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Tanalgo, Baby Lyn Ann S.
HAD Date Performed: June 27, 2013 Date Submitted: July 5, 2013
Exercise No. 2 The Edaphic Factors and the Soil Inhabitants
Soil is the component of the earth’s crust formed as a product of physical and chemical weathering. Through its ability to ho ld water and store nutrients, it makes plant growth possible. Aside from plants, many small oragnisms also rely on soil as a habitat. Edaphic factors, determine the survival of plants and soil inhabitants. The edaphic factors studied in this experiment include soil temperature, moisture, pH, organic matter, texure, horizon and nutrients and.The group was assigned to collect soil samples from the Oblation Garden last June 27, 2013 from 8:00 to 9:00 in the morning and study them through physical and chemical examination. Soil properties varied for each of the sites studied – the Oblation Garden, PGH, Taft and Paco Park. The factors were found to affect one another and the organisms in the area. Soil types with optimum conditions for living were inhabited by more organisms. All study sites gave values suggesting favourable conditions for plant growth and nutrient cycling. Keywords: edaphic factors, soil horizon, soil texture, soil pH, soil moisture, organic matter
Soil is the main medium where plants grow. It is a complex mixture of sand, silt, clay, air, and bits of decaying animal and plant tissue (Miller and Levine 2003). It is a natural product formed and synthesized through the weathering of rocks and action of living organisms. Soil is composed of minerals and organic matter which makes it capable to support terrestrial organisms such as plants (Smith 2012). Soil is very important in determining the type of plants that would grow in a certain environment. It controls how much water can be retained in terrestrial environments. Microorganisms and other terrestrial animals also depend on the type of soil they live in. They obtain their nutrients from the soil so it is very important for their survival. The capability of the soil to support plant and animal life is dependent on edaphic factors. Edaphic factors are defined as ecological influences properties of the soil brought about by its physical and chemical characteristics. It is very important to study these factors because they affect the organisms living in a certain type of soil. The availability of the nutrients needed by the organisms is dependent on soil properties (Hallare). The objective of this experiment is to investigate some edaphic factors of the soil such as soil profile, temperature, pH, moisture, organic matter, nutrients, and texture. The students should be able to explain the effects of these factors to the biotic factors living in a certain type of soil. Through
this experiment, the students should be able to determine the optimum value for each factor which is suitable for living organisms. The type of inhabitants in different soils was also examined. In order to analyze the different edaphic factors, field and laboratory instruments were used.
III. Materials and Methods
Four areas, namely Paco Park, Taft Avenue, PGH and Oblation Garden were selected to determine soil characteristics. The following sets of procedure were performed. A. The Edaphic Factors 1. Soil Profile Using a soil corer, five sets of soil samples for the five random points in a specific study site were collected. This consists of a hollow halfopened metal tube. The tube will be pushed into the soil until the top of its level with the soil surface. It will then be pulled carefully from the soil and be examined. The soil exhibits vertical zonation called horizons. Enough information will be collected concerning the O, A and B horizons. Differences in color, structure, and thickness within these major horizons will be taken. Moreover, complete soil profiles can also be obtained conveniently from recent excavations in the area.
2. Soil Temperature The temperature was first equilibrated for at least two minutes and was buried afterwards about 3 and 6 inches below the surface of the soil. A total of five readings for each study site were recorded and the average temperature was calculated afterwards. 3. Soil pH To determine the pH of the soil, soil samples were collected from the different study sites. Soil suspensions were then prepared by mixing equal amounts of soil with distilled water in a beaker (1 mg=1mL). The researchers used 2 g of soil sample and 200 mL of distilled water. It was left for about 10 minutes until the particles settled down and a clear supernatant was achieved. The pH readings were obtained through the use of a calibrated pH meter dipped in the relatively clear supernatant formed. 4. Soil Moisture Soil moisture level is related to the amount of rainfall, evapotranspiration and drainage, and the water-holding capacity of the soil. The relative amount of soil can be determined using qualitative and quantitative means. For the quantitative characterization: Dry soil – when it is hard, crumbly and dry to touch Moist soil – when it is pliable and damp to touch Wet soil – when it exudes water when squeezed, leaving the hand muddy For quantitative measurement of the percent moisture in the soil, samples were obtained from shallow depth horizon and were sealed in separate plastic bags. After transfer, a clean dry crucible was weighed. 10 g of soil sample was then added and was weighed together with the container. It was oven-dried at 105°C for 24 hours. The container was removed from the oven using tongs and was cooled to room temperature. After cooling, the weight of the sample and the container were recorded. The dry weight of the sample (Wd) is computed as the weight of the container with the oven-dried sample (Wo) minus the weight of the container when empty (Wc): Wd = Wo – Wc. The weight of the water in the sample is the difference between the fresh weight and the dry weight. Therefore, the percentage of water in the
sample is the weight of the water divided by the dry weight multiplied by 100. 5. Soil Organic Matter Oven-dried samples were obtained from the previous activity in soil moisture. A clean dry crucible was weighed and recorded as Wc. The crucible was filled with 1-5 grams of oven-dried sample and was weighed again together as Wo. The soil sample was heated in a muffle furnace at 450°C. It was cooled and weighed afterwards. The ignited soil sample was recorded as Wi. Calculate the weight of the ignited soil sample by subtracting the weight of the crucible (Wi-Wc). The loss of weight on ignition (Wo-Wi) gives the organic matter content, which should be expressed as a percentage of the original (dry weight) of the sample. % Organic Matter = [(Wo-Wc) – (Wi-Wc)/(Wo-Wc)] x 100 6. Soil Nutrients Soil suspension for the five soil samples were prepared and was used to determine the presence of calcium, phosphate and nitrate. The presence of one of the aforementioned nutrients was indicated by a positive (+) sign and absence of one of the nutrients was indicated by negative (-) sign. a) Soil Calcium 10 drops of soil supernate was added with 10 drops of solution X (5 g of ammonium oxalate in 100 mL distilled water). The solution was the shaked vigorously to mix contents and left for 5 minutes. A milky-white precipitate signified presence of calcium in varying amounts. No color change indicated its absence. For determining the presence of calcium carbonate, a small handful of soil in a crucible was prepared and was added with concentrated HCl. Effervescence was observed and the presence of CaCO3 was determined using the table below.
