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How do you take over as a master? 1. 2. 3. 4. Go to company office and meet technical superintendents, discuss about: Ship particulars Trading areas Companys and charterers instructions Voyage instruction, type of charter Special instruction for maintenance and survey Complete change of command form- marine-40 in duplicate. Obtain authorization slip issued by MPA which to be attached to cert of registry and letter of memorandum. On the way to masters accommodation, form an initial impression of the ships general condition and maintenance by observing exterior conditions such as: draft marks, load line marks, condition of hull, deck, superstructure, rigging of accommodation ladder, safety net, LSA & FFA arrangements. Meet outgoing master and hand over letter of appointment and authorization slip. Go through the hand over note, ships condition report, manning level, company and charterers instructions. Sight all the statutory certificates as per MSC-14/2005, any survey due, maintenance/preparation for each survey. Go through the filing system and all types of log books. AOA & last port clearance Crew welfare and watch arrangements, any crew change/ repatriation in this port/ next port. Watch arrangement. Take over all stores, ROB of FO/DO/GO/FW, provisions, medical stores as per scale, narcotics under masters control. Cash balance onboard, ships account and satellite radio accounts. Ask master about port rotation, trading areas, general condition of ports, present cargo work, ships stability, estimated time of completion, cargo plan, departure draft, trim, GM etc. Detail of cargo gears, anchors, deck machineries, hatches and their conditions, maintenance condition and schedule.
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5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

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16. Crew familiarization process, basic trainings, onboard training programs, drills etc. 17. Go to bridge with master, familiar with bridge and navigation equipments, their operational conditions and deficiencies, manoeuvring characteristics of the vessel in various conditions, passage plans, charts and publications, GMDSS equipment familiarization and their operations. 18. Latest weather report received, weather expected in voyage. 19. Enter new masters name in OLB. Also the changeover of command including the list of documents onboard in OLB, signed by both masters. 20. Enter new masters particulars, sign off/on in AOA and attach change of command form Marine-40 in certificate of registry. 21. Ensure approved copy of stability booklet is available. 22. Before sailing, the new master should: Received familiarizations training as per Safety Management System, 6 hours/ 24 hours/ 7days accordingly. Sight his own life jackets Inspect Muster list and ensure that is up dated. Read the relevant clause of the charter party or bill of lading Note any charterers voyage instructions and or side letter (try to spend some time on the in-coming and out-going message/ email, more or less will get the pictures of what is going on) Consult the chief engineer on condition of the machinery and the bunker fuel and lube oil situation, ensuring there are safety margins / surplus as per SMS. Consult the chief officer on the situation with cargo, stability, ballast, fresh water, stores, maintenance of ship, etc. Examine the voyage plan, berth to berth, and the plan have made according to the company SMS. The required charts and publications on board. Check all the crew on boards as required by the Safe manning Documents. Check the ISM documents, for any outstanding non-conformities (which may have time limit for action) Write Master Standing Order for bridge, port and security. Satisfy himself that he has personally exercised due diligence in ensuring that the vessel is seaworthy at the start of the voyage.
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What are the statutory certificates to be carried onboard merchant ships? PART I: SHIPS ON INTERNATIONAL VOYAGES (PASSENGER SHIPS, CARGO SHIPS, TANKERS, BULK CARRIERS) CERTIFICATES & DOCUMENTS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Certificate of Registry Official Log Book International Tonnage Certificate (for ships of 24 m in length and above) International Load Line Certificate International Load Line Exemption Certificate Approved Loading and Ballasting Information Certificates of Class Intact Stability Booklet Stability Instrument Approved test conditions and Operation Manual (Approval Procedure)

10. Stability Instrument test condition results (Periodical testing) 11. Stability information to be supplied to the master 12. Damage Control Plans and Booklet 13. Damage Stability information 14. Emergency towing procedures on ships 15. Emergency towing booklet 16. Towing and Mooring Arrangements Plan 17. International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate 18. Certificates for Master, Officers or Ratings 19. De-ratting or De-ratting Exemption Certificate 20. Minimum Safe Manning Document 21. Manoeuvring Information
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22. Cargo Securing Manual 23. Oil Record Book, Part I (machinery space operations) (for oil tankers of 150 GT and above and other ships of 400 GT and above) 24. Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan (SOPEP) 25. Garbage Management Plan 26. Document of Compliance (if applicable under ISM Code) copy 27. Safety Management Certificate (if applicable under ISM Code) 28. Articles of Agreement, consisting of Forms Marine 68A, 68B 68C and 68D 29. Statement of Account of Wages of Seaman/Allotment Note 30. Account of Changes in the Crew of a Singapore Ship (Form Eng 2A) 31. Return of Births and Deaths 32. Order of Druggist Form 33. Deck Log Book 34. Engine Log Book 35. Radio Log Book (GMDSS Log Book, if applicable) 36. Ships Station License 37. Certificates of the ship station operator or operators 38. GMDSS certificates of the operator or operators (if a GMDSS installation is required) 39. Illustrated Table of Life-Saving Signals 40. Muster Lists 41. Emergency Instructions for each person on board 42. Training Manuals for Life-Saving Appliances 43. Instructions for On-Board Maintenance of Life-Saving Appliances 44. Fire Control Plans 45. Documentary Evidence of Fitness of Ship to Operate with Periodically Unattended Machinery Spaces

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46. Table or Curve of Residual Deviations of each Standard and Steering Magnetic Compass 47. Certificates of Approval for Life-Saving Appliances 48. Certificates of Approval for Fire-Fighting Appliances 49. Certificates of Approval for Navigational Aids 50. Certificates of Approval for Navigational Lights 51. Drawings, Plans and Instruction manuals (for Machinery Equipment and 52. Navigational Aids including Oxygen Analysis and Gas Detection Equipment, as appropriate) necessary for the safe operation of the ship concerned; and 53. Reports and Records of Periodical Surveys of Hull, Machinery, Boilers and Safety Valves and Equipment. PUBLICATIONS: Nautical publications: Adequate and up-to-date charts (for the intended voyage); Chart Catalogue Sailing Directions List of Lights Notices to mariners Tide Tables Mariners Handbook Nautical Almanac Navigational Tables List of radio signals Tidal Stream Atlases; and Ocean Passages of the World. International Code of Signals Publications Required by the Radio Regulations
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FOR CARGO SHIPS CERTIFICATES: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate (for ships of 500 GT and above) Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate (for ships of 500 GT and above and the certificate to be supplemented by its Record of Equipment) Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate (for ships of 300 GT and above and the certificate to be supplemented by its Record of Equipment) Cargo Ship Safety Certificate, as an alternative to 1 to 3 above; and Exemption Certificate or letter of Dispensation (when an exemption or dispensation has been granted under the provisions of SOLAS 74 as amended)

DOCUMENTS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Damage Stability Booklet Approved Subdivision and Stability Booklet Bulk Carrier Booklet, as alternative to .2 Document of Authorisation for the Carriage of Grain and Grain Loading Stability Booklet (for ships carrying grain) Damage Control Plans and Booklets (for dry cargo ships constructed on or after 1 Feb 92) Cargo Information and appropriate Shipping Documents including a Certificate or Declaration on the Carriage of Cargoes or for ships carrying Dangerous Goods in Packaged Form or in Solid Form in Bulk or carrying Harmful Substances in Packaged Form. Document of Compliance with the Special Requirements for Ships Carrying Dangerous Goods (for ships carrying dangerous goods in packaged form or in solid form in bulk) (also applicable to ships of less than 500 gross tons constructed on or after 1 Feb 92)

7.

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8. Dangerous Goods Manifest for Stowage Plan (for ships carrying dangerous goods in packaged form or in solid form in bulk or harmful substances in bulk) Enhanced survey report file (for bulk carriers and oil tankers)

9.

PUBLICATIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. International Grain Code (for ships carrying grain) Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing Code of Safe Practice for Ships Carrying Timber Deck Cargo; and Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes.

FOR OIL TANKERS In addition to the Certificate, Documents and Publications mentioned above: CERTIFICATES: 1. Certificate of Insurance or other Financial Security in Respect of Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage (for ships carrying more than 2,000T of oil in bulk as cargo)

DOCUMENTS: 1. 2. Oil Record Book, Part II (cargo/ballast operations) (for oil tankers of 150GT and above) Approved Damage Stability Information including information and data concerning loading and damage stability (for oil tankers of 150 GT and above, the keels of which were laid after 30 Jun 76) Approved Operational Manual for Oil Discharge Monitoring and Control System. Record of Oil Discharge Monitoring and Control System for the last ballast voyage. Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast Tank Operation Manual (20,000 DWT and above) Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual, as applicable (20,000 DWT and above)

3. 4. 5. 6.

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7. 8. 9. Approved Operational Procedures for Existing Tankers having Special Ballast Arrangements on board. Instruction Manual for Inert Gas System with plans and data of the installation (20,000 DWT and above) Instructions for the Operations of the Part Flow System (if not included in the loading and ballasting information); and

10. Survey Report File and Supporting Documents (for vessels participating in the Enhanced Survey Program). FOR SHIPS CARRYING NOXIOUS LIQUID CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES IN BULK: In addition to the Certificates, Documents and Publications mentioned above: CERTIFICATES: 1. International Pollution Prevention Certificate for the Carriage of Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk (this certificate is not required for chemical tankers issued with the Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk or the International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk)

DOCUMENTS: 1) 2) 3) Cargo Record Book Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual Shipboard Marine Pollution Emergency Plan for Noxious Liquid Substances (requirement shall apply not later than 1 January 2003)

FOR CHEMICAL TANKERS: In addition to the Certificates, Documents and Publications mentioned above: CERTIFICATES: 1. 2. Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (for ships which comply with the Bulk Chemical Code); or International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (for ships which comply with the International Bulk Chemical Code)

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DOCUMENTS: 1) 2) 3) 4) Cargo Record Book Damage Stability Booklet Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual Information on Limitations of Cargo, Fuel or Ballast Loaded in Connection with Damage Assumptions (for chemical tankers complying with the Bulk Chemical Code) Information relating to the Chemical and Physical Properties of the Products carried and Measures to be taken in an accident Manual covering Procedures for Cargo Transfer, Tank Cleaning, Gas Freeing, Ballasting, etc.; Document certifying that the Oil Discharge Monitor is suitable for oil-like substances as may be listed in the IOPP Certificates; and Instruction Manual for Inert Gas System, as applicable.

