alloy an hundred drachms of this pure silver with ten of copper. Mules. camels and horses were stumbling one over the other and cries and lamentations pierced the The air. marched to the conquest of of the Dânishmend family. but were snow. all duties. than seventy silver In the Ottoman Empire there are no less mines. so many Calibans (Kaltiban) were the Sarija it. but this affords the purest silver . in the mines. and the consists of a thousand houses covered with planks. which receives the Imperial stamp. aspers. In short fled. silver. and has no accommo- has neither a garrison nor com- a Serddr and a Kiaya-yeri of the Janissaries. . and those only but endured the cold. but no hospital. but it is incumbent upon them inhabitants are therefore free of work the to silver The mines. inspectorship is held by lease. There fifty town situated on a within dation at is is . that their cries pierced the air.

We visited the tomb of Bardâklîwe approached. little leaders of Praise be to sheltered against the wind ! and snow. who had not yet of up the and stragglers feet of the horses in this The Kiaya hands and feet. them put their hands in God we now entered a after a march of their bosoms and forest five and were a hours arrived the jurisdiction of Gumish. whose inhabitants had the village. the bags and casks This night was passed in means of getting on. however. how is it possible to remain in this piastres where there is not a grain of provisions ?" move on could not be induced to purses from the Pâshâ. many who returned to Dânkaza. a village of an hundred to Gumish Near Amasia. until In short the Kullâkjî (leaders) they had received a present of fifteen There was. and bags. and then advanced five hours to the south. mounds the town are heaped up 221 grapes. the Pilgrimage of Bardâklî-bâbâ and Akche- The are both buried here. but they answered. " Health first. were promised to the men. the munition. consisting of an From hence continuing our march to the south we arrived in . such a storm of wind. wrap and mules by tearing up many carpets and coverlets. and at the great village of Bardâkji. horses during the night were nearly dying of hunger. and arrived after eight hours painful march at a memory. a woody lost their The next morning we continued our way amidst snow and storms through the straight of Kirk Dilim. hands and lost their way passed them over the snowy mountain of Kirk Dihm heavy baggage. In remained here three days on account of the heavy gales. the which was passed with much suffering and the loss (Bardak) for which the village bâbâ after holding a council . On the and tent-pitchers (Mehter) assembled before the Pasha's tent and declared they were unable to Ten stir. snow." place. houses belonging to the jurisdiction of the farm of Kosseh Sha'abân Pâshâ who bâbâ. who had valley without the feet. We of earth taken from the mines. and the camels like Lulus (Tatar robbers). and seventy men. high mountain of Kirk Dilim. is Dankaza-kof. and there was such a gale and heavy storm of snow that in the morning it was five spans in depth. remained behind. " My children. were dragged up and rolled over the snow. The Pasha said. conductors (Sarban). signal of departure being given the Kullâkjî. amidst a thousand difficulties. in the territory of gained his living by making cans first is still famous. The unhappy uttered a piteous cry. but the left all in the of the Pâshâ again distributing money. suffering from the snow.EVLIYAEFENDI. then weath. hail and snow that the horses danced like Dervishes Mevlevi. and artillery were . encouraged some brave lads. Alî Aghâ. to cellar. kitchen. the Kiaya of the Pâshâ. all fled name of which upon the news of our has escaped my Men and arrival. which the Imperial and those of the principal men of Constan- stables The gardens produce good tinople are furnished with from hence. in hundred houses.

garrison. Kiaya-yerî. a place of two hundred in the sanjak of Here both men and horses Chorûn. Lodgings were positively refused to our but mediators were employed and documents . nineteen ziâraets. . four thousand three hundred houses covered with bricks and surrounded with gardens prayer is . of which there are eleven schools there are seven. received in consequence it the hands of the Seljukides it passed into those of Dânishmend family from whom it was taken by liderim it is now the seat His khass is three hundred thousand a Sanjak Beg in the government of Sivas. so numerous and that were made out at the they were prevailed upon to give The town lodgings. but only for the space of three days. The almost all wear cloth. tinicirs.THE TRAVELS OF 222 four hours at the station of Kirk Dilim. as it is That of Murad it is much frequented. rested till Mussulman houses the following day. and thirty-one aspers. that of Murad is the most frequented covered with situated in the market-place the finest. although this Tlie temperature of the climate gives red cheeks inhabitants. we proceeded through cultivated villages to the town of Chorum. said to have been built (God knows if truly) by Kilij Arslân. and annually five purses. it had but one The mosque of Sultân Ala-ud-dîn was repaired under Sultân Suleiman by the architect Sinan . the necessaries of life honour of the martyrs of Kerbela of Dervishes are three. but reading the koran or for tradition exists. . of which that of Sultân the best. Inspector of the hall (Kapan Emini) and Nâîb of the town. the Prince of the Seljuk family. The God knows ! but it It no house for are three hundred. there is fair Castle on the kiblah side of the protection against riots and rebellion. There is a Colonel (Alaî-beg) a Captain (Cherî-bâshî) a judge appointed with an hundred and receiving from its districts fifty aspers. this From of Choriun. Mehkemeh (Court of Justice). Islam. the water was conducted hither by Sultân Suleiman. is minareh which was throw down by liderim Bayazîd. Serdâr. Sibâshi. by which they are supplied is a town of Türkistan. a commander and seems to have been no trace of any building of the time of the built since the infidels. because . in which are to be found. and good proportions to the sex and the winter are both town has only been built for has an iron gate. where being cured. belonging to the bath of Alî new bath is a foundation The lead is Pâshâ at Tokat in the palaces are many other baths. nine mosques were the Friday Murad performed. a Mufti. who sent his son Yakub Mirza and some hunthe weather clearing up when men dred sick name the the of to town. consists us of forty-two quarters in which are forty-two mosques. . Mohtessib. all in The shops who renowned. The military officers are in great favour because the troops are there are a great Pâshâ number of bad men. Nakîb. Of the colleges. seven khans and eighteen fountains. for boys. (who died of The convents thirst).

instead of thrashing them to death as he ought to have Being liberated they went done. Gonullî (volunteers) three asked. place if what was going on. they said. Segbân. when the town kissed the earth before the Pasha. where the Pâshâ was lodged and splendidly feasted. The him with what had happened. they had boasted of. at tomb Tokat or Kazova. Here the snow beginning to Chorum fall The is village of Kara an hour's distance and the wind to blow. but before they were ablo to do any harm to him. saying. Kecheli of two hundred houses in the territory of from the red river. visited the of Sheikh Olvân Chelebî. and to take his station. and on the eleventh day we arrived in the plain of Chorum at the for the march to Constantinople. was once by them. but always to remain at one or two journeys distance from Vârvâr Alî Pashâ. sent word to the they wished to escape in safety. Sarija. showing that they might in danger of being cut to pieces and their houses burned down. all be they were to The Pasha being made acquainted undertake the least thing against the troops. as the spring approaching and the weather clearing up. at all all guards and soldiers. and. and begged the kapijî-bashîs. his and were going to cut off their The Segbân and heads. exhorting him to be on Pâshâ received letters his guard. threw the cradles with the children in them on to the snow. On we came here the day 223 the hite chief barber of the Sultân arrived in the quahty of Kapijî-bâshî accompanied by forty other chamberlains.evliya efendi. the Sârija and Segbân drove the families out of their houses. to collect as many from was now troops as he could The Pâshâ made as though he were going to Angora. the son of Ashik Pâshâ. to the Mehkemeh. and proceeded to Tokat. read consequence that the troops should be driven out of in inhabitants remonstrated against it. dug out the gates and thresholds to bring . inhabitants finding that our Pasha was a goodnatured and righteous Vezir gave him the salutary advice not to march to Constantinople. that he The Pasha was the bearer of the diploma of the government of Diarbekr. In this plain we remained ten days. until the clear up. where men of the lives of these master's trembling and kapijis entered forty the diploma was disarmed and bound by all Sârija called for the executioners principal The the Levends. commands and who were. a convent of bareheaded and barefooted Begtâshî. during which the Vârvâr Alî Pâshâ. O'llv servants executing their The Pasha therefore should be spared. called the Sanjak Beg. convent of Sidim Sultân. snow should melt and the weather The Pasha approving of their advice. surrounded himself with hundred pages and the Pasha having assailed they were all his guards. demanded the firman and The the town. yielding to their prayers set them at liberty. in time of if kapijis immediately to quit the Thus they were driven out of the all The next day a messenger was despatched to Vârvâr Alî Pâshâto acquaint town.

