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CastorOil.in - Home of Castor Oil

Comprehensive Castor Oil Report








Comprehensive Castor Oil Report
A report on castor oil & castor oil derivatives

(Updated ʹ November 2010)











CastorOil.in
A5C, Anugraha Apartments,
41 Nungambakkam High Road
Chennai ʹ 600034, Tamilnadu, India
Phone: +91-44-45590142
Mobile: +91-98413-48117
Email: narsi@castoroil.in
Web: www.castoroil.in




Copyright: All material & content contained in this document are the copyright of Clixoo.
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Comprehensive Castor Oil Report
Table of Contents

1- Castor Oil Manufacturing .................................................................................................. 5
1.1 Key Manufacturing Processes for Castor Oil & Derivatives ........................................... 6
1.1.1 Castor Oil Manufacturing Processes - Summary .................................................... 6
1.1.2 Castor Oil & Derivatives Manufacturing Processes - Details ................................ 10
1.1.2.1 Castor Oil Extraction - Details ....................................................................... 10
1.1.2.2 Castor Oil Filtration ʹ Details ........................................................................ 18
1.1.2.3 Castor Oil Refining - Details .......................................................................... 21
1.1.2.4 Typical Processes & Equipments of Castor Oil Refinery Plants ...................... 24
1.1.2.5 Castor Oil Grades & Derivatives Production ................................................. 25
1.2 Indicative Costs for Setting up Small and Medium Scale Castor Oil & Derivatives
Manufacturing Plants ...................................................................................................... 34

2 - Castor Oil Market ........................................................................................................... 36
2.1 Value Chain for the Castor Industry ........................................................................... 37
2.2 The Castor Oil Market ................................................................................................ 37
2.3 Supply & Demand of Castor Oil .................................................................................. 39
2.4 Indian Castor Oil Industry .......................................................................................... 44
2.4.1 Castor Oil Exports - Historical Scenario ............................................................... 44
2.4.2 Castor Oil Exports ʹ Current Scenario ................................................................. 47
2.4.3 Castor Seed Production and Acreage in India ...................................................... 48
2.4.4 India-wide Data from Castor Crop Survey 2009-10.............................................. 50
2.4.5 Cropping Season in India ..................................................................................... 53
2.4.6 Castor Cultivation & Yields in India - Points ......................................................... 53
Ϯ͘ϰ͘ϳ lŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ SƚĂƚƵƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ CůŽďĂů CĂƐƚŽƌ Cŝů lŶĚƵƐƚƌLJ .................................................... 53
2.5 Demand - Supply Estimates for Castor Oil Derivatives ............................................... 55
2.5.1 Current Demand-Supply Estimates for the Various Grades of Castor Oil and
Derivatives .................................................................................................................. 56
2.5.2 Future Demand-Supply Estimates for the Various Grades of Castor Oil and
Derivatives .................................................................................................................. 57

3 - Castor Oil Chemicals & Derivatives ................................................................................. 61
3.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 62
3.2 Properties & Chemical Composition of Castor Oil ...................................................... 62
3.3 Chemical, Physical Properties & Specifications of Castor Oil Grades & Derivatives .... 65

4 ʹ Castor Oil Prices............................................................................................................. 77
4.1 Historical & Current Price Data for Various Grades of Castor Oil, Castor Seeds .......... 78
4.2 Castor Oil & Castor Seed Price Volatility .................................................................... 81
4.3 Factors that Affect Prices ........................................................................................... 83
4.4 Castor Oil Futures Market .......................................................................................... 84

5 - Castor Cultivation ........................................................................................................... 87
5.1 Introduction to Castor Crop ....................................................................................... 88
5.2 Castor Crop Sowing ................................................................................................... 88
5.3 Castor Crop Growth ................................................................................................... 90
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5.4 Castor Crop Harvest ................................................................................................... 93
5.5 Castor Cultivation Seasons ......................................................................................... 93
5.6 Hybrid Castor Seeds & Genetic Engineering of Castor Plant ....................................... 94
5.7 Yields for Castor Seeds and Castor Oil from Seed ..................................................... 102
5.8 Castor Cultivation FAQ ............................................................................................. 103

6 - Castor Oil End-uses ....................................................................................................... 107
6.1 Current End Uses for Castor Oil & Derivatives.......................................................... 108
6.1.1 End Uses ʹ by Castor Oil Grade / Derivative ...................................................... 108
6.1.2 Castor Oil & Castor Oil Derivatives Uses ʹ By Industry ...................................... 122
6.1.3 Use of Castor Oil in High-end Derivatives .......................................................... 129
6.2 Future Possible End-uses and End user Industries for Castor Oil and Derivatives ..... 139
6.2.1 Biopolymers and Castor oil ............................................................................... 139
6.2.2 Castor Oil as Feedstock for Biodiesel ................................................................. 146
6.2.3 Other Possible Future End Uses for Castor Oil & Derivatives ............................. 164

7 - Castor Seeds ................................................................................................................. 166
7.1 Introduction to Castor Seeds ................................................................................... 167
7.2 Castor Seeds Production & Supplies ........................................................................ 167
7.3 Castor Seeds Prices & Trends ................................................................................... 168
7.4 Castor Seeds Packaging & Storing ............................................................................ 168
7.5 Castor Seeds Varieties & Hybrids ............................................................................. 168
7.6 Castor Seed Factoids................................................................................................ 169

8 - Castor Meal .................................................................................................................. 170
8.1 Castor Meal Uses ..................................................................................................... 171
8.2 Castor Meal Composition ........................................................................................ 171
8.3 Castor Meal Supply & Demand ................................................................................ 172
8.4 Toxicity in Castor Meal ............................................................................................ 173
8.5 Energy Content in Castor Meal ................................................................................ 174
8.6 Castor Meal ʹ Other Points ...................................................................................... 175

9 - Castor Oil Distribution & Logistics ................................................................................ 176
9.1 Castor Oil Storing & Packaging ................................................................................. 177
9.1.1 Castor Oil Storage ............................................................................................. 177
9.1.2 Packaging.......................................................................................................... 177
9.1.3 Shelf Life ........................................................................................................... 177
9.2 Castor Oil Transportation & Logistics ....................................................................... 177
9.2.1 Distribution from Farms to Refinery .................................................................. 177
9.2.1 Transport .......................................................................................................... 178
9.2.2 Cargo Handling ................................................................................................. 178
9.2.3 Density & Volume Expansion ............................................................................ 178
9.2.4 Cargo Securing .................................................................................................. 179
9.2.5 Risk Factors and Loss Prevention ...................................................................... 179

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10 - Prominent Castor Oil & Derivatives Producers............................................................ 182
10.1 Prominent Castor Oil & Derivatives Producers in India........................................... 183
10.2 Prominent Castor Oil & Derivatives Producers in China ......................................... 192
10.3 Prominent Castor Oil & Derivatives Producers in Brazil .......................................... 193
10.4 Other Prominent Suppliers .................................................................................... 194

Appendix 1 ........................................................................................................................ 195
1. Demand - Supply Estimates for Sebacic Acid .............................................................. 195
2. Price of Sebacic Acid .................................................................................................. 196
3. Sebacic Acid Companies and Suppliers ...................................................................... 196

Appendix 2 India Export Details on Castor Derivatives͙͙͙͙͙͙͙͙͙͙͙͙͙͙͙͙͙͙͙͙.198

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Comprehensive Castor Oil Report
1 - Castor Oil Manufacturing

This chapter comprises the following topics

Key Manufacturing Processes for Castor Oil & Derivatives - 1.1
o Castor Oil Manufacturing Processes ʹ Summary - 1.1.1
o Castor Oil & Derivatives Manufacturing Processes ʹ Details - 1.1.2
ƒ Castor Oil Extraction ʹ Details - 1.1.2.1
ƒ Castor Oil Filtration ʹ Details - 1.1.2.2
ƒ Castor Oil Refining ʹ Details - 1.1.2.3
ƒ Typical Sections & Sub-sections of Castor Oil Refinery Plants - 1.1.2.4
ƒ Castor Oil Grades & Derivatives Production - 1.1.2.5

Indicative Costs for Setting Up Small and Medium Scale Castor Oil & Derivatives
Manufacturing Plants - 1.2



HIGHLIGHTS


Castor seeds contain about 48-50 percent oil by weight.

The overall castor oil & derivatives manufacturing process is: Sowing -> Cultivation ->
Harvest -> Seed Dehulling & Cleaning -> Oil Extraction -> Oil Filtration & Purification -
> Oil Refining -> Production of Castor Oil Grades & Derivatives.

While castor oil by itself is used in diverse applications, chemical derivatives of castor
oil find further uses in industrial applications and their domains of use are increasing
rapidly.

The global market for generation II castor oil derivatives is estimated at about $300
million. For generation III derivatives, where half of the generation II derivatives are
converted, the estimated market worth is close to $350 million.


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Comprehensive Castor Oil Report
1.1 Key Manufacturing Processes for Castor Oil & Derivatives

Castor Oil Production ʹ Overall Concept

Castor plant grows wild in many tropical countries wher it is considered native. It is grown
commercially in plantations for oil, in countries like India, China and Brazil. The seeds
contain about 48-50 percent oil by weight.

To extract the oil they must be crushed and pressed.

The oil thus extracted is purified, and the purified oil is further refined.

Modification of the refined oil to produce various grades and derivatives is achieved by a
variety of chemical processes including oxidation, hydrogenation and thermal treatments to
produce derivatives for specific applications.

The four main stages thus in the production of castor oil, castor oil grades and derivatives
are:

a. Extraction of oil
b. Purification of the extracted oil
c. Refining the purified oil
d. Performing chemical reactions on the refined oil to produce various grades and
derivatives

This chapter dwells into each of the above four in depth.

1.1.1 Castor Oil Manufacturing Processes - Summary

This section provides a summary of each of the four processes, viz., Extraction,
Filtration/Purification, Refining, and Grades & Derivatives Production. The following section
provides extensive details on each of the four.

Castor Oil Extraction - Summary

Extraction of oil from castor seeds is done in a manner similar to that for most other oil
seeds.

The ripe seeds are allowed to dry, when they split open and discharge the seeds.

The seeds are dehulled after harvesting. Dehulling can be done by hand (laborious) or,
more commonly, by machine. Small-scale hand-operated dehullers are also available. The
dehulled seeds are cleaned, cooked and dried prior to oil extraction. Cooking is done to
coagulate protein (necessary to permit efficient extraction), and for efficient pressing.

The first stage of oil extraction is pre-pressing, normally using a high pressure continuous
screw press ʹ called the expeller. Extracted oil is filtered, and the material removed from
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Comprehensive Castor Oil Report
the oil is fed back into the stream along with fresh material. Material finally discharged from
the press, called castor cake, contains 8-10% oil. It is crushed into a coarse meal, and
subjected to solvent extraction with heptane to extract further oil.

Castor Oil Filtration & Purification - Summary

Once the oil has been extracted from the seed, it is necessary to remove impurities present
in the oil. The filtration systems are designed to remove particulates, water, dissolved gases,
and acids. The equipment that is normally used for filtration is a filter press.

Castor Oil Refining - Summary

The filtered oil (called the crude or unrefined oil) is sent to the oil refinery. The steps to
refine the crude oil include:

Settling and Degumming of the Oil - Done to remove the aqueous phase from the lipids,
and to remove phospholipids from the oil.
Neutralization - The neutralization step is necessary to remove free fatty acids from the
oil.
Bleaching - Bleaching results in the removal of coloring materials, phospholipids and
oxidation products.
Deodorization of the oil - Deodorization results in the removal of odour from the oil

Production of Castor Oil Grades & Derivative Chemicals - Summary

Using a variety of chemical reactions and/or processes, the refined castor oil is transformed
into its various grades and a plethora of useful chemical derivatives.

Examples of the chemical reactions used: Hydrolysis, Esterification, Alcoholysis,
Saponification, Halogenation, Oxidation, Polymerization, Hydrogenation, Epoxidation, etc.

Examples of processes used: Degumming, Bleaching, Dehydration, Splitting & Distillation,
Evaporation etc.

The chemical reactions and processes used to prepare various grades and derivatives will be
discussed in detail later in this chapter.

So, the overall castor oil & derivatives manufacturing process is:

Sowing -> Cultivation -> Harvest -> Seed Dehulling & Cleaning -> Oil Extraction -> Oil
Filtration & Purification -> Oil Refining -> Production of Castor Oil Grades & Derivatives

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Representative Diagram for Jatropha Oil Extraction & Filtration




Intake
Seed cleaner
Dehuller
Seed
pretreatmen
t
Screw or hydraulic
press
Breaker crusher
Solvent extraction
plant
Oil filter press
Oil filter
press
Hammer or
attrition mill
Meter
Meter
Meter
scale
To storage tanks and refinery
Meal for fertilizer
First grade crude oil
Press cake
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Process Flow for a Typical Oil Refining Plant



CRUDE OILS AND FATS
Storage
crude oils
tank
Other services
Soap stock Neutralisation section
BLEACHING
Sterin separation
section
Sterin
DEODORISER
Sterin Storage
tank
Refined Oil Distilled Fatty Acid
Deoderiser Steam Distillation
Refined Oil Final Packing
Pretreatment
Byproduct
processing
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1.1.2 Castor Oil & Derivatives Manufacturing Processes - Details

1.1.2.1 Castor Oil Extraction - Details

Castor oil extraction can be divided into two main stages:

1. Pre-extraction
2. Extraction

1. Pre-extraction ʹ Seed Cleaning & Preparation

Seed Cleaning

The castor beans have some foreign materials and dirt that get separated by hand picking.
The seed cleaner pictured below is a basic type of seed cleaner for efficient cleaning of
seeds.



More sophisticated and mechanised seed cleaners are available in the market, and some of
these seed cleaners have capacities of over 10 T / hour.

Drying, Heating & Conditioning

The cleaned beans are sun dried in the open, until the casing splits and sheds the seeds. The
beans are further dried in the oven at 60°C for seven hours to a constant weight in order to
reduce their moisture content, which initially would have been about 5 to 7%. Pre-heating
or drying the seeds prior to expelling also improves the release of the oil by breaking the cell
walls and by thinning the oil.

In some cases, drying is achieved by spreading the seeds outside, exposed to the heat of the
sun. In other cases stoves or pans are used for pre-heating.

There is a likelihood that the seed will burn while using a pan, which will not happen if a
double-boiler is used. A double-boiler is an arrangement in which one pan is placed inside a
larger pan without touching the bottom or sides. Water is placed at the bottom of the larger
pan and is heated to produce steam that heats the seed in a more controlled manner,
preventing it from burning.

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Shelling / Dehulling & Winnowing

Most oil-bearing seeds need to be separated from their outer husk or shell. This process is
referred to as shelling, dehulling or decorticating. Shelling increases the oil extraction
efficiency and reduces wear in the expeller as the husks are abrasive.

A wide range of manual and mechanical decorticators are available.

In general some 10% of husk is added back prior to expelling as the fibre allows the machine
to grip or bite on the material.

After dehulling, the shell may have to be collected separately from the kernels by
winnowing. At small scale this can be done by throwing the material into the air and
allowing the air to blow away the husk. At larger scales mechanical winnowers are available.

Milling & Grinding

Milling: Milling is carried out to reduce the size of particles and improve the efficiencies of
extracting oil.

Grinding: Mortar and pestle are normally used to crush/grind the beans into paste (cake).
This process weakens or ruptures the cell walls for oil extraction.

2. Oil Extraction

Oil Yield from Different Oil Seeds

Typical oil yields from 100 kg. of oil seeds

Oilseed Yield
Castorseed 43 kg
Sunflower 32 kg
Copra 62 kg
Cottonseed 13 kg
Linseed 42 kg
Mustard 35 kg
Soybean 14 kg
Groundnut Kernel 42 kg
Rapeseed 37 kg
Palmfruit 20 kg
Palm Kernel 36 kg
Sesame 50 kg

The cleaned and prepared castor seeds are sent for extraction. Oil extraction is done usually
in two stages.
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1. The first stage employs pressing the seeds for oil ʹ this stage is also called expelling
2. The second stage uses a solvent extraction method to extract the remaining oil.

Pressing / Expelling

Expellers - Old Method

The old and traditional expellers comprise a pestle and mortar that is traditionally animal
powered. Its capacity is approximately 50 kg a day although this will vary depending on the
size, strength and number of animals used. Animals need to be replaced after 3 or 4 hours
work as they tire. The old methods are rarely used these days except by small processors.

Expellers - New Methods

New methods of oil expelling use presses to extract the oil from the seed.

Small presses like the Bielenberg ram press can be powered by hand, by one or several
operators. Capacity is then typically 1-10 kg/h of seeds.

Larger capacity presses, especially the screw presses, are powered by engines.

The strainer type press has its oil output in the form of strainers. The strainers are built up in
the form of bars, and their inter-spacings (gaps) are adjustable. The whole press tube mostly
consists of the strainer. The diameter of the screw increases over the length to get a rising
compression of the seed. Sections with changing diameter can be found several times on
the screw. During the flow of the seed through the press, the oil is drained via the strainer,
which surrounds the pressing space. The choke size can be adjusted to press the seed
harder. With some types of strainer presses it is possible to change segments at the worm
screw in order to change the compression of the seed. Other manufacturers offer extra
screws. In addition the choke size and the rotation speed should be adjusted when pressing
different kinds of seed. Strainer presses exist in a wide capacity range from approximately
15 to 2000 kg/h of seed. The press cake comes out of the choke formed as flat plates.

Broadly, the expellers / presses used currently can be classified into two types:

Manual Presses
Motor Driven Expellers

Manual Presses

Small-scale manual presses have been promoted by a number of organisations. As these
machines do not require any power source their running costs are minimal.

Types of manual presses include:

Spindle press
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Bridge press, also known as a screw press
Ram press
Hydraulic press

Manually powered spindle presses are usually small table mounted devices with a capacity
of around 2 to 5 kg per hour.

The bridge press comprises a cylinder that contains the seed. The seed is compressed by
rotating a screw down onto it. The screw is held in place by a frame that bridges over the
seed container. As the seed is compressed the oil drains through holes in the cylinder onto a
collection tray. The process is relatively slow as the cylinder needs to be filled, compressed
and then the remaining cake needs to be removed

Ram presses use a lever mechanism to produce high pressures on a piston that forces the oil
out of the seed. Manual ram presses can be tend to be hard work

Hydraulic presses use a hydraulic pump to exert a high pressure on the seed. The process is
similar to a screw press, in that the seed has to be loaded into a cylinder and then pressed
to extract the oil, which runs onto a collection tray. Once the seed has been pressed the
remaining cake needs to be removed.

Motor Driven Expellers

Motorised expellers, usually screw-type expellers, are now common in the oilseeds industry
worldwide.

Motor driven expellers are now very common in the Indian castor oil industry as well. The
running costs of the equipment are reasonable. The oil yield is relatively high at around
60%, although production is slow.

In India in particular a number of efficient small or "baby" motorised expellers are available
with a capacity of up to 100 kg/hr. A typical machine has a central cylinder or cage fitted
with eight separate sections or "worms". This flexible system allows single or double-reverse
use and spreads wear more evenly along the screw. When the screw becomes worn only
individual sections require repair, thus reducing maintenance costs. As the seed passes
through the expeller the oil is squeezed out, exits through the perforated cage and is
collected in a trough under the machine. The solid residue, oil cake, exits from the end of
the expeller shaft where it is bagged.

Screw type expellers have capacities ranging from 1 T / day to 10 T per day.

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Picture of a Typical Oil Expeller with Cooking Kettle




Large Scale Oil Expellers

Single Chamber & Double Chamber Oil Expellers

Medium and large-scale castor oil processors use motor driven oil expellers that are of the
single or double chamber model.

Single Chamber Design Oil Expeller



Capacity range

Capacity of single chamber machine varies between 1 ton to 25 tons a day. Some
giant single chamber oil expellers can reach a maximum capacity of over 400 T per
day.
Single chamber machine has the capability to crush all kinds of seeds including
castor. Other seeds that can be crushed are: palm kernel, nut cotton seeds, copra,
rape seeds, sunflower, canola, ground nuts.

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Components of Single Chamber Design

Cooker
Cooker includes steam kettle, mounted on the expeller for pre-heating of seeds.

Gear Box
Double reduction, heavy duty gear box is used to stand radial casting gear which increases
durability and efficiency of machinery.

Main Shaft
Steel shaft with water cooling arrangements is used to control the temperature of chamber.

Worm Assembly
For ensuring long life of machinery high grade carbon steel that is especially hardened is
normally used.

Electrical Components
Electric motors are used to make single chamber design, including reversible switch panel
board to give an easy restart.

Double Chamber Design Oil Expeller




Capacity Range

1. Capacity of double chamber design machine ranges between 5 tons to 100 tons per
day. Some giant double chamber oil expellers can reach a maximum capacity of over
700 T per day.

2. Double chamber machine is suitable for pre-pressing and complete full pressing in
one expeller. It also includes a benefit of better oil recovery by providing double
crushing

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Components

Worm Assembly
High grade and hard facing carbon steel is used in this expeller. This increases durability and
life of machinery.

Gear Box
Heavy duty gear box is used for double reduction; this also increases the efficiency of
machinery.

Cooker
Cooker installed in machinery includes steam kettle which preheats seeds. The cooker is also
used for recovery & bottle pressing of seeds.

Electrical Components
Reversible switch panel board is used to restart machine after power failure or overloading.

Main Shaft
Special steel main shaft with water cooling arrangements is used to control the pungency of
chamber.

Typical Features of Presses / Oil Expellers

Cast iron bodies & base
Foundation frame
Single reduction gear box with spur gears
Fabricated chambers with multiple sections
Case hardened worm assembly
Oil expeller chamber cage
Thickness of cake can be changed while running the oil expeller
Oil pump
Tapper roller bearings.

Special Facilities in New Expellers

Thickness of cake can be changed to find and adjust cone at the point of optimum
Traditional oil pump is replaced by a vacuum one.
Due to ready foundation frame, no foundation of any machine required in the
ground. In addition, you can shift the machine from one place to another as and
when required.
Tapper roller bearings make expeller very sturdy and durable. No ball bearing fitted
anywhere.
As some of the expellers are very compact, it is today possible and economical to
import them by air.

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Solvent Extraction

Solvent extraction is a process that is used to recover a component from either a solid or
liquid. In this process, the material in which the component of interest is present is
contacted with a solvent that will dissolve the solutes of interest. Solvent extraction is of
major commercial importance to the chemical and biochemical industries, as it is often the
most efficient method of separation of valuable products from complex feedstock or
reaction products.

In the case of castor oil extraction, the solvent extraction stage comes after the expeller
stage. The cake that leaves the expeller has about 10% of oil remainig in it. This is taken to
the hexane solvent extraction stage, where the remaining oil is recovered.

The crushed castor seeds that come from the expeller are mixed with a solvent in a
commercial extractor. Solvents used for extraction include heptane, hexane and petroleum
ethers.

Hexane is the most commonly used solvent from the above.

The castor oil dissolves in the solvent, and the pulp is filtered out from the solution. The oil
and solvent are separated by means of fractional distillation. Fractional distillation is the
separation of a mixture into its component parts by heating them to a temperature at which
several fractions of the compound will evaporate.

Hexane Solvent Extraction ʹ Schematic Diagram (Haas et al., 2002)

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Castor Oil Extraction ʹ Other Points

Over the past three decades, the markets have shunned Brazilian castor beans, due
to the allergens found in the oil extracted from them. However, a new processing
technique could overcome this problem. The main task is to develop a new
processing technique: single acetone extraction of oil from crushed beans. This
technique should reduce or even eliminate allergy problems and produce better
quality oils and presscake at a lower cost. It has already been tested successfully in
the laboratory, and it would be worth backing up its validation on an industrial scale
with varietal research to develop an allergen-free clone. (Reference: Revitalizing the
castor bean sector in Brazil - Jan 2006 -
http://www.cirad.fr/en/actualite/communique.php?id=356 )

1.1.2.2 Castor Oil Filtration ʹ Details

8ĞĨŽƌĞ ƚĞĐŚŶŝĐĂů ƵƐĞ ƚŚĞ Žŝů ƐŚŽƵůĚ ďĞ ĐůĞĂŶĞĚ ŽĨ Ăůů ƉĂƌƚŝĐůĞƐ х ϱ ʅŵ͘ AĨƚĞƌ ĞdžƚƌĂĐƚŝŽŶ ĨƌŽŵ
seed, castor oil contains 1-13% solids by weight. These solids need to be separated from oil.
The filtration stage of castor oil achieves this objective.

The solids can be separated from the oil by means of sedimentation, filtration or
centrifugation, or by a combination of these processes.

Castor oil filtration process could comprise one or more of the following steps:

Filtration

Clarification

Sedimentation

Centrifugation

Filtration

Filtration can be achieved by allowing the oil to stand and then filtering the clear oil by
gravity through fine cloth. A better but more expensive method is pumping the crude oil
through a filter press
The basic principle of filtration is blocking any particle in the oil against a membrane.

The easiest way of filtering is using a cloth.

Using filter cloth in home made devices can give very good filtering results. As the filtering
processes are not pressurized, purification is very good though speed is low. For home users
and small factories (up to some liters per hour) this can be an attractive low-cost option as
the process can run unattended without purchasing special hardware. It is recommended to
sediment the oil for some days before filtering to avoid short changing interval of the filter
cloth.
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While filtering using a filter cloth is a fairly simple and cost-effective method, it might not be
suitable for large-scale producers.

The professional and organized sector in the castor oil industry today uses filters that are
more automated. These are called filter presses.

Filter Press

Filter presses are separation devices used for solid or liquid separation. These work on feed
pressure or squeeze pressure to filter solid content in a product.

The filter presses also use filter cloth for the filtering process, but they are far more
mechanized than manual filtering using filter cloth alone.

The professional and large-scale oil processors use more efficient methods - filter presses
using plate or leaf filters.
Picture of a filter press



Plate Filter Presses

Plate filter presses are the most widespread types of filter presses used despite their
relatively high investment cost.

A filter comprises a set of vertical, juxtaposed recessed plates, presses against each other by
hydraulic jacks at one end of the set. The pressure applied to the joint face of each filtering
plate must withstand the chamber internal pressure developed by the oil pumping system.

This vertical plate layout forms watertight filtration chambers allowing easy mechanisation
for the discharge of solids. Filter clothes finely or tightly meshed are applied to the two
grooved surfaces in these plates.

Orifices feed the crude oil to be filtered under pressure in the filtration chamber. They are
usually placed in the center of the plates allowing a proper distribution of flow, right
pressure and better drainage of oil within the chamber. Solids gradually accumulate in the
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filtration chamber. The filtrate is collected at the back of the filtration support and carried
away by internal ducts.

Plate filters are flexible and can be extended by adding more frames for bigger capacities.
Filtered cake discharging can be manual or automatic.

Features of Filter Presses

Capacity

The widely used filter press has a capacity of filtering oil from 1 ton to 50 tons a day.

Pump
Special plunger pump is used for transfer of oil from storage tank to filter press.

Filter Cloth
Filter cloth includes special polyester filter cloth which does a fine filtration of oil.

Plates
Adjustable plates are used so that filter cloth can be cleaned easily.

Clarification

Filtering will remove insoluble contaminants such as fibre but the remaining oil will also
contain moisture, resins and colorants from the seed. Clarification is a relatively simple
method of removing these unwanted elements and can be done by letting the oil stand
undisturbed for a few days and then separating the upper layer, or by using a clarifier in
which the oil is held in a tank with a heat source.

The oil is boiled to drive off water and to destroy naturally occurring enzymes and
contaminating bacteria. After heating the oil is allowed to stand and the contaminants
separate out. The oil is filtered through a cloth and is reheated to ensure that all the
moisture has been removed

Sedimentation

SĞĚŝŵĞŶƚĂƚŝŽŶ ŝƐ Ă ƐŝŵƉůĞ ĂŶĚ ĐŚĞĂƉ ǁĂLJ ŽĨ ĐůĞĂŶŝŶŐ ďLJ ƵƐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĞĂƌƚŚ͛Ɛ ŐƌĂǀŝƚLJ͗ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ĞŶĚ
of the sedimentation process, the solids settle at the bottom of the tank. It is a cheap
cleaning method because no hardware has to be purchased, only a storage tank large
enough to keep the oil about a week with little or no flow.

This process is however only recommended for small processing capacities of about one ton
of seed per day.

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Centrifugation

Centrifugation is a process that involves the use of the centrifugal force for the separation of
mixtures. More-dense components of the mixture migrate away from the axis of the
centrifuge, while less-dense components of the mixture migrate towards the axis.

Centrifugation is a much faster method for particle separation than sedimentation. It must
be noted however that centrifugation hardware is relatively expensive for small scale
processors.

At the end of the above steps in the filtration process, the castor oil is ready for refining.

1.1.2.3 Castor Oil Refining - Details

The Refining Process

Filtered Castor Oil Æ De-gumming Æ Neutralization Æ Dewaxing Æ Bleaching &
Deodorizing

In some markets further refining of castor oil beyond the filtration stage is not required as
the complex flavours of unrefined oils are preferred. International markets in many
developed countries tend to prefer oil that has been refined further.

The main aim of refining is to remove impurities such as colloidal matter, free fatty acid,
colouring and other undesirable constituents, thus making the oil more resistant to
deterioration during storage. The general method of refining used for edible oils is
applicable to castor oil.

The main processes involved in castor oil refining are:

Degumming,
Neutralization,
Dewaxing,
Bleaching & Deodorizing

Degumming

Gums in edible vegetable oil must be removed to avoid color and taste reversion during
subsequent refining steps. The removal of phospholipids (referred ƚŽ ĂƐ ͚ĚĞŐƵŵŵŝŶŐ͛Ϳ ŝƐ ƚŚĞ
first step in the process of refining castor oil.

The process usually involves a single-stage phosphoric acid treatment and a single-stage hot
water treatment, followed by continuous removal of the hydrated gums in a de-gumming
centrifuge.

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Neutralization

Neutralizer

Neutralization is a reaction between acids and bases to produce salts.

All crude vegetable oils prepared for human consumption are neutralized to remove free
fatty acids and latex-like matter and then washed to reduce the soap content of neutral oil.
Neutralization produces a more stable product.

Effective neutralization results in enhanced effectiveness of subsequent steps, such as
bleaching, deodorizing and furthermore, results in high yields of a quality product.
Neutralization also aides in the removal of phosphatides, removal of free fatty acids, mineral
and color bodies.

Neutralization can be done in one of two ways:

(a) Alkali (Chemical)
(b) Steam Stripping (Physical).

In the Alkali/Chemical method, caustic soda (alkali) is mixed in the proper amounts with
castor oil at 66-77
o
C and the aqueous solution is removed, leaving the neutral oil behind.
Some plants use sodium carbonate or potassium hydroxide for alkali. The alkali reacts with
the free fatty acids to form soap, which is an important byproduct. Processors remove the
traces of soap and moisture through water washing and vacuum drying. In some cases,
centrifuges separate neutral oil from soap-stock and wash water.

Steam stripping is done under vacuum, to remove moisture, free fatty acids, odour
elements, and other impurities from the oil. As it is performed under vacuum conditions,
the oil can be kept at a low temperature, preserving its chemical structure by not subjecting
it to temperatures in which undesirable dehydration reactions can occur.

De-waxing

De-waxing refers to the removal of high melting point waxes extracted from castor oil.
While the wax does not negatively affect the functionality of products the presence of wax
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does affect the appearance of product. The de-waxing process that has proved most
effective & efficient is to reduce the temperature down to 23-24
o
Celsius within cooling
tanks known as crystallizers, and then filtering out the wax crystals either in a rotary drum
vacuum filter or in filter presses made out of polypropylene plate & frame filters.

Bleaching & Deodourizing

Bleaching

The appearance of dark colour oil can be lightened by bleaching. Bleaching, the process for
removing these pigments from fats and oils, occurs when 1% bleaching clay is added to oil
under vacuum at approximately 107-110
o
Celsius. The oil is later agitated and filtered to
remove the clay. The high temperature drives moisture from the clay to absorb the
pigments. Some systems also use activated carbon in the place of clay.

A high-tech bleaching plant may be equipped with hermetic leaf filters and operates under
vacuum to prevent oil oxidation. The oil is cold-mixed with metered quantities of bleaching
earth and/or other bleaching agents, heated to the correct temperature and pumped to a
bleaching chamber operating under vacuum where an adequate retention time is provided
to ensure effective bleaching. The oil/earth slurry is further pumped through hermetic leaf
filters operating in sequence to enable continuous bleached oil (filtrate) discharge.

Deodorization

Volatile compounds present in the oil that produce bad odours can be eliminated through
the process of deodorization.

Deodorization represents the last major processing step in refining of castor oil. It separates
out the impurities and creates three groups of compounds:

1. Saponifiable compounds: free fatty acids, partial glycerides, esters, and gummy
constituents.

2. Unsaponifiable compounds: parafinic hydrocarbons, olefinic and polyolefinic materials,
sterols, triterpenic alcohols, and

3. Oxidative reaction products: aldehydes, ketones & peroxides.

This highly specialized process uses a type of steam distillation under high vacuum to
remove objectionable volatile components. The bleached oil pumps through a de-aerator
where the pretreated oil is de-gassed. This de-aerated oil passes through a heat exchanger
where the oil is heated by exchanging the heat of the deodorized oil. Deodorization further
heats the oil to the stripping temperature in a pre-heater. The oil then flows to a flash
chamber and thereafter to an oil distributor inside falling film deodorizer. The oil descends
counter-current to the stripping steam in the form of a very thin film and becomes
completely deodorized. The process condenses cools and stores the distilled fatty acids.

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The deodorized oil pumps through a heat exchanger to the polishing filter and thereafter
passes through a cooler.

1.1.2.4 Typical Processes & Equipments of Castor Oil Refinery Plants

Process Methods Involved Equipments Used
Degumming

Single stage Phosphoric acid
treatment
Single stage hot water treatment
Gums tank

Neutralization
Alkali/ Chemical method
Steam Stripping
Neutralizer
Soap/gums tank
Water/oil/gravity separator
Lye/brine/hot water tank
Neutralized oil tank
Oil pump
Soap stock pump
Hot water pump
Dewaxing
Removal of high melting point
waxes
Crystallizers
Rotary drum vacuum filter
Filter presses made out of
polypropylene plate
Frame filters
Bleaching
Removal of pigments from fats and
oils
Bleacher
Barometric condenser
Earth dozer
Bleached oil tank
Filter press
Filter pump
Vacuum pump
Deodorization
Steam distillation under high
vacuum
Falling film deodorizer
Storage tank
Cooler
Polish filter
Pump
Vacuum system

Other Equipments in a Castor Oil Refinery Plant

Reactor
Centrifuge
Tray drier
Crystallizer
Pressure filter
Distillation assembly
Air compressor
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Elevators
Conveyors
Pressing worm and gears
Worm wheel
Plunger pumps
Electrical/cables
Pipe, valves, fittings
Instruments/gauges
Insulation
Cooling tower

1.1.2.5 Castor Oil Grades & Derivatives Production

While castor oil by itself is used in diverse applications, chemical derivatives of castor oil find
numerous uses in industrial applications and their domains of use are increasing rapidly.

The global market for generation II castor oil derivatives, which include sebacic acid,
undecyclenic acid, heptaldehyde, polyols and dimer acid, is estimated at about $300 million.
For generation III derivatives, where half of the generation II derivatives are converted, the
estimated market worth is close to $350 million.

Generation III derivatives include the esters and salts of generation II derivatives as well as
derivatives such as methyl-12-hydroxystearate while generation I derivatives include
hydrogenated castor oil, 12-hydroxy stearic acid, dehydrated castor oil acid, and ethoxylated
castor oil among others.

Quite naturally, the prices and profit margins of higher generation castor derivatives are
significantly higher than the basic grades. The generation I derivatives such as HCO and 12-
HSA respectively cost about 20% and 50% more than the basic castor oil grades.

Key Derivatives of Castor Oil, Starting Products & Methods of Production

Product Name Starting Product Method of Production
Commercial Castor Oil Castor Seed Crushing & Expelling
First pressed Degummed
Grade Castor Oil Commercial Castor Oil Degumming
Refined Castor Oil
(F.S.G./B.S.S.) Commercial Castor Oil Bleaching
Refined Castor Oil (Extra Pale
Grade) Commercial Castor Oil Bleaching
Refined Castor Oil (Pale
Pressed Grade) Commercial Castor Oil Neutralization and Bleaching
Neutralized Castor Oil Commercial Castor Oil Neutralization and Bleaching
Refined Castor Oil (DAB-10) Commercial Castor Oil Neutralization and Bleaching
Castor Oil Pharmaceutical
(I.P/B.P./U.S.P.) Commercial Castor Oil Neutralization
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Turkey Red Oil Commercial Castor Oil
Sulphonation and
Neutralization
Blown Castor Oil (10 to 250
Poise)
Refined Castor
Oil (F.S.G./B.S.S.) Oxidation
Ricinoleic Acid
Refined Castor Oil
(F.S.G./B.S.S.)
Saponification and
Acidification
Methyl Ricinoleate
Refined Castor Oil
(F.S.G./B.S.S.) Esterification
Hydrogenated Castor Oil
(Flakes/Powder/Granules)
Refined Castor Oil
(F.S.G./B.S.S.) Hydrogenation
12-Hydroxy Stearic Acid (12-
H.S.A.)
(Flakes/Powder/Granules)
Hydrogenated Castor Oil
Liquid
Saponification and
Acidification
Methyl-12-Hydroxy Stearate
(Flakes) Methyl Ricinoleate Hydrogenation
Urethane Modified Castor Oil
(UMCO)
Refined Castor Oil
(F.S.G./B.S.S.) Urethane Reaction
Glyceryl-Tri-(12-Acetyl
Ricinoleate)
Refined Castor Oil
(F.S.G./B.S.S.) Acetylation
Dehydrated Castor Oil
(Commercial) Commercial Castor Oil Dehydration
Glycerin Spent Glycerin Lye
Treatment, Evaporation and
Distillation

Generic Chemical Reactions of Castor Oil for Manufacture of Various Grades & Derivatives

Reaction Type Nature of Reaction Added Reactants Type of Products
Ester Linkage Hydrolysis
Acid, enzyme or
Twitchell reagent
catalyst Fatty acids, glycerol
Esterification
Monohydric
alcohols Esters
Alcoholysis
Glycerol, glycols,
pentaerythritol, and
other compounds
Mono- and
diglycerides,
monoglycols, etc.
Saponification
Alkalies, alkalies
plus metallic salts
Soluble soaps,
insoluble soaps
Reduction Na reduction Alcohols
Amidation
Alkyl amines,
alkanolamines, and
other compounds Amine salts, amides
Double Bond
Oxidation,
polymerization
Heat, oxygen,
crosslink agent Polymerized oils
Hydrogenation
Hydrogen
(moderate
pressure) Hydroxystearates
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Epoxidation Hydrogen peroxide Epoxidized oils
Halogenation Cl
2
, Br
2
, I
2
Halogenated oils
Addition reactions S, maleic acid
Polymerized oils,
factice
Sulphonation H
2
SO
4
Sulphonated oils
Hydroxyl Group
Dehydration,
hydrolysis,
distillation Catalyst (plus heat)
Dehydrated castor
oil, octadecadienoic
acid
Caustic fusion NaOH
Sebacic acid, capryl
alcohol
Pyrolysis High heat
Undecylenic acid,
heptaldehyde
Halogenation PCl
5
, POCl
3

Halogenated castor
oils
Alkoxylation
Ethylene and/or
propylene oxide
Alkoxylated castor
oils
Esterification
Acetic-, phosphoric-
, maleic-, phthalic
anhydrides
Alkyl and alkylaryl
esters, phosphate
esters
Urethane reactions Isocyanates Urethane polymers
Sulphation H
2
SO
4

Sulphated castor oil
(Turkey red oil)

Details of Manufacture for Specific Castor Oil Grades & Derivatives

Industrial / Commercial Castor Oil

Industrial castor oil is obtained from a mixture of the first pressing and the second phase of
production - solvent extraction

First Special Grade Castor Oil

Castor oil FSG is produced by refining commercial grade castor oil using bleaching and
filtering processes.

Cold Pressed Castor Oil

Cold pressed castor oil is a virgin form of castor oil extracted in its natural form by pressing
ƚŚĞ ƐĞĞĚƐ ǁŝƚŚŽƵƚ ƵƐŝŶŐ ƐƚĞĂŵ ĐŽŽŬŝŶŐ͘ 1ŚŝƐ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ ŚĞůƉƐ ƉƌĞƐĞƌǀĞ ƚŚĞ Žŝů͛Ɛ ŚĞƌďĂů ĂŶĚ
healing properties. The cold pressed grade is considered a valuable laxative in the pharma
industry.

Pale Pressed Castor Oil

The Pale Pressed Grade of Castor Oil is obtained from the first pressing of the castor bean
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Pharma Grade Castor Oil

Pharmaceutical grade castor oil is produced from the first pressing of castor seed in which
the oil does not lose any medicinal qualities. Produced as per USP, JP, BP, EP, IP, DAB
pharmacopoeia, it is used as emollient for pharmaceutical creams and lotions.

Dehydrated Castor Oil

Castor oil has only one double bond in each fatty acid chain and so is classified as non-drying
oil. However, it can be dehydrated to give semi-drying or drying oil which is used extensively
in paints and varnishes.

Being a polyhydroxy compound, its hydroxyl functionality can be reduced through
dehydration or increased by inter-estirification with a polyhydric alcohol.

The dehydration process is carried out at about 250
o
C in the presence of catalysts (e.g.,
concentrated sulphuric acid, activated earth) and under an inert atmosphere or vacuum.
Under this condition of dehydration, the hydroxyl group and adjacent hydrogen atom from
the C-11 or C-13 position of the ricinoleic acid portion of the molecule is removed as water.
This yields a mixture of two acids, each containing two double bonds but in one case, they
are conjugated.

The presence of an acid containing conjugated double bonds results in an oil resembling
tung oil in some of its properties. Thus, castor oil, which is non-drying, can be treated and
converted into a semi-drying or drying oil known as dehydrated castor oil.

DCO Fatty Acid

DCO can be converted to dehydrated castor fatty acid by hydrolysis and distillation.
1ƌŝŐůLJĐĞƌŝĚĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ ϯ ĨĂƚƚLJ ĂĐŝĚƐ ĂƚƚĂĐŚĞĚ ƚŽ Ă ŐůLJĐĞƌŽů ďĂĐŬďŽŶĞ ƐŽ ŚLJĚƌŽůLJƐŝƐ ŽĨ ͞ĐƌƵĚĞ͟
vegetable oil would break down the triglycerides into their constituent fatty acids. The fatty
acids are then distilled from the mixture.

Hydrogenated Castor Oil

Hydrogenated castor oil or castor wax is a hard, brittle wax. It is produced by addition of
hydrogen to castor oil (hydrogenation process) in the presence of a nickel catalyst. This is
done by bubbling hydrogen gas into the castor oil, during which the ricinoleic acid becomes
fully saturated to give a viscous waxy like substance with a melting point of 61-69
o
C.

High catalyst concentration is required for the good results. A temperature range of 125-
135
o
C and pressure range of 2-2.5 kg/cm is required for the saturation of double bond.

The object of the hydrogenation is not only to raise the melting point but also to improve
the keeping qualities, taste and odor. As the reaction itself is exothermic, the chief energy
requirements are in the production of hydrogen, warming of the oil, pumping and filtering.
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12-Hydroxy Stearic Acid

12-Hydroxy Stearic Acid is a waxy hydroxyl fatty acid. The source for the production of 12-
hydroxy stearic acid is castor oil which contains up to 85% ricinoleic acid in the form of
triglycerides. To produce 12-HSA, castor oil is subjected to hydrogenation, and as a result of
it, the ricinoleic acid gets saturated at the place of the double bond and transforms into 12-
hydroxyl stearic acid. This process is carried out at room temperature under a pressure of 40
psi with alcohol as a solvent.

In the hydrogenation process, the castor oil transforms into a solid mass, hydrogenated
castor oil (HCO). The HCO consists of saturated glycerides of 12 HSA (upto 80%), ricinoleic
(2-4%), stearic with traces of palmitic (10-15%), and oleic with traces of linoleic (1-4%) acids.

12 HSA is isolated from HCO by saponifying the latter with a 20-25% NaOH solution,
followed by decomposing the soaps obtained with hydrochloric acid.

Properties of hydrogenated castor oil and of 12 HSA isolated from it depend substantially on
the quality of castor oil, conditions of its hydrogenation, saponification of hydrogenated
castor oil, decomposition of soaps by hydrochloric acid, washing, drying and storage of
commercial 12 HSA.

Sulfonated Castor Oil

Sulfated castor oil, also known as turkey-red oil, represents one of the earliest chemical
derivatives of castor oil.

The traditional method of preparing turkey-red oil is to add concentrated sulfuric acid at a
controlled rate to castor oil over a period of several hours with constant cooling and
agitation of the reaction mass to maintain a temperature of 25-30
o
C. After acid addition is
complete, the reaction mass is washed then neutralized using an alkali solution or an amine.

Castor oil sulfation results largely in sulfuric acid esters in which the hydroxyl group of
ricinoleic acid has been esterified. However, the other reactions can also take place. For
example, the double bond can be attacked to produce an ester or the hydroxysulfonic acid.
Hydrolysis of the sulfuric acid esters occurs during the reaction and subsequent treatment
forming hydroxy acids and sulfuric acid. These hydroxyl acids can be further sulfated.

Commercially sulfated castor oil contains ca 8.0-8.5 wt % combined SO
3
, indicating that the
surfactant properties result from the sulfation of only one of the reactive points in the
unmodified triglyceride. The sulfate group acts as a hydrophile imparting excellent wetting,
emulsification, and dispersing characteristics to the oil. The anion-active product is used in
the textile industry for fiber wetting ability and as dye agent to obtain bright, clear colors.

Sulfonation of castor oil using anhydrous SO
3
yields a product having better hydrolytic
stability than that from the sulfuric acid reaction. The organically combined SO
3
is low
compared to the amount of SO
3
introduced to the reation: the final product contains only
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8.0-8.5 wt % combined SO
3
although 17 wt% SO
3
is added. The product contains less
inorganic salts and free fatty acids than the sulfuric acid product.

Blown Castor Oil

Blown or oxidized castor oil is prepared by blowing air or oxygen into it at temperatures of
80 ʹ 130
0
C, with or without catalyst to obtain oils of varying viscosity .The process is called
oxidative polymerization. This increases the viscosity and specific gravity of the oil.

Blown castor oil is the potential replacement for phthalates, and an important drying oil
used in surface coating, lubricants, adhesive for inks and lacquers. Blown castor oil is
available in the standard viscosity 5-10 poise, 20-25 poise, 30-35 poise, 45-55 poise, 90-110
poise.

Ricinoleic Acid

Ricinoleic acid (12- hydroxy-9-cis-octadecenoic acid) is an unsaturated omega-9 fatty acid
that naturally occurs in mature castor plant (Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae). About
90% of content in castor oil is the triglyceride formed from ricinoleic acid. Ricinoleic acid is
obtained from castor oil through hydrolysis, usually carried out under basic conditions, by
treating it with NaOH.

Castor oil + NaOH Ricinoleic Acid + Glycerol
(hydrolysis)

Industrially, ricinoleic acid is manufactured by saponification or fractional distillation of
hydrolyzed castor oil. When this acid is pyrolyzed (heated in the absence of air), it breaks
down to give undecylenic acid and n-heptaldehyde.

