UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF NEW MEXICO

EARTHSTONE INTERNATIONAL LLC, Plaintiff, vs. FREDERICK HART CO., INC., d/b/a COMPAC INDUSTRIES, INC., Defendant. ______________________________________________________________________________ COMPLAINT AND DEMAND FOR TRIAL BY JURY ______________________________________________________________________________ Plaintiff Earthstone International LLC (“Earthstone”), by its undersigned counsel and for its complaint against Defendant Frederick Hart Co., Inc., d/b/a Compac Industries, Inc. (“Compac”), alleges as follows: THE PARTIES 1. Earthstone is a Delaware limited liability company organized and existing under Case No. ________________________

the laws of the state of Delaware, and has a principal place of business at 1197 Parkway Drive, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87507. 2. Compac is a Georgia corporation organized and existing under the laws of the

state of Georgia, and has a principal place of business at 2617 Talley Street, Decatur, GA 30030. Compac is a manufacturing and distribution company that manufactures, imports, markets, and distributes home cleaning solutions and household gadgets for sale in the state of New Mexico and throughout the United States.


 

NATURE OF THE ACTION 3. This is an action for infringement of U.S. Patent No. 5,972,817 (“the ‘817

Patent”), for unfair competition under 15 U.S.C. § 1125(a), and for related and ancillary state law claims of unfair competition, interference with contractual relations and advantageous business relationships, and defamation. JURISDICTION AND VENUE 4. This action arises under the patent and trademark laws of the United States,

including 35 U.S.C. § 271 and 15 U.S.C. § 1125(a). Subject matter jurisdiction is conferred upon this Court by 28 U.S.C. § 1331 and § 1338(a). This Court has supplemental jurisdiction over Earthstone’s state law claims pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 1367. 5. This Court has personal jurisdiction over Compac, which regularly and

continuously transacts business in this judicial district. Compac manufactures, imports, markets, distributes, and sells cleaning solutions and household gadgets throughout the United States, including the state of New Mexico. 6. 7. Venue is proper in this judicial district under 28 U.S.C. §§ 1391 and 1400(b). Compac has offered to sell, and has sold, the accused product through its

nationwide distribution networks with the reasonable expectation that the accused product would be purchased or used by consumers in this judicial district. According to the website for Compac, “a majority of [Compac’s] products are made in the U.S.A., and shipped from Atlanta, GA throughout the U.S. and internationally.” In addition, through its website Compac asserts that its “product lines are carried in a variety of drug stores, grocery stores, specialty stores, and on-line due to [Compac’s] emphasis on quality and [its] many lifelong customers wanting a variety of avenues to purchase [its] products.”


 

8.

Compac, either directly or through intermediaries, sells products to national and

regional retail drug, supermarket, specialty, and mass merchandise stores in New Mexico, and Compac derives substantial revenue from these sales. Compac, either directly or through intermediaries, sells products on-line directly to consumers in New Mexico, and Compac derives substantial revenue from these sales. COUNT I PATENT INFRINGEMENT 9. On October 26, 1999, U.S. Patent No. 5,972,817 titled “Foamed Glass Article for

Preparing Surfaces, Use Therefor, and Method of Making Same” (the “‘817 Patent”), was duly and lawfully issued naming Haines et al. as inventors, and Andrew Ungerleider as Assignee. A true copy of the ‘817 Patent is attached hereto as Exhibit A. 10. The ‘817 Patent, issued on October 26, 1999 to Andrew Ungerleider by

assignment, was reassigned on January 6, 2000 to Earthstone. 11. Earthstone is the owner, by assignment, of all right, title, and interest in the ‘817

Patent, including the right to bring this action to recover damages and obtain other relief for infringement of the ‘817 Patent. 12. Earthstone manufactures and sells its “GrillStone Cleaning Block,” which

employs the method covered by claims in the ‘817 Patent. 13. Earthstone has complied with the statutory requirements under

35 U.S.C. § 287(a) of placing a notice of the ‘817 Patent on the “GrillStone Cleaning Block” products in the United States that it manufactures and sells under the ‘817 Patent. 14. Earthstone has on-going sale arrangements with multiple retailers for its

“GrillStone Cleaning Block,” and also has licensing agreements in place which grant third


 

parties a license to resell and/or become an Earthstone product distributor of the “GrillStone Cleaning Block” in exchange for a royalty payment to Plaintiff Earthstone. 15. To date, neither Earthstone nor any of its licensees have entered into a sale and/or

licensing agreement with Compac for the ‘817 Patent. 16. Upon information and belief, Compac has infringed the ‘817 Patent by making,

using, offering for sale, and/or selling in the United States and in this district, without Earthstone’s permission or consent, a product titled “Magic Stone Grill Cleaner”, that is covered by one or more claims of the ‘817 Patent, and Compac will continue to do so unless enjoined by the Court. 17. Compac’s “Magic Stone Grill Cleaner” has been made available for sale at local

retailers, convenience stores, including but not limited to those listed for sale on Compac’s website, http://www.compacind.com/, and on online at Amazon, http://www.amazon.com/. 18. Upon information and belief, Compac’s infringement of the ‘817 Patent has been

willful and in complete disregard of, or with indifference to, Earthstone’s rights and interests. 19. Earthstone has suffered damage as a result of Compac’s infringement to date. COUNT II UNFAIR COMPETITION IN VIOLATION OF 15 U.S.C. § 1125(a) 20. Earthstone re-alleges and incorporates by reference paragraphs 1-19 of this

Complaint as if fully set forth herein. 21. Upon information and belief, Compac knowingly, willfully, and intentionally

engaged in unfair competitive practices in violation of 43(a) of the Lanham Act (15 U.S.C. § 1125(a)) while engaging in sales promotions and other marketing activities, by making inaccurate statements to customers, and potential customers, of Earthstone regarding Earthstone’s enforceable patent rights in its GrillStone Cleaning Block. 4 
 

22.

Upon information and belief, Compac also misrepresented the characteristics of

Earthstone’s product during these same sales promotions and other marketing activities, by making false comparisons between the two products that are the subjects of Earthstone’s Complaint. 23. Earthstone has no adequate remedy at law, and Earthstone will continue to be

irreparably harmed unless Compac is enjoined from conducting its unfair competitive practices. COUNT III UNFAIR COMPETITION 24. Earthstone re-alleges and incorporates by reference paragraphs 1-23 of this

Complaint as if fully set forth herein. 25. Upon information and belief, Compac has been, and continues to be, engaged in

unfair or deceptive trade practices and unconscionable trade practices by interfering with contractual and prospective business relationships of Earthstone in violation of the common law of New Mexico and New Mexico’s Uniform Trade Secrets Act, NM Stat. Ann. § 57-3A-5. 26. Upon information and belief, Compac is interfering with the well-established

reputation of Earthstone, built up over long years of dealings with the public, and based upon a large expenditure of money and effort both in the production of Earthstone’s “GrillStone Cleaning Block” product, and in advertising that product. 27. Upon information and belief, the conduct of Compac as set forth herein

constitutes unfair and deceptive acts or practices, including, but not limited to, making false claims to potential customers regarding Earthstone’s enforceable patent rights, and making claims that Compac’s product is “the same as Earthstone’s but cheaper.” 28. Compac’s conduct described herein has been willful and malicious.