Table 1. Determination of % CaCO3 in soil sample (After Clarke, 1957)
% CaCO3 < 0.1 0.5 1.0 2.0
Audible Effect None Faint Faintmoderate Distinct, heard away from ear
Visible Effcet None None Barely visible Visible from very close
medium brown. light brown. 1. Soil Texture B. Each was identified and observed using a stereomicroscope. with air spaces B Crumbly C and loose. very dark brown. A piece of tin was added and was shaken to mix the contents. dark gray . no air spaces Compact. The Soil Inhabitants Samples of litter were collected and placed in clear plastic bags. soil can be broadly classified into three types based on particle size distribution (See Table 4 on page 21. sticky and may color your hand). IV. 7. with some air spaces PGH No photo taken Paco Park Loose.0 Easily heard Bubbles up to 3 mm easily seen Strong effervescence with bubbles of 7 mm The percentages of sand fractions and of silt-clay mixture were calculated as follows: % Sand = [weight of sand fraction (g) / weight of oven-dried sample (g) ] x 100 % Silt-clay = [weight of silt-clay fraction (g) / weight of oven-dried sample (g) ] x 100 A frequency distribution was created to present the obtained data. with many rocks D Compact.0 Easily heard 10. very light brown. kneaded and was molded into a ball. Ten to fifteen centimeters of the soil sample was moistened. A rough classification of the soil into texture class was established based on the key given on the laboratory manual (refer to Table 11 in Appendix). The weight of the fraction that passed through sieve no. dry. Gray to deep blue coloration after 5 minutes indicated the presence of varying amounts of phosphorus in the soil sample. dark brown. 120 was collected and recorded as the mixture of silt and clay.5 and 2. with thin O horizon Compact.33 g diphenylamine in 25 mL H2SO4) was added to a test tube containing 10 drops of soil supernate and was left for 5 minutes. Results A. feel gritty or grainy) or clayish (particles less than 0. light Compact. 50 mL concentrated HNO3) was added to 10 drops of soil supernate in a test tube. with air spaces Compact. very light brown to grayish in color Loose. 10 cm deep. 60 (medium sand) No. Furthermore. with many rocks Loose. a sample of soil.5. The bag was closed tightly and was left for 5 minutes.002 mm. with many rocks. medium Compact. 50 mL distilled water. was removed and placed in separate plastic bags. Fifty grams of soil sample was weighed and was passed through the following sieves: No. Brown to blue coloration indicated the presence of varying amounts of nitrates in the soil sample. wet blackish O horizon. feeling the soil whether it is grainy or sticky. dark brown. dry. with rocks in the upper portion Compact. gray Compact. b) Soil Nitrates 10 drops of solution Y (0. Using forceps. Laboratory Manual for General Ecology). Then soil samples were collected and identified whether sandy (between 0. light brown. Soil Profile Table 2. with thin O horizon Compact. dry.0 mm in diameter. It is then emptied into a white paper and was exposed to strong light. Their respective weights were determined and recorded. all organisms were put into a small vial of alcohol. 120 (fine sand) Each grain portion from the sieving was collected and placed in separate containers. 25 (coarse sand) No. mixture of light brown and gray. The general soil profile characteristics of the five random sample sites of the four locations Taft A Compact. dark brown.16 (gravel) No. light brown A horizon Oble Garden Loose. The Edaphic Factors Classification of soil as to texture was done by first. c) Soil Phosphorus 10 drops of solution Z (5 g ammonium molybdate. In the same area.
26% 22. Paco park is relatively the most basic with a pH of 7.27% 11. light brown Compact. see Table 10 in Appendix D. For the respective readings in the five random points of each location. see Table 8 in Appendix B. 5. graybrown.42%) of . For the respective readings in the five random points of each location. and values for other measures of central tendencies.5°C 28.42 Taft Oble Garden PGH Paco Park Figure 4.5 30 29. 4. Soil pH Based on the graph.6°C Taft Oble Garden PGH Paco Park Taft Oble Garden PGH Paco Park Figure 3.5 29 28.42 while Taft Avenue. Bar graph comparing the mean temperatures of the four locations The graph shows the mean temperature readings for the four different study sites. refer to Appendix D. Bar graph comparing the mean soil pH of the four locations The graph shows the different soil organic matter expressed in percentage (%).2°C 28.5 28 27.42 7. light brown A horizon O horizon.04% 2.4 7. yellow brown Compact. light brown A horizon Compact. no air spaces Compact. Bar graph comparing the mean soil moistures of the four locations Figure 1.2 7 6.28 7. The images can be seen at Appendix A. For computations and solution.6°C). and values for other measures of central tendencies. and values for other measures of central tendencies.96% 26. reddish O horizon.46% 29.08% Soil pH 7. It is evident that Paco Park has the highest mean temperature of 30.8 mean soil pH 7. some air spaces Different pH measurements were obtained from the soil suspension of differennt study sites. mean soil moisture (%) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Soil Moisture 25. Soil Temperature Soil Temperature mean temperature (⁰C) 30. see Table 9 in Appendix C.42% 23.8 Taft Oble Garden PGH Paco Park 7. Soil Moisture The table shows the corresponding description of each stratum of the soil.8°C 28. gray A horizon.2°C and the Oblation garden has the relatively lowest temperature (28. the mean soil moisture is highest in PGH soil samples (26. 3.5 30.6 7.18 7.04%). with a pH of 7. PGH soil samples have the highest percent (29.84%) and lowest in the Paco Park soil samples (14. Bar graph comparing the mean soil organic matter (%) of the four locations Figure 2. For the respective soil moisture in the five random points of each location.84% 14.E brown O horizon. Soil Organic Matter mean soil organic matter (%) Soil Organic Matter 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 5.18 is relatively the most acidic.
4% Figure 5. Taft Avenue has the highest silt-clay mixture (20. Table 15. see Table 12 in Appendix F. sample computation of soil texture (Oblation Garden) can be seen at the Appendix G. calcium and nitrates were absent and only phosphorus was present. PGH having a texture classification of sandy has the highest sand fraction (94. . refer to Table 11 of Appendix E. Taft A Loamy Sand B C D E Loamy Sand Loamy Sand Loamy Sand Loamy Sand Loamy Sand Loamy Sand Loamy Sand Loamy Sand Sand and silty clay loam or silt Loamy sand Sand Sand Sand mean silt-clay fraction (%) Oble Garden Loamy Sand PGH Paco Park Loamy Sand Silt-clay Fraction 25 20 15 10 5 0 Taft Oble Garden PGH Paco Park 20. also refer to Appendix F.9%). In the Oble Garden soil samples.27%.Bar graph comparing the mean silt-clay fractions of the four locations for measuring quantitative soil texture The percentages for the silt-clay mixture were calculated and the graphical data are present above. nitrates and phosphorus were present . Soil Nutrients In all of the Taft soil samples. The tabular form of the data (Sand fraction and Silt-Clay Mixture) containing the specific readings from the five random points.4% 16. Taft avenue has the least percentage of sand fraction (79. 6.0% 94. In all the Paco Park soil samples. Soil Texture Table 3.1% 83. For the tabular presentation of the data including the five random points for each location. calcium was absent.0% 5.6%).4%) and PGH has the lowest silt-clay mixture (5.6% 84.sand fraction (%) organic matter while Taft Avenue soil samples have a mean soil organic matter percentage of 5. The following histograms represent the obtained data for each study site showing the corresponding average weights in grams of gravel. medium sand and fine sand for each soil sample in the five random points of each study site. phosphorus was absent in all but the second soil sample and nitrates were present in all samples. calcium was absent meanwhile nitrates and phosphorus were present.1%) among the other study sites. Most of the soil samples are loamy sand. In all the PGH soil samples. calcium. For the respective organic matter in the five random points of each location. For computations and solution.9% 16. 7. Only PGH has a general classification of sandy.6% Loamy Sand Loamy Sand Sand Loamy Sand Texture determination of moistened soil using Table 14 in Appendix G. Figure 6.Bar graph comparing the mean sand fractions of the four locations for measuring quantitative soil texture The percentages of sand fractions were calculated and the graphical data are shown above. Soil texture qualitative classifications for the five random points from each of the four locations Sand Fraction 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 Taft Oble Garden PGH Paco Park 79. coarse sand.