5) 6) 7) 8)

PUBLICATIONS: 1. 2. Bulk Chemical Code (for chemical tankers constructed before 1 Jul 86); and International Bulk Chemical Code (for chemical tankers constructed on or after 1 Jul 86).

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What are the differences of master's concern between the ship under voyage charter and time charter? Ship Master's legal position in relation to a time charter: The master should follow a time charterer's instructions in so far as they relate to the commercial activities of the ship, e.g. voyage orders, issuing bills of lading, sending messages, etc. There will usually be a clause in the charter party stating that: a. b. c. d. e. The charterers are to give the master the necessary sailing instructions; The master is to be under the orders of the charterer as regards employment, agency, or other arrangements; The master is to prosecute the voyage with the utmost dispatch and render customary assistance (to the charterer) with the vessel's crew; The master (and chief engineer) are to keep proper logs accessible to the charterers and their agents; and If the charterers are dissatisfied with the conduct of the master (or other officers), the owners will investigate the matter and, if necessary and practicable, change the appointments.

Ship Master's legal position in relation to a voyage charter: The master must perform the voyage in accordance with the agreement (the charter party) made between the ship owner and the charterer. Unlike a time charter, this does not usually give the charterer control over the commercial activities of the ship.

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What is layday, what is laycan? Laycan is a period of time within which the vessel should arrive at loading port and tender ready for loading without risk of being rejected by the charterers. As indicated in the name itself, laycan is an agreed time range at the end of which comes the date when the charterers are entitled to exercise their option and cancel the charter party for non-arrival of the owners vessel. Layday is a number of days allowed by a port authority to a ship to load or unload cargo without incurring demurrage or late charges. Lay days may be expressed as: 1. Running days: consecutive days including weekends and holidays. 2. Working days: consecutive days excluding weekends and holidays. 3. Weather working days: days on which weather permits continuous work. Lay days generally start when the ship issues a certificate of readiness to load or, as the case may be, to unload. Also sometimes referred to as laytime, lay time or lay-time or lay-hours. Demurrage is the agreed damages to be paid for delay if the ship is delayed in loading or discharging beyond the agreed period. Commencement of laytime C/P will stipulate the laytime allowed for loading or discharging and when laytime should commence. Henceforth, counting of the laytime used will start. Correct interpretation is necessary to arrive at the expiry of laytime. Based normally on NOR tendered Sundays & public holidays excepted In the calculation of laytime, Sundays and holidays are not to be counted as laytime unless used is stipulated in the C/P. Once on demurrage, always on demurrage Once the laytime has expired, all times will be considered as demurrage regardless of any holidays or bad weather. The demurrage rate payable to ship owners for the delay will be stated in the C/P normally on daily basis and prorata for any part of the day on demurrage.

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Dispatch for all laytime saved Dispatch is the time saved by the charterers for finishing before the expiry of laytime. It is payable to charterers at the stipulated dispatch rate on all the laytime saved not counting the holidays that are saved. This term is advantageous to ship owners; however, the rate is normally less than the demurrage rate. How do you access the shipping and marine circulars and notices beside the conventional way of through shipping company? Shipping and marine circulars and notices can be access through MPA website. What is the angle of loll? What does the ship behaviour when a ship is at angle of loll? What are the precautions and instructions you are to give to your chief officer? Angle of loll is a term used to describe the state of a ship which is unstable when upright (i.e. has a negative metacentric height, GM) and therefore takes on an angle of heel to either port or starboard. When a vessel has negative GM i.e., is in unstable equilibrium, any external force, if applied the vessel, will cause it to start heeling. As it heels, the moment of inertia of the vessel's waterplane (a plane intersecting the hull at the water's surface) increases, which increases the vessel's BM (distance from the center of buoyancy to the metacenter). Since there is relatively little change in KB (distance from the keel to the center of buoyancy) of the vessel, the KM (distance from keel to the metacenter) of the vessel increases. At some angle of heel (say 10), KM will increase sufficiently equal to KG (distance from the keel to the center of gravity), thus making GM of vessel equal to zero. When this occurs, the vessel goes to neutral equibrium, and the angle of heel at which it happens is called angle of loll, In other words, when an unstable vessel heels over towards a progressively increasing angle of heel, at a certain angle of heel, the center of buoyancy (B) may fall vertically below the center of gravity (G). Note that Angle of List should not be confused with angle of loll. Angle of List is caused by unequal loading on either side of center line of vessel.

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Although vessel at angle of loll does display features of stable equilibrium, it is an extremely dangerous situation; timely remedial action is required to prevent the vessel from capsizing. It is often caused by the influence of a large free surface or the loss of stability due to damaged compartments. It is different from list in that the vessel is not induced to heel to one side or the other by the distribution of weight; it is merely incapable of maintaining a zero heel attitude.

Tan = 2GM/BM Where, = Angle of Loll GM = Negative initial GM BM = BM when Upright.

How a vessel lying at an angle of loll may be returned to a safe condition. An angle of loll is caused due to the vessel being in an unstable condition with negative GM when upright and the vessel may heel to port or starboard. 1) 2) 3) a) Ensure that the heel is due to the negative GM rather than off centre weight. That is to ensure that the port listing moment is equal to the starboard listing moment. Since the angle of loll is caused by G being too high, effort is to be directed towards lowering it. This can be done by shifting weight onboard.
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b) If the vessel has high ballast tanks then these may be emptied by discharging the ballast from high side tank first. Once the high side tank is emptied then empty the lower side tank. One should look towards lowering the weights and reducing free surface effect where possible i.e., by pressing up tanks. Should it be necessary to fill the double bottom, it is important to choose a divided tank first so as to minimize the free surface effect. One tank should be filled at a time and always fill the lower side first. This will probably cause an initial increase in the list because of the off centre weight and generated free surface effect, but after that the list will start to reduce as G is lowered. Where a double bottom is subdivided into three equal water tight compartments, then: It is logical to fill the centre tank first since the added weight will cause the G to move vertically downwards and the heel will therefore reduce as the tank fills. Neither it will cause the vessel to roll over to the high side since the added weight is not off centre. Fill the low side tank completely Finally fill the high side tank. By the time this tank is completely full the vessel will be in upright condition as the vessels stability is improved by this time and GM being positive. Where there are four athwart ship tank the order recommended is: Ballast the inner low side first. Ballast the inner high side completely Ballast the outer low side completely Ballast the outer high side completely Prior considering any of the above, if the vessel is at sea where the ship is lolled over then following shall be carefully observed. Alter course to put the ships head into the predominant waves. It is essential that the ship stays in lolled to the same side.

4) 5) 6)

7) a)

b) c) d)

8) a) b) c) d) 9) a) b)

Effect of a heavy list on a vessels stability 1) When a vessel is listed the G lies off the centre line to port or starboard. 2) 3) GZ is actually capsizing lever with a negative GZ when the vessel is upright. GZ is negative till the angle of list.
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4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) At angle of list GZ is zero. If the ship is heels beyond angle of list, positive GZ is produced and it is now a righting moment. Maximum residual GZ is reduced. The loss of GZ due to list = GGH x Cos As Cos = 1, the loss of GZ is maximum when the ship is upright. Area under the curve (dynamical stability) is decreased due to losing the area under the heeling arm curve. Angle of maximum GZ value is increased by a small amount.

10) Range of stability is reduced. 11) No change in the angle of deck edge immersion but it is easily reached on the listed side when acted upon by the external forces. 12) Since the ship is already listed, external forces can easily heel the ship to more dangerous angle of heel on the listed side. How can u increase the angle of deck flooding By shifting or by jettisoning the cargo. HOW DO YOU FEEL ON BOARD WHEN YOUR VESSEL AT ANGLE OF VANISHING STABILITY Ship will capsize at this point because it occurs near to about 80 degree. IS LOADICATOR MANDATORY It is mandatory on bulk carriers as per SOLAS but it is the requirement of class that it should be carried onboard. WHERE WILL U GET DAMAGE STABILITY AND HOW TO CALCULATE? From damage stability plan.

