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Vapor Pressure

William Henry Francois Marie Raoult

N2. O2 No  HCl. HI .Henry’s Law The concentration of a dissolved gas in a solution is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the solution C = kP Applies most accurately for dilute solutions of gases that do not dissociate or react with the solvent Yes  CO2.

Psolution = χ solvent P the solution 0 solvent Psolution = Observed Vapor pressure of χ solvent = Mole fraction of the solvent P0solvent = Vapor pressure of the pure solvent .Raoult’s Law The presence of a nonvolatile solute lowers the vapor pressure of the solvent.

Liquid-liquid solutions in which both components are volatile Modified Raoult's Law: PTOTAL = PA + PB = χ A P + χ B P 0 A P0 is the vapor pressure of the pure solvent PA and PB are the partial pressures 0 B .

Raoult’s Law – Ideal Solution A solution that obeys Raoult’s Law is called an ideal solution .

Negative Deviations from Raoult’s Law Strong solute-solvent interaction results in a vapor pressure lower than predicted Exothermic mixing = Negative deviation .

Positive Deviations from Raoult’s Law Weak solute-solvent interaction results in a vapor pressure higher than predicted Endothermic mixing = Positive deviation .