 

29.

Unless restrained and enjoined by this Court, Compac will continue its acts of

unfair competition, in violation of the common law of New Mexico and New Mexico’s Uniform Trade Secrets Act, and Earthstone will continue to be damaged by Compac’s conduct unless it is halted. COUNT IV TORTIOUS INTERFERENCE WITH ADVANTAGEOUS BUSINESS RELATIONSHIPS AND CONTRACTUAL RELATIONS 30. Earthstone re-alleges and incorporates by reference paragraphs 1-29 of this

Complaint as if fully set forth herein. 31. Eathstone has on-going sale arrangements with multiple retailers for its product

titled “GrillStone Cleaning Block,” retailers including but not limited to Bed, Bath and Beyond, and also has licensing agreements in place by which it grants third parties a license to resell and/or become an Earthstone product distributor of the “GrillStone Cleaning Block” in exchange for a royalty payment to Plaintiff Earthstone. 32. Upon information and belief, Compac intentionally and improperly interfered

with Earthstone’s advantageous business relationships and expectancies relating to the sale of “GrillStone Cleaning Block” by making false and defamatory statements to third parties, including existing and/or potential customers, distributors, and/or wholesalers, with the express purpose of interfering with and/or preventing the formation of business relationships with Earthstone. 33. As a direct and proximate result of Compac’s intentional interference with

Earthstone’s advantageous business relationships, business expectancies, and contractual relations, Earthstone has suffered and will continue to suffer damages, including but not limited


 

to, damage to its business reputation and goodwill, loss of business and reasonable and valid business expectancy, loss of customers, and loss of economic gain. COUNT V DEFAMATION 34. Earthstone re-alleges and incorporates by reference paragraphs 1-33 of this

Complaint as if fully set forth herein. 35. Upon information and belief, Compac has made, and continues to make, false

statements of material fact to third parties, including existing and/or potential customers, distributors, and/or wholesalers, including, but not limited to, making false claims to potential customers regarding Earthstone’s enforceable patent rights, and making claims that Compac’s product is ‘the same as Earthstone’s but cheaper.” 36. Upon information and belief, Compac acted with bad faith and intentionally or

negligently made oral and/or written statements to Earthstone’s customers that were false and defamatory. 37. Such false and defamatory statements are the proximate cause of economic injury

to Earthstone. Earthstone has suffered and will continue to suffer damages, including but not limited to, damage to its business reputation and goodwill, loss of business and reasonable and valid business expectancy, loss of customers, and loss of economic gain. PRAYER FOR RELIEF WHEREFORE, Earthstone respectfully demands judgment against Compac as follows: 1. That judgment be entered in favor of Earthstone, and against Compac, finding that

Compac has infringed the ‘817 Patent, and that such infringement has been and is willful; 2. That Compac, its officers, agents, employees, directors, servants, successors, and

assigns, and all those acting in concert or participation with it or them, or any of them, be 7 
 

permanently restrained and enjoined from infringing the ‘817 Patent and that Compac further be ordered to recall all infringing products; 3. An accounting of Compac’s sales and profits in connection with sales of products

produced through infringement of the ‘817 Patent; 4. That Earthstone be awarded, under 35 U.S.C. § 284, damages adequate to

compensate it for Compac's infringement of the '817 Patent, and that such damages be trebled because of the willful and deliberate character of the infringement; 5. A preliminary and permanent injunction enjoining Compac, its officers, agents,

servants, employees, attorneys, and those in active concert or participation with them who receive action notice of the order by personal service or otherwise, from: a. Characterizing, describing, referencing, using, reproducing,

advertising, or promoting any slogan, comment, statement, or description that may be calculated to represent or that has the effect of improperly injuring Earthstone’s business reputation; and b. Unfairly competing with Earthstone’s business. 6. An award of damages to Earthstone under the Lanham Act and, in particular,

pursuant to 15 U.S.C. § 1117(b), of up to three times the damages suffered by Earthstone and three times the profits earned by Compac; 7. An award of injunctive relief to require Compac to stop the unfair and deceptive

conduct alleged herein, and to assess costs and attorneys' fees against it; 8. An award to Earthstone of compensatory, consequential, and/or incidental

damages, in an amount to determined at trial; 9. An award to Earthstone of treble, exemplary, and/or punitive damages;


 

10.

That the Court award Earthstone reasonable attorneys' fees pursuant to 35 U.S.C.

§ 285 and/or NM Stat. Ann. § 57-3A-5, and the costs of this action; 11. awards; and 12. All such other and further relief as this Court deems equitable and just. JURY DEMAND Plaintiff Earthstone respectfully requests a trial by jury of all issues raised by its complaint. The grant of prejudgment and post judgment interest on the above monetary

Dated: July 10, 2013

Respectfully submitted, /s/ Steven G. Cracraft_______ Steven G. Cracraft, Indiana Attorney No. 3417-49 Beth A. Behrens, Indiana Attorney No. 30804-49 BRANNON SOWERS & CRACRAFT, P.C. 1. North Pennsylvania Street, Suite 800 Indianapolis, IN 46204 Office: (317) 630-2810 Fax: (317) 630-2813 Email: scracraft@bscattorneys.com; bbehrens@bscattorneys.com /s/Jeffrey L. Squires_______________ Jeffrey L. Squires, NM Bar No. 143015 PEACOCK MYERS, P.C. 201 Third St. NW, Suite 1340 Albuquerque, NM 87102 Office: (505) 998-6116 Fax: (505) 243-2542 Email: jsquires@peacocklaw.com ATTORNEYS FOR PLAINTIFF

 


 

US005972817A

Ulllted States Patent [19]
Haines et al.
[54] FOAMED GLASS ARTICLE FOR

[11] Patent Number:
[45]
[56]

5,972,817
*Oct. 26, 1999

Date of Patent:
References Cited

PREPARING SURFACES, USE THEREFOR,
AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME
[75] Inventors: Steven C. Haines; Tai B- BiXby, both of Santa Fe, N-M9X-; Henry Oat, Atlanta, Ga; Carl E- Frahme, Las
Vegas, N-MeX-

Us PATENT DOCUMENTS
3,963,503 4,933,306 4,981,820
5,326,382
5,821,184

6/1976 Mackenzie .............................. .. 501/39 6/1990 Pietsch .................................... .. 501/39 1/1991 Renlund et al. ........................ .. 501/39
7/1994 Oat ............... .. 501/39
10/1998 Haines et al. ........................... .. 501/39