mules. in the passage at Chardâkli-pûlî. the the river and blocked the shores at the In the midst of the confusion which took place on both He shores of the river. with the tent-camels. baggage. some of Kurds and Turcomans swam it who had floating about crossed had their clothes the rest was lost. to float down numbers of them upset Great masses of lost. but myself and the this baggage this side of the river waiting to see the passage of the Kiaya remained on of all hundred the morning their treasure-camels of the Pasha. large the in distributed sums of money amongst the inhabitants of Kûrdseraî. but as those the river. fellows swam amongst the drifting shoals. the Pasha arrived with his music sounding. Sârija and Segbân others to hell : . shape of ice. who rescued the men and animals. and who had waited till Witnessing these misfortunes who had behaved the The drowned men some going only from the morning lasted all was saved. and which exceeded even The next day we Yessuf Hejâj. had ceased snowing but was so piercingly cold that the men and horses nevertheless the orders for the passage were given. into the midst of the ice mules and horses. and . and This when the and the storm suddenly ceased. left happened that a great number perished from so in were drowned and some saved. horses and men. It trembled like leaves It . middle of the mill-wheels. drift this side Of drifting of the ice to paradise till afternoon. because the passage is a cruel one. . while the troops on both side of the river were running about crying Some brave and lamenting. the kitchen. An hundred and men. the cruel conduct of those troops.t'hetravelsof 224 rooms their horses into the and committed the same excesses. and. the latter were at least delivered from the hell of winter. that the strings of mules and camels were broken. they did at Gumish and Dânkaza. so that the Tatars. Delis. went with In the Aghâs. were fusion and dismay . horrible discomfiture Gonillâs. that to the fire. now began bridge of Chashnegir. there arose such a storm of hail and snow. all and one strings of camels mine and the Kiaya's passed to the Pâshâ. as well as heavy luggage to Kûrdseraî. the tyranny of Kara Kechell and instead of passing over left the bridge of Chashnegir on the red river. proceeded to the passage of Kara Yechid which was indeed a bad measure. were submerged. crossed over without reflected on so barbarous a manner the least difiiculty. but only a small number of camels. more for the most part Kulenkjî. were on cold. hundred of mules belonging over. but at the heavy things arrived along with the moment the pilots had entered the river with them. stable and other heavy baggage of commenced Two the Pasha's led by twenty able pilots. of thunder and of lightning. Some than a thousand horses and mules were drowned. and camels. only that which had passed over before the ice began to sixty con- and rescued many camels. and a great many river. whom others l)ut in I then.

who." but I way. the Pâshâ stood in need and whose excesses tolerate. God knows. though full this extraordinary sight. it on the snow. tomb and therefore he is called Bârdaki î-bâbâ. he has been forced to VOL. shivered at the thought of the vengeance which send one day on those cruel troops. Near the above mentioned place is the pilgrimage of a Saint called Bârdâklî- He bâbâ. I took down the my suspended can to perform ablutions and found covered with the dust of forty years. He he if swore that it down to point would not until The Imam and it I it had per- four other persons then the least to our great again hung up the can. who threw the body of a dead child and herself on the threshold of the tomb. formed the ablution its for forty years of clear water." the figure of a glass and of a to the intention of the Saint. can. " People of Mohammed. my the number 66626. whilst witnessing those I. II. who united their prayers and imprecations with trembled at hearing them. Praise of Sheikh Bdrddkli-hdbd. remarking the Prophet's spiritual acquaintance. does not approve collect them in order to save his G G of thc"r excesses own .evliya efendi. " If look for assistance from the Inhabitants of the The mirror of my heart was polishing and rubbing off the rust of when a woman walked in. crying and lamenting that her child had been killed by the troops. suite were astonished at filled I. three Ks. had taken same. God would scenes. " Well then Evliya hang being determined to carry in the legal others of his poor Evliya. they would swear the can had not been recently my it The Pasha's Imdm and some had not been touched perform His his disciples. " side asked the keeper others said. in M. but the water was not diminished in did the with until The Imam and the ablutions. now Körd-dereh at 225 burning down the houses. and on was written the verse of the Sûra Ra'ad. I the troops of the Pasha. of The battle-axes. Koran according He tradition. which is ." sadness. which was of a reddish colour. now began whom I made I you are perplexed tombs. I also belong to hers. I said to them. astonishment. inhabitants of the villages but what was to be done with this . a great number of injured men. which afforded a continual supply of water for the ablutions of can suspended from is his father of cans or tankards. poor Evliya. obtained his living by making cans. and calling down divine vengeance She was followed by tln-ough the aid of the Prophet and the Saints. kissing their hands and cheeks. We with water. a disciple of Sheikh Hâjî Bairâm. two Js and one to recite the your affairs sent water from heaven. the With the leave of the tomb-keeper. but head. up again. throwing infents on the snow and : wounding men and women with came crying and lamenting to the therefore he was obliged to Pasha whom crowd of Sarija and Segban. and drawing near with a friendly face. who had cast upon them.

Mostea'assemi. large. one of the disciples adorned with lamps and candelabras. they are all built which has the appearance of having been whitened with chalk. therefore. and rafters are all cut in this stone. he Sheikh Hamzevi recorded of him. and the stones are adorned with inscriptions in Kufi. of An this. Its mihrab of very great dimensions. which was to of it was realized their lives at the full poor Evliya. the tomb His banner. actually buried beneath a high cupola near the but which is not covered with lead. the village of village Boyal. while laid the fault . as soft as cheese them. one of the disciples of Ak-shems-ud-din was born is is. situated in the jurisdiction of Kala'ajik. all The Turcomans have Ibrahim Tenûrî Ben Sarraf Hossein.THETRAVELSOF 226 endangered by the Grand Vezfr. God river. He is village of . on whom must be me some comfort by saying. one of them . with and sitting-rooms. name Shâmî take their is at Sivas. Jelli. and yet the houses are so ." and the verses Kursi and Emen-er-ressul are written upon it. Zacharias went before the Mihrab. great faith tomb of Sheikh of this place) is also the Five hours further to the north of the order of Bairamis. I was not in- and a good deal where so many lost only on the troops above described passage of the and goods. situated in the territory of Kanghrî Akche-Koyûnlî of an hundred Turcoman houses . drum. the pilgrimage of Kojf-bâbâ. kitchens subterraneous houses is the violence of the winter . whose name from him. which men might be thousand Here There is is in this saint. that a of them above ground. so that the stone seems rather to be engraved or painted than . the village of Koj-bâbâ. The reason for the construction of these stables. a khân and a bath. of Hâjî-begtâsh. be thanked for it ! passed over safely to the opposite side." and " He was The verses : " Every time standing praying before the Mihrdb. R'hânî. of two hundred Turcoman houses. Here the Pasha appointed two Aghâs to watch the endeavours made Moving on to the north we from the river some of the lost baggage. the and three hours . Many mosque which he himself is name was Hamza miracles are the is built. that cluded in this imprecation. On both sides it is carved and sculptured in a most astonishing way with flowers and ara- besque ornaments. a mosque. habit and carpet are though he were himself present. five to retrieve arrived at hours further." all man gave old Ahmed Pasha. preserved as is lost in of a soft stone. and Thuluth characters. At Keskin is Chests. boxes. The borough Kânghrî of Kûrdlar-seraî (wolves' palace) is situated in the Sanjak of of Kala'ajik on the bank of the red in the jurisdiction river and consists of four hundred houses covered with terraces. further. I. the sect of the the spring which he called forth by his staff and which called the Spring of the Staff. which do not appear above ground but are all below it. there nothing seen no other building but the convent (the .