Methyl 12-HSA

Methyl 12 HSA is formed by direct esterification of 12 HSA with methanol.

Esterification is the chemical process for making esters, which are compounds of the chemical
structure R-COOR', where R and R' are either alkyl or aryl groups. The most common method for
preparing esters is to heat a carboxylic acid, R-CO-OH, with an alcohol, R'-OH, while removing
the water that is formed. A mineral acid catalyst is usually needed to make the reaction occur at
a useful rate.

Sebacic Acid

Sebacic acid, a 10-carbon dicarboxylic acid, can be synthesized from phenols and cresols,
ďƵƚ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů ŽdžŝĚĂƚŝŽŶ ŝƐ ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĞĚ Ă ͞ŐƌĞĞŶĞƌ͟ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ͘

Sebacic acid is manufactured by heating castor oil to high temperatures (about 250
o
C) with
alkali. This treatment results in saponification of the castor oil to ricinoleic acid that is then
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cleaved to give capryl alcohol (2-octanol) and sebacic acid. Although the sebacic acid yields
are low, this route has been found to be cost competitive.

Ricinoleic Acid --> Alkali Fusion @ 250 deg C --> 2-Octanol CH
3
(CH
2
)
5
CH(OH)CH
3
+ Sebacic
Acid COOH(CH
2
)
8
COOH+ H
2


The complete reaction is as follows:


























The process is based on the caustic oxidation of castor oil. The modern method, which also
claims higher yields, uses castor oil and molten caustic. The type of reaction used affects the
purity of the sebacic acid, and the modern conversion technology is reported to yield
sebacic acid with a higher purity.

Pyrolysis of ricinoleic acid results in heptaldehyde and undecenoic acid. Alkali fusion of this
mixture results in 10-hydroxydecanoic acid.

With 10-hydroxydecanoic acid, an increase to two moles of alkali/mole ricinoleate and at
temperatures of 250 to 275
o
C produces capryl alcohol (also called 2-Octanol - C
8
H
18
O) and
sebacic acid.

In the actual reaction, the castor oil and caustic are fed to a reactor at a temperature of 180
to 270
o
C where the ricinoleic acid undergoes a series of reactions with evolution of
hydrogen to give disodium sebacate and capryl alcohol.
Alkali Fusion @ 250 degrees C
Pyrolysis

Alkali Fusion @ 200 deg C
CH
3
(CH
2
)
5
CH(OH)CH
2
CH:CH(CH
2
)
7
COOH
Ricinoleic Acid

CH
3
(CH
2
)
5
CHO + CH
2
=CH(CH
2
)
8
COOH
Heptaldehyde Undecenoic Acid
CH
3
(CH
2
)
5
COCH
3
+ CH
2
(OH)(CH
2
)
8
COOH
2 Octanone 10-Hydroxydecanoic Acid

CH
3
(CH
2
)
5
CH(OH)CH
3
) + COOH(CH
2
)
8
COOH + H
2


2-Octanol Sebacic Acid

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When the reaction is complete, the soaps are dissolved in water and acidified to a pH of
about 6. At this pH, the soaps are converted to free acids that are insoluble in water. The
disodium sebacate is then partialy neutralized to the half acid salt which is water soluble.
The oil and aqueous layers are separated. The aqueous layer containing the half salt is
acidulated to a pH of about 2, causing the resulting sebacic acid to precipitate from the
solution.

It is then filtered, water washed, and finaly dried.

A number of process improvements have been described, which include the use of white
mineral oil having a boiling range of 300 to 400
o
C or the use of a mixture of cresols. These
materials act to reduce the reaction mixture's viscosity, thus improving mixing. Higher
sebacic acid yields are claimed by the use of catalysts such as barium salts, cadmium salts,
lead oxide, and salts.

Production of Sebacic Acid from Adipic Acid

An electro oxidation process was developed by Asahi Chemical Industry in Japan and was
also piloted by BASF in Germany. It produces high purity sebacic acid from adipic acid.

The process consists of three steps:

1. Adipic acid is partially esterfied to the monomethyl adipate
2. Electrolysis of the potassium salt of monomethyl adipate in a mixture of methanol
and water gives dimethyl sebacate
3. The last step is the hydrolysis of dimethyl sebacate to sebacic acid

Overall yields are reported to be about 85% for this process.

Undecylenic Acid

The pyrolysis of castor oil at 700
o
C under reduced pressure has been used to obtain
heptaldeyde and undecylenic acid. (Pyrolysis is the chemical decomposition of organic
materials by heating in the absence of oxygen or any other reagents, except possibly steam.)
Heptaldehyde can be further hydrogenated to produce alcohol for use as a plasticizer.

Another method is via the hydrolysis of Methyl Undecylenate. Methyl Undecylenate is
hydrolysed to give Undecylenic Acid.

(CH
2
=CH (CH
2
)
8
COOCH
3
) Methyl Undecylenate Æ H
2
O Æ Undecylenic Acid (CH
2
=CH
(CH
2
)
8
COOH)

Methyl Ricinoleate

The crude castor oil is transesterified, in the presence of excess methanol and traces of
sodium methylate acting as a catalyst. The reaction takes place at 80
o
C in an agitated
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jacketed reactor. The reactor is fed continuously to maintain the methanol/ester molar ratio
at 3/1. At the end of the reaction, methyl ricinoleate and glycerol are formed and the
methyl ricinoleate is separated from glycerol phase by settling. The glycerol, which
represents 9% of weight of the oil treated, is recovered. The methyl ester is washed with
water to remove the last traces of glycerin.

Castor Oil Æ Methanolysis Æ Methyl Ricinoleate.

Methyl Undecylenate

Methyl ricinoleate is pyrolyzed at high temperature, yielding heptaldehyde, methyl
undecylenate and a small amount of fatty acids. Pure heptaldehyde and methyl
undecylenate are isolated by fractional distillation.

CH
3
-(CH
2
)5-CH (OH)-CH
2
-CH=CH-(CH
2
)7-COOCH
3
(Methyl Ricinoleate) Æ Heat Æ n-
Heptaldehyde (CH
3
(CH
2
)
5
CHO) + Methyl Undecylenate (CH
2
=CH (CH
2
)
8
COOCH
3
)

2-Octanol

Caustic fusion of castor oil in the presence of NaOH results in sebacic acid and 2-Octanol
(also called Capryl alcohol)

CH
3
-(CH
2
)5-CH(OH)-CH
2
-CH=CH-(CH
2
)
7
-COOH (Ricinoleic Acid) + NaOH Æ133
o
C air Æ HOOC-
(CH
2
)
8
-COOH (Sebacic Acid) + CH
3
-(CH
2
)
5
-CH(OH)-CH
3
(2-Octanol)

Heptaldehyde, Heptanoic Acid & Heptyl Alcohol

Heptaldehyde & Heptanoic acid are produced by the pyrolysis of castor oil.

Castor Oil is pyrolyzed in the presence of 0.5% benzoyl peroxide. The operating parameters
are optimized to obtain high yields of heptaldehyde and undecylenic acid.

Ricinoleic Acid --> (pyrolysis) --> Heptaldehyde CH
3
(CH
2
)
5
CHO+ Undecylenic acid CH
2
=CH
(CH
2
)
8
COOH

Heptaldehyde is oxidized to form heptanoic acid in liquidphase, employing oxygen as
oxidizing agent.

Hydrogenation of heptaldehyde with nickel catalysts will yield heptyl alcohol. The optimum
conditions found for quantitative conversion of heptaldehyde to heptyl alcohol are
temperature - 100°C, nickel catalyst concentration - 2% based on heptaldehyde (w/w),
hydrogen pressure -145 psig and reaction time of about 1 hour.

Details for the Production of 10-Undecenoic Acid (Undecylenic Acid) and Heptaldehyde by
Pyrolysis

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For the production of 10-Undecenoic Acid and Heptaldehyde by pyrolysis of castor oil, batch
process is seldom used for the reaction. The starting material could be either castor oil,
riciloneic acid or its methyl ester.

In general, the reaction is carried out in a tubular reactor, empty or packed, at 450 to 600
o
C and 1 atm with the residence time of less than 1 min. gaseous reaction products
containing primarily 10-Undecenoic acid and Heptaldehyde are condensed. If castor oil is
used as the starting material, acrolein formed by the decomposition of glycerol part of the
triglyceride is evolved along with the other products. Acrolein is highly poisonous and
should be handled with the utmost care. Depending upon the recovery of acrolein, it is
probably desirable to use acids rather than the oil as the starting material. If this is done,
glycerin can also be removed.

Many workers have carried out the reaction at reduced pressure (40 to 100 mmHg) which
ƌĞĚƵĐĞƐ ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĂďůLJ ƚŚĞ ĨŽƌŵĂƚŝŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ͞ƐƉŽŶŐLJ ŵĂƐƐ͟ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞĂĐƚŽƌ ĚƵĞ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ
polymerization of the residual mass. This spongy mass, if formed, will clog the reactor.

Reactors of different material such as Fe, Cu, porcelain, and silica, have been used. It is
expected that these materials will catalyze the decomposition of the triglyceride.

Devaux and Sornet claimed higher yields of 10-Undecenoic Acid and Heptaldehyde by
heating castor oil at 300 to 320
o
C by means of dry or superheated steam or hot inert gas.

Some information is available regarding the effect of temperature and the reactor material
of construction/packing on the yields of 10-Undecenoic Acid and Heptaldehyde. Vernon and
Ross investigated the properties of the Pyrolysis products of castor oil as a function of
temperature. Most of the decomposition occurs in the temperature range of 400 to 500
o
C
from their experiment it is deducted that the glyceryl portion of the molecule is broken off
around 425
o
C, giving off acrolein.

1.2 Indicative Costs for Setting up Small and Medium Scale Castor Oil &
Derivatives Manufacturing Plants

The earlier section provided detailed inputs on equipments and processes required in the
manufacture of castor oil and derivatives. We provide brief inputs here on the cost of
setting up a castor oil and castor oil derivatives plant. Please note that these are indicative
costs based on experiences of setting up similar plants in India. All costs are based on inputs
provided in the year 2009.

Typical cost structures for castor oil plants are provided below. These are only indicative
numbers provided solely for completeness. A detailed costing of castor oil plant details is
beyond the scope of this report.

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Notes: TPD = Tons per Day, TCI is Total Capital Investment = Plant, Machinery & Factory Infrastructure +
Working Capital

Sources for data:

Internal databases of eSource India comprising past quotations and commercial data
Government of India and State Government of Gujarat Investment data

Assumptions & observations for the above cost table:

Starting products will be procured from the best prices from outside and need not be
prepared internally.
The reason behind TCI increasing disproportionately between 1 TPD and 10 TPD is owing
to the fact that a large part of work for a 1 TPD plant is done manually, which requires
less capital expenses. For higher production volumes, there are increased expenses on
machinery and automation that leads to a disproportionate increase in capital expenses
and hence TCI.
Capital Investment Costs include factory costs and cost of real estate


SUMMARY

Castor oil manufacturing is similar to that of other oil seeds and hence the oil can be
manufactured utilizing the existing equipments that are locally available. The castor
seeds contain about 48 to 50 percent oil by weight, and the extracted castor oil can
be further processed to derive a number of derivatives, currently used in numerous
industrial applications.



Name Capacity TCI Cost - US $ Mill
Castor Oil 1 TPD 0.05-0.06
Castor Oil 2 TPD 0.10
Castor Oil
Commercial 10 TPD 1.0
Castor Oil
Commercial 30 TPD 2.75
Hydrogenated
Castor Oil 10 TPD 0.7
Sebacic Acid from
Castor Oil 0.5 TPD 0.1
Dehydrated Castor
Oil 1 TPD 0.08
Castor Oil
Emulsifier 0.2 TPD 0.03
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2 - Castor Oil Market

This chapter comprises the following topics

Value Chain for the Castor Industry ʹ 2.1
The Castor Oil Market - 2.2
Supply & Demand of Castor Oil ʹ 2.3
o Castor Oil Supply Data ʹ 2.3.1
o Demand & Consumption of Castor Oil ʹ 2.3.2
Indian Castor Oil Industry ʹ 2.4
o Castor Oil Exports - Historical Scenario - 2.4.1
o Castor Oil Exports - Current Scenario ʹ 2.4.2
o Castor Seed Production & Acreage in India ʹ 2.4.3
o Indiawide Data from Castor Crop Survey 2007-08 ʹ 2.4.4
o Cropping Season in India ʹ 2.4.5
o Castor Cultivation & Yields in India ʹ Points ʹ 2.4.6
Demand-Supply Estimates for Castor Oil Derivatives 2.5
o Current Demand-supply Estimates for the Various Grades of Castor Oil and
Derivatives ʹ 2.5.1
o Future Demand-supply Estimates for the Various Grades of Castor Oil and
Derivatives ʹ 2.5.2


HIGHLIGHTS

Castor oil has a worldwide demand that is rising 3 to 5 % per annum.

The world production of castor oil crop is concentrated in a few countries. As a
result, there are only a few large exporters of castor oil fulfilling a significant portion
of world demand.

The world castor seed production is about 1.4 million tons per annum. India is a
major producer with about 70% share, followed by China and Brazil with about 20%
and 10 % respectively.

European Union imports over 1,00,000 tons of castor oil annually, and almost all its
imports are from India.

The total amount of castor oil production worldwide is relatively very low when
compared to other oilseeds.
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2.1 Value Chain for the Castor Industry

The following figure shows the value chain of the castor industry with different layers in the
market structure. The chart clearly indicates that the value chain involves many
intermediaries. These intermediaries prevent efficient price discovery and price
dissemination.

Value Chain for Castor Industry



2.2 The Castor Oil Market

The world production of castor oil crop is concentrated in the hands of few countries and
that is why there are just a few exporters of castor oil fulfilling a large level of demand of the
world.

The major exporters of castor oil are the leading producing countries of it namely India,
China and Brazil of which only India has been successfully meeting the domestic and the
world requirements. The country holds a share of 70% in the total exports. The other two
countries have experienced an increase in their domestic demand and hence are not
capable of exporting a high quantity of oil. In Nov 2009, the Nigerian government
Producer

Commission Agent

Commission Agent

Stockist
Private
Agency
Government
Agency
Processor
Oil
Wholesaler
Industrial
Users
Other
Consumers

Exporters
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announced that it was paying special attention to castor cultivation. It announced that the
Raw Materials Research and Development Council of Nigeria would collaborate with
farmers to boost castor production, while urging government to establish castor seed
plantation in the different states. Nigeria has a lot of castor seed which has great market
potential but the challenge is need of a factory to produce castor oil
1
.

Characteristics of Castor Seed and Oil Market

Castor Seed Production - The world castor seed production is over 1 million tons
per annum. India is major producer with about 70% share, followed by China and
Brazil with about 20% and 10 % respectively.
Minor Players - Some of the other countries that are minor players in the castor
oil market are: Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Pakistan, Philippines, Sudan,
Indonesia, Thailand & Russia
Increasing Demand - Castor oil has a demand worldwide that is constantly rising
at 3 to 5 % per annum.
American Imports - America imports over 90% of their consumption. Castor
plants have not been farmed on a commercial scale in the United States since the
early 1970s. (During the 1950s and 1960s, approximately 85,000 acres of castor
were grown annually in the United States. Since then domestic production
decreased and was abandoned in 1972).
Uncertain Supply - The world castor seed production has fluctuated between 1.2
and 1.5 million tons in the period of 2001 to 2007. India's production ranged
between 0.8 and 1.1 million tons during the same period.
Substitutes - Recent developments of artificial substitutes of castor oil in the
world market has subjected the demand to large fluctuations. As castor seed
production presents some problems (toxicity of the seed, allergic reactions),
Lesquerella species were proposed as a valuable source in the USA (up to 70% in
the oil) of ricinoleic acid and also of lesquerolic acid, the C20 homologue of
ricinoleic acid. It must be noted however that this species is still in the
preliminary stage of use.
Hoarding & Long Storing Period - It is a common practice for the castor seed
growers and crushers to hoard the commodity before selling in expectation for
better prices
Spot Market ʹ There is a well-developed and organized spot market in India
Volatile Prices in the Indian Castor Oil Market ʹ Castor seed and castor oil prices
are highly volatile with wide price fluctuations, and the uncertain market
conditions discourage buyers from making long-term commitments. Indian prices
are not only unsteady, but there is also no way overseas buyers can take a view
of the market beyond the short-term. There is excessive speculation rampant in
the futures market which finds a ready reflection in the spot market. Unless
buyers are assured of steady and foreseeable prices, the dependence on India as
a source of castor oil supply could be diluted over time, according to some
experts.

1
http://234next.com/csp/cms/sites/Next/Money/Business/5481131-147/story.csp
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Brazil and China - traditional producers of castor seed and the only competitors
to India - the two countries have started to show signs of expanding their
production base. Brazil has a National Biodiesel Strategy which proposes castor
as one of the feedstocks for biodiesel production. Planting of Mamona (castor
bean plant) is being promoted especially in the northeast and the country has
launched a biodiesel blending obligation program which proposes 2% by 2007
(800 M l/y), 5% by 2013 (2 B l/y), and goal of 20% by 2020 (12 B l/y). A total of 23
companies were chosen by auction as biodiesel suppliers. Analyzing the raw
materials used by the companies, castor oil is used by 8 companies.
European Market Consumers - Servicing the fastidious European market - mainly
coating industry - is not easy. Most buyers were highly demanding in terms of
very specific, tailor-made quality and delivery schedule including the time at
which the lorry must enter the factory premises and unload goods. This is not
easy for Indian castor oil suppliers.
lŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ lĂĐŬ ŽĨ cĂƐƚŽƌ Oŝů k Θu - There is a distinct lack of investment in research
and development of castor oil in India. Experts feel that much of research and
development work for newer application of castor oil is mainly taking place in
Europe and elsewhere.
Major Castor Growing Countries in the Future ʹ While it is currently just three
countries ʹ India, Brazil & China ʹ that are the top producers of castor seeds and
oil, there are a few countries that could become significant players in future.
These include Ethiopia, Vietnam, Thailand, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Tanzania.
Because of widely fluctuating world supplies and the structure of the world
market, prices for castor oil vary considerably. This affects cash flow, makes
corporate planning difficult, and discourages investment in new products for
many companies. These factors have encouraged many companies to start
finding substitutes for castor oil. For instance, in the USA, commercial production
of transgenic canola containing 15% ricinoleic acid has been explored.

Market Influencing Factors in Castor Trade
Variations in castor seed domestic acreage, based on yield and price realization
Indian, Chinese and Brazilian crop sizes
Crop development based on monsoon progress in key growing regions
Domestic demand for castor oil from Indian companies
Comparative prices with other vegetable oils in the domestic market

2.3 Supply & Demand of Castor Oil

Castor Oil Production (ŝŶ ͚000 T)

Countries
Jan-Dec
2009
Jan-Dec
2008
Jan-Dec
2007
Jan-Dec
2006
Jan-Dec
2005
Russia 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Ethiopia 2.3 2.4 2.0 1.5 1.5
Brazil 42.5 52.3 43.3 48.7 70.2
China,PR 81.4 83.1 81.5 90.2 101.7
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India 375.8 413.0 367.6 351.2 335.2
Thailand 5.4 5.7 5.6 5 4.5
Oth countries 24.4 23.8 22.5 21.9 21.2
Total 531.8 580.3 522.6 518.5 534.3
Source ʹ CastorOil.in and derived from data obtained from sources such as Oilworld - www.oilworld.biz

Observations from the Above Table

Major countries producing castor oil are India, China, and Brazil.
There is a significant difference in castor oil production among countries: India is by far
the largest producer of castor oil, contributing over 70% of the total production in 2009.
China and Brazil together contribute 23% of the total world production in castor oil
during 2009.

Castor Oil Imports (͚000 T)

Countries
Jan-Dec
2009
Jan-Dec
2008
Jan-Dec
2007
Jan-Dec
2006
Jan-Dec
2005
Belgium-Lux 0.9 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.3
Bulgaria 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.3
Czech Republ

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.2
Denmark

0.4 0.9 0.3 0.5
Finland 0.7 0.4 0.5 0.6 .
France 17.8 85.3 48.9 43.9 66.3
Germany 33.6 34.3 32.6 27.4 22.8
Ireland

0.1
Italy 1 0.6 1.3 3.6 6.5
Netherlands 24.6 15.3 19.3 14.8 15.3
Poland 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1
Portugal 0.1 0.1 . . .
Slovenia . 0.1 . . .
Spain 2.4 2.5 3.5 3 3.3
Sweden 0.7 . 0.3 - .
U.K. 5.2 3.5 5 5.5 4.6
EU-27 87.2 143.5 113.3 100.4 120.2
Norway 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Switzerland 4 5.6 5.6 5.8 4.2
Croatia 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Serbia/Monten 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1
Other Europe 4.3 6 5.9 6.2 4.5
Russia 1.8 2.4 2.2 2.2 3
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Ukraine 0.6 0.7 1 0.7 1.2
C.I.S 2.4 3.1 3.2 2.9 4.2
S.Africa,Rep 2.1 2.4 2.8 2.2 1.9
Canada 5.5 4.6 2.9 3.3 2.2
U.S.A 32.1 48.8 44.3 45.9 41.8
Mexico 2.1 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.3
Brazil 8.8 6.8 3.7 . .
China,PR 124.2 73.4 70.4 79.5 53.6
Japan 13 19.4 19 17.6 26
Korea,South 4.4 5.8 4.6 3.9 4.5
Taiwan 2.1 2.8 3.7 2.9 2.9
Thailand 12 16.8 10.6 11.4 15
Turkey 2.1 4.8 2.7 2.1 1.9
Oth countries 10 8.7 9.9 8.7 8.5
Total 312.3 348.8 298.8 288.8 288.5
Source ʹ CastorOil.in and derived from data obtained from sources such as Oilworld - www.oilworld.biz

Observations from the Above Table

Of the countries listed above, China was found to be the largest importer of castor oil.
China imports about 40% of the total imports, followed by Europe (28%)

Castor Oil Exports (͚000 T)

Countries
Jan-
Dec
2009
Jan-
Dec
2008
Jan-
Dec
2007
Jan-
Dec
2006
Jan-
Dec
2005
Belgium-Lux 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3
France 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Germany 0.9 0.8 0.4 0.4 0.3
Netherlands 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.3 0.5
Spain 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1
U.K. 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1
EU-27 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.2 1.6
U.S.A 6.7 6.8 3.9 4 2.5
Brazil 0.9 0.2 0.7 4.2 11.8
India 280 315.5 270 255 245
Oth countries 20.9 22.7 20.7 23.2 26.2
Total 312.3 348.8 298.8 288.8 288.5
Source ʹ CastorOil.in and derived from data obtained from sources such as Oilworld - www.oilworld.biz

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Observations from the Above Table

India is by far the largest castor oil exporter worldwide and it exports 70-75 percent
of its total production.
Compared to 2008, exports from India decreased by more than 10 percent in 2009.

Summary of Production, Imports and Exports from Prominent Countries/Regions
ϮϬϬϵ ĚĂƚĂ ;ŝŶ ͚000 Tons)

Country Production

India 375.8
China 81.4
Brazil 42.5
Total 499.7
Country Imports
China 124.2
Europe (27) 87.2
USA 32.1
Japan 13
Thailand 12
Total 268.5
Country Exports
India 280
USA 6.7
EU (27) 1.9
Brazil 0.9
Total 289.5
Source ʹ CastorOil.in and derived from data obtained from sources such as Oilworld - www.oilworld.biz

Castor seed - World Area, Production and Productivity

Countr
y
Harvest
Season
Production ('000 T) Yield (T/ha) Harvest Area ('000/ha)
09-
10(F)
2008-
09 2007-08
09-
10(F)
2008-
09
2007-
08
09-10
(F)
2008-
09
2007-
08
Brazil
Jun-
Sept 92 123 94 0.58 0.76 0.6 158 163 156
China
PR
Sep ʹ
Jan 190 190 170 0.9 0.86 0.81 210 220 210
India
Nov ʹ
Mar 880 975 990 1.06 1.08 1.15 830 900 860
Other
Countri
es 115 117 112 0.62 0.63 0.61 185 186 183
Total 1277 1405 1366 0.92 0.96 0.97 1383 1469 1409
Source: ISTA Mielke, Oil World, Germany, F- Forecast
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The US Supply Scenario

Caschem and Arizona Chemical Company were the major producers of castor oil derivatives
in the US. Caschem produced almost all castor oil derivatives except for undecyclenic acid
where Arkema (earlier Atofina) is the lone producer. Arkema produces undecyclenic acids
and heptaldehyde mostly for pharmaceutical and cosmetic niche applications. Undecyclenic
acid is also used in the manufacture of fuel, air and brake tubing. Arizona's castor derivative
product lines included methyl-12-hydroxystearate, 12-hydroxy stearic acid, hydrogenated
castor oil, specialty ricinoleate esters, specialty dimer acids, sebacic acid and capryl alcohol.

The US sebacic acid industry changed significantly with the exit of the two players (in 2003)
and the entrance of a newcomer. Both the companies opted to leave the market under
pressure from low-priced sebacic acid imports from China and high production costs.
Arizona Chemical permanently shuttered its Dover, Ohio, sebacic acid facility. The
manufacturing of hydrogenated castor oil derivatives for the lubricating grease and coatings
industries were not affected.

CasChem, a subsidiary of Cambrex Corp., also emptied its sebacic acid inventories and
mothballed its highly automated sebacic acid plant in Bayonne, N.J. The company began
producing sebacic acid in early 2000 using proprietary processing technology. Like Arizona
Chemical, Cas-Chem considers the domestic market unprofitable because of pressure from
cheaper Chinese imports. However, Cas-Chem will continue to produce sebacate esters,
which is said to be more profitable and where the market tends to focus more on.

Undaunted by the competitive pressures of Chinese imports and the currently flat market
situation, Genesis Chemicals Inc. has entered the US sebacic acid market. A privately held
company, Genesis started full-scale production of sebacic acid at the end of 2002 at its new
plant in Loveland, Ohio. The company has a full-scale manufacturing facility for castor oil
derivative production through a joint venture in China. Genesis Chemi-cals' Chinese venture
also grows its own castor crops in Northern China for captive use.

Meanwhile, even though there are only few major producers of castor oil derivatives in the
US, supply is adequately maintained as there are quite a few brokers who outsource from
several offshore suppliers.

Castor crop has not been grown on a large-scale in the United States since the early 1970s.
During the 1950s and 1960s, approximately 85,000 acres of castor were grown annually in
the United States. Since then domestic production decreased and was abandoned in 1972.
Source: USDA.

To restart domestic production, it is felt that industries in the United States and
administration need to focus on the following:

Sufficient number of special built harvesters to harvest the seed from plants after a
killing frost.
Contractual agreements by the processor to market castor oil over a period of years.
Detoxification and deallergenation of castor meal to allow use in livestock feeds.
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Development of improved hybrids to increase yield and oil percentage of castor
seed.
Development of breeding lines with improved disease and insect resistance, drought
tolerance, and shatter resistance.
Mutagenesis and genetic research to eliminate ricin, the toxic seed protein.
Acquisition and preservation of germplasm useful to a breeding program.

Castor Oil Production from Minor Producing Countries

The following data for 2009 provides an idea of the quantum of supplies from countries that
are only minor suppliers of castor oil:

Country Production in Jan ʹ Dec 2009
(1000T)
% of world supply
Ethiopia 2.3 0.43
Russia 1.0 0.18
Thailand 5.4 1.01
Others 24.4 4.58
Source ʹ CastorOil.in and data derived from sources such as Oilworld - www.oilworld.biz

2.4 Indian Castor Oil Industry

India is the largest producer of castor seed and oil. It contributes about 1 million tons of
castor seed with and over 4,00,000 tons of castor oil to the world total production. The
annual domestic consumption of castor oil in India is only about 80,000-1, 00,000 tons. Of
this, the soap industry consumes about 25,000 tons, the paint and allied industries 35,000
tons and the lubricant and derivatives industry 20,000 tons. In terms of % split between
castor oil and derivatives, about 40% of castor oil consumption in India is in the form of
derivatives and 60% for the various castor oil grades. About 85% of total castor oil
consumed in India is sold in bulk, the rest (about 15%) in retail.

2.4.1 Castor Oil Exports - Historical Scenario

Castor crop plays an important role in the agricultural economy of the earning substantial
foreign exchange through export of castor beanƐ ĂŶĚ ŽŝůƐ͘ A ƐŝŐŶŝĨŝĐĂŶƚ ƉĂƌƚ ŽĨ lŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ
oil production (over 70 per cent) is exported. The country annually exports about 300
thousand tons of castor oil thereby earning foreign exchange worth US$ 170 ʹ 200 million.
India is the first country in the world to exploit hybrid varieties on a commercial scale in this
crop. Major markets include Europe, USA, Japan and now China and Thailand.

Region-wise Export Statistics of Castor Oil (including derivatives, US$ Millions)

Region 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07
East Asia 53.7 41.1 28.8 85.8 70.8 90.6
South Asia 1.2 0.5 1.0 0.7 1.4 0.9
West Asia 1.7 2.0 2.6 2.6 3.8 4.9
Africa 2.3 1.6 2.1 2.8 3.3 4.4
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East Europe 13.6 13.7 7.0 3.3 3.4 3.1
West Europe 110.1 65.1 57.7 113.5 88.9 102.4
North America 39.4 18.4 14.4 30.4 36.5 33.6
Latin America 0.3 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.8 0.8
Total 221.6 145.1 120.9 239.5 208.9 240.9
Source: Pharmexcil India
Note: Values derived based on US$/Re exchange rates at respective years.

Castor Oil and its Fractions Exports

S.No. Country Values in Rs. Lacs Quntity in thousands

2008-2009 2009-2010 %Growth 2008-2009 2009-2010 %Growth
1 AFGHANISTAN
TIS
36.57 54
2 ARGENTINA 39.97 137.62 244.3 65 216 232.31
3 AUSTRALIA 858.12 637.04 -25.76 1,276.42 982.27 -23.04
4 BAHARAIN IS 5.88 22.83 288.37 6 38 533.33
5 BANGLADESH
PR
3.23 17.31 436.66 3 24.65 721.67
6 BELGIUM 509.31 1,651.20 224.21 808.01 2,813.44 248.19
7 BRAZIL 1,524.27 4,188.98 174.82 2,659.12 8,037.13 202.25
8 BULGARIA 9.17 8.75 -4.61 10 10 0
9 CANADA 83.95 9.86 -88.26 131.14 15.43 -88.23
10 CHILE 24.29 26.16 7.71 35 34.27 -2.07
11 CHINA P RP 45,908.00 79,627.04 73.45 82,241.39 1,47,430.05 79.27
12 COLOMBIA 36.14 79.22 119.22 54 122 125.93
13 CONGO P REP 1.83 2.12 15.53 3.33 3.6 8.01
14 COTE D' IVOIRE 0.13 0.31 132.02 0.3 0.95 216.67
15 DENMARK 169.28 12.19 -92.8 249 20 -91.97
16 EGYPT A RP 177.45 297.55 67.69 255 493.16 93.4
17 EQUTL GUINEA 0.04 0.06
18 FIJI IS 0.9 1
19 FINLAND 270.52 248.97 -7.97 457 476 4.16
20 FRANCE 45,033.10 22,087.66 -50.95 76,865.00 41,868.70 -45.53
21 GERMANY 2,991.16 1,370.59 -54.18 4,641.23 2,196.69 -52.67
22 GHANA 0.02 9.18 59,896.08 0.19 15.2 7,987.23
23 GREECE 46.47 64
24 GUATEMALA 3.24 2.1 -35.28 7.8 3.51 -54.97
25 GUYANA 0.64 1
26 HONG KONG 108.85 78.04 -28.31 167.4 125.04 -25.31
27 INDONESIA 251.89 15.48 -93.85 348.02 24.08 -93.08
28 IRAN 643.13 349.64 -45.63 928.8 550.32 -40.75
29 IRAQ 152.3 261.01 71.38 229 412.6 80.17
30 ISRAEL 155.02 124.68 -19.57 197 168.6 -14.41
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31 ITALY 811.01 694.67 -14.34 1,145.80 931.31 -18.72
32 JAPAN 9,763.09 6,004.31 -38.5 16,395.81 10,679.92 -34.86
33 JORDAN 79.51 34.29 -56.88 105 48 -54.29
34 KENYA 187.59 24.44 -86.97 277.6 36.17 -86.97
35 KOREA RP 3,621.03 2,583.76 -28.65 8,320.59 4,347.94 -47.74
36 KUWAIT 139.19 83.75 -39.83 182.2 139.94 -23.19
37 LATVIA 136.62 113.61 -16.84 198 169 -14.65
38 LEBANON 44.42 23.77 -46.48 64 34 -46.88
39 LIBERIA 1.11 1.53 37.63 2.4 3.89 61.99
40 LITHUANIA 53.7 36.72 -31.62 85 65 -23.53
41 MALAYSIA 449.85 895.95 99.17 677.08 964.94 42.51
42 MALDIVES 0.14 0.14
43 MAURITIUS 9.36 1.55 -83.44 23.65 3.16 -86.64
44 MEXICO 224.68 649.6 189.13 338.9 1,068.33 215.23
45 MOROCCO 13.73 38.04 177.12 18 56.34 212.99
46 MOZAMBIQUE 12.35 15.73 27.3 18 22.31 23.96
47 NEPAL 31.92 29.28 -8.27 66.75 66.66 -0.13
48 NETHERLAND 36,283.48 33,881.18 -6.62 61,772.22 65,273.80 5.67
49 NEW ZEALAND 16.36 13.02 -20.38 19.15 15.98 -16.58
50 NIGERIA 78.15 30.1 -61.48 128.79 53.6 -58.38
51 NORWAY 11.26 16
52 PANAMA
REPUBLIC
0.1 0.2
53 PERU 48.07 13.59 -71.74 65.09 18 -72.35
54 PHILIPPINES 94.34 30.87 -67.27 144 51 -64.58
55 POLAND 86.23 27.29 -68.35 129 50.09 -61.17
56 QATAR 13.44 17
57 REUNION 1.65 1.22 -25.89 2.69 2.66 -1.04
58 RUSSIA 1,766.29 1,098.33 -37.82 2,535.00 1,777.67 -29.87
59 SAUDI ARAB 349.41 278.18 -20.38 495.83 425.67 -14.15
60 SENEGAL 0.36 1
61 SINGAPORE 297.57 377.12 26.73 410 578.29 41.05
62 SLOVENIA 42.88 66
63 SOUTH AFRICA 1,659.30 1,038.89 -37.39 2,543.43 1,689.26 -33.58
64 SPAIN 989.37 289.73 -70.72 1,693.00 591.7 -65.05
65 SRI LANKA DSR 78.69 90.56 15.08 121.67 192.82 58.47
66 SWEDEN 0.14 378.18 278176.53 0.1 764 763899.99
67 SWITZERLAND 31.99 57
68 SYRIA 146.21 310.82 112.59 225.09 520.5 131.24
69 TAIWAN 1,265.03 1,130.25 -10.65 1,952.40 1,859.35 -4.77
70 TANZANIA REP 0.03 17.24 64,714.29 0.05 27.2 54,296.00
71 THAILAND 8,182.90 8,334.34 1.85 13,018.32 15,592.00 19.77
72 TRINIDAD 5.61 2.52 -55.08 18.58 3 -83.85
73 TUNISIA 1.61 2
74 TURKEY 1,802.49 1,435.07 -20.38 2,787.79 2,463.10 -11.65
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75 U ARAB EMTS 1,020.79 581.37 -43.05 1,471.10 953.49 -35.19
76 U K 3,181.60 3,121.34 -1.89 5,215.14 5,631.41 7.98
77 U S A 21,473.59 22,177.55 3.28 36,159.06 42,224.54 16.77
78 UGANDA 0.6 1.01
79 UKRAINE 515 277.92 -46.03 771 442.5 -42.61
80 UNSPECIFIED 53.06 1,186.54 2,136.16 84.04 2,330.30 2,672.97
81 UZBEKISTAN 3.32 2
82 VENEZUELA 12.58 12.11 -3.74 16 18 12.5
83 VIETNAM SOC
REP
45.41 75.34 65.93 69 128.1 85.65
84 YEMEN
REPUBLC
0.94 1.38 46.56 2.89 2.2 -24.01
85 ZAMBIA 4.54 9.89
Total 1,94,165.03 1,98,732.03 2.35
Source: Ministry of Commerce, India
Note: For India Export of Castor Derivatives, refer Appendix 2

2.4.2 Castor Oil Exports ʹ Current Scenario

Indian Export of Castor Oil (Excluding Derivatives)

Year Volume (MT) Value (Rs Crore ) Value per T (Rs / T)

1998-99 193,913 595.98 30734
99-00 234,824 897.56 38223
00-01 227,033 806.07 35505
01-02 204,877 556.22 27149
02-03 163,862 520.85 31786
03-04 161,619 603.27 37327
04-05 208,176 788.56 37879
05-06 182,159 627.43 34444
06-07 195,610 653.05 34995
07-08 176,177 757.29 42985
08-09* 308,625 1821.57 59022
Notes:
(1) 1 $US= Rs 45 approx. in Mar 2010. There have been significant fluctuations in the US$/INR rate during
this period; * - including bulk and container
(2) Please note that all the above data are for exports that do not include the castor oil derivatives, but
only the main grades of castor oil.

Castor Oil Current Data - Countries Exported to by India

Countries that currently import castor oil from India are

European Union
USA
Japan
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Thailand
China

Castor Oil Export Percentages to Various Regions from India (2006-2007) (excluding
derivatives)

Region % Exports Volume of Exports (MT)
W Europe 45 87750
E Asia 25 48750
N America 20 39000
E Europe 5 9750
Africa 3 5850
Latin America 2 3900

Break-ƵƉ ŽĨ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů ĂŶĚ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů ĚĞƌŝǀĂƚŝǀĞƐ ŝŶ IŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ ĞdžƉŽƌƚƐ

An approximate estimate is provided below for the break-up of castor oil & castor oil
derivatives exports. This % has been ĚĞƌŝǀĞĚ ĨƌŽŵ ƐƚĂƚŝƐƚŝĐƐ ŽŶ lŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ ĞdžƉŽƌts over the last 5
years.
Castor oil grades: 80%
Castor oil derivatives: 20%

2.4.3 Castor Seed Production and Acreage in India

Castor Growing Areas in India & its Production

Castor grows under tropical conditions. It needs heat and humidity and does best in regions
where both are ample. India, gifted with an ideal climatic condition, has recorded the largest
produce of castor seed in the last few decades.

The states in India that are the major producers of castor are

Gujarat
Andhra Pradesh
Rajasthan
Karnataka
Orissa
Tamil Nadu
Maharashtra

The Indian state of Gujarat produces over 65% of the total castor seeds in India followed by
Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan which contribute about equal share. In Gujarat, Castor
cultivation comprise 6 districts of North Gujarat, viz., Mehsana, Banaskantha, Sabarkantha,
Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad and Kutch, with the first two being the two most important.

Andhra Pradesh relies on the districts of Nalgonda, Mehboobnagar, Prakasam, Guntur and
Ranga Reddy for the production of castor seeds.
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State % Share of Production of Castor Oil in India (2006 ʹ 07, estimate)

State % Share of Production
Gujarat 66
Rajasthan 14
Andhra Pradesh 12.5
Karnataka 3.2
Tamilnadu 1.4
Maharashtra 1.6

Major Trading Centers of Castor in India

The major trading centers of castor and its derivatives in India are:
Rajkot (Gujarat)
Ahmedabad (Gujarat)
Gondal (Gujarat)
Gadwal (Gujarat)
Bhabar (Gujarat)
Disa (Gujarat)
Kadi (Gujarat)
Jedcherla (Andhra Pradesh)
Yemignoor (Andhra Pradesh)

Castor Seed Acreage and Production in India

Year Area ('000 ha) Production ('000 tonnes) Yield (kg/ha)
1985-86 637 308 480
1990-91 810 716 880
1995-96 880 930 1060
1996-97 776 770 990
1997-98 810 800 990
1998-99 835 840 1070
1999-00 782 765 979
2000-01 1080 883 818
2001-02 716 652 911
2002-03 583 428 733
2003-04 712 796 1111
2004-05 743 793 1068
2005-06 864 990 1146
2006-07 628 762 1213
2007-08 786 1053 1339
2008-09
840 1114 1326
Source: Ministry of Agriculture, GOI

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2.4.4 India-wide Data from Castor Crop Survey 2009-10

CŽŶĚƵĐƚĞĚ ďLJ͗ 1ŚĞ SŽůǀĞŶƚ LdžƚƌĂĐƚŽƌƐ͛ AƐƐŽĐŝĂƚŝŽŶ ŽĨ IŶĚŝĂ Θ A͘C͘NŝĞůƐĞŶ

Gujarat

Total area under Castor crop in Gujarat for the year 2009-10 is 4.37 lakh hectares. It has
decreased by 3% as compared to previous year. Area under Castor crop has increased in
all the major castor growing districts except Ahmedabad, Patan, Rajkot, Surendranagar
and Vadodara.

Estimated total production of Castor Seeds in Gujarat for the year 2009-10 is 7.34 lakh
tonnes, it has increased by merely 1% as compared to previous year. However this
growth is mainly in the districts such as Vadodara (28%), Ahmedabad (24%), Rajkot
(19%), Patan (16%) districts and Sabarkantha (8%).

Average yield for the year 2009-10 is 1679 kg/hectare as against 1608 kg/hectare during
the year 2008-09.

Districtʹwise Area, Yield and Production of Castor Seeds in Gujarat (2009-10)




District
Estimated Area Under
Crop * ('000 ha.)

Estimated Production * ( '000
tonnes)

Estimated Yield * (Kg/ha.)
2008-
09
2009-
10
% Change 2008-
09
2009-
10
% Change 2008-
09
2009-
10
% Change
Ahmedabad 12.00 14.26 19% 19.89 24.60 24% 1657 1725 4%
Banaskantha 102.41 97.93 -4% 180.72 178.24 -1% 1765 1820 3%
Bharuch 7.20 6.81 -5% 11.14 9.60 -14% 1547 1409 -9%
Gandhinagar 30.40 29.24 -4% 53.62 55.25 3% 1764 1890 7%
Jamnagar 12.36 10.36 -16% 21.60 17.77 -18% 1748 1716 -2%
Kachchh 67.88 52.21 -23% 73.18 61.19 -16% 1078 1172 9%
Kheda 13.10 10.83 -17% 20.36 17.04 -16% 1554 1574 1%
Mahesana 53.37 52.09 -2% 93.29 98.22 5% 1748 1886 8%
Panchmahal 2.35 1.95 -17% 3.51 2.76 -21% 1494 1414 -5%
Patan 37.50 41.22 10% 62.92 72.77 16% 1678 1765 5%
Rajkot 12.81 15.20 19% 19.80 23.59 19% 1546 1552 --
Sabarkantha 54.81 54.33 -1% 94.98 102.35 8% 1733 1884 9%
Surendranagar 29.11 34.87 20% 46.62 43.07 -8% 1602 1235 -23%
Vadodara 11.00 11.42 4% 15.69 20.02 28% 1426 1754 23%
Others 4.80 4.65 -3% 7.84 7.81 -- 1597 1679 5%
Total 451.10 437.37 -3% 725.16 734.28 1% 1608 1679 4%
* Nielsen India estimates
Source: http://www.seaofindia.com/castoroil_data/Castor%20Crop%20Survey_2009-10.pdf

Rainfall - This year, Castor producing districts of Gujarat state have received 478 mm, which
is 31% lower than average rainfall in these districts. About 56% farmers perceived that the
rainfall during sowing period was favourable this year.
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Rajasthan
Total area under Castor crop in Rajasthan for the year 2009-10 is 1.18 lakh hectares.
It has decreased by 7% as compared to previous year. This year, area under Castor
crop has mainly decreased in Hanumangarh (43%) and other major district is Sirohi
(4%). Where as the area under crop is increased in Pali district by 10%.

Estimated total production of Castor Seeds in Rajasthan for the year 2009-10 is 1.26
lakh tonnes. It has decreased by 8% as compared to previous year. Production in
Hanumangarh and Sirohi district has decreased by 66% and 18% respectively as
compared to previous year. As against this, the production in Pali, Jodhpur, Barmer
and Jalore districts has increased this year.

Average yield for the year 2009-10 is 1065 kg/hectare, which is 1% lower than
previous year. Yield has mainly decreased in Hanumangarh and Sirohi districts. Last
year also yield was lower than the average yield of Rajasthan

Districtʹwise Area, Yield and Production of Castor Seeds in Rajasthan (2009-10)




District
Estimated Area Under
Crop * ('000 ha.)

Estimated Production * ( '000
tonnes)

Estimated Yield * (Kg/ha.)
2008-
09
2009-
10
% Change 2008-
09
2009-
10
% Change 2008-
09
2009-
10
% Change
Barmer 6.01 5.98 -1% 6.33 6.60 4% 1053 1104 5%
Hanumangarh 17.93 10.18 -43% 13.60 6.07 -66% 758 597 -21%
Jalore 49.11 48.85 -1% 56.81 58.13 2% 1157 1190 3%
Jodhpur 15.84 15.94 1% 16.83 17.67 5% 1062 1108 4%
Pali 3.58 3.92 10% 3.66 4.12 13% 1021 1052 3%
Sirohi 27.93 26.94 -4% 32.40 26.48 -18% 1160 983 -15%
Others 7.27 6.65 -7% 7.80 7.08 -9% 1076 1065 -1%
Total 127.67 118.46 -7% 137.41 126.16 -8% 1076 1065 -1%
* Nielsen India estimates
Source: http://www.seaofindia.com/castoroil_data/Castor%20Crop%20Survey_2009-10.pdf

Rainfall - This year, Castor Seeds producing districts of Rajasthan state have received 214
mm average rainfall, which is 43% less than average rainfall in these districts. Almost all
farmers opined that rainfall during sowing and post sowing was inadequate this year.

Andhra Pradesh

Total area under Castor crop in Andhra Pradesh for the year 2009-10 is 1.35 lakh
hectares. It has decreased by 30% as compared to previous year. Area under Castor
crop has decreased in all other districts of Andhra Pradesh this year except Kurnool.
Similar trend has observed in last year also. Since last 2-3 years, area under Castor
crop in Andhra Pradesh is continuously decreasing.

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Estimated total production of Castor Seeds in Andhra Pradesh for the year 2009-10 is
0.44 lakh tonnes. It has decreased by 38% as compared to previous year due to
decrease in area and yield.

Average yield for the year 2009-10 is 325 kg/hectare, which is 12% lower than the
previous year.

Districtʹwise Area, Yield and Production of Castor Seeds in Andhra Pradesh (2009-10)




District
Estimated Area Under
Crop * ('000 ha.)
Estimated Production
*
( '000 tonnes)

Estimated Yield * (Kg/ha.)
2008-
09
2009-
10
% Change 2008-
09
2009-
10
% Change 2008-
09
2009-
10
% Change
Kurnool 14.85 18.53 25% 6.59 6.17 -6% 444 333 -25%
Mahbubnagar 118.29 79.25 -33% 41.20 24.55 -40% 348 310 -11%
Nalgonda 33.05 18.36 -44% 13.53 6.83 -49% 409 372 -9%
Rangareddy 5.34 4.24 -21% 1.94 1.56 -20% 363 367 1%
Other
Districts

20.16

14.15

-30%

7.44

4.61

-38%

369

326

-12%
Total 191.70 134.53 -30% 70.70 43.72 -38% 369 325 -12%
* Nielsen India estimates
Source: http://www.seaofindia.com/castoroil_data/Castor%20Crop%20Survey_2009-10.pdf

Rainfall - This year, all the Castor Seeds producing districts of Andhra Pradesh state have
received 460 mm average rainfall, which is 10% lower than average rainfall in these districts.
Except Nalgonda district, all other districts have received Normal rainfall this year. Heavy
rainfall during last week of Sept and 1st week of October washed out crop at many places,
mainly in Kurnool and Mahboobnagar districts.