[73] Assignee: Andrew Ungerleider, Santa Fe, N.Mex.
[*] Notice: This patent is subject to a terminal disClalmer'

Primary Examiner_MiChae1 Marcheschi
Attorney, Agent, or Firm—Robert W. Becker & Associates

[21] Appl. No.: 09/128,557
[22] Filedi
R l
e ate

[57]
l_ _ D
ata

ABSTRACT

Aug- 3, 1998
dUS A
' ' pp lcatlon

A foamed glass article for preparing surfaces, the use
therefor, and a method of making same are provided. The
foamed glass article is in the form of a block, disk or similar

[63]
[60]
51

Continuation-in-part of application No. 08/766,552, Dec.
10’ 1996’ Pat No_ 5,821,184 Provisional application No. 60/014,270, Mar. 29, 1996.
I t. C].6 ......................... .. C03C 11 00' C04B 38 02'

prodllct’ and _1S used for Prepanng Surfaces Such as by
sandmg, rubbing and scraping the same to clean, abrade, polish, smooth, or the like such a surface. The foamed glass
article is formed from a Starting mixture that Comprised

[ 1
[52]

n

C0413 354/16 C03B 14/05;
Sol/155; 65/22; 51/296; 51/307; 51/309;
510/109; 510/180; 510/238; 510/293; 510/240; 510/241; 510/243; 510/244; 510/245

glass, 0.10—20% by Weight of at least one non-carbon/sulfate
based_foaming_agem> and Optionally an additional abrasive

US. Cl. ............................... .. 501/39, 501/32, 501/84;

material. A mixture of poWdered glass and non-carbon/
sulfate based foaming agent can be placed in a mold and heated so that the mixture smter's and subsequently foams.
There/aft“ the foamed “?xture 1S annealed

[58]

Field Of Search ................................ .. 501/39, 32, 84,

501/155, 11, 80, 85; 65/22; 51/296, 307,
309 19 Claims, 1 Drawing Sheet

EXHIBIT A

U.S. Patent

Oct. 26, 1999

5,972,817

5,972,817
1
FOAMED GLASS ARTICLE FOR

2
In particular, it is a further object of the present invention to provide a superior surface preparation product, such as for

PREPARING SURFACES, USE THEREFOR,
AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME

sanding, smoothing, cleaning and polishing a surface, that
comprises foamed glass. This glass can be of virgin glass, or
can be made from a mixture, the main constituent of Which

This application is a continuation-in-part of US. patent application Ser. No. 08/766,552, ?led Dec. 10, 1996, US.
Pat. No. 5,821,184 Which Was based on Provisional appli

is recycled Waste glass, thus providing a very economical
product that at the same time is a very environmentally

cation No. 60/014,270, ?led Mar. 29, 1996.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
10

friendly use for Waste glass.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to a foamed glass article,
such as a block, disk or similar product, for preparing or treating hard surfaces, and also relates to the use of and a

These and other objects and advantages of the present
invention are realiZed by providing a surface preparing means in the form of a foamed glass article having any

method of making such a product.
Surfaces of many different articles and materials have to
15

desired speci?c shape, With the foamed glass article being
derived from a starting mixture that comprises glass and 0.10—20.0% by Weight of at least one non-carbon/sulfate

be prepared either to make them immediately ready for use
or to prepare them for subsequent treatment. Such surface

based foaming agent. Thus, the present invention provides
for the use of a foamed glass article as a surface preparing means. The present invention also provides a method of making foamed glass as a surface preparing means, With

preparation includes sanding, rubbing and scraping a surface
to clean, abrade, polish, etc. such a surface. For example,

painted surfaces, such as metal, Wood, plastic, ?berglass,
and the like frequently have to be repainted. Prior to being
repainted, these surfaces have to be sanded or otherWise
cleaned and smoothed so that a neW coat of paint or other

20

such a method including the steps of providing poWdered or ground glass, mixing at least one non-carbon/sulfate based foaming agent With the poWdered glass to form a mixture,
25

treatment can be applied to such a surface. Similarly, rough surfaces of various materials frequently need to be sanded or otherWise smoothed so that they can be painted and treated.

placing the mixture on a surface, such as a belt, plate, or in a mold, heating the mixture on the belt or in the mold so that

the mixture sinters and subsequently foams, and annealing
the foamed mixture by cooling the same to room tempera ture to form a foamed glass product. The glass can be virgin glass or Waste glass. The term “Waste glass” as used in this application is intended to refer
to any Waste glass that is Waste or scrap, either from a

Grills, griddles, barbecues, and the like frequently need to be degreased, cleaned and/or polished. Rust, stains and grease frequently have to be removed from pots and pans, glaZed porcelain, ceramic or glass tiles, baked-on enameled metal ?xtures, concrete, glass shoWer doors and the like.
Various products are knoWn for preparing the aforemen tioned Wide variety of surfaces. Such products, Which are

30

pre-consumer manufacturing operation, such as WindoW

plate manufacturing, glass bottle manufacturing, light bulb
manufacturing, glass bead manufacturing, and the like, or
35

generally limited to speci?c applications, include sandpaper,
pumice, chemicals, steel, Woven and non-Woven plastic pads, Wire brushes, knurled metal ?les, and the like. None of the knoWn products provide a universal product for all of the aforementioned surfaces, and all have their inherent draW backs. For example, sandpaper tears easily and Wears out fast. In addition, sandpaper produces ?ne air-borne dust and the abrasive surface of the sandpaper quickly becomes clogged, especially When sanding paint from a surface. In
addition, sandpaper does not Work Well on metal, and can gouge or scratch an underlying surface. Furthermore, grit or

post-consumer Waste glass, such as bottles collected by a

public or private recycling operation. Such recycled or otherWise recovered glass includes soda lime glass, boro silicate glass, alumino silicate glass, and recycled foamed glass as made pursuant to the instant application. The glass
40

is used in poWdered or otherWise pulverulent form and has an average particle siZe distribution that ranges from 1—500p. Although, as indicated, any glass can be used, to ensure consistency of the glass clean glass or even virgin

glass is preferred.
45

granular material embedded in the sandpaper dulls, thus quickly reducing the effectiveness of the sandpaper. In
addition, in order to obtain a smooth surface, sandpaper of

increasingly ?ner grit must be used throughout the process. Finally, sandpaper Will not conform to irregular, i.e. non

planar, surfaces, especially When the sandpaper is mounted
on a ?at block or a sanding machine. The use of pumice is

50

environmentally unfriendly in that pumice must be strip
mined and is a non-reneWable resource. Furthermore, the

quality of pumice is inconsistent and cannot be regulated, so that a uniform product cannot be guaranteed. In addition, pumice blocks are not suitable for sanding applications.
Chemicals are inconvenient to use, are often toxic, and are