are no on a high reddish towering into the clouds. of two hundred houses with mosques and gardens. they all with stone. and he resisted the Ottoman . is suburb. and the commander effects is inhabitants of the neighbouring tracts the keeper of these deposited goods. Form of the It is situated The by Ferhâd. and down after the TJie There . Castle. are . and came is without a convent. a cistern. a magazine of corn. an isolated rock there it is iron-gate opens to the kiblah side and within the castle are about twenty houses. the son of Sheikh Shâmî. Some sculptured. where Sheikh Abd-allah. fifty also a Dizdar and and a garrison of twenty men. Bayazîd took by surprise any other way. the largest face towards the kiblah-side all . in the territory of Kala'ajik. On leaving it we marched in the territory of five Kânghrî and the district of Kala'ajik. as though built cliff. is aspers. and hours to the north to the village of and in the district of Kala'ajik itself. probable because say is it such a wonderful work. There are seventeen mosques. as An ditches. Before his tomb rises the Spring of the Staff which From hence we went visited. thirteen schools khans and is tomb of this saint in a bottom of which near the castle. a Turkish village of . walls are sixty royal cubits high. but without fortifications (robât). many I thanked in the for boys. and a judge by the Prince of Briissa Sirtina from the collects now It is appointed to is is indeed Mdni and districts is hours further to the village of five it for his daughter. is buried . consisting of two thousand houses partly covered with bricks and partly with earth Pâshâ. three good. deposit in this castle their and precious things from fear of rebels and robbers. but not the water. Pilgrimages of Kardnji-bdbd Sultân. in it like the paintings of Topal the commander of Kastemûnî conquered power. hours to the North to the village of Kürbâghlî. his tomb is covered with Five hours further to the North we to the village of Nenegler. God that I We lodged here could change clothes.evliya efendi. a mosque. Hossein Sham the work of Sheikh is it 227 this castle. which is not to be the seat of a Subâshî of the Sanjak of with an hundred and it annually four purses there . fatigues undergone. but one steep path from the the the palace of Shehsuvdr the streets instead of being paved market place having one minâreh. and height commanded by any neighbouring One the kiblah-side is a well-built not It is surrounded with gardens. a small bath. six coffee-houses in the palace of and lie quietly market is is the air is Shehsuvâr Pâshâ. Behzad Aghâ Riza Wdnî. that strewn with sand. a simple roof. and six small The guns. much Aghâ Kala'ajik five which was at last liderim till conquered built Kânghrî. himself. at the narrow place.

one of the descendants of of the Infidels. and Evliya was and other armed men of the Pdshd's with îühom he shared the rich presents ivhich he forced out of Hdji-bdbd upon taking an oath that he would not betray this den of robbers. Kdtirji-zddeh and who held their meeting at Hdji-bdbas. Hossein Aghâ is more than an hundred Dervishes Begtâshî versed : thousand The tomb There are two places of The for the winter. during the night. kept by Hdji-bdbd until rescued by his people The robbers. religious summer and exercise for the Jubuk. so that nobody could fell when departure was sounded the horses Turks served as guides. where and rain. if I were going on conscription. and even his treasurers left the treasure and fled away. headed by Hyder-zddeh. found three I the straight of Sâri Alâk and arrived happily at the side without on the other (Here little boys and three packhorses looked others of plain halted a I village of hill. and many lost their lives. and who like him was killed by the hands gave to the Dervishes ten piastres for alms.! THE TRAVELS OF 228 an hundred houses snow a cubit of . master (Khoja) and servants were missing . an old rogue. joined the Pdshd at the village of Hossein Aghd. and seventy villages. made off. Thus we passed Evliya s and ten Châshnegîrs slaves . Mustafa Beg the son of the Pâshâ with his governor (Lala). pages of the original are omitted. and Merbiit are at the foot of Every year a Mevliid or men Evliya again birth-feast is held here. Korans. ivhich give a detailed account of falling into a nest of robbers. were loaded with the greatest pain . is valleys of is in surrounded with golden candlesticks. The Aghds of the Pâshâ. on being informed by Evliya of the Pashas being near. as comprehends seven districts. my six of my persons. We ten days This plain spent ten more days on the plain of Yebân. the strings of mules and camels were broken and they were straying on the mountains. that so where we were now knowing where we were going to. suite.) The high twenty-five six other robbers. in a sheltered valley and then with for a house. This Where Battal. I Imam Hossein. containing an hundred cultivated villages belonging to the . &c. immolated three victims and received the Sheikh's benediction amidst the general shout of Allah At the I foot of the hill I met my Lord the Pâshâ with whom during overran the plain of Jubuk. we were three hours to the straight of Alâk-ph'. that the confusion assailed by such a storm and horror was general. Yebân. and thus we marched In the morning leave their lodgings. when this forty to fifty assemble to celebrate the feast of Hossein Sidi Batal's father. convent situated in the district of Jubiik-owassa on a the pilgrimage of Ghazi Hossein of Malatia the father of Sîdî there are Arabic and Persian knowledge.

and ten days more in the jurisdiction of Jorba of eighty-six We passed a month in these three plains and celebrated Nevruz (the villages. Van and Angora are the three name (Engûrî) grapes (Engur) which are found here. given from the quantity of have been It is said to Emperor. Buda. and the because the Emperor HeracHus surrounded seven chains on the birth year of the Prophet. of a tree. is Persian. an Alai-beg (Colonel) Cheri-beg (Captain) and Yûzbâshî . mild. 229 jurisdiction of Angora. but we were exhausted from the continual fatigue of loading and unloading heavy loads. money obtained at the village of Balik-hisscir from the robbers. and and sixty three fifty . which it appears a brilliant place Buda on set up its . the Prince of Kiitahia of the Germidn family and by his Vezir Hezâr-dînar. where and were saluted by the entered with a great firing of twenty guns I house of Keder-zadeh and went straight to the convent of I read the Koran. makes trees and adorned fortresses of the Empire : it its its is a journey's distance from the north. and two hundred seven timars. Tatars. because its different castle of the chains parts (Selasil) built for seven years. and has been given many times as The khass of the Pâshâ is two hundred living (Arpalik) to Vezirs of three tails. but that in consequence of the great number of friends and clients in the town. and then by Sultân Orkhân. distributing to the Dervishes an hundred piastres in the of the We for three days. Description of Angora. (!) the Turks. In the Imperial Registers it is spelled Ankra. by a Byzantine who each day It is also called the leafy castle cover one another like leaves (Motabbak). he would be well treated and lodged there istikbâl (procession of meeting) was lodged the in Hâjî-bairâm. for the the Danube. Unkûr and Ungorû. If Angora is viewed from the village of Erkiksii. all we returned to the village of Hossein in the commencement of the year From hence we marched in seven hours to the north amidst 1058 (1648). Angora was conquered by Yakübshâh. At last cultivated villages and arrived at Angora. houses rising one behind the other. It is the seat of a Sanjak Beg in the province of Anatoli. that the Pâshâ would not be allowed to enter the fortress on account of his intentions being known to be those of a rebel. the Kar. Aidin thousand four hundred aspers. spring's The weather now was commencement) near Angola. On the day that our quartermasters entered the town with the declared to them in was tails it the court of justice. Constantinople call it with it Ankra .evliya efendi. Kermen Ankra first The Mogols the Germans. fourteen ziâmets. and fulfilled the vow I had made when hands of the robbers. similarly to look like a ship of transport (Mauna) which has head. and employed forty thousand workmen received forty nuts and a loaf apiece.