20 18 16 14 weight (g) 12 10 8 6 4 2.06 g) for it has the greatest weight. . Frequency distribution of the weights of the different soil types in Oble Garden In the Oblation Garden. Fine sand has the least weight and medium sand is heavier than the coarse sand.16 20 10. There is relatively least fine sand consituting the soil samples collected from Paco Park.2g) is of greatest composition followed by medium sand and gravel.54 2 0 Gravel Coarse Sand Medium Sand Fine Sand Figure 8. gravel composes the majority of the weight distribution (22. gravel is the major component of the soil sample for it has the greatest weight (19.96 10 5 0 Gravel Coarse Sand Medium Sand Fine Sand 5 0 Gravel Coarse Sand Medium Fine Sand Sand Figure 7.72 6.25 20 22.12 16.32 25 19. Frequency distribution of the weights of the different soil types in Paco Park In Paco park.54 15 10 2. Figure 10.16 27.5 17.6 10 14. 30 25 20 weight (g) 15 6.74 11. Fine sand has the least weight and medium sand is heavier than the coarse sand.06 In PGH. coarse sand (17. Frequency distribution of the weights of the different soil types in Taft Figure 9.12g). gravel is the major component of the soil sample (27.32g).2 10 5 0 Gravel Coarse Sand Medium Sand Fine Sand 1. Frequency distribution of the weights of the different soil types in PGH In Taft Avenue.76 weight (g) weight (g) 15 6.8 8.
and salts because of leaching from the topsoil. Discussion Soil Profile A soil profile is a sequence of horizon layers. There are four horizons in a soil profile and these are O. is the C horizon – the unconsolidated material that is made up of original material from which soil is developed (Smith & Smith. This is because the O horizon is supposedly very thin and would be followed by the A horizon. composition and color). chemical and biological characteristics (Smith & Smith. clays. also called the subsoil. This occurrence is common to the tropics and subtropics (which include the Philippines) wherein high temperature and heavy precipitation causes rapid leaching and weathering (Smith & Smith. It can be said that some areas of the Park is rich in organic matter and nutrient meanwhile others are not due to the presence of both dark brown soils and grayish soils. n. It is usually dark in color due to the abundance of organic material due to leaching from the O horizon.d. erosion). For the Taft location. which suggests that it is highly weathered (by high temperature and heavy leaching). Soil temperature varies with depth. moisture. For images of the species collected. It is probable that most of the sample soil profiles (using the soil corer) only contains the O and A horizons. One soil sample from the Taft location was colored yellow. It is called the organic layer since it is mostly organic material (decomposing plant materials). n. 2012). The gray color is caused by the presence quartz grains (Hallare. B. The Paco Park – also a manmade location – probably has the same treatment as the Oble Garden (soil from other places is deposited into the location). The topsoil is made up of mineral soil obtained from the parent material. moist compact soils lose heat faster than drier and more porous soils. weathering. In lower areas of the topsoil. it is possible that all look mostly alike since the soil in the location was not a product of natural causes (i. it is most likely acidic because of the loss of the bases (from heavy leaching) and rich in aluminum . (Soil Temperature. Taft Avenue has the most diverse collection of Soil inhabitants while PGH and Oblation Garden is the least diverse. color and organic matter content affect the ability of soil to hold or diffuse heat. For the Oble Garden.). A. The different orders of soil inhabitants found in the four locations Study Site Taft Avenue Oblation Garden PGH Paco Park Orders Present Hymenoptera Diplopoda Dipteran larva Diptera Lepidopteran larva Haplotaxida Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Haplotaxida It can be seen in the table that most of the locations are inhabited by Hymenoptera. Varying shades of brown could be because of the varying amounts of nutrients and moisture. The topmost layer is the O horizon or the organic layer. the B horizon. this suggests that the soil has iron oxide. Horizon layers can be differentiated by physical. These horizon layers are formed by changes which occur in soil from the surface going down. Below the B horizon. is in turn abundant in minerals. Soil is capable of storing heat and it can reserve heat absorbed during the day or warmer periods of the year and release it during the night or colder periods. The B horizon. 2012). it could be suggested that dissimilar elevations lead to wetter looking soil and dry-looking soil as rainwater would tend to percolate towards lower elevations (especially since it is the rainy season and floods often occur). Soil Temperature Soil temperature is the measure of heat in the soil.d. Differences in the soil samples per location are probably due to the immediate environment. The primary source of heat is the sun. downward movement of water may result in the loss of minerals and other fine particles into the next layer. 2012). The Soil Inhabitants Table 4. with little change below 20 inches from the surface. Below the O horizon is the A horizon or topsoil. As water is a better conductor of heat than air.) Darker soils absorbs more heat than lighter colored soils. For PGH. Soils richer in oragnic .e. V. light brown-grayish hues of soil were found which suggest that the severe leaching has occurred in the topsoil leaving it acidic and infertile.B. it was transported from another place and deposited there. Other soil properties like texture. It could be suggested that the only one layer is present after the thin O horizon because of the overall similarity of the remaining soil (similar in texture. Table 16. and C. refer to Appendix H. Red soil was also found in the PGH area.
Generally. such as nitric and sulfuric acid. They have a slightly basic pH although areas with higher rainfall are usually acidic. Most minerals and nutrients are more soluble or available in acid soils than in neutral or slightly alkaline soils (Bickelhaupt). this is the lowest.2°C for Paco Park. Readings for Paco Park were made on open ground with little insulation from heat. In Acid soils calcium (Ca). decrease in low temperatures. Mulch acts an insulator. areas with limited rainfall have alkaline soils while areas with higher rainfall typically have acid soils. The soil temperatures recorded from the other study sites also fall within the favorable temperature with 28. In Alkaline soils phosphorus (P) gets tied up by Ca and Mg.5-7.6. and magnesium (Mg) are less available to plants.8 to 7. This slightly basic pH of the soils does not necessarily mean that the soil is not fertile. Plants can still survive in pH values near neutral.2. responsible for root growth. Below 7. 28. The study sites have a relatively close pH value since they are all located within Manila area. 2011).3. Seed germination and plant growth are dependent on soil temperature and it can be used as a basis for soil fertility. formation of strong organic and inorganic acids.8°C for Taft. Iron (Fe). Phosphorus is tied up by iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al). The soil in these areas probably has presence of base cations associated with carbonates and bicarbonates found naturally in soils and irrigation waters (McCauley et al). the average pH values of the study sites were slightly. resulting in an accumulation of organic matter and the tie up of nutrients. Soil nutrients like phosphorus. and Paco Park – 7. 7. thus stabilizing soil temperature. temperature extremes below 9°C and above 50°C suspend all plant growth (AgriInfo. The average soil temperature in the Oblation Garden is 28. On the other hand. For example at pH 5. A pH range of 6.2 is near neutral. Lime is usually added to acid soils to increase soil pH.0 is neutral. Soils tend to become acidic as a result of: rainwater leaching away basic ions (calcium. thereby limiting evaporative cooling. Also. since the rate of decomposition is high in high temperatures. In the experiment. According to AgriInfo. particularly nitrogen. it is advisable to reduce moisture when attempting to raise soil temperature.4. The optimum pH range for most plants is 6.0 is acidic and above 7. .in. That a variety of plants thrive in the Oblation Garden supports these observations. The effect of soil pH is great on the solubility of minerals or nutrients. zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn) are less available. there is a reduced microbial activity in the soil. Of the other sites. The Oblation Garden has an average pH of 7. The alkalinity of soil is primarily due to low precipitation where there is little leaching of base cations thus making the soil basic (McCauley et al). causing soil to lose much heat. protecting the soil from drastic gain and loss of heat. On the pH scale. Very high temperatures hasten transpiration while extremely low temperatures may freeze water in the soil. As soil temperature changes with the frequently changing atmospheric temperature. more nutrients are expected to be present in soils with warmer temperatures.5°C.matter are also observed to have higher temperatures.5. It also affects the activity of microorganisms. temperatures between 25°C and 35°C are most favorable for soil oraganisms while 32°C is optimum for nitrification. magnesium. some measures have to be taken to maintain soil useability. Soil pH is very significant in ecology because it affects the availability of most nutrient elements for plant growth and occurrence of deficiency of elements (Hallare). that are held in the organic matter. The thicker vegetative cover in the Oblation Garden is seen as the cause of this. from decaying organic matter and oxidation of ammonium and sulfur fertilizers. Samples from this site also had the least moisture. soil moisture and temperature are inversely related. carbon dioxide from decomposing organic matter and root respiration dissolving in soil water to form a weak organic acid. High soil moisture content translates to rapid evaporation. This prevents organic matter from breaking down. potassium and sodium). Soil temperature can be controlled by mulching and adjusting soil moisture. Before a nutrient can be used by plants it must be dissolved in the soil solution. The soil pH can also influence plant growth by its effect on activity of beneficial microorganisms Bacteria that decompose soil organic matter are hindered in strong acid soils. The points chosen were noted to be either on the darker side of brown or gray-brown – colors which absorb more heat.0 is basic. The pH value was measured using a digital pH meter. Soil pH Soil pH is a measurement of the acidity or alkalinity of a soil. Philippine General Hospital – 7. This temperature falls within the range and is suitable for plant growth. Therefore. Taft Avenue – 7. Aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn) may reach toxic levels. Though plants differ in the optimum temperature for germination. providing favorable conditions for organic matter decomposition and nutrient absorption.6°C for PGH and 30.