55

Carbon/sulfate foamed glass or so-called blackfoamed glass has been knoWn for some time. For example, US. Pat. No. 2,514,324, Ford, discloses the use of such cellulated glass as thermal insulation and as buoyant elements. Merely as a by-product, black foamed glass manufactured for insu lation purposes has also been used for grill-cleaning appli cations. HoWever, such black foamed glass is very unsatis factory for surface preparation purposes due to the fact that the chemistry and cell structure of such black foamed glass is quite different from the chemistry and cell structure of non-sulfur based foamed Waste or virgin glass, so-called

White foamed glass. In particular, again referring to US. Pat.
No. 2,514,324 for critical background information concern

ineffective on some deeply stained surfaces. In addition, the

use of chemicals frequently requires further products and
subsequent further treatment of a surface in order to prepare it. Also, some chemicals Will not Work underWater. Rigid
60

ing black foamed glass, during the far more expensive production of this custom made specialty glass, a sulfur
containing compound, generally a sulfate, is added to a batch of virgin and not recycled glass, and a reagent in the form of ?nely divided carbon must also be provided to produce the sulfur based foaming gasses. Such black foamed glass comprises a closed cellular structure in Which is enclosed sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sul?de gas. Thus, not
only When the glass sheets are cut to siZe for use, but more

metal ?les and the like, in addition to becoming clogged,
Will not conform to an irregular angled or rounded surface.

It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide an economical yet effective universal mechanical surface

65

preparation product that is easy to produce and Will over
come the aforementioned draWbacks.

particularly during use of the blocks themselves to clean

5,972,817
3
grills, noxious sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sul?de gas is
given off. This occurs because as the blocks of black foamed glass are used, the surface of the block Wears aWay, thus

4
sulfate based foaming agents can be used. Examples of such

foaming agents include magnesium carbonate, sodium carbonate, strontium carbonate, lithium carbonate, barium
carbonate, sugar, urea, Water, and mixtures thereof. The additional abrasive material that can optionally be added to the mixture to vary the abrasive quality of the ?nal foamed
glass article can be selected from a Wide variety of common

continuously breaking doWn cells and alloWing the enclosed
noxious gas to escape. Furthermore, such black foamed glass blocks are rather brittle, Wear aWay rather quickly, and
disperse residue over a Wide area, and are therefore unsuit

able for most applications contemplated by the instant

application.
The use of non-carbon/sulfate based foamed glass for
10

abrasive grit materials, such as, but not limited to, sand, aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, garnet, and mixtures
thereof.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING

various applications has also been proposed. For example,
US. Pat. No. 2,955,049, Booth, provides for a cellulated

glass in the production of thermal and sound absorbing
insulation materials. US. Pat. No. 3,443,920, Overcashier, also provides for a foamed glass material as thermal insu
15

The present invention is described in greater detail subsequently, as Well as With the aid of Examples and the

accompanying schematic draWing, i.e., FIG. 1, Which illus
trates one exemplary embodiment of a large mold in Which roWs of mounds of starting mixture are placed.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

lation. Foamed glass utiliZing used-container glass is pro posed by U.S. Pat. No. 3,963,503, McKenzie, for the pur
pose of providing structural and decorative materials. Finally, US. Pat. No. 4,933,306, Pietsch, discloses the use

of cellular glass bodies in the cloth distressing stoneWashing
industry to tear the ?bers of cloth.
Applicants are unaWare of any knoWn disclosure or

20

Applicants have discovered that foamed glass made With
at least one non-carbon/sulfate based foaming agent pro vides a universal product for the mechanical preparation of

suggestion for the use of foamed Waste or virgin glass,
so-called White foamed glass, as a surface preparation means

surfaces of a great variety of materials, including Wood,
25

that Works as does the product of the instant application,
namely to remove a coating, dirt or stain from a surface, or to make a surface smooth or otherWise prepare it for further
treatment.

metal, porcelain, tiles, concrete, plastic, glass, ?berglass,
and the like.

Although the starting mixture is intended to cover a range

of poWdered or ground glass and 0.10—20% by Weight of foaming agent, it is presently contemplated that a preferred range Will be 0.5—5.0% by Weight of foaming agent. In
addition, pursuant to a preferred heating step, the mixture of poWdered glass and foaming agent is ?rst heated to a

30

The foamed glass article of the present invention is primarily used in block or disk form. Although such blocks can have any desired and convenient shape, the blocks themselves Will have a speci?c geometry. The inventive foamed glass article can be used for cleaning grills and

griddles, can be used for cleaning tiles, porcelain and
enameled surfaces, can be used as a sanding disk or block, such as for removing paint or other surface treatments, can 35 be used to clean cement, can be used to clean metal,

sintering temperature and subsequently the temperature is
increased to effect foaming. For example, the mixture can ?rst be heated to a temperature of about 1250° F., With this

including removing rust therefrom, and for any other similar cleaning or polishing application. Furthermore, the inven tive foamed glass surface preparing product can be used
either manually, With or Without a handle, or as an attach
40

temperature being maintained for a given period of time,
such as for one hour; the temperature is then increased to a

range of 1274—1700° F. to effect foaming. Annealing of the foamed mixture can either comprise a gradual cooling to
room temperature, or, pursuant to a preferred embodiment,

ment to, for example, a vibrating or rotating machine. Foamed glass articles made from glass and at least one

non-carbon/sulfate based foaming agent, as taught by the
instant application, and used as a surface preparing means, have distinct advantages over the heretofore knoWn surface
45

can comprise the steps of ?rst rapidly cooling the foamed
mixture to a temperature beloW a foaming temperature, and

then sloWly cooling the foamed mixture to room tempera ture. Any glassy skin or crust that is formed on the resulting product can be removed, at least from abrasive surfaces, such as by cutting or planing using any suitable means.

preparation products. The inventive foamed or cellulated glass surface preparing means is unique in that its surface
inherently Wears doWn in such a Way as to fully conform to

curved, non-planar, or otherWise irregularly shaped objects
during a cleaning or sanding process. Furthermore, the
50

The starting mixture of poWdered glass and foaming agent can comprise 69.9—99.9% by Weight glass and 0.10—20% by
Weight foaming agent including mixtures of tWo or more

inventive foamed glass product Wears aWay in such a Way that its surface does not become clogged With debris from the material that is being cleaned or sanded, and rather than

foaming agents; in addition, 0—30.0% by Weight of addi
tional abrasive material can be added to the mixture prior to placing such a mixture in a mold. It should be noted that although the mixture can be placed on a belt or plate, it is presently preferred to use molds. A single larger mold or a
55

becoming dull, the inventive foamed glass product remains continually sharp and abrasive. Furthermore, the inventive
foamed glass product has a uniform and regulatable
consistency, and one and the same foamed glass block can be used to bring a rough surface to a smooth condition. The

plurality of smaller discrete molds can be provided. The
smaller molds can actually have a geometry that is substan tially the same as the desired ?nal geometry of the foamed
60

inventive product Will clean and polish enameled metal and glaZed porcelain surfaces Without scratching or staining the
same, and can furthermore be used on Wet surfaces Without

glass articles. If a larger mold is used, the product produced
can be cut to the desired siZe and shape. In addition, the mixture can be placed in the mold or molds by placing one or more mounds thereof in the mold or molds, possibly
forming one or more roWs of such mounds.

disintegration or a loss of ef?ciency. The inventive foamed

glass product has a controllably variable content to thereby
be able to provide for a Wide range of hardness, abrasiveness, strength, density, and cell or pore siZe in order
65 to meet market demands.