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Can your ship load grain without DOA? What is the "12 degree" in the minimum criteria stability diagram? Document of authorization A document of authorization shall be issued for every ship loaded in accordance with the regulations of this Code either by the Administration or an organization recognized by it or by a Contracting Government on behalf of the Administration. It shall be accepted as evidence that the ship is capable of complying with the requirements of these regulations. The document shall accompany or be incorporated into the grain loading manual provided to enable the master to meet the requirements of A 7 (Stability requirement). A copy of such a document, grain loading stability data and associated plans shall be placed on board in order that the master, if so required, shall produce them for the inspection of the Contracting Government of the country of the port of loading. A ship without such a document of authorization shall not load grain until the master demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Administration, or of the Contracting Government of the port of loading acting on behalf of the Administration, that, in its loaded condition for the intended voyage, the ship complies with the requirements of this Code. See also A 8.3 (Stability requirements for existing ships) and A 9 (Loading grain without DOA). LOADING Grain without DOA: A ship not having on board a document of authorization issued in accordance with A 3 of this Code may be permitted to load bulk grain provided that: 1. The total weight of the bulk grain shall not exceed one third of the deadweight of the ship; 2. All filled compartments, trimmed, shall be fitted with centerline divisions extending, for the full length of such compartments, downwards from the underside of the deck or hatch covers to a distance below the deck line of at least one eighth of the maximum breadth of the compartment or 2.4 m, whichever is the greater, except that saucers constructed in accordance with A 14 may be accepted in lieu of a centerline division in and beneath a hatchway except in the case of linseed and other seeds having similar properties; 3. All hatches to filled compartments, trimmed, shall be closed and covers secured in place; 4. All free grain surfaces in partly filled cargo space shall be trimmed level and secured in accordance with A 16, A 17 or A 18;
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5. Throughout the voyage the metacentric height after correction for the free surface effects of liquids in tanks shall be 0.3 m 6. The master demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Administration or the Contracting Government of the port of loading on behalf of the Administration that the ship in its proposed loaded condition will comply with the requirements of this section. Stability criteria for grain ships Throughout the voyage, after grain shift, the ship meets the following minimum criteria; 1. Angle of heel due to grain shift shall not be greater than 12 degrees (for ships built after 1994, 'angle of deck edge immersion' if this angle is less than 12 degrees); 2. In the statical stability diagram, the net or residual area between the heeling arm curve and the righting arm curve up the maximum difference between the curves (or) 40 degrees (or) the angle of progressive down flooding, whichever is the least, shall be not less than 0.075metre-radians; 3. The corrected GM shall be not less than 0.3mtr; 4. The ship must be upright before proceeding to sea.

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What is LOF and what is SCOPIC? Lloyd's Open Form A Lloyd's Open Form, formally Lloyd's Standard Form of Salvage Agreement, but more commonly referred to as LOF, is a standard legal document for a proposed marine salvage operation. The two-page contract is published by Lloyd's of London. It is called "open" because it is literally open, with no amount of money being stipulated for the salvage job: the sum to be paid is determined later in London by a professional arbitrator. At the top of page one, beneath the title "Salvage Agreement" is a statement of the contract's fundamental premise. "NO CURE NO PAY". The form originated in the late 19th century and is the most common such form of international salvage agreement. Lloyds Open Form & Salvage Contract LOF contains standard terms/conditions according to International Salvage Convention & universally accepted by shipping community. Awards & disputes referred to panel of arbitrators No cure-no pay basis. Upon financial security to meet salvors claims-Ship owners can obtain early release. Salvor has right of lien on the salved property Uwriters max liability up to insured value Salvage contract terms/conditions negotiated & Prearranged. Remuneration terms agreed b4 salvage Contract of service. Salvors become owners employees Circumstances master should agree on LOF In dire need of assistance without which the ship may be in danger of perishing: Examples; total breakdown in heavy weather & danger of hitting the rocks; Result of fire, collision or any other accident where Master & ship has no time for Owners to arrange for salvage contract. Saving of life, property & environment is of immediate concern & priority. Before salvage operation, both parties must agree at least verbally that LOF to be signed after completion of the salvage operation.

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Law of salvage The law of salvage is a concept in maritime law which states that a person who recovers another person's ship or cargo after peril or loss at sea is entitled to a reward commensurate with the value of the property so saved. The concept has its origins in antiquity, with the basis that a person would be putting himself and his own vessel at risk to recover another and thus should be appropriately rewarded. A related consideration was widespread piracy; a vessel in peril could very well be left for pirates if the owner did not generously reward a potential honest salvor. It is still a nearly universally recognized right, though conditions for awards of salvage vary from country to country. Scopic Clause (Special compensation P&I Club Clause) The main mechanism of Scopic clause is: The salvor can whenever he likes, invoke the Scopic clause, in which case the P&I Club in question should put up a club letter of guarantee within 48hrs. The ship owners and insurer then also have the option to appoint a ship owners casualty representative SCR to proceed onboard the casualty to follow the operation along with the salvage master and report to the owners, the P&I club and property insurers. If it later on turns out that the salvor invoked the SCOPIC CLAUSE unnecessarily as his salvage remuneration was well covered within the salved values, then the salvor will face a reduction in his remuneration. In Scopic, the casualty does not have to pose a threat of damage to the environment and there are no geographic restrictions (coastal or inland waters or near adjacent thereto). In Scopic fixed rates have been agreed for all potential equipment and personnel which is stipulated in an enclosed tariff.

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Tell me about cause of A, B, C, D, E? How to correct? Coefficient A: Real A: Real A is the deviation caused by the Magnetism induced in the unsymmetrical horizontal soft iron. Correction: Not corrected and allowed for like gyro error. Apparent A: The deviation caused due to various physical factors like: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Lubber line not on or parallel to ships fore and aft line. N-S axis of compass card not parallel to the needle system. Error in magnetic bearing. Swinging ship too rapidly in one direction. When adjusting, pelorus badly secured. Friction present in the suspension of the card. Faulty azimuth mirror. Gaussins error Hysteresis effect or retentivity error.

Correction: Not corrected and generally allowed for. In case of lubber line misalignment, shift the lubber line. Coefficient B: The coefficient B makes up of Permanent B (PB) and Induced B (IB) caused by force P. Coefficient B = PB + IB Permanent B: Caused by the permanent magnetism displayed by the vessels permanent structure in the Fore and Aft direction Polarity depends on the direction where the vessel was headed when being built. Remains permanent and does not change signs with change of hemisphere The value remains same in all latitude
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Maximum deviation is caused at the E/W headings. Nil deviation on N/S headings

Correction: Corrected using the permanent magnets in Fore and Aft direction under the compass. An easterly deviation indicates that the ship has a blue pole attracting the red needle (+Bp) hence this is corrected by using a Fore and Aft magnets with red pole facing forward. Correction can be effected by using as many magnets required to nullify the deviation. Use of single magnets is not advisable and better correction by uniform field can be achieved by the use of a number of magnets placed at varying distance from the needle. The F/A correctors are placed in two lines on port and starboard side due to the presence of the Heeling error magnet bucket in the centre ( in order to maintain symmetry on both sides The corrector magnets are not to be placed nearer than twice their length to enable uniform magnetic field.

Induced B (IB): Caused by magnetism induced in the vertical soft iron components around the compass Varies with the latitude as the vertical component of the earths field Maximum at the poles and minimum at the equator. Changes signs with the hemisphere Deviation is Maximum on the East west courses. Deviation is nil on N/S course

Correction: Corrected by using the Flinders bar either forward or aft of the compass (depends on the ship construction) The height is adjusted using wooden supports to place the pole in line with pole of magnetic needle.
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Correction procedure for B: Split the components in to Bp and Bi. Following methods can be used: Magnetic equator method: This is the easiest and practical method and can be carried out every time the vessel is in magnetic equator. At the equator the IB is nil since the vertical component of the earths field does not exist and all deviation of B is due to PB only. Take a magnetic bearing by observing a distant object (15-16 miles) and obtain bearings on 8 cardinal points and average the values to obtain the magnetic bearing. Take a bearing on East and west and determine the value of PB. Head the ship on the east or west direction and adjust the position /number of the Fore aft and magnets to nullify the deviation. Once the vessel is back in higher latitudes, Repeat the above procedure to eliminate and calculate the deviation due to IB but eliminate the deviation by adjusting the Flinder bars position and numbers (Having corrected the PB at the equator, all the deviation being caused at the East/West headings is due to IB only) Co-efficient C: This is the algebraic sum of IC (Induced) and PC (Permanent). Induced C: IC is the deviation caused due to magnetism induced in the vertical symmetrical soft iron on the port and starboard side of the compass. Usually IC gets cancelled out if the compass is situated in the centre. In case where the symmetry is disturbed or if the compass is not lying at the center the IC can cause deviation. Correction: This is eliminated by the use of Flinder bar which is slewed out to cancel the effects of asymmetry.

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Permanent C: This is the deviation caused by the permanent magnetism of the ships athwart ship component. This is formed during the ships construction. This is maximum on north south courses. Does not change value with latitude or Hemisphere Correction: This deviation is corrected by the use of Athwartship permanent magnets. An equal and opposite pole to that of the ships pole is used to nullify the deviation. Coefficient D: This is has 2 components the Fore / Aft and Athwart ship component but the deviation is mainly caused by the athwart ship soft iron only e.g. deck beams especially in the accommodation below the compass, deck plating, fore and aft members of the ships hull. Ships are usually with continuos athwart ship HSI therefore mostly have a coefficient D+. In some occasion ship has fore and aft horizontal stiffeners under the magnetic compass this give rise to coefficient DThis deviation is maximum on quadrantal courses and nil on cardinal courses. Thus it is called a quadrantal error. Change in latitude/hemisphere does not change the net deviation since both the horizontal and athwart ship components change proportionately. Correction: This is compensated by the use of Soft Iron Spheres. Then spheres when placed athwart ship are the same as discontinuous athwart ship HSI, therefore cause a D- and would correct D+. Most merchant ships have a D+ and spheres are required at athwart ship position. The correctors are also called quadrantal correctors. Spherical shape is used because when induced by Hf it produce field that is very similar to that caused by short magnets. When using Flinders bar to correct coefficient induce B, the bar can also be horizontally induced by Hf and behaves like a small sphere. If it does so it will cause a coefficient D+ and therefore supplements the ships normal D+. In this case it is important to correct the flinders bar first before correcting the coefficient D.
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Coefficient E This is caused due to induced magnetism lies diagonally e.g. from port bow to starboard quarter or starboard bow to port quarter and passing through the compass (continuous or discontinuous). It may also be unsymmetrical HSI lying athwart ships and fore and aft. When this error is appreciable it may be corrected by slewing the spheres. The permanent effect may be removed by heating until the spheres are red hot. Otherwise the spheres may be rolled on deck (this process takes a long time and usually not used) NOTE: As the above discussion points out, certain errors are rare and others are corrected at dockside. Therefore, for most ships, only the B, C, and D errors require at sea correction. These errors are corrected by the fore-and-aft B magnets, athwart ship C magnets, and quadrantal spheres respectively. Heeling error Heeling error appears when the ship is heeled. This is the difference in compass reading between the condition when the ship is upright and when the ship heels. This may be cause by the permanent or induced component of the ships magnetism. Heeling error is corrected by the use of Vertical permanent magnets Heeling error magnets in a bucket placed below the compass. The bucket is attached to a chain and its position can be adjusted by adjusting the chain. The bucket has holes to vary the number of magnets. At the equator the bucket is placed at its lowest position and farthest from the compass. As the latitude increase the bucket is placed closer to the compass by adjusting the bucket.