1995). Too little organic matter present in soil will let organic nitrates and other negatively charged particles leach into the groundwater. Organic matter present could probably be due to the fecal deposits of the cats which live there. The areas where the soil samples were obtained had newly . Soils with an abundant amount organic matter would have high field capacity. Determining the soil moisture is important because water is critical for plant growth. and 25. Larger soil particle size drains water more. clay) hold the greatest amount of water while sandy soils do not hold a lot of water (Kopec. For the soils in Philippine General Hospital.g. This is followed by the Paco Park. This water is not available for plant use. Their negatively charged sites prevent leaching (percolation of water through soil) of positively charged nutrients. The water is held on the surface of the colloids and other particles and in the pores. which is important as medium for supply of nutrients to growing plants. Atmospheric moisture should not get into the sample because it will alter the actual moisture of the soil. Soils with more varied particle size have more pore spaces wherein air can enter. The soils hold water due to their colloidal properties and aggregation qualities. It is held between soil particles by capillary forces. mostly H+) and the useful mineral cations are absorbed by the root (Smith & Smith. the average is 26. The particle size and pore spaces affect the soil moisture. grasses. Most soil particles (the leading edges of clay particles and soil organic matter or humus) or micelles are negatively charged. Capillary water is the water available for plant use. 1995). the three study sites have a relatively close average moisture percentage. Field capacity is used to measure soil moisture. Increasing the organic matter content in soil would also increase its cation-exchange capacity (the ability of the soil to hold onto nutrients and prevent them from leaching). with possible contributors to the organic matter being the plants and animals in the park. Finer soil particles drains poorly but holds on to more water thus having higher moisture level (Kopec. invertebrate and small animals). The forces responsible for retention of water in the soil after the drainage has stopped are due to surface tension and surface attraction and are called surface moisture tension. high porosity would mean that some air spaces would be present. Paco Park has the least average moisture percentage of 2. Whereas in soils with more uniform particle size has less pore spaces so there is almost no air space and has more room for water (Hallare). high field capacity would mean that more water could be available for plant uptake. It is because organic matter is an essential element in the formation of clay-humus micelles which participate in the cation-exchange mechanism. Atmospheric moisture can be prevented from getting into the soil by putting the soil sample in a sealed bags or containers. 22. It represents the maximum amount of water a soil can hold after gravitational water has been drained (Hallare). leaves.d. Cationexchange happens when the useful mineral cations from the soil particles are displaced by other cations (present in the root. Hygroscopic water is the portion of water which is adhered to the soil particles forming a thin film. A moisture level where a plant wilts and cannot recover its turgidity is called the wilting point of plant. Soil moisture is also important in order to determine the optimum water level wherein plants would thrive. 2012). Soil water dissolves salts and makes up the soil solution.32%. oxygen would be present in soil and the plants would not suffocate (Hallare. trees. ammonium and magnesium) adhere to the negatively charged sites and they adhere because opposite charges attract. The moisture percentage in Paco Park is small probably because it is an open area. In the experiment. 1995).26% for Taft Avenue. Heavy textured soils (clay loams. PGH soil has the most organic matter content (almost 30%) which would suggest that the PGH environment has an abundance of decomposing matter and many sources of living matter (e. plants can readily absorb soil water.Soil Moisture Soil moisture is the water that is held in the spaces between soil particles. Soil Organic Matter The presence of organic matter in soils is essential to living organisms – most especially plants.84%. If the moisture content of a soil is optimum for plant growth. The Oble Garden soil has a relatively small organic matter content because the Garden is artificial. Soil moisture determines how much water a soil can hold. calcium.). 96% for the Oblation Garden. This is possible because the positively charged ions (such as potassium. Of all four locations. The cation-exchange mechanism is a critical interaction between the roots and the micelles which allows for the exchange of essential ions and minerals needed for the plant’s growth and development. Soils with an abundant amount organic matter would also have high porosity. n. The type of soil may also be sandier in Paco Park since sandy soils do not store a lot of water (Kopec.
plant cover is scarce on the points from which they were collected from and much remain in the soil to be absorbed. Under anaerobic conditions in soils. enables enzyme activity. nutrients are regenerated and retained largely within the system. The relative availabilities of different nutrients have to match their requirements by plants to ensure their most efficient use. n. it is believed that calcium is important in promoting root tip growth as well as pollen tube growth (Hepler. and proper cell wall development (Agronomic Library. through its influence on stomatal function. Calcium is a basic ion and acidic soils tend to be deficient in it. as a component of the cell wall. The addition of nutrients stimulates production the most in systems in which nutrient availabilities are lowest. Paco Park soil. Production in both terrestrial and aquatic environments can be enhanced by the addition of various nutrients. Through its relationship with pectates. but most enters the biological pathways of the nitrogen cycle through its assimilation by certain microorganisms in a process referred to as nitrogen fixation. On the other hand. By increasing pectin concentration in the cell wall. tested positive for calcium. Calcium concentration in soil decreases with pH as it is replaced by other ions like aluminum. Nitrates Nitrogen is one of the energy elements which are obtained from air or water and needed in photosynthesis. Calcium. 2005). calcite and dolomite (Soil Nutrient Management. Matter cycles through an ecosystem after it is taken up in inorganic forms and converted to biomass by plants. phosphorus and sulfur. It is adsorbed by plants from the colloidal soil medium. calcium helps plants survive extended exposure to heat. This is likely. it was shown that plants absorbed and retained less nutrients when calcium concentrations were low (as cited in Hepler. possibly for the same reason. however. Also. besides hydrogen and oxygen. are the elements carbon. Lightning discharges convert some molecular nitrogen into forms that plants can assimilate. Taft soil had the least organic matter because of its location. most of which enters ecosystems as light and leaves as heat. starch metabolism. 2013). In an experiment by Hanson. Though the soil samples are nutrient rich. The major nutrients cycled through the ecosystem. it must be fixed into nitrates or ammonium ions for it to be useful for chlorophyll. nitrogen. calcium tested negative in all samples from the Oblation Garden. thus it was expected to have considerable amounts of calcium. Some of that matter is passed up the food chain. It is supplied to the soil by minerals like liming agents. given that there is a variety of plants in the chosen points. but all of it eventually returns to inorganic forms by the process of decomposition.planted Arachi pintoi cuttings which suggest that no plants were previously present in that location. The only plants which can be found along Taft are weeds and short grasses. Calcium is a vital cell wall component.6.1-7. as well as for nitrates and phoshoporus. Calcium Calcium is a macronutrient present in soil as a cation. Since calcium is easily transportable. with an average pH of 7. especially nitrogen and phosphorus. PGH and Taft soil both tested negative for calcium despite having near neutral pH. nd). it not only enhances the rigidity of plant structures. which constitutes the largest pool of nitrogen on earth (Ricklefs.). The observation that fertilizers stimulate plant growth in most environments suggests that nutrients limit primary production. (Patterson. a constant supply of calcium in the soil solution is needed. regulates nutrient absorption from the soil by adjusting membrane permeability. Contrary to what was expected. any organic matter from animals (mammals such as stray cats and dogs) are probably concentrated at the locations where their fecal matters are deposited.d. Soils low in calcium then have low cation exchange capacity and are more prone to leaching and changes in pH. sediments. proteins and enzyme synthesis (Hallare.d. and deep waters. 2008). As it is not stored by the plant. Another explanation could be that regular weeding removes the possible organic matter which could be contributed by the wild plants. Soil Nutrients Unlike energy.). Calcium maintains acid balance in the soil. As an inert gas. Calcium is transported through xylem sap and becomes fixed as components of the cell wall. but also defends plants from pathogens and slows senescence. n. it possible that the calcium in the layer excavated was already absorbed by the plants in the area. 2008) a. The ultimate source of nitrogen for life is molecular nitrogen (N2) in the atmosphere. (Ricklefs. The soil pH obtained from the five samples fall within the range of pH 7. b. certain bacteria can use .It composes the 78% of the Earth’s atmosphere. nitrate uptake and metabolism.5. 2005).
