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Landmark Nomination 721 East Pine Street Seattle

BOLA Architecture + Planning
Seattle June 12, 2013

Landmark Nomination 721 East Pine Street
Seattle June 12, 2013 CONTENTS Landmarks Nomination Form (1 page) 1. INTRODUCTION Background Research Local and National Landmarks Seattle’s Landmarks Designation Process PROPERTY DATA 3. HISTORICAL CONTEXT Development of Capitol Hill The Early Motor Age and Seattle’s Pike-Pine Corridor The Service Garage and Auto-Related Building Type Early Ownership and Occupant History of the Building Later and Present Occupants Original Architect, John R. Nevins 4. ARCHITECTURAL DESCRIPTION Urban Context The Site The Building Changes to the Building 5. BIBLIOGRAPHY 6. PHOTOS & GRAPHICS 4 5

10

3

Cover: Historic and contemporary views looking southwest toward the building’s north and east façades. Top view is the tax assessor’s property record card photo, 1937 (Puget Sound Regional Archives).
Architecture + Planning 159 Western Avenue West, Suite 486 Seattle, Washington 98119 206.447.4749

Name: Year built:

1920

Street and number: 721 East Pine Street Assessor's file no.: Legal description: 6003000550 Lot 2, Block 16, Addition to the City of Seattle as laid off by D.T. Denny, guardian of the estate of J.H. Nagle (commonly known as Nagle’s Addition to the City of Seattle), according to the plat thereof recorded in Volume 1 of Plats, page 153, in King County, Washington; except the south 74 feet thereof. Nagle’s Addition, Block 16, Lot 2 (portion) O & S Partners, LLC Denny Onslow, Partner 6705 W. Mercer Way Mercer Island, WA 98040 Auto Service Garage, Restaurant, Retail Shop Estate of John Collins Auto Service Garage John R. Nevins

Plat /Block/Lot: Present owner: Owner's address:

Present use: Original owner: Original use: Architect:

SEE ATTACHED for physical description, statement of significance, and photographs Submitted by: Address: Phone: Date: Paul Shema, AIA, Principal Hewitt 101 Stewart Street, suite 200 Seattle, WA 98101 (206) 805-2468 June 12, 2013

Reviewed (historic preservation officer):

Date:

721 East Pine Street, Seattle Landmark Nomination
BOLA Architecture + Planning
June 12, 2013 1. INTRODUCTION Background This landmark nomination report a commercial building at 721 East Pine Street has been prepared at the request of the property owner, O & S Partners LLC, a local developer. This nomination is being provided as part of the Master Use Permit (MUP) application for a new development on the site, to determine the building’s landmark status. The building is located on the southwest corner of the intersection of East Pine Street and Harvard Avenue, within the Pike-Pine Corridor. This location places the subject building within the Pike/Pine Conservation Overlay District, in which it is a “character structure” because it is more than 75 years old. Nonetheless, the Landmarks Preservation Board has separate, quasi-judicial jurisdiction in evaluating the property as a potential landmark. This report includes data about the building, a historic context statement, and an architectural description. The context statement focuses primarily on historic themes, including the development of Capitol Hill and auto-related industries in the Pike-Pine neighborhood, the life and work of architect John R. Nevins, and background on the original owner. The architectural description addresses the site and building, along with changes that have been made to it over time. A bibliography is provided at the end of the report, followed by historic and contemporary images and a site plan. Research Research for the landmark nomination and preparation of the report was undertaken in April and May 2013 by Preservation Planner Sonja Molchany of BOLA Architecture + Planning with input from Principal Susan Boyle. Sources included the following:

City of Seattle Department of Planning and Development (DPD) microfilm permit and drawing records, and Seattle Municipal Archives (SMA) photographic collection Property information from King County iMaps and tax assessor’s property record cards from Puget Sound Regional Archives Historic photos from the digital collections of the University of Washington Libraries Special Collections and Museum of History and Industry (MOHAI) Historic Polk Directories, Kroll and Sanborn maps in the Seattle Room of Seattle's Central Public Library, and articles from the Seattle Times Historical Archives available through the library’s website

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Landmark Nomination June 12, 2013, page 2

City of Seattle Department of Neighborhoods historic site inventory forms and earlier landmark nominations

Research included examination of the original drawing records, tax records, and historic maps and photographs. Several site visits were made to view and document building’s exterior and interior elements, site features, and its neighborhood context. Local and National Landmarks Designated historic landmarks are those properties that have been recognized locally, regionally, or nationally as important resources to the community, city, state, or nation. Official recognition may be provided by listing in the State or National Registers of Historic Places or locally by the City’s designation of the property as a historic landmark. The City of Seattle’s landmarks process is a multi-part proceeding of three sequential steps involving the Landmarks Preservation Board: 1) submission of a nomination and its review and approval by the Board 2) a designation by the Board 3) negotiation of controls and incentives by the property owner and the Board staff A final step in Seattle’s landmarks process is approval of the designation by an ordinance passed by the City Council. All of these steps occur with public hearings to allow input from the property owner, applicant, the public, and other interested parties. Seattle’s landmarks process is quasi-judicial, with the Board ruling rather than serving as an advisory body to another commission, department, or agency. Under this ordinance, more than 420 individual properties have become designated landmarks in the City of Seattle. Several hundred other properties are designated by their presence within one of the City's eight special review districts or historic districts, which include the Harvard-Belmont, Ballard Avenue, Pioneer Square, Columbia City, Pike Place Market, and International, Fort Lawton, and Sand Point Naval Air Station historic districts. Designated landmark properties in Seattle include individual buildings and structures, building assemblies, landscapes, and objects. In contrast to the National Register or landmark designation in some other jurisdictions, Seattle’s process does not require owner consent. Seattle’s Landmarks Designation Process The City of Seattle's Landmarks Preservation Ordinance (SMC 25.12.350) requires a property to be more than 25 years old and “have significant character, interest or value, as part of the development, heritage or cultural characteristics of the City, State or Nation.” The standard calling for significant character may be described as a standard of integrity. Integrity is a term used to indicate that sufficient original building fabric is present to convey a property’s historical and architectural significance. Seattle’s ordinance also requires a property meet one or more of six designation criteria: Criterion A. It is associated in a significant way with an historic event, which has had a significant effect on the community, city, state, or nation.