Although calcium carbonate appears to be a particularly

expedient foaming agent, a large variety of non-carbon/

In addition, the inventive foamed glass product is non toxic, longer lasting, and does not generate ?ne air-borne

5,972,817
5
dust as do other abrasives such as sandpaper. The inventive foamed glass product Will Work Wet or under Water Without

6
carbon dioxide is primarily responsible for the formation of
cells and pores in the softened glass mass as the carbon

any loss of performance. The inventive foamed glass prod
uct has a far different cellular structure than does so called

dioxide expands. The mixture in the mold is held for a period

of time at a peak foaming temperature of, for example,
betWeen 1274—1700° E, or even higher, depending on the

black foamed glass, Which is made With a carbon/sulfate based foaming agent. In particular, in contrast to the closed and regular cellular structure of black foamed glass, Which encloses noxious gas, the inventive foamed glass is ?rst of

all formed, for example, by expanding and escaping carbon
dioxide gas, rather than sulfur dioxide and/or hydrogen sul?de gas. Furthermore, the cell structure of the inventive
10

properties that are desired. By adjusting the process tem peratures and times, the density and hardness as Well as other properties can be closely controlled. As the furnace reaches foaming temperatures, each mass of foaming glass, originating from one of the discrete roWs
or mounds, foams until it comes into contact and fuses With

foamed glass is open, interconnected, and irregular, alloWing
ambient atmospheric gasses to penetrate the cells. A distinct and surprising advantage of the inventive foamed glass is the fact that it is an extremely economical

its neighbors. The fused mass of foaming glass then expands to conform to the shape of the Walls of the mold, ?lling all
of the corners. The shapes and siZes of the initial mounds of mixture are very important and are determined With the
15

product. This is particularly surprising and unexpected due
to the experience in the past With black foamed glass, Which is very expensive to produce. The present invention provides for the use of a far less expensive glass, especially When
Waste glass is used, Which at the same time has a signi?cant

anticipation that the foaming mixture exactly ?ll the mold.
After the glass is foamed to the desired density and pore structure, the temperature of the furnace is rapidly reduced to halt foaming of the glass. When the exterior of the foamed glass in the mold has rigidi?ed suf?ciently, the mass of
foamed glass cooled in the mold or can be removed from the

positive environmental impact, especially since the market
for Waste glass is very limited, being almost nonexistent for mixed color Waste glass; thus, presently a large percentage of Waste glass ends up in land?lls. Prior to providing speci?c examples, the folloWing is a more general discussion concerning production of the inven tive foamed glass product. As indicated previously, poW dered virgin glass or recycled Waste glass is mixed With

mold and placed into a lehr for annealing. The temperature of the lehr is sloWly loWered from the softening temperature
of the glass to ambient temperature to anneal the block of
foamed glass. Once cooled, any skin or crust can be cut off
25

of the foamed glass product, and the product can be cut into a variety of desired shapes.

The folloWing examples illustrate the Wide variety of compositions and applications for the inventive foamed

?nely ground non-carbon/sulfate based foaming agent typi
cally in the average range of about 80 to minus (i.e. any particles smaller than this Will pass through) 325 mesh.
Additional abrasive or refractory material can also be added to the starting mixture to vary or enhance the abrasive

glass articles.
EXAMPLE 1

characteristic of the ?nal product. The resulting dry mixture
can be placed into a mold, such as the mold 1 of FIG. 1. The
35

To produce a grill cleaning block having embedded abrasive material therein, 13.68 g (2.4%) calcium carbonate, minus 200 mesh, 442.32 g (77.6%) recycled ?oat glass
ground to minus 140 mesh, and 114 g (20%) sand, 60 to 100 mesh, Were mixed thoroughly together. The resulting mix
ture Was placed into a stainless steel mold having inside dimensions of 4 1A1 inches><4 inches><8 1A1 inches. The mold Was covered With a 1/2 inch stainless steel plate. The mold With the mixture therein Was ?red to 1250° F. to sinter for 60 minutes. The temperature Was then raised to 1450° F. to foam for 30 minutes. The foamed glass in the mold Was annealed by cooling sloWly to room temperature over 120 minutes. The cooled block of foamed glass Was removed from the mold, and the outer layer of crust Was removed With a band saW to expose the abrasive cells. The resulting block had a density of 13.9 pounds per cubic foot and a pore siZe distribution ranging from about 0.5 to 2 mm. The resulting block had ?nal dimensions of 4 inches><3.75 inches><8 inches

mixture is expediently placed into the mold 1 in the form of
several roWs 2 of the mixture. These mounds or piles of

mixture typically have a natural angle of repose of about 15 to 50 degrees. Even greater angles to the horiZontal can be

achieved by compressing the dry mixture. Depositing the
mixture into shaped mounds, With or Without compacting,
and in the form of discrete piles or roWs, helps to eliminate the folds and voids that typically appear When mixtures of
this type are foamed as ?attened beds of poWder. The mold 1 can be made of steel, ceramic, or ceramic
45

?ber, and is expediently in the shape of a frustum in order to facilitate easy release of the ?nal foamed glass product. In
addition, the inside surfaces of the mold can be coated With a soft refractory release agent to further facilitate separation of the foam glass product from the mold.
One or more molds With the mixture therein is placed into a furnace for either a batch or continuous foaming process.

(it is contemplated that grill cleaning blocks Would range in
siZe from 1 1/2 inches><3 % inches><4 inches to 2 1/2 inches><3 1/2 inches><6 inches to 4 inches><4 inches><8 inches). The resulting block had no odor, Was White to light gray in color, and had open, interconnected cells.
55

The mixture is then heated in order to sinter and foam the

mixture and thereby produce the foamed glass product
having a desired density, pore siZe and hardness. As the

EXAMPLE 2

poWdered mixture is heated to above the softening point of glass, approximately 1050° F, the mixture begins to sinter.
The division of the poWdered mixture into roWs or mounds alloWs the glass to absorb heat more rapidly and to therefore

Afurther grill cleaning block having no sand or embedded abrasives Was formed by a procedure similar to that of

foam faster by reducing the ability of the foaming glass to
insulate itself. At approximately 1058° F. the calcium carbonate, if calcium carbonate has been used as the foam ing agent, begins to react With some of the silicon dioxide in the glass to produce carbon dioxide gas. Carbon dioxide is also formed by any remaining calcium carbonate once the mixture reaches 1274° F, above Which calcium carbonate breaks doWn into calcium oxide and carbon dioxide gas. The