In addition. the availability of nutrients exhibit increase. in the form of phosphate ions (PO43-). the percentage for sand is greater than that of silt and clay combined. available nitrogen and cationexchange capacity (Sathya.nitrate in place of oxygen as an oxidizing agent. Higher emission could be attributed to the availability of optimum amount of moisture and aeration in this type of soil providing congenial environment to the soil microbes engaged in nitrification and denitrification processes. Furthermore. Nitrification was highest in pH 7. Nitrogen mineralization/immobilization processSource: (Espinoza. Quantitatively. only soil samples from Taft Avenue. which is a colorimetric determination of the presence of nitrate. The fixation of ammonical nitrogen is based on the amount of clay present in the soil. a soil suspension was prepared to create an aqueous sample that can be mixed with the reagent called as Solution X. In loamy sand texture. Loamy sand is also the general soil texture for the soil samples at Oblation garden and Paco Park and sandy in PGH which were all a qualitative determination of the soil texture. The emission of nitrous oxide was more in loam soil compared to slit loam and sandy loam soil. The blue color developed by nitrate in the presence of much sulfuric acid is to be attributed to the formation of an oxidation product of diphenylbenzidine (Kolthoff. Sandy soils are coarse thus the nitrates became unavailable at upper parts of the soil profile and were leached down (Sathya. The phosphorus cycle has fewer steps than the nitrogen cycle because. All of the four sites namely. 2009). Animals eliminate excess phosphorus in their diets by excreting phosphate ions in urine. Phosphorus Ecologists have studied the role of phosphorus in ecosystems intensively because organisms require this element at a relatively high level (though only about one-tenth that of nitrogen). the presence of higher amount of organic matter ensured the highest nitrate nitrogen content in soil.18). with the rise of soil pH. . Among the four study sites. 2008).4 and lowest in pH 4. Taft Avenue soil samples contained the least amount of moisture. a precipitate is not an indication of a positive result. 2008). color is. called denitrification. It is responsible for ATP transfer. Figure 11. from soil or water and incorporate it directly into various organic compounds. modest in pH 9. This could be the reason of higher organic matter. c. More leaching or downward movement of of NH4 and NO3 – N was observed in coarse texture soils (sandy) than fine texture soil (clay loam). Paco Park. as a DNA component and transfer of genetic material (Hallare. Taft Avenue has the relatively lowest pH (mean of 7. Soil acidification can reportedly reduce the ammonia losses in submerged soil. Phosphorus is considered as one of the macronutrients which are required in larger amounts.8.d) In the detection of the presence of nitrogen in soil. so there is little phosphorus cycles between the atmosphere and other compartments of ecosystems (Ricklefs. This process. PGH. The soil texture for Taft Avenue soil samples are all loamy sand.4.d). the mean sand fraction is relatively the highest in Taft Avenue among other study sites. Plants assimilate phosphorus. Phosphorus does not enter the atmosphere in any form other than dust. Oblation Garden and Taft Avenue. Soil properties play a dominant role in nutrient transformation. Solution X is composed diphenylamine and sulfuric acid. 2009). phosphatizing bacteria also convert phosphorus in detritus into phosphate ions. This is due to the increased microbial activity and resultant enhanced nitrification process with a concomitant reduction in leaching losses. The amount of organic matter is directly proportional to the nitrate nitrogen content in soil. n.. n. From the results. The increase of availability of N may be due to accelerated rate of decomposition and mineralization of organic matter owing to increased biological activity. Taft Avenue soil samples contained the least amount of organic matter present. tested negative for nitrate test. Since all nitrates are soluble in water. The nitrate test is also known as the diphenylamine test. phosphorus does not undergo oxidation–reduction reactions in its cycling through ecosystems. except along Taft Avenue tested positive for the presence of nitrates. transforms nitrate into nitrite and eventually into nitrous oxide and molecular nitrogen (Ricklefs. except in a very few microbial transformations. Norman et al. soil pH also plays a significant role in in the availability of N. The recovery of mineral – N was higher in clay loam than in sandy loam soil. Thus. 1933). Among the four study sites. Also.
An increase in adsorption maxima values with increasing clay content of the soil may be attributed to the availability of more adsorbing surface to the added and native P. and other factors. only Oblation Garden soil samples lacked unanimity in the phosphorus content. pH. pH values ranging from 6-7 will result to the greatest availability of phosphorous (Busman et al. The P fixation is the main ingredient of P transformations in soils. In most cases. 2002). 2007). pH. . and is the form used by plants. and amount and nature of clay. Norman et al. The type of soil texture for Paco Park Taft Avenue and Oblation Garden is loamy sand. Since phosphorus can be found dissolved in the soil solution at very low amounts or associated with soil materials or organic materials (Espinoza and Norman et al). In acidic soils. Because nutrients move between ecosystem compartments in turn—that is. moisture. Soil texture. this step is the decomposition of detritus (Rickfels.. 2006). the Oblation Garden should have relatively high amount of phosphorus but only at a particular site was the detection positive. although not an ideal type of texture for the availability of phosphorus still tested positive for phosphorus. Phosphorus fixation is defined as conversion of soluble form of P to insoluble forms of P. the extraction of soil orthophosphate or phosphate (PO43-) from the soil samples was possible because orthophosphates are highly soluble in water. as well as other metal ions.d. 2009). The other study sites (Paco Park. Phosphorus transformation is influenced by various soil factors like physical condition. Thus. clay content and P fixation are positively correlated since clay surface is the major site of P adsorption. (Murphy. Therefore. 10 drops of soil supernatant was added to solution Z which is a mixture of ammonium molybdate. 2008). reacts with Calcium. a phosphorus level which is ten times lesser than that of clayey-textured soil (Espinosa. PGH and Taft Avenue) tested positive for phosphorus. In alkaline soils. The formation of products with calcium decreases the solubility and availability of phosphorous. It can be noted that the sandy type of soil texture in the PGH soil samples. Therefore. as well as clay content affects P fixation in soil. The availability of phosphorous in various pH levels Source: Busman et al. Aluminum. Also. phosphorous. reacts with phosphorous resulting to compounds of phosphorous that are insoluble for uptake of plants. The PGH soil samples have the highest relative organic matter content which is indeed. Orthophosphates bond with ammonium molybdate in acidic medium (HNO3) forming phosphomolybdate. n. a texture of sandy soil does correspond to absence of phosphorus but instead. This type of soil texture has the greatest relative clay content among the other soil samples. Phosphorous is generally reduced in all soil pH ranges due to various reactions it undergoes. Ideally. in the form of phosphate. Figure 12. organic matter. The soluble form of P is assimilated by microorganisms or precipitated with soil components or adsorbed by the colloidal complexes of soil (Sathya. the rate of nutrient cycling and the overall productivity of the ecosystem are sensitive to these physical influences. Orthophosphate is the most stable kind of phosphate. The production of the positive blue coloration is due to the reducing agent stannous chloride or commonly known as tin. from soil to plant to detritus and back to soil—the rate of cycling is limited by the slowest step. Although not all phosphates are soluble. positively correlated to P adsorption.). is not significant enough to react with the ammonium molybdate to form phosphomolybdate. since only a specific random point contained phosphorus while the remaining four tested negative for phosphorus. 2002 Uptake of inorganic nutrients by plants and decomposition of detritus by microorganisms are biochemical processes influenced by temperature. This colometric determination of phosphate is also known as the Deniges’ method (Yuen and Pollard. Of the four sites.In the identification of the presence of phosphorus in the soil samples. distilled water and concentrated nitric acid. there exists a possibility that the amount of phosphorus extracted from the soil samples in the four specific random points in Oblation Garden where phosphorus is absent. which is the most dominant ion in that pH range.