All India

Total area under Castor crop in India for the year 2009-10 is 7.40 lakh hectares. It
has decreased by 10% as compared to previous year.

Estimated total production of Castor Seeds in India for the year 2009-10 is 9.34 lakh
tonnes. It has decreased by 4% as compared to previous year.

Average yield for the year 2009-10 is 1261 kg/hectare as against 1180 kg/hectare
during the year 2008-09. It has increased by 7% as compared to previous year.

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Stateʹwise Area, Yield and Production of Castor Seeds in India (2009-10)





District
Estimated Area Under
Crop * ('000
ha.)
Estimated Production
*
( '000 tonnes)

Estimated Yield *
(Kg/ha.)
2008-
09
2009-
10
%
Change
2008-
09
2009-
10
%
Change
2008-
09
2009-
10
%
Change
Gujarat 451 437 -3% 725 734 1% 1608 1679 4%
Rajasthan 127 118 -7% 137 126 -8% 1076 1065 -1%
Andhra
Pradesh

192

135

-30%

71

44

-38%

369

325

-12%
Other
States #

56

50

-11%

43

30

-30%

760

600

-21%
Total 826 740 -10% 976 934 -4% 1180 1261 7%
* Nielsen India estimates; # Secondary source
Source: http://www.seaofindia.com/castoroil_data/Castor%20Crop%20Survey_2009-10.pdf

2.4.5 Cropping Season in India

Castor is planted during July or August and harvested around December or January. The
seedpods are dried, de-podded and brought to the market yards during January for trading.

2.4.6 Castor Cultivation & Yields in India - Points

Despite phenomenal increase witnessed in the production and productivity of castor
over the last ten years, there still exist wide regional disparities in the per hectare
yields of castor.
With the exception of Gujarat, where the per hectare yields (1630 kg/ha) have
registered three fold increase since 1970, the general productivity levels of castor in
all other parts are around 500 kg/ha. A multitude of factors such as its cultivation in
sub-marginal and marginal lands under rainfed conditions with practically little or no
inputs, use of poor quality seed and inefficient crop management are responsible for
such dismal yield.
The area under castor in Andhra Pradesh has gradually declined in the last five
decades.
Ruling varieties and hybrids of castor in India include Aruna, Sowbhagya, Bhagya,
Kranti and GCH-4.

2.4͘ϳ IŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ SƚĂƚƵƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ Global Castor Oil Industry

As mentioned earlier, India is the undisputed leader in castor oil production. India supplies
over 70% of the total production of castor oil in the world.

PŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ lŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů ĞdžƉŽƌƚƐ ĨŽƌ ϮϬϬϳ-08 were about $ 170 million, which is not a very
large value given the potential for this industry.

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There are two reasons for this low quantum of export revenues:

The total amount of castor oil production worldwide (and thus by India), is relatively
very low when compared to production of other seed-oils.
A ůĂƌŐĞ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ lŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů ĞdžƉŽƌƚƐ ĂƌĞ ƚŚĞ ďĂƐŝĐ ĐŽŵŵŽĚŝƚLJ ŐƌĂĚĞƐ ǁŝƚŚ ǀĞƌLJ
little value addition.

Low Volumes of Castor Oil Production

The worldwide production of castor oil is about 500,000 T per annum. A look at the table
below will show how small this quantity is when looked at from a larger perspective.

Worldwide Production of Fixed Oils

Oilseed Approximate Annual
Production
(in million T)
Soybean Oil 34
Palm Oil 35
Rapeseed Oil 17
Sunflower Oil 10
Cottonseed Oil 4
Groundnut Oil 4
Palm Kernel Oil 3.5
Coconut Oil 3
Corn Oil 2
Sesame Oil 0.7
Linseed Oil 0.5
Castor Oil 0.5
Note: Figures for 2005-06

The total volume of oils and fats produced was about 145 million T in 2007-08, among which
oils from oilseeds would be about 120 MT (CastorOil.in estimate).

One can see that castor oil has less than 0.5% of total world market for oils from oilseeds.

Admittedly, one cannot compare castor oil volumes with the volumes of oils such as palm oil
or soybean oil because these are edible oils and hence they have much larger usage and
demand in the food market. However, the fact that an oil with use as versatile as that of
castor oil has a share of less than 0.5% shows what tremendous potential it has for future
growth.

Low Value Addition by the Indian Castor Oil Industry

The basic grades of castor are the commercial grade, first special grade etc.

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The basic and generation I derivatives are essentially considered commodities and
incorporate small value additions, and provide thin margins (in the range of 5%). The value
additions and profit margins for generation II & III derivatives are significantly higher and
these are very attractive.

The combined revenue potential from the generation II & III derivatives is about $650
million.

Data based on 2007-08 exports show that generation II & III derivatives accounted for less
ƚŚĂŶ ϮϬй ŽĨ lŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů ĞdžƉŽƌƚƐ ;ďLJ ǀĂůƵĞͿ͘ lƚ ŝƐ ĞƐƚŝŵĂƚĞĚ ƚŚĂƚ ǀĂůƵĞ ĨŽƌ ŐĞŶĞƌĂƚŝŽŶ lll
derivatives alone will be almost an insignificant percentage of the total Indian castor oil
exports.

What is the Existing & Current Potential that the Indian Castor Industry Should Capitalize
On?

Compare $650 million to $175-200 million - ƚŚĞ ǀĂůƵĞ ŽĨ lŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů ĞdžƉŽƌƚƐ - and the
value is India is losing out becomes clear. In spite of being the largest castor oil exporter by
far (75% of global exports), India is able to capture only about 25% of the total value from
the market.

Thus, while India could gain a lot more from both higher production of castor oil as well as
higher value addition, it is most likely that a higher focus on value added products will be the
most optimal method for the short and medium term, owing to a number of structural and
market related factors.

2.5 Demand - Supply Estimates for Castor Oil Derivatives

According to the industry nomenclature, generation I derivatives include hydrogenated
castor oil, 12-hydroxy stearic acid, dehydrated castor oil acid, and ethoxylated castor oil
among others. Generation II castor oil derivatives include sebacic acid, undecyclenic acid,
heptaldehyde, polyols and dimer acid. Generation III derivatives include the esters and salts
of generation II derivatives as well as derivatives such as methyl-12-hydroxystearate.

The global market for generation II castor oil derivatives is estimated at $300 million (based
on 2007 data). For generation III derivatives, where half of the generation II derivatives are
converted, the estimated market worth is close to $350 million (based on 2007 data).

Overall, the castor oil and derivatives industry have shown an average demand growth of
about 4% per annum for the period 2000-2007. While the demand for castor oil and castor
oil derivatives is on the increase, except for some of the derivatives such as HCO, 12-HSA,
the demand is quite relatively low in quantities for reliable data availability. Data availability
for demand and supplies for many of these derivative chemicals is sparse as well.

The following table provides qualitative estimates of worldwide demand and demand-
supply gaps for the various grades and derivatives of castor oil. While we have made an
attempt at quantifying the qualitative benchmarks at the end of the table, the numbers
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should be taken more as intelligent estimates rather than as official data, because there are
no official data available for specific grades and derivatives of castor oil.

It is requested that the following data hence be considered as approximate and qualitative
estimates. These have been computed based on secondary data, industry interactions, and
transactions done by CastorOil.in in the past 4 years.

2.5.1 Current Demand-Supply Estimates for the Various Grades of Castor Oil and
Derivatives

Product Demand
Current Demand
Supply Gap
Castor Seed High Medium
Castor Meal / Castor Residue High High
Hydrogenated Castor Oil (HCO) Medium Medium
12 Hydroxy Stearic Acid (12 HSA) Medium Medium
Methyl 12 HSA (Hydroxy Stearate Acid) Low-Medium Medium
Blown Castor Oil Low-Medium Medium
Sulfated/Sulfonated Castor Oil, Turkey Red Oil Medium Medium
COLM (Urethane Grade) Medium-High Medium-High
Commercial Grade Castor Oil Very High Medium
BP Grade Castor Oil Medium Medium
Deodorized/Deodourised Castor Oil Medium Medium
European Pharmacoepia Grade Castor Oil Medium Medium
Extra Pale Grade Caster Oil Low Medium
Pale Pressed Grade (PPG) Grade Caster Oil Medium Medium
First Pressed Degummed Castor Oil Medium-High Medium
First Special Grade (FSG) Castor Oil Very High Medium
United States Pharmacopia (USP) Castor Oil High Medium
Dehydrated Castor Oil (DCO) Medium-High Medium
Ethoxylated Castor Oil Medium High
C 3 Derivatives of Castor Oil
Glycerine Very High Low
C-7 Derivatives of Castor Oil
Heptanoic Acid Low Medium
Heptaldehyde Low Medium
Heptyl Alcohol (Heptanol) Low Medium
C 11 Derivatives of Castor Oil
Undecylenic Acid Very High
1
Very High
1

Undecanoic Acid Low NA
Undecylenic Aldehyde Low NA
Undecylenic Alcohol Low NA
Calcium Undecylenate Low NA
Zinc Undecylenate Low NA
Allyl Undecylenate Low NA
Sodium Undecylenate Low NA
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Methyl Undecylenate Low NA
Ethyl Undecylenate Low NA
C 18 Derivatives of Castor Oil
Esterols Not known NA
Ricinoleic Acid Medium Medium
Methyl Ricinoleate Low-Medium Medium
Sebacic Acid Very High
2
Medium-High
2-Octanol Low Medium
1
A very large percentage of Undecylenic Acid is used by Arkema to manufacture Nylon 11
2
Large percentage of Sebacic acid is used for the manufacture of Nylon 6

Notations for Demand
Very High: 50,000 T and above per year
High: 30,000 - 50,000 T per year
Medium-High: 15,000-30,000 T per year
Medium: 5,000-15,000 T per year
Low-Medium: 1,000-5,000 T per year
Low: Less than 1,000 T per year

Notations for Demand-Supply Gap

Medium: There exists some demand over and above supply, but there has not been a
significant amount of demand that has gone unmet

Medium-High: There have been some instances where a significant demand has gone unmet

High: There have been many instances where a significant demand in the market has gone
unmet

Low: There have been very few instances when a significant demand has gone unmet
NA: denotes that info on demand supply gap is not available owing to the negligible demand
volumes

2.5.2 Future Demand-Supply Estimates for the Various Grades of Castor Oil and
Derivatives

Growth of Key End-User Segments

The major end-use industries for castor oil derivatives castor oil are:

Lubricants & Greases
Coatings
Personal Care & Detergent
Surfactants
Oleochemicals

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Growth of Key End-user Industry Segments for Castor Oil Derivatives

Industry % Growth (CAGR), based
on 2005 data
Potential
Lubricants & Greases 2 44 million T by 2012
Coatings 4.9% (about 11% in Asia!) -
Personal Care & Detergent 6% $375 billion by 2012
Surfactants 4% $16.65 billion by 2012
Oleochemicals 4% 8.5 million T by 2012

Over the past one decade, the growth in demand for castor oil and derivatives has been
about 4-5% per annum (CAGR). If one looks at the table above, this % growth seems to be in
line with the CAGR for the various industries. However, one must remember than a very
large percentage of the high value added derivatives are produced by companies outside
India, and India simply supplies the commodity oils to them. That is, while the demand in
quantity for Indian castor oil has been growing at 4-5%, India gets a small share of the actual
profits that result from high value add.

Apart from this, there are other emerging segments that could hold even more significant
potential for castor oil derivatives.

LĞƚ͛Ɛ ůŽŽŬ Ăƚ ƐŽŵĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŽƚŚĞƌ ƐĞŐŵĞŶƚƐ ŝŶ ǁŚŝĐŚ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů ĐĂŶ ƉůĂLJ Ă ƌŽůĞ͗

Growth Prospects for Bio-based Products

A McKinsey & Co. 2006 survey provides the following data for the potential for bio-based
materials in 2010

Market segment
Market size in 2010
($billion)
Growth %
2005-10
CAGR 2005-10
Biofuels 42 100 15%
Plant extracts 23 20 3.7%
Pharma ingredients 20 100 15%
Bulk chemicals and
polymers 15 50 8.5%
Food ingredients 11 35 6.1%
Oleochemicals 8 6 1.1%
Enzymes 4 100 15%

An analysis of the above table shows that there are some market segments that have much
higher growth potential and in which castor oil could play a significant role.

Among the segments in the table above, it is doubtful whether castor oil can have a
ƐŝŐŶŝĨŝĐĂŶƚ ƌŽůĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ďŝŽĨƵĞůƐ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌLJ͕ ŐŝǀĞŶ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů͛Ɛ ƌĞůĂƚŝǀĞůLJ ŚŝŐŚ ĐŽƐƚ ĂƐ ǁĞůů ĂƐ ƚŚĞ
small quantities of castor oil produced when compared to the massive volumes required for
transportation fuel. However, in high growth segments such as pharma ingredients,
biopolymers and food ingredients castor oil could have a considerable role to play. While in
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some of these segments (pharma for instance), castor oil already is a contributor, it is
expected that there will be many more segments within pharma as well as the other two in
which castor oil can significantly increase its presence.

Demand-Supply Estimates

Based on its research, CastorOil.in makes following estimations for future demand of
various products. Please note that most of these are based on qualitative inputs as scarce
official inputs are available for some of the derivatives mentioned

Product Future Demand Current Demand
Castor Seed Very High High
Castor Meal / Castor Residue Very High High
Hydrogenated Castor Oil (HCO) Very High Medium
12 Hydroxy Stearic Acid (12 HSA) Very High Medium
Methyl 12 HSA (Hydroxy Stearate Acid) Medium-High Low-Medium
Blown Castor Oil Medium Low-Medium
Sulfated/Sulfonated Castor Oil, Turkey
Red Oil
Medium-High Medium
COLM (Urethane Grade) Very High Medium-High
Commercial / Industrial Grade Castor Oil Very High Very High
BP Grade Castor Oil Medium-High Medium
Deodorized Castor Oil Medium-High Medium
European Pharmacoepia Grade Castor
Oil
High Medium
Extra Pale Grade Castor Oil Low Low
Pale Pressed Grade (PPG) Grade Castor
Oil
Medium-High Medium
First Pressed Degummed Castor Oil Medium-High Medium-High
First Special Grade (FSG) Castor Oil Very High Very High
United States Pharmacopia (USP) Castor
Oil
High High
Dehydrated Castor Oil (DCO) Very High Medium-High
Ethoxylated Castor Oil High Medium
C 3 Derivatives of Castor Oil
Glycerine Very High Very High
C-7 Derivatives of Castoroil
Heptanoic Acid Low Low
Heptaldehyde Low Low
Heptyl Alcohol (Heptanol) Low Low
C 11 Derivatives of Castor Oil
Undecylenic Acid Very High Very High
Undecanoic Acid Low Low
Undecylenic Aldehyde Low Low
Undecylenic Alcohol Low Low
Calcium Undecylenate Low Low
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Zinc Undecylenate Low Low
Allyl Undecylenate Low Low
Sodium Undecylenate Low Low
Methyl Undecylenate Low Low
Ethyl Undecylenate Low Low
C 18 Derivatives of Castor Oil
Ricinoleic Acid High Medium
Methyl Ricinoleate Low-Medium Low-Medium
Sebacic Acid Very High High
2-Octanol Low Low

Notations for Demand

Very High: 25,000 T and above per year
High: 10,000 ʹ 25,000 T per year
Medium-High: 5,000-10,000 T per year
Medium: 2,500-5,000 T per year
Low-Medium: 1,000-2,500 T per year
Low: Less than 1,000 T per year

SUMMARY


There is a significant demand supply gap for castor oil and its derivatives in the market. The
demand for castor oil is increasing at the rate of 3 to 5 percent per annum, but only three
countries, namely India, China and Brazil are currently supplying to the world market. In
addition, castor oil has less than 0.5 percent of the total world market for oils from seeds. In
the context of castor oil derivatives, relatively few companies are involved in production.
This shows the significant potential for new entrepreneurs in this sector.

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3 - Castor Oil Chemicals & Derivatives

This chapter comprises the following topics

Introduction ʹ 3.1
Properties & Chemical Composition of Castor Oil ʹ 3.2
Chemical, Physical Properties & Specifications of Castor Oil Grades & Derivatives ʹ
3.3


HIGHLIGHTS


Castor oil and derivatives find applications in diverse industries.

The high viscosity makes the oil useful as a component in blending lubricants.

Because of its higher polar hydroxyl groups, castor oil is not only compatible with but
will also plasticize a wide variety of natural and synthetic resins, waxes, polymers
and elastomers.

Castor oil has excellent emollient properties as well as a marked ability to wet and
dispeƌƐĞ ĚLJĞƐ͕ ƉŝŐŵĞŶƚƐ ĂŶĚ ĨŝůůĞƌƐ͘ lŶ ƚŚĞ ĨŽƌŵ ŽĨ ŝƚƐ ĐŚĞŵŝĐĂů ĚĞƌŝǀĂƚŝǀĞƐ͕ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů͛Ɛ
application versatility is further enhanced.

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3.1 Introduction

While castor oil is popular in itself, its various derivatives and their unique properties and
consequent applications make castor oil even more important in the plant and vegetable
oils hierarchy.

Castor Plant Chemistry

Leaves: Per 100 g, the leaves are reported to contain on a zero-moisture basis, 24.8 g
protein, 5.4 g fat, 57.4 g total carbohydrate, 10.3 g fiber, 12.4 g ash, 2,670 mg Ca, and 460
mg P.

Seeds: The seed contains about 5% moisture, 12.0ʹ16.0% protein, 45.0ʹ50% oil, 3.0ʹ7.0
NFE, 23ʹ27% CF, and 2.0ʹ2.2% ash. Seeds are high in phosphorus, 90% in the phytic form.
Also present in the seed are 60 mg/kg uric acid and 7 ppm HCN. The seeds also contain a
powerful lipase, employed for commercial hydrolysis of fats, and amylase, invertase,
maltase, endotrypsin, glycolic acid, oxidase, ribonuclease, and a fat-soluble zymogen.
Sprouting seeds contain catalase, peroxidase and reductase.

Summary List of Key Derivatives of Castor Oil

Commercial Castor Oil First Pressed Degummed Grade Castor Oil
Refined Castor Oil - F.S.G./B.S.S. Refined Castor Oil - Extra Pale Grade
Refined Castor Oil - Pale Pressed Grade Castor Oil Pharmaceutical (I.P/B.P./U.S.P.)
Sulfonated Castor Oil - Turkey Red Oil Blown Castor Oil
Ricinoleic Acid Hydrogenated Castor Oil
12-Hydroxy Stearic Acid (12-H.S.A.) Methyl-12-Hydroxy Stearate
Methyl Ricinoleate Urethane Modified Castor Oil
Dehydrated Castor Oil (DCO) Glycerine
Urethane Grade Ethoxylated Castor Oil
Sebacic Acid Heptaldehyde
2-Heptanol Undecylenic Aldehyde
Methyl Undecylenate 2-Octanol
Undecanoic Acid Undecylenic Acid
Calcium Undecylenate Zinc Undecylenate
Zinc Ricinoleate Heptanoic Acid

3.2 Properties & Chemical Composition of Castor Oil

Castor oil's chemical formula is: CH
3
-(CH
2
)
5
-CH(OH)-CH
2
-CH=CH-(CH
2
)
7
-COOH

It is a fatty acid with 18 carbon atoms, a double bond between the ninth and tenth carbons,
and is hence also known as Dodecahydroxyoleic Acid. No other vegetable oil contains such a
diverse and high proportion of fatty hydroxyacids.

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Unique to castor oil is that regardless of where the beans are grown, the chemical
composition remains constant. It is this consistency that has allowed castor oil to be used as
the absolute standard for viscosity by the Bureau of Standards.

Castor oil has a molecular weight of 298, a low melting point (5°C) and a low solidification
point (12°C to -18°C). It is a monounsaturated fatty acid, soluble in pure alcohol, insoluble in
water and has some miscibility in petroleum aliphatic solvents. It resists heat and leaves
virtually no residue.

Castor Oil Chemistry and Composition

Castor oil is unique among all fats and oils in that:

It is the only source of an 18-carbon hydroxylated fatty acid with one double bond

Ricinoleic acid (12-Hydroxyoleic Acid) comprises approximately 87% of the fatty acid
composition

Product uniformity and consistency are relatively high for a naturally occurring
material

It is a toxic, biodegradable, renewable resource



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Castor Oil Composition vs. Composition of Other Vegetable Oils

Crop
% A vg. Oil
Content
Oleic
Acid
Linoleic
Acid
Linolenic
Acid
Ricinoleic
Acid
Castor 45% 3% 4.2% 0.3% 90%
Rape Seed 42% 32% 19% 7% -0-
Linseed 38% 20% 16% 50% -0-
Sunflower 48% 26% 62% -0- -0-
Soybean 18% 27% 53% 7% -0-
Palm 52% 40% 8% -0- -0-

Like other vegetable oils and animal fats, castor oil is a triglyceride, which chemically is a
glycerol molecule with each of its three hydroxyl group esterified with a long chain fatty
acid.

Apart from ricinoleic acid, the other fatty acids present are linoleic (4.2%), oleic (3.0%),
stearic (1%), palmitic (1%), di-hydroxystearic acid (0.7%), linolenic acid (0.3%), and
eicosanoic acid (0.3%).

The chemistry of castor oil is centered on its high content of ricinoleic acid and the three
points of functionality existing in the molecule. These are:

(1) The carboxyl group which can provide a wide range of esterifications;
(2) The single point of unsaturation which can be altered by hydrogenation or epoxidation
or vulcanization; and

(3) The hydroxyl group which can be acetylated or alkoxylated, may be removed by
dehydration to increase the unsaturation of the compound to give semi-drying oil.

The hydroxyl position is so reactive that the molecule can be split at that point by high-
temperature pyrolysis and by caustic fusion to yield useful products of shorter chain length.
The presence of hydroxyl group on castor oil adds extra stability to the oil and its derivatives
by preventing the formation of hydroperoxides.

Properties

Density @ 20°C 0.956-0.963g/ml
Refractive Index 1.477 -1.479
Saponification Number 177-187
Iodine Value 82-88
Unsaponifiable Matter 0.3-0.5%
Hydroxyl Number 160mm
Viscosity @ 20°C 9.5-10.0 dPa.S

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Crude castor oil is pale straw in colour but turns colourless or slightly yellowish after refining
and bleaching.

Like all other vegetable oils, castor oil has different physical and chemical properties that
vary with the method of extraction. Cold-pressed castor oil has low acid value, low iodine
value and a slightly higher saponification value than solvent-extracted oil, and it is lighter in
colour.

The oil is characterized by high viscosity, unusual for a natural vegetable oil. This behaviour
is due largely to hydrogen bonding of its hydroxyl groups. The high viscosity makes the oil
useful as a component in blending lubricants. The hydroxyl groups in castor oil account for a
unique combination of physical properties:

Relatively high viscosity and specific gravity
Solubility in alcohols in any proportion
Limited solubility in aliphatic petroleum solvents

The uniformity and reliability of its physical properties are demonstrated by the long-term
use of castor oil as an absolute standard for viscosity. Because of its higher polar hydroxyl
groups, castor oil is not only compatible with but will plasticize a wide variety of natural and
synthetic resins, waxes, polymers and elastomers. Castor oil also has excellent emollient and
lubricating properties as well as a marked ability to wet and disperse dyes, pigments and
ĨŝůůĞƌƐ͘ lŶ ƚŚĞ ĨŽƌŵ ŽĨ ŝƚƐ ĐŚĞŵŝĐĂů ĚĞƌŝǀĂƚŝǀĞƐ͕ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů͛Ɛ ĂƉƉůŝĐĂƚŝŽŶ ǀĞƌƐĂƚŝůŝƚLJ ŝƐ ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ
enhanced.

Although castor oil is a unique naturally-occurring polyhydroxy compound, a limitation of
the oil is the slight reduction of its hydroxyl value and acid value on storage; both values
may change by about 10% if stored for about 90 days. The reduction of these values is due
to the reaction between hydroxyl and carboxyl groups in the oil molecule to form estolides.

3.3 Chemical, Physical Properties & Specifications of Castor Oil Grades &
Derivatives

Commercial Grade Castor Oil

Appearance Pale Dark Yellow
CŽůŽƵƌ ŝŶ ϭ͟ CĞůů͕ ?нϱ8 LŽǀŝďond 30 units max.
Iodine Value 82 ʹ 90
Saponification Value 177 ʹ 187
Hydroxyl Value 160 min.
Acid Value 2.0 max.
Moisture & Volatiles 0.50% max.
Specific Gravity @ 20
o
C 0.954 ʹ 0.967

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BP Grade Castor Oil

CAS Number 8001-79-4
EINECS 292-293-8
Colour Nearly Colourless or Faintly Yellow
Relative Density at 20ºC 0.952-0.965
Moisture 0.3% max.
Iodine Value 82-90
Saponification Value 176-187
Acid Value 2.0 max.
Unsaponfiables w/w 0.8% max.
Optical Rotation between +3.5º and 6.0º
Hydroxyl Value 150 min.
Peroxide Value 5.0 max
Light Absorption 1.0 max

Pale Pressed Castor Oil

CAS Number 8001-79-4
Flash Point >440
o
F, >227
o
C
HCC V6
Boiling Point >450
o
F,>232
o
C
Vapour Density >Air
Colour Gardner 2 Max
Acid Value 1.5
% Moisture & Volatile 0.25 Max
Hydroxyl Value 160-168
Iodine Value 83-88
Saponification Value 175-185
Viscosity @ 25
o
C 6.3-8.9

Castor Oil U.S.P

CAS Number 8001-79-4
Flash Point 229
o
C (444
o
F) CC
Autoignition Temperature 449
o
C (840
o
F)
Appearance Light yellow viscous liquid
Odor Slight characteristic odor
Solubility Negligible (< 0.1%)
Specific Gravity 0.961-0.963 @ 15.5
o
C
% Volatiles by volume @ 21
o
C (70
o
F) 100
Boiling Point 313
o
C (595
o
F)
Melting Point -10
o
C (14
o
F)

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Dehydrated Castor Oil

CAS Number 61789-45-5
Appearance Viscous liquid
Colour Gardner 6 Max
Acid Value 5 Max
Iodine Value 123 Min
Hydroxyl Value 25 Max
Saponification Value 185 ʹ 194
Viscocity at 30 ºC 1.6 to 2.5 (poise 61 sec B4 cup)
Viscocity Gardner G ʹ J

Refined Castor Oil ʹ FSG (First Special Grade)

Appearance Pale Yellow, Viscous, Clear liquid
M .I .V. 0.25 % max.
F.F.A. (as oleic) 1.00 % max.
Acid Value 2.00 % max.
Iodine Value (Wijs) 82 ʹ 90
Saponification Value 177 ʹ 185
Hydroxyl Value 158 ʹ 163
Colour on lovibond in 5.2ϱ͟ĐĞůů Y- 20.0 Max. R - 2.0 Max.

Castor Oil BSS Grade (British Standard Specifications)

Specific Gravity at 25° C 0.954-0.960
Acid Value 2.0 Max.
Saponification Value 175.0 Min.
Iodine Value 81-90
Hydroxyl Value 158 Min.
Colour Gardner 2.0 Max.

Blown Castor Oil


Colour
Gardner Acid Value
Hydroxyl
Value
Iodine
Value
Saponification
Value
Viscosity
Gardner-
Holdt/Strokes
Z-1 6 Max 12-16 151-158 69-73 200-220 Z-1/25-35
Z-6 12 Max 10-17 130-140 56-65 210-230 Z-5,6/100-150
Z-8 16 Max 11-16 125-135 58-66 220-245 Z-8/450-600

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Urethane Grade


Color
Gardner
Acid
Value
%
Moisture
& Volatile
Equivalent
Weight
Hydroxyl
Value
Iodine
Value
Sapon
Value
Viscosity
@ 25º C
COLM
2 Plus
Max 2.0 Max 0.02 Max 342 160-168 83-88 175-185 6.3-8.9

Ethoxylated Castor Oil

Synonyms - Castor oil polyoxyethylene ether

Typical properties of Ethoxylated Castor Oil (the properties given are for EO-36)

CAS Number 61791-12-6
Appearance Clear or light yellow liquid
Density ( g / cm-3) @ 25
o
C 1.05
pH (5% in water) 5ʹ7
Cloud point, °C 68ʹ75
Hydroxyl Value, mg KOH/g 37ʹ45
Moisture, Percent Max 0.5

12 HSA

12 HSA (12 Hydroxy Stearic Acid) is a wax-like, odourless and tasteless compound. The basic
form of 12 HSA is a flake.

CAS Number 106-14-9
Formula C
18
H
36
O
3

Appearance White Colour Flakes
Acid Value 175 Min.
Iodine Value 3.5 Max.
Melting Point 75°C Min.
Saponification Value 180-190
Hydroxyl Value 155 Min.
Colour Gardner (G) 5G Max.
Moisture 0.5 % Max.

Turkey Red Oil

CAS Number 8002-33-3
Appearance Brownish yellow oil
Sp.Gravity 0.98
Melting Point
< 0°C
Boiling Point > 150°C
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Chemical Character Anionic
pH 7 ~ 8
Sulfonation Degree
Minimum 4.0
Solubility Miscible in water giving milky emulsion

HCO - Hydrogenated Castor Oil

CAS Number 61788-85-0
Hydroxyl Value 158
Iodine Value 3
Saponification Value 180
Acid Value 2
Melting Point °C 86
Specific Gravity 25°C 1.02
Color White to pale yellowish
Appearance @ 20°C: Solid (mobile liquid @ 30°C)
Odor Almost none
Flash Point °C 242 C DIN ISO 2592
Solubility in Water @ 20°C 100G/L
pH @ 100G/L H
2
O 6 ʹ 7

Ricinoleic Acid

Ricinoleic Acid (12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid) is obtained by the hydrolysis of Castor Oil.
It is a light coloured liquid with a ricinoleic content of approximately 90%. Primary uses
include, coatings, plastics, inks and cosmetics

Biochemical studies have revealed that ricinoleic acid is produced in castor by the direct
hydroxylation of the common fatty acid, oleic acid (18:1). The hydroxylation reaction is
catalysed by a single, highly efficient enzyme, the fatty acid hydroxylase.



IUPAC Name - (E)-12-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid

Synonyms - 12-hydroxy-(cis)-9-octadecenoic acid

CAS Number 5323-95-5
Chemical Formula C
18
H
34
O
3

Mol Wt. 298.46
Physical State Viscous yellow liquid
Melting Point 5.5
o
C
Boiling Point 245
o
C
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Specific Gravity 0.94
Solubility in Water Insoluble
Vapour Density 10.3
Flash Point 224
o
C
Stability Stable under ordinary conditions
Appearance Viscous yellow liquid
Acid Value 175 min
Hydroxyl Value 150 min
Iodine Value 80-91
Saponification Value 180 min
Colour, Gardner 8 max

Methyl 12 HSA -Methyl 12 Hydroxy Stearate

Hydroxyl Value 160+
Iodine Value 3
Saponification Value 175+
Acid Value 1.2
Melting Point °C 52
Specific Gravity 25 °C 1.02

Sebacic Acid

Sebacic acid is a dicarboxylic acid.

Chemical, Physical Properties & Specifications of Sebacic Acid

Chemical Names
Decanedioic acid
1,8-Octanedicarboxylic Acid
Dicarboxylic acid C
10

Chemical Formula C
10
H
18
O
4

CAS Number 111-20-6
Physical State and Appearance
White flake or powdered crystal in its pure
state
Molecular Weight 202.24 g/mole
Color Colorless to light yellow
Odour Mild odor of fatty acid.
Boiling Point Decomposes
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Melting Point 132°C (269.6°F)
Specific Gravity 1.207 (Water = 1)
Density at 25
o
C 1.209 g per cubic centimeter
Dispersion Properties
See solubility in water, methanol, diethyl
ether, acetone

A Sample Producer Specification for Sebacic Acid - Form: Powder

Parameter
Values
Special High-grade High-grade I High-grade II
Sebacic Acid Content (%) 99.5 min 99.5 min 99.5 min
Ash Content (%) 0.02 max 0.03 max 0.05 max
Moisture Content (%) 0.3 max 0.3 max 0.3 max
Alkaifusion Specific Color
(Platinum-Cobalt Color
No.)
5 max 15 max 25 max
Melting Point Range
o
C 131 to 134.5 131 to 134.5 131 to 134.5

Form: Grain
Parameter Value
Sebacic Acid Content (%) 99.5 min
Ash Content (%) 0.03 max
Moisture Content (%) 0.1 max
Alkali Fusion Chromaticity (Platinum-Cobalt Color No.) 25 max
Melting Point Range,
o
C 131 to 134.5
Granularity (%) 95 and higher

Heptaldehyde

Synonyms: Enanthal, enanthaldehyde, enanthole, heptyl aldehyde, enanthic aldehyde, n-
heptaldehyde, heptanal, n-heptanal

CAS Number 111-71-7
Molecular Formula C
7
H
14
O
Appearance Colourless Liquid
Melting Point -43
o
C
Boiling Point 40 ʹ 42
o
C
Density (g cm-3) 0.818
Flash Point 35
o
C
Explosion Limits 1.1 - 5.2%
Water Solubility Slight
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2-Heptanol

Synonyms: Amyl methyl carbinol, 5-heptyl alcohol, heptan-2-ol, methyl amyl carbinol, 1-
methylhexanol

CAS Number 543-49-7
Molecular Formula C
7
H
16
O
Appearance Colourless Liquid
Boiling Point 160 ʹ 162
o
C
Density (g/cm
3
) 0.817
Flash Point 64
o
C

Undecylenic Aldehyde

Synonyms: 10-Undecenal; C-11 Aldehyde, undecylenic; 1-Undecen-10-al; 10-
Undecylenaldehyde; Undecylenaldehyde

CAS Number 112-45-8
Molecular Formula C
11
H
20
O
Molecular Weight 168.28
Appearance Clear, colorless to pale yellow liquid.
Flash Point 76
o
C ( 168.80
o
F)
Physical State Liquid
Appearance Clear, colorless to pale yellow
Odor Rose-like
Vapour Density 5.8
Boiling Point 235
o
C
Freezing/Melting Point 7
o
C
Solubility Insoluble
Specific Gravity/Density 845 g/ml

Methyl Undecylenate

CAS Number 5760-50-9
Formula C
12
H
22
O
2

Molar Refractivity 59.47 ± 0.3 cm3
Parachor 521.5 ± 4.0 cm3
Index of Refraction 1.444 ± 0.02
Surface Tension 29.5 ± 3.0 dyne/cm
Density 0.886 ± 0.06 g/cm3
Polarizability 23.57 ± 0.5 10-24cm3
Molecular Weight 198.3018800
Odor Type Earthy
Odor Strength Medium
Odor Description at 100.00% Earthy Fungal Rose Fatty Floral
Substantivity 24 Hour(s)
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Appearance Colorless to pale yellow clear liquid
Assay 98.00 - 100.00 %
Specific Gravity 0.87900 - 0.88900 @ 25.00 °C
Optical Rotation -2.00 to +2.00
Melting Point -28.00 - -27.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point 247.00 - 248.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point 159.00 - 160.00 °C. @ 50.00 mm Hg
Acid Value 1.00 max. KOH/g
Shelf Life 24.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly
Flash Point (
o
F. ) > 200.00 °F. TCC (> 93.33 °C.)

2-Octanol

Synonyms: capryl alcohol, caprylic alcohol, ethylpentylcarbinol

CAS Number 123-96-6
Molecular Formula C
8
H
18
O [ Structural CH
3
(CH
2
)
5
COHCH
3
]
Appearance Colourless liquid with a pungent odour
Melting Point -38
o
C
Boiling Point 174 ʹ 181
o
C
Vapour Pressure 0.15 mm Hg at 25
o
C
Specific Gravity 0.819
Flash Point 71
o
C (closed cup)

Glycerine

Synonyms: Glycerol; 1,2,3-Propanetriol; Glyceritol; Glycic Alcohol; 1,2,3-Trihydroxypropane;
1,2,3-Propanetriol

CAS Number 56-81-5
Molecular Formula C
3
H
8
O
3

Molecular Weight 92.0542
Physical State Liquid
Appearance Clear
Odor Faint odour
Vapour Pressure .0025 mm Hg @ 5
Vapour Density 3.17 (H2O=1)
Boiling Point 290
o
C
Freezing/Melting Point 20
o
F
Autoignition Temperature 400
o
C ( 752.00 deg F)
Flash Point 193
o
C ( 379.40 deg F)
Decomposition Temperature 290
o
C
Solubility Miscible in water. Insoluble in chloroform
Specific Gravity/Density 1.4746

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Undecanoic Acid

Synonyms: 1-decanecarboxylic acid, hendecanoic acid, undecoic acid, undecylic acid, N-
undecoic acid, hendecanoic acid, N-undecylic acid, 1-decane carboxylic acid, N-undecanoic
acid

CAS Number 112-37-8
Chemical Formula C
11
-H
22
-O
2

Appearance Colourless to light yellow liquid or solid
Odour Waxy, creamy, coconut odour
Physical State and Appearance
Solid. (Low Melting Point Solid. Above
28.5
o
C it is a colorless to slightly yellow
liquid)
Flash Points Closed Cup: >93.333°C (200°F)
Molecular Weight 186.3 g/mole
Boiling Point 228°C (442.4°F)
Melting Point 28.5°C (83.3°F)
Appearance Colourless crystals

Undecylenic Acid

Synonyms: 10-Hendecenoic; 10-Henedecenoic acid; 10-Undecylenic acid; Undecyl-10-enic
acid

CAS Number 112-38-9
Chemical Formula C
11
-H
20
-O
2

Auto-Ignition Temperature 275°C (527°F)
Flash Points
Closed Cup: 148°C (298.4°F). Open Cup:
160°C (320°F)
Physical state and appearance Solid (low melting point solid)
Odour Fruity. Rosy
Molecular Weight 184.28 g/mole
Colour Yellow. (Light.)
Boiling Point
232 -235
o
C.@ 182 mm Hg; 230 ʹ 235
o
C.@
130 mm Hg.
Melting Point 24.5°C (76.1°F)
Specific Gravity 0.9072 (Water = 1)
Decomposition Temperature 275°C (527°F) @ 760 mm Hg

Calcium Undecylenate

CAS Number 1322-14-1
Chemical Formula C
22
H
38
O
4
Ca
Physical state and appearance Solid
Molecular Weight 406.62 g/mole
Melting Point Decomposes
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Zinc Undecylenate

Synonyms - Zinc diundec-10-enoate; Undecylenic acid zinc salt

CAS Number 557-08-4
Chemical Formula C
22
H
38
O
4
Zn
Physical state and appearance Solid
Molecular Weight 431.92 g/mole

Zinc Ricinoleate

Zinc Ricinoleate 13040-19-2
Melting Point 160
o
F
pH 6.6
Specific Gravity Approx. 600 kg/m3
Solubility in Water Insoluble
Appearance & Odour Beige pellets with characteristic odor
Flash Point >482
o
F
Auto Ignition Temperature Approx. 824.00
o
F

Heptanoic Acid

Synonym: 1-Hexanecarboxylic acid; Enanthic acid; Enanthylic acid; Heptylic acid; n- Heptoic
acid; n-Heptylic acid; Oenanthic acid; Oenanthylic acid

CAS Number 111-14-8
Chemical Formula CH
3
-(CH
2
)
5
-COOH
Flammability of the Product May be combustible at high temperature
Auto-Ignition Temperature 289°C (552.2°F)
Flash Points Closed Cup: >112°C (233.6°F)
Flammable Limits Lower: 1.1% Upper: 10%
Products of Combustion Carbon oxides (CO, CO
2
)
Physical State and Appearance Liquid (Oily liquid)
Odour Disagreeable. Rancid. Faint Tallow-like
Molecular Weight 130.19 g/mole
Colour Clear
pH (1% soln/water) Acidic
Boiling Point 222.2°C (432°F)
Melting Point -7.5°C (18.5°F)
Specific Gravity 0.92 (Water = 1)
Vapour Density 4.49 (Air = 1)
Water/Oil Dist. Coeff.
The product is more soluble in oil;
log(oil/water) = 2.4


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SUMMARY


Unique properties of castor oil make it versatile industrial oil with varied applications.

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4 ʹ Castor Oil Prices

This chapter comprises the following topics

Historical & Current Price Data for Castor Oil, Castor Seeds ʹ 4.1
Castor Oil and Castor Seed Price Volatility ʹ 4.2
Factors that Affect Prices ʹ 4.3
Castor Oil Futures Market ʹ 4.4


HIGHLIGHTS


Castor oil prices are highly volatile.

There is a wide intra and inter seasonal price variation. The price in US$ is made
even more volatile due to the volatility of the Indian Re. against the US $.

There is a price variation of about 30% between planting and harvesting seasons.


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4.1 Historical & Current Price Data for Various Grades of Castor Oil, Castor
Seeds

Castor oil prices are highly volatile. An example of volatility is seen in seed prices

There is a wide intra and inter seasonal price variation. The price in US$ is made even more
volatile due to the volatility of the Indian Re. against the US $.

The price increase of castor seeds has been quite dramatic since the middle of 2007. It
increased by over 30% between June 2007 and June 2008.

Usually, the prices of castor seeds firm up during the planting period that is Jul ʹ Aug due to
lesser availability. It eases down during the harvesting period (Jan ʹ Feb) as a result of
increase in supply. There is a price variation of about 30% between planting and harvesting
seasons.

Factors to watch out for regarding castor oil prices:

Production constant since 2-3 years
World demand for castor oil is increasing @ 3-5 % per annum
Export demand expected to increase significantly in future

Some other points to note about castor oil prices:

It is generally believed that being a versatile industrial oil with varied applications,
demand for castor oil is price inelastic. There is invariably a minimum quantity of this
commodity that is consumed annually by advanced countries irrespective of price.
Between 2006 and 2009, prices have fluctuated in a wide range between a low of
$650 a ton and the present high of $ 1,500 a ton.

Castor Seed

Average Prices for Castor Seeds
(all prices in US$, FOB Mumbai)
Year Prices - $ / MT
2004 400
2005 410
2006 350
2007 475
2008 (Jan - June) 575
2008 (Jun ʹ Dec) 675
2009 (Jan - Jun) 515
2009 (June ʹ Dec) 589

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Monthwise Castor Seed Price (Average)
(US$/T, NCDEX)

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Jan 318 434 511
524
629
Feb 325 449 546
487
627
Mar 336 462 594
489
640
Apr 325 486 580
519
663.5
May 316 473 580
539
695
Jun 317 470 612
532
731
Jul 342 481 699
543
804.5
Aug 344 479 707
574
819
Sep 368 477 698
592
889
Oct 391 478 662
592
812
Nov 404 497 651
639

Dec 398 513 637
648

Note: 1 US$= 45 Rs.
Castor Seed Price (Average)



Castor Oil

Castor Oil Prices (average price for commercial grade) ʹ US$/T, FOB Mumbai

Year Price
2002 675
2003 925
2004 850
2005 925
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2006 775
2007 1025
2008 (Feb) 1160
2008 (June) 1350
2009 (Jan) 1050
2009 (June) 1104
2010 (Jan) 1330

Monthwise Castor Oil Price (Average)
(US$/T, MCX)
Month 2006 2007 2008 2009
2010
Jan 692 950 1077 1050
1330
Feb 695 975 1161 1055
1314
Mar 723 1005 1282 1038
1367
Apr 711 1045 1288 1091

May 695 1011 1299 1115

Jun 697 991 1355 1104

Jul 737 1015 1471 1123

Aug 761 1021 1527 1195

Sep 804 1022 1501 1253

Oct 867 1025 1421 1250

Nov 909 1071 1413 1344

Dec 896 1092 1378 1390

Note: 1 US$= Rs 45

Castor Oil Price (Average)



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A Snapshot of Castor Seed, Castor Oil & Castor Cake Prices in Jul/Aug 2008 and Jan 2009 ʹ
do later

Jul/Aug 2008

All castor products hit a record high in Jul/Aug 2008. A look at the average prices below will
tell the story.
All prices in US $ / Metric Ton, FOB India
Product Price
Castor seed 700
Castor oil 1500
Castor cake 110

These prices were 20% higher than the already high prices existing in May 2008 (in the
middle of May 2008, castor seed prices were quoting at US $ 575-600 per MT). In spite of
such a sharp increase, industry professionals and traders have said that the demand had not
decreased considerably.

Jan 2009

The data for average prices in Jan 2009 tell an entirely different story.

All prices in US $ / Metric Ton, FOB India
Product Price
Castor seed 500
Castor oil 1050
Castor cake 65

It can be observed that there is a dramatic reduction in prices across all the castor products.
In spite of these low prices, suppliers say there is much less demand, primarily because of
the global economic downturn.

4.2 Castor Oil & Castor Seed Price Volatility

Monthly Price Volatility of Castor Seed and Oil in Mumbai Market (based on data between
2000 and 2006)

Monthly Var % 0-2 months 2-5 months 5 & above months
Castor seed 24 % 43 % 35 %
Castor Oil 25 % 40 % 35 %

Maximum Variation in Mumbai Markets in % Terms

Period Castor Seed Castor Oil
Daily 3.2 3
Weekly 7.8 7.2
Monthly 16 15
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Pricing Pattern

The price of castor seed is influenced by climatic conditions, prices of castor oil in the world
trade, production in India and Rotterdam prices in Europe. An analysis of spot prices for the
past few years clearly indicates that the commodity price is volatile.




Rationale for the Castor Seed Contract

Some of the main reasons for introducing the futures contract in castor seed are:

Fluctuating production of castor seed in India: There is significant fluctuation in the
production of castor seeds in India. The market participants like the farmers, traders, oil
millers, exporters and industries which produce value added derivatives face an eternal
price risk due to fluctuating production. Hence it is imperative to introduce a hedging
mechanism for efficient price discovery and price dessimation.



Volatile commodity: Market research done by NCDEX shows that the Annualized Price
Volatility is 15%.
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Wide usage of castor products: Castor oil and its derivatives are used as raw materials in
many industries like Paint, Lubricant, Textile, Pharmaceutical etc. They form a large part of
the variable cost for the production of the above products. Any negative fluctuations in the
price of the raw material may erode their profits. Hence, an efficient hedging mechanism is
essential to combat the price risk.

Large number of market participants: There are many intermediaries in the castor
distribution chain. These intermediaries prevent efficient price discovery and price
dissemination for the farmer. Hence the need for an effective market intelligence platform,
so that farmers take informed decisions.

Limited hedging options: Due to lack of transparency in the unorganized forward markets,
there is counter party risk, default and quality issues. Hence a genuine hedging tool needs to
be put forth for the castor industry.

More than 80% of production is exported: India exports nearly 80% of its production and is
highly vulnerable to the world prices set by other trading countries. Hence, there is a need
for futures contract to hedge their price risk.