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Procedure for compass correction Tentative Method: Carry pre-adjustment checks. For new ships flinders bar by estimation & spheres in mid position. Commence the swing Head East take bearing and remove all deviation using F/A correctors (PB) Head South take bearing and remove all deviation using Athwartship correctors (PC) Head West take bearing and remove Half of Deviation using F/A correctors (PB) Head North take bearing and remove Half of Deviation using athwartship correctors (PC) Head in NE (inter cardinal) heading take a bearing and remove half of the deviation using Spheres Head in SE take bearing and remove half of the deviation using F/A correctors (PB) Make a full swing and get a deviation curve and see if the deviation observed is symmetrical and of low value. Analysis method: Carry pre-adjustment checks. Swing ship & obtain deviations on all eight headings & calculate the coefficients. Correct by placing flinders bar. Estimate or by calculations. Correct coefficient D, head North East. Correct Vertical field with vertical force instrument, head East. Correct coefficient B, head East. Correct coefficient C, head South. Make a full swing and get a deviation curve and see if the deviation observed is symmetrical and of low value.

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What do you understand about the principles of gyroscope? Principles of Gyroscope: A free gyroscope is one mounted so that it is free to turn itself and is known as the 3 degrees of freedom of movement. a. Freedom to spin on its axle. b. Freedom to turn in azimuth (drift). c. Freedom to turn in horizontal axis (tilt). Properties of a free gyroscope: a. Rigidity in space: This is the property of a spinning body by which it tends to maintain its axis in space. b. Precession: When a force is applied perpendicular to a spinning rotor the rotor will resist the force where it is applied and the force will manifest 90 degrees later in the direction the rotor is spinning. What is damp in tilt and damp in azimuth? Give examples for each. Damping in tilt: Damping in tilt means that when the North seeking end of the gyroscope axis is tilted a damping torque is applied in a horizontal plane in such a direction that the resultant precession in a vertical plane causes the tilt of the axis to decrease. As the tilt of the gyroscope is decreased so the precession in azimuth becomes progressively less and the gyroscope spirals in from its starting position to a final settling position. The Sperry Mk 37 and Arma Brown compasses are examples of compasses damped in tilt. Damping in azimuth: When a controlled gyro is damped in azimuth, the intention is to produce a damping force that will precess the North end of the axis towards the meridian whenever it is out of the meridian. In some gyro compasses such damping in azimuth is achieved by installing damping pots of smaller dimensions parallel to the working ballistic pots or bottles. These damping pots produce the required force to precess the North end of the axis towards the meridian.
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What are the practical gyro error that you are checking and applying daily onboard? Compass error, latitude and speed error OPERATIONAL ERRORS OF THE GYRO: 1. Rolling Error 2. Ballistic Error 3. Latitude error (Damping Error) 4. Course & Speed Error 1. Rolling Error: The gyrocompass is made to settle on the meridian under the influence of weights. Thus it will also be caused to shift due to other forces acting upon those weights. When a vessel rolls, the compass is swung like a pendulum causing a twisting motion that tends to move the plane of the sensitive element towards the plane of the swing. For a simple explanation of the error consider the surge of mercury caused in both the north and south reservoirs by a vessel rolling. If the ship is steaming due north or south, no redistribution of mercury occurs due to roll and there will be no error. But with a ship steaming due east or west, maximum lateral acceleration occurs in the north / south direction causing precession of the compass. However, rolls to port and starboard are equal, producing equivalent easterly and westerly precession. The resultant mean error is therefore zero. If the ship is on an intercardinal courses the force exerted by the mercury (or pendulum) must be resolved into north / south and east/west components. The result of the combined forces is that precession of the compass occurs under the influence of an effective anticlockwise torque. Damping the pendulum system can dramatically reduce rolling error. In a top-heavy gyrocompass, this is achieved by restricting the flow of mercury between the two pots. The damping delay introduced needs to be shorter than the damping period of the compass and much greater than the period of roll of the vessel. Both of these conditions are easily achieved. Electrically controlled compasses are roll damped by the use of a viscous fluid damping the gravity pendulum. Such a fluid is identified by a manufacturers code and a viscosity number. For example, in the code number 200/20, 200

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refers to the manufacturer and 20 the viscosity. A higher second number indicates a more viscous silicon fluid. Additionally since roll error is caused by lateral acceleration, mounting the gyrocompass low in the vessel and as close as possible to the centre of roll will reduce this error still further. 2. Ballistic Error: This error occurs whenever the ship is subject to rapid changes of speed or heading. Because of its pendulous nature, the compass gravity control moves away from the centre of gravity whenever the vessel changes speed or alters course. Torques produced about the horizontal and vertical axis by manoeuvring cause the gyro mechanism to precess in both azimuth and tilt. If the ship is steaming due north and rapidly reducing the speed, mercury will continue to flow into the north pot, or the gravity pendulum continues to swing, making the gyro spin axis north heavy and thus causing a precession in azimuth. What are the gyro errors that you cant correct? Ballistic Error

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What is heeling error in magnetic compass? What force is acting on it? The difference in reading during when the ship is upright and when the ship is heeled over; the horizontal component of the vertical force. How do you correct a heeling error? What is the name of the instrument? The vertical force instrument is also known as a dip needle. The instrument consists of a stout magnetic needle, mounted on knife edge support. When lowered onto a horizontal knife edge, the needle aligns in the earths field and at an angle corresponds to the angle of dip. The needle is graduated from zero at centre to 20 at the ends. Mounted on it is a rider or light metal ring or weight, which is use to balance against the vertical force acting on it. The instrument is taken ashore at a place free from local attraction for levelling. If it is in the Northern Hemisphere the red end will dip down. The rider is moved towards the blue until the needle is horizontal. The reading on the scale is obtained, reading is taken from the inside edge of the weight. When the needle is horizontal the earths field is neutralised by the moment of the weight. If the weight is not moved, any deflection from the horizontal will be caused by the local disturbances. The Vertical force instrument is brought abroad the ship. The ship must head east or west. The VFI is placed at the compass position and aligned with the meridian and then levelled. The needle is lowered onto the knife edge and any deflection in the needle can only be due to vertical forces within the ship beneath the compass. If the ship is in Northern hemisphere, then the red end of the needle will dip down. Vertical heeling error magnets are placed in the bucket with red end up until the needle is horizontal. The magnets neutralise the forces and no heeling error would be found in this magnetic latitude. Is the heeling error constant? E.g. In Singapore and in China? No, the correction is only true for that particular latitude due to the vertical force, Z and horizontal force, Hf changes with the latitude.

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What is gaussing error and retentivity error? Gaussing Error: This is caused by temporary magnetism of vessel. The compass needle tends to hang towards the last course steered. It is more pronounced after steering a course E/W course Retentivity Error: This occurs when a ship is on a particular heading for a long period. The ship acquires sub permanent magnetism on the course and when a ship makes a large alteration a deviation is caused.

Sketch a flammability diagram and explain. When an inert gas, typically flue gas, is added to a hydrocarbon gas/air mixture the result is to increase the lower flammable limit hydrocarbon concentration and to decrease the upper flammable limit concentration. These effects are illustrated in Fig. (Below), this should be regarded only as a guide to the principles involved. Every point on the diagram represents a hydrocarbon gas/air/inert gas mixture, specified in terms of its hydrocarbon and oxygen contents. Hydrocarbon gas/air mixtures without inert gas lie on the line AB, the slope of which reflects the reduction in oxygen content as the hydrocarbon contents increases. Points to the left of AB represent mixtures with their oxygen content further reduced by the addition of inert gas. The lower and upper flammability limit mixtures for hydrocarbon gas in air are represented by the points C and D. As the inert gas content increases, the flammable limit mixtures change as indicated by the lines CE and DE, which finally converge at the point E. Only those mixtures represented by points in the shaded area within the loop CED are capable of burning. On such a diagram, changes of composition due to the addition of either air or inert gas are represented by movements along straight lines directed either towards the point A (pure air), or towards a point on the oxygen content axis corresponding to the composition of the added inert gas. Such lines are shown for the gas mixture represented by the point F. It is evident from Figure that as inert gas is added to hydrocarbon gas/air mixtures the flammable range progressively decreases until the oxygen content
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reaches a level, generally taken to be about 11% by volume, when no mixture can burn. The figure of 8% by volume of oxygen specified in this guide for a safely inerted gas mixture allows a margin beyond this value. When an inerted mixture, such as that represented by the point F, is diluted by air its composition moves along the line FA and therefore enters the shaded area of flammable mixtures. This means that all inerted mixtures in the region above the line GA go through a flammable condition as they are mixed with air, for example during a gas freeing operation. Those below the line GA, such as that represented by point H, do not become flammable on dilution. Note that it is possible to move from a mixture such as F to one such as H by dilution with additional inert gas (i.e. purging to remove hydrocarbon gas).