and the watchmen all night long cry. and of Jorba. and it is not easily to be attacked by mines The four enclosures have eighteen because its quarters rise one behind the other. circumference on the three sides. of no consequence as houses number six hundred and are vineyards is hill. a Serdâr of the Janissaries. besieged town with an hundred thousand men. Seids and Sherifs (the relations of the Prophet). and does not join the citadel. whose revenues may be calculated is a Molla of five hundred aspers. it leaves the castle the garrison are empowered to kill him. but wounded by a cannon shot from the upper castle. those of the town. The and the breadth ten royal cubits castle situated on a high four natural terraces. the rebel. . mocking castle is sixty cubits vaults. a Nakib-ul-eshraf. of Jubûkova. thousand paces. . 1 hundred battlements. One is God It has no ditch on one side on account of the rocks. that The Zaiins and Timariots with the Jebelle make three thousand The Sûbashîs depending from Angora are. all on built has four iron- It gates one behind the other towards the west. is six the east side of the superior castle you descend into the valley of Khizrlik by a road leading are cisterns and magazines .THE TRAVELS OF 230 (Lieutenants). because water . a Dizdar (commander of the The and a garrison of an hundred men. in time of sieges. all Ahmed Pâshâ The lower town was against the rebels. each strengthened behind by iron cages. and side is circumference a place of pilgrimage situated on a over the town. and the bones of a whale. this . of Yebdnava. On defended by sixty-eight guns. These iron cages or gratings are thrown before the gates The the bars are of the thickness of an arm. town and a Mohtessib (provost and lieutenant of officers of the Jebeji all assaults. or at least to exile him for ever. rising in and Topji. so that there of three hundred paces from one enclosure to the other is a Kiaya-yerf . on the upper part of If the commander are sus- The guards keep pended the arms of old knights. Yegdir-allah. but down in the for fetching water. and took possession of the lower town. gate on the extremity of the fortress looking to the Horse market opens to the west. Abaza. called Khizrlik it is the east this hill looks not within gun-shot distance. he was obliged to return to Erzerum the commander ever since has been prohibited from leaving the castle. it is it It sur- has four gates. rounded with a wall by its four thousand paces. armed men. but none of them are large. In the inner castle lower town are no cisterns. is moun- a distance the height of each wall the foundations are forms an oblong square from east to west. but have neither gardens nor the old mosque was formerly a convent. a Nâ'b of the commanding police) the castle) tain. which The Judge import forty thousand piastres. at annually a Shiekh-ul-islam or Muftî. of Mertâtova. or head of the Emîrs. There are also twenty purses a year. of the Sipâhîs. on which On The terraced. which The its inner castle is is . watch here day and night.

two hundred baths. and there is the market places are almost houses and barber's-shops are always crowded paved with white stones. with eye-lashes. who is free of four enticements. rich inhabitants of the town wear Ferrâjes of Serhaddîs of cloth and Contoshes. innumerable. began to praise his hair. viz. seventy palaces with gardens . of wool. the Ulemas. a pious man. The colleges are richly endowed.. there being an hundred and seventy fountains. an hundred and eighty schools for boys. he then who shocked at his ugliness Hence the descendants of the returned without a hair into the woman's presence. gates with chains . those of the middle Ferrajes of white linen. had him turned out of doors by her maidens. three thousand in mosques. and the women also of workmen wool of and temperature being mild the inhabitants are The The sable. or works on the Mohammedan religion by Yâzijî-zadeh Mohammed Efendi. founded by Mevlevis vent of . poets. hair. The class. and covered with earth instead of with bricks. Ahmed Pâshâ. the same advantage. Some of its inhabitants have the repute of performing miracles like Abd-ur-rahman Efendi. brows. Praises of Hdji Bairdm the Saint. Its a Turkish town. it six six hundred and distributing for an elegant bezestan with four all on elevated spots . Saint by his daughter actually wear short beards (Kosseh). brows and Saint retired into a corner and prayed to dehvered of these four inducements to lust. In his youth he was once invited by a cunning the Saint. who in order to seduce she was in love. three houses for lectures on tradition. and two hundred sebîl-khâneh or establishments The shops water. these buildings are of brick not all thousand stone. Eatables and Products. God that he might be and become of an ugly form . divines. those of wells. the coflPee the public places and streets are and learned and pious men are counts more than two thousand boys who know the Koran by heart some thousand also know by heart the Mohammedieh. fair The climate with red faces. patron first is Khoja Abd-ul-Kadir Jeilanf. Their Dervishes of his order follow the rules of their founder. evliya efendi. who had and girls . calves and sheep's feet of Angora are the counter part of those of Kvitahia . seventy-six Ahmed Pâshd and having been built by the great Sinan. . whom The woman. (mosques) the greatest of them is fifteen Hâjî Beirâm the saint. by whom they ascend to the prophet in Rûmelî There is likewise a fine conthey are called also Hamzevi from Sheikh Hamza. although it is . beard. are two thousand. is 231 abundance. the different colours. beard and eye-lashes he is descended from Hâjî Bairâm's family. convents of Dervishes with mihrâb where three hundred that of Hâjî Bairâm. sixty houses.

where thou shouldest send to-morrow morning a tomb. into their own country. selling The Franks them. to avoid this and both men and of the hair . and his voice which known resemblance. inhabitants make great journies to Frengistan and Egypt There are a great number of Jews. its whiteness brilliant (Shalloon) of different colours which by scissors becomes coarse. town. the chalk also of . that Er Sultân had appeared to him radiant face. if it This I will pleases in God passing ! At all a We the tombs of last there on the western side of the wood-market a small cupola. women If the and as as soft it is made is goats. that I was didst thou not say lying here under a thick cupola near the visit of ? appeared my companion . and the water and the sof (Shalloon) of Angora Angora is renowned. which however has neither colour nor The inhabitants of Angora say that the exclusive working of fine shalloon lustre. who he was ? and he said.. and told me. it granted to them by the miracles of Hâjî Bairâm. who shall lead thee to my when a man came of the form dream. but God be and the stuff wove from their goats. dream and had commanded him Saints. " Didst thou not call on Sâri Sâltik Dedeh. lamentable cries. is pulled out by which they are enabled to to transport the goats of degenerated into are busy at cut is fine as the silk The hair making or is then worked into Shalloons. if it shall mention by and by. thus the poor goats are stripped naked. said saw in my my am I ? man my me and give me joy with to was show me his as hollow as burying place. wool pull out the hair without difticulty or giving pain Angora common the soft when the hair is pulled out in that way. prayers. They then took (Shalloon). and was waiting. is to give the true lustre (Maj). but were never able for their monks a kind of black shalloon. recited the In a dream ! Koran saw a I with a yellow beard. raise some wash them with a mixture of chalk and ashes. if worn by Monarchs. honey-coloured cowl and a turban of twelve folds on his who upbraided me for having visited Hâjî Bairâm's tomb and passed by hisI asked. which The day the most famous in the world it Its to sell their Shalloons. soon I fell asleep. The may God man preserve entered Angora I and then returned Indeed air. stantinople in Sultân here by the name of Murad's presence Er Sultân wood market. but few Greeks and inhabitants are a goodnatured hospitable people. but it The poor of Eyilb (Job). These goats praised hair tried they ! was no the hair of the Angora-goat and tried to work it They now make Siif into Sof. Copts. when in thy youth thou performed prayer in the Convent of the Wrestlers at Con- head." of him I I awoke. THE TRAVELS OF 232 the salted flesh (Passdh-ma) of called Teftekgechî are of a goats has an excellent perfume. passed through eleven quarters of the town and visited I a fâtihah. is of my to It is an incomparable the end of time in the hands of the Ottomans till the I visited lodgings where tomb of Hâjî Bairâm. which in a man had came from underground.