Organic matter has a higher water holding capacity than ordinary soil and improves soil structure (USDA. The soil texture calculator from the website http://soils. Table 5. Finer particles. Soil particle classification according to size. which are partially derived from parent material. Coarse soils have lower field capacities than fine-textured soils because of their large pore spaces. 2012). Soil textural triangle (USDA). as it affects the water-holding capacity and ion-exchange (Smith & Smith. have finer particles and small pores.05-2 0. silt. Dry silt particles feel floury while wet silt is not slick and sticky. The quantitative method involved sieving. 2012). Particle classification Gravel Sand Silt Clay Particle size (mm) > 2. Once existing nutrient levels are established. on the other hand. hence. while the other Figure 13. but also root penetration. and clays (Berry et al. more water and nutrients can adhere to it. Table 5 shows that the results from the quantitative method nearly matched those of the qualitative method. decrease pore space but increases the surface area of the soil. and can also hold its molded form easily (Anderson & Halsey. producers can use the data to best manage what nutrients are applied. These differences in proportion result to diverse soil textures.Soil tests are designed to help producers predict their soil's available nutrient status. The qualitative method was done by using a dichotomous field key.05 < 0. the soil cannot hold as much water. silt. which is used to separate the different soil particles. Soil Texture Particles that make up soil are of different sizes. . promotes more air and water movement. and feels gritty or rough. 2008). 2012).002 half is made up of pore space (Smith & Smith. Sand is the easiest to see among the three components of the fine fraction of the soil. Soils can be classified as one of four major texture classes: sands. 2000). Soil texture is an important physical characteristic because it influences not only the air and water movement in soil. silts.usda. resulting to a higher field capacity. nutrient runoff. Fine soils. Clay is the most significant one. and clay. and from the soil formation (Smith & Smith. whose weights were measured to determine their respective percent compositions. whose texture is classified based on sand. thus can carry more water against free drainage. loams. clay is the smallest and is not visible even under an ordinary microscope. dried chunks are especially hard and tough to break apart. while silt can hardly be seen without magnification and feels smooth. but holds its molded form easily. hence. 2007). Gravel is the largest type and does not contribute to the fine fraction of soil. Half of an ideal soil is composed of soil particles. and clay proportion (Smith & Smith. soil texture was quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated.gov/technical/aids/investigations/tex ture/ from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) was used to determine the texture classification more easily. On the other hand.0 0. and make decisions concerning the profitability of their operations while managing for impacts such as erosion. 2010). a guide for evaluating soil texture based on the proportions of sand. and water quality (Mallarino. on the other hand. 2012). It was noted that coarse sandy loam is at the boundary between sandy loam and loamy sand. These spaces results to high drainage. In the experiment. Dry separate clay particles feel smooth and powdery. decide the application rate. The website uses the soil textural triangle shown in Figure 11. Larger particles increase pore space. Table 5 lists the types of soil particles classified according to size.002-0. and wet clay is slick and sticky. and vary in proportion.
Earthworm adaptations in the soil environment include the their streamlined bodies to move more easily in soil. Aspects of topography like steepness and direction affect patterns of water flow and erosion. especially in dry seasons (Anderson & Halsey. Paco Park. Furthermore. Water moves more freely through sandy soils than in soils with finer particles. are considered coarse-textured and are relatively stable in both wet and dry conditions. and biotic factors through many years of interactions. However. Organic matter also depends on the soil organisms. maintenance is important – the plants need to be watered. the site with the highest average sand content. earthworms increase soil porosity. Some of these actions aid in making the environment conducive for growth. sand sandy Loamy sand. whose plants are frequently watered. 2008). if not absent trees. Like ants. 2007). some actions do not. soil is a significant part of the ecosystem. some points chosen in PGH in which the experiment was performed were observed to have many weeds and relatively less. parent material. erosion. Moreover. plants would not have access anymore to the water during dry periods. The study also showed that soil qualities have also been affected by the actions of humankind. loamy sand. resulting from the buildup of food in their nests and increase of the rate of decomposition. 2010). This makes it possible for vegetation to thrive in soils with high water drainage. their bristly hairs called setae which aids the earthworms to grip the soil. VI. namely nitrogen and phosphorus. however. the investigators should make sure that the labels written on or attached to the crucibles would not be incinerated. These organisms are known to increase soil porosity and separation of soil particles according to size when they dig and make channels through the soil. has staff assigned to water the plants. varied with different kinds of soil texture. . with at least 70% sand content. This allows more gas exchange. High sand content is good for drainage (Hallare. Conclusion and Recommendations In the experiment. leaching of substances. and is the product of climate. Because of this. and decomposition of organic matter. due to the rapid movement of water through these kinds of soils. Sand and loamy sand. are not maintained unlike the other study sites. and their brown color (Card. sand Earthworms of order haplotaxida were the next frequent soil inhabitants found.d. Moreover. water drainage. Soil Inhabitants The most common soil inhabitants found in the study sites were ants of the order Hymenoptera. n. together with oblation garden under the University of the Philippines Manila. 2011). which is also more conducive to root growth (Berry et al. In conclusion. for instance. some areas in PGH. they also increase nutrient content as a result of digestion of microorganism and organic matter in the soil. Moisture content. This is evident for most of the maintained study sites. Site Taft Avenue Oblation garden PGH Quantitative Sandy clay loam Coarse sandy loam Sand Qualitative Loamy sand Loamy sand Paco Park Coarse loam Sand and silty clay loam or silt. For instance. It is recommended that sites outside Manila also be studied so that comparisons between urban and rural soil characteristics can also be made. The investigators should also consult with a professional in identifying the organisms to avoid errors. and soil pH affects the availability of nutrients for vegetation. The soil properties themselves were also found to affect each other. soils with good drainage have good aeration. Ant colors are dark and earthly. parent material is the matter from which soil is basically and primarily made of. on average. The study sites generally have a high sand content. topography. as when the chemical products of industrial activities cause acid rain and decrease soil pH. On the other hand. This makes the soil least conducive to healthy plant growth.Table 6. as in watering soils with high drainage. and plant root penetration. Climate affects the diversity of organisms in an area and the rates of weathering of parent material. in future studies involving the use of a furnace. Soil was found to be an important factor in the ecosystem.). Ants are also found to neutralize pH and increase nutrient content. and help them camouflage in their soil environment (Frouz & Jilkova. properties of the soil were investigated. Nutrients that pass through these animals’ guts change in forms more available to plants. as such. and are affected by the different properties of the soil. Lastly. comprised of biotic and abiotic factors which interact with one another. the soils of the sites have at least 50% sand. Comparisons of the quantitative and qualitative results for soil texture.