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Duties of the salvor and of the owner and master: The salvor shall owe a duty to the owner of the vessel or other property in danger:

to carry out the salvage operations with due care; in performing the duty specified in subparagraph (a), to exercise due care to prevent or minimize damage to the environment; whenever circumstances reasonably require, to seek assistance from other salvors; and to accept the intervention of other salvors when reasonably requested to do so by the owner or master of the vessel or other property in danger; provided however that the amount of his reward shall not be prejudiced should it be found that such a request was unreasonable.

The owner and master of the vessel or the owner of other property in danger shall owe a duty to the salvor: to co-operate fully with him during the course of the salvage operations; in so doing, to exercise due care to prevent or minimize damage to the environment; and when the vessel or other property has been brought to a place of safety, to accept redelivery when reasonably requested by the salvor to do so.

What do you understand about New Jason Clause? Because of a fundamental difference between US & UK Law on general average is that the American view does not allow ship owner to recover cargos portion of GA if the accident was the result of negligent navigation or error in management. In English law the ship owner cannot escape liability for loss caused by his own negligence, however, he can be free from liability by the terms of the contract and has right to GA contribution from the cargo owners where GA sacrifice or expenditure has been incurred. Therefore it is customary to insert a clause in the B/L or C/P for goods transported to and from the US in order that the ship owner is able to claim GA contribution from the cargo by the terms of the contract even if the accident was a result of negligence or mismanagement.

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What do you understand about Sue & Labor Clause? Sue and Labor Clause (Marine Insurance) The assured has a duty to take all reasonable steps to avert or minimize any loss for which a claim would be payable under the policy. In return most costs incurred in taking such steps are recoverable from the underwriters. Expenses recoverable under the sue and labour clause are known as particular charges. Charges are recoverable only when : (1) They are incurred solely for the benefit of the subject matter insured. (2) They are reasonable. (3) They are incurred by the assured himself or by his servants. (4) They are incurred to avert or minimise a loss covered by the policy. Example: When a ship is stranded in heavy weather, it is the duty of the owner to make all efforts to save the property rather than claiming the total loss with a higher price which will be subsequently covered by insurer in addition to total loss as supplementary contract of insurance.

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What is a Baltic Moor? When would you use it and what is the advantage? BALTIC MOOR: PURPOSE: A Baltic moor is used in ports where there is a strong onshore wind to prevent damages to the jetty or the vessel. The vessels anchor and stern mooring wire are used to make a controlled approach to the berth. PREPARATIONS: The stern mooring wire is passed in bights and connected to the Ganger length of the anchor which is to be used. Light sail twine secure the mooring wire in bights. The shackles used for the operation shall be capable of passing through the hawse pipe for easy and safe operation. SEQUENCE OF OPERATION: 1. For an average size merchant ship, a 25-30mm wire is passed from the after ends on the poop, along the offshore side, outside and clear of everything. Offshore anchor is cockbilled. A man is send overside on a bosun chair to secure the wire with the anchor, preferably at the shackle. The wire is secured with ship's rail by sail twine in bights. The aft end of the wire is sent to a wrapping barrel, ready for heaving slack wire. An approach is made with the vessel parallel to the berth with the wind on the beam OR slightly abaft of the beam. The offshore anchor is let go when the vessel 3 shackles off the berth. The distance off the berth depends upon the wind and weather conditions. The vessel is still on headway. As the anchor cable is paid out, the stern mooring wire is also paid out. The vessel will be pushed by the wind and approaches the berth slowly. The cable and the wire are evenly paid out. Ships fenders are to be used to prevent any damage. Pass head and stern line as soon as possible.
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2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

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14. Take the weight on the moorings before taking weight on the anchor and the mooring wire. 15. The moorings fore and aft prevent the vessel from ranging the berth. 16. This tends to harden up the inshore moorings. 17. During unberthing the anchor and the stern mooring wire can be used to bodily draw the vessel off the quay. 18. Once clear of the quay engines and the helm can be used to clear the berth safely and get underway.

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OPEN MOOR PURPOSE: Te Open moor is used extensively when additional holding power is required in very strong tide or wind conditions. SEQUENCE OF OPERATION: 1. Stem the current and/or headwind. 2. Walk back both the anchors just above water level. 3. Steam to a position where the vessel intends to let go the windward anchor. 4. Let go the port anchor and continue to steam with a minimum headway to the required number of shackles, paying out on the port anchor cable. 5. Once the second anchor position is reached, let go the stbd anchor and with minimum sternway, hold on to the port anchor and pay out on the stbd anchor until both the anchors have even scope. 6. Once both the anchors have even scope additional shackles can be paid out as required, till the vessel is at the required position. 7. Once the vessel is in the final mooring position, it is necessary to check on both the cables and ensure both the anchors are embedded and holding.

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RUNNING MOOR 1. The Running moor is an anchoring operation carried out in areas of restricted manoeuvrability where the wind and tide are strong and from different directions. Stem the tide. In this case tide is 090 and wind is 000. Let go the weather anchor with engines going ahead (at about 4-5 knots). Stop the engines, maintain headway, Continue to pay anchor cable to 8 shackles (double the required shackles). The vessel will stop due to the braking action of the anchor and will start falling astern. Let go the lee anchor and pay out the cable, meanwhile picking up slack on the weather anchor and manoeuvring vessel away from the lee anchor towards the weather anchor. The vessel may need astern propulsion to begin astern movement. Once the vessel has reached the position (half way between i.e. 4 shackles on each cable). The lee anchor will be the riding cable.

2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8.

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STANDING MOOR 1. 2. 3. Stem the tide. Vessel should be stopped over the ground. Obtain stern way either by the effect of the tidal stream or by operating stern propulsion. 4. Let go the lee anchor (riding cable). 5. Allow the vessel to drop astern. 6. Pay out the cable up to 8 shackles (double the required length). 7. Take the stern way off the vessel by use of engines ahead and by checking out the cables. 8. Order maximum helm away from the released anchor. 9. Let go the weather anchor now (sleeping anchor) 10. Continue to heave on the riding cable and pay out on the sleeping cable until the vessel is brought up. 11. Continue to use engines ahead or astern as necessary to ease the weight on the cables.

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Mediterranean moor Method of securing a vessel stern to the berth. Both the anchors leading ahead to hold the bow in position. The approach should preferably be made with the berth on port side. The starboard anchor is let go about two ships length from the berth (1). The vessel continues to move ahead. Starboard helm is applied and the cable is veered. The engines are then put astern and the port anchor is let go (2). As the vessel comes astern, transverse thrust swings the stern to port towards the berth. Stern lines are sent away.

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What do you understand about transverse thrust? What are the principles and how does it work? Do you see it practically at sea? Transverse thrust: Thrust of the propeller is divided into two components, a fore-and-aft one and a very small athwart-ship one. Athwartship component of propeller thrust is called Transverse Thrust.
Reaction to Side component (Small) Direction of Motion Upper blades meet less resistance near surface level. Water tends to breakup, causing aeration.

Side component

Side component Reaction to Side component (Large)

Lower blades meet greater reaction to motion of propeller. At greater depth the water is more solid and does not break easily, with little aeration being caused.

Direction of Motion

Cause: The upper blades work near the surface and their transverse effect is not sufficient to cancel out the opposite effect of the lower blades. Effect on ship: The effect is for right-handed propellers resultant thrust tends to cant a vessel's stern to the starboard and her bow to port when the engines are put ahead. When going astern, the stern cant to port and the bow cants to starboard. This action cannot be controlled as the rudder is ineffective when going astern. Left hand screws will have the opposite action to that described above. For controllable pitch propellers the canting effect of transverse thrust will always be in the same direction, whether the pitch is set to ahead or astern, because the shaft always rotates in the same direction. The result of this force may be deduced by considering the propeller to be a wheel, carrying the stern through the water at right angles to the vessels line of motion.

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What do you understand about screw race? What is the effect? Screw race: When engines works ahead, a spiral flow of water is thrown towards rudder. It is opposite to transverse thrust. It gives better steerage. It increases as the ship speed increases. Therefore it cancels the transverse thrust. Wake current: When a vessel moves ahead, a cavity is created at stern. Water from sides flow and swirl to fill the cavity, which is called wake current. Steering will be adversely affected as the rudder works in partial vacuum. Propeller works in disturbed water, speed will be lost, vibration will set up. Wake current and cavitation increase with speed. In a finely sterned vessel, wake current is less. When engines work astern, wake current is less and propeller or steering is not affected. Frictional wake: When a vessel moves ahead, belt of water is drawn along the hull, which is called frictional wake. This frictional wake creates a resistance to upper blades of propeller. As a result, transverse thrust reduces. Under sternway there is very little wake strength at the propeller, and transverse thrust increases as speed increases.