721 East Pine Street BOLA Architecture + Planning Criterion B. Criterion C. Criterion D. Criterion E. Criterion F.

Landmark Nomination June 12, 2013, page 3

It is associated in a significant way with the life of a person important in the history of the city, state, or nation. It is associated in a significant way with a significant aspect of the cultural, political or economic heritage of the community, city, state or nation. It embodies the distinctive visible characteristics of an architectural style, period or method of construction. It is an outstanding work of a designer or builder. It is an easily identifiable feature of its neighborhood or the city due to the prominence of its spatial location; contrasts of siting, age or scale; and it contributes to the distinctive quality or identity of its neighborhood or the city.

In Seattle, a landmark nomination may be prepared by a property owner, the City’s Historic Preservation Office, or by any interested party or individual. The ordinance requires that if the nomination is adequate in terms of its information, the Landmarks Board must consider it within a stipulated time frame. There is no city ordinance that requires an owner to nominate its property. Such a step may occur if an owner proposes substantial development requiring a Master Use Permit (MUP). Since July 1995, DPD has required a review of potentially eligible landmarks as a part of the MUP process for residential and commercial projects of certain sizes and in specific zones in the city. Seattle’s landmarks process does not include consideration of future changes to a property, the merits of a development proposal, or continuance of any specific occupancy, as these are separate land use issues.

721 East Pine Street BOLA Architecture + Planning 2. PROPERTY DATA Address: Site Location: Tax Parcel Number: Legal Description: 721 East Pine Street Seattle, Washington 98122

Landmark Nomination June 12, 2013, page 4

Southwest corner of the intersection of East Pine Street and Harvard Avenue on Capitol Hill 6003000550 Lot 2, Block 16, Addition to the City of Seattle as laid off by D.T. Denny, guardian of the estate of J.H. Nagle (commonly known as Nagle’s Addition to the City of Seattle), according to the plat thereof recorded in Volume 1 of Plats, page 153, in King County, Washington; except the south 74 feet thereof. 1920 Auto Service Garage Auto Service Garage, Restaurant, Retail Shop John R. Nevins, Architect & Engineer Unknown 7,384 square feet, per King County Parcel Viewer 6,420 gross square feet, per King County Parcel Viewer Estate of John Collins O & S Partners LLC Paul Shema, AIA, Principal Hewitt 101 Stewart Street, Suite 200 Seattle, WA 98101 (206) 834-3808

Original Construction Date: Original Use: Later & Present Use: Original Designer: Original Builder: Site Area: Building Size: Original Owner: Present Owner: Owner’s Representative:

721 East Pine Street BOLA Architecture + Planning 3. HISTORICAL CONTEXT Development of Capitol Hill

Landmark Nomination June 12, 2013, page 5

Seattle’s Capitol Hill developed initially as an urban residential area in the 1880s and grew as such after electric trolley lines were established. Centrally located Broadway Avenue was one of the earliest trolley routes in the area, when a line was extended along it from First Hill and Beacon Hill in 1891. The street was relatively level and was paved in 1903, after which time it quickly became a favorite route for cyclists, and later for motorists. Neighborhood commerce grew along the early north-south trolley routes with stores, cafes, small hotels and service businesses appearing in a linear fashion along Broadway, 15th, and 19th Avenues. Pike Street was a noteworthy arterial in that it was the first improved east-west route from the Public Market to reach the plateau of Capitol Hill’s Broadway Avenue. First paved in 1907, there were three trolley lines that climbed the gentler grade along Pike Street by 1912. Much of the residential development in the area of southwest Capitol Hill and eastern First Hill took the form of modest, middle-income houses, townhouses and boarding houses; while the upper ridge of Capitol Hill, from 15th to 17th Avenues, and along the west slope of First Hill were known for more spacious, upper middle-class houses and mansions. Small, wood-frame commercial buildings were typically constructed in the street-front setbacks of early dwellings as commercial development took hold along city arterials. Most of these wood-frame buildings were later supplanted by purpose-built commercial structures and apartment buildings located along sidewalks. Residential development in the area surrounding the subject property also changed during the decades following 1900. Traditionally, there were few residences along Pike or Pine Streets. However, after 1900 several large mixed-use retail/apartment buildings were constructed, such as the ca. 1909 Wintonia, at 1431 Minor Avenue at the corner of Pike Street. Buildings such as the Wintonia featured retail spaces at grade, with ample display windows placed along the sidewalks. Like many of the later apartment buildings on Capitol Hill constructed through the 1930s, they were masonry or masonry-clad structures. Historic photographs of the area also show that there were many early wood-frame and wood-clad multifamily dwellings in the southern Capitol Hill area, including apartment buildings and row houses. These were primarily Victorian and Italianate style structures, characterized by asymmetrical massing, verticality, and ornate decorative detailing. The Early Motor Age and Seattle’s Pike-Pine Corridor The first automobile was offered for sale in Seattle in 1905, in the middle of a decade of tremendous growth in the city. Subsequently, the area around the south end of Capitol Hill and north end of First Hill developed as the city’s earliest auto row (Dorpat, “Auto Row Beginnings”). This area has become known as the “Pike-Pine Corridor,” although it also includes the areas between Boren and 14th Avenues, such as 10th, 11th, and 12th Avenues; Boylston, Melrose, Union, and Madison Streets; and Broadway Avenue. The 1910 Polk Directory identifies a number of local vehicle distribution companies in this immediate area. Pike and Pine Streets, along with other nearby streets, became lined with parts distributors and retail stores, motorcar showrooms, paint and upholstery shops, service garages (of general and specific types, such as brake and carburetor repair shops, and ball bearing manufacturers), and fuel stations (Dorpat, “Thumbnail History,” and Sheridan). By 1915, city directories included numerous auto distributors in the north First