Example 1 using 17.1 g (3%) calcium carbonate, minus 200 mesh, and 552.9 g (97%) recycled container glass, minus
325 mesh. The foaming temperature Was 1400° F. for 45 minutes. The resulting density Was 7.2 pounds per cubic foot, With the resulting material having a pore siZe distri
bution ranging from about 1 to 3 mm.
65

EXAMPLE 3 To prepare a block for cleaning tile, porcelain or enameled surfaces, glass, and glass or ceramic tile a procedure similar

5,972,817
7
to that of Example 1 Was used by mixing together 564.3 g

8
inches><8 inches). The color of the resulting block Was pale yelloW to tan due to the use of amber container glass (it should be noted that any container glass or plate glass Would be suitable for this purpose).
EXAMPLE 6

(98.5%) recycled container glass, minus 325 mesh, and 5.7 g (1.5%) calcium carbonate, minus 200 mesh. The foaming
temperature Was 1360° F. for 60 minutes. The resulting density Was 17.6 pounds per cubic foot, With a pore siZe distribution ranging from about 0.05 to 0.2 mm. The result ing block Was pure White in color due to the use of clear container glass. The resulting block Was cut into smaller blocks of a siZe suitable for cleaning tile, porcelain, etc., and had ?nal dimensions of 2 inches><2 inches><4 inches (in this case, it is contemplated that such blocks can range in siZe from 1 inch><1 1/2 inches><6 inches to 2 inches><2 1/2 inches><4 inches to 3 inches><4 inches><1 1/2 inches). The cut blocks can be mounted onto a handle by ?xing the handle into a hole drilled into each block.
EXAMPLE 4
Another cleaner block for use on tile, porcelain, or enameled surfaces Was prepared in a procedure similar to

Another hand held ?ne pore surface preparation block Was produced in a procedure similar to that of Example 1 by

mixing together 552.9 g (97%) recycled ?oat glass, minus
10

140 mesh, and 17.1 g (3%) calcium carbonate, minus 200
mesh. The foaming temperature Was 1360° F. for 60 min utes. The resulting material had a density of 19.8 pounds per cubic foot, and a pore siZe distribution ranging from about 0.05 to 0.2 mm. Again, the resulting block can be cut into convenient-to-hold blocks.
EXAMPLE 7

15

A further hand held but this time medium pore surface preparation block Was produced in a procedure similar to
20

that of Example 1 by mixing together 569.4 g (99.9%) recycled container glass, minus 325 mesh, and 0.6 g (0.1%)
calcium carbonate, minus 325 mesh. The foaming tempera
ture Was 1425° F. for 25 minutes. The density of the resulting material Was 15.3 pounds per cubic foot, With a pore siZe distribution ranging from about 0.01 to 0.1 mm. Again, the resulting block can be cut into smaller blocks.
EXAMPLE 4A
To produce a further cleaner block for use on tile,

that of Example 1 by mixing together 552.9 g (97%) recycled ?oat glass, minus 200 mesh, and 17.1 g (3%) calcium carbonate, minus 200 mesh. The foaming tempera
ture Was 1500° for 20 minutes. The resulting material had a

25

density of 11.2 pounds per cubic foot, and a pore siZe distribution ranging from about 0.5 to 1.5 mm. The resulting
block Was cut into convenient-to-hold blocks having ?nal dimensions of 4 inches><3.75 inches><2 inches.
EXAMPLE 8

30

porcelain, glass, or enameled surfaces, 44 g (2%) calcium carbonate minus 200 mesh, 5.5 g (0.025%) sodium carbon ate minus 200 mesh, 5 .5 g (0.025%) magnesium carbonate

Another hand held medium pore surface preparation

minus 200 mesh, 2.15 kg (97.95%) recycled ?oat glass
minus 200 mesh Were mixed thoroughly together. The resulting mixture Was placed onto a ceramic mold having inside dimensions of 18 inches><101/z inches><6 inches. The
mold Was covered With a ceramic lid 5/s inches thick. The temperature Was then raised to 1250° F. to sinter for 75 minutes, the temperature Was then raised to 1320° F. to foam for 40 minutes. The foamed glass in the mold Was annealed
35

block Was produced by mixing together 535.8 g (94%) recycled ?oat glass, minus 140 mesh, and 34.2 g (6%) calcium carbonate, minus 200 mesh. The foaming tempera
ture Was 1500° F. for 20 minutes. The resulting material had a density of 15.6 pounds per cubic foot, and a pore siZe distribution ranging from about 0.5 to 1.0 mm. Again, the resulting block Was cut into convenient-to-hold blocks.
EXAMPLE 9
40

Another hand held but this time coarse pore surface

by cooling sloWly to room temperature over 120 minutes. The resulting block had a thickness of 3 inches. The cooled block of foamed glass Was removed from the mold, and the
outer layer of crust Was removed With a band saW to expose 45

preparation block Was prepared in a procedure similar to that

of Example 1 by mixing together 13.68 g (2.4%) calcium
carbonate, minus 200 mesh, 442.32 (77.6%) recycled con tainer glass ground to minus 60 mesh, and 114 g (20%) sand,
60 to 100 mesh. The foaming temperature Was 1500° F. for 20 minutes. The resulting material had a density of 27.8 pounds per cubic foot, and a pore siZe distribution ranging

the abrasive cells. The resulting block had a density of 14.9 pounds per cubic foot and a pore siZe ranging from about 0.5 to 1.5 mm. The resulting cut block had ?nal dimensions of

2 inches><2 inches><4 inches (it is contemplated that such from about 1 to 3 mm. The resulting block Was again cut into blocks can range in siZe from 1 inch><11/z inches><6 inches to 50 blocks of a siZe convenient to hold by hand. The resulting 2 inches><21/z inches><4 inches to 2 inches><3 inches><4 block Was pale yelloW to tan in color due to the use of amber inches). The cut blocks can be mounted onto a handle by container glass.
?xing the handle into a hole drilled into each block.
EXAMPLE 10

EXAMPLE 5

55

A hand held ?ne pore surface preparation block Was

Another hand held coarse pore surface preparation block Was produced in a procedure similar to that of Example 1 by

produced in a procedure similar to that of Example 1 by

mixing together 564.3 g (99%) recycled container glass,
minus 60 mesh and 5.7 g (1%) calcium carbonate, minus 200 mesh. The foaming temperature Was 1500° F. for 20 min utes. The resulting material had a density of 24.3 pounds per cubic foot and a pore siZe distribution ranging from about
0.1 to 0.5 mm. The resulting block can be cut into
60

mixing together 57.0 g (10%) calcium carbonate, minus 200 mesh, and 513 (90%) recycled container glass ground to
minus 325 mesh. The foaming temperature Was 1600° F. for 15 minutes. The resulting material had a density of 17.2 pounds per cubic foot, and a pore siZe distribution ranging from about 2 to 4 mm. The resulting block Was again cut into blocks of a siZe convenient to hold by hand.
EXAMPLE 11

convenient-to-hold blocks having ?nal dimensions of 4 inches><3.75 inches><2 inches (it is contemplated that such blocks could have a siZe ranging from 4 inches><41/z inches><
1% inches to 21/2 inches><31/z inches><6 inches to 3 inches><2