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What do you understand about girthing? Girthing It is the capsizing moment of the tug due to the sudden movement of ships. The line is usually secured very near to the center of flotation and for this reason the tug is liable to be girded. This phenomenon is known variously as girthing, girding or girthing, in differing parts of the world. It can be caused by one, or both of the following: The ship turning independently and too quickly away from the tug. Excessive straight line speed with a tug made fast. Girthing: Forward Let us look at an example of a common situation, with a conventional tug forward on a long line. Position-1: In this area the tug is relatively safe and regardless of whether the ship's speed is too high it does not result in any immediate problem, provided it remains within a small angle on the bow. Position-2: If the tug is out in this position broad on the bow the ship could, as a result of too much starboard helm or excessive speed, or both, outrun the tug which may have neither the time nor maneuverability to turn and keep up with the rapidly swinging or accelerating ship. Position-3: This is the worst possible situation where the tug is being pulled around on the radius of the tow line and because of the position of it's hook, is then dragged along with the tow line out on its beam. Due to the nature of the forces involved, it will also be pulled over to a dangerous angle of heel and unless the tow line breaks, or can be released immediately, the tug which is powerless to respond and already listing heavily, may capsize!

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Girthing: Aft A conventional tug working aft, is perhaps more at risk than the forward tug, as its design characteristics frequently oblige it to lay with the tow line much more inclined towards its beam. Position-1: Provided the ship is either stopped or proceeding at extremely low speeds a conventional tug can work quite efficiently with maximum bollard pull in all directions at this and any other position around the stern. Position-2: If the ship's speed now increases, the tug will have to work around onto a heading which is more in keeping with the ship, not only to keep up with the accelerating ship but also to maintain a safe lead with the tow line. In this situation, if the tug works with the tow line dangerously near the tug's beam, might result in a substantial loss of bollard pull over what was a previously large useful arc of operation. Position-3: Should the ship's speed become excessive, or if the stern of the ship is swung rapidly away from the tug, it may be unable to respond quickly enough and could fail to keep the safe station previously illustrated. As a consequence the tug might be dragged around on the radius of the tow line to this dangerous position and capsize with shocking rapidity. It is also very important to note that a tug attending a ship aft, but in the close confines of a lock, may find itself in a similar situation, but with even less ability to maneuver. Should the tug get caught across the lock with a ship proceeding at too high a speed it will be exposed to a very serious risk of girthing. For those unfortunate enough to have witnessed it, a tug being girthed and capsized is an awesome and frightening sight. It frequently happens too quickly to activate quick release gear and allows absolutely no time whatsoever for the evacuation of the crew who may become trapped in the submerged tug.

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As a Master, you have just received an email to proceed for loading at ice region. What is your action? Before proceeding to ice zone, I will check the following items: 1. Article of agreement and the geographical limit, expiry of article of agreement. 2. Class certificate, if ship has ice notation. 3. Check the charter party contract 4. Insurance coverage premium may be high. 5. Polar Code is available onboard. Polar Code: Aimed at ensuring: Safe navigation of ships in polar waters. Prevention of pollution in polar waters. It takes into account the sea and glacis ice which can present serious structural hazards to ships navigating in polar waters. It consists of the following parts: Part A Construction provisions. Part B Equipment. Part C Operational; Part D Environmental protection and damage control. 6. 7. Instruct C/E: To check heating system for accommodation, steering gear, bridge windows; To check viscosity of hydraulic oil for all cranes, winches and boat engines, if necessary, renew. To check emergency generator fuel tank. Instruct C/Off to check/ indent: Warm clothing for full complement Protective gloves Extra blanket Spare bulbs for navigation light Steam hoses De-icing compounds Axe, shovels.
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8. Instruct navigating officer to ensure: Navigational equipments in good working condition Sufficient charts are available Gather all information regarding the limits of ice, ice seasons, navigation in ice.

Actions when navigating in the vicinity of ice Ensure the followings, when navigating in the vicinity of ice: Additional look out have been posted, they know their duties. Continuous radar watch Obtain as much information possible about sighting ice and other navigational warnings. Monitor temperature of air and sea, especially at night. Make obligatory reports of ice sighting as per MSA/SOLAS. Adjust the speed of the ship if passing through the ice, according to the type and thickness of ice. Inform engineers when temperature drops to about 0 to 1C. Information received from ice patrol, coastal stations, shipping broadcast and meteorological observations may result in an alteration of course to avoid ice. Make the fullest use of navigation equipment and aids to ascertain accurate navigation. Ensure the deck is safe for crews to go about their normal duties. Remove ice by chipping or by sweeping. Do not use normal window washers. Use window heaters instead. Cold weather precautions 1. Provide suitable warm clothing 2. Organize and brief bridge team prior to entry into the ice regarding: Indications of presence of ice Not to be overexposed to extreme cold Look outs need to be rotated at short interval Report to master on sighting ice Regular radar watch in appropriate range Second watch keeper

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3. 4. 5. Obtain up to date ice reports and ensure that ice limits are entered in the chart, plot occasional icebergs. Change over to manual steering until the vessel is clear of ice region. Helmsman to report D/O if loss of steering. Instruct C/E to regularly check the followings: Steering gear Heating arrangements of steering gears To check viscosity of hydraulic oil for all cranes, winches and boat engines, if necessary, renew. Keeps the jockey pump running at all times. Inform all departments Check all navigation equipments are in satisfactory conditions. Check navigation lights, search light and sound signaling appliances Instruct C/O the followings: The ship has sufficient stability Ship should be sufficiently trimmed that propeller tips are well submerged. Ballast tanks, FW tanks, life boat FW tanks not to press up full, keep allowance for expansion. Especially above water line tanks. Calculate free surface effect. Drain fire lines on deck. All deck scuppers to be cleared to prevent water trapping on deck. Cover deck machinery and controls with canvas. If steam windlass, run slowly. Cranes/ derricks to be freeze, to prevent this, they should be topped/slewed at regular intervals. Hawse pipes/ spurling pipe covers are in position. Rig life lines on deck as may become slippery All LSA/FFA in satisfactory condition and ready for immediate use.

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Factors of ice accretion If wind force increases above force 6, the rate of ice accretion increases because: Wind chill factor increases. Increase of shipping sprays
Air temperature falls below -2C Sea temperature decreases Shipping seas and sprays increases Excessive ship's speed Unsuitable ship's course Rate of ice accretion on a slow moving ship with the wind ahead or on the beam, given wind and sea temperature, can be estimated using "Icing Nomograms" given in mariner's handbook

As a Master, you have just had a collision. What is your action? COLLISION Immediate actions: Take the con. Follow emergency procedure as per company emergency procedure manual, which should include: Sound general emergency alarm. Stop Engines. Announce by PA. Head count, look for casualty and establish communication. Close watertight doors. Activate SOPEP and take preventive actions in case of any oil pollution Order chief officer for damage assessment. Water tight integrity of hull and subsequent breaches of same. Assess rate of flooding Condition of machinery space. Check hull for damage in relation to the waterline and whether can be raised by changing trim. Check sounding of all tanks and bilges. Visually inspect compartments where possible
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Prepare lifeboats, life rafts and all LSA for immediate launching in case of subsequent Abandonment.

Obtain following information from emergency teams: Details casualties. Any risk of fire, explosion or emission of toxic gases. Any other information regarding associate problems. On the bridge, the command team will do the followings: Maintained VHF watch. Exhibit light / shapes and any appropriate sound signals. Switch on deck lighting at night. Determine the vessels position. Broadcast urgency or distress massage as required. Save the VDR data. Inform the accident with positions and time to the following parties: Local authorities. Owners, charterers. P & I club. Under-writer Next port agent. Class. (Emergency Technical Assistance Service) Make an accident report to MPA in the correct format. Accident Report Masters/Owners are obliged to report all reports to MPA within 24hrs of accident. Report shall be made in the following circumstances: Loss of life. Injury. Material Damage to ship or its equipment. Deficiency of LSA & other safety equipment. Any Peril. It applies to: Singapore registered ships. Ships issued with passenger safety certificate in Singapore. Ships in Singapore waters. Ships arriving Singapore.

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Obligatory Actions Once I am sure that my vessel is not in imminent and grave danger; it is my obligation to provide all possible assistance to other ship if they are in need; Standby other vessel until no further assistance is required. It is also my obligation to provide the following information to the other vessel and get the same from the other. Name of Ship Port of registry Last port of call Next port of call Exchange ships particulars. Lodge note of protest holding the other vessel responsible, reserving the right to extent on a later date and time. Accept the note of protest from the other vessel, for receipt only. (Non-compliance fine S$10,000) Subsequent, legal and commercial actions: Try to minimize immediate danger such as pollution, fire etc. Consider actions to be taken to minimize extent of damage and prevent the vessel from sinking or capsizing, such as: Using bilge and/or ballast pumps to cope up with the rate of ingress. Trimming the vessel to raise the damage area above the waterline. Plugging of any hole to reduce the ingress of water. While taking tug assistance, consider: LOF, if the danger imminent. Salvage contract if the situation permits. Keep all records of incidents and actions. Appropriate records to be entered in: Deck log book Movement book Engine log book Telegraph recorder Echo sounder graph. Used chart Entry to be made in official log book. Record of all damage and subsequent actions. Prepare a statement of fact of all the happenings. Prepare a note of protest, stating the facts only.
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When to contact the P & I club correspondent (1) Collision with another vessel or with a fixed or floating object; (2) Pollution; (3) Cargo damage during the voyage; (4) Injury of any person on board; (5) Stowaways found on board; (6) Ship is detained; (7) Ship is arrested; (8) Ship is fined; (9) A crew member is being left behind; (10) A crew member is to be repatriated after being left behind; (11) General Average; (12) Problem with a cargo document; (13) In any doubt about the identity or authority of surveyors, lawyers or other parties. P & I Club Coverage Class 1 Protection & Indemnity Class 2 FD & D (Freight Demurrage & Defence) Class 3 Charterers Risk FD & D Freight demurrage & Defence means the insurer will indemnify the insured against any legal expenses or any other related expenses incurred in any disputes in the c/p, minimum USD 7500 and maximum USD 5 million in each dispute. Example: When the ship is under time charter; the charterer supplies substandard fuel oil which damages the main engine, the repair cost will be covered by H&M underwriter and however other related expenses (loss in time/delay) will be covered under FD &D. Risks Covered by P&I collision liability Crew health Cargo claims Anything not covered by H&M
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Risks Covered by H&M Damage to vessel Machinery GA collision liability (damage, salvage, delay, legal cost)