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Hill/southwest Capitol Hill area. The clustering of auto-related businesses along Pike, Pine, and Broadway may have occurred because of the accessibility of Pike Street, or in response to business convenience or congruent marketing. By 1920, the Kroll Company’s “Commercial Map of Seattle” identified the area simply by the notation, “automobiles.” Early zoning regulations in Seattle’s initial 1923 land use code reinforced these uses. Between 1910 and 1930, large national motor companies, such as Ford and Chevrolet, concentrated on increasing manufacturing through mass production, assembly line methods, and horizontal monopolization of suppliers, and on marketing through ever lower prices. Other auto makers focused on luxury markets, creating different models including opulent sedans, speedsters, and limousines. The Ford Company made innovations in mass marketing, and elected to ship car parts to plants in distance cities, such as Seattle, for locally assembly, distribution, and sales. In 1913, Ford built the multi-story assembly plant near the south edge of Lake Union at Fairview Avenue North and Valley Street. (The Ford Assembly Plant was designated a landmark in 1998.) The auto-associated identity of Seattle’s Pike-Pine Corridor gradually declined, beginning in the 1920s. During the Depression, dealerships began selling many more used cars or closed due to business losses. Factory production of vehicles was diverted during World War II in favor of aviation and marine engines, tanks, and trucks. The war and accompanying gasoline restrictions further depressed the domestic market for private vehicles. In the late 1920s and throughout the 1930s and 1940s, larger sites in the Denny Regrade and Westlake areas north of downtown increasingly became preferred locations for motor vehicle sales and service businesses. After World War II, typical new auto dealerships were larger facilities that included service departments and large exterior vehicle lots as well as larger interior showrooms, all of which required additional space. Along with those in the South Lake Union and Denny Regrade neighborhoods, other “auto rows” developed along Roosevelt Way NE and Lake City Way, and in nearby towns and locations along highways, such as Aurora Avenue North, Auburn, and Kent. Despite this trend there are a few auto dealerships remaining on Capitol Hill along with a few individual service garages. Near the subject property there is a showroom for Ferrari of Seattle at 1401 12th Avenue, and the Phil Smart Mercedes (now Mercedes-Benz of Seattle) at 600 East Pike Street. The Service-Garage and Auto-Related Retail Building Type An early 20th-century service garage, such as the northwestern portion of the subject building, is a different building type than an “auto row” showroom. The early vehicle showrooms were used to display one or several models, with sales completed through reviews of catalogues and manufacturer’s product materials by customers and salesmen. These buildings, or spaces within larger mixed-use buildings, were typically located on core commercial streets and had large glazed display windows, clearly visible entry doors, fine interior finishes, and large interior volumes. As Mimi Sheridan noted in a report on Seattle’s neighborhood commercial districts, the dealerships competed to draw customers through impressive, ornamented, terra cotta-clad buildings, typically designed by well known architects. In contrast the garage building was a more utilitarian structure with typical design features. Later auto-related buildings, such as the Ford and Lincoln McKay dealership on Westlake Avenue North, continued this tradition, but with larger showrooms and integrated service and part-supply spaces, often in the same buildings. Dealership services grew as the companies saw the benefits of diversifying their businesses and creating loyalty-building customer relationships. Some dealerships incorporated amenity