thy path Pasha not good thee myself to this place. the others of the Saints. saying. but he immediately made it a duty to myself to visit every tombs of Hâjî Bairam and Er Sultân and stay at Angora. Pilfrrimaffes." ? " I arose of the visitors. coffin replied. I I led visitest. which in idea of shutting am now about to mention. and begged he would not of benediction in this and the other world." and left. I me depart let now commenced the recital of the Koran. himself up in the town and declaring it but God. I was I was at a loss to of him and fancied that he must have walked through a which was near me. begged that he would not replied. " were gone Pasha. said. who all I was the tomb-keeper home shedding many also related to gave orders that was awoke me day. during Honour thy Say now a fatihah tears. pointed out to me. was at Adrianople. faith. and in thy last am I it then I a state of rebellion. full had arrived by saying. II. is Be straight. felt Er of he disappeared on right side. sleep and deal. protection. my He ! my a similar dream that he had had. speak. the pole and column of sanctity. sweated to such a degree that when peared to me again and He benediction. that I his blessing. There I laid my face on the threshold and prayed to the Saint. me coffin was asleep and Er Sultân ap- clothes were wet. Good words way to Here with this intent.evliya efendi. " Protection. do a great moments God Angora. a Bûza-house of riot.' parents. " This looking at on it my my Whilst Sultân. know what had become door covered with tomb the is 233 opened I it. H H Hâmed. and the Sheikhs (Pr). walked and saw in. after these visions. no and to the question " Yes " When they and related The Pasha had had some of Angora. and to molest the inhabitants of health. I. because vision to the He instantly the Sarija and Segbân should deliver up their arms and leave in quiet the inhabitants abandoned ?" thy little. by a noise and voices saying. " Is there from beneath the cover of the Whether returned I I know ascend. and good works exalt. and sheltering myself under the green Suf with which the covered. was born on the bank of the river Chepul in the village of Solkof and was the disciple of Sheikh At the time when Sultân Bâyazîd VOL. it was Ashamed of having got into such society I left the room immediately and made the best of my way to the cupola which had been shown to me. and thy end shall be happy. tomb-keeper tell grant to thee travel and Eat. will hath said in the Koran. Sheikh Hâjî Bairâm. Sheikh Bairâm preached . I O Er Sultân woke my I ! Thou wilt not be void of let it. for actions are necessary to discover the ' a perfect leader (Murshid merciful to the poor and weak. " I then fell " void go hence void of because thou art a Hdfiz (knowing the Koran by heart) and a lover of the Saints (Evliya) whose tombs thou always Kâmil).

repaired to the village of Erkeksii. perfumed. had arrived with forty of his companions Vârvâr Pâshâ. the discoverer of of Angora. which I do not short stay. The day of our departure being fixed. and being impri- enjoyed. he was buried beneath a high cupola in the inner castle Sheikh Er Sultân. which was searched of course did not re-enter the town but which Kiaya to request him to send is to the north his troops. and ready for burial. I made myself as light as possible. was necessary to obey the Emperor's comIn short Mustafa. house and Haji Bairam and Er Sultân. soned at Angora he gave the order one evening to be buried the next day. others that he was a rebel for having united mand. Some were exclaiming that giving they were satisfied with the Pâshâ. Most fortunately the Pâshâ. that all who belonged to the took leave of the master of after seven hours' march Pâshâ were my to leave the town instantly at the village of houses and a mosque at the foot of a rock. and in the morning. and arrived fifty aspers. mean time the Pâshâ not having been found the gates were opened and a proclamation issued. rocks . was born at Angora. by away a part of what I had taken from the robbers' den in alms.: THE TRAVELS OF 234 there in the old mosque. which hap- place. Bâyazîd's reign. mysteries. a bath and market the river Erkek flows through it. This place had formerly two great gates at either . is is still East of Angora on a high mountain the pilgrimage of Hizr. Differ- could never utter a word. it I therefore Erkeksû consisting of two hundred Seven hours further on we arrived at the great place Istanozi. and the pulpit which he ascended ent Sheikhs who tried to were worthy to preach pened in ascend this pulpit him after in the shown. bordering on a valley. called Mahmud by his proper name. one of the Emperor's Kapiji. was gone incognito to visit the tomb of Sidi general call to arms (Neffr-a'âm). In the morning I heard an uproar and riot by which heaven and earth was thrown into confusion. in every part and could not therefore be found by the The Pasha Kapiji. a pleasure place from which a fine view of the town is This Saint was the disciple of Sheikh Hossam-ud-din. and reposes beneath a small cupola in the wood market. he was found washed. and that with it they had shut the gates of the castle and proclaimed a . without any body having been near him. on each side of which are towering has a thousand houses without gardens. could not visit their tombs during my Saints. and the rest as a pawn to the master of the house where I lodged and got ready with seven Mamlucs and one light pack horse. letter to his in his palace. mention. because none same After his death. the leader of divine truth. There are a great number of other a second Pythagoras. who had been dream. terrified by a disastrous Battal's father. a mosque. of In the and sent a it. as I Sheikh Katib Salâh-ud-dîn was a great astronomer. with a judge of one hundred and district of . in the Mortatova.

to whom they gave lessons in their (The Description of the tricks. They stretch the rope from one rock to the other and place watchmen at each end. Sheikh Shâmî. I kissed the ground and delivered the letter in the usual form. are here omitted. because between two walls of high rocks on which eagles and vultures build their nests. Shabîn and Mdrdin. These rocks are as situated is it tremendous as those of Van. Solomon surrounded by many thousand Sârija and Segban. would be impossible if to take the place. I passed Hossein Ghâzî and and further on passed Kala'ajik.) Having received the letters of My Lord the Pâshâ Bâlik-hissâr. lions and elephants. art. which were destroyed in the time of these two gates were restored it Murad III. the station of Turhal. and that now I was his Imam and intimate companion. like further in what office I was to the Pâshâ. the tricks of seventy six tumblers. who were We witnessed during three days followed by three hundred scholars. Istanoz and the town of the places where tumblers and wrestlers assemble to are crowded with spectators and on both sides of the river. He was seated in a tent. and the river Kizil Irmak with great ease at Kârdlar. " Yes. girls are caverns which can hold a thousand horses. some of them are excavated below like Mount Bisütön and some are shaped above like dragons. Having looked into my face and said. the Koran in eight hours ? and who was received by Sultân Murad amongst the pages of the Kîldâr. The day we entered the town there was a great conflux of and wrestlers exhibit men to see tumblers Kodoz in Anatoli being make bets. and I first met him went as the rule requireth to his who conducted me to the presence of the Pâshâ. but to which man scarcely dares to lift up his eyes. About a thousand This place being enclosed by two rocks the here are famed for their beauty. in working Suf. that on the way to Erzenim I was head of the Muezzins. that enemies may not cut it when they are dancing on it." Having replied. I said. which flows through the valley. who at the mosque of Aya Sofia recited in the night Kadr. tents are pitched for the spectators. halted at the village of Sâri Alan.evliya efendi. The inhabitants are for the looms are employed air is very warm. The servants having been ordered to withdraw he called . " Art not thou Evliya Chelebî. but that he afterwards made me clerk of the Customhouse and sent me three times into Persia. and an account of two letters from and to Vdvdr Pdshd. Akche-koyûnli." he asked kiaya. The Armenian most part Armenians. 235 by the rebel Korayaziji. heard that Vârvâr Pâshâ had left further on to the eastward at Gergezâr. The rocks and the valley beneath their tricks . Formerly an old There castle stood here on a rock. end.