Importance of Castor Seed and Castor Oil Futures

The following points underscore the importance of futures trading in castor seed and castor
oil

Uncontrolled and uncertain supply
Fluctuating and uncertain demand
Wide and unforeseen price variation
Wide intra and inter seasonal price variation
Homogenous nature and well-defined grades
Long storing period
Well-developed and organized spot market

4.3 Factors that Affect Prices

Characteristics of Castor Seed and Oil Market

Uncertain supply - The world castor seed production has fluctuated between
1.2 and 1.8 million tons since 1997 to 2001. India's production ranged
between 0.8 and 1.1 million tons during the same period.
Recent developments of artificial substitutes ʹ development of substitutes for
castor oil has subjected the demand to fluctuate in the world market
(especially Lesquerella fendleri)
Long storing period & hoarding - It is a common practice for the castor seed
growers and crushers to hoard the commodity before selling in expectation
for better prices.
Well-developed and organized spot market in India
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Market Influencing Factors in Castor Trade

The following factors influence castor oil prices, export volumes and overall castor
trading:

Crop development based on monsoon progress in key growing regions
Domestic demand for castor oil from the major Indian cities & export
demand of castor oil
Variations in castor seed domestic acreage worldwide and specifically in
India, based on yield and price realization
Indian, Chinese and Brazilian crop sizes
Comparative prices of other vegetable oils in the Indian and global markets
The castor seed price tends to firm up during the planting period and eases
down during the harvesting period. Prices tend to show significant inter-
seasonal variations
Castor seed growers and crushers hoard the commodity before selling in
expectation of better prices.
During some years (as it happened in 2006), due to better price realization in
cotton and pulses, farmers had shifted from castor thus reducing the total
area under castor.
Floods and drought in major castor growing states such as Gujarat and
Andhra Pradesh had also adversely affected the crop in some years (eg: 2006)

4.4 Castor Oil Futures Market

A few years back, the Government of India has removed all restriction on futures trading in
almost all commodities under the Forward Contracts Regulation Act (FCRA), and this
includes agricultural commodities such as castor seed and castor oil. Since then, there has
been a vibrant futures trading in castor seed and oil.

Castor Oil Futures Contract Specifications on the MCX (Multi Commodity Exchange, India)

Trading Unit 1 MT
Quotation / Base Value Rs / 10 Kg
Maximum Order Size 50 MT
Tick Size (Min Price Movement) 10 paise per 10 Kg
Daily Price Limits 3%
Price Quotes Ex Kandla
Max Allowable Open Position
For a client 20000 MT
For a member collectively for all clients ʹ 25% of
the open position of the market @ any point of
time
Delivery
Delivery Unit 10 MT (with tolerance limit of 250 Kg)
Delivery Centers Kandla
Quality Specifications
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Appearance @ 25% C Clear and free from suspended matters
Odour Slight
CŽůŽƵƌ ŶŽƚ ƚŽ ĞdžĐĞĞĚ ŝŶ ϱ Ь ͞ ĐĞůů ŝŶ Ă
Lovibond Tintometer / AOCS CC 13B-45 20 yellow maximum / 2 red maximum
Free Fatty Acid (AOCS CA 5A-40) 1% max
Hydroxyl Value (AOCS CD 13 -6) 160-168
Moisture and Volatile Values (AOCS CA 2C
-25) 0.25% max
Insoluble Impurities (AOCS CA 3 -46) 0.02% max
Ricinoleic Acid Content (ISO 5508 & 5509) 85% minimum
Density @ 30 C (ISO 6883 1995 CORR.
1/1996) 0.952 minimum
Solubility in alcohol @ 20
o
C
Completely without turbidity in 2 volumes of
specially denatured alcohol formula 3A (95%)
Flash Point 280
o
C minimum
Iodine Value 82-90
RI @ 40
o
C 1.47 ʹ 1.474
Specific Gravity @ 30 C 0.954-0.96
Test for presence of other oils Negative

Castor Seed Futures Contract Specifications on the MCX (Multi Commodity Exchange, India)

Trading Unit 10 T
Quotation / Base Value 20 kg
Maximum Order Size 500 MT
Tick Size (Min Price Movement) 10 paise
Daily Price Limits 3%
Price Quotes
For a client 20000 MT
For a member collectively for all clients ʹ 25% of
the open position of the market @ any point of
time
Max Allowable Open Position
Delivery
Delivery Unit 10 MT (+/- 1%)
Delivery Period Margin 25%
Delivery Centers Babhar, Disa, Pathan, Palanpur, Visnagar
Quality Specifications
Gujarat small castorseeds packed in 75 Kg
bags. Delivery samples will have to certified
by the Exchange designated quality surveyor
Oil content (on clean seed basis) Min 47%, Acceptable (45-47%)
Foreign matter and impurities
Stones, earth, straw or chaff including castor husk
/ pod maximum % by weight is specified and
checked


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Notes from MCX, India

Cash v/s Futures Prices Relationship: In general, futures markets compensate an individual
for the cost of purchasing a commodity today, storing it and delivering it in future. As a
result, one would ordinarily expect to see an upward trend in prices as contract months go
further out. Such a condition is known as Contango and is typical of many futures markets.

However, in castor seed & castor oil the flows of demand and production are not
synchronized. Stored inventories absorb demand fluctuations in periods between
production times. There is a likelihood of shortage in the physical market and peak arrival
months in the future. This may cause the spot price to rise above the futures price between
production times. Backwardation is a condition in which spot price is higher than futures or
the futures price is lower in the distant delivery months than in the near delivery months.


SUMMARY


The castor oil market price experiences significant volatility. Uncertain oil supply, recent
development of substitutes, long storing periods & hoarding are the main reasons for the
price fluctuations. In spite of these factors, there is invariably a minimum quantity of this
commodity that is consumed annually by advanced countries.


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5 - Castor Cultivation

This chapter comprises the following topics

Introduction ʹ 5.1
Castor Crop Sowing - 5.2
Castor Crop Growth ʹ 5.3
Castor Crop Harvest ʹ 5.4
Castor Cultivation Seasons ʹ 5.5
Hybrid Castor Seeds & Genetic Engineering of Castor Plant ʹ 5.6
Yields for Castor Seeds and Castor Oil from Seed ʹ 5.7
Castor Cultivation FAQ ʹ 5.8


HIGHLIGHTS


The most suitable soils for castor are deep, moderately fertile, with slightly acidic
conditions, well drained, sandy loams.

The fertilizer dose recommended for castor is 40 N-40 P-20 K kg/ha.

The minimum rainfall needed by the castor crop is 38-50 cm (15-20 in.)

Some of the high yielding castor varieties used in India are NPH-1 (Aruna), GAUCH-4,
and TMVCH.


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5.1 Introduction to Castor Crop

The castor plant is a coarse perennial, about 10 ft tall in the tropics, with the stem 7.5ʹ15
cm in diameter. Though it is a perennial, it usually behaves as an annual in the temperate
regions. Its stems are succulent, and the plant is herbaceous. Its leaves are alternate,
orbicular, and palmately compound, with 6ʹ11 toothed lobes. Its flowers are numerous in
long inflorescences, with male flowers at the base and female flowers at the tips. Petals are
absent in both sexes, sepals number 3ʹ5. Its stamens are numerous, 5ʹ10 mm long. Its
ovary is superior, is 3-celled with a short style and 3 stigmas.

1ŚĞ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ ƉůĂŶƚ͛Ɛ ĨƌƵŝƚ ŝƐ Ă ŐůŽďŽƐĞ ĐĂƉƐƵůĞ Ϯ͘ϱ Đŵ ŝŶ ĚŝĂŵĞƚĞƌ͕ ŽŶ ĂŶ ĞůŽŶŐĂƚĞĚ ƉĞĚŝĐĞů͕
spiny, green that turns to brown on ripening. The fruit usually contains 3 seeds. The seeds
are ovoid, tick-like and shiny. They are 0.5ʹ1.5 cm long, carunculate, vari-color with base
color white, gray, brownish, yellow, brown, red, or black. The outer patterns on the fruit are
gray or brown to black, the pattern varying from fine to coarse, and in shape the outer
patterns vary from veined or finely dotted to large splotches.

While castor is an important crop known for its versatility of uses, in many parts of the
western world, including the US, the crop is not planted on a large scale. The main reason
for this is the ricin, a toxin present in the seed coat. Besides the ricin toxin, there's another
compelling reason why this crop has fallen out of favor with growers. The shiny, beetle-
shaped seeds contain powerful allergens. People who work with the off-white meal ground
from castor beans may develop allergic reactions, such as hives or asthma.

5.2 Castor Crop Sowing

Soil

Castor does well in the soil which is not fit for valuable commercial and food crops. It can be
grown on a wide range of soils, provided they are fairly deep and well drained.

The most suitable soils for castor are deep, moderately fertile, with slightly acidic
conditions, well drained, sandy loams. While castor prefers deep sandy loam soil with a pH
of around 6, it can be cultivated on soils with pH range of 5 - 8.

The recommended soil pH requirements are:
6.1 to 6.5 (mildly acidic)
6.6 to 7.5 (neutral)

In India, it is equally successful in light and heavy loams of other states. The red sandy loams
and shallow light textured black soils of Andhra Pradesh state, Karnataka state and
deep/medium sandly loams of North Gujarat state and Rajasthan state are the principal soil
types on which castor is currently grown.

Heavy clays, with poor drainage, and marshy soils are unsuitable, as they favour excessive
vegetative growth at the expense of seed yield. In general castor genotypes cannot tolerate
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alkalinity or salinity, hence, avoid such problematic soils. It is highly intolerant of water-
logging and requires free draining soils.

Land Preparation

The land is repeatedly ploughed in summer, as and when the rains are received, and with
the onset of monsoon rains the clods are crushed by working a country plough or harrow to
bring the soil into proper tilth.

For good growth, castor requires a well pulverised seed bed with loose subsoil upto 45 cm
depth. For annual varieties the seedbed must be weed free as young plants are delicate.
Good weed control is essential, both pre- and post-emergence.

It does not require fine tilth, but for germination it requires adequate moisture for a longer
period in seed bed, preferably to a depth of 15-20 cm.

Deep ploughing is found to be advantageous in many regions of India as this practice helps
in absorption and conservation of more rain water. It is also a common practice on light soil
areas to plough the land once in summer months, followed by harrowing once or twice with
the receipt of pre-monsoon rains.

In clay loams only harrowing is done by blade harrows two to three times to bring the soil to
proper tilth. In laterite soils, deep ploughing is especially advantageous to break the
compact layers in sub soil.

Sowing

Castor bean is usually planted at the start of the rainy season during the latter part of May
and early June, or at the end of the rainy season in the late September and early October.
Sow in such dates / periods as to avoid wet weather in 2nd half of the crops life.

Castor bean seeds for planting must be healthy, vigorous, hardy and come from prolific
mother plants.

After the seedbed has been deeply cultivated, seeds in mechanized countries are planted 4ʹ
7.5 cm deep in rows 1 m apart; and about 50 cm apart within rows (some varieties can be
planted just 25 cm apart).

For unmechanized societies that prefer larger varieties, seeds are planted 60 by 90 cm
apart, 2ʹ4 seeds per hole, and then thinned to one plant.

The seed is sown either in the plough furrow, with a seed-drill or by hand-dibbling.

For an increased production of seeds, castor should be planted on fallow land, and should
not follow small grains or another castor crop. In India it is rotated with groundnuts, cotton,
dryland chillies, tobacco or horsegram.

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5.3 Castor Crop Growth

Fertilizers

The fertilizer dose recommended for castor is 40 N-40 P-20 K kg/ha.

Nitrogen Recommendations for Castor Beans

Soil Organic Matter % Nitrogen Application Rate lb/acre
< 2 100
2ʹ4.9 80
5ʹ10 60
> 10 40

Castor exhausts the soil quickly. So 45ʹ135 kg/ha of nitrogen is added in split applications in
some areas. Leaves, stalks and seed hulls are disked into the field following harvest. In India
89 kg/ha of nitrogen gives the highest yields. Where phosphorus is deficient, 40ʹ50 kg/ha of
P
2
O
5
is recommended.

Castor bean needs plenty of nitrogen especially during its early development. A hectare with
1,600 hills requires complete fertilizer (14-14-14) at planting time at the rate of 30 grams
per hill. Thirty days after the plant emerges, apply 125 grams of nitrogenous fertilizer (45-0-
0) per hill. Just before flowering, apply 16-20-0 at the rate of 250 grams per hill.

Please note however that unbalanced nitrogen application encourages growth of foliage at
the expense of flower and seed formation.

Water

Castor, being a deep rooted crop, is fairly resistant to drought.

Rainfall

The castor plant is a tropical/sub-tropical species and grows in areas of low rainfall. It is
sensitive to extreme climatic changes, especially extreme changes in rainfall distribution.
The minimum rainfall needed by the castor crop is 38-50 cm (15-20 in.).

In India satisfactory yields have been obtained on sandy soils receiving a rainfall of 30-50
cm, using the varieties with capacity for extremely quick root growth. In the Indian state of
Andhra Pradesh, a rainfall of 50-60 cm is considered optimum for producing good yields on
red loams.

Castor can withstand long dry spells as well as heavy rains but is highly susceptible to water
logged conditions. The ideal pattern of rainfall distribution for optimum growth will be
approximately 10 cm in each month evenly distributed during the crop growth period. There
should not be heavy and continuous rains during flowering. Continuous rains prior to
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planting are also not desirable as it will lower the soil temperature effecting the germination
and increase the fungal diseases.

Hail storms do considerable damage to the crop especially during the seedling stage.
Defoliation due to hail prior to flowering will have little effect on final yield, but hail storm
during flowering and capsule formation will cause considerable damage to the final yield.

Irrigation

The crop must have sufficient moisture during its growing period. In Brazil 2,400 cu m of
water is applied during the 3 months between flowering and harvest, with about 400 cu m
being applied at 15 day intervals. Furrow irrigation is preferred, but adoption of sub-
irrigation has been found to reduce weed problems.

Normally, irrigation commences after plants have 6ʹ8 leaves. Over-irrigation on heavy soils
should be avoided; final irrigation should be 3ʹ4 weeks before harvest.

Climate

Castor is essentially a warm season crop, cultivated in tropical, subtropical and temperate
regions. Its cultivation is largely confined to countries lying between 400N and 400S
latitudes. It grows in tropical and subtropical regions as a perennial plant and in temperate
climate as an annual plant.

A frost free growing period of 140-190 days depending on variety is highly essential for
obtaining satisfactory yields. The regions in which castor may be grown as a commercial
crop are restricted by this lack of frost tolerant types and the need for high temperatures
(optimum 20 - 25C, over 4.5 - 6 months) and low atmospheric humidity to achieve good
yields. In Europe, only the southern part is potentially suitable for castor production.

A moderate temperature of 20-26
o
C is highly favourable during crop period for obtaining
higher yields. The plant also grows in temperatures of 26.7-40.6
o
C. Temperatures above
41
o
C, even for a relatively short period, results in the blasting of flowers and poor seed set.
The effect is more marked if it coincides with moisture stress.

A low temperature (less than 15
o
C) in the seed bed prolongs the emergence of seedlings,
and makes the seed more liable to attack by fungal diseases and insects.

The crop grows best at an elevation of 460 meters (140.24 feet) above the sea level. In India
it is being cultivated up to an attitude of 2500m, but in regions where frosts are common
during the crop season, its cultivation is restricted to altitudes of 500 m.

Crop Protection

Diseases seldom do much damage ʹ though leaf spot (Cercospora reicinella), Rust
(Melampsora oricini) and Alternaria Leaf spot may occur.
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The seedling blight and Alternaria blight cause serious losses to this crop. The sowing of the
crop in low-lying and water-logged areas should be avoided to prevent the seedling blight
from appearing.

Pests that are Harmful to Castor Plant

Several insects are pests for castor crop. In India the Capsule borer (Dichocrocis
punctiferalis) bores into young and ripening capsules; and the Castor semilooper (Achoea
janata) is a pest too. In Tanganyika, the damage by capsid and myrid bugs is a limiting factor
causing immature fruits to drop. Green stinkbugs, leaf-hoppers, leaf-miners and
grasshoppers are pests that feed on the leaves.

In Africa there is a great variety of pests. Up to 50 species of insect can damage castor,
including grasshoppers, various larvae, and the more serious pests: capsid bugs, green stink
bugs, lygus bugs, Helopeltis. Sucking pests cause damage by puncturing, rather than actual
sucking. Whether these would also be a problem in Europe is unknown. The most
troublesome fungus for castor in Europe is thought to be Alternaria ricini.

Most of these insects may be controlled by insecticides. Dusting BHC 10% in early stages or
spraying 0.1% Carbaryl on the crop will give an effective control on these pests.

Weed Control

Weed control for castor crop is based on a pre-sowing application of trifluraline and a pre-
emergence application of linuron. Due to lack of selectivity, both products are usually
applied by farmers before sowing.

Harrowing is generally carried out when plants have between 2 and 5 leaves in order to
improve chemical weed control.

Some pre-emergence herbicides may be suitable for weed control but subsequent measures
will also be likely required.

Castor Growth ʹ Other Points

Defoliation speeds up maturity and makes the harvest easier. Pruning castor plants is
necessary for them to grow more productive branches. Start pruning 2-3 months
after the plants sprout or when it is already one foot high.

In case of seed production of castor, climatic conditions prevailing in a season has
profound influence on sex expression. High temperatures coupled with humidity
provide an ideal climate for producing more male flowers, and low temperatures are
most conducive for production of female flowers. This is one reason why winter is
the most ideal season for taking up hybrid certified seed production.

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5.4 Castor Crop Harvest

The first harvest is on the 6th month and every other month thereon.

Harvesting may be done by hand methods or be completely mechanized.

In the tropics most harvesting is by hand; the spikes are cut or broken off, the capsules
stripped off into a wagon or sled, or into containers strapped on the workers. Unless the
capsules are dry, they must be spread out to dry quickly.

The improved varieties mature in about 150 to 180 days. When one or two capsules in a
bunch show signs of drying, the whole cluster is generally removed and stacked, covered
and weighed in a corner of the field or in a pit. The harvesting of unripe capsules in this
manner has an adverse effect on the oil content of the seed and hence should be avoided. It
is preferable to collect the fruits, as and when they ripen.

When the whole crop is gathered, it is dried in the sun for a few days and the threshing is
done either by beating the dried capsules with a stick or by treading them under the feet of
bullocks. Winnowing is done in the usual manner.

Harvesting - Additional Points

A new system for dehusking the seeds during harvesting has been designed. About
90% of the husks are removed by the combine harvester. Although such a system
avoids an additional cost, the cost of the harvester modification remains too high
and harvesting capacity too low. Improvement of the harvester is currently going on
but an increase of the crop area should be necessary to reduce costs.

5.5 Castor Cultivation Seasons

Sowing, Growth & Harvest Stages for the Castor Crop - India

State Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar
Guj Sow Sow Grow Grow Grow Grow Harv Harv Harv
AP Sow Sow Grow Grow Grow Grow Harv Harv Harv

World Castor Seed Harvest Seasons

Country Main Harvest Season
India Dec - Mar
China Sep - Jan
Brazil May ʹ Sep
Paraguay May ʹ Sep
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5.6 Hybrid Castor Seeds & Genetic Engineering of Castor Plant

Genetic improvement of castor has mostly been confined to the exploitation of naturally
occurring genetic variability available in the base population and limited to selection for high
yield, desirable branching type, non-shattering capsules and seeds with higher oil content.
Mass selection and pedigree methods have been largely employed for developing
genotypes with desirable attributes. Based on the exotic pistillate line TSP-10R (Classen and
Hoffman 1950), the first hybrid castor, GCH-3 was developed. Subsequently the
development of andigenous pistillate line, VP-1 which is based on TSP-10R, gave new
impetus to hybrid castor development programmes and resulted in the release of three
hybrids, GAUCH-1, GCH-2 and GCH-4. However, extensive cultivation of the varities and
hybrids under high inputs, without proper scientific management and crop rotation, has
made them vulnerable to a number of biotic and abiotic stresses. Diseases, such as wilt, root
rot, bacterial blight, botrytis grey rot, seedling blight, and insects such as semilooper,
capsule borer, spodoptera litura, red hairy caterpillar, jassids, white fly, cause considerable
damage to castor.

New sources of disease and pest resistance and tolerance to stress environments are in
constant demand by the breeders. Ricinus is considered to be a monotypic genus and R.
communis is the lone species encompassing the many polymorphic types known in the
world (Weiss 1983). Several of these types were designated as species (R.communis, R.
macrocarpus, R. microcarpus) but they are intercrossable and fertile and are not true
species as usually defined in other plants. All the castor varities that have been investigated
cytologically are diploids with a 2n number of 20 and is reported to be a secondary balanced
polyploidy with a basic number of x = 5 (singh 1976). The great variability within the single
species of this genus has not been correlated with any observable cytological differences,
inversions, duplications etc, rather than to change in the whole chromosome complement
(Perry 1943).

Success in breeding of castor with yield stability is thus limited by a lack of exploitable
genetic variability for productivity traits and sources for resistance to diseases and pests.
Breeders have to resort to alternative approaches like mutations, wide (intergeneric)
hybridization and biotechnology for the creation of genetic variability and incorporation of
desired traits into castor. The effect of irradiation on castor seed and seedlings has been the
subject of a number of studies, aimed at producing mutatnts with specifically required
characters. In most of the studies various neutron-induced morphological abnormalities
have been described (Shivraj and Ramanarao 1963). The importance of induced mutatuions
in castor is well demonstrated in the development of productive semi-dwarfs with high yield
potential an early maturity and identification of variants for sex expression (Kulkarni and
Ankineedu 1966 et al., 1968). However, mutation technique using radiations could not be
exploited for the development of genotypes resistant/tolerant to biotic stresses.

Intensive studies on plant regeneration and transformation have led to the production of
transgenic plants in many crop plants. However, techniques for tissue culture and gene
transfer in castor as well as other Euphorbiaceous plants, with the expectation of Cassara
and Herea brasiliensis, are less advanced. The introduction of foreign genes by genetic
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engineering techniques requires an efficient in vitro regeneration system for the desired
plant species. Such a system must be rapid, reliable and applicable to a broad range of
genetypes. However, regeneration of plants from callus cultures of castor has been
problematic. There are only a few reports of plantlet differentiation in castor and in most of
the cases regenerated plantlets were obtaine from apical meristems and shoot tip callus,
and the plantlets had poor survival in the soil (Athma and Reddy 1983; Reddy et al., 1986;
Genyu 1988; Sangduen et al., 1987). Efficient protocols of plant regeneration have been
developed for jatropha species (Sujatha and Dhingra 1993; Sujatha and Mukta 1996; Sujatha
et al., 2005) but lack of a reliable system of regeneration in castor is a major bottleneck for
parasexual hybridization between the two economically important genera. This review
presets the progress and future prospects of tissue culture and genetic transformation in
castor.

Castor Varities in India

The varities of castor recommended for different states of India are:

State Variety Hybrid
Andhra Pradesh
Aruna, Bhagya, sowbhagya,
Kranti (PCS-4), Jwala, DCS-9
(Jyothi), kiran (PCS-136),
Haritha (PCS-124).
Uttar Pradesh Kalpi-6, T-3, T-4
Gujarat
GAUC-1, VI-9, S-20, J-1and
GCH 7
CH-1, GCH-2, GCH-3, GCH-6,
SHB-145, GCH-7 and (SKP 84 x
SKI 215
Tamil Nadu
TMV-1, TMV-2, TMV-3, TMV-
5, SA-1, SA-2, TMV-4, Jyothi,
CO-1 TNAUCH-1 and TMVCG*
Karnataka Jwala (48-1), RC-8, Jyothi
Maharashtra AKC-1, Girija GCH-6
Rajasthan GCH-6, RHC-1
Haryana CH-1
Punjab Pb. No.1
For all states Gujarat castor-2
DCH-32 (Deepti)
DCH-177 (Deepak)
GCH-4, GCH-5, DCH 519
For entire country DCH 519 M 574 x DCS 78
* Castor hybrid recommended for cultivation in Tamil Nadu is TMVCH by Oilseeds Research Station of the
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU) Tindivanam. This hybrid matures in 160-170 days. Its seeds contain
51.7% oil. It is moderately susceptible to semilooper pest and moderately resistant to wilt and grey mould.
Source: Indian Agricultural Research Institute, 2008.

Gujarat is the largest castor seed production in India. As a result of intensive hybridization
and selection programme ďLJ ƚŚĞ SĂƌĚĂƌŬƌƵƐŚŝŶĂŐĂƌ uĂŶƚŝǁĂĚ AŐƌŝĐƵůƚƵƌĞ uŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ͛Ɛ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ
research center, the following castor hybrids / varieties have been developed and released
for commercial cultivation in Gujarat State.
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I. GCH - 3

After the introduction of female line TSP-10-R from USA, it was utilized extensively in
hybridization programme. As a result first castor hybrid GCH-3 (TSP-10-R x JI-15) was found
to give 88 per cent higher yield than local variety. It was released as first castor hybrid in the
state for general cultivation in 1968. It, however, had the shattering characteristic.

II. J-1

By intensive selection, a number of inbred lines were isolated from local materials from
which a promising inbred line, JI-44 was released as J-1 in 1968 which gave 11% higher yield
than local variety, S-20.

III. GAUC-1

It was developed by selection from S-20, a local variety, which showed superiority over
improved variety J-1 by yielding 23.4% higher yield. It has green stem, double bloom, flat
leaves and early maturity. It was released for general cultivation in Gujarat in 1973.

IV. GAUCH-1

After development of female line VP-1, it was utilized extensively in hybridization
programme for developing superior hybrids. Among a number of single crosses made and
tested, VBH-44 (VP-1 x VI-9) was found superior to GCH-3. It was released for general
cultivation as GAUCH-1 in 1973. It possesses green stem, triple bloom, with 16% higher yield
over GCH-3 and non-shattering habit.

V. GCH-2

It was developed from a cross, VP-1 x J1-35 in Gujarat state. It has shown superiority over
GAUCH-1 by way of giving 13% more seed yield and was released for general cultivation in
1984. It has green stem with reddish tinch, possesses triple bloom and tolerance to root rot.

VI. GCH-4

It involves VP-1 as female and 48-1 as male parent. It was tested as SHB 18 and released as
GCH-4 for general cultivation in 1985. It is resistant to wilt and gives 13.25 and 9.30% higher
yields over GAUCH-1 and GCH-2, respectively. This hybrid was released as a national hybrid
in the year 1987. It possesses mahogany stem, triple bloom and flat leaf and it is highly
suitable for irrigated condition.

VII. GC-2

The variety was developed from the cross "1-21 x VI-9" following selection. This variety
possesses Jassids and wilt tolerance and early maturity. On the basis of results of
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coordinated trials, the variety was released at national level in 1994. It has showed 15%
yield superiority over check variety, GAUC-1.
VIII. GCH-5

In involves Geeta as a female and SH-72 as a male parent. It was tested as SHB-145. It is
resistant to wilt and it showed 13% yield superiority over GCH-4. The hybrid has been
released for irrigated and medium condition at national level in 1995 and for Gujarat state
in 1997.

IX. GCH-6

It involves JP 65 as female and JI 96 as pollinator. It gives 11.58% and 14.13% higher yield
than GCH-4 under irrigated and rainfed situation, respectively. It is resistant to root rot and
tolerant to wilt.

X. GCH-7

A high yielding wilt complex resistant hybrid has recently been identified.

Development of Pistillate Lines
2

The research center has developed a versatile pistillate line of castor, VP-1, which is
derivative of (TSP-10-R x J-1) F
2
x (JP-5 x 26006) F
2
. This is one of the most versatile pistillate
line, used as female in most of the presently cultivated hybrids and it is being used in all
castor growing states of India for developing hybrids and also for the development of
pistillate lines. As a part of development of new pistillate lines, through single, double and
three way crosses, a number of new pistillate lines are developed such as SKP-1 to SKP-117.
Out of these, SKP-4, 6, 13, 16, 19, 23, 42,72, 84, 106, 108,112,113 and 114 appear to be
promising in respect of resistance to wilt disease as well as these lines possess sex stability.
A new pistillate line Geeta has been developed from the male parent of castor hybrid GCH-
4, which is resistant to wilt. Another pistillate line JP-65 having NES mechanism has been
developed at Junagadh, Gujarat, India.

Development of Promising Inbred Lines and Hybrids
3

With a view to develop new inbred lines, intensive and extensive hybridization programme
was undertaken. As a result, 321 inbred lines have been isolated from segregating materials.
The most promising inbred lines are SKI-80, 90, 147, 160, 215, 217, 218, 225, 237, 202 269
232, 266, 267, 271, 280,283,285,291, 294, 306,314; and JI-122, 102, 106, 220, 227, 244, 256,
258, 263, 273, 303, 314, 319 and 320, while the most promising hybrids are SHB 706, SHB
725 , SHB 754, SHB 758, SHB 765, SHB 795, and JHB 665, JHB 882, JHB 887, JHB 888, JHB 905
and JHB 921. Many of these lines are resistance to wilt, root-rot, reniform nematode and
nematode-wilt complex.

2 http://www.sdau.edu.in/
3 http://www.sdau.edu.in/
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International Germplasm Center

A search of International Germplasm collections on the Bioversity web site combined with
the USDA-ARS castor germplasm at Griffin, GA (USA) identified 12 major sources of
germplasm and a total of 6,588 accessions. Extensive germplasm collections are held in
Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Kenya and the former USSR, but availability of these
germplasm resources is not known. Additional castor germplasm can be obtained from
public breeders in South America including Brazil and Columbia. The feral castor can be a
valuable source of germplasm especially for adaptation to localized diseases, pests and
environmental conditions.

Major Germplasm Collections of Castor (Ricinus communis L.) as Listed by the Bioversity
International Directory (October 14. 2008)

Country Collection Agency
Accessions
Reported
Brazil CENERGEN/EMBRAPA 360
Brazil Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Algodao (CNPA) 199
Brazil Ernpresa Baiana de Desenvolvimento Agricola S.A. 528
Brazil Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (l.A.C.) 200
China Institute of Crop Science (CAAS) 1,689
China Institute of Oil Crops Research (CAAS) 1,652
Ethiopia Biodiversity Conservation and Research Institute 232
India
Region Station Akola, National Bureau of Plant Genetic
Resources (NBPGR) 290
Kenya National Dryland Farming Research Station, Kenya -
Kenya
National Genehank of Kenya. Crop Plant Genetic
Resources Centre, KARl 43
Romania Agricultural Research Station Teleorman -
Russia
N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of
Plant Industry 423
Serbia Maize Research Institute 69
Serbia Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops 43
Ukraine institute for Oil Crops 255
United
States USDA-ARS-PGRCU 364
World 39 Institutes
Source: National Agriculture Library, United States Department of Agriculture

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Castor Seed Varieties & Hybrids - Salient Points

Castor beans are graded based on moisture content, percentage of cracked and
broken seeds, and amount of foreign material. The allowable moisture content is 6
per cent.
The varieties of castor differ in the branching habits of plant, colour of the stem and
branches (red and green), the nature of capsules (smooth or shiny), duration (early
or late) and the size of seed.
One of the aspects usually considered while discussing grades and varieties is the
location where the castor seed was grown and harvested.
The most commonly traded varieties in India are Gujarat small seed and
Andhra Pradesh big seed
The Gujarat seed has oil content up to 48-50% which is more than that for
the Andhra variety.
Bangkok variety has two types - Bangkok brown & Bangkok white. Bangkok
brown spotted type is generally adapted to the Philippine conditions. Its seed
has few small chestnut light on its back side and large spots on the abdominal
side. Bangkok white spotted type, on the other hand, has few small chestnut
white spots scatted on its bask side.
The Brazilian is another common variety. It grows 1.83-2.44 meters (6-8 feet)
high depending on the soil type. The stalks are dark brown, 2.5 centimeters
(1 inch) in diameter, while internodes measure 10-20 cm (4-8 inches) long.
This variety has an oil content of 49.3 per cent.
An early maturing variety with 49 per cent oil content is Ethiopian. Its red
seed is big with small white dots on both sides.
The Lamao Red variety grows 1.83-2.44 meters (6-8 feet) tall. The stalks is
more than an inch in diameter at the middle portion, reddish brown from the
base to the tip, with internodes measuring 2.54 cm (1-4 inches).
Other castor bean varieties include Cimaron, Connex, Baker No.1, Baker 195 and the
Iranian variety.
Some of the high yielding castor varieties used in India are NPH-1 (Aruna), GAUCH-4,
and TMVCH.
A castor hybrid specifically recommended for cultivation in Tamil Nadu is TMVCH.
This hybrid matures in 160-170 days. Its seeds contain 51.7% oil. It is moderately
susceptible to semilooper pest and moderately resistant to wilt and grey mould.
In Brazil, the plant has also been bred to mature at a shorter height. Whereas the
castor-oil plant traditionally reaches three meters in height, making mechanised
harvest difficult, there are now varieties that grow to just 1.7 meters. More
information is available with the state-run Brazilian Enterprise for Agricultural
Research (EMBRAPA) (May 2008)
A list of hybrid seed developments from across the world:
South Africa - Varieties Baker 44, Baker 22, II23 and UC53
India
Tamil Nadu Research Centre for TMV 5 & TMV 6
Andhra Pradesh for Kranti Kiran and Jyothi
Brazil - EMBRAPA

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Some Short Term (annual) Varieties Tested in East Africa

Variety Time To Maturity
II23 7-10 Months
UC53 7-10 Months
Baker 44 5-7 Months
Baker 22 5-7 Months
Lynn 5-7 Months

Advantages of annual varieties: Higher yield potential, seeds seldom shatter and have
uniform hull strength and thickness.

Disadvantages of annual varieties: Pest susceptibility

Castor Genetic Engineering ʹ Salient Points

While experiments with producing genetically modified castor plants and seeds are
in their early stages, scientists and researchers are confident that with the
availability of molecular-breeding tools, there is a possibility for developing castor as
a reasonably safe crop. To this end, some scientists have developed methods to
genetically transform castor, and the implementation of some of the molecular-
breeding approaches could provide significant reduction of harmful components
present in the crop. For example, antisense gene technology has been successful in
reducing expression of specific proteins by greater than 99%.
Transgenic plants expressing the gene for the enzyme Oleoyl-12-hydroxylase - which
is directly responsible for synthesis of ricinoleate - produce limited amounts of
hydroxy fatty acid. To aid in development of transgenic substitutes for castor,
scientists are trying to determine which steps in the pathway lead to accumulation of
ricinoleate in the oil. This and other techniques have allowed scientists to identify
other enzyme activities from castor that lead to the high level of ricinoleate in its
seed oil. According to one research study, the steps leading to high production of
ricinoleate and incorporation into triacylglycerol include: (i) lyso-phosphatidylcholine
acyltransferase (LPCAT), which transfers oleate from oleoyl-CoA into the sn-2
position of phosphatidylcholine (PC) for hydroxylation; (ii) oleoyl-12-hydroxylase,
which hydroxylates the sn-2 oleate to form sn-2 ricinoleoyl-PC for hydrolysis; (iii)
phospholipase A#, which preferentially removes ricinoleate from the sn-2 position
and releases lyso-PC for re-incorporation of oleate by LPCAT; (iv)
diacylglycerolacyltransferase (DAGAT) preferentially incorporates ricinoleate to form
diricinoleins and triricinolein. Using process insights such as these, scientists are
making efforts to find suitable substitutes for the castor plant that do not have
ĐĂƐƚŽƌ͛Ɛ ŶĞŐĂƚŝǀĞ ƚƌĂŝƚƐ͘ (Reference:
http://www.biochemsoctrans.org/bst/028/0972/0280972.pdf )
Scientists are also aiming to build and insert slightly different versions of genes into
the castor plant, to block the action of the ricin and allergen genes. For example,
they want to construct antisense genes, which are genes that make nonsense copies
of the authentic ricin or allergen genes.
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Epoxy Oil from Castor? - Genetic engineering might someday be used to tweak
ĐĂƐƚŽƌ͛Ɛ oil-producing mechanism so that it could yield another valuable oil, known
as epoxy. An epoxy-based paint, for example, offers all the advantages of a premium,
oil-based paint, yet does not give off certain volatile chemicals that pollute the
atmosphere. That's unlike the solvents in oil-based paints, which can be an
environmental hazard. Some scientists think that production of epoxy oil by castor
plants is possible, because the chemical structure of epoxy oil is very similar to that
of castor oil. The modification that's needed to cue the castor plant to make epoxy
oil instead of castor oil is minor, compared to genetically engineer a corn plant or a
soybean plant to make epoxy oil, because the oils that those plants make are very
unlike epoxy oil.
Other aspects that have been identified while researching genetic modification for
castor seeds - Oleoyl-12-hydroxylase is the enzyme responsible for ricinoleate
biosynthesis in castor (Ricinus communis). The hydroxylase introduces the mid-chain
hydroxyl group, resulting in a fatty acid with numerous chemical uses. Other factors
involved in the high level of ricinoleate production by castor are the steady increase
in hydroxylase activity throughout development and the decline in oleoyl
desaturase. The glycol lipid oleoyloxyethyl phosphocholine is an effective inhibitor of
hydroxylase activity, and should prove to be a useful tool in following the movement
of labelled fatty acids through lipid pools.
Thomas A. McKeon of ARS' Western Regional Research Center in Albany, California
and colleague Grace Q. Chen, both in the Crop Improvement and Utilization
Research Unit, are some of the first in the world to genetically engineer castor
plants. In preliminary experiments, McKeon and Chen used marker genes to
determine whether their tactics for shuttling new genes into plants actually worked.
Now the scientists want to give the plants other genes - ones that could, among
other things, block production of ricin poison and the powerful allergens. (a 2001
report, URL: http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/jan01/plant0101.htm )
Castor plants are gradually revealing the secrets of how they make this prized
substance. Scientists with the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) in Albany, Calif.,
are delving into the mostly-mysterious mechanisms. The researchers' probing has
revealed, for the first time, the starring role that a gene called RcDGAT may play in
directing the castor plant to put the oil's most important component, its ricinoleate.
ARS research chemist Thomas A. McKeon did the work at the ARS Western Regional
Research Center in Albany along with research chemist Jiann-Tsyh Lin and ARS
research associate and molecular biologist Xiaohua He. The scientists right now are
continuing to slip the newly identified gene into yeasts in laboratory experiments
that will determine more about how to harness RcDGAT's oil-making prowess.
(based on a Dec 2005 report)
In the United States, administrators and researchers are considering the large-scale
reintroduction of castor ʹ this is largely driven by a desire to replace the significant
annual importation of castor oil with a reliable, cost-effective, domestic supply of
ricinoleic acid. Failing reintroduction of castor, efforts are afoot to so that crops that
produce high levels of oleic acid, such as sunflower or rape-seed, are being
engineered to contain the gene required to produce hydroxyleic acid, thereby
yielding the desired ricinoleic acid in an established agronomic crop. Over the near
term the acreage of traditional crops will continue to dwarf that of new crops. In the
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long-term, alternative and possibly genetically engineered crops can make important
contributions in the industrial and agricultural sectorsͶif they can compete in the
marketplace with traditional crops.
Atofina (now Arkema) to introduce genetic varieties of castor-oil plant (March, 2002)
- The French chemicals group Atofina, is negotiating with the Brazilian Embrapa
(Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria) and with EBDA (Empresa Baiana de
Desenvolvimento Agricola) the introduction of new genetic varieties of castor oil
plant in Irece, the major producer of the Bahia state.
Atofina (now Arkema) ʹ FDL Co-operation for hybrid castor seeds - FDL has set up a
castor seed joint venture project with Atofina (now Arkema) in China to try to
ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ CŚŝŶĂ͛Ɛ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ ƐĞĞĚ ĐƌŽƉ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞƌĞďLJ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ ƐƵƉƉůLJ ŽĨ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů
and reduce the raw material cost of castor oil for Atofina. FDL has supplied castor oil
to Atofina for many years predominantly from India but also from Brazil and China.
FDL set up a joint venture with a partner in China to encourage experimentation,
research and development of castor seed planting within China for the past six years.
FDL ŚĂƐ ĞĂƌůŝĞƌ ǁŽƌŬĞĚ ĐůŽƐĞůLJ ǁŝƚŚ AƚŽĨŝŶĂ͛Ɛ ŚLJďƌŝĚ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵ ŝŶ CĞŶƚƌĂů
America for the development of high yield hybrid seeds, and has utilised their
knowledge for the identification of suitable hybrid seeds for experimentation within
China. These hybrid seeds have been shipped to China and plantation studies have
been carried out across various regions of China for identification of the most
successful hybrids for Chinese soil and climatic conditions. (Fuerst Day Lawson (FDL)
press release, date not published)
Commercial production of transgenic canola containing 15% ricinoleic acid is
currently under way.

5.7 Yields for Castor Seeds and Castor Oil from Seed

Castor Seed Yield

Average seed yields range from 900ʹ1000 kg/ha under irrigation, and 500 kg/ha without
adequate moisture. Some improved open-pollinated varieties in Brazil yield 1,300 kg/ha,
with exceptional yields up to 5,000 kg/ha. Average Indian yields are about 1000 kg/ha.

Under exceptional circumstances in the state of Gujarat in India, seed yields of 6000 Kg /
hectare have been recorded, but it should be noted that these yields have been registered
only for some limited growth areas.

FAO Data for castor seed yields (2006)

India: 973 Kg / hectare
China: 960 Kg / hectare
Brazil: 671 Kg / hectare

Castor Oil Yield

The Indian variety of castor has 48% oil content of which 42% can be extracted, while the
cake retains the rest.
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5.8 Castor Cultivation FAQ

We have provided brief answers to some frequently asked questions related to castor crop
cultivation.

Why is castor an annual crop while it is actually a perennial?

o It has been found that of the castor crop is grown as a perennial, the yield
decreases significantly over the years. As a result, castor has primarily been
used as an annual crop.

Is harvesting done manually or is it automated?

o Most harvesting done in India is manual in nature.

Intercropping of castor with other plants?

o Intercropping refers to growing more than one crop at the same place at the
same time. While crop rotation is done in a significant manner, there have
not been any significant instances of intercropping in the context of castor.

What are the safety laws that are followed in the castor industry ʹ especially in
areas where people come in contact with the seeds and/or castor meal?

o Based on observations at castor farms and oil mills in India, no specific safety
procedures have been found, except in cases where people come in direct
contact with castor meal. Even in these cases, based on observations, it can
be said that the safety precautions taken are only minimal.

Is spreading castor meal as fertilizer not a problem to those who spread it?

o In some cases, farmers use the castor meal as a fertilizer and in these cases
they spread the meal in the farms. From our interactions with the farmers, it
can be said that there is no major risk for the person using the castor meal as
a fertilizer, though it is advisable to wear safety gloves and any other
protection required by law.

How resistant is the crop to salinity?

o The castor crop can grow in soils with a reasonable amount of salinity.
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What are the fertilizers commonly used for castor crop cultivation?

o The fertilizers used most commonly are Diammonium Phosphate and Urea.

Provide more details on castor meal as fertilizer

o It is used extensively as fertilizer. Countries that use castor meal as fertilizer
in a significant way are countries such as Korea, Taiwan etc.

Is organic castor oil produced anywhere?

o Based on interactions CastorOil.in has had with vendors in the last few years,
it can be stated that few, if any, companies have made efforts to produce
organic castor oil.

How is soil fertility maintained?

o The two primary activities understaken for soil fertility are the use of
fertilizers & crop rotation

Is there a danger to the flora and fauna in the region owing to the toxicity of castor
beans?

o Castor beans need to be consumed in order for the toxicity to affect human
benigs or animals. From our interactions and discussions with the castor oil
industry professionals, there have been few, if any, cases of human or animal
mortality owing to accidental consumption of castor beans.

What are the spacing recommendations for sowing castor?

o After the seedbed has been deeply cultivated, seeds in mechanized countries
are planted 4ʹ7.5 cm deep in rows 1 m apart; and about 50 cm apart within
rows (some varieties can be planted just 25 cm apart).

o For unmechanized societies that prefer larger varieties, seeds are planted 60
by 90 cm apart, 2ʹ4 seeds per hole, and then thinned to one plant.

Is direct sowing preferred for castor? If yes, how deep should we sow?

o Castor plant can be raised by direct sowing or by planting of nursery raised
seedlings. In direct sowing, the seeds are usually planted in a row with a
depth of 4-7 cm.
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What are the recommendations with regard to water management and irrigation
for castor cultivation?

o Castor is usually grown under rainfed conditions. However, it has been
observed that it responds very well to irrigation. Castor, being a deep-rooted
crop, can extract water from considerable depth in the soil. Irrigation may
thus be relatively heavy and less frequent. For good yields, wherever possible
two to three heavy irrigations may be given. In case of soil moisture
deficiency at flowering stage, essentially one irrigation may be provided. In
heavy rainfall areas proper drainage is essential.

o Furrow irrigation is preferred, but adoption of sub-irrigation has been found
to reduce weed problems.

When does the first flowering start for the castor plant?

o Flowering starts early in the life of castor. The first flowers normally open 40ʹ
70 days after sowing.

When does the first harvest start for castor?

o The first harvest is on the 6th month and every other month thereon.

What are the average seed yields from the castor plant?

o Average seed yields range from 900ʹ1000 kg/ha per annum under irrigated
conditions, but some states such as Gujarat have reported yields in excess of
5000 Kg/ha. The official data for India suggests an average yield of about
1000 kg of seeds per hectare per year.

What is the lifespan of the castor plant?

o For all commercial purposes, castor is an annual plant. Though it is a
perennial, it usually behaves as an annual in the temperate regions and its
seed yield decreases significantly after the first year. As a result, the plant is
used as an annual crop.

What is the average oil content in castor seed?

o The seeds contain about 48-50 percent oil by weight.

To what extent are inputs such as fertilizer, water, and pesticides are required for
the castor crop when compared to other energy and food crops?

o Castor crop requires significantly less inputs than many other energy and
food crops. For instance, it requires only about half the amount of fertilizers
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required for sunflower (for a similar area) and less than 20% of fertilizers
required for crops such as groundnuts or sorghum.

Are the seeds used for sowing of special grade/ variety, different from the seeds
harvested? If yes, what are these grades and what are the prices?

o The seeds that are used for sowing for the castor crop are different, and
belong to the high yield variety (usually hybrid seeds).


SUMMARY


Castor does well in the soil which is not fit for valuable commercial and food crops. It can be
grown on a wide range of soils, provided they are fairly deep and well drained. However, to
produce good yield, the plant requires, a minimum amount of water, fertilizer and
maintenance. Average seed yields range from 900ʹ1000 kg/ha under irrigation, though
higher yields have been reported.

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6 - Castor Oil End Uses

This chapter comprises the following topics

Current End Uses for Castor Oil and Derivatives ʹ 6.1
o End Uses ʹ by Castor Oil Grade / Derivative ʹ 6.1.1
o Castor Oil & Castor Oil Derivatives Uses ʹ By Industry ʹ 6.1.2
o Use of Castor Oil in High-end Derivatives ʹ 6.1.3
Future Possible End-uses and End User Industries for Castor Oil and Derivatives ʹ 6.2
o Biopolymers and Castor oil - 6.2.1
o Castor Oil as a Feedstock for Biodiesel ʹ 6.2.2
o Other Possible Future Uses ʹ 6.2.3


HIGHLIGHTS


Castor oil and its derivatives today find major application in soaps, lubricants, grease,
hydraulic brake fluids, paints, polymers, perfumery products, surfactants, surface
coatings and inks, telecom & engineering plastics, pharma, rubber chemicals,
polishes, flypapers, and cosmetic derivatives.

Companies such as BASF produce plastics from renewable resources which contains
about 60 per cent sebacic acid ʹ a derivative of castor oil.