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spaces in the buildings, such as lounges or even roof terraces and restrooms for waiting customers. As vehicle model options grew in number, the dealerships also incorporated parking lots. The early auto-related businesses in the Pike-Pine area, dating from ca. 1908 involved a diverse range of specialty shops that sold and serviced brakes, tires, carburetors, etc., as well as independently-owned garages with a few mechanics. The building type was often in the lowest level of a multi-story, mixed use building or a single-story structure, sometimes free-standing building, but more often on corner parcel or one with an alley. Not needing the pedestrian exposure or higher cost of frontage on core commercial streets, they were often located on side streets. The façades were composed of clear structural bays, while interiors were clear-span spaces. Exterior elevations were typically utilitarian, with planar embellishment limited to a raised sign band or off-the-shelf cast stone decoration and/or masonry elements. Primary façade features typically included the vehicle door(s), and a separate entry to the office section. Construction materials included fire-resistant cast-in-place concrete or bearing brick masonry, and concrete foundation and slab for weight bearing of heavy vehicle loads. Roof framing typically consisted of full-width heavy-timber trusses, and skylights were provided in deep spaces to supply greater daylight illumination. The interior layout within clear-span spaces allowed for placement of vehicles under repair, often with a depressed pit or a lift for accessing the undercarriage, as well as a space for a parked vehicle or vehicles. Some larger service garages, such as the former Phil Smart Dealership Garage at 1525 Boylston Avenue, were comprised of long building masses with a central, symmetrically placed vehicle entry and angled wings with a front setback from the sidewalk that afforded drop-off and parking spaces. Both early auto showrooms and garages contained tall, flexible open interiors within solid structures that lend themselves to other commercial uses, and after World War II when nearly all dealerships left the Pike-Pine area for larger sites, the buildings were converted typically, to manufacturing or warehouse use, and sometimes to other retail spaces or artist studios. Recent adaptive uses include retail shops, bars, restaurants, art galleries, offices and recreation space, as exemplified by the following:
      

Carr Brother’s Auto Repair / Area 51 retail store (ca. 1910) at 401 East Pine Street Central Auto Top / Baguette Box & other retail stores (1912) at 1201 Pine Street Ballou & Wright Automotive Supplies / Northwest Film Forum (1917) at 1517 12th Avenue Colyear Motor Sales / former REI (1918) at 1021 East Pine Ford Service Truck Center / Nickols Manufacturing Company / Elliott Bay Bookstore (1920) at 1521 10th Avenue Melrose Market, a retail assembly in two former garage buildings (1919 & 1926) at 1515-35 Melrose Avenue Plymouth dealership / Garage (1928) at 1130 Broadway Avenue East

Examples of comparable former service garages in the Pike-Pine area of Seattle are listed below, selected through a review of the historic inventory forms in the City of Seattle Department of Neighborhoods Historical Site Inventory database. Select historic and contemporary photographs of existing buildings that contained independent service garages, or garages associated with auto showrooms in the surrounding Pike-Pine area, are on pages 31-32 of this nomination and include:
 

Coleman’s Used Cars / Victrola Coffee Roasters (1909) at 314 East Pike Street Gallagher’s Fine Cars / Six Arms (1910) at 300 East Pike Street

721 East Pine Street BOLA Architecture + Planning
   

Landmark Nomination June 12, 2013, page 8

Nickols Manufacturing Company / Elliot Bay Bookstore (1920) at 1521 10th Avenue Universal Repair Shop (1923) at 1611 Boylston Avenue Piston & Ring Building (ca. 1925) at 1429 12th Avenue Puget Sound Motors / CK Graphics (1925), at 501 East Pike Street

Early Ownership and Occupant History of the Building Original architectural drawings for the building are dated November 1919 and labeled “Store Building at Pine & Harvard Sts…for the Estate of John Collins.” The following month, an item in the local newspaper noted additional details: A building to be erected at the southwest corner of Pine Street and Harvard Avenue North for the John Collins estate will contain four retail store rooms facing on Pine Street and two on Harvard Avenue, and is expected to be ready for occupancy early next month. The building will be a one-story masonry structure to cost approximately $20,000. The store fronts will be faced with pressed brick and have plate glass show windows. The store rooms are planned to be especially adapted for automobile accessory dealers. (Seattle Sunday Times, December 14, 1919, p. 97.) Tax records indicate that the construction of the new building was completed in 1920. John Collins (1835–1903) was a prominent Seattle businessman and industrialist, as well as a real estate investor. He served as Seattle’s fourth mayor, in 1873-74, and his involvement in civic affairs also included several stints as a City councilman. Collins’ investments ranged from coal mining and public utilities to railroads and real estate, and by the 1880s he had become one of Seattle’s wealthiest citizens. His real estate holdings included the Occidental Hotel / Hotel Seattle (1890, demolished) at the intersection of Yesler Way and James Street, and the Collins Block (1893) at 2nd Avenue and James Street, in the Pioneer Square Historic District. When Collins died in 1903 he left a sizable estate; apparently the estate’s managers continued to make investments and the subject property was one of them. Property tax records indicate the estate remained the property owner at least into the 1930s. Joel Diamond purchased the building in the early 1970s and the current owner bought it in 2012. Listings in the Polk Directory indicate that the building was occupied by auto-related businesses for many years. Tenants in the northeast corner space of the building included Burd Ring Sales in the 1920s, Gear and Axle Service Company in 1930, Auto Polishers and Auto Parts Distributing Company in the 1940s, Robert’s Automotive Services in 1960, and Con Rod Grinding Company (auto parts manufacturers) from 1955 to 1970. Occupants of the south space of the building included Heiser & Swedman (auto repairs) from 1925 to 1930, Dolan’s Auto Repair in 1955, and British Car Center from 1960 to 1996. The westernmost space was occupied by Safety Service Company Auto Repairs from 1935 to 1940, Consolidated Garage in 1944, and then Flick & Rash Auto Repair from at least 1955 to 1990. Later and Present Occupants The northeast corner space of the building ceased being used for auto-related business ca. 1970. This space housed Mother’s Tavern from 1975 to 1980. Since 1980, another restaurant, Bill’s Off Broadway,