Various P&I Clubs UK Club Britannia Club Standard Club New-Castle Club Sunderland Club London Club North of England Club South of England Club P & I Clubs (Mutual Insurance) These are non-profit making organizations Formed by groups of ship owners form what are known as Protection and Indemnity Associations, sometimes referred to as P & I clubs or Small Damage Clubs; Obtains funds from its members Each member pays certain amount depending upon: tonnage of their ships Amount of claim sustained by them Provides cover against third party risks which are normally outside the scope of an ordinary marine policy, Protection relates to liabilities incurred by the employment of the ship as a ship; Risks under Protection include: a. Loss of life and personal injury claims; b. Hospital, medical and funeral expenses arising from injury claims; c. Sickness and repatriation of distress seamen; d. 3rd party collision damages not covered by RDC; e. Cargo damage due to improper navigation; f. Damage to piers, wharves and other stationary objects; g. Cost of DOT enquiries;
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h. Cost of raising wreck; i. Oil pollution; j. Quarantine expenses; (When cargo is to be discharged at berth but being discharged at anchorage) k. Legal costs of defending claims if incurred with the consent of the Club directors; l. Cargo's irrecoverable proportion of G.A. Indemnity relates to liabilities incurred by the employment of the ship as a carrier of cargo; Risks under Indemnity include: 1) Claims in respect of wrong delivery of cargo; 2) Ship's liability to cargo after collision not covered by insurance; 3) Fines due innocent breaches of customs, health and immigration laws or arising from barratrous acts including smuggling; 4) Cost of resisting cargo claims with the consent of the Club directors. What is Sue & Labor Clause? In marine cases the insured is under a duty to take reasonable measures to avert or minimise a loss. A sue and labour clause is a clause in the policy that allows the insured to recover those expenses from the insurer in certain circumstances. General average losses and contributions and salvage charges, as defined by this Act, are not recoverable under the suing and labouring clause. Expenses incurred for the purpose of averting or diminishing any loss not covered by the policy are not recoverable under the suing and labouring clause. It is the duty of the assured and his agents, in all cases, to take such measures as may be reasonable for the purpose of averting or minimizing a loss. English courts have confirmed that ransom payments can be recovered as sue & labour. In return most costs incurred in taking such steps are recoverable from the underwriters.

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Expenses recoverable under the sue and labour clause are known as particular charges. Charges are recoverable only when : 1) they are incurred solely for the benefit of the subject matter insured. 2) they are reasonable. 3) they are incurred by the assured himself or by his servants. 4) they are incurred to avert or minimise a loss covered by the policy. Example: When a ship is stranded in heavy weather, it is the duty of the owner to make all efforts to save the property rather than claiming the total loss with a higher price which will be subsequently covered by insurer in addition to total loss as supplementary contract of insurance.

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Tropical Revolving Storm (TRS) Formation/characteristics of TRS: For development of TSS, following conditions must be met: Over large ocean area. Near seasonal location of equatorial trough or existing low pressure or depression. In northern hemisphere, 5-25N, in southern hemisphere 5-18S, for sufficient Coriolis force. Sea water temp 27C or more. Moves along 275-350 in northern hemisphere, 225-250 (WSW-SSW) in southern hemisphere. Region of small vertical wind sheer. Ship entered in TRS Inform C/O, order him to secure deck. Inform C/E, order him to secure E/R. Plot storms position and observe its movement from: Weather report Buys Ballots law:
Pressure below mean Wind force (Beaufort scale) Bearing of center from wind direction Approximate distance

5mb 10mb 20mb

>6 >8 About 12

12 Points 10 Points 8 Points

Within 200nm Within 125nm Within 75nm

Determine sector in which the ship is in. From the weather report From the observed storm position and movement. Heave to for a few hours and observe the change of wind direction. In dangerous semicircle in northern hemisphere, the wind will veer, barometer will fall. Barometer will rise after passing the trough line. In navigable semicircle in northern hemisphere, wind will back, barometer will fall. Barometer will rise after passing the trough line. Wind direction will remain steady if the vessel is in the path of storm. Use appropriate bad weather manoeuvre as per the ship's position relative to storm.
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In dangerous semicircle, keep the wind on starboard bow, about four points. Keep on altering to starboard as the wind veers.

Order OOW to: Update and monitor weather information and reports. Record hourly in log book. Wind direction and force. Wind shift. Barometric pressure. Swell direction and height. Arrange a FSA for storm. Strengthen the bridge watch and ensure proper look out. Change over to manual steering if auto pilot cannot cope up with weather condition. Continuous watch as visibility can be reduced.

Instruct C/O to: Check ships stability, draft, trim. Press up tanks to reduce FSE and windage area. Propeller and rudder sufficiently immersed to prevent: Loses of their efficiency Racing of engines Excessive vibration I will remain outside of a radius of 200nm from storm center. If necessary: Ensure vessel does not roll or pitch heavily, as it may cause:
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May be damage to cargo Shifting of cargo Damage to ships structure Damage to deck equipments, cranes, derricks etc. All preparations for heavy weather to be entered in official log book in details and deck log book. I will keep in mind: Storm can be erratic and different from weather forecast. Engine and any navigational/ communication equipment may fail any time. Ensure personnel get enough rest, considering fatigue due to storm. No body to go on deck without C/Os permission. Instruct C/E to check steering gear and M/E performance regularly. Inform following parties about storm and amended ETA: Owner. Charterer. Agent of next port.

Methods of receiving TRS forecast Various methods are available for receiving TRS or gale warning forecast. VHF weather forecast from coast radio station. MF-HF radio telephony weather broadcast from met stations. MF-HF telex from met stations. MF-HF weather fax from met stations. EGC messages. Navtex. Inm-B fax from met stations (paid service). Visual observation, by barometric pressure and wind force. Danger Message: Suddenly wind force 10 or above Take heavy weather precautions Heavy weather manoeuvre to ensure safety of the vessel. Transmit a danger message with the suitable equipments to the ships in the vicinity and to the nearest coast station. The message shall include following information: Barometric pressure.
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Barometric tendency. True wind direction. Wind force in Beaufort scale. State of the sea. True course and speed of the ship. The message may be transmitted by telex/ VHF or by any means, and may be preceded by security or TTT

Alteration of course in heavy weather Dangerous/critical period when sea comes from beam. Wave group consists of about 8 waves. Lull period 1-2 waves among wave groups. Alter the vessel during lull period. Before turning, inform all department heads, take necessary precautions. No one is allowed on deck. Understand turning ability of the ship. Study wave development cycle carefully to find out calm period. To minimize danger of being capsized or swamped, the timing of turn to be coincides with calmer waves when abeam. Consider possibility of miss-judgment of lull period and turning ability of the vessel. About 2/3 waves before the calm wave, start turning slowly with extreme caution. If turning misjudged, come back to previous heading. If turning is correct, continue the turn as fast as possible. When critical period is passed, increase the turning rate. Steady to next course and observe situation carefully. Adjust speed if necessary for following and quartering sea.

BAD WEATHER MANOEUVERS Following options are available to the master, in case of bad weather: Head to sea Stern to sea Heave to Anchoring
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Altering course Head to sea, or wind and sea on fine bow, at reduced speed: Most suitable for deep draft vessels. Leeward drift is minimized (vessel is liable to sustain considerable pounding). Weather is allowed to pass over the vessel. The speed is considerably reduced. It affects the period of encounter of the oncoming wave formation and subsequently reduces pounding. Course and speed to be altered to remove possibility of hogging, sagging and synchronism. Situation becomes uncomfortable when violent pitching results in racing propellers puts excessive stress on engines. Absolute control of rudder power is essential. Power should be reduced to minimum necessary to maintain steerage way and avoid undue stress on machinery. Two steering motors to be operational. Critical rpm to be avoided. Stern to sea, at reduced speed, running before the wind: When bad weather overtakes vessel, she will find herself running before the wind. Preferable to take a course with wind on the quarter rather than stern, which may cause pooping. Vessel will not move as violently as a vessel head to sea. Speed adjustment together with long period of encounter will probably reduce wave impact without any great delay. A distinct danger with stern to sea is when the vessel required to turn across the wave front is broach to. Heaving to, preferably on the lee of an island: Necessary when due to the stress of the weather the voyage is required to be temporarily discontinued. The vessel is manoeuvred so as to ride the sea in the most favourable position. Problems may be encountered associated with crew fatigue or damage to cargo for a lengthy period of time. Most effective when taken advantage of a lee of an island or land mass. Action will depend on the type and form of the vessel.

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A reduction of speed will probably be the earliest action to reduce motion of the vessel and avoid cargo shift. Power not to be reduced to an extent of stalling the main engine or revolutions are critical. If it is decided to stop the vessel, sufficient sea room should be available. Heavy rolling can be expected. There is risk of synchronism and cargo shift. Vessel needs to have a good water tight integrity and adequate GM.