Castor oil is increasingly finding application in the manufacture of polyurethane
foams. The polyurethane is produced from polyols based on castor oil.

The world's largest single use of castor oil in one product, outside the lubricants
markets, is in the manufacture of polyamide 11 (Nylon 11). The commercially
available polyamide made from castor oil is Arkema's (earlier Atofina) Rilsan Nylon
11.



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6.1 Current End Uses for Castor Oil & Derivatives

Castor oil's application range is very wide. From the attractive uses such as cosmetics to the
areas of national security involving engineering plastics, jet engine lubricants and polymers
ĨŽƌ ĞůĞĐƚƌŽŶŝĐƐ ĂŶĚ ƚĞůĞĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƚŝŽŶƐ͕ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů ƉůĂLJƐ ĂŶ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ƌŽůĞ ŝŶ ƚŽĚĂLJ͛Ɛ
industry.

The chemical structure of castor oil affords a wide range of reactions to the oleochemical
industry and the unique chemicals that can be derived from it. Some of these derivatives are
on par with petrochemical products for use in several industrial applications. In fact, they
are considerably superior since they are from renewable sources, bio-degradable and eco-
friendly.

Castor oil and its derivatives today find major application in soaps (bind ingredients in
cosmetic and soap formulas, humectant for soap products), lubricants (jet engine
lubricants), grease, hydraulic brake fluids, paints (varnishes ), polymers (basic ingredient in
the production of nylon 11, nylon 6-10, polyurethanes), perfumery products, surfactants,
surface coatings and inks, telecom & engineering plastics (polyamide 11), pharma, rubber
chemicals, polishes, flypapers, in addition to other chemical derivatives and medicinal,
pharmaceutical and cosmetic derivatives.

lŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ lŶĚƵƐƚƌLJ-wise Castor Oil Consumption by End-use Industry

Industry Percentage
Soaps 30
Paints 40
Lubricants & Derivatives 30
Total 100
Source: based on data from 2005 to 2007; of the total consumption of about 85000 T per year, soaps, paints
and lubricants industries consume approximately 25000 T, 35000 T and 25000 T respectively.

6.1.1 End Uses ʹ by Castor Oil Grade / Derivative

Blown Castor Oil

Blown castor oil is a potential replacement for phthalates and is used primarily as a
plasticizer for lacquers, inks, adhesives, hydraulic fluids and leathers.

Castor oil has been long used as a plasticizer for celluloid and in lacquers but the blown oil
has been discovered to perform better.

Sulfonated Castor Oil

Sulfonated castor oil is castor oil that has been treated so that it is fully dispersible in water,
thus making it perfect for bath oil products. Also called Sulfated castor oil and Turkey Red
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Oil, it was the first synthetic detergent after ordinary soap. It is also used in formulating
lubricants, softeners, and dyeing assistants.

Being an anionic surfactant, it is an active wetting agent (a chemical agent capable of
reducing the surface tension of a liquid in which it is dissolved). As such, it is used
extensively in dyeing and in finishing of cotton and linen. Generally, the ability of castor oil
and some of its derivatives to wet surfaces make them useful as excellent carriers of
pigments and dyes.

It is of medium viscosity and is usually used in bath oil recipes along with fragrance or
essential oils, or in shampoos.

It is the only oil that will completely disperse in water. It is a surfactant and therefore makes
a wonderful base for bath oil as it mixes well with water, producing a milk bath.

For instance, it is used to emulsify essential oils so that they will dissolve in other water-
based products or for super-fatting liquid soap if you want the soap to remain transparent.
This means that the oil will combine with the water in the tub, and not leave those little oil
bubbles floating on the top of the water.

Sulfonated castor oil is also used in agriculture as organic manure, in paper industry for
defoaming, in pharmaceuticals as undecylenate, in paints, inks and in lubricants.

Alternatives to sulfonated castor oil

Recent research has shown that, on sulfonation to the hydroxyl group, long-chain alkyl
ricinoleates produce surface-active compounds. Tetradecyl ricinoleate, for instance, shows
the best surface-active behavior and seems to be much better than that of sulfonated castor
oil.

Urethane Grade Castor Oil

Urethane Grade Castor Oil is a refined grade of castor oil for specific applications that
require minimum moisture. Typical applications include use in making urethane coatings,
adhesives and inks. This grade also finds use in urethane blowing and urethane molding.

BP Grade Castor Oil

This grade is used in pharmacy & medicinal applications in Great Britain

European Pharmacopia Grade

European Pharmacopia Grade refers to the castor oil specifications as laid down by the
European Pharmacopia standards. This grade is used in pharmacy & medicinal applications
in the European Union.

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Castor Oil USP

Castor Oil USP Grade refers to the castor oil prepared in conformity with the USP norms. It is
the grade used by the pharmaceutical industry in the USA.

First Pressed Degummed Grade

Castor oil that is first pressed, filtered and then degummed has the unique lubricating
properties of castor without the excessive buildup and carbon. This grade is hence used in
the lubricant industry in a significant manner.

Dehydrated Castor Oil

DCO can be used to improve the quality of house paints, enamels, caulks, sealants and inks.
It is used as primary binder for house paints, enamels, caulk sealant, and making varnishes.
This oil also works well in clear varnishes and hard finish coatings.

By far the most important coatings use of castor oil is in the form of dehydrated castor. In
commercial manufacture of dehydrated castor oil, the aim is to produce the most valuable
material for use as a drying oil. Dehydrated castor oil is now recognized as an individual
drying oil with its own characteristic properties and advantages. The drying oils owe their
value as raw materials for decorative and protective coatings to their ability to polymerize
Žƌ ͞ĚƌLJ͟ ĂĨƚĞƌ ƚŚĞLJ ŚĂǀĞ ďĞĞŶ ĂƉƉůŝĞĚ ƚŽ Ă ƐƵƌĨĂĐĞ ƚŽ ĨŽƌŵ ƚŽƵŐŚ͕ ĂĚŚĞƌĞŶƚ͕ ŝŵƉĞƌǀŝŽƵƐ͕ ĂŶĚ
abrasion resistance films. The advantages claimed in surface coating applications include
excellent odor and heat bleachability, good drying properties, more uniform polymer
structure, and lack of after-yellowing.

DCO has advantages over tung oil because it is non-yellowing.

DCO can be converted to dehydrated castor fatty acid by hydrolysis and distillation. This
(dehydrated castor fatty acid) is used in the manufacture of alkyd resins, coatings, appliance
finishes, primers and inks. Alkyd resins in turn are used for paints, enamels, lacquers and
varnishes with high gloss, good adhesion and wetting qualities.

The vulcanization of DCO with sulphur has been reported: factice, the resulting product, has
been found to be a rubber additive with anti-ozonant and good flow properties.

If DCO is epoxidized, the product can be evaluated in poly (vinyl) compounds as a
plasticizer/stabilizer giving rise to the possibility that epoxidized castor oil may be capable of
replacing epoxidized soybean oil.

Ethoxylated Castor Oil

Ethoxylated castor oil is a nonionic surfactant having many industrial applications.
Used in polymer coating applications
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Used in the wool scouring industry, as it is an excellent cleaning agent for grease and
oil
Used in corrosion lubricants

HCO

Hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) or castor wax is a hard, brittle wax that is insoluble. It is
produced by adding hydrogen in the presence of a nickel catalyst.

Hydrogenation of castor oil accounts for the largest single use of castor oil for a standard
commodity.

The HCO is insoluble in water and most organic solvents, but it is soluble in hot solvents. It is
water resistant while retaining lubricity, polarity and surface wetting properties. It is this
insolubility that makes HCO valuable to the lubricants markets. It is perfect for metal
drawing lubricants and multipurpose industrial greases.

Thus it is no surprise that HCO is mainly used for coatings and greases where resistance to
moisture, oils and other petrochemical products is required. The early use of HCO in greases
was to improve texture and oxidative stability of greases exposed to high sheer stress with
little effect on structure or consistency. HCO made its debut in greases as a replacement for
traditional soap thickeners, sodium, potassium and calcium.

Hydrogenated castor oil is also utilized in the manufacture of waxes, polishes, carbon paper,
candles and crayons. In addition, it finds use in cosmetics, hair dressing, ointments, and in
the preparation of hydroxyl-stearic acid and derivatives. Sometimes, HCO is used as a paint
additive, pressure mould release agent in the manufacture of formed plastics and rubber
goods.

Some new uses of HCO: HCO based rheology modifiers ʹ see the web page -
http://www.crayvallac.com/inks/download/Castor_Wax_Tec_Bulletin.PDF

12-HSA

12 HSA is used in grease manufacture, plastics lubrication and as a raw material for the
synthesis of more complex chemicals. It is used as a high hydroxyl castor based wax, as a
wax ingredient.

When reacted with an ester, 12 HSA provides a hard finish for the automotive and small
appliance industries.

Both HCO and 12 HSA have enjoyed popularity with the growth of lithium complex greases,
which are growing to be the largest segment of the grease market. These greases have excellent
heat tolerance like the sodium greases and the water resistance of calcium greases. The addition
of 12 HSA enhances the overall performance with better texture, improved heat stability and
improved dropping points. It simplifies the grease manufacturing process because it no longer
requires milling and homogenization steps that were normally used with lithium type greases.
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12 HSA soaps are used in mineral oil-based multipurpose greases making it possible for grease
to fill the requirements of a variety of needs in the automotive and truck greases.

In cosmetics: 12 HSA may be used for gelling liquid petroleum to produce brilliance. It may
be incorporated into cold creams and vanishing creams to give a jelly-like feeling.

In paints: 12-HSA is reacted with acrylic esters to produce hard, durable thermosetting
polymers used in high-quality automotive, industrial appliance and metal decorative
finishes.

In rubbers: 12-HSA functions as an activator and internal lubricant for natural and synthetic
rubbers.

Undecylenic Acid

Undecylenic acid has a long history as antifungal drug. It is used to treat some types of
fungus infections.

Undecylenic acid is a natural fungicide and is FDA approved in over-the-counter medications
for skin disorders or problems. It is the active ingredient in medications for skin infections,
and relieves itching, burning, and irritation. For example, it is used against fungal skin
infections such as athlete's foot, ringworm, and Candida albicans. It is also used in the
treatment of psoriasis.

Most organic fatty acids are fungicidal and have been used for centuries as antimicrobial
agents, originally in the manufacture of soaps. In the last 50 years, however, they have
found use both in vitro as yeast and mold inhibitors in food stuffs, and as topical and
systemic antifungals. Undecylenic acid is an economical antifungal agent and is the active
ingredient in many topical over-the-counter antifungal preparations. Undecylenic acid has
been shown to be approximately six times more effective as an antifungal than caprylic acid,
and is effective in maintaining a healthy balance of intestinal and vaginal flora.

When undecylenic acid is treated with hydrogen bromide in a non-polar solvent in the
presence of peroxide, reverse Markownikoff addition occurs and the main product is x-
bromoundecanoic acid. The product is then treated with ammonia to give x-
aminoundecanoic acid, which is a crystalline solid. Aminoundecanoic acid is the starting
material for nylon-11.

Related Chemical Reactions

(CH
2
=CH(CH
2
)
8
COOH) Undecylenic Acid Æ HBr Æ BrCH
2
.CH
2
(CH
2
)
8
COOH

BrCH
2
.CH
2
(CH
2
)
8
COOH Æ NH
3
Æ H
2
N(CH
2
)
10
COOH (w-Aminoundecanoic Acid)

Specific applications of undecylenic acid:

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An active ingredient in many topical over-the-counter antifungal preparations like
the (tinea pedis), diaper rash, and effective against denture stomatitis and herpes.
Several studies have demonstrated that undecylenic acid is 4-5 times as powerful an
antifungal agent as caprylic acid in the same dosage.
Undecylenic acid and its derivatives have a bi-functionality: surfactant as well as
natural bio-resistance properties.
Biocide in soaps and deodorants
Surfactant in hair lotions.
Starting material for Nylon-11
Malodorous/foul smelling paper mill effluents can also be deodorized by treating
them with an effective deodorizing amount ʹ such as an alkyl or polyoxyalkylene
ester of undecylenic acid, for example methyl undecylenate or polyoxyethylene
undecylenate.
Malodorous animal feeds can be deodorized by treating them with an effective
foodstuff deodorizing amount of polyoxyalkylene ester of undecylenic acid.
There are instances where malodorous liquid animal manures & sewage sludges are
deodorized by treating the sample with a polyoxyalkylene ester of undecylenic acid.

Biochemistry and Pharmacokinetics for Undecylenic Acid

Wyss et al demonstrated more than 50 years ago that the greater the number of carbon
atoms in the fatty acid chain, the greater the fungicidal activity, up to the point exceeding
eleven carbon atoms, where solubility becomes the limiting factor. Although the fungistatic
and fungicidal effects of fatty acids have been well documented, they can be somewhat
irritating to mucous membranes in certain people, and commonly used fatty acids such as
caprylic and undecylenic acids have an objectionable taste and odor. Consequently, the
calcium, magnesium, and sodium salts of these fatty acids have been offered as reasonable
alternatives. Undecylenate salts have been shown to possess as much as four times the
fungicidal effect of undecylenic acid, and may be over 30 times more effective than caprylic
acid. Unfortunately, the antifungal effects of these fatty acid salts are more sensitive to pH
than the free fatty acids. When tested over a pH range from 4.5 to 6.0, the antifungal
activities of both undecylenic acid and calcium undecylenate are quite pronounced; the
minimal inhibitory concentration of calcium undecylenate against Candida albicans is 200
ppm at pH 6.0. However, above pH 6.0, the calcium salt is less active than the free acid,
perhaps due to the suppression of ionization of the salt at higher pH levels.

Mechanism of Action

At least one of the mechanisms underlying its anti-fungal effect is its inhibition of
morphogenesis of Candida albicans. In a study on denture liners, undecylenic acid in the
liners was found to inhibit conversion of yeast to the hyphal form. Hyphae were associated
with active infection. The authors speculated on possible mechanisms including interference
with fatty acid biosynthesis, which can inhibit germ tube (hyphae) formation. Medium-chain
fatty acids have also been shown to disrupt the pH of the cell cytoplasm by being proton
carriers.

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Undecylenic Acid for Specific Clinical Applications

Vaginal/Gastrointestinal Candidiasis - Undecylenic acid has been shown to be effective in
preventing fungal overgrowth associated with vaginal and gastrointestinal candidiasis via its
fungicidal activity.

Thrush - Since undecylenic acid acts systemically, oral administration can inhibit or even
prevent oral candidiasis, or thrush.

Dermatomycoses - Undecylenic acid is the active ingredient in Desinex[R] cream and a
number of other over-the-counter antifungals. It is responsible for the antifungal effect of
these medications against such organisms as Candida albicans, Trichophyton species,
Epidermophyton inguinale, and Microsporum audouini.

Herpes Simplex Infection - Undecylenic acid has been shown to have antibacterial and
antiviral properties in vitro and is effective topically against the herpes simplex virus in both
animals and humans.

Denture Stomatitis - Candida albicans is a major cause of denture stomatitis, an
inflammation of the tissues underlying dentures. The organism exists in two cellular
morphologies -- the round yeast form found in asymptomatic carrier states and the
branching hyphal form found in active infections. Resilient liners are frequently used to treat
denture stomatitis, and it has been demonstrated that liners containing undecylenic acid
completely inhibited the conversion of the yeast form of Candida albicans to the hyphal
form, thereby inhibiting proliferation of the yeast.

Undecylenic Acid Minor Derivatives (Source: Arkema Inc)

Undecylenic Acid - Ammonium Derivatives
o Undecylenamidopropyl betaine: C11 betaine.
ƒ A very mild, active surfactant with a dual water and oil solubility.
ƒ Especially suited to use in anti-dandruff shampoos.
ƒ A good viscosity regulator.

Undecylenic Acid - Ethanolamide Derivatives
o Ethanolamide derivatives are both oil- and water-soluble and hence can
easily be formulated:
ƒ High water solubility and high surfactant properties for haircare uses.

Undecylenic Acid - Undecylenamide MEA
o Good fungicidal and bactericidal properties, that can be added to:
ƒ Shampoos and other products to provide foam stabilization, viscosity
control...
ƒ Soaps to provide emolliency, firmness and fungicidal properties
ƒ Pharmaceutical creams and oils where fungicidal properties are
important
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ƒ Bubble bath products and shampoos, especially anti-dandruff
shampoos
ƒ Shaving creams and after-shave lotions.

Undecylenic Acid - Undecylenamide DEA
o Same applications as for undecylenamide MEA, and additionally, any use in
which increased water solubility is required
ƒ Thickener and refatting agent for special formulations
ƒ Foam stabilization and viscosity control of detergent formulations
ƒ Suitable for foot and skincare preparations
ƒ Additive for anti-dandruff shampoos.

Undecylenic Acid - Sulfosuccinate Derivatives
o Disodium Undecylenamido MEA-Sulfosuccinate
ƒ Contains the powerful solubilizing sulfonate group
ƒ A very mild anionic surfactant both to skin and eyes recommended for
application in baby shampoos and cleaning creams for its good skin
compatibility
ƒ Anti-dandruff activity: 2% active disodium mono-undecylenamido
MEA-sulfosuccinate is effective in the reduction of itching, scaling and
dandruff associated with seborrhea capitis.

Methyl 12-HSA

Methyl 12-HSA is an ester that is efficient in extending the lubrication life of grease. Greases
made with the product can be formulated to higher drop points, and they experience both less
bleeding and improved oxidative stability .The development of these products was most
beneficial in the grease processing area due to avoidance of milling and homogenizing, less
shearing and overall uniform consistency.

Methyl 12-HSA is usually sold in the liquid form and is widely used in the continuous grease
process. It has a lower melt point than 12-HSA and is, therefore, easier to handle in the liquid
form.

Main Applications

Solid pigment dispersant for colour concentrates used in plastics, inks and coatings
Mold lubricant and release agent in plastic extrusion, molding and calendaring
Plasticizer - coupling agent for hot melt adhesives and textile printing compounds
Processing aid for rubber, plastics and polymers
Used in high temperature greases

Heptaldehyde

Undecylenic acid and Heptaldehyde are starting materials for a number of perfumery
compounds & for flavours and fragrances

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Uses
o Chemical intermediates for perfumes and flavours
o Used in perfumery in the form of compounds jasmine aldehyde (alpha amyl
cinnemic aldehyde) and coconut aldehyde
o Also used in the manufacture of heptyl alcohol, heptonoic acid etc., which
have subsequent usage in various industries
o Used in rubber industry in the preparation of vulcanization accelerators
o Used as solvent in rubber & plastics industries
o Also used for emulsifiers & plasticizers
o Heptaldehyde & undecylenic acid are used to make key aroma chemicals
used in perfumes. An important aroma chemical is undecylenic aldehyde,
reportedly even used in Chanel perfumes.

Heptyl Alcohol

Used as chemical intermediates for:
Perfumes and flavours (with fruit taste)
Polymer plasticizer
Used in toilet preparations and detergents.

Undecanoic Acid

Used as chemical intermediates for perfumes/flavors, for instance, macrocyclic
musks
Used to prepare ointments with dermatophilic activity.

Undecylenic Aldehyde

Undecylenic acid is an unsaturated carboxylic acid. Undecylenic aldehyde is used to
formulate perfumes. Undecylenic aldehyde is one of the commonly used ingredients in
perfumery. Its end applications include soaps, detergents, beauty care products &
household products.

Undecylenic Alcohol

Undecylenic alcohol is a common ingredient in flavours and fragrances. Odour description:
floral, ozone, waxy.

Calcium Undecylenate

Calcium undecylenate is the calcium salt of undecylenic acid. It is derived by the vacuum
distillation of castor oil.

The antifungal properties of medium chain fatty acid increase as the chain lengthens, and
peak at 11.

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An 11 carbon mono-unsaturated fatty acid, calcium undecylenate is an extremely effective,
broad-spectrum antifungal.

Both zinc & calcium undecylenate salts are used as fungicides. The fungicidal effect of
undecylenate salts have been shown to be four times higher than that of undecylenic acid.

Calcium undecylenate is an extremely effective, well-tolerated, broad-spectrum antifungal.
Topical calcium undecylenate is specifically used on the skin to treat fungus infections.

Zinc Undecylenate

Undecylenic acid and its zinc salts are used for the treatment and prevention of superficial
fungus infections of the skin, primarily tinea pedis, as well as relieves itching, burning and
irritation

For both zinc and calcium undecylenate salts

The fungicidal effect of undecylenate salts have been shown to be four times higher than
with undecylenic acid.
Excellent skin bio-affinity due to their amphiphile structure.
No side effects or adverse reactions with preparations containing undecylenic acid
and its zinc salt (formulations of foot powder with 20% ZnUDA and 2% UDA in
talcum).
(Source: Arkema Inc)

Methyl Undecylenate

Used as chemical intermediates for:
Cosmetics/pharmaceuticals
Anti-odor formulations

Ethyl Undecylenate

Used as a flavouring agent

Esterols

Esterols are used in/for:
Bitumen emulsions (Esterol 11)
Machining oils, due to their capacity to fix sulphur
Metal working fluids (lubricity for anti-wear additive when sulfurized)
Fat liquors for leather treatment
Concrete mold release agents
Grease and lubrication formulations
Anti-foam agents

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Ricinoleic Acid

Castor oil's effectiveness is probably due in part to its unusual chemical composition - a
triglyceride of fatty acids with almost 90 percent of that fatty acid content consisting of
ricinoleic acid. Ricinoleic acid is not found in any other substance, and the high
concentration of this unusual, unsaturated fatty acid is thought to be responsible for castor
oil's remarkable healing abilities.

Ricinoleic acid is shown to be synthesized in the immature castor bean seed only after 3-4
weeks from the time of fertilization. Synthesis occurs both in the isolated embryo and the
endosperm.

While known chiefly as a purgative a few decades ago, this fatty acid now affords a wide
range of reactions enabling the formation of several derivatives. These chemicals are on par
with petrochemical products for use in several industrial applications.

Primary uses include, coatings, plastics, inks and cosmetics.
Poly (anhydrides) is hydrolytically degradable polymers which have been used as
vehicles for controlled delivery of drugs. A new class of biodegradable polyanhydrides
based on ricinoleic acid has been synthesized
Ricinoleic acid is effective in preventing the growth of numerous species of viruses,
bacteria, yeasts, and molds. It's successful as a topical treatment for ringworm,
keratoses, skin inflammation, abrasions, fungal-infected finger- and toenails, acne, and
chronic pruritus (itching). Generally, for these conditions the affected area is wrapped
each night in a castor oil-soaked cloth. Ricinoleic acid is used also as a bactericide.
Hence, washing wounds with ricinoleic acid at prescribed dilution levels is sometimes
recommended.
Ricin acts as a blood coagulant
Macrolactones and polyesters can be derived from ricinoleic acid
Ricinoleic acid has been used in contraceptive jellies
Used in soaps, amine compounds, esters in cutting oils, industrial lubricants, emulsifiers,
metal working compounds.
Ricinoleate soaps have been patented as algaecides for aquaculture systems.
Used in dispersion of pigments and dyes.
Used in resins, thermosetting acrylics and non-drying plasticizing esters.
Quaternary ammonium compounds based on ricinoleates and hydroxy stearates have
been used in for cosmetics skin and hair care, personal products, germicides and textile
processing agents.

Methyl Ricinoleate

Alkyl ricinoleates and alkyl 12-hydroxy stearates such as methyl ricinoleate are
important ingredients in various cosmetics and toiletries
Some microorganisms can transform methyl ricinoleate intŽ ɶ-decalactone, a valuable
aroma compound
Methyl ricinoleate has the potential to be used as a fuel additive to enhance the
performance of environmentally friendly fuels. As part of ongoing research efforts on
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biodiesel fuels, methyl ricinoleate has been tested as a potential lubricity additive for
petroleum diesel.
Methyl ricinoleate is a low-temperature plasticizer for rubber polymers, and for epoxy
resin systems

Zinc Ricinoleate

The zinc salt of ricinoleic acid, zinc ricinoleate finds use in the deodorants industry as a
sensitizer. Like a sponge, zinc ricinoleate traps and absorbs the odour molecules produced
by skin bacteria.

Zinc ricinoleate does not inhibit normal perspiration, and will not interfere with the natural
flora of the skin. Instead, it ͚ĨŝdžĞƐ͛ ƚŚĞ ŽĚŽƵƌƐ ƉƌŽĚƵĐĞĚ ďLJ ďĂĐƚĞƌŝĂů ĚĞĐŽŵƉŽƐŝƚŝŽŶ ŝŶ ƐǁĞĂƚ
so that they cannot be released into the atmosphere and cause the characteristic sweaty
smell. In other words, it chemically binds unpleasant odorous substances in such a way that
they are no longer perceptible.

The precise mechanism of this process is not known. Based on some simulation studies, the
following were observed: In the vacuum and oil phase structures, the Zn2+ ion is almost
completely shielded by the oxygen ligands. Structural transitions are caused by the
interaction of Zinc ricinoleate with water-solvent molecules, and this results in a weakening
of the electrostatic shield. While Zinc ricinoleate is in aqueous solution, it is possible for the
nucleophilic attack of odor-active compounds to the relatively unprotected Zn2+ atom. This
results in a structural change, and this structural change, it is surmised, results in an increase
of the solubility and adsorption activity of Zinc ricinoleate.

Zinc ricinoleate is also used as a fungicide, emulsifier and stabilizer

Sebacic Acid

Sebacic Acid was named from the Latin sebaceus (tallow candle) or sebum (tallow) in
reference to its use in the manufacture of candles
One of the largest uses of Sebacic Acid is in the manufacture of Nylon 6-10. Sebacic acid and
hexamethylene diisocyanate react through condensation polymerization to produce
Nylon 6-10.
Sebacic Acid and its derivatives such as Azelaic acid have a variety of industrial uses in
plasticizers, lubricants, hydraulic fluids, cosmetics, candles, etc. They are used in the
synthesis of polyamide and alkyd resins. An isomer, isosebacic acid, has other
applications in the manufacture of extrusion plastics, adhesives, polyesters,
polyurethane resins and synthetic rubber.
Sebacic Acid is also used as an intermediate for aromatics, antiseptics and painting
materials. A large number of esters can be obtained from thousands of potential starting
materials.
It is used as a corrosion inhibitor in metalworking fluids and as a complexing agent in
greases. When mixed with amines, Sebacic acid can give a very effective water soluble
corrosion inhibitor for metal working fluids.
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Lithium hydroxystearate complex greases often utilize dibasic acids such as sebacic acid for
the more unusual performance parameters. These greases require the esters of sebacic acid,
which were developed for specific performance criteria under varying conditions. Examples:
DOS (dioctyl sebacate) is very functional in low temperature formulations and DSS (disodium
sebacate) has been used to replace sodium nitrites in aluminum greases. Its fine particle size
allows it to be added to the grease during the cool down period with no additional
processing. DMS/DBS (dimethyl sebacate/dibutyl sebacate) are synthetic base stocks that
can replace the mineral oils for environmentally friendly applications. DOS or DMS in
complexed greases improve workability and low temperature properties particularity for
applications in aircraft, trucks, automobiles and equipment exposed to arctic conditions.
The esters of sebacic acid also are used as plasticizers for vinyl resins and in the
manufacture of dioctyl sebacate - a jet lubricant and lubricant in aircooled combustion
motors.
Two derivatives of sebacic acid are used in a range of applications as well.

Dibutyl Sebacate (DBS) - Di-n-bibutyl Sebacate (DBS), is a transparent oil liquid, dissolves
ethanol and ether. This product is widely used as rocket propellant. Being non-toxic, used in
food & pharma industry as packing material It is also used as cold resistant plasticizer for
synthetic resin and synthetic rubber.

Dioctyl Sebacate (DOS) - Dioctyl Sebacate (DMS) a transparent light yellow oil liquid with a
distinct smell This product with low volatility and high-resistant, lightproof, and electrical
insulation dissolve in hydracarbons, alcohol, ether, benzene and other organic solvents.

It is mainly used by PVC, chloroethylene copolymer, nitrocellulose, ethyl cellulose and
synthetic rubber industries as plasticizer and suitable for cold resistant cables, leatherette,
thin film, sheet material, etc.

Sebacic Acid ʹ Summary of Applications

Application sector Nature of application

Nylon Nylon 6,10


Plasticizer
Dimethyl sebacate
Dioctyl sebacate
Dibutyl sebacate
Diisopropyl sebacate


Lubricant
Heat resistance lubricant oil
Epoxy solidified agent
Sebacic anhydride
Synthetic lubricating grease


Derivatives
Azelaic acid
Isosebacic acid(Isomer)


Miscellaneous
Perfumery
Pharmaceuticals

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2-Octanol

2-Octanol is the main raw material for some esters. It is used as a solvent,
dehydrater and antibubbling agent
In coal industry, it is used as floatation agent; finds uses as a frother in mineral
flotation.
In farming chemical industry too, it is used as floatation agent & for producing
emulsifiers
In chemical fiber industry, it is used as fiber oil
Used in producing the plastic plasticizer and synthetic perfume. The refined
derivative can be used to produce plasticizers such as dioctanol phthalate (DCP),
dioctanol adipate (DCA).
It can be used as a possible alternate for 2-ethylhexanol or isooctyl alcohol in the
preparation of diesters, monomeric and polymeric plasticizers.
The refined 2-Octanol is used as a raw material to produce caproic acid. In some
countries the caproic acid is used to produce ethyl caproate - a kind of flavor.

N-Heptanoic acid

n-heptanoic acid is used primarily:
in the form of esters: industrial lubricants (aviation, refrigeration, etc.),
plasticizers for laminated glass, tracer for butter etc.
in the form of salts: for aqueous anticorrosion.
as raw material for perfume, medicine and lubricating grease.
as chemical intermediate in the synthesis of emollient agents:
o in personal care: propylene glycol diheptanoate & stearyl heptanoate
o in pharmaceutical gel: neopentylglycol diheptanoate.

Allyl Undecyclenate

A white, water-soluble powder that decomposes above 200°C, it is used in cosmetics
and pharmaceuticals as a bacteriostat and fungistat
Used in pet flea shampoo

Glycerine

Glycerine is used in cosmetics, foods, pharmaceuticals, and a variety of personal care and
oral care products, as well as in other applications including animal seed, antifreeze and
certain energy uses.

Uses of glycerine by industry

Food and beverages - Humectant, solvent, sweetener, and preservative.
Pharmaceuticals - Solvent, moistener, humectant, and bodying agent in tinctures,
elixirs, ointments, and syrups; plasticizer for medicine capsules; other uses include
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suppositories, ear infection remedies, anesthetics, cough remedies, lozenges,
gargles, and carrier for antibiotics and antiseptics.
Cosmetics and toiletries - Humectant, vehicle, and emollient in toothpaste, skin
creams and lotions, shaving preparations, deodorants, and makeup.
Tobacco - Keeps tobacco moist and soft to prevent breaking and crumbling during
processing; ensures freshness in packaged cigarettes and other tobacco products.
Surface coatings - Used in the manufacture of alkyd resins, which are important
components of surface coatings.
Paper and printing - Plasticizer, humectant, and lubricant in the manufacture of
paper; used with other ingredients in specialty treatments such as grease-proofing;
alkyd resins also an important constituent of many printing inks.
Lubricants - Because of its nontoxic character, used in lubricants for food and other
machinery where product purity is essential.
Textiles - Conditioning agent used widely in lubricating, sizing, and softening yarn
and fabric; lubricates many kinds of fibers in spinning, twist setting, knitting, and
weaving operations.
Rubber and plastics - Lubricant and plasticizer for plastic.
Urethane polymers - Fundamental chemical component of polyethers for urethane
foams.
Electrical and electronics - Widely employed in manufacturing electrolytes for
electrolytic condensers, which are used in radios and neon lights, and in processes
for electrodeposition and treatment of metals.
Nitration - Used to make nitroglycerine, which is the usual explosive in dynamite and
a cardiovascular agent.

6.1.2 Castor Oil & Castor Oil Derivatives Uses ʹ By Industry

Castor oil has over 1000 patented industrial applications. It is used in the following
industries: automobile, aviation, cosmetics, drug, electrical, electronics, food,
manufacturing, plastics, and telecommunications.

Details of industry used in & the castor products used in that industry.

Agriculture

Used in
a. Fertilisers ʹ Organic Fertilisers

Castor Products & Derivatives Used
a. Castor Meal

Food

Food grade castor oil is used in additives, flavorings, candy (e.g., chocolate), as a mold
inhibitor, and in packaging. Cremophor, also known as polyoxyethylated castor oil, is also
used in the foodstuff industry.

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Used in
a. Surfactants
b. Viscosity Reducing Additives
c. Flavourings
d. Food Packaging

Castor Products & Derivatives Used
a. Food Grade Castor Oil
b. Polyoxyethylated Castor Oil

Textile Chemicals

Used in
a. Textile Finishing Materials
b. Dyeing Aids
c. Nylon, Synthetic Fibers & Resins
d. Synthetic Detergents
e. Surfactants, Pigment Wetting Agents

Castor Products & Derivatives Used
a. Ethoxylated Castor Oil
b. Sulfonated Castor Oil / Turkey Red Oil
c. Methyl 12-HSA

Paper

Used in
a. Flypapers
b. Defoamer
c. Water Proofing Additive
d. Paper Coatings

Castor Products & Derivatives Used
a. Methyl 12-HSA
b. Glycerine

Plastics & Rubber

Used in
a. Polyamide 11 (Nylon 11)
b. Polyamide 6
c. Polyurethane Foam
d. Plastic Films
e. Adhesives
f. Synthetic Resins
g. Plasticizers
h. Coupling Agents
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i. Polyols

Castor Products & Derivatives Used
a. 12-HSA
b. Heptaldehyde
c. Ricinoleic Acid
d. Methyl Ricinoleate
e. Sebacic Acid
f. Undecylenic Acid
g. Glycerine

Cosmetics & Perfumeries

Castor oil and derivatives are used in soaps, creams (tretinoin), shampoos, perfumes, lip
gels, lipsticks, hair oil's (increases hair luster), deodorants, lubricants, sunscreens, and many
other personal hygiene and beauty products.

Castor oil has been used in skin care products for centuries, and continues to play an
important part in the production of soaps and cosmetics. Cosmetic manufacturers use
castor oil and its derivatives in formulating non-comedogenic cosmetics (cosmetics that
don't exacerbate or contribute to acne) and emollients (softens). Undecylenic acid is also
used in cosmetics and is the active ingredient in over-the-counter medications for skin
infections and relieves itching, burning, and irritation.

Used in
a. Perfumery Products
b. Lipsticks
c. Hair Tonics
d. Shampoos
e. Polishes
f. Emulsifiers
g. Deodorants

Castor Products & Derivatives Used
a. Castor Oil
b. Castor Oil Esters
c. Undecylenic Acid
d. Castor Wax
e. Zinc Ricinoleate
f. Heptaldehyde
g. Heptanoic Acid
h. Undecylenic Acid
i. Heptyl Alcohol
j. Ethyl Heptoate
k. Heptyl Acetate

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Electronics & Telecommunications

Used in
a. Polymers for Electronics & Telecommunications
b. Polyurethanes
c. Insulation Materials

Castor Products & Derivatives Used
a. Castor Oil Esters
b. Polyols

Pharmaceuticals

Used in
a. Antihelmintic
b. Antidandruff
c. Cathartic
d. Emollient
e. Emulsifiers
f. Encapsulants
g. Expectorant
h. Laxatives & Purgative
i. Additives & Excipients

Castor Products & Derivatives Used
a. Glycerine
b. Undecylenic Acid
c. Zinc Undecylenate
d. Enanthic Anhydride
e. Calcium Undecylenate
f. Hydrogenated Castor Oil

Paints, Inks & Additives

Used in
a. Inks
b. Plasticizer for Coatings
c. Varnishes
d. Lacquers
e. Paint Strippers
f. Adhesive Removers
g. Wetting & Dispersing Additives

Castor Products & Derivatives Used
a. Polyols
b. Glycerine
c. Dimer Acid
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d. Ricinoleic Acid
e. Castor Oil
f. Dehydrated Castor Oil (DCO)

Lubricants

Vegetable oils, due to their good lubricity and biodegradability are attractive alternatives to
petroleum-derived lubricants, but oxidative stability and low temperature performance limit
their widespread use. Castor oil has better low temperature viscosity properties and high
temperature lubrication than most vegetable oils, making it useful as a lubricant in jet,
diesel, and race-car engines. Castor oil is the preferred lubricant for bicycle pumps, likely
because it doesn't dissolve natural-rubber seals. Castor oil is also one of the preferred
lubricants for model aircraft. The lubricants company Castrol took its name from castor oil.
For most of the lubrication purposes, the degummed variety of castor oil is the preferred
grade.

Used in
a. Lubricating Grease
b. Aircraft Lubricants
c. Jet Engine Lubricants
d. Racing Car Lubricants
e. Hydraulic Fluids
f. Heavy Duty Automotive Greases
g. Fuel Additives
h. Corrosion Inhibitors

Castor Products & Derivatives Used
a. Dimer Acid
b. Ricinoleic Acid
c. Castor Oil Esters
d. Blown Castor Oil
e. Heptanoic Acid
f. Hydrogenated Castor Oil
g. Hydroxy Amide Waxes
h. 12 Hydroxy Stearic Acid
i. Sebacic Acid
j. Ethoxylated Castor Oil

Bio-fuels

Castor oil, owing to its chemical structure can be used as a bio-fuel in place of petrol-based
fuels.

Biotransformation of vegetable oils through the use of enzymes as catalysts has been a
matter of intense investigation nowadays. Furthermore, the possibility of using biodiesel as
an additive to mineral diesel, to result in a sulfur-free, with a higher-cetane number fuel
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from a renewable resource has motivated the biomodification of vegetable oils towards the
reduction of environmental investments and import needs.

Other End Products Where Castor Oil & Derivatives are Used

Sealants
Components for Shatterproof Safety Glass
Embalming Fluid
Metallic Salts
Since it is has a relatively high dielectric constant (4.7), highly refined and dried castor oil
is sometimes used as a dielectric fluid within high performance high voltage capacitors.
Castor based benzoate esters - Castor-based benzoate esters, including benzoate esters
of castor oil, benzoate esters of hydrogenated castor oil, benzoate esters of cetyl
ricinoleate, and benzoate esters of octyl hydroxy stearate are used in a number of
industries. These benzoate esters of ricinoleic acid and hydroxy stearic acid are double
esters having a fatty acid group at the respective --COOH group and a benzoate group at
the --OH group. These esters are useful as vehicles or carriers, emollients or solubilizers
for toiletry, cosmetic, hair and skin care formulations.
One of the key ways of using castor oil is to produce conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs).
There is growing interest in these molecules, due to their nutritional and therapeutic
properties. Of the many ways of producing synthetic CLAs, the most attractive is
chemical conversion of castor oil, which is rich in ricinoleic acid (a hydroxylated fatty
acid), by simple dehydration of the acid. This is a direct way of producing triglycerides,
the natural matrix of fats and oils. Converting crude CLA-rich castor oil should be
possible on an industrial scale, near production sites.

Medicinal Uses of Castor Oil

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has categorized castor oil as
"generally recognized as safe and effective" (GRASE) for over-the-counter use as a laxative,
with its major site of action the small intestine.

Therapeutically, modern drugs are rarely given in a pure chemical state, so most active
ingredients are combined with excipients or additives.

For instance, Cremophor EL is a registered trademark of BASF Corp. for its version of
polyethoxylated castor oil. It is prepared by reacting 35 moles of ethylene oxide with each
mole of castor oil. Cremophor EL is a synthetic, nonionic surfactant. Its utility comes from its
ability to stabilize emulsions of nonpolar materials in aqueous systems. Cremophor EL is an
excipient or additive in drugs. Therapeutically, modern drugs are rarely given in a pure
chemical state, so most active ingredients are combined with excipients or additives such as
Cremophor EL

Castor oil, or a castor oil derivative such as Cremophor EL, is added to many modern drugs,
including:

Miconazole, an anti-fungal agent
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Paclitaxel, a mitotic inhibitor used in cancer chemotherapy
Sandimmune (cyclosporine injection, USP), an immunosuppressant drug widely used
in connection with organ transplant to reduce the activity of the patient's immune
system
Nelfinavir mesylate, an HIV protease inhibitor
Saperconazole, a triazole antifungal agent (contains Emulphor EL -719P, a castor oil
derivative)
Prograf, an immunosuppressive drug (contains HCO-60, polyoxyl 60 hydrogenated
Castor oil)
Xenaderm ointment, a topical treatment for skin ulcers is a combination of Balsam
Peru, Castor oil, and trypsin
Aci-Jel, a gel used to create or maintain the acidity of the vagina (comprises acetic
acid/oxyquinoline/ricinoleic acid ʹ vaginal)
Polyethylene glycol (PEG): Peg-40 is a hydrogenated Castor oil used in pegylation.
Pegylation is now an established method for increasing the circulating half-life of
protein and lipsomal pharmaceuticals. Pegylation agents are beneficial for patients
with cancer.
Emulphor: A polyethoxylated castor oil drug vehicle.
Taxol (paclitaxel)
Sandimmune (cyclosporine injection, USP)
Diazepam injection; superseded by lipid emulsion alternative (Diazemuls)
Vitamin K injection

Anti-cancer Drugs

An obstacle to successful chemotherapy and cancer treatment is multidrug
resistance (MDR). Cremophor from castor oil is a chemomodulator and a MDR
reversing agent used in anti-cancer drugs.
Teniposide (VM-26) has been widely used in the treatment of small cell lung cancer,
malignant lymphoma, breast cancer, etc., and the main ingredient of VM-26 solvent
(vehicle) is PECO (Cremophor).
Cremophor minimizes the negative effects of radiation chemotherapy.
Cremophor EL is a Castor oil surfactant used as a vehicle for formulation of a variety
of poorly water-soluble agents, including paclitaxel. The efficacy of paclitaxel against
some tumors may be aided by its administration in a vehicle solution containing
Cremophor.
Fulvestrant is a pure antiestrogen. In in vivo and in vitro breast cancer models,
fulvestrant has anticancer activity at least as good as tamoxifen, and is superior to
tamoxifen in some models. Fulvestrant requires intramuscular administration in a
proprietary formulation of Castor oil and alcohols.

Antifungal Drugs

Undecylenic acid is the active ingredient in over-the-counter medications for skin
infections, and relieves itching, burning, and irritation. For example, it's used against
fungal skin infections (mycosis) such as athlete's foot, ringworm, candida albicans,
etc. It's also used in the treatment of Psoriasis. Undecylenic acid also has anti-
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bacterial and anti-viral properties that are effective on viral skin infections such as
the herpes simplex virus, cold sores, warts, etc.
Cutaneous alternariosis treated with miconazole and 10 ml of Cremophor EL.

Heart & Blood Pressure Drugs

Digoxin with Cremophor helps the heart and is used to treat certain heart conditions.
The diluent Cremophor contributes to the antiproliferative effects of the taxane
paclitaxel

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Protease Inhibitors

Saquinavir (SQV) with Cremophor is a HIV specific protease inhibitor.

Organ Transplant Drugs

Cyclosporin is considered to be the best immunosuppressive molecule in
transplantation (10A) and it gets help from its vehicle Cremophor.

Use of Castor Oil to Encourage Onset of Labour

Castor oil has a long history of being used by women to encourage the onset of labour
during pregnancy. It is thought to act in one of several possible ways. By creating strong and
spasmodic cramps of the intestines (which lie around and above the uterus at the end of
pregnancy) it might cause a reflexive cramping and spasms of the uterine muscle, which
might then turn into labor. It might also work by having a dehydrating effect, which causes
uterine irritability and then labour. It could also encourage the onset of labour by
stimulating the release of prostaglandins from the inflammation of the intestines. And,
lastly, it may have no real connection to the onset of labor at all, and be merely an
unpleasant placebo.

While the effectiveness of castor oil to encourage the onset of labor is scientifically
questionable, it is generally considered safe, although there are some who believe that it
increases the risk of meconium passage in the infant. This application of castor oil has not
been well studied ʹ surprising considering how long this old remedy has been in use.

6.1.3 Use of Castor Oil in High-end Derivatives

There are a few companies that use castor oil to develop a range of derivatives.

Some prominent companies and their use of castor oil derivatives are given below:

Arkema

Main Line of Business: Industrial and speciality chemical company

Corporate Headquaters: Cedex, France
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Background: Arkema is made up of three business segments; Vinyl Products, Industrial
Chemicals and Performance Products. It is present in over 80 countries with 13,800
employees and sales of around Euro 4.4 billion (2010)

The vinyl products unit includes chlorine/soda and PVC, vinyl compounds and pipes and
profiles (Alphacan). Industrial chemicals business is involved in acrylics, polymethyl
methacrylate (PMMA), thiochemicals, fluorochemicals and hydrogen peroxide. Performance
products unit is involved in technical polymers, additives, speciality chemicals (Ceca), and
organic peroxides.

Castor Oil End Use: Nylon 11

Polyamide 11 (PA 11) or Nylon 11 is a polyamide bioplastic and is produced by Arkema
under the tradename Rilsan from castor beans. Pebax
®
stands for polyether block amide.
This high durability thermoplastic elastomer, is partially made from non-edible renewable
resource, castor oil, Pebax
®
is plasticizer free and belongs to the engineering polymers
family. The pebax
®
range enables to bridge the gap between thermoplastics and rubbers.
Pebax
®
Rnew is made up of block copolymers consisting of a sequence of polyamide 11 and
polyether segments. It can be used pure, as an additive or in blends with other polymers or
rubbers. It can also be reinforced with various fillers.

Arkema also uses many alcohols, acids and other by-products of the Rilsan® and Pebax
Rnew® manufacturing processes, which can be used by the perfumes and cosmetics, food,
pharmaceutical or leather industries.

Rilsan® PA resins have earned a preferred material status in the most demanding
applications due largely to their excellent combination of thermal, physical, chemical and
mechanical properties resulting in an outstanding cost performance ratio. Processing ease is
another major benefit of Rilsan® polyamide resins. Supplied in powder or pellet form,
Rilsan® PA resins can be processed by injection molding, extrusion, blown film extrusion,
extrusion blow molding or rotomolding. These properties have led designers to select
Rilsan® polyamides for industries as diverse as electrical cables, automotive, and pneumatic
and hydraulic hose.

Here's a detailed page (PDF) on Rilsan PA 11 properties and specifications, and comparisons
with other polymers for specific applications ʹ
http://www.solarplastics.com/solarplastics/client/materials_pdf/Elf_Atofina_Nylon_11-
12_pro.PDF

Prominent users of Arkema͛Ɛ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ ĚĞƌŝǀĂƚŝǀĞƐ ĂƌĞ: SCARPA, Mizuno, Smith Optics.

SCA8ÞA͕ ƚŚĞ lƚĂůŝĂŶ ůĞĂĚŝŶŐ ďŽŽƚƐ ĂŶĚ ƐŚŽĞƐ ŵĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌĞƌ ŝƐ ƵƐŝŶŐ AƌŬĞŵĂ͛Ɛ Pebax Rnew®
to manufacture its sports equipment. Arkema and Scarpa Research & Development teams
have closely collaborated on the design of a ski boot more eco-aware: the Scarpa Hurricane.
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This prototype was presented at the ISPO 08 and it was the first biobased ski boots of the
market.