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has operated there. Longtime owner Don Stevens, who acquired the restaurant ca. 1995, operates the three-decade-old dining establishment (Capitol Hill Seattle Blog, September 18, 2012). The western storefront accessed off East Pine Street has consistently housed auto-related use, and has been occupied by Fifteenth Avenue Garage since the mid-1990s. The south space, accessed off Harvard Avenue East, also typically contained auto repair businesses. It is presently occupied by a motorcycle and scooter retailer, Red Label Moto. Original Architect, John R. Nevins J.R. Nevins is identified on original drawings as the designer of the subject building. John R. Nevins (1876–1952) was born in Adams County, Illinois, and studied at the University of Illinois in the 1890s. By 1902 Nevins had come to Seattle, and he was listed in that year’s city directory as an architectural draftsman for the firm of Bebb & Mendel. In subsequent years, he was alternately listed as an architectural, civil, or structural engineer. Nevins partnered with Earl G. Park, a colleague at Bebb & Mendel, to plat and develop residential properties in Seattle. In 1918 they formed the Nevins & Park Addition, a single long block bounded by NE 82nd and 85th Streets and 28th and 30th Avenues NE in the Wedgwood neighborhood. Around the same time, Nevins left Bebb & Mendel to work as a sole practitioner, working in the Hoge Building at 2nd and Cherry, where he had an office. Newspaper citations of Nevins’ work include a number of buildings in Seattle’s south industrial area:  A one-story masonry and mill building, west side of Marginal Way south of Spokane Street (Seattle Times, August 25, 1918)

A large steel jobbing plant for the A.M. Castle Company, site bounded by Ohio and Colorado Avenues and Hudson and Alaska Streets (Seattle Times, September 21, 1920) The Crescent Manufacturing Company building, Railroad Avenue and Connecticut Street (Seattle Times, January 21, 1923)

Nevins worked in association with architects Schack, Young & Myers on the initial building development of the model city of Longview, Washington (1922-23), for the Long-Bell Lumber Company of Texas. In 1924, Nevins worked in partnership with Pierce A. Horrocks to design the Liberty Building, a two-story terra cotta-clad commercial building at 114 Pike Street in downtown Seattle. This building presently contains the Hard Rock Café. Nevins also designed a former two-story frame building for the Finnish Club, at 13th Avenue South and South Washington Street (Seattle Times, March 10, 1923), as well as a two-story building on the northeast corner of Fremont Avenue and North 34th Street, with commercial space on the main floor and apartments and offices above (Seattle Times, June 13, 1926). The Fremont building held Costas Opa, a long-standing restaurant, until late 2012. The building was remodel recently as a Chase branch bank. Nevins’ later work and life is unknown, but state death records indicate that he died in Seattle on January 13, 1952, at the age of 75.

721 East Pine Street BOLA Architecture + Planning 4. ARCHITECTURAL DESCRIPTION Urban Context

Landmark Nomination June 12, 2013, page 10

The 721 East Pine property is sited on the southwest corner of East Pine Street and Harvard Avenue, in an increasingly dense area of southwest Capitol Hill, and situated among other commercial, mixed-use, and institutional buildings of varied ages. A surface parking lot, accessed off Harvard Avenue, is located immediately south of the building. The block contains two other surface parking lots and six other buildings. Immediately west of the subject property, at 715 East Pine Street, is a one-story masonry structure dating from 1967. South of that are two 1927 one-story masonry buildings, including Linda’s Tavern. On the southwest portion of the block is the Starbird Apartments, a three-story wood-frame structure dating from 1910. The former BMW dealership, a one-story masonry building dating from 1920, is on the central/south portion of the block at 714 East Pike Street. At the southeast corner of the block, at 722 East Pike Street, is a one-story wood-frame building dating from 1920. East, across Harvard Avenue from the subject building, is the 1915 three-story Masonic Temple, a structure that also houses the Egyptian Theater. Northeast of the subject building is Seattle Central Community College, and directly north across East Pine Street is a three-level Seattle Central parking garage, which dates from 1986. Current zoning is NC3P-65 (Neighborhood Commercial 3 with a 65’ height limit and a pedestrian overlay designation). The subject property is also located in the Pike/Pine Conservation Overlay District (SMC 23.73). This Overlay District established a transfer of Development Potential (TDP) program for the Pike/Pine neighborhood, with the goal “to provide a further incentive to maintain the neighborhood’s existing ‘character structures’ (buildings that are at least 75 years old), while continuing to protect the area’s special character.” (Seattle Department of Planning and Development website.) Other nearby blocks to the north and east of the subject building are also zoned Neighborhood Commercial, with a Major Institution Overlay for Seattle Central Community College. Nearby designated landmarks on this part of Capitol Hill, within two/three blocks of the subject property, include the following buildings:
   

Lincoln Park Reservoir / Bobby Morris Playfield, 1000 East Pine Street Seattle First Baptist Church, 1121 Harvard Avenue Summit School / Northwest School, 1415 Summit Avenue Wintonia, 1431 Minor Avenue

Two other nearby buildings that are historically significant but not designated landmarks are:
 

Masonic Temple, 801 East Pine Street Odd Fellows Hall, 915 East Pine Street

The Site The subject property measures approximately 69’-4” (east-west) by 106’-6” (north-south) for a total area of 7,385 square feet (King County Parcel Viewer). The building faces north onto East Pine Street and east onto Harvard Avenue, virtually extending to the property lines on all four sides. A narrow open space less than 1’ wide runs along the building’s west side, separating it from the neighboring structure.

