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Intermolecular Forces

Strongest Covalent bonds (400 kcal/mol) Hydrogen bonding (12-16 kcal/mol ) Dipole-dipole interactions (2-0.Relative Magnitudes of Forces The types of bonding forces vary in their strength as measured by average bond energy.5 kcal/mol) Weakest London forces (less than 1 kcal/mol) .

Hydrogen Bonding Bonding between hydrogen and more electronegative neighboring atoms such as oxygen and nitrogen Hydrogen bonding between ammonia and water .

Hydrogen Bonding in DNA Thymine hydrogen bonds to Adenine H3C HO NH HO HO O P O O N O N N O O H2N N N O OH O P OH OH T A .

Hydrogen Bonding in DNA Cytosine hydrogen bonds to Guanine NH2 HO N HO HO O P O O N O H2N HN N O O N N O OH O P OH OH C G .

bonding Dipole . metallic.Dipole Related Forces Type H .Dipole Decreasing Strength Between Ion charge and dipole charge Polar bonded hydrogen and dipole charge Dipole charge and dipole charge Ion . and covalent bonding Weaker than dipole-related forces: London dispersion forces .cloud Dipole charge and polarizable Stronger than dipole-related forces: Ionic.Dipole Ion – induced dipole Dipole – induced dipole Ion charge and polarizable e.

Fritz London 1900-1954 Synonyms: “London forces”. “dispersion forces”. and “dispersion-interaction forces” . London forces increase with the size of the molecules.London Dispersion Forces The temporary separations of charge that lead to the London force attractions are what attract one nonpolar molecule to its neighbors.

London Dispersion Forces .

London Forces in Hydrocarbons .

Boiling point as a measure of intermolecular attractive forces .