MIZUNO, a leader in running footwear and apparel technology, has announced the use of
the ÞĞďĂdžΠ 8ŶĞǁ ŝŶ ďŽƚŚ ŵĞŶ͛Ɛ ĂŶĚ ǁŽŵĞŶ͛Ɛ ŵŽĚĞůƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ MŝnjƵŶŽ WĂǀĞ 8ŝĚĞƌ ϭϮ͕ WĂǀĞ
Inspire 5, Wave Creation 10, and Wave Nirvana 5.

Smith Optics, an eyewear manufacturing company has unveiled new sunglasses collection
that uses Rilsan® Clear G830 Rnew. A total of 20 newsunglass frame models are made
entirely of Rilsan® Clear G830 Rnew, a bio-renewable sourced polymer derived from castor
oil.

Sony has leveraged its expertise in material research to make a unique soccer ball built to
ĞŶĚƵƌĞ AĨƌŝĐĂ͛Ɛ ƌƵŐŐĞĚ ƚĞƌƌains, in which Pebax® Rnew is used. This ball features a dual
layered surface, one of them being in Pebax® Rnew, which brings 1.6 times higher durability
than conventional soccer balls. These footballs will be distributed by NGOs - UNDP (United
Nations Development Programme) and JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) -
during and after the 2010 World Cup.

Website: www.arkema.com

BASF

Main Line of Business: Chemical Company

Corporate Headquarters: New Jersey, USA

Background: 8ASl ŝƐ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ůĞĂĚŝŶŐ ĐŚĞŵŝĐĂů ĐŽŵƉĂŶLJ ǁŝƚŚ ĂďŽƵƚ ϭϬϱ͕ϬϬϬ ĞŵƉůŽLJĞĞƐ͕
six Verbund sites and close to 385 production sites worldwide serves customers and
partners in almost all countries of the world.
In 2009, BASF posted ƐĂůĞƐ ŽĨ ΦϱϬ.7 billion and income before special items of approximately
Φϰ͘ϵ ďŝůůŝŽŶ.
The BASF portfolio comprises:
Chemicals
Plastics
Performance Products
Functional Solutions
Agricultural Solutions
Oil & Gas

Castor Oil End Use: Ultramid
®
BALANCE, Poly etherol

BASF produces the following two products from castor oil: Ultramid
®
BALANCE, a polyamide
6.10. This is based to the extent of about 60 per cent on sebacic acid, a renewable raw
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material derived from castor oil. This established and now revitalized material combines
product properties such as good lowtemperature impact resistance with a relatively low
density for a polyamide, which in automotive construction, for example, allows savings in
weight, associated costs and emissions.

Besides Ultramid
®
, BASF and Elastogran research and development experts have succeeded
in the development of a poly etherol made of castor oil, is called Lupranol® BALANCE 50 It is
the only NOP that can be used as a 100% drop-in for any other conventional slab polyol.
Lupranol Balance 50 is based on a content of 31 % castor-oil. This means that up to 25 per
cent of the weight in the polyure thane slabstock foam can be replaced with renewable
resources. A large part of this biomass is used in the production of Mattresses by Elastogran.
Mattresses made up of almost 25% renewable raw material.

The new product is made up of 31% castor oil. A finished mattress made with Lupranol®
BALANCE contains up to 24% by weight of castor oil, without impairing the performance of
the foam. This very high percentage of renewable raw material in the finished product is a
breakthrough in the realm of polyurethane base products.

Website: www.basf.com

Rhodia

Main Line of Business: Specialty Chemical Producer

Corporate Headquarters: Boulogne-Billancourt, Paris.

Background: Rhodia develops and produces specialty chemicals. It provides added-value
products and high-performance solutions to diversified markets, including
automotive, electronics, flavors and fragrances, health, personal and home care, consumer
goods and industrial, through its six global enterprises. Rhodia currently generates thirty
one percent of its sales with products that respond to the desire of customers and
consumers for sustainable solutions.

Castor Oil End Use: Nylon 6/10, Technyl® eXten

In Nov 2009, Rhodia SA introduced a new nylon 6/10 range of materials made in part from
castor oil.

1ŚĞ ƚĞĂŵ ŽĨ LŝĨĞ CLJĐůĞ AŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ĞdžƉĞƌƚƐ ĨƌŽŵ 8ŚŽĚŝĂ͛Ɛ 8Θu ĚĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚ ŵĞĂƐƵƌĞĚ Ă
significant reduction in the environmental impact related to its production from raw
materials of plant origin (i.e. a 50% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions).

8ŚŽĚŝĂ͛Ɛ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƚƐ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ ĨƌŽŵ ƉŽůLJĂŵŝĚĞ ϲ͘ϭϬ ĐŽŶƐƚŝƚƵƚĞ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĂů ŚŝŐŚ-performance
alternatives, specifically suited to the manufacture of flexible tubes for the power-assisted
control systems market and fittings and adapters for the engine fuel systems market.

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In April 2010, Rhodia announced the launch of Technyl® eXten using polyamide 6.10,
produced in part from castor oil. Technyl® eXten has has a higher level of performance than
conventional engineering plastics. It has also reduced carbon footprint: the production of a
ton of this product requires 20% less non-renewable resources than the production of a ton
of conventional polyamide with equivalent performance properties.

According to the company, Technyl®eXten, is already helping Rocket Electric Co. Ltd. ʹ one
ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ĨŝǀĞ ůĂƌŐĞƐƚ ŵĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌĞƌƐ ŽĨ ďĂƚƚĞƌLJ ĐĞůůƐ ʹ increase the service life of its AA
and AAA ranges of alkaline batteries by up to 50%.

Website: www.rhodia.com

DSM

Main Line of Business: A life sciences and materials sciences company

Corporate Headquaters: Heerlen, Netherland

Background - Royal DSM N.V. creates solutions that nourish, protect and improve
performance. Its end markets include human and animal nutrition and health, personal
care, pharmaceuticals, automotive, coatings and paint, electrical and electronics, life
protection and housing. DSM has annuĂů ŶĞƚ ƐĂůĞƐ ŽĨ ĂďŽƵƚ Φϴ ďŝůůŝŽŶ ĂŶĚ ĞŵƉůŽLJƐ ƐŽŵĞ
22,700 people worldwide. The company is headquartered in the Netherlands, with locations
on five continents. DSM is listed on Euronext Amsterdam.

Castor Oil End Use: LĐŽÞĂxxΡ, an engineering plastic

In AƉƌ ϮϬϭϬ͕ uSM LŶŐŝŶĞĞƌŝŶŐ ÞůĂƐƚŝĐƐ ůĂƵŶĐŚĞĚ LĐŽÞĂxxΡ͕ Ă ďŝŽ-based, high-performance
engineering plastic. The product is involved in final approvals by several customers in the
automotive industry. LĐŽÞĂxxΡ ŝƐ Ă ůŽŶŐ-chain polyamide whose properties make it suitable
for demanding applications such as those in the automotive and electrical markets.
Approximately 70% of the polymer consists of building blocks derived from castor oil as a
renewable resource. The new material, which is based on polyamide (PA) 410, has been
developed by DSM, and is now set to be commercialized.

LĐŽÞĂxxΡ ŝƐ Ă ŚŝŐŚ-performance polyamide with excellent mechanical properties. It
combines the benefits of a high melting point of ca. 250
o
C, with a high rate of crystallization
enabling high productivity. The material has low moisture absorption and excellent chemical
and hydrolysis resistance, which makes it highly suitable for various demanding applications,
for instance in the automotive and electrical markets. A good example is its very good
resistance to salts, such as calcium chloride. Because of its low moisture absorption,
LĐŽÞĂxxΡ ǁŝůů ĂůƐŽ ŬĞĞƉ ŐŽŽĚ ƐƚƌĞŶŐƚŚ ĂŶĚ ƐƚŝĨĨŶĞƐƐ ĂĨƚĞƌ ĐŽŶĚŝƚŝŽŶŝŶŐ͘

The company is targeting auto industry with the new bio-based performance materials in
response to demand from auto customers for more environmentally friendly materials.

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Website: www.dsm.com

Fujitsu Limited

Main Line of Business: ICT-based business solutions provider

Corporate Headquarters: Tokyo, Japan

Background: Fujitsu is a provider of ICT-based business solutions for the global marketplace.
With approximately 170,000 employees supporting customers in 70 countries, Fujitsu
combines a worldwide corps of systems and services experts with reliable computing and
communications products and microelectronics to deliver added value to customers.
Headquartered in Tokyo, Fujitsu Limited reported consolidated revenues of 4.6 trillion yen
(US$50 billion) for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2010.

Castor Oil End Use: Polyamide-11 (PA-11)

Fujitsu Limited and Fujitsu Laboratories Limited have developed a new polymer with a high
bio-content that uses castor oil extracted from the seeds of the castor bean. The new bio-
based polymer features superior flexibility that can withstand repeated bending. This new
bio-based polymer is used for small components of notebook PCs and mobile phones, such
as connector cover.

In 2002, Fujitsu started using bio-based polymers based on polylactic acid, made from
materials including corn, in the chassis of the FMV-BIBLO notebook PC. However, in order
for plant-based materials to be used more widely in Fujitsu products, what has been needed
is the development of a new bio-based polymer with a higher bio-content that features
superior flexibility and is suitable for mass-production.

To address this need, Fujitsu and Fujitsu Laboratories worked with a major French chemical
company, Arkema, and succeeded in developing a new bio-based polymer plastic that has as
its principal component polyamide-11 (PA-11), which is derived from castor oil.

By weakening the interaction of the chain molecule in PA-11 and relaxing the stereo-
regularity of their organization, the resulting new material has sufficient flexibility to
withstand repeated bending without causing the whitening that often occurs when such
materials are strained. Moreover, Fujitsu has succeeded in developing a prototype of certain
notebook PC-cover components with an exceptionally high bio-content of 60-80%. Even
after adding high-density fillers to increase strength, the polymer maintains good impact-
resistance and thus it is hoped that the material could eventually be used in PC chasses and
other larger components.

Website: www.fujitsu-general.com

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DENSO

Main Line of Business: Supplier of advanced automotive technology, systems and
components

Corporate Headquarters: Aichi prefecture, Japan

Background: DENSO, a supplier of advanced automotive technology, systems and
components for all the world's major automakers, operates in 33 countries and regions with
approximately 120,000 employees. Global consolidated sales totaled US$32.0 billion for
fiscal year ended March 31, 2010.

Castor Oil End Use: uƵÞŽŶƚΡ ZLJƚĞůΠ 8S ŶLJůŽŶ

DENSO Corporation has developed a plant-derived resin radiator tank using an organic
compound derived from castor-oil tree. DENSO started mass-producing this new product in
the spring of 2009 for vehicles sold worldwide. "In addition to increasing installations of the
new radiator tank to more vehicles, DENSO aims to incorporate the new resin into a wide
range of products in an effort to reduce the use of limited oil resources, reduce CO
2

emissions during a product's life cycle and help prevent global warming," said Akio
Shikamura, managing officer responsible for DENSO's Thermal Systems Business Group.

The eco-friendly polymer - uƵÞŽŶƚΡ ZLJƚĞůΠ 8S ŶLJůŽŶ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ uLnSC ũŽŝŶƚůLJ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ
DuPont Kabushiki Kaisha, is produced by a chemical reaction between two organic
compounds that are derived from castor-oil tree and petroleum. An additive, such as glass
fiber, is then added to the substance to produce the resin. Plant-derived ingredient
comprises about 40 percent of the eco-friendly resin. Since engine compartment
components, such as the radiator tank need to be extremely heat resistant and durable, it
was previously difficult to develop a resin with a high percentage of plant-derived
ingredients.

Generally, the cost increases for on-board devices that need to be resistant to calcium-
chloride, which is contained in large amounts in snow-melting agents dispensed on the road
in many colder regions. The newly developed radiator tank is more than seven times more
resistant to calcium chloride and can be produced at lower cost compared to conventional
products designed for cold regions, according to the company.

The plant-derived resin radiator end tank which can be found in some 2009 Toyota Camrys
has earned the Most Innovative Use of Plastics award in the Environment Category from the
Society of Plastics Engineers (SPE) Automotive Division for Toyota and partners DENSO and
DuPont Automotive.

Website: www.globaldenso.com

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Dow India

Main Line of Business: Production of specialty chemical, advanced materials, agrosciences
and plastics.

Corporate Headquarters: Michigan, USA

Background: The Dow Chemical Company is an American multinational corporation. As of
2007, it is the second largest chemical manufacturer in the world by revenue (after BASF)
and as of February 2009, the third-largest chemical company in the world by market
capitalization (after BASF and DuPont).

uŽǁ͛Ɛ ƉƌĞƐĞŶĐĞ ŝŶ lŶĚŝĂ ďĞŐĂŶ ŝŶ ϭϵϱϳ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ÞŽůLJĐŚĞŵ LŝŵŝƚĞĚ ũŽŝŶƚ ǀĞŶƚƵƌĞ͕ ƉƌŽĚƵĐŝŶŐ
polystyrene. Dow opened its first representative office in New Delhi in 1963. Dow later
extended its operations to include the automotive and agricultural sectors along with a
Polyurethane system development center and other commercial offices.

Castor Oil End Use:

In 1995, the Dow Chemical Company set important goals to improve environment, health
and safety performance. In this backdrop, the company is using more ecofriendly products
in chemical production and one of the products under research for producing chemicals is
castor oil. Dow Chemicals along with Royal Castor Products Ltd., a Gujarat-based company
have signed a commitment to conduct research in sustainable bio-based products and
solutions using castor oil. Royal Castor has has a joint venture with a Japanese company for
manufacturing high-end castor derivatives and an exclusive tie-up with an Italian company
for speciality products.

ALTANA

Main Line of Business: Specialty chemical producer

Corporate Headquarters: Germany

Background: The name ALTANA represents a global specialty chemical group. It com-prises
the holding company ALTANA AG and four operating divisions: BYK Additives & Instruments,
ECKART Effect Pigments, ELANTAS Electrical Insulation, and ACTEGA Coatings & Sealants.
They have currently 43 operational companies and 47 application and research laboratories
worldwide.
Foreign business accounts for 84% of its total turnover. Products made by companies in the
ALTANA Group are sold in over 100 countries worldwide.

ALTANA develops, produces and sells innovative products in the specialty chemicals
business. ALTANA offers matching speciality products for coating manufactures, paint and
plastic processors, the printing and cosmetic industries, and the electrical and electronic
industry. The product range includes additives, special coatings and adhesives, effect
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pigments, sealants and compounds, impregnating resins & varnishes, and testing and
measuring instruments.

Castor Oil End Uses: Polyurethane and Lipstick

1ŚĞ ĐŽŵƉĂŶLJ͛Ɛ ŚŽůĚŝŶŐ ĐŽŵƉĂŶŝĞƐ AC1LCA ĂŶĚ LCkA81 ƵƐĞ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů ĚĞƌŝǀĂƚŝǀĞƐ ĂƐ ƌĂǁ
materials in some of the products they produce.

ACTEGA Rhenania (www.actega.com) has developed a novel series of solvent-free
polyurethane adhesives for laminates to be used in packaging. Raw material involved in
polyurethane is castor oil derivative.

ECKART (www.eckart.net) is a manufacturer of metallic pigments for the paints and coatings
industry, the graphic arts industry, the plastics, lightweight concrete industries and the
cosmetics industry. The company uses castor oil as one of the ingredient in its lipstick.

Website: www.altana.com

BioSolar

Main Line of Business: Solar cell manufacturer.

Corporated Headquarters: California, USA

Background: BioSolar, Inc. has developed a breakthrough technology to produce bio-based
materials from renewable plant sources that will reduce the cost per watt of solar cells.
Most of the solar industry is focused on photovoltaic efficiency to reduce cost. BioSolar is
the first company to introduce a new dimension of cost reduction by replacing petroleum-
based plastic solar cell components with durable bio-based components. Through the
advanced manipulation of bio-based polymers, BioSolar intends to produce robust bio-
based components that meet the stringent thermal and durability requirements of current
solar cell manufacturing processes.

BioSolar materials can be used directly in conventional manufacturing systems, such as
injection molding and thin-film roll-to-roll, to create superstrate layer, substrate layer,
backsheet as well as module and panel components. Whether solar cells are produced using
crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon or other solar technologies, BioSolar can help reduce
the cost per watt through the use of its lower cost bio-based materials. By removing
petroleum from solar cells, BioSolar makes solar energy a true green source of energy.

Castor Oil End Use: BioBacksheet

Backsheets, which are a protective layer on photovoltaic solar modules, are typically made
from petroleum products. 8ŝŽSŽůĂƌ͛Ɛ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƚ ŝƐ ĐĂůůĞĚ 8ŝŽ8ĂĐŬƐŚĞĞƚ ĂŶĚ ƚƌƵĞ ƚŽ ŝƚƐ ŶĂŵĞ͕
these backsheets are made from a biobased polyamide resin made from castor beans and
cotton. According to the company, their backsheets will cost 25 percent less than
conventional backsheets, which cost between $0.70 and $1 per square foot. The company
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claims that in addition to being less expensive and more sustainable, its single-layer
construction avoids the delamination problem conventional petroleum-based backsheets
may have. The proces starts with used cotton rags and turns them into a film of cellulose, a
natural fiber and then the film is blended with a type of nylon made from castor beans. The
tests conducted by the company at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory shows that
flexible plastic backsheet lasts longer.

Website: www.biosolar.com

Castor Derivatives in Deodorants and Body Lotions

The castor derivative zinc ricinoleate is used as a key ingredient in the manufacturing of
deodorants and body lotions. Prominent companies that use zinc ricinoleate as a key
ingredient are: Lavera, Avene & Janson

Lavera

Main Line of Business: Organic cosmetic company

Corporate Headquarters: Washington, USA

Background: Lavera is natural cosmetics manufacturer that offers a complete system of skin
and body care specially formulated for allergy sufferers and sensitive skin (Neutral). They
use plant based products in their products. They received the "Innovation Prize of the Year"
award in Europe at the Biofach ʹ the largest natural product expo worldwide ʹ several years
in a row.

Castor Oil End Use: Zinc ricinoleate and hydrogenated castor oil

The company uses zinc ricinoleate as one of the ingredients in its deodorant and body
lotion. It uses hydrogenated castor oil in its sunscreen lotion production.

Website: www.lavera.com

Avene

Main Line of Business: Dermatology and hydrotherapy

Corporate Headquarters: New Jersy, USA

Background: Since 1743, when the first Hydrotherapy Center was built near the Sainte-Odile
spring, the vocation of Avène has never changed: The Hydrotherapy Center is entirely
dedicated to dermatology. The therapeutic properties of Avène Thermal spring water have
been used at the Hydrotherapy Center to address a variety of dermatological conditions
such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, eczema and burns.

Castor Oil End Use: Uses zinc ricinoleate in its deodorant production
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Website: www.aveneusa.com

Jason

Main Line of Business: Natural cosmetics

Corporate Headquarters: Boulder, Colorado

Background: Since 1959, JASON Natural Products has been the leading purveyor of pure and
natural products for skin, body, hair and oral health for the whole family, giving consumers
effective, environmentally-friendly alternatives to mass-produced, synthetic chemical
products. It features over 200 products which are manufactured using pure organic
ingrediants.

Castor Oil End Use: Uses zinc riciloneate in hand and body lotion and deodorants.

Website: www.jason-natural.com

6.2 Future Possible End-uses and End user Industries for Castor Oil and
Derivatives

1. Biopolymers
2. Biofuels
3. Others

6.2.1 Biopolymers and Castor oil

The use of oleochemicals in polymers has a long tradition. One can differentiate between
the use as polymer materials, such as linseed oil and soybean oil as drying oils, polymer
additives, such as epoxidized soybean oil as plasticizer, and building blocks for polymer, such
as dicarboxylic acids for polyesters or polyamides. Considering the large market for
polymers, the share of oleochemically based products is relatively small - or, in other terms -
the potential for these products is very high.

Oleochemicals for Polymers - Selected Examples

Product/Use Source
Polymer materials
Polymerized soybean oil, castor
oil Drying oils Soybean oil, Castor oil
Polymerized linseed oil Linoleum Linseed oil
Polymer additives
Epoxides Stabilizers, Plasticizers Soybean oil
Soaps (Ba/Cd, Ca/Zn) Stabilizers Stearic acid
Fatty acid esters, - amides, Lubricants Rapeseed oil
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waxes
Building blocks for polymers
Dicarboxylic acids
Polyamides, Polyesters, Alkyd
Resins Tall oil, Soybean oil, Castor oil
Ether-/ester polyols Polyurethanes
Sunflower oil, Linseed oil, Oleic
Acid
Source: Karlheinz Hill, Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 72, No. 7, pp. 1255ʹ1264, 2000

Building Blocks for Polymers-based on Natural Oils

Karlheinz Hill, Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 72, No. 7, pp. 1255ʹ1264, 2000

Development of new bio-materials and applications continues at a strong pace despite
practical obstacles such as high prices, limited production capacity, and the lack of an
infrastructure for effective composting. New materials and modifying agents are expanding
biopolymers' reach, particularly in the case of polylactic acid (PLA). Efforts are focused on
boosting mechanical and thermal properties so biopolymers can be effective alternatives to
less costly commodity materials.

Polylactic acid (PLA), a biopolymer originating from corn sugar fermentation is one of the
most popular biopolymers. Two other biopolymers with a much longer commercial history
are latex rubber and nylon-11 (made from a by-product of castor oil). The latter two are
applied in only a small fraction of the millions of polymer products in global commerce. The
good news is that more biopolymers are approaching commercial viability for a long list of
familiar and unfamiliar objects.

Caustic
Oxidation
Ozonolysis Dimerization Oxidation/Epoxidatio
n Epoxy Ring
Opening
E
Oleochemical
Polyois
Linoleum
Radiation Curing
Acrylates
Dimer Fatty
Acid
Azelaic Acid Sebacic
Acid
Oleic Acid
Natural Fats and
Oils
Polyurethanes
Polyamides
Nylon 6.9
Nylon 6.6.9
Polyurethanes
Laminating
Adhesives

Polyamido amines
Epoxy curing agents
Non-nylon Polyamides
Hotmelt Adhesives
Printing Ink Resins
Modification of Epoxy
Resins
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Europe is the largest market for biopolymers, with 60% of total production centered there.
Average global growth is 12.6% per year, and the overall market is expected to grow from
114 million lb in 2005 to 206 million lb by 2010. Most of that usage will still be in two
applications: compost bags and loose-fill packaging.

The quest for bio-sourcing of plastics has also brought back a castor oil-sourced polyamide.
For instance, BASF produced a nylon 6.10 about 50 years ago but the product was
discontinued. Now, with growing interest in producing plastics from renewable resources,
the company has reintroduced the material. It contains about 60 per cent sebacic acid -
derived from castor oil. It has a relatively low density for a polyamide, good low
temperature impact strength and good dimensional stability because of its low water
absorption and BASF says it is suitable for typical nylon 6 applications.

6.2.1.1 Biopolymers in Durables

While biodegradable plastics such as PLA have made strong penetration so far in disposable
consumer packaging, durable applications may not be that far behind. Japanese companies
are using biopolymers in auto interior parts and cell phone and computer housings.

Mitsubishi Motors Corp. and the Aichi Industrial Technology Institute have developed a
biopolymer of polybutylene succinate (PBS) and bamboo fiber for auto interiors. PBS is
made from 1,4-butanediol (a petrochemical) and succinic acid (a product of fermenting
sugar cane or corn). The fiber-reinforced material is said to provide greater rigidity and
strength.

Meanwhile, Fujitsu Ltd. and Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd., Tokyo, have chosen Rilsan nylon 11
from Arkema for notebook PCs and cell phones. Based on castor oil, nylon 11 is typically
used in automotive tubing and air-brake hose. Formulations contain 60% to 80% nylon 11
with high-density fillers for increased strength. Previously, the Fujitsu companies developed
a notebook PC housing based on PLA and PLA/polycarbonate blends (the latter in
cooperation with Toray Industries). This was its FMV BIBLO notebook PC series, which it had
manufactured using a material called Ecodear. For its current product, Fujitsu is developing
a castor oil derived PA 11 plastic with Arkema, which is more flexible and will help expand
its use of bio-plastics in notebook computers. The material can withstand repeated bending
thanks to scientists weakening the interaction of the chain molecule in PA 11 and relaxing
the stereoregularity of their organisation. The improved durability means its prototypes of
PC cover components consist of 60-80 percent of the new bioplastic, an unprecedented
achievement to date. (Reference URL from Fujitsu -
http://www.fujitsu.com/global/news/pr/archives/month/2006/20061207-01.html & based
on a July 2007 news report)

In Dec 2008, Toyota announced plans to use plant-derived plastic in more vehicle models,
starting with hybrids next years. The company said that it will use a variety of materials
(polylactic acid, plant-derived polyester, castor oil derivatives and more) to make seat
cushions, sun visors, trunk liners, door trim, scuff plates and other interior parts. In 2009,
the company hopes for bioplastic to account for 60 percent of the interior parts of vehicles
it's used in.
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In Dec 2008, solar cells manufacturer BioSolar announced that it planned to use biomass in
solar panel components in an effort to reduce the costs of solar cells, thus replacing
petroleum-based solar panel components with durable biomass-based plastic materials.
According to BioSolar, one of its first product offerings, a BioBacksheet, is in the pre-
production phase. The product forms the bottom layer of most crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar
cellsͶa layer traditionally comprised of petroleum-based plastics. BioSolar will use primarily
recycled cotton in combination with natural polymers derived from castor bean oil in its
BioBacksheet product, according to the company.

In Jan 2009, Icynene Inc. ( www.icynene.com ), a manufacturer of opencell foam insulation
products introduced castor-based spray foam insulation. ICYNENE LD-R-ϱϬΡ ŝƐ Ă ƌĞŶĞǁĂďůĞ-
based foam insulation and air barrier material that reduces the need for petroleum-based
polyols. The product was made using castor oil and exceeds United States Department of
Agriculture (USDA) requirements for a rapidly renewable product.

In Feb 2009, Keetsa, a San Francisco retailer that calls itself "the eco-friendly mattress
store," announced it was selling mattresses made from a material it enthusiastically
promotes as "BioFoam". This contains a polyurethane foam that partially utilized castor oil
(The other 88 percent, though, is still petroleum-based)

After two years of research and development, French nylon yarn specialist SOFILA
announced in March 2010 that it had developed a new commercially available range of high
performance nylon yarns, produced using bio-polymers derived from the castor oil plant.
1ŚĞ ŶĞǁ ͚CƌĞĞŶĨŝů͛ LJĂƌŶƐ ŚĂǀĞ ďĞĞŶ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ ďLJ SŽĨŝůĂ ŝŶ ƉĂƌƚŶĞƌƐŚŝƉ ǁŝƚŚ ĐŚĞŵŝĐĂů
ĐŽŵƉĂŶLJ AƌŬĞŵĂ ǁŚŝĐŚ ŚĂƐ ƐƵƉƉůŝĞĚ ŝƚƐ ͚8ŝůƐĂŶ͛ ƉŽůLJĂŵŝĚĞ ϭϭ ƉŽůLJŵĞƌ ƚŽ ƉƌŽĚƵĐĞ ƚŚĞ
yarns. These yarns have been presented at Premiere Vision in Paris last year and were under
trial (as of March 2010) by major French and European textile brands, for instance in hosiery
and socks.

With the growth in the biopolymers industry, it is expected that there will be a simultaneous
demand for the suitable grades of castor oil.

6.2.1.2 Castor Oil Polyurethane

Castor oil is increasingly finding application in the manufacture of polyurethane foams. The
polyurethane is produced from polyols based on castor oil.

Polyols are compounds in which multiple hydroxyl functional groups are available for
organic reactions. A molecule with two hydroxyl groups is a diol, one with three is a triol,
and one with four is a tetrol and so on. The main use of polymeric polyols is as reactants to
make other polymers.

Polyols can be reacted with diisocyanates to make polyurethanes.

An isocyanate is a functional group of atoms ʹN=C=O (1 nitrogen, 1 carbon, 1 oxygen). Any
organic compound which contains an isocyanate group may also be referred to in brief as an
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isocyanate. An isocyanate may have more than one isocyanate group. An isocyanate that
has two isocyanate groups is known as a diisocyanate. These diisocyanates are reacted with
castor oil polyols in the production of polyurethanes.

Polyurethane is ultimately used to make elastomeric shoe soles, fibers, foam insulation for
appliances, adhesives, mattresses, automotive seats and so on.

There are a limited number of naturally occurring vegetable oils (triglycerides) which contain
the unreacted hydroxyl groups that account for both the name and important reactivity of
these polyols. Castor oil is the only commercially-available natural oil polyol that is produced
directly from a plant source: all other natural oil polyols require chemical modification of the
oils directly available from plants.

The hope is that using renewable resources feedstocks such as castor oil for polyols and
subsequently polyurethane production will reduce the demand on non-renewable fossil
fuels currently used in the chemical industry and reduce the overall production of carbon
dioxide, the most notable greenhouse gas.

Features of Castor Oil Based Polyurethane

Æ Superior to PPG (Polypropylene Glycol) or polyester in water and hydrolysis resistance
Æ Superior to PPG or polyester in insulation
Æ Lower viscosity than Polybutadiene or Polyester
Æ One of the most challenging issues of polyurethane flooring is heat and humidity. The
urethane produced from castor oil is stable under high heat and humidity.

A typical polyurethane formulation:

Composition

Polyol: 61.4 %
Extender pigment: 23.1 %
Pigment: 5.0 %
Dehydrating agent: 10.0 %
Deformer: 0.3 %
Wetting agent: 0.3 %
Crosslinker: 100.0
Formulation rate: 3/1

6.2.1.3 Nylon

Nylon 11

The world's largest single use of castor oil in one product, outside the lubricants markets, is
in the manufacture of polyamide 11 (Nylon 11). The commercially available polyamide made
from castor oil is Arkema's (earlier Atofina) Rilsan Nylon 11.

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The world's only producer of polyamide 11 using amino-undecanoic acid, Arkema controls
the entire production chain for Rilsan ® A and B thanks to the resources of TotalFinaElf, its
parent company, and Costacem, its subsidiary specialising in the production of seeds for
castor plants. With its extensive and wide-ranging properties, Rilsan ® has become a pioneer
in many diverse areas, and remains the choice polymer of high tech industries for the
manufacture of parts requiring optimum reliability.

Wide-ranging powders and application processes accommodating various types of support
have made Rilsan ® the choice material for coating. Uses of Rilsan ® include:

Polyamides 11 and 12 (Rilsan ®): automotive parts (fuel lines, pneumatic brake lines
for heavy goods vehicles, sheathing for control cable, air-conditioning ducts);
components for precision mechanical and electrical industries; flexible tubing for
compressed air, hydraulics and oil industry (offshore extraction); aviation parts
(alkaline battery trays).
Thermoplastic polyamide coating powders (Rilsan ®): protection of automotive parts
(clutch controls, bumpers, brake lines), protection of materials for construction and
public works (cladding, aluminium profiles, heating pipes and fittings, soundproofing
walls, stadium seating, etc.), printing components (press rollers), water pipes,
pipelines and various equipment (dishwasher baskets, refrigerator shelves, garden
furniture, screws, nuts and bolts, haberdashery (hooks, buckles), etc.

Nylon 11 has been produced from 11-aminoundecanoic acid.

The process to make Nylon 11 from castor oil is quite involved and includes several reaction
steps, but briefly, it is as follows:

Castor oil is converted to methyl ricinoleate by treatment with methyl alcohol. Methyl
ricinoleate is pyrolysed at high temperature yielding heptaldehyde, methyl undecylenate
and a small amount of fatty acids. Methyl undecylenate is hydrolysed to produce
undecylenic acid.

When undecylenic acid is treated with hydrogen bromide in a non-polar solvent in the
presence of peroxide, reverse Markownikoff addition occurs and the main product is x-
bromoundecanoic acid. This is then treated with ammonia to give x-aminoundecanoic acid,
which is a crystalline solid. Aminoundecanoic acid is the starting material for nylon-11.

(CH
2
=CH(CH
2
)
8
COOH) Undecylenic Acid Æ HBr Æ BrCH
2
.CH
2
(CH
2
)
8
COOH (x-
bromoundecanoic acid)

BrCH
2
.CH
2
(CH
2
)
8
COOH Æ NH
3
Æ H
2
N(CH
2
)
10
COOH (w-Aminoundecanoic Acid)

Compared to its predecessors, Nylon 6, 6-6 and 6-10, Nylon 11 has the lowest melting point,
lowest specific gravity and the lowest moisture absorption. It is also resistant to acid and
alkaline reagents or oxidizing agents. These qualities of castor oil are of particular
importance in its use in high quality engineering plastics and in durable protective coatings.

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Structure of Nylon-11 / Polyamide-11.



Arkema has now extended the technology into TPEs (thermo plastic elastomers) by
producing a grade of its Pebax polyether block amide with the nylon block using the nylon
11 chemistry. The new grade is being sold as Pebax RNew in 25 to 72D hardness.

Polyamide from BASF

The quest for bio-sourcing of plastics has brought back a castor oil-sourced polyamide from
BASF's old chemistry notebooks. Produced from Sebacic acid, this has a relatively low
density for a polyamide, with good low temperature impact strength and good dimensional
stability because of its low water absorption, and BASF says it is suitable for typical Nylon 6
applications and those where nylon 6 has shown limitations.

Nylon 6/10

At the end of 2009, the company announced that it was introducing a new nylon 6/10 range
of materials made in part from castor oil.

Research & Trends in Castor Oil Based Biopolymers

Castor oil based polyurethane adhesives for wood-to-wood bonding - Most
adhesives are polymeric adhesives, and if made from renewable sources they will
have low cost and biodegradability which are of importance. In view of these
properties research is being done on polyurethane (PU) adhesives from different
polyester polyols obtained from castor oil.
Lactic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid Based Copolyesters - Copolyesters based on purified
ricinoleic (RA) and lactic (LA) acids with different RA:LA ratios have been synthesized
by thermal polycondensation and by transesterification of high molecular weight
poly(lactic acid) (PLA) with ricinoleic acid and repolyesterification. Transesterification
of high molecular weight PLA with pure ricinoleic acid and repolymerization of those
oligomers by condensation resulted in multiblock P (PLA-RA) copolyesters of
molecular weights between 6000 and 14000.
Ricinoleic acid-based biopolymers as drug carriers - Polyanhydrides synthesized from
pure ricinoleic acid half-esters with maleic and succinic anhydrides have been shown
to possess desired physicochemical and mechanical properties for use as drug
carriers. Biocompatibility studies have demonstrated their toxicological inertness
and biodegradability.
Millable polyurethane elastomers based on difunctional castor oil and poly
(propylene glycol), 2,4-toluene diisocyanate and 1,4-butane diol were prepared and
cured using toluene diisocyanate dimer as crosslinking agent. All elastomers were
characterized by conventional methods. Physical, thermal and mechanical properties
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of elastomers were studied. Investigation of these properties showed that the
elastomers could be tailor made in order to fulfill industrial needs (based on a 2003
research paper).
Modification of the biopolymer castor oil with free isocyanate groups to be applied
as bioadhesive - June 2006 - Surgical adhesives have been used for several
applications, including haemostasis, sealing air leakages and tissue adhesion.
Recently, efforts have been made to develop a biodegradable urethane-based
bioadhesive based on castor oil containing free isocyanate groups. This material
presents the advantage of being biodegradable, biocompatible and having the
capacity of reacting with amino groups present in the biological molecules.
Polyesteramide resins from dehydrated castor oil and various dibasic acids - Attempt
has been made in this study, to utilize castor oil in the preparation of polyesteramide
resins. Castor oil was first converted into dehydrated castor oils (DCO) to improve
drying characteristics. DCO was then converted into diethanolamide {(N, N- bis
hydroxethyl) castor oil amide} of mixed fatty acids using 0.5 per cent sodium
methoxide as a catalyst and converted to polyesteramide resins after reacting with
various dibasic acids such as phthalic anhydride, sebacic, succinic and adipic acids in
presence of xylene as azeotropic solvent. The resins obtained were then analysed for
its physico-chemical, film performance properties and resistance to various
chemicals ʹ (Source: Author(s): Pradeep G. Shende, Abhijit B. Jadhav, Shrikant B.
Dabhade; Journal: Pigment & Resin Technology, Year: 2002)
Electrical characterization of castor-oil resins - Several Brazilian research works have
shown that new materials, based on polyurethane resins derived from castor oil,
have had great success in the medical field. This could in fact be expected because of
their stable physical and chemical properties. In this work, using the same fabrication
techniques, thin films and circular plates of 1-2 mm thickness, of these resins were
made and electrically characterized. Tests for a.c. electrical breakdown, permittivity,
d.c. insulation resistance and dissipation factor show that these materials are very
good insulators. Internal insulators and conductor covers are among their main
applications. Their mechanical properties are also presented and discussed ʹ
(Source: Gonzaga, D.P.; Murakami, C.R.; Chierice, G.O.; Altafim, R.A.C. Electrical
Insulation, 1998. Conference Record of the 1998 IEEE International Symposium on
Volume 1, Issue , 7-10 Jun 1998 Page(s):181 - 185 vol.1)

6.2.2 Castor Oil as Feedstock for Biodiesel

Castor oil, owing to its chemical structure has the potential to be used as a bio-fuel in place
of petrol-based fuels. In the last few years, there has been a growing debate on whether
castor oil can be an effective biofuel (biodiesel) stock. This section analyses this issue in
detail.

Can castor oil become an efficient bio-fuel and bio-diesel?

This question is answered by analyzing the following:

Characteristics of oils or fats affecting their suitability for use as fuel
Characteristics of efficient bio-fuels and bio-diesels
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How does the bio-diesel derived from castor oil rate on the above aspects?
8ĂƐĞĚ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĂďŽǀĞ ƚŚƌĞĞ ĂƐƉĞĐƚƐ͕ ƉƌĞůŝŵŝŶĂƌLJ ŝŶĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ ĨŽƌ ͞cĂŶ cĂƐƚŽƌ Oŝů MĂŬĞ Ă CŽŽĚ
8ŝŽĚŝĞƐĞů͍͟

Characteristics of Oils Affecting their Suitability for Use as Fuel

The following aspects need to be considered while evaluating a plant oil feedstock for
biofuel.

Calorific Value, Heat of Combustion ʹ Heating Value or Heat of Combustion, is the amount
of heating energy released by the combustion of a unit value of fuels.

Melt Point or Pour Point - Melt or pour point refers to the temperature at which the oil in
solid form starts to melt or pour. In cases where the temperatures fall below the melt point,
the entire fuel system including all fuel lines and fuel tank will need to be heated.

Cloud Point - The temperature at which oil starts to solidify is known as the cloud point.
While operating an engine at temperatures below Žŝů͛Ɛ cloud point, heating will be
necessary in order to avoid waxing of the fuel.

Flash Point (FP) - The flash point temperature of diesel fuel is the minimum temperature at
which the fuel will ignite (flash) on application of an ignition source. Flash point varies
ŝŶǀĞƌƐĞůLJ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ĨƵĞů͛Ɛ ǀŽůĂƚŝůŝƚLJ͘ Minimum flash point temperatures are required for
proper safety and handling of diesel fuel.

Iodine Value (IV) - Iodine Value (IV) is a value of the amount of iodine, measured in grams,
absorbed by 100 grams of given oil.

Iodine value (or Iodine number) is commonly used as a measure of the chemical stability
properties of different biodiesel fuels. The Iodine value is determined by measuring the
number of double bonds in the mixture of fatty acid chains in the fuel by introducing iodine
into 100 grams of the sample under test and measuring how many grams of that iodine are
absorbed. Iodine absorption occurs at double bond positions - thus a higher IV number
indicates a higher quantity of double bonds in the sample, greater potential to polymerise
and hence lesser stability.

Iodine Numbers for some plant oils (before conversion into biodiesel)
Coconut oil: 10
Rapeseed oil: 94-120
Soybean oil: 117-143
Sardine oil: 185
Castor oil: 60-70

Iodine Numbers after conversion to biodiesel through transesterification (approximate
values):
Rapeseed Methyl Ester (Rapeseed Biodiesel): 97
Rapeseed Ethyl Ester (Another variety of Rapessed biodiesel): 100
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Soy Ethyl Ester (Soy biodiesel variety 1): 123
Soy Methyl Ester (Soy biodiesel variety 2): 133
Castor methyl ester: 60 (estimate)

One can hence see that the process of transesterification (conversion of plant oil into
biodiesel) reduces the iodine value by a small extent.

Viscosity ʹ Viscosity refers to the thickness of the oil, and is determined by measuring the
amount of time taken for a given measure of oil to pass through an orifice of a specified size.
Viscosity affects injector lubrication and fuel atomization. Fuels with low viscosity may not
provide sufficient lubrication for the precision fit of fuel injection pumps, resulting in
leakage or increased wear. Fuel atomization is also affected by fuel viscosity. Diesel fuels
with high viscosity tend to form larger droplets on injection which can cause poor
combustion, increased exhaust smoke and emissions.

Aniline Point/Cetane Number (CN) - Is a relative measure of the interval between the
beginning of injection and autoignition of the fuel. The higher the cetane number, the
shorter the delay interval and the greater its combustibility. Fuels with low Cetane Numbers
will result in difficult starting, noise and exhaust smoke. In general, diesel engines will
operate better on fuels with cetane numbers above 50.

Density ʹ Is the weight per unit volume. Oils that are denser contain more energy. For
example, petrol and diesel fuels give comparable energy by weight, but diesel is denser and
hence gives more energy per litre.
The aspects listed above are the key aspects that determine the efficiency of a fuel for diesel
engines. There are other aspects/characteristics which do not have a direct bearing on the
performance, but are important for reasons such as environmental impact etc. These are:

Ash Percentage - Ash is a measure of the amount of metals contained in the fuel. High
concentrations of these materials can cause injector tip plugging, combustion deposits and
injection system wear.

Ash content for bio-fuels is typically lower than that for most coals, and sulfur content is
much lower than that for many fossil fuels. Unlike coal ash, which may contain toxic metals
and other trace contaminants, biomass ash may be used as a soil amendment to help
replenish nutrients removed by harvest.

Sulfur Percentage - The percentage by weight, of sulfur in the fuel Sulfur content is limited
by law to very small percentages for diesel fuel used in on-road applications.

Potassium Percentage - The percentage by weight of potassium in the fuel

Characteristics of Efficient Bio-fuels and Bio-diesel

What are the most desirable values for biodiesel, for the above characteristics? This section
provides the details.

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Biodiesel is noteworthy for its similarity to petroleum-derived diesel fuel, while at the same
time having negligible sulfur and ash content. Bioethanol has only about 70% the heating
value of petroleum distillates such as gasoline, but its sulfur and ash contents are also very
low. Both of these liquid fuels have lower vapor pressure and flammability than their
petroleum-based competitors ʹ an advantage in some cases (e.g. use in confined spaces
such as mines) but a disadvantage in others (e.g. engine starting at cold temperatures).

Despite their wide range of possible sources, biomass feedstocks are remarkably uniform in
many of their fuel properties, compared with feedstocks such as coal or petroleum. For
example, there are many kinds of coals whose gross heating value ranges from 20 to 30 GJ/T
(gigajoules per metric ton). However, nearly all kinds of biomass feedstocks destined for
combustion fall in the range 15-19 GJ/T. For most agricultural residues, the heating values
are even more uniform ʹ about 15-17 GJ/T (6450-7300 Btu/lb); the values for most woody
materials are 18-19 GJ/T (7750-8200 Btu/lb).

However, in contrast to their fairly uniform physical properties, biomass fuels are rather
heterogeneous with respect to their chemical elemental composition.

Most biomass materials are more reactive than coal, with higher ignition stability. This
characteristic also makes them easier to process thermochemically into higher-value fuels
such as methanol or hydrogen.

Engine Manufactures Association (EMA) Recommended Guideline on Diesel Fuel

Property Test Method
FQP-1A EMA
#1 DF(1)
FQP-1A EMA
#2 DF(1)
Flash Point, °C min. D 93 38 52
Water, ppm max D1744 200 200
Sediment, ppm max D2276 or D5452 10 10
Distillation % Vol. Recovery, °C D 86
90%, max. 272 332
95%, max. 288 355
Kinematic Viscosity, 40 °C D 445 1.3 - 2.4 1.9 - 4.1
Ash, % max. D 482 0.01 0.01
Sulfur, % max. D 2622 0.05 0.05
Copper Corrosion, max. D 130 3b 3b
Cetane Number, min. D 613 50 50
Cetane Index, min. D 4737 45 45
Rams Carbon, 10% residue max. D 524 0.15 0.15
API Gravity, max. D 287 43 39
Lubricity, g. min. D6078(2) 3100 3100
Accelerated Stability, mg/L max. D 2274 15 15
Detergency - L10 Injector CRC Rating <10 <10
Depositing Test % Flow Loss <6 <6
Low Temperature Flow, °C D2500 or D4539 (3) (3)
Microbial Growth (4) (4)
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Biodiesel Requirements (ASTM, 2003a)

Properties Test Methods Limits Units
Flash Point (closed cup) D 93 130.0 minimum
o
C
Water & Sediments D 2709 0.050 maximum % volume
Kinematic Viscosity (40
o
C) D 445 1.9-6.0 mm
2
/s
Sulfated Ash D 874 0.020 maximum % mass
Sulphur D 5453 0.05 maximum % mass
Cetane Number D 613 47 minimum
Cloud Point D 2500
Higher than that for petro-
diesel
o
C
Carbon Residue D 4530 0.050 maximum % mass
Acid Number D 664 0.80 maximum mg KOH/g
Free Glycerine D 6584 0.020 % mass
Total Glycerine D 6584 0.240 % mass
Phosphorus Content D 4951 0.001 maximum % mass
Distillation Temperature
(atmospheric equivalent
temperature, 90%
recovered) D 1160 360 maximum
o
C

How does bio-diesel derived from castor oil rate on the above aspects?

This section looks at the values for biodiesel derived from castor oil for each of the
characteristics described in the previous sections.

Iodine Value: The transesterified castor oil has an iodine value of about 85. This is quite an
acceptable value for biodiesel. The lower the iodine value, the better the fuel will be as a
biodiesel. While most countries do not have mandatory upper limits for iodine value, in
some countries of Europe the upper limits have been stipulated at around 120. One can
hence see that castor oil biodiesel easily passes this test (while soy biodiesel, whose iodine
value is about 120, perhaps does not).

Cetane Number: The higher the cetane number, the better is the fuel as a diesel. The
Cetane Number of most biodiesel fuels are higher than petro-diesel (cetane number of
petro diesel is about 45, while for most biodiesel, the cetane number falls in the range 45-
65), and the cetane number of castor oil biodiesel is in acceptable range for diesel engines.
In fact, castor oil has one of the highest cetane numbers amongst vegetable oils (about 42),
and all the other biodiesel contenders amongst vegetable oils have cetane numbers slightly
lower than that for castor oil


Oil Cetane Number
Linseed 27.6
Bay 33.6
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Walnut 33.6
Cottonseed 33.7
Almond 34.5
Peanut 34.6
Wheat 35.2
Poppyseed 36.7
Sunflowerseed 36.7
Rapeseed 37.5
Corn 37.5
Soybean 38.1
Sesameseed 40.4
Safflowerseed 42
Castor 42.3
Olive 49.3
Hazelnut 52.9
Note: These numbers were determined using ASTM D163

Melting Point: 5ºC. This is acceptable for diesel engines.

Solidification Point ʹ Castor oil has a very low solidification point (-12ºC to -18ºC). This is a
positive characteristic for colder climates, since it implies that the biodiesel from castor oil
solidifies fewer times than those biodiesels with higher solidification points.