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The site slopes down from northeast southwest, with an estimated overall grade change of approximately 10’. Paved sidewalks, estimated 12’ wide, run along the north and east sides of the property. There is no landscaping on the site. The Building The single-story, flat-roofed building has a concrete foundation and bearing masonry perimeter walls and a footprint of approximately 69’ by 106’. The north and east walls are brick masonry, while the west and south walls are 12” hollow clay tile. The 1937 property record card notes 8”x18” concrete footings and 8”x8” wood support columns set on 16’ centers. The primary façades of the building face north onto Pine Street and east onto Harvard Avenue. These façades are characterized by large rectangular wall openings set between brick piers, with a continuous frieze and parapet above. The east (Harvard Avenue) side has six relatively evenly-spaced bays, each approximately 17’ wide. The bay spacing along north (East Pine Street) side is less regular, with an approximately 18’-wide corner bay, 16’-wide second bay, and a third double-wide bay of approximately 34’. Structural column spacing is reflected by the pilasters on the outer walls. Wall openings typically contain a storefront system with large plate glass windows and multi-light, wood transom windows above. While the building design is simple overall, some details were employed in the finish brickwork on the primary façades. The verticality of the pilasters is emphasized by use of stacked bond, laid up the center, flanked by stacked headers, resulting in continuous vertical joints. A small tile detail is used near the top of each pilaster. A wide frieze band above the wall openings appears to be painted plaster and was likely originally used as a sign band. The frieze band is bracketed on the top and bottom by a rowlock course, and a larger, diamond-shaped tile detail is placed above each pilaster. This diamond detail appears to consist of eight flat terra cotta tiles arranged in a white plaster background. On the north façade, the second pilaster (from the left) is clad with painted wood paneling rather than brick. This anomaly appears to be original, and is visible in the 1937 tax record photo. A simple raised roof parapet is laid in running bond, with a sailor course along the top edge. A corner entry, recessed behind a brick corner pier, serves the northeast commercial restaurant space that is occupied by Bill’s Off Broadway. This space spans the four northern bays of the east side and the two eastern bays of the north side. It occupies approximately 2,467square feet (or 34% of the net square footage of the building). Red Label Moto occupies the retail space at the south end of the building, which has the two southern bays of the east façade (approximately 1,277square feet or 17%). The Fifteenth Avenue Garage is located at the northwest portion of the building, fronting onto East Pine Street with the “double wide” bay at the west half of the north façade (approximately 3,606 square feet or 49% of the building). Original storefronts consisted of wood-framed plate glass display windows, a wood bulkhead, and wood divided-light transom windows above. Each bay had a series of three operable transom windows, comprised of sash containing ten lights each (five across and two tall). Original entry doors were glazed wood paneled doors. All but one of the original transom windows appear to remain in place. (The missing one is located in the third bay from the left, on the east façade.) On the west bay at the north side (Fifteenth Avenue Garage), the transom windows are three lights tall due to the grade change. On the east façade, the aluminum overhead door and glazed aluminum storefront system in the second bay at the south space (Red Label Moto) are clearly contemporary. The first bay retains the original wood bulkhead and may retain the original glazed storefront. Three of the four northern bays on the east side appear to have newer storefronts and doors installed. On the north façade, the middle bay is covered or

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infilled with plywood. The western, wide bay on the north contains an overhead vehicle door flanked by storefront glazing, with a glazed wood person door immediately east of the overhead door. While the overhead door is not original, this bay appears to retain the original wood-framed storefronts and wood bulkhead. The west side of the building is composed of exposed hollow clay tile. A series of narrow, approximately 3’-wide arched-head window openings are located toward the back (south) half of the west wall. Original wood windows on this side have been replaced with metal windows, and the adjacent building is just inches away. The south side of the building, also hollow clay tile, has no fenestration. The 1937 tax assessor’s property record card gives an indication of some original interior. It notes the first floor height as 14’, with post and beam interior framing, plastered walls and ceilings, and primarily concrete floors with some portion fir. The interior has been changed over time to accommodate tenant needs, although both the northwest (Fifteenth Avenue Garage) and south (Red Label Moto) spaces are utilitarian in nature. The northwest space includes an enclosed office, which is accessible from East Pine Street via the person door. This may be an original interior feature. The floor in this garage is concrete slab, while walls and ceilings appear to be finished with non-original gypsum wallboard. The south space also has a concrete slab floor and painted gypsum wallboard walls and ceiling. A contemporary steel-framed mezzanine, which dates from within the last ten years, has been added at the southwest corner of the Red Label Moto space. The northeast restaurant space finishes date largely from a 1974 remodel. The posts and beams within it have been sheathed in gypsum wallboard, while stained wood paneling is used extensively as the finish on low partition walls. A seating area along the eastern portion of the space is set slightly higher that the western portion, which includes a bar and narrow kitchen. Changes to the Building The building appears relatively intact on the exterior, with door and storefront changes to the one-story façades as indicated. Permit records and drawings available from DPD microfiche files indicate the following changes: Date 1958 1974 1980 1987 1987 1987 1997 1999 Description Erect & maintain painted sign Alter portion of existing building and occupy as tavern (Mother’s Tavern) Paint & maintain four 2’x10’ wall signs, 12’ from grade Repair fire damage to original construction—commercial building, SW corner of building Install kitchen exhaust system Replace two unit heaters and ducts Install one awning with graphics and lighting Establish a sidewalk café adjacent to existing restaurant

The south side of the building facing the neighboring parking lot has been vandalized with graffiti. On the north façade, the middle bay with plywood panel infill and covering has also been tagged with some graffiti.