troops having armed during the night. and pushed on for seven hours Here the two armies engaged and that of Koprilî was towards the kiblah. The Sheikh has bred eagles From hence we marched for three hours along the bank of the Kizil Irmak to the village of Torduk. " that your Pâshâ army shut himself up at Angora he might have played the devil there. who . without the least halted at Airak which Irmak north of the Kizil lies has an hundred houses and a mosque. the Pasha prisoners.THE TRAVELS OF 236 the Divân Efendî and read the letter.. at the number of our troops he gave me an hundred Orion). lamps and candelabra. then we entered the Keskin of the Turcomans in the land of Kânghrî. I censers. hawking beasts of all kind. in the Sanjak of here visited the tomb of Kangru We . it Mohammed Shah Dedeh. both of two tails. kills who live instead of falcons for upon it visit to till the the next year. Kor Hossein. that Koprilî mander against Varvar. pass (PÛ1) of Dirikli and carried the population away Upon to the mountains. . the Pasha put himself in the morning at the head of six thousand men of light troops. zechins. convent a horse and abandons the carcase to the eagles and vultures witnessed the Pasha perform his outshining that of this of the rocks. Having territory of Kânghrî. a large hospitable convent of an hundred Dervishes Begtâshî. and to the Pasha. The same day news arrived that Koprili Mohammed Pasha and seven Vezirs had taken post at the bridge of Osmânjik and the rocks of Sarimshik. a great number were killed and the rest dispersed or made entirely routed Amongst the last was Mohammed Koprilî Pasha himself. of Amasia. Our march was. in the At the convent of Hassam Efendi a great repast was given Three hours further on we came to the convent of Kûm-bâbâ. however. and the Pâshâ of Kara Shehr. The tomb is surrounded with Every year the Sheikh of rose-water. vases for tomb with a devotion and a faith many preachers from the pulpit. who came with Haji Begtâsh from Khorassan to the court of Bayazid I. " It is a pity. this news Vârvâr Alî Pâshâ Irmak. from Kiraz to Dânkaza seven hours." said he. We to any body. perceived that the army was preparing for battle and learned that spies had brought the news. to Bardâklf-bâbâ seven hours and to the river Kizil Irmak six hours. The Pâshâ. and by this glorious deed have hung his sword in the skies (like that of Rejoiced." did not with such an . where they were entrenching themselves and that Hossein the Pâshâ of Amasia had closed the . a rosary of corals and a watch set with jewels. overran it for ten days we halted on the eleventh at the village of Sâlî. The passage of the river was directed his inarch straight to the passage of the Kizil harm happening effected in the best order. I Mohammed was ready to give who had been named comhim battle on the following day. I was also invested with a magnificent sable pelisse and recommended as a guest to the Khazinedâr.

Thou ! likest He however pardon. the Khazinedâr of Seyavush rescript the He (Potur). and powerful men were now and men killed their in Such 237 and blocks on feet their necks. and his children but under the supposition of ready obedience the Governorship conferred tails to all upon him. The a Khasseki and Kapiji-bashi arrived Chelebf. The next day the Châhne"-îr (head carver) of Vârvâr arrived from Constantinople with a Khatti-shen'f of the following tenor : " My Lâlâ (Governor) thy fault is pardoned. Pâshâ was about to answer with Kiatib AH The Imperial to join till and I saw this letter. victory. From YÛZ Oghlan in the my Sanjak of Kanghrii I rode for three days trusting in and met with the Pasha on the plain of Murtât. first Ketgâj and Sîdî Pâshâ against Vârvâr." Aghâ Kiatib Alî Chelebî. of flattery and deceit. arrived at the village waited on him wishing him joy of his I me with the letters expected. gave to the Khasseki a purse for the expenses of the recommended him as a guest to his kiaya. and in fact army of collected an thirty-seven thousand of Buzoghldn. pardon me. and begging he would despatch When we men. in the Sanjak of Kanghril. and a complete dress. the state of the world. and therefore blindly believed and being overjoyed with the news he had . and . proceed. his property was to be confiscated. but the rebellion of . saying. The Pâshâ made immediate obeisance.evliya efendi. and to pardon and set at liberty his prisoners. was instantly read. and contained the most positive orders of Jemâzî-ul-akhir the united troops of Ipshir." remained obstinate. a completely caparisoned horse from Koprili's stable. that these great is the power of the Sârija and Segbân. " He Cod. I endea- voured to persuade him to be mild and merciful. The Pâshâ hearing of Vârvâr's blind confidence glowed with anger and said. Ipshir Pashd him. shall left Angora on see right the blockhead it. whose head or the Pasha's was required. Chaush. he me Pâshds little I should see in Chaush Pasha. according to the text. presenting with an hundred piastres. it then gave was when full me Ipshir Pasha's letter. which he had sent him to read. who tortured before their eyes and the executioners flung their swords In brief a Vezir (Koprili) and five Begler-begs were bound over their necks. " O God Thou art all-pardoning. Bakî. but extremely simple and of in the assurances of these received from them. He was an open frank judgment. wrote letters to Begs and Begler-begs enforcing them to come and join him with their troops. despatched me with letters to my master. who than ever open rebellion. to the poles of Vârvâr's tent. collected now more elated with this victory declared all kinds of rabble. a few days what would happen when his friends little and Shehsuvar Oghlf Pasha should arrive to join man. If he refused to comply and relations killed of Egypt was ordered the road. V?ere obliged to along with the walk on foot with chains on their tails of Vârvâr.

a horse (being an extremely avaricious and low born Abâzâ) which I got and a with letter. Erzerûm and Angora. seventy secchins. and hours further to the village of Alî Zaîm. " is the man from whom you may to be spared as he " was no rebel and no Sanjak Beg. which I related to him as it happened three days ago." " go and follow Melek Ahmed. Egypt ship of to put himself in possession of His head or yours is is demanded." master the nearest relation of Melek Pasha's and your mother said the Pasha. said Ipshir. I office at this place. waited on Ipshfr Pasha and asked for letters. " he reminds me of my relationship with Mohammed Pâshâ. took a great deal of booty of the . a village of an hnndred and fifty I rode for eight hours houses with gardens and a mosque eight hours further to Mestibeg." " Well. under way." I most is likely to come into high now be removed go as Governor to " No." I. a Sûbashilik in the plain of Mûrtât. Damascus or Baghdad. poor Evliya. but knew not as yet of their The Pasha read deaths. Pasha?" joint subject of whom two Vezirs. " there is Pdshâ laughed and said. From Cherkesh (where Vârvâr's defeat had happened) to Dûlûshja. offices for the pleasure of travelling. and Haji OghK. Ipshîr's The Pasha followed him at three day's distance. from ask your expedition. THE TRAVELS OF 238 who wished Defterdctr Oghli. " Here. (Here follows the relation of Vdrvdrs complete defeat by Ipshir Pdslid hy whom he was ensnared. where I met the Pasha. not the mother of my present " Look here. replied. kissed his hand Lord the Pasha. . he became very melancholy and prepared for attacking who from Cherkesh moved towards Karamanla by the side of Keskin. you send the If The Pasha remained dumb assured to you. is evident." attach myself to your service.) Evliya at last. My He I got up." no difference between you three. What art thou doing at thy master's " By God. camp. afraid for his head." said Ipshir showing Vârvâr's dead that he might return as he came. a ziâmet nine in . joined Ipshir." me back Khatti-sherif and instantly despatched first the Governor- at the sight of this with that which he had received to Vârvâr. body. Is I. occupying three sheets of the original. ?" order to become the mediator of peace between us. and hearing at the same time that Bakî Pasha had left him and of the defeat of Vârvâr.. wert thou not previously with Melek Ahmed " I am the common servant and accompany which case alternately as they Defterdar Zâdeh must and your Excellency in Ipshir Evliya begged answered. Ipshîr's letter. to give him some ordered me a tent. who had heard Kor Hossein. poor Evliya." and begged he would give me a letter to solace in the present state of his affairs. a ziamet of an hundred houses. a village of an hundred houses.