Density: Castor oil, before transesterification has a density of 0.956-0.963 g/ml (@ 20
degrees C. The conversion into alkyl esters decreases the density by a small extent, hence
one can expect the castor oil based biodiesel to have a density of about 0.9 g/ml.
(Comparative values are approx 0.74 g/ml for gasoline and 0.85 g/ml for diesel). While the
castor oil biodiesel has a density somewhat higher than petro-diesel, this is unlikely to be a
bottleneck as the difference is not very high.

Flash Point: 260
o
C. It compares favourably with other vegetable oils.

Cloud Point: < -7
o
C; within acceptable range.

Pour Point: At a pour point of about -32 degrees C, it compares well with other plant oils,
and is acceptable in diesel engines.

Ash content: Castor oil has an ash content of about 0.02%

Sulfur %: is less than 0.04%

Potassium: Negligible

Heating value: 39.5 GJ/T. At this number, it compares favourably with most vegetable oils.
Petro-based diesel & gasoline have heating values of approximately 45 GJ/T. Hence, one
could say that most biodiesel, including that from castor, have heating values that are about
10% lower than that for gasoline or petro diesel.
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Water, ppm max ʹ Biodiesel prepared from castor oil have a water content of about 1300
ppm. This is much higher than the maximum limit prescribed by EMA for diesel fuel (200
ppm).

Sediment ʹ Refined castor oil grades are available that have sediment at less than 10 ppm

API Gravity ʹ With a specific gravity of 0.96, castor oil has an API Gravity of about 15.9

Lubricity ʹ Numerous studies on the effects of vegetable oil methyl esters on diesel fuel
lubricity have shown an increase in lubricity associated with the addition of these esters.
Castor oil and its esters are known for their excellent lubricity, and it is above the EMA
minimum specification limit.

Carbon Residue ʹ A B100 from castor oil has a carbon residue % of 0.037%

Acid Number ʹ Castor oil has a maximum acid number of 1.5 mg KOH/g, and experiments
suggest that some specific grades of castor oil can have acid numbers less than 0.8 (around
0.6).

Phosphorus Content ʹ Castor oil has less than 0.001 % phosphorus by weight

Distillation Temperature ʹ Castor oil boiling point is 313
o
C, which is less than the maximum
distillation temperature required by ASTM (360
o
C)

Free Glycerine ʹ Based on some tests done on biodiesel from castor (both methyl and ethyl
esters), the biodiesel contains about 1% free glycerine. This is much higher than the
maximum prescribed by ASTM (0.02%)

Viscosity: Castor oil in its raw form is one of the most viscous of oils (9.5 ʹ 10.0 dPa.s @ 20
degress C ʹ about 990 cP; Viscosity, St by test method ASTM D1545 is in the range of 6.3 -
8.9). The other plant oils, in themselves, have viscosities much higher than those for
gasoline and petro-diesel. Castor oil has a viscosity of over 100 times that of petro-diesel!

Absolute or Dynamic Viscosity of Some Common Fluids

Absolute or dynamic viscosity of some common liquids at a temperature of 27
o
C is indicated
below:

Fluid Absolute Viscosity (N s/m2, Pa s)
Alcohol, ethyl (ethanol) 0.0011
Alcohol, methyl (methanol) 0.00056
Alcohol, propyl 0.0019
Benzene 0.0006
Castor Oil 0.650
Ether 0.00022
Ethylene Glycol 0.016
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Glycerine 0.950
Heptane 0.00038
Kerosene 0.0016
Linseed Oil 0.033
Octane 0.00051
Propane 0.00011
Propylene 0.00009
Toluene 0.00055
Turpentine 0.0014
Water, Fresh 0.00089

From the above analysis, one can hence see that viscosity could be a major bottleneck in
castor oil becoming a biodiesel. However, this high viscosity can be considerably reduced by
subjecting the vegetable

oils to the process of transesterification. Transesterification is the
process most commonly used for converting plant oil into biodiesel.

We have some data for the kinematic viscosity of transesterified castor oil. One study has
estimated that the B100 biodiesel from castor oil has a kinematic viscosity of 15.98 mm
2
/s.
Another study puts the kinematic viscosity of castor oil methyl esters and castor oil ethyl
esters in the same range (13.23 and 16.14 mm
2
/s respectively). The kinematic viscosity
numbers for castor biodiesel is significantly higher than what it is for other vegetable oils
that are biodiesel contenders, as well as much higher than what is specified by ASTM (1.9-6
mm
2
/s). At the same time, it has been said that if the castor oil biodiesel is blended with
petro-diesel in suitable ratios, the overall viscosity should be within acceptable range. A B10
and B20 castor oil biodiesel are estimated to have 4.54 and 4.97 mm
2
/s respectively as the
kinematic viscosity. (Reference URLs: http://www.icrepq.com/full-paper-icrep/222-
barajas.pdf ,
http://www.biodiesel.org/resources/reportsdatabase/reports/gen/20000501_gen-308.pdf )

A research done in 2006 says the following about COEE (castor oil ethyl esters) and COME
(castor oil methyl esters) ʹ ͞1ŚĞ ĚĞŶƐŝƚŝĞƐ ŽĨ CCML ĂŶĚ CCLL ĂƌĞ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĞ ůŝŵŝƚ
defined by the standard EN 14 214. The viscosities are more than twice as high as the limit
ǀĂůƵĞ͘͟ ;Ln ϭϰϮϭϰ ŝƐ ĂŶ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƚŝŽŶĂů ƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚ ƚŚĂƚ ĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞƐ ƚŚĞ ŵŝŶŝŵƵŵ ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞŵĞŶƚƐ ĨŽƌ
biodiesel that has been produced from plant oils) (Reference URL:
(http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/112724331/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0 )

At the same time, from the news articles and information gathered from around the world
(and especially from Brazil), it does appear that the viscosity of biodiesel prepared from
castor oil is within acceptable limits for use in diesel engines.

Some studies (done in 2007) have also thrown up questions on the thermal and oxidative
degradation of castor oil biodiesel. The heating of vegetable oils can cause complementary
decomposition reactions, in which the results can also lead to the formation of polymeric
compounds. Research was carried out to study the degradation process of biodiesel in
different temperatures and exposure times. The degradation process of biodiesel affected
its thermogravimetric and calorimetric profiles, indicating the formation of intermediary
compounds. The spectroscopic data of degraded biodiesel suggested oxidative
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polymerization, confirming thermal data. In the degraded biodiesel at 210 C for 48 h, the
formation of gum occurred, indicating that oxidative polymerization was completed. This
was however a preliminary research and more research needs to be done in order to verify
if these results could affect the biodiesel properties overall.

Cost of Castor Oil

The final, and possibly one of the most important, aspects to be considered is the cost. If
one were to take the current prices of the various plant oils as a measure of the input cost,
the following is what emerges as data:

The following were the spot prices for the various oils in India in June, 2008 in US $ / T
(using a conversion of Indian Re / US $ = 43 Rs / US$)

Castor Oil (commercial grade) ʹ 1400
Groundnut Oil/Peanut Oil ʹ 1150
Mustard Oil ʹ 960
Palm Oil ʹ 1200
Refined Soy Oil ʹ 1400

While the above list does not provide data for all the vegetable oils that are biodiesel
ĐĂŶĚŝĚĂƚĞƐ͕ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ůŝƐƚ ŝƚ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ƐĞĞŶ ƚŚĂƚ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů ŝƐ ŽŶĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƐƚůŝĞƐƚ ŽŝůƐ ŝŶ ƚŽĚĂLJ͛Ɛ
market, and in addition its prices are highly volatile.

Evaluation Table for Castor Oil as Biodiesel Candidate

A comparison on various parameters is made for castor oil properties with those suggested
for suitable diesel fuel as well for biodiesel. Refer to the above section for more details of
comparison

Parameter Suitability of castor oil
Iodine Value Suitable
Cetane Number
Less than minimum
prescribed
Melting Point Suitable
Solidification Point Suitable
Density
Slightly higher than diesel, but
this is unlikely to pose
problems
Flash Point Suitable
Cloud Point Suitable
Pour Point Suitable
Ash Content Suitable
Sulfur Percetange Suitable
Potassium Suitable
Heating Value
Slightly less than diesel, but
within acceptable limits
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Water Content Higher than prescribed
Sediment Suitable
API Gravity Suitable
Lubricity Suitable
Carbon Residue Suitable
Acid Number Suitable
Phosporus Content Suitable
Free Glycerine Higher than prescribed
Distillation Temperature Suitable
Viscosity Higher than prescribed

ÞƌĞůŝŵŝŶĂƌLJ IŶĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ ĨŽƌ ͞CĂŶ CĂƐƚŽƌ Cŝů MĂŬĞ Ă GŽŽĚ 8ŝŽĚŝĞƐĞů͍͟

From the above table, it can be seen that the four parameters on which castor oil does not
have values in the prescribed limits are:

Cetane Numbers
Water Content
Glycerine
Kinematic Viscosity

Of the above, from our studies it appears that the real bottleneck would be the kinematic
viscosity, as the other three parameters could possibly be controlled during the
transesterification process or by employing other processes.

From other studies as well, it is clear that one of the major scientific impediments to castor
oil being a biodiesel feedstock is its high viscosity. As noted earlier, some experiments
suggest that the transesterified castor oil could be made to have a viscosity that is close to
acceptable limits, while there are some others which are not conclusive.

Assuming transesterified castor oil biodiesel can have an acceptable kinematic viscosity,
based on the above facts and analysis, castor oil can theoretically be a candidate for bio-
diesel.

However, its limited production (less than 1% of the total amount of vegetable oils), rising
demand in diverse non-fuel applications, and its volatile and high prices make it an
unlikely contender to be a significant contributor for the biofuel industry for the
foreseeable future.

Addendum 1: How is castor oil converted into bio-diesel?

The most common process of converting castor oil into a product that can be used as diesel
is the same as what is used in the case of converting other similar vegetable oils into diesel.
The process is called transesterification.

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Transesterification refers to a reaction between an ester of one alcohol and a second
alcohol to form an ester of the second alcohol and an alcohol from the original ester, as that
of methyl acetate and ethyl alcohol to form ethyl acetate and methyl alcohol.

Transesterification largely eliminates the tendency of the plant oils and fats to undergo
polymerisation and auto-oxidation, and also reduces the viscosity of the oil to about the
same as petroleum diesel.

Transesterification of castor oil ʹ like the transesterification process for other oils ʹ is done
by the reaction castor oil with methanol (or ethanol) in the presence of a catalyst. Several
conventional catalytic systems such as KOH, NaOH, KOCH3, NaOCH3, H2SO4, HCl, K2CO3,
and CaCO3 can be considered, though NaOH is one of the most widely used catalysts for
transesterification.

Results from some recent studies show that acid catalysis is relatively effective for the
ethanolysis of castor oil, particularly at short reaction times. In a recent experiment
involving the transesterification of castor oil, potassium and calcium carbonates were also
tested as catalysts. Although both compounds were insoluble in the reaction medium, the
former was a relatively effective catalyst whereas the latter showed no catalytic activity
even after almost ten hours of reaction.

Some useful research info on biodiesel from castor oil

The following is an excerpt from a transesterification research using alternative catalysts,
done in 2006:

͞Transesterification of castor oil in the presence of acid and alkali. Several conventional
catalytic systems were used (including KOH, NaOH, KOCH3, NaOCH3, H2SO4, HCl, K2CO3,
and CaCO3) to obtain an overview of the typical yields of FAEE obtainable from the
transesterification of castor oil. In all cases the highest conversion yields were achieved
following long (>5 h) reaction times. Among the catalytic systems studied, the use of
methoxides or acids produced the highest yields of FAEE and such reactions attained
reversibility after ca. 6ʹ8 h, as has already been reported.

Methoxide ions appeared to be more efficient catalysts than hydroxide ions although, from
a chemical standpoint, the active species in both systems were the ethoxide ions formed by
virtue of the large excess of EtOH in the medium. The significant difference between the
two catalytic systems is that with hydroxide catalysts, water molecules are produced during
the formation of the active species; as a consequence, side reactions, such as hydrolysis and
saponification, may diminish the yield of ester.

The results clearly show that acid catalysis is relatively effective for the ethanolysis of castor
oil, particularly at short reaction times.

Potassium and calcium carbonates were also tested as catalysts. Although both compounds
were insoluble in the reaction medium, the former was a relatively effective catalyst
whereas the latter showed no catalytic activity even after 10 h of reaction.
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Based on the results presented, one may conclude that the production of biodiesel by
ethanolysis of castor oil may be improved through further development and optimization of
appropriate catalytic systems and processes. Strategies involving acid catalysis might
provide a promising solution to this problem since it has recently been demonstrated that
on an industrial scale acid-catalyzed production of biodiesel can compete economically with
base-catalyzed processes. Moreover, acid-catalyzed transesterification reactions exhibit an
important advantage in that the performance of the acid catalyst is not strongly affected by
the presence of FFA in the oil. In fact, acid catalysts can simultaneously catalyze both
esterification and transesterification͟

Reference: http://www.biodiesel.gov.br/docs/JAOCSMeneghetti2006.pdf

Another research done in 2007 on the thermoanalytical characterization of castor oil
biodiesel

͞1ŚŝƐ work wishing to provide a thermoanalytical and physical-chemistry characterization of
castor oil and biodiesel was done in 2007. Biodiesel was obtained with methyl alcohol and
characterized through several techniques. Gas chromatography indicated methyl ester
content of 97.7%. The volatilization of biodiesel starts and finishes under inferior
temperatures than the beginning and final volatilization temperatures of castor oil.
Biodiesel data are very close to the volatilization temperatures of conventional diesel͟

Reference: http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18403364

Rheological behavior of castor oil biodiesel ʹ Jul 2005

Viscosity, the measurement of the internal flow resistance of a liquid, constitutes an
intrinsic property of vegetable oils. It is of remarkable influence in the mechanism of
atomization of the fuel spray, in other words, in the operation of the injection system. This
property is also reflected in the combustion process, whose efficiency depends the
maximum power developed by the engine. This work aims at assessing the rheological
behavior of castor oil, castor oil biodiesel, and undegraded and degraded biodiesel at
different exposure times and temperatures. Castor oil biodiesel presents viscosity higher
than diesel oil, but this drawback can be corrected by means of blends of both components
at different proportions. The viscosity data indicated that the heat treatment leads to a
degradation of the samples accompanied by an increase of the viscosity, probably because
of interactions with intermediary compounds. The degraded samples presented a
pseudoplastic behavior, once the flow index, m, is smaller than 1.
;SŽƵƌĐĞ͗ MĂƌƚĂ M͘ CŽŶĐĞŝĕĆŽ͕ΎΏ 8ŽďĞƌůƷĐŝĂ A͘ CĂŶĚĞŝĂ͕ΐ PĞƌŵĞƐƐŽŶ !͘ uĂŶƚĂƐ͕ΐ LƵŝnj L͘ 8͘ SŽůĞĚĂĚĞ͕ΐ vĂůƚĞƌ !͘
lĞƌŶĂŶĚĞƐ͕ !ƌ͕͘Ώ ĂŶĚ AŶƚŽŶŝŽ C͘ SŽƵnjĂΐ; Ώ - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Departamento de
Química, Laboratório de Combustíveis, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59072970, Brazil, and ΐ -
Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Departamento Química, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil Energy Fuels, 2005, 19
(5), pp 2185ʹ2188; DOI: 10.1021/ef050016g; Publication Date: July 8, 2005)
Thermoanalytical characterization of castor oil biodiesel - 2007

A work wishing to provide a thermoanalytical and physical-chemistry characterization of
castor oil and biodiesel was done in 2007. Biodiesel was obtained with methyl alcohol and
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characterized through several techniques. Gas chromatography indicated methyl ester
content of 97.7%. The volatilization of biodiesel starts and finishes under inferior
temperatures than the beginning and final volatilization temperatures of castor oil.
Biodiesel data are very close to the volatilization temperatures of conventional diesel. (See
abstract here - http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18403364, A 2007 research
paper)

Addendum 2: Castor Oil as Biofuels ʹ Facts, Data, Nuggets

While castor oil is unlikely to be a significant contributor to the biodiesel industry for the
foreseeable future, as pointed out earlier, in specific cases and regions it could play a limited
role as a biodiesel feedstock. This is especially true of poor countries in Africa and South
America. Following are some of the initiatives that are being taken in order to explore the
viability of castor oil as a biodiesel feedstock.

In Aug 2008, Petrobras Biocombustível of Brazil reaffirmed that it will continue
producing Biodiesel from castor oil despite the fact that castor oil does not qualify on
2 of the 22 parameters ( the two being specific gravity and viscosity ) set for
biodiesel by the National Petroleum Agency (NPA) of Brazil. In fact, according to
reports, the Resolution 7 by the NPA prohibits the usage, in Brazil, of biodiesel
produced from castor seed oil. However, Petrobras Biocombustível clarified early
Aug 2008 that its plans were not affected by the NPA Resolution dated March 19
ϮϬϬϴ͘ 1ŚĞ ĐŽŵƉĂŶLJ ĐůĂƌŝĨŝĞĚ ƚŚĂƚ ÞĞƚƌŽďƌĂƐ͛ ŐŽal had always been to use, initially,
blends of up to 30% castor seed oil as raw material. The usage of 30% castor seed oil
ƚŽ ƉƌŽĚƵĐĞ ďŝŽĚŝĞƐĞů ŝƐ ŝŶ ĨƵůů ĐŽŵƉůŝĂŶĐĞ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ nÞA͛Ɛ ŶĞǁ ƐƉĞĐŝĨŝĐĂƚŝŽŶ͕ ĂĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐ
to the company. The company further stated that a few important properties will, in
fact, even be improved by the addition of castor seed oil as a raw material. For
example, adding 30% castor seed oil to soybean oil improves the quality of the
biodiesel that is produced, making it compliant with the European standard, and,
thus, viable to be exported to cold European regions.

Alternative Energy in Castor Beans in Brazil - May 2008 - The state-run Brazilian
Enterprise for Agricultural Research (EMBRAPA) is experimenting with castor oil as
biodiesel feedstock at its labs in the northeastern city of Campina Grande, in Paraíba
state. The castor-oil plant is easy to grow and is resistant to drought, which makes it
an ideal crop for the extensive semi-arid region of northeast Brazil. That area holds
some four million hectares of appropriate land that could yield up to 1.5 tons of
castor beans per hectare, compared to the global average of 750 kilos per hectare.
And castor beans could become a farming alternative, providing income for 15
million people in Brazil's poorest region. For decades, Brazil was the world leader in
producing and exporting castor oil, but has fallen to third place, behind India and
China. Brazilian output of 500,000 tons in the late 1980s fell to about 100,000 tons in
2007. A clear signal that Brazil plans to move towards biodiesel would jump-start the
recovery of the castor-oil crop.

8ƌĂnjŝů͛Ɛ ÞĞƚƌŽďƌĄƐ ŐĂƐ ĂŶĚ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ CLnÞLS ŝƐ ĐƵƌƌĞŶƚůLJ ĐŽŶĚƵĐƚŝŶŐ Ă
pilot program in castor oil viability as an energy alternative. (May 2008)
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Ivory Coast diversifies into biofuels production (Jul 2008) - Ivory Coast is diversifying
into the booming market for biofuels by growing the jatropha & castor plants. To
take advantage of a global trend toward alternatives to fossil fuels, several jatropha
projects are underway across the West African nation, which intends to produce
enough oil to make biofuel domestically. In Toumdi in centre of the country, the
Ivory Coast Reneweable Energies Development Agency (ADERCI), a privately-owned
firm, is producing seeds for a project to grow jatropha and castor plants on 100,000
hectares from 2009. The project involves around 70,000 farmers, and is seen
producing a total of 1.8 million tonnes of jatropha and castor seeds a year, enough
to make 705,600 tonnes of biofuel. Oil produced by pressing jatropha and castor
seeds will be sold to the Ivorian Refinery Company, and the national petrol firm,
Petroci, to make biodiesel. According to the co-ordinators, Jatropha and castor oil
plants can grow on any type of land and this is a project which will help redress the
social imbalance caused by cocoa and coffee, which only grow in some soils.
According to them, 5,000 hectares of jatropha or castor oil will be enough to
produce between 15 and 23 million litres of biodiesel per year.

Biofuel from Castor Beans in Brazil (March 2008) - Brazil recently launched a major
bio-diesel program that will start in 2008 with 2% bio-diesel added to fossil fuel-
derived diesel. Significant incentives are already in place, with emphasis on the
production of bio-diesel from castor bean oil. Part of the program focuses in the
Northeast, the poorest region in the country, where the castor bean is very well
adapted to the arid areas. Until now, little attention has been paid to the Amazonian
region, in spite of the fact that ther is a high potential for bio-diesel production from
palm oil to replace fossil diesel that power generators in hundreds of off-grid
communities (with total subsidies for the transportation of fuel diesel going up to
about US$1.2 billion in 2005). Small-scale processing of castor beans at a facility
owned by the local farmers would allow them to capture the value added from
processing. In addition, they would have the option, depending on price, to sell the
oil to either bio-diesel producers or to those who use the oil for lubrication, thereby
avoiding dependence on a single buyer. The project is supporting the creation of
access of locally owned small-scale renewable energy projects to financial markets,
promoting public and private sector investment within the renewable energy
market, and collaborating with partners to identify and secure sources of capital and
markets.
Fiorello H. LaGuardia Foundation (LGF) has initiated a castor bean oil
producers association, training small farmers in Itatira, in the State of Ceara
with local partners the AVINA Foundation, Associação Caatinga and the
Brazilian National Environment Fund. LGF has also started preliminary work
on biodiesel from a native Amazonian palm tree that is under commercial
production in the State of Maranhão.
The project is supporting the creation of access of locally- owned
small-scale renewable energy projects to financial markets, promoting
public and private sector investment within the renewable energy
market, and collaborating with partners to identify and secure sources
of capital and markets.
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The LGF approach will also increase distribution efficiencies through
decentralized production of vegetable oil and biodiesel, eliminating
long distance transportation of raw agricultural products, and
ensuring that the added value of the agricultural residues (fertilizer
and animal feed) remains with the small farmers.

Castor biofuel farming started in 2008 in Ethiopia. The initiative is run by energy
company Global Energy Ethiopia, who are also conducting a research and
development programme to create new varieties of castor with better yields. In July
2008, Global Energy announced it had successfully completed sowing 5,000 hectares
of Chinese hybrid castor seeds for its alternative energy project in Ethiopia. The
project entails planting and harvesting castor for the production of non-edible oil for
the bio-diesel industry and for other uses. The castor farming initiative is located in
southern Ethiopia, approximately 350 km south of the capital of Addis Ababa. Just six
months after launching the project, some 90% of the land has reached a germination
stage of over 96%.

Some companies in the Dominican Republic are exploring growing castor and using
castor oil as biodiesel. One of the reasons is that the natural conditions in the
country could be suitable for the growth of castor crop. (Based on a 2008 news
report)

Jamaica To Use Castor Bean as a Biofuel - August, 2007 - Castor oil has been
identified as a viable biofuel to be produced locally and used as a cost-effective way
to cut Jamaica's growing energy bill - an opportunity that has not escaped the private
sector. Karl James, the chairman of Petrojam Ethanol Limited, noted that, "There are
plans for a major commercial plant to be constructed and many persons are now
preparing their lands for the castor bean." He added, "We believe that large areas of
rural Jamaica could be quickly transformed into attractive economic zones where
independent small land owners are engaged in the production of an agricultural
good for which there is a ready market at a price that should provide satisfactory
return for their efforts." The castor bean is considered complementary to ethanol for
many reasons: (1) It is not a food product, (2) It is well known in Jamaican
agriculture, (3) It is not prone to larceny, (4) It can be produced on varied scales from
large scale farms to cottage industries, involving thousands of small farmers in the
rural areas.

African Countries in Co-operation with Brazil on Castor Biodiesel - March 2007 -
Morocco became the first Arab country in North Africa to establish a partnership
with the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) office in Accra, the
capital of Ghana. The partnership should be concentrated mainly in the production
of biodiesel, which may be obtained from castor seeds and pine seeds, plants of the
region that are resistant to lack of rain. Libya is another Arab country that may make
use of the Embrapa office in Africa. According to the researcher, the Libyan embassy
in Ghana has already shown interest in a partnership in the area of irrigated
agriculture.

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A new project has been financed by FEP Ethiopia for castor oil based biodiesel (2007)
ʹ This is for a castor plant for biofuel production in Oromia State, Ethiopia. FEP
Ethiopia PLC, Ethiopia, a fully owned subsidiary of Flora EcoPower Holding AG,
Germany, signed a land lease agreement with Oromia State and a collaboration
agreement with the peasant Associations (Community Farming), 26 associations in
total for all Fedis and Midega Region. The land lease agreement secures the
company 8,000 hectares of government land for castor cultivation for 45 years.

Castor Oil is a new source for biodiesel in the USA? (Jun, 2006) - Using grant money
from the federal government, Mississippi State has begun conducting research on a
number of alternative crops, including winter annuals like canola, camelina, hesperis,
black mustard, crambe and flax, summer annuals such as castor and sunflower and
perennials such as tung and tallow trees. Castor has attracted the attention of MSU
researchers because with its oil content at 50 percent and its relatively high crop
yield of 1,695 pounds per acre, castor beans can supply up to 141 gallons of castor
oil per acre. That compares to 50 to 60 gallons per acre for soybeans. (The yield data
provided are by the researchers from the USA, officially published figures for castor
yield in India are lesser ʹ only about 1000 pounds per hectare)

The Myanmar government plans to implement a project to grow castor bean plants
ŽŶ ϱϬ͕ϬϬϬ ĂĐƌĞƐ ŝŶ ĞĂĐŚ ŽĨ MLJĂŶŵĂƌ͛Ɛ ŶŝŶĞ ŵŝůŝƚĂƌLJ ĚŝǀŝƐŝŽŶƐ͕ ĨŽƌ ƵƐĞ ĂƐ ďŝŽĨƵĞů͘ ;!ĂŶ
2006 news)

In 2006, Japan showed significant interest in importing castor oil to produce
biodiesel.

A December 2004 Report from Brazil - lŶ ĂĚĚŝƚŝŽŶ ƚŽ ƌĞĚƵĐŝŶŐ 8ƌĂnjŝů͛Ɛ ĚĞƉĞŶĚĞŶĐĞ ŽŶ
imported diesel, castor bean producers may soon be eligible to sell carbon credits. A
Brazilian industry professional estimates that 40 percent of the biodiesel produced in
the country in the coming years could come from castor beans. Embrapa is working
to develop commercial varieties of castor beans with higher levels of oil output -
around 60 percent of the weight of the beans - and is also working on varieties that
can be planted below 300 meters above sea level. The northeast state of Bahia is
8ƌĂnjŝů͛Ɛ ůĞĂĚŝŶŐ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ ďĞĂŶ ƉƌŽĚƵĐĞƌ͕ ĂĐĐŽƵŶƚŝŶŐ ĨŽƌ ϵϮ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƵŶƚƌLJ͛Ɛ
output. But other states like Paraíba stand to gain from the government bill that will
set biodiesel levels in regular petroleum diesel sold at the pump at 2 percent.

Brazil Starts Biodiesel Drive - August 2004 ʹ In Aug 2004, Brazil launched efforts to
produce a biodiesel fuel on an industrial scale using the castor-oil plant. A pilot
project has been underway for two months in Quixeramobim, state of Ceará.
Quixeramobim is a town in the semi-arid region of the Brazilian Northeast where 70
hectares are being cultivated. At the moment, the project is producing 350 liters
daily of biodiesel. When the project is completely operational it will produce 800
liters daily. So far, a total of US$ 508,000 (1.5 million reais) has been invested by the
state, local authorities and a consortium of privately-owned thermoelectric power
plants.

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Gujarat Oleo Chem Ltd (GOCL) based in Mumbai, India, bagged an order for supply of
biodiesel worth Rs 25 crore (US$ 6 million) to Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) in Aug
2004. GOCL planned to use castor oil as feedstock for production of biodiesel.

Brazil Northeast region to produce biodiesel with castor oil - March, 2004 - Brasil
EcoDiesel will transform the Brazilian Northeast region into a large biodiesel
producer. The company has already started in Canto do Buriti (Piaui), the first of a
total of six projects - four in Piaui and two in Ceara states ʹ that involve the
cultivation of the castor plant, which is a raw material for biodiesel production. Each
project demands investments of R$15mil for the cultivation of a 52,000 ha area.

Brazil, the world's second largest producer of soybean, passed a bill (in 2004) making
it compulsory to produce a 2% bio-diesel fuel blend, made from castor oil and soy
oil.

China is exploring major investments in Brazil to produce both ethanol and castor oil
or biodiesel for shipment to China

While specific gravity and viscosity could be some of the issues to be dealt with while
considering castor oil as a biofuel feedstock, the other main issue is its low
availability. The total production of castor oil is less than 500,000 T per annum and
given its use in a number of industries, the non biofuel consumers of castor oil today
are willing to paying for castor oil a price that is above what would be currently
economically viable for the fuel segment to pay.

Can castor oil be used in the production of anhydrous ethanol? Castor oil freely
dissolves in alcohol. This means that in theory castor oil can be used in ethanol
production to separate the distilled ethanol from the 5% or more of water it will
contain, producing anhydrous ethanol that can be used for production of ethyl
esters biodiesel. Ethanol needs to be anhydrous for it to be blended with gasoline for
fuel use. This method however has not been employed by anyone formally, so one
can say this is more a theoretically possibility.

According to one school of thought, castor oil is the best substance for producing
biodiesel because it is the only one that is soluble in alcohol, and does not require
heat and the consequent energy requirement of other vegetable oils in transforming
them into fuel.

Three Israeli companies - alternative energy company Ormat (www.ormat.com),
plant breeding company Evogene (www.evogene.com), and the real estate
developer the Lev Leviev Group (www.thelevievgroup.com) signed an agreement, in
2008, to produce biodiesel from castor oil. Leviev already owns mining concessions
ŝŶ nĂŵďŝĂ͕ ǁŚĞƌĞ ƚŚĞ ďŝŽĨƵĞů ǁŝůů ďĞ ŚĂƌǀĞƐƚĞĚ͕ CƌŵĂƚ͛Ɛ ƐƵďƐŝĚĂƌLJ CƌĨƵĞů ŚĂƐ
substantial experience in biofuel R&D, and Evogene is a world leader in plant
genetics and breeding. Evogene Ltd. conducted a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of
biodiesel production from castor bean varieties. In Apr 2010, the company
announced that the LCA of biodiesel produced from castor bean varieties reduced
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greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions by 90% compared to petroleum diesel in the U.S.
The results are based on Evogene's objectives for castor bean varieties, aimed at
increasing crop yields to 4-5 ton/ha on semi-arid lands -- focusing on Texas and
Brazil.

Results showed that Evogene's castor bean biodiesel
Reduces net GHG emissions by 90% in the U.S. and more than 75% in Brazil
compared with conventional diesel, if grown in non-arable or marginal land.
Exceeds the GHG savings achieved with soybean biodiesel, with reductions
for the U.S. of 43% compared to soybean.


Brasil Ecodiesel (www.brasilecodiesel.com.br) ŝƐ 8ƌĂnjŝů͛Ɛ ůĂƌŐĞƐƚ ƉƌŽĚƵĐĞƌ ŽĨ ďŝŽĚŝĞƐĞů
according to the ANP, National agency of petroleum. The company maintains six
operational plants with a combined annual biodiesel production capacity of 640,000
m
3
. In order to maintain market leadership in Brazil, the Brazil Ecodiesel has projects
for the expansion of the capacity of its plants and which will happen according to the
needs of the market. The company has pioneered the production of biodiesel on a
commercial scale in Brazil, with castor, jatropha and other vegetable oil as a
feedstock. Its activities are based on cost-efficient industrial and logistics processes
and an innovative and diversified model for the sourcing of raw materials through
direct purchases in the vegetable oil market, the development of new intensive
agricultural production chains and the encouragement of family farming, with an
emphasis on the promotion of human and social development. The company
entered into an agreement with the state of Piauí for the installation of a castor
plant production center based on family farming. Brasil Ecodiesel also intends to
develop new crops of castor plant to achieve greater productivity. The extraction of
vegetable oil and the process of producing biodiesel through transesterification have
generated by-products of significant economic value. The production of vegetable oil
from oilseeds intended exclusively for industrial consumption, such as castor plant
and jatropha, have generated additional income by marketing them in the form of
organic fertilizer and to reduce operating costs by using biomass to generate heat for
its own biodiesel production process. The production of biodiesel also generates
significant amounts of glycerin that can be used to generate heat or can be sold to
third parties for use in cosmetics, petrochemicals and other products.

Fertibom (http://www.fertibom.com.br ) is an agribusiness organisation in Brazil.
1ŚĞ ĐŽŵƉĂŶLJ ƉƌŽĚƵĐĞƐ 8ŝŽŵĂdž ďŝŽĚŝĞƐĞů ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŵƉĂŶLJ͛Ɛ ƉƌŽƉƌŝĞƚĂƌLJ
technology, resource production processes using internally designed and built
equipment. The biodiesel is produced from castor and other oilseeds using ethyl or
methyl alcohol through its innovative process called T-max.

Kaiima (www.kaiima.com) is a next generation seed and breeding company. The
ĐŽŵƉĂŶLJ ƵƐĞƐ ŝƚƐ CCMΡ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ ƚŽ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉ ŶĞǁ ŶŽŶ-GMO crops with
dramatically improved productivity and improved land and water-use efficiencies.
kĂŝŝŵĂ͛Ɛ CCMΡ ;CůĞĂŶ CĞŶŽŵŝĐ MƵůƚŝƉůŝĐĂƚŝŽŶͿ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ ŝƐ Ă ŶŽŶ-transgenic
biotechnology platform developed in 2002 that induces clean polyploidy in plants
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(i.e., multiplying the number of chromosomes found in the plant). It includes a
proprietary set of protocols and methods that direct the active chemicals used in the
genome-multiplication process away from the sensitive DNA, which stays unharmed,
unlike past methods for inducing polyploidy, thus keeping the plant fertile and
genetically stable. The company claims that its technology provides advantages
including higher plant yield, greater biomass accumulation, enhanced
photosynthesis and other features. kĂŝŝŵĂ ŝƐ ƵƐŝŶŐ CCMΡ ĂŶĚ ŽƚŚĞƌ ĂĚǀĂŶĐĞĚ ĂŶĚ
proprietary genomic-based breeding technologies to develop high-yielding energy
crops for the production of biodiesel, bioethanol, and biomass energy. The biodiesel
strategy involves breeding castor varieties that can yield up to 10 tons of seeds (or 5
tons of oil) per hectare per year compared to the global average of between 1-1.5
tons of seeds. The company expects that these high yields, will make fuel from castor
we economically competitive with the price of petroleum.

Rahan Meristem (www.rahan.co.il) is an Israeli company with more than 30 years
experience in plant propagation and biotechnology, and in the laboratory production
of tissue culture plants. In January 2010, the company was reported to have
announced its plans to engage in developing protocols for the mass propagation and
genetic transformation of castor beans and jatropha to produce biodiesel. The
ĐŽŵƉĂŶLJ͛Ɛ ƐĐŝĞŶƚŝĨŝĐ ĚŝƌĞĐƚŽƌ ƐĂŝĚ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ŵĂŝŶ ŐŽĂů ǁĂƐ ƚŽ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉ ĂŶĚ ďƌŝŶŐ ƚŽ
market transgenic jatropha and castor bean clones that confer resistance to salinity
and drought.

6.2.3 Other Possible Future End Uses for Castor Oil & Derivatives

Castor oil based polyurethane adhesives
Lubricant for ethanol fuel - Ethanol has no lubricating characteristics. Castor oil is
one of the few lubricants that blend with alcohol. This might lead to castor oil being
a major lubricant for the ethanol fuel market.
Oil-modified alkyd type resin based on secondary esters of castor oil
Use of castor oil in preparation of oil-based binders
Use in castor oil in treating some unique gland ailments
Acetoacetylated castor oil in coatings applications - Acetoacetate esters from castor
oil are being tried to formulate thermosetting coating compositions.
Food Grade Plasticizers ʹ In July 2005, Denmark's Danisco A/S announced it has
developed a non-phthalate plasticizer based on castor oil. This food-grade plasticizer
for flexible PVC has been developed as an alternative to phthalates. Grindsted Soft-
N-Safe from is made from fully hardened castor oil and acetic acid. The product has
been approved by the EU for food-contact applications and is expected to find future
uses in toys and medical equipment.
Modification of the biopolymer castor oil with free isocyanate groups to be applied
as bioadhesive - Surgical adhesives have been used for several applications, including
haemostasis, sealing air leakages and tissue adhesion. Recent research has tried to
produce a biodegradable urethane-based bioadhesive containing free isocyanate
groups. This material presents the advantage of being biodegradable, biocompatible
and having the capacity of reacting with amino groups present in the biological
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molecules. Uurethane based on castor oil (CO) was synthesized by reaction of the
molecule with isophorone diisocyanate (IPD) for developing this product.


SUMMARY


Castor oil has over a thousand patented industrial applications. It is used in the following
industries: automobile, aviation, cosmetics, drug, electrical, electronics, food,
manufacturing, plastics, and telecommunications. Recently, castor oil is being investigated
for its use in producing bioplastics.

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7 - Castor Seeds

This chapter comprises the following topics

Castor Seeds Production & Supplies - 7.1
Castor Seeds Prices & Trends ʹ 7.2
Castor Seeds Packaging & Storing ʹ 7.3
Castor Seed Varieties ʹ 7.4
Castor Seed Factoids ʹ 7.5


HIGHLIGHTS



India is the largest producer of castor seeds in the world with China and Brazil being
the next two. It exports about 15,000 T of castor seeds per year.

The prices of castor seeds are volatile and this volatility is present intra-year as well
as inter-year.


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7.1 Introduction to Castor Seeds

Although monotypic, the castor oil plant can vary greatly in its growth habit and
appearance. It is a fast-growing, suckering perennial shrub which can reach the size of a
small tree (around 12 m), but it is not hardy. It has large leaves which are long-stalked,
alternate and palmate with coarsely toothed segments. Terminating stems are panicle-like
inflorescences of green monoecious flowers, the stalked female flowers above the male
flowers below, both without petals.

The fruit is a spiny, greenish capsule with large, oval, shiny, bean-like seeds with variable
brownish motling.

The inflorescence of the castor plant consists of an erect panicle with female flowers at the
top and male flowers at the bottom. The castor fruits are spherical capsules which become
hard and brittle. The seed capsule has thick walls, is spiny and contains 3 cocci. Each coccus
contains one seed.

7.2 Castor Seeds Production & Supplies

India is the largest producer of castor seeds in the world with China and Brazil being the
next two. India is also the largest exporter of castor seeds; it exports about 15,000 T of
castor seeds per year, on an average.

World Castor Seed Production

Country
Harvest
Season
Production ('000 T) Yield (T/ha) Harvest Area ('000/ha)
09-10(F)
2008-
09
2007-
08
09-
10(F)
2008-
09
2007-
08
09-10
(F)
2008-
09
2007-
08
Brazil Jun-Sept 92 123 94 0.58 0.76 0.6 158 163 156
China PR Sep - Jan 190 190 170 0.9 0.86 0.81 210 220 210
India
Nov -
Mar 880 975 990 1.06 1.08 1.15 830 900 860
Other
Countries 115 117 112 0.62 0.63 0.61 185 186 183
Total 1277 1405 1366 0.92 0.96 0.97 1383 1469 1409
Note: F- Forecast
Source: ISTA Mielke, Oil World, Germany.

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7.3 Castor Seeds Prices & Trends

The prices of castor seeds are volatile and this volatility is present intra-year as well as inter-
year.

Average Prices for Castor Seeds

The average spot prices provided for specific months over a 3 year period to demonstrate
the increase and volatility in prices

Year Average Price ($ / T)
2005 May 400
2005 Nov 330
2006 Mar 340
2006 Jul 340
2006 Nov 400
2007 Mar 460
2007 Jul 480
2007 Nov 500
2008 Mar 600
2008 Jul 700
2008 Nov 650
2009 Mar 490
2009 Jul 540
2009 Nov 640
2010 Mar 640

The above prices also have factored in the volatility of the Indian Re / US $ which saw a
change of over 20% during this period (45 Rs per US $ in 2004 to 39.5 Rs per US$ by end of
2007, back to about 50 Rs per US$ by end of 2008, and hovering about 45 Rs per $ by Mar
2010!)

7.4 Castor Seeds Packaging & Storing

Castor seeds are large and occupy considerable space in the storehouse.

The normal packing is either 50 Kgs or 70 Kgs, and the products are usually packed in
gunny bags.

It is recommended that castor seeds be dried to 5-6% moisture content before
storing.

7.5 Castor Seeds Varieties & Hybrids

Please see section 5.5 in chapter 5.

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7.6 Castor Seed Factoids

o Some areas in the state of Gujarat in India claim to produce a yield of 6 T of seeds
per hectare (about 2500 Kg per acre), while according to published figures, the
average yield in India is only about 1 T per hectare
o It is possible to store castor seeds for about 5 years, as long as the seeds are kept
in a cool and dry place
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8 - Castor Meal

This chapter comprises inputs on the following topics

Castor Meal Uses ʹ 8.1
Castor Meal Composition ʹ 8.2
Castor Meal Supply & Demand ʹ 8.3
Toxicity in Castor Meal ʹ 8.4
Energy Content in Castor Meal ʹ 8.5
Castor Meal ʹ Other Points ʹ 8.6


HIGHLIGHTS


Castor meal is one of the most useful natural manures.

The two primary uses of castor meal today are as fertilizer and as fuel.

India exported about 330,000 MT of castor meal for the period 2007-2008. About
1,00,000 tons are consumed within the country, in the form of fertilizers and as fuel.

When compared to other oilseed meals such as rapeseed mean and soymeal, castor
meal is much cheaper.


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8.1 Castor Meal Uses

Castor meal - the residue obtained from castor cake - is one of the most versatile natural
manures.

It is organic manure that enhances the fertility of the soil without causing any damage or
decay. It is enriched with the three big elements vital and conducive to the proper growth of
crops - Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium. It also has traces of nutrients like Manganese,
Zinc and Copper, thus making it a balanced fertiliser.

Advantages

1. Provides all the major & minor nutrients necessary for better plant growth

2. Helps in increasing the nutrient uptake by plants

3. Improves soil fertility and productivity; improves yield & quality of the farm produce

4. Protects plants from nematodes and termites

Main Uses of Castor Meal

The two primary uses of castor meal today are as fertilizer and as fuel

8.2 Castor Meal Composition

Nutrient Content of Deoiled Castor Cake / Meal

A typical composition of castor residue/meal is as follows:

Organic Matter
80-85% (The organic matter consists of proteins about 32-33%,
fibers about 25-30%, ash content ʹ about 6%)
Nitrogen 5 %
Phosphourous (as P
2
0
5
) 2 %
Potassium 1.25 % - 1.5 %
Moisture 10% max. approx.
Oil Content 0.7% max. approx.

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It also contains some micro nutrients viz., Calcium, Magnesium, Sulphur, Iron, Zinc,
Manganese, Copper etc.

(One published manural value for castor cake is: 6.6% N, 2.6% P2O5, and 1.2% K2O - C.S.I.R.,
1948ʹ1976).

Castor meal is an excellent fertilizer because of high content of N (6.4%), Phosphoric Acid
(2.55%), Potash (1%) and moisture retention.

The protein content of castor seed meal varies between 21-48% depending upon the extent
of decortications. It has an ideal amino acid profile with moderately high Cystine,
mithionine, and isoleucine.

While it is rich in proteins, castor cake cannot be used as cattle fodder because of its
toxicity.

8.3 Castor Meal Supply & Demand

India exported approximately 2, 00,000 tons of castor meal in 2006-2007. About 1,00,000
tons are consumed within the country, in the form of fertilizers and as fuel.

While the castor meal exports also fluctuate in tune with the castor oil trading market, India
has seen a dramatic increase in the exports of castor meal in the period 2003-2008.
According to estimates by the industry, the increase has over 400%. Between 2006-2007
and 2007-2008 alone, the increase has been over 60%! India exported about 330,000 MT of
castor meal for the period 2007-2008.

South Korea and Taiwan are the leading importers of castor seed meal. Vietnam, China,
Brazil and Europe are the other major consumers. Most of these consumers, with the
exception of Brazil, import almost all their consumption, primarily from India.

Indian Castor Meal Exports

Year Exports (in MT)
2003-04 65
2004-05 70
2005-06 200
2006-07 205
2007-08 330
2008-09 204
2009-10 240
Source: http://www.seaofindia.com/oilmeal_data/oilmealdata_march_2010.pdf

The price of castor meal ranges between $70-$80 per T (FOB), depending on the season and
the supply-demand scenario.

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8.4 Toxicity in Castor Meal

The castor cake is mainly used as a fertilizer. It is unsuitable as an animal feed because of
the presence of toxic protein called ricin and toxic allergen often referred to as CBA (castor
bean allergen). However, it is noteworthy that none of the toxic components is carried into
the oil.

Some methods for the detoxification of the cake have been attempted. These include

Treatment with ammonia, caustic soda, lime and heat.

When the cake is steamed, the ricin is detoxified and the allergen is inactivated.

Another method of detoxifying castor seed meal involved the wet mixing with sal
seed meal so that the toxic constituents of castor seed were neutralized by tannins.

In addition, some people in parts of South-Eastern Nigeria have long developed a
method for treating and detoxifying the unextracted seed. In this case, the method
used to detoxify castor seed involves fermentation. The seeds are first dehulled and
boiled in water for about 18 hours. The boiled seeds are cooled and wrapped
together with leaves and allowed to ferment in the fire place for about five days. The
fermented seeds are then mashed by pounding using a mortar and pestle. This is
followed by addition of ash from burnt palm kernel husk which gives it a dark colour.
The dark, mashed product is allowed to mature for a further period of five days after
which it is packaged for sale. It is believed that most of the detoxification takes place
during fermentation and it leads to the elimination of the toxic factors.
Microbiological studies have shown that the bacteria involved are spore-forming
bacteria, especially members of the genus Bacillus

Detoxified and deallergenized castor meal (DDCM) is a by-product of an extraction
process of the castor bean in Thailand, introduced in the 1990s. It has been claimed
that DDCM can be safely used as animal feed. It is claimed that the extraction
process is done in such as way that due to the action of heat, together with some
base solubles, the castor meal is rendered non-toxic.

Although the use of detoxified cake as cattle feed has been reported in a few cases using
one or more of the methods explained above, extreme caution and experimentation are
desirable before the cake is fed to farm animals.

About the ricin

The castor seed coat contains ricin, a poison, which is also present in lower concentrations
throughout the plant. The toxicity of raw castor beans is well-known, though reports of
actual poisoning are relatively rare. While children could die from the intake of as few as
three beans; adults may require eight or more. When injected, even a small dose of ricin
may cause toxic symptoms.

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Ricin is classified as a Type 2 ribosome inactivating protein (RIP). Whereas Type 1 RIPs
consist of a single enzymatic protein chain, Type 2 RIPs, also known as holotoxins, are
heterodimeric glycoproteins. Type 2 RIPs consist of a Ricin A chain that is functionally
equivalent to a Type 1 RIP, covalently connected by a single disulfide bond to a Ricin B chain
that is catalytically inactive, but serves to mediate entry of the A-B protein complex into the
cytosol. Both Type 1 and Type 2 RIPs are functionally active against ribosomes in vitro,
however only Type 2 RIPs display cytoxicity due to the lectin properties of the B chain.