721 East Pine Street BOLA Architecture + Planning 5. BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Capitol Hill Seattle Blog. “The Bill’s Building – Bill’s Off Broadway part of new development plans, “September 18, 2012. http://www.capitolhillseattle.com/2012/09/capitol-hill-fooddrink-the-billsbuilding-bills-off-broadway-part-of-new-project/ City of Seattle. Department of Neighborhoods, Historic Preservation Division Historical Sites Database http://www.seattle.gov/neighborhoods/preservation/historicresources.htm Department of Planning and Development. Permit Records and Drawings. Pike/Pine Conservation Overlay District website. http://www.seattle.gov/dpd/Planning/PikePineConservationOverlayDistrict/Overview/ Municipal Archives, Digital Photo Collection. http://clerk.seattle.gov/~public/phot1.htm Dorpat, Paul. “An Art-full Restoration.” Seattle Times, January 26, 2003. http://seattletimes.com/pacificnw/2003/0126/nowthen.html _____. “Auto Row Beginnings.” Seattle Times, September 5, 2003. Enlow, Clair. “Project of the Month – Melrose Market – old buildings, new economy.” Daily Journal of Commerce. May 19, 2011. G-Logics. “Phase I Environmental Site Assessment Draft,” prepared for Maria Barrientos, April 17, 2012. Hanson, David. “The Power of Patina – Revitalization never looked so good.” Preservation. March/April 2011. Hewitt. Appendix A Report for 721 East Pine Street, 2012. HistoryLink.org, the Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History. http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm “John Collins.” Biographical outline, http://www.findagrave.com/cgibin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=27813071 John Collins obituary from Seattle Republican, May 1, 1903. Available on King County WAGenWeb website. http://wagenweb.org/king/featuredobit/johncollins.htm “John R. Nevins, architect in Wedgwood,” April 23, 2012. Wedgwood in Seattle History website. http://wedgwoodinseattlehistory.com/2012/04/23/john-r-nevins-architect-in-wedgwood/ King County. Department of Assessments, property records for parcel no. 6003000550. iMaps website. http://www.kingcounty.gov/operations/GIS/Maps/iMAP.aspx Kroll Map Company. Kroll’s Atlas of Seattle. 1912-1920, 1940-1960, ca. 2000. Museum of History and Industry, Digital Photography Collection. http://www.seattlehistory.org/photo_archive/search_the_photo_collection.php

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Nicholson Kovalchick Architects. “ Melrose Building, Seattle Landmark Nomination.” January 25, 2013. Nyberg, Folke and Victor Steinbrueck. “Capitol Hill: An Inventory of Buildings and Urban Design Resources.” Seattle: Historic Seattle Preservation and Development Authority, 1975. _____. “First Hill: An Inventory of Buildings and Urban Design Resources.” Seattle: Historic Seattle Preservation and Development Authority, 1975. Ochsner, Jeffrey Karl, ed. Shaping Seattle Architecture: A Historical Guide to the Architects, 2nd printing. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998. R. L. Polk & Company. City of Seattle Directory. Seattle: R.L. Polk & Company, various. Sanborn Map Company. Insurance Maps of Seattle, Volume Two. New York: Sanborn Map Company, 1950. Seattle (Daily) Times. “$100,000 Involved in Three Tideland Deals.” August 25, 1918, p. 24. “Store Building Planned.” December 14, 1919, p. 97. “Big Steel Jobbing Plant to be Built.” September 21, 1920, p. 13. “$200,000 Apartment House in Downtown Area Planned.” November 5, 1922, p. 25. “New Seattle Structure Nearing Completion.” January 21, 1923, p. 11. “Finnish Club to Build.” March 10, 1923, p. 14. “Work Will Be Started on New Wood Building.” March 16, 1924, p. 20. “Bids of Fremont Building Sought.” June 13, 1926, p. 25. “Collins Estate Land Offered Under New Plan.” November 19, 1933. Sheridan, Mimi. “Historic Property Survey Report: Seattle’s Neighborhood Commercial Districts,” prepared for City of Seattle Department of Neighborhoods, Historic Preservation Program, November 2002. University of Washington Libraries, Special Collections. Digital Photo Collections. http://content.lib.washington.edu/ Pacific Coast Architecture Database. http://digital.lib.washington.edu/architect/ Washington State Archives – Digital Archives. Washington State Death Records. http://www.digitalarchives.wa.gov/ Wilma, David and Cassandra Tate. “Voters elect John Collins as mayor of the City of Seattle on July 14, 1873,” HistoryLink.org Essay 2775, November 8, 2000. http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&file_id=2775

721 East Pine Street BOLA Architecture + Planning 6. PHOTOS & GRAPHICS Index to Figures Fig. 1 Current aerial view Fig. 2 Current site plan Fig. 3 Historic photo, East Pike Street Fig. 4 Historic photo, East Pike Street Figs. 5-7 Current neighborhood context Fig. 8 Tax record photo, 1937 Current Photographs (2013) Fig. 9 Looking SW, showing N façade and oblique view of E façade Fig. 10 Looking NW, showing S and E façades Figs. 11 and 12 Composite views of the E façade Fig. 13 Looking NW toward E façade Fig. 14 Looking SW along the E façade Fig. 15 View at E façade Fig. 16 Detail view, typical pilaster Fig. 17 NE corner of building Fig. 18 Looking SE along eastern portion of N façade Figs. 19 and 20 Looking SW at western portion of N façade Fig. 21 S side of building Fig. 22 Partial view, W side of building Figs. 23 and 24 Interior views in NE space, Bill’s Off Broadway Figs. 25 and 26 Interior views in S space, Red Label Moto Figs. 27 and 28 Interior views in NW space, Fifteenth Avenue Garage Other Auto-Related Buildings Figs. 29-36 Views of other extant auto-related buildings in Pike-Pine