after which confession his head was cut off. but the roofs of wood. left in his The next day Hassan Chelebî was obliged to pay the sum mentioned by the beheaded Divân My Efendî and to accompany us in irons. the of Emîr- dedeh. Angora. and sent to the Porte as being that of a assignation of Khali'l. At the village of Merja Begbazârî the Divdn Efendi in the district of of Vârvâr Pâshâ was overtaken with forty-three tliousand zecchins and seven He purses of money. Description of the town of Beg-bazdri or Bebek-bazdri. in ruins. the castle being too small to hold any. The judge. it lies foot of the town distributed over two valleys. where Atl Aghâ was lodged in he demanded the money deposited by the lodged with my old things and effects. . There are more than seven hundred men and boys who know by heart the Koran. Once a week there is a famous marIt is now the Khass of the Mufti of who appoints the Sübashî. 239 baggages of Vdrvâr. and me all my whose hands the in with three hundred horse- the district of Ayâsh. from to We it. We beheaded Divân Efendî. another for lectures stone built colleges as in other towns. We me left a present Angora. passed as before through Istanos. the castle is fifty aspers. Koprilî and Kor Hossein and arrived in three days at the river Sakaria. river to the village Shikenji reached Erkeksu at Aghâ was despatched rebel. then during eight hours along the pass of Ayâsh Ayâsh is a foundation belonging to the two holy is a jurisdiction of an hundred and and ten mosques air is . may easily collect seven purses. Dinâr-hezâr.evliya efendi. confessed to ten thousand zecchins besides and a sum deposited at Angora of forty purses of money. on Hassan at money was men deposited. which I had friend Kedr-zâdeh who returned hands. a village in passed the village of Istanos and after seven hours whom I Angora According to the marched along the bank of the Sakaria Ahmed Aghâ last arriving at the house of Hassan. of mortar. three thousand and sixty seven elegant houses. the vezîr of Yakub Shah of the Germiân family. and on the opposite side that of Sheikh Bokhara buried under a cupola on the mountain. and divided into twenty quarters. It and contains a thousand houses is a Serdâr and Kiaya-yerî here visited the tomb . of two pack-horses to facilitate the transport of my things. There are forty one mosques. Constantinople and fifty but no Dizdar and garrison. . but no room for reading the all Koran. having conquered this town gave it the name Germiân-hezârf. Kedr-zâdeh made friend. ket chiefly of goats-hair spun and woven. and seventy schools. I cities of Mecca and Medina. heavy because the ground is but there uneven. There is a Serdâr and Kiaya-yerî. Alaja Atli take to possession of surrounded with gardens. appointed with an hundred aspers. the Divanî Efendî. a on At the tradition.

a market held every week this torrent falls into the river. which precious in but no bezestan of articles are found. had remained here three days when and that my tomb the which go to an town of Nessu and are Black barley which must be given with caution to horses. sat upon the wall. Zerdeh cinnamon and (dish) with vented by Moavia there . . Journey from Beg-bazdri We marched nine hours meadows to to the north through cultivated villages and open village of Sârî-beg. who showed me those me five I would come back again. pretty. and two step-mother's hands. Seid-ul-Arab. . but not The gardens of Beg-bazârî are numerous among its products is a parmelon much distinguished for its sweetness the inhabitants make of it a and with paved. and three mules in addition to those which late servants attached to me. the inhabitants are for the . a Mufti and Nakîb-ul-eshrâf most part Ulemds. and the spot shown where he it to the to Constantinople. a fine tent my my to Constantinople in order to arrange might return to him. I leave to go on condition Kiaya and Khazinedar. the bank of the torrent. that There are seven Khans. which is said have been moved by the mii'aculous power of Haji Begtâsh. in a It has no foundation and therefore Seven hours further ground intersected by At the time of the is valleys. and there In the town in- boxes to Constantinople as in Persia in the town of Bâr. cloves. six is hundred shops On stone. giving notice of the death of from the Pasha called produced here. rebellion of it is the village of Kara The is evident Kostek- inhabitants are Yaziji. ticular . They begged leave received three letters from my showed to the Pâshâ. which flows through the butcheries. Here a gigantic wall is seen. which runs below the town. presents. pleasant simplicity. make a journey to I in relations with the the rice. This being a Turkish town the people are chiefly Oghûz. and the girls very retired and modest. beg of an hundred houses free from all duties. after me which my same news. he had received. is good men of the old Turkish to say baths. sweet as the Every year some thousand of them are sent occa.THE TRAVELS OF 240 and the Mohammedieh. in the in first had received I With seven Mamlûks and eight took leave of the Pâshâ and set out at the end of Jemazi- ul-akhir in the year 1058 (1648) from Begbazari for Constantinople. such sweet pears are found but Melje like the pears called Zerdeh which was also a large green pear four or five of is We is uncles. hundred Vârvâr Alî Pâshâ. a great quantity of is letters arrived for the all his goods remained for afFairs. gave slaves. is of Az-dedeh. which He gave me I as a present from the I father. . this river into the Sakaria. two horses. Pasha from Melek-zâdeh and Abd-ur-rahîm. The roads are strewn with sand and not The young men are fine. dollars. must have been moved hither.

a bath. also his foundation Kostek-beg Khan. a khdn. stable holds two thousand horses. It was he who discovered the tomb of Eyyiib and on whose admonition they dug on the spot indicated by him. to the conquest of Constantinople. number of Though flows through fir-wood pipes. built by the Greek Emperors. Bairara. more we reached the village of Turbeli Koilik. an imaret and a bath. cliffs. It and seventy-five shops Jews can inhabit in this place. Akshemsud-din is buried in this village. to men is two hundred. II. and foretold the day when the town would be conquered. which they plundered. and all Kkân. fall The number or mice. because all descendants had conversed with Shehab-ud-din buried in the castle of Baghdad. for some time. The castle. He defect. He and his whole lie buried here. in the is The houses all its inhabitants are covered with fir-wood. a good mills No are sold. He composed many volumes of books and was in medicine a second Lokman. He was born at Damascus and derives his genealogy from Abubekr. without doing the least harm of the houses. there boys. Deli Hassan and Ahmed 241 Oghlî in the time of Seji<lh they assailed a great caravan here. there besides a stable for camels. a small affranchised mussulman village of an hundred houses in a This khân governed by a MutevelU of Nassif Pâshâ. Kalender Oghlî. which the water of Turks. it The raisins of this place are cele- the whole of Anatolia unless in The be the KhcCn of Katifa and Sa'asa'a in the neighbourhood of Damascus. is valley. it is life This place is yet a sweet town of two thousand houses. killing more I. and at Angora with Haji accompanied Mohammed II. a dish kitchen like that of Keikavus.evliya efendi. His son Ahmed family VOL. There Nassif Pasha built here a great khan and transported the inhabitants hither. Jennet Ogllî. who He is in his finger. immediately overhung by the rocks. which was proved by the absence of one of the joints from him are born with that Sehrverdi. Nailî is till fifty and is chimneys with a Travellers receive each a loaf in a brass plate. Serdâr but no Dizdar. no college or house of tradition but twenty schools for market-place are three khans covered with brick. The khdn has no equal brated for sour preserves. having an hundred and built like that of the Eight hours further to the north we arrived at buildings are covered with lead. which in the harsh language of the Turks is pronounced Torbal Koiluk. In seven hours conquered by Ghazi Osman in the year 712 (1312). I I . is a mosque. The road then remained blocked up than two thousand men. are overhung by the chalk down upon them. Description of the tomb of the great Saint Jkshems-ud-din. which from time to time has a Kiaya-yeri and surrounded on both sides by rocks from eighteen mosques and eight quarters. which saddle-bags and horse-cloths because in it they die instantly. was of soup and a candle.