65

In order to produce a random orbital sander disk, 15.81 kg (93%) of minus 140 mesh recycled ?oat glass Was mixed

5,972,817
9
together With 1.19 kg (7%) of minus 200 mesh calcium
carbonate. The mixture Was placed in a mold having dimen sions of 22 inches><46 inches><5 inches and the mold Was covered With a stainless steel lid. The mold and mixture Were

10
described in Example 13, With the blocks having a pale
yelloW to tan color due to the use of amber container glass.
EXAMPLE 15 To produce a cement cleaner block, a procedure similar to

sintered at 1250° F. for 60 minutes, Whereupon the tempera
ture Was raised to foam at 1500° F. for 40 minutes. The temperature Was loWered sloWly to room temperature over

360 minutes. The resulting mass of foamed glass had dimensions of 22 inches><46 inches><6 inches (the extra inch Was due to the lifting of the lid by the expanding foam). The resulting material had a density of 19.5 pounds per cubic foot, and a pore siZe distribution ranging from about 1 to 2.4 mm. The resulting mass of foamed glass could be cut into

that of Example 1 Was utiliZed by thoroughly mixing together 541.5 g (95%) recycled ?oat glass, minus 200 mesh, and 28.5 g (5%) of calcium carbonate, minus 200
10

mesh. The foaming temperature Was 1400° F. for 45 min utes. The resulting material had a density of 16.6 pounds per cubic foot, and a pore siZe distribution ranging from about
0.05 to 0.2 mm. The resulting block Was cut into smaller

multiple blocks, Which are then cut into multiple cylindrical shapes having 5 inch diameters, Which are then sliced into
disks 2 inches thick; the cuts Were made With a band saW. It

15

is contemplated that random orbital sander disks could range
in siZe from 4—6 inches in diameter to 1 to 2 inches thick.
Such disks can be coated on one side With an adhesive

blocks of a siZe suitable for cleaning or degreasing cement, etc., and had ?nal dimensions of 4 inches><4 inches><3 inches (it is contemplated that cement cleaner blocks can range in siZe from 31/2 inches><4 inches><3 inches to 4 inches4 inches>< 1% inches to 4 inches><4 inches><8 inches).
EXAMPLE 16

compound and the loop part of a hook-and-loop fabric system could then be applied thereto. The resulting disk can
be easily mounted onto common orbital sanding poWer tools

20

Another cement cleaner block Was produced in a proce

?tted With heads having the hook part of the hook-and-loop fabric system.
25

dure similar to that of Example 1 by mixing together 552.9 g (97%) recycled container glass, minus 325 mesh, and 17.1 g (3%) of magneisum carbonate, minus 200 mesh. The
foaming temperature Was 1400° F. for 45 minutes. The resulting material had a density of 28.6 pounds per cubic
foot, and a pore siZe distribution ranging from 0.01 to 0.2 mm. The resulting block Was again cut into smaller blocks of 4 inches><4 inches><3 inches.
30

EXAMPLE 12
Another random orbital sander disk Was produced in a

procedure similar to that of Example 11 by mixing together 16.32 kg (96%) of minus 325 mesh recycled container glass
and 0.68 kg (4%) of minus 200 mesh calcium carbonate. The foaming temperature Was 1450° F. for 60 minutes. The resulting material had a density of 14.8 pounds per cubic foot and a pore siZe distribution ranging from about 0.5 to
1.5 mm. The resulting mass of foamed glass Was again cut into tWo inch thick disks having a 5 inch diameter.
EXAMPLE 13

EXAMPLE 17

A rust remover block Was produced by a procedure
35

similar to that of Example 1 by mixing together 456 g (80%) recycled container glass, minus 325 mesh, and 114 g (20%)
of calcium carbonate, minus 325 mesh. The foaming tem perature Was 1700° F. for 15 minutes. The resulting material had a density of 42.6 pounds per cubic foot and a pore siZe distribution ranging from about 0.01 to 0.1 mm.
EXAMPLE 18

Avibratory “palm sander” abrasive block Was formed by a procedure similar to that of Example 11 by mixing together 16.49 kg (97%) of minus 140 mesh ?oat glass and 0.51 kg (3%) of minus 200 mesh calcium carbonate. The foaming
temperature Was 1500° F. for 40 minutes. The resulting foamed glass material had a density of 11.9 pounds per cubic

40

This Example provides some additional detail concerning the expedient mounding of the foamable mixture.
To produce a block of foamed glass material suitable for

resulting mass of foamed glass Was cut into multiple blocks,

foot and a pore siZe distribution of about 1.2 to 2.8 mm. The 45 use as a sanding block, 12 kg of a foamable glass mixture

Which are then cut into blocks having dimensions of 4

Was prepared by thoroughly mixing together for 20 minutes
in a mechanical mixer 2.4% by Weight calcium carbonate

inches4 inches2.5 inches (it is contemplated that vibratory
sander blocks could range in siZe from 1% inches><4% inches><41/z inches to 2 inches><3% inches><7% inches). These
blocks are also coated on one side With an adhesive com
50

poWder (100% of Which passes through a 200 mesh screen),

77.6% by Weight recycled or virgin glass (100% of Which
passes through a 325 mesh screen), and 20% by Weight
common sand (100% of Which passes through a 40 mesh screen but Which does not pass through an 80 mesh screen). A 1A1 inch stainless steel plate having a dimension of 20 inches><26 inches Was coated With a thin slurry of talc and alumina as agents to prevent sticking. A stainless steel mold Was coated With the same slurry. The mold had the shape of
a frustum and Was open at the base. The base dimensions

pound to Which is applied the loop part of a hook-andloop fabric system. The resulting blocks can be easily mounted
onto common vibratory sanding poWer tools ?tted With 4 inch><4 inch heads on Which is disposed the hook part of the

hook-and-loop fabric system.
EXAMPLE 14

55

Another vibratory “palm sander” abrasive block Was produced in a procedure similar to that of Example 11 by

Were 20 inches><26 inches, and the peak dimensions Were 19 inches><26 inches; the mold Was 6 inches deep. The foam
60

mixing together 16.49 kg (97%) of minus 60 mesh recycled
container glass and 0.51 kg (3%) of minus 200 mesh calcium
carbonate. The foaming temperature Was 1500° F. for 40 minutes. The resulting material Was similar to that of Example 13 except that it had a density of 18.3 pounds per cubic foot and a pore siZe distribution ranging from about 2
to 4 mm. Blocks Were prepared in a manner similar to that
65

able mixture Was divided into four equal portions of 3 kg each, and each portion Was placed on the 20 inch><26 inch plate in a roW such that it had base dimensions of 4.5 inches><16 inches. The four roWs Were evenly spaced 2 inches apart. The roWs, Which ran parallel to the 26 inches dimension of the plate, Were spaced 1 inch aWay from the edge of the plate. The ends of the roWs Were placed 2 inches

aWay from the edges of the plate having the 20 inch
dimensions. Each roW had a trapeZoidal cross-section the