esf.V. 17. (n. Vienna. Retrieved 30 June 2013 from <http://agritech. Retrieved 30 June 2013 from <http://www. J. Myrmecological News. Asheville.pdf>.F. Manila. University of Minnesota.E.The nature of phosphorous in soils. Soil Temperature Gauges – Tips For Determining Current Soil Temperatures. et al (2002). Anion Analysis. Student Handbook in General Ecology Part 1. & Jilkova. P.org/cms/image s/pdf/volume11/mn11_191-199_nonprintable..edu/Rain_Gardens/fact sheet29.pdf>.htm>.thriftyfun. R.com/garde n-how-to/soil-fertilizers/determining-soiltemperature. Retrieved 1 July 2013 from <http://water. (2007). Page. pp 1448– 1453 (April 1933) . Calcium: A Central Regulator of Plant Growth and Development. Retrieved 4 July 2013 from <http://myrmecologicalnews.umn. V. 2013. August 2005. Washington. School of Chemistry of the University of Minnesota. Department of Forest and Natural Resources Management.com/support/ library/ff/Ca_Basics. A. (2011). Hepler.. NC. Am.L. Agriculture and Natural Resources.pdf> Frouze.tip.rutgers. & Noponen. Agronomic Library.gov/landprocess/> .In University of MinnesotaExtenxion. G. (2010). S.d. Literature Cited: Agrometeorology: Microclimate and Plant Growth. Russell-Anelli. Retrieved 30 June 2013 from <http://www.htm>. Diphenylamine Sulfonic Acid as a Reagent for the Colorimetric Determination of Nitrates. Retrieved 20 June 2013 from <http://www. Soc. by Dr. Rao.html>. S. & Halsey.edu/distribution /cropsystems/dc6795. Norman et al. 8). Antes. 2013. Arnold J. Edaphic Factors..forestrynepal.VII.extension. Gardening Know How. C.clara.edu/Other_Areas/pu blications/PDF/FSA-2148. University of the Philippines Manila. Colorado State University.htm>. I.ext.gardeningknowhow. A.spectrumanalytic.Retrieved 5 July 2013 from <http://www. Retrieved 2 July 2013 from <http://www. Busman. Cornell University. College of Arts and Sciences. Ermita. Soil pH: What it Means. Grant. Retrieved 30 June 2013 from <http://growing-minds.nasa.net/anion s. TNAU ( TamilNadu Agricultural University) Portal.extension. Garden Lesson: Soil Temperature.tnau.. Calcium. S. Soil Moisture. The Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycle in Soils. W. Retrieved 3 July 2013 from<http://www. E. Ketterings. Retrieved 1 July 2013 from <http://www.msfc.in/agriculture/agri_a grometeorology_microclimate. Bickelhaupt D.htm>.edu/pubprog/brochure/soilp h/soilph. J. Bown. Espinoza.colostate.org/documents/soiltemperature.org/notes/silvicul ture/locality-factors/11>. (Vol. OH.html>. (2008).). No.ac.rod.. Instructional Support Specialist. The Plant Cell. Retrieved 29 June 2013 from <http:// ghcc. B. Earthworms. Card. Department of Biology. Retrieved 30 June 2013 from<http://www. Forestry Nepal Retrieved 29 June 2013 from <http://www.com/tf11780248. J. Soil Texture. The Importance Of Soil Temperature To Growing Plants.beavon.html>.html>.edu/mg/gardennot es/218.. SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry. The effects of ants on soil properties and processes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Hallare. & DeGloria.edu/distribution /naturalresources/dd0817. Q. Berry. Kolthoff. J.umn. Evaluating Soil Texture for a House Site. ASAP (Appalachian Sustainable Agriculture Project). 2013. Anderson. html>.M. Retrieved 4 July 2013 from <http://www.uaex. Chem.pdf>.
Antonio.Kopec D. Certified Crop Adviser.edu/tips1095. General Information on Phosphorus. Retrieved 01 July 2013 from <http://www.pd f>.Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. Ontario. MSU Extension Continuing Education Series. pp 57-62. 6: 223-229.html>. 2000) McCauley A. Mallarino. Retrieved 1 July 2013 from <http://www. Jacobsen J. Singapore. Pearson Education Inc. AgriInfo. Smith T. (May 2006).ext. Retrieved 2 July 2013 from <http://landresources.org/soilscontrol/temperature.agriinfo. Pearson Education Inc. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources.pdf>. United States Department of Agriculture: Natural Resources Conservation Service.montana. G.arizona.com/Products/A griculture/The_Importance_of_Calcium.aspx>.colostate.Soil testing and available phosphorus.com/FCKEditor/Fil e/Calcium%20Nutrition%20in%20Plants. Soil Temperature And Its Importance. Retrieved 30 June 2013 from <http://agriinfo. Retrieved 01 July 2013 from <http://www. with special reference to soil solutions and extracts. Elements of Ecology. The Importance of Calcium.html. Deniges' method for determination of phosphate. (April 2007). p.86. SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry Retrieved 29 June 2013 from <http://www. College of Agriculture Dean.html> . Yuen and Pollard.edu/mauisoil/c_nu trients03. (September. 2013. 2012. Colorado State University Extansion Retrieved 29 June 2013 from <http://www.Soil pH and Organic Matter. 8th ed. United States Department of Agriculture: Natural Resources Conservation Service.Importance and Control.ccaontario. Murphy.usda.co. (2009). Retrieved 30 June 2013 from <http://dogwoodarts.gov/sqi/assessment/files/a vailable_water_capacity_sq_physical_indica tor_sheet.htm> . Integrated Crop Management.>.. Jones C. Tetrachemicals. Soil pH: What It Means. Soil Moisture. 30: 71-77. Calcium Nutrition in Plants. Retrieved 2 July 2013 from <http://turf.esf.us/basin/data/NEW/in fo/TP.edu/NM/Mod ules/Module8.ctahr. in. Soil Temperature . Soil pH.usda.edu/pubprog/brochure/soilp h/soilph.pdf>. Singapore.html> Pattersron.in/?page=topic&superi d=4&topicid=274>. et al. Sathya. Retrieved 5 July 2013 from <http://bcn. Levine J. Sheila. Effect of Soil Properties on Availability of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Submerged and Upland Soil – A Review. Soil Characteristics and How They Affect Soil.a>. Miller K. 2003. Biology.boulder.gov/technical/aids/investig ations/texture/>.hawaii. My Agriculture Information Bank Retrieved 29 June 2013 from <http://www. University of Hawaii. Retrieved 1 July 2013 from <http://soils.edu/mg/gardennot es/222. . City of Boulder/ USGS Water Quality Monitoring. Retrieved 4 July 2013 from <http://soils. Smith R. 2010. Soil Nutrient Management for Maui County. 2011. Agriculutural Research Communication Centre.in/?page=topic&superid=1& topicid=396>. Soil Texture Calculator.tetrachemicals. Soil Quality Indicators.