is buried near his father. 242 Chelebi is the author of Yüssûf and Zuleikha. a great number of treatises he wrote one on physiognomy which His son Mohammed . built by the Greek Princes of Brussa and conquered by Osman. this town is called Tarakl because spoons and combs (Tarak) are made here from the box-trees which cover the neighbouring mountains." (Mejzub) when grown up could discern heaven from those who would go to in the hell. " Esseldm aleikum. the son of buried outside that of his ancestor. he is the author of the work Wahdet-nameh (book of unity). whither he walked it Sheikh his hand. Eight hours to the north is falls into the river Persia. here is the foundation con- built over the Sakaria. eleven mihrabs. . one of the most renowned of poems Turkish language. Akshems-ud-din's followers. judge is houses five appointed with an hundred and in a valley all fifty to The aspers. a small castle for the sheep of a Greek Princess. in Sheikh Mohammed Hamdol- second son of Akshems-ud-din. seven quarters. and to Brussa to finish his studies Sheikh Chelebf Emi-illah did not follow entering his stomach. his father's tomb. in his father . We remained here one day and then travelled seven hours to the north Tarakl. He died when sixty-six years old. when This ecstatic child The tomb of Sheikh Abd-ul-kadir. who Sheikh Abd-ur-rahim one of lived forty yeai'S after him . He mosque those who would go lah. He composed of a Divân. is which was given to him by Sultân Mohammed. she was immediately delivered on the salute given to the child. Nasrollah his Tabriz fifth the son of Shems with head cut his Tabi-fzi off. and Yussiif and Zuleikha. which the Turkish language. there are fifteen hundred covered with brick. . was also spoken to by his father mother's his At years eight old was already author he Leila and Mejniin. who is carrying the son of Akshems-ud-din Persia and man- Sheikh buried at is buried in the town of Khüî. son travelled for seven years in the Persians . ner of and died of the gout life. another son of went and who his. he did not accept of the directorship. which returned it saying. Sa'ad Allah to buried in the village of Evlek.THE TRAVELS OF. his penknife having touched his Mohammed Nûrolhüda mother's womb when she was pregnant with him. The it These spoons and combs are sent into Arabia and torrent which flows through the village into the sea. and some erroneously believe him to be his visit son his third he composed an historical work. six schools and two hundred shops . Hârmen and with the castle of Kiva. properly Kekiva. which his father in the intended for him and which after his death devolved on Sa'ad Allah. the abovesaid in has no equal womb. Sheikh Niirallah killed himself accidentally. Chelebf was a great divine and in caligraphy a second Yakut Mostea'assemi and Ibn Mokla. he is is Among much esteemed. a bath. secrated to the famous bridge of Sultân Bayazîd It H. khans.

and returned home. when the great . and sometimes by cutting passengers and cutting unloading caravans. the tour of In it. is buried here. a my I father baggage. where many strangers and linden. in the great town of Scutari. but ruined It inundation of the Sakaria. a den of wild beasts have been lost. a bath. viz and a month like the is make road to Kiva. acquaintances. the tomb in the way to From Erzerum. they obliged every body to pay. which intercept the rays denizi (the sea of trees). In a dream who wished me tomb of Er-Sultan. a mosque. and made a vow to consecrate two it to the pilgrimage of Mecca visited all my friends and there since the time of home. which flows here under the Black Sea near Irva. Gebize. Pendik. and enjoyed with them the pleasures of conversation. wliere I saw last. was formerly a large town. then returned my father's heritage. and seven schools for boys. Ali-baba. Kekeva dwelled and took is here from those who skies. a small castle towering to the passed : West along We passed through the bank of the Sakaria for seven it and continuing our way cultivated place which has been already described on the hence we came to Nicomedia. the Brussa. or administrator of the Burhan a companion of Osman Wakf. the bridge of the Bostanjf-bashi. and Kadikoi. it three khans. journey to Erzerum. through This forest extends through four Sanjaks. river 8akaria. I father behind the arsenal. The the melons falls famous. also described sed Herke. The are high trees firs of the sun. preserve of raisins and two melons are a load for a horse. It is now situated at an arrow's shot dis- tance from the river. of the district are into the In this place reside a Serdâr. and arrived at the end of Jemazi'-ul-akhir. These mountains are inhabited by some tliousand unmerciful Turks.evliya efendi. I. Ismid. comes from the town of Beg-bazari and bridge. praise be to God 1058 at Constantino- ! hand of my mother and the eyes of mv then mounted again on horseback to fulfil my vow by visiting the tomb of ple. We pas- of Gemikli. Kiaya-yerî and Mütevelli. by the consisted of three hundred houses. some places it is cut Three hours from Kiva we came to the castle of the necessary to shepherds (Choban Kala'assf). 243 Murad in the reign of Sultîin IV. Kartal. I kissed the immolated and distributed a victim. with all sisters. and has a large khan covered with brick and twenty shops near The sour it. and Boll. and perfume the brain with their sweet scent. that the shepherds of Princess . to hours we reached Sabanja. thrice said the above Sura. and at my Eyyub. and my visit to the awoke and took a my ancestors buried Mohammed II. who live by wood and loading it in ships. Having boat to visit the tomb of my joy on my happy arrival and on thrice said the Süra-et-tekâtherî. called and robbers. (1648). toll It the passage being straightened between the mountains and the river Sakaria. We and to the north along the banks of Sakaria through the great passed the bridge Aglmj- forest. took possession of thousand zechins of .

Awariz (accidental duties) and the Mohassillik or Evliya waited on him and with great difficulty obcollectorship. and went from Constantinople to Scutari in the first days of the month Sha'abân. The Pcâshâ's Imam being an Arab whom Murteza Arab disliked. nearly and s reign. begging he would grant him with the Kharaj (tribute). in the burying ground. setting out with Murteza Pâshâ for the journey to Damascus. (chief proclaimer of prayer). Evliya his friends Efendî of Scutari.THE TRAVELS OF EVLYA EFEND. and attached himself to Silehdar Murteza Pâshâ. which was done. slept in his paternal relations The same night as the execution of the home at Constantinople. 1058. by and the grace of the Lord of Apostles. the performed prayers outside. Amen. and after a lively contest with Koja Mevlevi. and Evliya inside the Pasha's tent and was continually During the time they remained at Scutari. in whose hands Evliya had fallen when he lost his way in the pass as before related. obtained from him the nomination to the Governorship of Malatia. Ahmed and where he the tombs of all visited Mahmud the great men calling their spirits to his assistance in the Syrian voyage. the famous in the Pasha's company. END OF THE SECOND VOLUME. and hanged at Parmakkapii (finger-gate). 244 rebellion of the troops began on the eighteenth of Rejet. the grand vezir. r ^M fo r . and terminated in Mohammed the dethronement of Sultan Ibrahim and the accession of his son (^Here follows the account of the dethronement ofSiiltdn Ihrahim. robber Hyder Oghli. then took leave of and passed over and Saint Karaji to Scutari. which the same as has heen given. He then remained sometime pilgrimage to Mecca. the on tained permission to go it at Constantinople. robber. in the first volume. which he was about to undertake. was brought in by Hassan Aghâ. under this Sultân is IV.) Evliya then relates how his master Mohammed Defterdar Zâdeh came to Con- stantinople. he was also named Imam of the as Mûezzin-bâshî Mahmel (the Sultan's annual present to Mecca). is therefore omitted here.

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