The Ricin A Chain is an N-glycoside hydrolase composed of 267 amino acids. It has three
structural domains with approximately 50% of the polypeptide arranged into alpha-helices
and beta-sheets. The three domains form a pronounced cleft that is the active site of RTA.

The Ricin B Chain is a lectin composed of 262 amino acids that is able to bind terminal
galactose residues on cell surfaces. RTB form a bilobal, barbell-like structure lacking alpha-
helices or beta-sheets where individual lobes contain three subdomains. At least one of
these three subdomains in each homologous lobe possesses a sugar-binding pocket that
gives RTB its functional character.

Many plants such as barley have the Ricin A chain but not the B chain. People do not fall ill
from eating large amounts of such products, as Ricin A is of extremely low toxicity as long as
the B chain is not present.

Potential medicinal use of ricin

Ricins may have therapeutic use in the treatment of cancer, to specifically target and
destroy cancer cells: Ricin could be linked to a monoclonal antibody to target malignant cells
recognized by the antibody.

Modification of ricin is believed to be possible to lessen its toxicity to humans, but not to the
cancer cells. Another promising approach is to use the non-toxic subunit of ricin as a vehicle
for delivering antigens into cells, thus greatly increasing their immunogenicity. Use of ricin
as an adjuvant has potential implications for developing mucosal vaccines.

8.5 Energy Content in Castor Meal

The calorific value of deoiled castor cake is about 4200 Kcal per kg. Given the fact that the
cost of castor meal /cake is lower than those of other equivalents such as soy meal,
rapeseed meal etc., and given its reasonably good energy content, castor meal is today used
in some cases as a cost effective fuel. However, the limited quantities in which castor meal
is available, and the significant demand that emanates for its use as organic fertilizer implies
that the impact of castor meal on the biomass/biofuels industry is insignificant.

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8.6 Castor Meal ʹ Other Points

For the time being, castor bean presscake is not widely used as it contains toxic
proteins and allergens. However, the lipase it also contains could be used for various
applications: stereoisomer separation, emulsifier production or edible fat and
triglyceride biomanufacturing, which improves the nutritional, rheological and
functional properties of fatty acids.

In the last three years (2005-2008), according to suppliers in India, castor meal saw a
price variation in the range $40-$150 per T

The countries to which castor meal is mostly exported from India are Korea and
Taiwan.

When compared to other oilseed meals, castor meal is much cheaper than rapeseed
meal and soymeal.


SUMMARY


Castor meal is an excellent fertilizer because of the high content of nitrogen, phosphoric
acid, potash and moisture retention. It is used as fuel as well. India is the largest exporter of
castor seed meal, and South Korea and Taiwan are the leading importers. Vietnam, China,
Brazil and Europe are the other major consumers. Most of these consumers, with the
exception of Brazil, import almost all their consumption, primarily from India.



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9 - Castor Oil Distribution & Logistics

This chapter comprises inputs on the following topics

Castor Oil Storing & Packaging ʹ 9.1
o Castor Oil Storage ʹ 9.1.1
o Castor Oil Packaging ʹ 9.1.2
o Castor Oil Shelf Life ʹ 9.1.3

Castor Oil Transportation & Logistics ʹ 9.2
o Distribution from Farms to Refinery ʹ 9.2.1
o Transport ʹ 9.2.2
o Cargo Handling ʹ 9.2.3
o Density & Volume Expansion ʹ 9.2.4
o Cargo Securing ʹ 9.2.5
o Risk Factors & Loss Prevention ʹ 9.2.6
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9.1 Castor Oil Storing & Packaging

9.1.1 Castor Oil Storage

Because the castor oil contains double bonds in its lipid structure, it is prone to an
undesirable reaction called lipid oxidation. Lipid oxidation occurs when the double bonds in
the fatty acid react with oxygen to form peroxides - this changes the chemical nature of the
oil. There are many factors which influence the rate of oxidation in foods: fatty acid
composition, free fatty acids versus the corresponding acylglycerols, oxygen concentration,
temperature, pro-oxidants, radiant energy (visible and ultraviolet light), and the presence of
antioxidants.

Owing to the above reasons, castor oil is stored in a controlled environment. That includes
removing oxygen, storing the oil in a cool place, placing the oil in an opaque container,
removal of pro-oxidants (e.g., cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, and nickel), and possibly
adding antioxidants.

9.1.2 Packaging

Packaging Options

In retail, castor oil is usually sold in small packs.

Sea Transport - Castor oil is usually packed in steel drums (200/225 Kg) while transported by
sea in containers. Many suppliers have started using flexibags for packaging as these are
significantly less costly than drums.

Bulk Shipping - usually for lots of 500 Metric Tons minimum

9.1.3 Shelf Life

Under normal temperatures and conditions, castor oil has a shelf life of about 12 months.
Used in retail form, refrigeration after opening is recommended

9.2 Castor Oil Transportation & Logistics

9.2.1 Distribution from Farms to Refinery

The process mentioned below is representative of a typical distribution of castor seeds in
India.

o Castor seeds are bought to the auction place from the farms
o At the auction place, traders buy the castor seeds through an auction process.
There are many traders who do this in each city.
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o Then, there are a few large brokers (far fewer than the number of traders) who
interact with the traders and who in turn are contacted by the crushers &
refiners for purchase
o The supply chain thus looks as follows: Farmer -> Auction Place -> Trader ->
Broker -> Crusher
o Pricewise, if X (Rs) is the price per Kg when it is auctioned, the price at which the
crusher receives it is about 1.05 X (a 5% increase). This increase results by way of
commissions to traders and brokers and for transport costs to the crushing unit.

9.2.1 Transport

Castor oil can be transported by ship, truck, or railroad, depending on the factors. A large
part of international transportation of castor oil happens by sea.

9.2.2 Cargo Handling

Normally, castor oil does not need to be heated, since its solidification point is relatively
low. However, should temperatures during voyage happen to be in the solidification range,
the following must be noted: to be able to pump the oil out of the tanks, it must be at the
required pumping temperature. This is only possible, however, if the oil has been kept liquid
during the voyage (above a minimum temperature). If the oil solidifies in the tanks, it cannot
be liquefied again even by forced heating. In the vicinity of the heating coils, the oil melts,
scorches, discolours and becomes rancid.

The oil may also cool too rapidly in the long lines and solid deposits form on the outer walls,
which cannot be pumped out and prevent the still liquid cargo from reaching the suction
valve. This problem can be solved by appropriate heating or insulation of the lines.

Because of the above reasons, loading, travel and pumping temperatures must be precisely
complied with, since any change in consistency which occurs during transport may prove
irreversible.

Where the oil is packaged in barrels, the latter have to be handled with appropriate care.
Damaged barrels quickly lead to oil leakage and thus to loss of volume or to damage to
other parts of the cargo.

9.2.3 Density & Volume Expansion

The density of castor oil is approximately 0.960 cm
3

With a rise in temperature, however, density diminishes, thereby leading at the same time
to an increase in volume. This behavior is described by the coefficient of cubic expansion
and is known as thermal dilatation.

The coefficient of cubic expansion amounts to: g = approx. 0.0007°C
-1
As a rule of thumb, castor oil may be expected to increase in volume by 1% of their total
volume for each 14°C temperature increase. So, when filling the barrels or tanks, attention
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must however be paid to the expansion behavior of the cargo in the event of a rise in
temperature (risk of bursting of barrels).

9.2.4 Cargo Securing

In the case of castor oil (as with most other liquid cargoes), it is important for the space
above the cargo to be small, so that only slight movement of the cargo is possible.
Movement in liquid cargoes may have a negative effect on the stability of the means of
transport (e.g. during cornering in the case of trucks and trains or when ships roll and pitch).

Barrels have to be secured in such a way that they cannot slip in the hold or on the loading
area and suffer damage.

9.2.5 Risk Factors and Loss Prevention

Temperature

Castor oil has no particular requirements as to storage climate conditions.

The solidification temperature is of considerable significance in the transport of fatty oils
and fats. They must remain liquid during loading, during the voyage and during unloading.
Chill haze (separation) begins if cooling causes the temperature of the oil to approach
solidification point, the oil becoming ointment-like and finally solid, and it can no longer be
pumped.

Separation and the associated change in consistency from liquid to solid occurs more readily
upon cooling, the higher is the solidification point.

The oil must be heated only by a few °C per day, else the risk of rancidity and other negative
changes arises.

The following table constitutes a rough estimate of appropriate temperature ranges.
Temperatures may deviate from these values, depending on the particular transport
conditions.

Designation Temperature range
Travel temperature (favorable temperature
range) 15°C (12 - 25°C)
Solidification temperature -10 to -18°C
Pumping temperature 30 - 35°C


The travel temperature must be complied with as far as possible during transport, to
minimize oxidation processes.

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Humidity/Moisture

Castor oil is insoluble in water. However, contact with water may give rise to soluble lower
fatty acids and glycerol, which cause rancidity together with changes in colour (yellow to
brown), odour and taste as well as gelling and thickening. Castor oil spoils on contact with
water. For this reason, the tanks must be absolutely dry after cleaning.

Ventilation

Ventilation must not be carried out under any circumstances, as it would supply fresh
oxygen to the oil, which would promote oxidation processes and premature rancidity.

Although castor oil thickens when exposed to atmospheric oxygen, it does not form a skin at
the surface.

Biotic Activity

Castor oil displays 3rd order biotic activity. It belongs to the class of goods in which
respiration processes are suspended, but in which biochemical, microbial and other
decomposition processes proceed. Care of the oil during the voyage must be aimed at
keeping decomposition processes to a low level.

Self-heating / Spontaneous Combustion

The oil may ignite spontaneously in conjunction with sawdust or material residues.

Odour

Active
ehavior
Castor oil releases an unpleasant odour. Contaminated oil smells
like stale water.
Passive
behavior
Tanks and barrels must always be odour-free, since there is a risk
that quality will be diminished in particular where the previous
cargo had a strong odour.

Contamination

Active
behavior
Leaking oil leads to massive contamination and may make whole
cargoes unusable.

Of considerable significance with regard to tank cleaning is the
iodine value, which is a measure of how strong a tendency the oil
has to oxidation and thus to drying. Drying is particularly
detrimental to tank cleaning, as the oil/fat sticks to the walls and
can be removed only with difficulty. On the basis of drying
capacity, oils are divided into nondrying, semidrying and drying
oils.

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With an iodine value of 81 - 100, castor oil is a non-drying oil,
which means that it does not dry significantly on contact with
atmospheric oxygen and so the tanks are easily cleaned.

Passive
behavior
Castor oil is sensitive to contamination by ferrous and rust particles
and water (especially seawater).

The tanks or barrels must be clean and in a thoroughly hygienic
condition before filling.

Mechanical Influences

In the case of transport in barrels, extreme mechanical stresses, such as dropping, tipping
over or bumping, may lead to breakage of the barrels and thus to leakage.

Toxicity / Hazards to Health

Before anyone enters a tank, it must be ventilated and a gas measurement carried out.
Oxidation processes may lead to a life-threatening shortage of O
2
.

Shrinkage / Shortage

In cases where castor oil is packaged in barrels, weight loss from leakage is always to be
expected.

Losses of up to 0.3% due to adhesion of the cargo to the tank walls may be deemed normal.

Insect Infestation / Diseases

No risk.

Castor Oil Storage during Transportation

Maximum duration of storage:

Temperature Max. Duration of storage
12 - 25°C 6 months

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10 - Prominent Castor Oil & Derivatives Producers

This chapter comprises inputs on the following topics

Producers in India ʹ 10.1
Producers in China ʹ 10.2
Producers in Brazil ʹ 10.3
Other Suppliers ʹ 10.4


































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10.1 Prominent Castor Oil & Derivatives Producers in India

Following is the list of prominent castor oil and castor derivatives manufacturers in India.
The list is based on a number of parameters, the key among which are the size of the
ĐŽŵƉĂŶLJ͛Ɛ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů ďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐ͕ ŚŝƐƚŽƌLJ ĂŶĚ ƚƌĂĐŬ ƌĞĐŽƌĚ͘

1. Jayant Agro Organics
2. Biotor Industries
3. Ambuja Global
4. Adani Group
5. NK Proteins
6. RPK Agrotech

1. Jayant Agro Organics

Main Line of Business: Castor Oil & Derivatives Production

Background:

Jayant Agro-Organics Limited is a public listed company, traded on Bombay Stock Exchange
and the National Stock Exchange. It is a 100% Export Oriented Unit, and is one of the leading
the Castor based companies in India. The company has a history of almost five decades. It is
one of the largest castor oil and derivatives companies in the world.

The company has acquired 100 percent subsidiary of Ihsedu Agrochem Pvt Ltd, a crushing
unit from Gujarat Agro Industries Corporation Limited. This plant has a crushing capacity of
350 MT oil / day and also has solvent extraction plant. The plant is located in Banaskantha ʹ
which is one of the largest castor growing districts in Gujarat ʹ which alone accounts for
75% of IŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ CĂƐƚŽƌ SĞĞĚ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƚŝŽŶ͘

Products manufactured are Castor Oil Commercial Grade, Castor Oil First Special
Grade,Castor Oil Pale Pressed Grade, Castor Oil Extra Pale Grade, Castor Oil Neutralised
Grade, Castor Oil Pharma Grade. Notable is the fact that this unit also manufactures all high
grade Castor Oils including Castor Oil Cold Pressed.

Products:

The company had been focusing more on castor grades until a decade back. In the last few
years, the company has started climbing the value chain and has a high focus on specialty
chemicals. It currently supplies a range of generation I and generation II castor oil
derivatives, besides the basic grades. Our estimate is that it will be supplying about 1,00,000
T of castor oil / derivatives, and about 75-100,000 T of castor meal per year.

For a complete list of their products, please see the following URL ʹ
http://www.jayantagro.com/products.htm

Financials: Revenues of about 125 million US$ ʹ 2007-2008.
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Location: Headquartered in Mumbai

Address:
Akhandanand, 38, Marol Co-Operative Industrial Estate,
Off. M. V. Road, Sakinaka, Andheri (E)
Mumbai - 400059, India
Tel: +91-22-66970470
www.jayantagro.com

2. Biotor Industries

Main Line of Business: Castor Oil & Derivatives Production

Background:

Previously called Jayant Oil Mills, Biotor is one of the largest integrated castor companies in
the world. It operates across the entire value chain, from contract farming of castor seeds to
wholly owned retailing operations in Europe and the United States. The company has its
manufacturing unit and seed crushing plant at Makarpura in Baroda, Gujarat, for castor oil
of various grades and its derivatives. They have also put up an 8000 TPA Sebacic Acid Plant
which is located in Ekalbara, Baroda.

Products:

The company produces all grades of castor oil and is moving up the value chain to focus on
much higher value added derivatives such as Zinc Undecylenate, Calcium Undecyclenate,
methyl ricinoleate, polyamides, polyols and more. See this URL for the complete list of
products: http://www.biotorindustries.com/castor-oil-products.html

The company also announced its intention to invest significantly over next three years to
produce high value castor derivatives such as nylon 11, 12 used in automobile and telecom
and nylon 6, 10 used in toothbrush, zip fasteners and fishing nets.

Biotor has also, over the last three years, launched major initiatives to promote castor
cultivation under the framework of contract farming in India. Biotor has already contracted
about 100,000 acres in 2008-09.

It has a 2,20,000 T per annum crushing capacity, and supplies about 1,00,000 T of castor oil
and derivatives per year. It has about 25% castor oil and derivatives market share in the
world. Castor meal is marketed by Biotor's fertilizer division. Our estimate is that it will be
producing about 75-100,000 T of castor meal per year.

In Dec 2008, Morgan Stanley invested in Biotor. Morgan Stanley Private Equity Asia, the
ďĂŶŬ͛Ɛ AƐŝĂŶ ƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ĞƋƵŝƚLJ ǁŝŶŐ͕ ŝŶǀĞƐƚĞĚ Ψϯϳ͘ϰ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ͕ ŝŶ ƌĞƚƵƌŶ ĨŽƌ Ă ͞ƐŝŐŶŝĨŝĐĂŶƚ͟ ŵŝŶŽƌŝƚLJ
stake. The partnership is expected to provide Biotor wŝƚŚ ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ MŽƌŐĂŶ SƚĂŶůĞLJ͛Ɛ ŐůŽďĂů
franchise and relationships, which we believe will prove invaluable as we aim to increase
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our international presence. Biotor is planning to invest part of this Morgan Stanley
investment in its upcoming project at the Bharuch SEZ in Gujarat. The SEZ project will be
completed in the first quarter of 2010-ϭϭ͕ ĂĨƚĞƌ ǁŚŝĐŚ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŵƉĂŶLJ͛Ɛ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ ƐĞĞĚ ĐƌƵƐŚŝŶŐ
capacity will account for 45% of the total market in India.

Financials: Revenues of about US$ 125 million ʹ 2007-08

Location: Headquartered in Mumbai

Address
13, Sitafalwadi, Dr. Mascarenhas Road,
Mazgaon, Mumbai 400 010, India
www.biotorindustries.com

3. Gujarat Ambuja Exports

Main Line of Business: Agro Processing & Trading

Background:

Gujarat Ambuja Exports Limited is principally involved in agro-processing & trading and has
focused on exports, competing in the global market.

With a small beginning in 1983, the company has grown with the addition of numerous
plants in the agro-processing sector, After establishing its first edible oil refinery in 1986, the
company set up its wheat flour mill and cattle feed mill in 1987. The company also set up
huge capacities in the Solvent Extraction industry backed by vertically integrated projects of
edible oil refinery and vanaspati ghee.

The company with its focus on international trade has setup a wholly-owned subsidiary at
Singapore and has recently promoted a vanaspati and oil refinery project in Sri Lanka.

Products:

One of the products it deals in is castor oil and castor meal. Others are soy, maize,
cottonseed, palm, rapeseed, wheat, coconut, sesame and safflower.

The total amount of castor oil is estimated to be around 10,000 T per year.

Financials: Total group revenues are about US$ 400 million ʹ 2007-2008

Location: Headquarters - Ahmedabad, Gujarat

Address:
"Ambuja Tower", Opp. Memnagar Fire Station,
Post Navjivan, Ahmedabad 380014, Gujarat)
Phone: +91-79-26423316, 26405535
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Fax: +91-79-26423079
URL: www.ambujaglobal.com
URL of the castor division: http://www.ambujaglobal.com/castor_meal.php

4. Adani Group

Main Line of Business: Trading & Diversified

Background:

Adani Group is a large conglomerate of about 4 billion $ in revenues, with a focus on trading
activities.

Products:

Today, the Adani business portfolio is a diverse group with interests in edible oil, logistics,
power generation, coal, oil and gas exploration, gas distribution, real estate, ports and
more.

The group also trades in castor oil and castor meal and is one of the largest exporters of
castor products from India. The company exports over 50,000 T of castor oil and castor meal
annually.

Financials: Adani Group turnover is about 4 billion $ in revenues. (2007-08)

Location: Headquareters - Ahmedabad, Gujarat

Address:
͞AĚĂŶŝ PŽƵƐĞ͕͟
Near Mithakhali Six Roads,
Navrangpura, Ahmedabad ʹ 380 009
URL: www.adanigroup.com

5. NK Proteins

Main Line of Business: Producer of vegetable oils

Background:

N. K. Proteins was started in 1993 and is today a prominent refiner of vegetable oils in the
state of Gujarat. It has a large manufacturing plant for castor oil, derivatives and organic
fertilizers from castor meal. The manufacturing plant at situated at Kadi, in the north of the
Gujarat state.
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Products:

In addition to the basic grades of castor oil, the company also produces ricinoleic acid,
hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) and 12-HSA.

It has the capacity to crush 1000 MT of castor seeds per day, and refining capacity of 400 T
of castor oil per day. It also has a solvent extraction plant with a capacity to process 600 T of
de-oiled castor cake per day

For a complete list of their products, please see the following URL ʹ
http://www.nkproteins.com/index.php?file=caster-product

Financials: Revenues are about $200 million (2007-08).

Location: Headquarters: Ahmedabad, Gujarat

Address:
2nd / 7th Floor, Popular House,
Ashram Road, Ahmedabad - 380009
Gujarat, India

www.nkproteins.com

6. RPK Agrotech

Main Line of Business: Castor oil and derivatives producer and trader

Background:

RPK Agrotech was established in 2004 and focusses on castor oil exports.

Products:

The company focused on producing the basic castor oil grades. The company has also
started trading of castor oil derivatives mainly HCO and 12 HSA, which the company gets
made on job work basis.

The company has a capacity to crush over 9000 MT of castor seed per month. It is currently
(Dec 2008) setting up new plant with crushing capacity of castor seed with 250 MT per day.

For a complete list of products, please see the following URL ʹ
http://rpkagrotech.com/products.php

Financials: Approximately $25 million

Location: The Company operates a manufacturing facility at KSEZ Kandla in the state of
Gujarat. The other unit is at Bhachau, also in Gujarat.
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Address:
Plot No 351,
2nd Floor, Sector 1/A,
Gandhidham, Gujarat - 370201

www.rpkagrotech.com

Other Companies

7. Gokul Overseas

Main Line of Business: Gokul Overseas (GO) is producer of castor oil and castor base
derivative products in the world

Background:

Gokul Overseas, a constituent of the Gokul Group is a partnership firm. It is the Flagship
Company of US $400 Million Gokul Overseas Group, a conglomerate of diversified activities
with major interests in castor oil (FSG, BP, USP, CP, PP, EP, & Comml), edible oils besides
castor derivatives. It is an IOCA Members and has been supplying the castor derivatives to
international markets since April'2007 covering worldwide customers.

The company has firmed up plans to set up a castor seed crushing plant at Gandhidham in
Kutch. The new plant will have a capacity of 600 tonnes per day (tpd) and the investment
will be in the range of Rs 30 crore to Rs 35 crore, The plant is expected to be operational by
November 2009.The company earlier used to outsource crushing of castor seed from other
plants.

Products:

Its castor products include:

Castor Oil (FSG / BSS, CP, BP, USP, EP, PP, Grades)
Hydrogenated Castor Oil (Flakes-Super & Spl.)
12 Hydroxy stearic acid (Flakes-Super & Spl)
Ricinoleic Acid (Liquid-Colour 2 max) of HCO, 12 HSA and Ricinoleic Acid

Financials: The company is a 100% Export Oriented Company. It achieved a top line of US$
73 millions (31.03.2009).

Location: 1ŚĞ ĐŽŵƉĂŶLJ ŝƐ ďĞĂƌŝŶŐ ĂŶ ͞SLZ͟ ƐƚĂƚƵƐ ĂŶĚ ƐŝƚƵĂƚĞĚ Ăƚ lŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ ƉƌĞŵŝĞƌ ƐƉĞĐŝĂů
economic zone (SEZ) KANDLA in the state of Gujarat.

Address:
State Highway No. 41,
Near Sujanpur Patia,
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Sidhpur, Gujarat- 384151
Phone: +91 2767 222075/ 220 975
Fax: +91 2767 223475
eMail: csgrsl@gokulgroup.com

http://www.gokulgroup.com/

8. Adya Oil & Chemicals Ltd

Main Line of Business: A company manufacturing castor oil and it's derivatives.

Background:

AOCL founded in 1997, has set up world class manufacturing facilities to process commercial
castor oil and various down stream products.

Products:

Its castor products include:

Commercial castor oil
Castor Oil FSG
Castor oil ʹ first pressed degummed
Castor oil - pale pressed
Hydrogenated castor oil
12-hydroxy stearic acid

For the product specification and application, see the link
http://www.adyaoils.com/product.htm

Location: The company operates a modern manufacturing facility at Karjan near Baroda in
Gujarat

Address

K-20, Ground Floor
M.R.Society, Opp. Raheja College
Relief Road, Santacruz (West)
Mumbai 400 054. INDIA.
Tel. 26616172, 26616173
Fax. :( 91-22) 26616126
E-Mail. : info@adyaoils.com

www.adyaoils.com

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9. Kanak Castor Products Pvt Ltd

Main Line of Business: Manufacturing and exporting of castor oil and its derivatives.

Background: Apart form castor oil and its derivatives, Kanak Castor Products Pvt. Ltd., is
involved in manufacturing and exporting of natural organic fertilizers, neem-based
pesticides, food additives and emulsifier.

Products:

For the complete list of products, please see the following link,
http://www.kanak.in/products.html

Location: The manufacturing unit situated at Mehsana, North Gujarat, India covers more
than 80,000 sq. mtrs. land having modern manufacturing facilities

Address
National Highway No.8,
At. Umanagar,
Nandasan,
Ta. Kadi,
Mehsana-382 706.
(Gujarat - India).
Ph: +91 - 2764 - 267611-13/15/18-20
E Mail: mkt@kanak.in

http://www.kanak.in/

10. Royal Castor Products

Main Line of Business: Manufacturer, exporter and supplier of a varied range of Castor
products and derivatives.

Background: Royal Castor Products Limited, promoted by the Standard Greases Group, the
largest Grease manufacturer in the private sector In India & Patel Group, conglomerate with
a strong base in the construction and manufacturing industries promoted in 1995 has now
become a name that is identified with quality in the castor oil derivatives world over.

The Indian arm of Dow Chemical International (Dow India) and Gujarat-based Royal Castor
Products Ltd have signed a commitment to conduct research in sustainable bio-based
products and solutions using castor oil (Mar 2009)

Products:

For a complete list of products, see the link http://www.royalcastor.in/html/product.html

Location: The facility is located in At. Khali, Sidhpur, Patan,
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Address:
101, Ketan Apartments,
233, R.B. Mehta Marg, Ghatkopar (East),
Mumbai ʹ 400 077, INDIA.
Tel. No. : +91 ʹ 22 ʹ 2509 3641 to 46
Fax No. : +91 ʹ 22 ʹ 2510 0384
Email : royalcastor@vsnl.com

www.royalcastor.in

11. Taj Agro Products

Main Line of Business: Manufacture various grades of castor oil & castor seed extraction.

Background: Taj agro Products limited, incorporated in the year 1986, is a flagship company
of the Taj Group. It established with an objective to manufacture and market various grades
of Castor Seed & Castor Oil. The unit is having expelling capacity of 115 MT/day, refining
capacity of 50 MT/day and a solvent extraction plant for castor seed extraction meal with a
capacity of 100 MT/day.

Taj Group has also added one more Solvent Extraction Plant in the year 2005 under the
name of Taj Proteins Pvt. Ltd. to produce Rapeseed Extraction Meal with the production
capacity of 250 MT/day. In the future, Taj Proteins will also have the Rapeseed Expelling
Facility supported by Refinery to back up the captive requirements of its Solvent Extraction
Plant and to cater to the ever deficit Indian Edible Oil Market by offering Refined Grade
Rapeseed Oil.

Products:

Taj Group is a manufacturer and exporter of the following grades:

Commercial Castor Oil
Refined Castor Oil (FSG/BSS)
Refined Castor Oil (Pale Pressed Grade)
Refined Castor Oil (Extra Pale Grade)
Neutralized Castor Oil (N.C.O.)
Pharmaceutical Castor Oil (I.P. Grade)
Pharmaceutical Castor Oil (B.P. Grade)
Pharmaceutical Castor Oil (U.S.P. Grade)
Refined Castor Oil (DAB 10)
Hydrogenated Castor Oil (HCO)
12-Hydroxy Stearic Acid (12-H.S.A.)
Eco-Friendly Fertilizers
Castor Seed Extraction Meal (D.O.C.)
Bio Organic Fertilizer from Compost Agro Waste Mix
Rapeseed Extraction Meal.
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Address:
434, Laxmi Plaza, Laxmi
Industrial Estate, New
Link Road, Andheri (W), Mumbai- 400 053.
India.
Mob: 009930407744
E-mail : tajpharma@rediffmail.com

www.tajagroproducts.com
10.2 Prominent Castor Oil & Derivatives Producers in China

1. Tongliao TongHua Castor Chemical Co., Ltd.

The company was founded in 1985 and put into operation in 1988. It processes 80,000MT
castor seeds annually.

Products: Castor oil basic grades, dehydrated castor oil, hydrogenated castor oil, 12-HSA,
sebacic acid, castor oil fatty acid, dehydrated castor oil fatty acid, pharmaceutical castor oil,
blown castor oil, sulphonated castor oil, lithium 12-HSA, Magnesium 12-HSA, Alumium 12-
HSA and other stearate products and Dioctyl Stearate (DOS), Dibutyl Sebacate (DBS), Dioctyl
Fumarate (DOF), Dibutyl Fumarate (DBF), Dodecanedioic Acid, secondary octyl alcohol,
commercial stearic acid, castor meal.

http://www.castoroil.cn/MainWeb_EN.htm

2. Zouping County Tianxing Chemical Industry Co., Ltd.

This company is located in the Handian Industrial Zone, Zouping, Shandong China. It can
produce castor oil basic grades, Sebacic Acid and 12-hydroxy stearate. It also is a member of
the China Castor Association.

It can press the castor seed of 80,000T to the castor oil of 35,000T, Sebacic Acid of 4,000T,
12-hydroxy stearate of 10,000T every year

Products: Castor oil basic grades, Sebacic acid, Dimethyl sebacate, Dibutyl Sebacate (DBS),
2-Octanol, 12-Hydroxy Stearic Acid, Castor Cake

http://www.tianxingchem.com

3. Liaoyang Huaxing Chemical Co., Ltd.

Liaoyang Huaxing Chemical Co., Ltd is equipped with total production capacity of 60,000
tons of nonionic surfactants every year. The company mainly produces three series and
more than 100 kinds of nonionic surfactants such as fatty alcohol-polyoxyethyleneether,
nonylphenol-polyoxyethyleneether and polyethylene glycol (PEG), etc. Now, the company
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has established long-term and close cooperation relation with more than 300 enterprises
such as Nanfeng Group, Hangao Company, Guangzhou Libai, Liaoning Whitecat, Zhejiang
Nice, etc.

Products: It mainly produces three series and more than 100 kinds of nonionic surfactants
such as fatty alcohol-polyoxyethyleneether, nonylphenol-polyoxyethyleneether and
polyethylene glycol (PEG), etc.

4. Xingtai Lantian Fine Chemical Co., Ltd.

The former Xingtai Industrial Detergent Factory, established in May 1992, is manufacturer of
surfactants and other practical products. Their products are: surfactants, pesticide auxiliarg,
detergent auxiliary, and textile, printing and dyeing chemicals, altogether about 100 types.

It has an annual output of 5,000 tons of external cycle gas-liquid contact ethoxylation or
propoxylation production lines and advanced PI techniques. The main products are
inspected with ISO series standard. In 1999, we came up with innovative production
methods for DBS-Ca. Its pesticide emulsifier production capacity reaches 4,500 tons.

Products:

For a complete list of products, please click on the following link ʹ
http://www.ltchem.com/cgi/search-
en.cgi?f=contact_en+product_en+company_en_1_&t=product_en&w=product_en&terms=
Castor+oil-polyoxyethylene+ether+series+&Submit.x=30&Submit.y=4

www.ltchem.com

10.3 Prominent Castor Oil & Derivatives Producers in Brazil

Company Location
Production (est.) ʹ MT,
2007
Bom Brasil Salvador, BA 25
A.Azevedo Itupeva, SP 6
Enovel Bariri, SP 3


A consolidated list of companies using castor as a biodiesel feedstock and their production
quantities has been provided

Producer Location Feedstock
Production
Capacity
(litres/m³)
Ambra Varginha/MG
sunflower, nabo forrageiro and castor
bean 2400L
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Araguassu
Porto Alegre do
Norte/MT
soybean, cotton, sunflower and castor
bean 100m³
Biocamp Campo Verde/MT castor bean, tallow and jatropha 154m³
Biocapital Charqueada/SP
soybean, cotton, peanut, sunflower,
palm, jatropha and castor bean 824m³
Brasil
Ecodiesel Teresina/PI
castor bean, soybean, cotton and
sunflower 2000L
Brasil
Ecodiesel Floriano/PI
castor bean, soybean, cotton and
sunflower 96000L
Brasil
Ecodiesel Crateús/CE
castor bean, soybean, cotton and
sunflower 360m³
Brasil
Ecodiesel Iraquara/BA
castor bean, soybean, cotton and
sunflower 252000L
Brasil
Ecodiesel Rosário do Sul/RS
castor bean, soybean, cotton, sunflower
and jatropha 252m³
Brasil
Ecodiesel São Luis/MA
castor bean, soybean, cotton and
sunflower 360000L
Comanche
(ex-IBR) Simões Filho/BA
Soybean, cotton, tallow, dendê and
castor bean 65000L
Dhaymers
Taboão da
Serra/SP
soybean, babassu, castor bean and
tallow 26m³
Nutec
(Fundação
Núcleo de
Tecnologia
Industrial
do Ceará) Fortaleza/CE castor bean 2400L
Soyminas Cássia/MG
castor bean, colza, nabo forrageiro and
sunflower 40m³
Source: http://www.iucnael.org/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=99&lang=en

10.4 Other Prominent Suppliers

Fuerst Day Lawson - International Trading Company in Castor Oil

Fuerst Day Lawson is one of the leading Castor Oil suppliers in Europe with over 40 years
experience buying directly from the producers in India, China and Brazil. The company
supplies castor oil into Europe and China, selling approximately 40,000 MT per year via
storage tanks in Rotterdam and Marseille, and via direct deliveries in flexitanks and drums.

Since the emergence of India as the dominant region of supply more than 15 years ago,
Fuerst Day Lawson has gained a significant presence with a regional head office based in
Delhi, from where it maintains regular contact with major market players.

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Appendix 1

In recent times, we @ CastorOil.in have had a number of enquiries for details and data
about sebacic acid. Owing to this, we are including a special section in this report for sebacic
acid.

This section comprises the following details on sebacic acid:
1. Demand - Supply Estimates for Sebacic Acid
2. Price of Sebacic Acid
3. Sebacic Acid Companies and Suppliers

1. Demand - Supply Estimates for Sebacic Acid

Introduction

According to the industry nomenclature, generation I derivatives include hydrogenated
castor oil, 12-hydroxy stearic acid, dehydrated castor oil acid, and ethoxylated castor oil
among others. Generation II castor oil derivatives include sebacic acid, undecyclenic acid,
heptaldehyde, polyols and dimer acid. Generation III derivatives include the esters and salts
of generation II derivatives as well as derivatives such as methyl-12-hydroxystearate.

The global market for generation II castor oil derivatives is estimated at $300 million (based
on 2007 data). For generation III derivatives, where half of the generation II derivatives are
converted, the estimated market worth is close to $350 million (based on 2007 data).

Overall, the castor oil and derivatives industry have shown an average demand growth of
about 4% per annum for the period 2000-2007.

Current Demand-Supply Estimates for Sebacic Acid

Global Demand

Global demand level: Approximately 140,000 metric tonnes per annum

Global supply

Global installed capacity: Approximately 150,000 metric tonnes per annum

China is currently the primary producer of SBA. The United States and India are also producers.

PĞŶŐƐŚƵŝ uŽŶŐĨĞŶŐ ĂŶĚ PĞŶŐƐŚƵŝ !ŝŶŐŚƵĂ CŚĞŵŝĐĂů ÞůĂŶƚ͕ CŚŝŶĂ͛Ɛ ůĂƌŐĞƐƚ SĞďĂĐŝĐ ĂĐŝĚ ƉƌŽĚƵĐĞƌƐ
ŵĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌĞ ϮϯϬϬϬ ƚŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ϯϬϬϬϬ ƚŽŶƐ ƉĞƌ LJĞĂƌ ƌĞƐƉĞĐƚŝǀĞůLJ͘ SĞďĂĐŝĐ AĐŝĚ lŶĚŝĂ͕ lŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ
largest supplier produces 10000 T/yr.
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2. Price of Sebacic Acid

FOB Price (Tianjin, China)

$3,584.00/MT - $3,602.00/MT

CIF Mumbai (Origin port: Tianjin, China)
$3,648.00/MT - $3,666.00/MT
Palletized CIF price: $3,686.00/MT - $3,704.00/MT
Note: All data for Sep 2009

3. Sebacic Acid Companies and Suppliers

Main Countries Producing Sebacic Acid

China
Japan
Brazil
India
United Kingdom

Top Suppliers of Sebacic Acid Worldwide

Name of the Manufacturer Location
Fulida Industry co Hebei China
Green International Germany
Hengshui Dongfeng Chemical Co China
Hengshui Jinghua Chemical Plant China
Hengshui OK Enterprises Hebei Inner
Mongolia Tianrun
China
Castor Development Co., Ltd China
Jiheng Chemical China
Mitsu Toatsu Chemicals Japan
Persulphate Ltd China
Qingdao Great Chemical Inc China
Ronas Chemicals Ind. Co., Ltd. Taiwan
Shandong Haihua Tianhe Organic Chemical
Co., Ltd
China
Shandong Ocean Chemical Group China
Shenzhen Pharmaceutical Factory Shenzhen, Guangdong, China
Shijiazhuang Jihua, Chemical Textile Co China
Sinochem Tianjin, Tianjin, China.
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Suny Chem International Co., Ltd Yantai Shandong, China
Taizhou Donghai Chemical Co.Ltd., Zhejiang Province, China
Tianjin No.1 Chemical Reagent Factory Tianjin, China
Tianjin Zhonghe Chemical Plant Tianjin, China
Tonliao Xinghe Chemical Co., Ltd Inner Mongolia, China
Unitchem Co Ltd China
Weifang Tianhe Organic Chemical Co., China
Zouping County Tianxing Chemical Industry
Co., Ltd
China
Source: Derived from various sources



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Appendix 2 ʹ India Export Details on Castor Derivatives

Indian Export of 12 HSA and HCO (Unit: KGS)

S.No. Country
Values in Rs.
Lacs
Values in Rs.
Lacs Quntity in thousands
2008-2009 2009-2010 %Growth 2008-2009 2009-2010 %Growth
1 ARGENTINA 55.01 18.03 -67.23 50.21 24 -52.2
2 AUSTRALIA 395.82 465.55 17.62 473.43 593.34 25.33
3 BAHARAIN IS 11.52 12
4
BANGLADESH
PR 1.8 2.91 61.45 2 3 50
5 BELGIUM 2,441.09 2,341.41 -4.08 3,150.31 3,213.89 2.02
6 BRAZIL 11.41 413.8 3,525.55 22 567.34 2,478.84
7 BULGARIA 14.97 11.52 -23.04 17 16.12 -5.19
8 BELARUS 12.25 16.23
9 CANADA 323 337.71 4.55 333.3 426.43 27.94
10 CHILE 16.1 24
11 TAIWAN 120.35 127.61 6.04 188.2 171.15 -9.06
12 CHINA P RP 224.21 47.28 -78.91 299 70 -76.59
13 COLOMBIA 220.36 73.53 -66.63 245.39 70 -71.47
14 CUBA 72.01 97
15 DENMARK 17.51 24
16 EGYPT A RP 314.9 34.4 -89.08 343 51 -85.13
17 FRANCE 34.72 131.34 278.29 32 181.47 467.1
18 GERMANY 103.44 146.64 41.76 113.74 213.78 87.96
19 GREECE 36.11 56.58 56.69 53.01 79 49.03
20 HONG KONG 0.77 1
21 INDONESIA 95.56 60.52 -36.66 144.63 82.32 -43.08
22 IRAN 157.89 2.02 -98.72 199.79 2.5 -98.75
23 ISRAEL 37.28 50.09 34.35 49.11 68.58 39.66
24 ITALY 617.49 664.71 7.65 801.44 984.5 22.84
25 JAPAN 4,168.66 3,161.24 -24.17 4,890.10 4,105.17 -16.05
26 JORDAN 42.65 60
27 KENYA 2.04 2.94
28 KOREA RP 1,295.07 791.98 -38.85 1,688.71 1,050.95 -37.77
29 KUWAIT 10.96 16
30 LITHUANIA 11.9 11.55 -2.95 17 17 0
31 MALAYSIA 45.79 62.81
32 MEXICO 83.45 178.34 113.72 89 231.85 160.51
33 NEPAL 45.2 9.44 -79.11 102 31.05 -69.56
34 NETHERLAND 4,100.16 2,821.66 -31.18 4,900.20 3,672.31 -25.06
35 NEW ZEALAND 2.02 1.03 -49.14 2 0.5 -75
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36 PAKISTAN IR 7.68 18.81
37 PERU 13.01 16.23
38 PHILIPPINES 227.1 179.55 -20.94 310.58 242 -22.08
39 POLAND 361.97 318.35 -12.05 460 435.74 -5.27
40 RUSSIA 1,073.46 1,016.32 -5.32 1,412.63 1,397.75 -1.05
41 SAUDI ARAB 491.19 127.96 -73.95 610.43 165.86 -72.83
42 SINGAPORE 57.58 114.84 99.44 70.88 134 89.05
43 SLOVENIA 12.31 22.7 84.4 16.66 33.32 100
44 SOUTH AFRICA 122.75 221.02 80.06 154 268.93 74.63
45 SPAIN 261.16 215.23 -17.58 358.71 292.21 -18.54
46 SUDAN 14.12 10.76 -23.77 17 15 -11.76
47 SWEDEN 98.6 75.27 -23.66 108 73 -32.41
48 SWITZERLAND 30.29 42
49 SYRIA 17.7 25.48
50 TANZANIA REP 2.88 4
51 THAILAND 300.69 350.17 16.46 364.34 455.38 24.99
52 TUNISIA 59.04 80
53 TURKEY 744.69 441.45 -40.72 889.63 590.42 -33.63
54 U ARAB EMTS 371.57 502.95 35.36 487.57 698.12 43.18
55 U K 529.72 491.5 -7.21 634.11 683.56 7.8
56 UKRAINE 390.19 202.67 -48.06 479.54 266.68 -44.39
57 U S A 3,951.80 4,264.11 7.9 5,370.45 5,884.61 9.57
58 VENEZUELA 68.78 96
59
VIETNAM SOC
REP 57.64 77.54
60 UNSPECIFIED 87.93 184.02 109.29 95 221.99 133.67
Total 24,430.01 20,767.04 -14.99
Source: Ministry of Commerce, India
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Export of Azelaic Aci, Sebacic Acid their Salts & Esters from India

S.No. Country Values in Rs. Lacs Quntity in thousands

2008-2009 2009-2010 %Growth
2008-
2009
2009-
2010
%Growth
1 AUSTRALIA 21.2 12
2 BELGIUM 248.77 168
3 TAIWAN 43.24 0.09 -99.78 32 0.03 -99.92
4 CHINA P RP 309.77 129.39 -58.23 255 64.7 -74.63
5 GERMANY 157.09 272.54 73.49 110 216.02 96.38
6 ITALY 88.44 100.02 13.1 80 50 -37.5
7 JAPAN 71.71 48
8 KOREA RP 23.22 15
9 NETHERLAND 1,353.46 305.9 -77.4 1,031.00 232 -77.5
10 SINGAPORE 3.32 3
11 U S A 548.47 377.74 -31.13 417.71 279.58 -33.07
Total 2,847.49 1,206.88 -57.62
Source: Ministry of Commerce, India

Export Data forDehyrdated Castor Oil

CASTOR OIL DEHYDRTD OF EDBILE GRADE Unit: KGS
S.No. Country Values in Rs. Lacs Quntity in thousands

2008-
2009
2009-
2010
%Growth
2008-
2009
2009-
2010
%Growth
1 AUSTRALIA 6.3 7.9
2 BRAZIL 24.63 15
3 CHINA P RP 7.3 8
4 GREECE 2.85 40.02
5 MALAYSIA 0.83 1.02
6 SOUTH
AFRICA
10.5 10
Total 44.28 8.13 -81.63


Export Data for Hydrogenated Castor Oil

HYDROGNTD CASTOR OIL (OPL WAX) OF EDBLE GRADE Unit: KGS
S.No. Country Values in Rs. Lacs Quntity in thousands

2008-
2009
2009-
2010
%Growth
2008-
2009
2009-
2010
%Growth
1 BELGIUM 239.75 96
2 IRAN 11.8 16
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3 ITALY 8.39 8
4 MOROCCO 13.05 16
5 NEPAL 4.9 7.7
6 NIGERIA 26.04 34
7 PAKISTAN IR 0.12 0.2
8 SAUDI ARAB 11.54 16
9 SINGAPORE 0.01 0.03
10 SOUTH
AFRICA
13.07 16
11 SRI LANKA
DSR
32.03 115
12 U ARAB
EMTS
12.92 16
13 U K 0.31 0.13
14 U S A 75.88 15.38 -79.73 100 20 -80

Total 418.56 46.65 -88.86


Export Data for Sulphonated or Sulphated or Oxidized or Castor Oils

SULPHONATED OR SULPHATED OR OXIDIZED OR CASTOR ,FISH ,SPARM ,NEATS FOOT
OILS Unit: KGS
S.No. Country Values in Rs. Lacs Quntity in thousands

2008-
2009
2009-
2010
%Growth
2008-
2009
2009-
2010
%Growth
1 ALGERIA 38.87 82.66
2 AUSTRALIA 15.67 3.58 -77.18 22.21 4.94 -77.75
3 BANGLADESH
PR
62.7 56.06 -10.59 85.65 74.53 -12.98
4 TAIWAN 14.62 25.2
5 COLOMBIA 2.26 4.12
6 EGYPT A RP 10.24 21.58
7 ERITREA 16.41 50.68
8 FRANCE 2.97 1.4
9 GHANA 10.59 50.2
10 GUYANA 8.94 22.6
11 HONG KONG 0.44 0.4
12 INDONESIA 0.24 12.13 4,867.49 0.8 17.25 2,056.00
13 IRAN 8.89 16.62
14 ISRAEL 9.85 13.96
15 KENYA 14.45 15.51 7.31 18.34 16.46 -10.26
16 KOREA RP 14.1 14.32
17 KUWAIT 98.69 154.69 56.74 199.92 321.64 60.88
18 MADAGASCAR 3.55 7.16 101.31 20 39.8 99
19 MALDIVES 0.94 0.8
20 MOROCCO 6.73 16.2
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21 NEPAL 0.1 0.06 -43.8 0.2 0.09 -55
22 NIGERIA 56.1 13.76 -75.47 60.48 15.12 -75
23 OMAN 0.31 0.2
24 PAKISTAN IR 1.23 1.51
25 PERU 0.66 1.2
26 PHILIPPINES 7.83 10.55 34.79 10.45 15.77 50.82
27 PORTUGAL 69.65 74.15
28 ROMANIA 0.27 0.6 117.99 0.86 0.08 -91.32
29 SAUDI ARAB 17.65 18.83 6.73 16.98 53.28 213.78
30 SINGAPORE 2.07 4.48 116.33 1.52 3.55 133.75
31 SOUTH AFRICA 4.93 25
32 SRI LANKA DSR 266.3 81.91 -69.24 705.89 287 -59.34
33 SYRIA 0.09 0.1
34 THAILAND 0.48 42.73 8,793.78 1 59.92 5,892.00
35 TURKEY 13.16 25
36 U ARAB EMTS 18.64 3.67 -80.31 45.08 13.68 -69.65
37 U K 4.09 16.33
38 U S A 17.19 21.58
39 VIETNAM SOC
REP
13.95 3.39 -75.71 31.62 7.98 -74.76
40 YEMEN
REPUBLC
90.74 184.23 103.03 195.02 392.04 101.03
41 ZAMBIA 0.29 0.5
42 UNSPECIFIED 17.3 14.19 -17.95 8.14 16.17 98.71
Total 848.93 722.75 -14.86

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