0⁰C 30.VIII.5 Paco Park 7.5⁰C 31. Soil Temperature Table 8.0⁰C 28.0⁰C 28.5 28.2 6.85% 9. 29.8 7.95% Oble Garden 19.0⁰C 30.2 7.0⁰C 30.0⁰C 28.0⁰C PGH 28.5⁰C 28.3 7.3 7.0⁰C 28.0⁰C 30.0⁰C 27.5 7. Soil Profile Table 7.21% 20.5 7.05% 29. Site A only) Wd= Wo-Wc 37.2 6.34 7. The soil profiles of the four locations Taft A Oble Garden PGH Paco Park D E Mean Standard deviation Mode Median 29.4 g % of water= B.3 PGH 7.5⁰C 28.0⁰C 28.9 7.3 7.4g Wd=8.0⁰C 28.5⁰C Oble Garden 29.0⁰C 28.8 7.0⁰C 30.4⁰C 30.0⁰C 29.5⁰C 28.21 7.18 0.0⁰C 29.42 0.8⁰C 1.9 7.5 7.89% 8. Data for soil moisture with the computed measures for central tendency Taft A B C 29.2 C Oble Garden 7.95% 21.5⁰C 0.2⁰C 29.4 7.2 7.64 0.1 7.2⁰C 0.5⁰C 29.0⁰C.3 7.48% Paco Park 40.5. Soil Moisture Sample calculation for soil texture (from Oblation Garden.0⁰C 30.48% PGH 42.28 0.70% .05% 21. Appendix A. Soil pH Table 9.0⁰C 29. Raw data for pH with the computed measures for central tendency B A B C D E Mean Standard deviation Mode Median Taft 7.45 7.4⁰C 28.5⁰C Paco Park 30.0⁰C No photo taken C.85% 28.6 D E D.6 7.7 7.0⁰C 28.6⁰C 0. Raw data for soil temperature with the computed measures for central tendency Table 10.4g – 22g = 8. 29.87% 20.15 7.9 7.9 7.6 6.0⁰C Taft A B C 19.
04% 8.37% ( 6.7 28.43% Paco Park 24.18% 23.65% 25.86% 25.84% 9.48% 7.7 25.7 32.02% 17.20% 21.00% 5.48% 42.7 9.87% 26.08% E.4 36 16.6 7.41% 3.95% 17.83% 25. Field Key to Soil Texture Class.65% 16.95% 23.70% B C D E Mean 16.090909 35 20.7 8.8 33.3 3.66% 11.2 34.98% 21.25% 29.36% 2.26% 9.66667 B C D E 10 10 10 10 27.4 36.91% 21.4 8.00% 16.95% 22.96% 4.1 8.42% 25.4 35. Site A only) Table 13. Soil Nutrients Table 11. Data for soil organic matter with the respective means ) ( ) ) ) Taft A Oblation Garden PGH 61. Data for soil organic matter of the five random points in Oblation Garden + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Point Soil Wc Wo Wd Wi %OM (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) A 10 29 37.00% 26.04% 15.00% 0.46% 21.74% 12.407407 33.658537 ( ( ( ( ) ( ) ) F.00% 2. Soil Texture Table 14.67% G.70% 14.4 24.00% 2.31% 8. Soil Organic Matter Table 12. .46% 39. Summarization of presence and absence of soil nutrients per location Taft A Taft B Taft C Taft D Taft E Oble Garden A Oble Garden B Oble Garden C Oble Garden D Oble Garden E PGH A PGH B PGH C PGH D PGH E Paco Park A Paco Park B Paco Park C Paco Park D Paco Park E Calcium - Nitrates + + + + + Phosphorus + + + + + + Sample calculation for soil texture (from Oblation Garden.D E Mean Standard deviation Mode Median 20.27% 9.48193 32.09% 20.05% 17.95% 21.2 7.3 8.
.LOAM OR SANDY LOAM Soil feels smooth………….. 25...8 g Sieve # 60 = 8.LOAMY SAND Soil makes a ribbon (may be very short)……………..2 g Sieve # 120 = 1..…..1 g Sieve # 25 = 6....…5 Add excess water to small amount of soil.…..1 1’ 2 2’ 3 3’ 4 4’ 5 5’ 6 6’ 7 7’ Soil does not remain in a ball when squeezed…. Soil feels at least slightly gritty…….…………………SILT LOAM Soil makes a ribbon that breaks when 1-2 inches long: cracks if bent into a ring………. Soil texture calculator (USDA). attempting to make a ribbon that you push up over your finger.... Figure 12......…SILTY CLAY LOAM OR SILT Add excess water to small amount of soil: soil feels at least slightly gritty………………..…4 Ribbon extends an inch or more before breaking. and 60 were also calculated to aid in determining soil texture more accurately..5 g Spillages = 6.….. Soil makes no ribbon……….….…CLAY OR SANDY CLAY Soil feels smooth……………………………SILTY CLAY Sample calculation for soil texture (from Oblation Garden) Average weight of soil Sieve # 16 = 27.……..4 g Percentages of soil collected in sieves # 16.3 Ribbon extends less than 1 inch before breaking…..7 Add excess water to small amount of soil: soil feels at least slightly gritty…CLAY LOAM OR SANDY CLAY LOAM Soil feels smooth…….....…………………………6 Soil makes a ribbon longer than 2 inches: can be bent into a ring without cracking…………………………………….….. ..……...SAND Soil remains in a ball when squeezed……………....2 Squeeze the ball between your thumb and forefinger.
8 79.8 16.5 22 18.3 22.Table 15.1 26.4 -3.7 31.3 8.2 37.8 5.2 13.3 0.4 Silt-clay fraction(%) 27.2 84.5 7 11.1 10.16 14.9 6.2 90 96.3 10.6 0.8 69.2 94.5 27 8.6 103.2 2.2 81.6 89.1 1.5 31 9.4 27.4 2.Raw data and the sand and silt-clay fractions of the five random sites of the four locations and their respective means Taft A Taft B Taft C Taft D Taft E Taft mean ObleGardenA ObleGardenB ObleGardenC ObleGardenD ObleGardenE Oble Garden mean PGH A PGH B PGH C PGH D PGH E PGH mean Paco Park A Paco Park B Paco Park C Paco Park D Paco Park E Paco Park mean Sieve #16 (g) 21.5 14.5 Sieve #120 (g) 2.2 Sieve #60(g) 9.5 10 Sieve #25 (g) 6. Soil Inhabitants Table 15.1 87 78 88 80 84 83.8 13.5 10 13.2 13.2 20.4 99.5 0.6 Sand Fraction (%) 72.5 1.4 3.4 29.2 80.8 88.8 11.6 22.3 18.5 4.2 30.06 19.1 22.2 6.9 16.0 4.32 29.0 95.7 5.1 0.5 3.7 1.5 1.8 85.72 7.5 20.8 1.8 19.2 1.4 11.4 10.7 13 19.8 84.6 21.7 6.4 3.7 5.8 62.16 25 2.1 30.6 8.76 7 33 12 8 26 17.54 2.8 10 3.4 5 1.6 88. The different soil inhabitants found in the four locations Taft A Oble Garden No photos of organisms taken PGH No photos of organisms taken Paco Park .8 18.9 7.1 5.2 3 9.3 4.2 14.6 27.8 8 6.2 2.8 0.4 6.9 10.9 4.6 11.6 27.2 15.7 7.2 6.5 11.9 13 22 12 20 16 16.96 0.6 H.12 11.74 6.9 19.7 11.54 0.
B C D E .