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Page 16 17 18 18 19 20

21 21 22 23 23 24 24 25 25 26 27 27 28 29 30

31-32

Other John R. Nevins Buildings Figs. 37-41 Views of the Liberty Building, Fremont commercial building, Monticello Hotel, and Crescent Manufacturing Company Architectural Drawings Figs. 42-45 Original drawings by John R. Nevins, Nov 1919 Fig. 46 Remodel drawings for Mother’s Tavern, 1974 Archival Tax Records Figs. 47 and 48 Property record card, 1937

33-34

35-38 39

40-41

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Note: Some images in this report have been selected from cited sources and repositories. Many of these are copyrighted and are used with strict permission for this document only. Copyright holders do not permit reproduction or reuse for any other purpose. Unless otherwise noted, contemporary photos are by BOLA and date from April to May 2013.

Fig. 1 Current aerial view of the property, marked in red, and surrounding area. North is oriented up. (Google Maps, May 2013)

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Fig. 2 Current site plan (Hewitt). North is oriented to the left.

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Fig. 3, left: View in the 700 block of East Pike Street, a block south of the subject building, 1916. (Seattle Municipal Archives, item no. 949) Fig. 4, below: View in the 800 block of East Pike Street, a block south and east of the subject building, 1916. (Seattle Municipal Archives, item no. 950)

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Three context views: Fig. 5, left: Looking northwest from the corner of East Pike Street and Harvard Avenue. The subject building is in the mid-ground on the left. Fig. 6, middle left: Looking north along Harvard Avenue, toward Seattle Central Community College. The subject building is visible at the left edge of the photo. Fig. 7, bottom left: Looking west down East Pine Street from just in front of the building, which is visible at the left side of the photo.

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Fig. 8 Tax record photo from 1937, view looking southwest toward the primary north and east façades of the building. (Puget Sound Regional Archives)

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Fig. 9 Looking southwest toward the building, showing the north façade and an oblique view of the east façade.

Fig. 10 Looking northwest from Harvard Avenue, toward the south and east façades.

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Figs. 11 and 12 Two composite views of the east façade, with the red dotted line showing the overlap location of the two images. The top photo shows the four southern bays, while the other shows the two northernmost bays.

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Fig. 13 Looking northwest toward the east façade.

Fig. 14 Looking southwest along the east façade.

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Fig. 15, above: View of partial third bay and fourth bay, east façade, including non-original door. Fig. 16, left: Detail view showing typical pilaster and decorative tile elements.

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Fig. 17 Northeast corner of the building.

Fig. 18 Looking southeast along the eastern portion of the north façade.

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Figs. 19 and 20 Two views looking southwest at the western portion of the north façade.

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Fig. 21, above: View of south side of the building, across neighboring parking lot. Fig. 22, left: Partial view of west side of the building, which is difficult to photograph due to the proximity of the adjacent structure.

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Figs. 23 and 24 Two interior views in the northeast space, occupied by Bill’s Off Broadway.

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Figs. 25 and 26 Two interior views in the south space, occupied by Red Label Moto.

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Figs. 27 and 28 Two interior views in the northwest space, occupied by the Fifteenth Avenue Garage.

721 East Pine Street BOLA Architecture + Planning Other Auto-Related Buildings

Landmark Nomination June 12, 2013, page 31

Figs. 29-32 From top to bottom: Coleman’s Used Cars / Victrola Coffee Roasters at 314 East Pike (1909), Gallagher’s Fine Cars / Six Arms at 300 East Pike (1910), Nickols Manufacturing Company / Elliot Bay Bookstore at 1521 10th Avenue (1920), Universal Repair Shop at 1611 Boylston Avenue (1923).

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Figs. 33-36 From top to bottom: Piston & Ring Building at 1429 12th Avenue (ca. 1925), in historic and contemporary photos; Puget Sound Motors / CK Graphics at 501 East Pike Street (1925), in historic and contemporary photos.

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Landmark Nomination June 12, 2013, page 33

Fig. 37, above: Liberty Building, 114-16 Pike Street, now occupied by the Hard Rock Café. (Hewitt) Fig. 38, left: Fremont commercial building, at 34th Avenue N and N Fremont, in an undated photo. (panoramio.com) Fig. 39, below left: The same building after a recent remodel for Chase.

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Fig. 40, left: Monticello Hotel, Longview, Washington. (Kirby Chess, wikipedia.com) Fig. 41 below: A newspaper item showing Nevins’ Crescent Manufacturing Company building under construction. The building is no longer extant. (Seattle Times, January 21, 1923)

721 East Pine Street BOLA Architecture + Planning
Figs. 42-45 Original drawings by John R. Nevins, dating from November 1919.

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721 East Pine Street BOLA Architecture + Planning
Fig. 46 Remodel for Mother’s Tavern (northeast tenant space), 1974.

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Figs. 47 and 48 This page and following page, King County Tax Assessor’s archival property record card, 1937. (Puget Sound Regional Archives)

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