5,972,817
11
base of Which Was 4.5 inches and the top of Which Was 3.5 inches, With a height of 3 inches. Each portion Was com

12 providing poWdered glass;
mixing at least one non-carbon/sulfate based foaming agent With said poWdered glass to form a mixture; placing said mixture onto a surface; heating said mixture so that said mixture sinters and subsequently foams to form a foamed mixture; and annealing said foamed mixture by cooling it to room temperature to form a foamed glass product, Wherein
10

pacted into the above shape, and the bulk density of the powder after being compacted Was 72 pounds per cubic foot.
The frustum shaped lid Was lowered onto the plate that

supported the mounds of foamable mixture, Whereupon the
entire assembly Was placed into a furnace. The furnace Was rapidly heated to 1250° F. and Was held there for one hour to alloW the foamable mixture to sinter and absorb heat evenly. The temperature Was then increased to 1500° F. and

held there for 60 minutes. The mounds of poWder foamed, fused, and ?lled the mold during this process. The tempera
ture Was then rapidly loWered to 1050° F. and Was held there

said heating step comprises ?rst heating said mixture to
a temperature of about 1250° F., maintaining this temperature for a sufficient period of time to alloW said mixture to sinter and absorb heat evenly, and then

for 15 minutes to halt the foaming process and to solidify the outside skin of the mass of foamed glass. The frustum shaped portion of the mold Was then removed from the mass of solidi?ed foamed glass. The block of foamed glass Was

increasing said temperature to 1274—1700° F. 9. A method according to claim 8, Wherein said mixing

then placed in an annealing lehr, Which sloWly cooled the foamed glass from 1050° F. to ambient temperature. The ?nished and cooled block of foamed glass Was then planed
and trimmed to remove the glassy skin and traces of release
20

step comprises mixing 0.10—20% by Weight of said foaming agent With said poWdered glass.
10. A method according to claim 9, Wherein said mixing

agent. The ?nished cut block of foamed glass had dimen sions of 18 inches><24 inches><4 inches, a density of 19.3 pounds per cubic foot, and a pore siZe distribution ranging
from about 2.0 to 5.0 mm. The ?nished block of foamed

step comprises mixing 0.5—5.0% by Weight of said foaming agent With said poWdered glass.
11. A method according to claim 8, Wherein said placing step comprises placing said mixture onto a continuous belt,
onto a plate, or into at least one mold.

glass could then be cut into a variety of regular shapes for
use in surface preparation. The present invention is, of course, in no Way restricted to

12. A method according to claim 8, Wherein said anneal
25

ing step comprises the steps of ?rst rapidly cooling said
foamed mixture to a temperature beloW a foaming

the speci?c disclosure of the speci?cation, draWings and
examples, but also encompasses any modi?cations Within the scope of the appended claims.
30 What We claim is: 1. A method of treating a hard surface to remove material

temperature, and then sloWly cooling said foamed mixture to
room temperature.

13. A method according to claim 8, Wherein said provid

ing step comprises providing 69.9—99.9% by Weight virgin
glass or Waste glass, said mixing step comprising mixing
0.10—20% by Weight of at least one foaming agent, and Which includes the further step of adding up to 30.0% by Weight of abrasive material to said mixture prior to said

therefrom, comprising the steps of:
providing a foamed glass article formed from a starting

mixture that comprises glass and 0.10—20% by Weight
of at least one non-carbon/sulfate based foaming agent; and
35

placing step.
14. Amethod according to claim 13, Wherein said at least one foaming agent is selected from the group consisting of

contacting said surface With said foamed glass article and providing relative movement betWeen said article and
said surface. 2. A method according to claim 1, Wherein the hard
40

calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, sodium carbonate strontium carbonate, lithium carbonate, barium carbonate,
sugar, urea, Water, and mixtures thereof, and said abrasive material is selected from the group consisting of sand,

surface is treated by sanding, rubbing, scraping, degreasing, polishing, cleaning or smoothing.
3. A method according to claim 2, Wherein the hard

aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, garnet, tripoli, ground
ceramic, and mixtures thereof. 15. A method according to claim 8, Which includes the additional steps, after said annealing step, of removing any glassy skin that is formed on said product, and cutting said

surface comprises Wood, metal, plastic, ?berglass, porcelain,
glass, enameled surfaces, concrete, or tiles. 4. A method according to claim 1, Wherein said starting mixture further comprises up to 30.0% by Weight abrasive material selected from the group consisting of sand, alumi
45

foamed glass product into articles.
16. A surface treating article comprising a foamed glass, said foamed glass is formed from a starting mixture that comprises glass and 0.10—20% by Weight of at least one non-carbon/sulfate based foaming agent, Wherein the sur

num oxide, silicon carbide, garnet, tripoli, ground ceramic,
and mixtures thereof.
50

5. A method according to claim 4, Wherein said starting

face to be treated comprises Wood, metal, plastic, ?berglass,
porcelain, glass, enameled surfaces, concrete or tiles. 17. An article according to claim 16, Wherein said starting mixture comprises 69.9—99.9% by Weight virgin or Waste
55

mixture comprises 69.9—99.9% by Weight virgin glass or
Waste glass, 0.10—20% of at least one foaming agent selected

from the group consisting of calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, sodium carbonate, strontium carbonate, lithium
carbonate, barium carbonate, sugar, urea, Water and mix tures thereof, and up to 30.0% by Weight abrasive material

glass, 0.10—20% non-carbon/sulfate based foaming agent,
and up to 30.0% by Weight of abrasive material. 18. An article according to claim 17, Wherein said at least one foaming agent is selected from the group consisting of

selected from the group consisting of sand, aluminum oxide,

silicon carbide, garnet, tripoli, ground ceramic, and mixtures
thereof.

calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, sodium carbonate, strontium carbonate, lithium carbonate, barium
60

6. A method according to claim 5, Wherein said starting

mixture comprises poWdered glass and 0.5—5.0% by Weight
of said foaming agent.
7. A method according to claim 1, Wherein said foamed

carbonate, sugar, urea, Water and mixtures thereof, and said abrasive material is selected from the group consisting of

sand, aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, garnet, tripoli, ground ceramic, and mixtures thereof.

19. An article according to claim 17, Wherein said foamed glass article has a shape of a block or disk. 8. A method of making foamed glass as a means to treat 65 glass article has a shape of a block or disk. a hard surface to remove material therefrom, said method

comprising the steps of:

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