Anchoring in shallow waters: Used when the vessel in shallow water. Employed to prevent blown down to a lee shore. Two anchors may be used. Engines can be used to reduce stress on the cable. Anchor will reduce the rate of drift. If grounding is not prevented, refloating may be assisted by heaving on the cables.

Altering course to avoid bad weather: To be used before encountering bad weather. Take an alternative route to destination. Take evasive actions to be away from bad weather. Likely to result in more distance. If alteration is not well planned or substantial, bad weather may suddenly change direction and vessel may be caught into it.

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Dangerous situations in following & quartering seas When sailing in severe following or quartering seas, a ship is likely to encounter various kinds of dangerous phenomena, which may lead to capsizing. Although the dynamic behaviour of ships sailing in following and quartering seas is not yet covered in present stability standards, much progress has been made in recent years towards understanding the physics of capsize mechanisms and identifying potentially critical conditions. The sensitivity of a ship to dangerous phenomena will depend on the actual stability parameters, hull geometry, and ship size and ship speed. This implies that the vulnerability to capsizing and its probability of occurrence in a particular sea state may differ for each ship. The guidance provides advice on safe and unsafe combinations of ship speed and course relative to waves, in a simplified form of a polar diagram. The diagram does not take into account the actual stability and the dynamic characteristics of an individual ship, but provides a general unified boundary of safe and unsafe combinations of the operational parameters for any types of conventional ships covered by IMO. Precautions A ship could be unsafe even outside the dangerous zone defined in this guidance if the stability of the ship is insufficient and several dangerous phenomena characteristic for following and quartering seas happen simultaneously. Therefore, the master should ensure that the vessel maintains the approved minimum positive stability and does not carelessly navigate in severe following and quartering seas. Dangerous ship responses in following and quartering seas The waves which regular overtaking the vessel from stern or at the quarter, can when the wavelength become longer than the distance between the vessels natural stern and bow wave, cause dangerous situations for the vessel as follows: Surf-riding and broaching to: When a ship is situated on a steep forefront of a high wave in a following or quartering sea condition, the ship can be accelerated to ride on the wave; this is known as surf riding. When a ship is surf-ridden, the so-called broaching-to
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phenomenon may occur, which increases the risk of capsize as a result of a sudden big change of ship's heading and unexpected large heeling. Reduction of intact stability caused by riding on the wave crest at the mid section of the ship When a ship is riding on the wave crest, the intact stability will be decreased substantially according to the ship form. The amount of stability reduction is nearly proportional to the wave height and the ship may lose its stability when the wavelength is one or twice the ships length and wave height is large. This situation is especially dangerous in following and quartering seas, because of the length of time the vessel rides on the wave crest, i.e. the time of inferior stability, becomes longer. Synchronous rolling motion

Large rolling motions may be experienced when the natural rolling period of a ship coincides with the wave period encountered. When navigating in following and/or quartering seas this may happen when the transverse stability of the ship is marginal and therefore the natural roll period becomes longer. Parametric rolling motion An unstable and large amplitude roll motion will take place if the wave period encountered is approximately equal to half of the natural roll period of the ship. This type of rolling can occur in head and bow seas where the wave period encountered become short. In following and quartering seas, a ship is particularly vulnerable to this when the initial metacentric height is small and the natural roll period is very long. Combination of various dangerous phenomena

The dynamic behaviour of a ship in following and quartering seas is very complex. Ship motion is three-dimensional and various detrimental factors or dangerous phenomena such as an additional heeling moment due to taking water on deck, or cargo shift due to large roll motions, may occur in combination with the above-mentioned phenomena, simultaneously or in a sequence. This could create an extremely dangerous combination which may cause ship capsize.

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Dangerous navigation conditions in following and quartering seas There are two critical ship conditions under which the dangerous phenomena described above are more likely to occur: a) When the ship speed approaches the phase velocity of the wave When the ship speed is so high that its component in the wave direction approaches the phase velocity of the waves, the ship will be accelerated to reach surf riding and broaching-to becomes a real risk. The critical speed for the occurrence of surf riding is considered to be (1 8. L) knots, where L is ships length. It should be noted that there is a marginal zone (14. L ~ 1.8 L) below the critical speed, where a large surging motion may occur. This induces a motion in the vessel, which is almost equivalent to surf riding and is still dangerous. In these situations, a significant reduction of intact stability may also be induced. b) When the ship speed is nearly equal to the group velocity of waves When the ship speed component in the wave direction is nearly equal to the wave group velocity (that is a half of the phase velocity of the dominant wave components) the ship will be vulnerable to a succession of high waves. The maximum wave height can be expected to reach almost twice the observed significant wave height for a given sea state. In this situation, the reduction of intact stability, synchronous rolling, parametric rolling motions or combination of various dangerous phenomena may occur and create the danger of capsize. How to avoid dangerous conditions For surf riding and broaching-too The master should reduce ships speed to less than (1 8. L) knot to prevent surf riding. It should be noted that even at lower ships speeds than that specified above, the dangerous large surging can occur. Since a surging acceleration with a long period is a warning sign of the dangerous large surging motion, the master should in this case also reduce the speed. For successive high wave attack

When the average wave length is longer than (0.8 * ships length) and the significant wave height is larger than (0.04 * ships length), while at the same time some indices of dangerous behaviour of the ship are beginning to be
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indicated, the master should not enter the danger zone. When the ship is situated in this danger zone, the ships speed should be reduced to prevent successive high wave attack. It is also possible to escape this zone by changing the ships heading. However, a large course change is undesirable, since this may bring the ship close to beam sea condition, which is also dangerous for stability. The combination of appropriate speed reduction with a slight change of course may offer the best choice of ship handling in this situation. When the wave period encountered is nearly twice the observed wave period (i.e. between about l.5 ~ 2.8 times), the ship is considered to be situated in the danger zone. For synchronous rolling and parametric rolling motions The master should prevent a synchronous rolling motion, which will occur when the wave period encountered (TE) is nearly equal to the natural rolling period of the ship (TR). Large rolling motions, which occur under the condition (TETR/2), (which is parametric rolling) should also be prevented. The wave period encountered (TE) is a function of (V/T). By using this relationship, the master will know whether his ship will encounter synchronous and/or parametric rolling. Wave Period The wave period is the time interval between the generation of a foam patch by a breaking wave and its reappearance after passing the wave trough. It can be measured by using a stop watch or the following figure. Wave length The wave length is the distance between successive wave crests. It can be measured by: visual observation in comparison with the ships length; or By reading mean distance between successive wave crests on the radar.
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Period of encounter The time interval between the passage of two successive crests relative to the ship borne observer. It can be measure as the period of pitching by using stop watch. Synchronism Occurs when rolling or pitching period is equal or nearly equal to the apparent period of wave. Synchronism may be synchronized rolling or synchronized pitching. Panting Tendency of the bow plating and to a lesser extent the stern plating to work in and out when the ship is pitching. Fore and aft regions of the vessel are extra strengthen by thicker plating, panting beams and stringers, reduced frame spacing in designed to withstand panting stress. Backing Change of true wind direction to an anti-clockwise direction. Veering Change of true wind to a clockwise direction. Following seas Occurs when vessel running before the sea. Sea comes from the stern. The ship encounters various dangerous phenomena. Quartering seas Occurs when vessel running before the sea. Sea comes from the quarter. The ship encounters various dangerous phenomena.

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Synchronized Pitching It occurs when natural pitching period of a ship coincides with the encounter wave period. How to determine: Vessel pitching heavily. There is no period of lull; pitching is increasing with every wave encounter. Vessel is encountered by the same phase of wave almost all the times. Effects It causes excessive racing of engines. Longitudinal of hull. Damage due to shipping seas. Corrective actions: Change apparent period of waves by: Alteration of course Reduction of speed (Increase in speed will cause excessive pounding). Following Quartering Sea effect and phenomenon: Surf Riding Broaching-to Reduction of intact stability when riding on wave crest amidships Synchronized rolling Parametric rolling Pooping Phenomena occurring in following and quartering seas A ship sailing in following or quartering seas encounters the waves with a longer period than in beam, head or bow waves, and principal dangers caused in such situation are as follows: 1. Pooping 2. Surf riding 3. Broach to 4. Reduction of intact stability when riding on wave crest amidships 5. Synchronous rolling 6. Parametric rolling 7. Combination of various dangerous phenomenon 8. Successive wave attack

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Pooping Breaking of rising wave over the stern in poop deck area. Develops when bad weather is directly from stern. Vessels with less freeboard may suffer from popping. Occurs when a vessel falls into the trough of a wave and does not rise with it. It may occur if the vessel falls as the wave is rising. Causes following wave to break over the stern or poop deck areas.

Result: May cause considerable damage to stern area. Damage to propeller and rudder due to severe buffeting. Engine room can be flooded if the openings which face aft are not properly secured. Corrective actions: Occurs when velocity of sea is equal to or greater than ship's speed. Alter course and head sea. Surf riding Occurs when a ship situated on a steep forefront of high wave in a following or quartering sea conditions, the ship can be accelerated to ride on the wave. This phenomenon is called surf riding.

Result: In this situation the so called broaching-to phenomenon may occur, which endangers the ship to capsizing as a result of a sudden change on ships heading and unexpected large healing. Action: Ships speed higher than (1.8L)/cos (180-) knots is considered dangerous, and; Surf riding/broaching-to may occur when angle of encounter 135<<225. To avoid surf riding, speed/course or both to be taken outside the dangerous region.

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Broach to May occur when a ship is surf ridden in a following or quartering sea. The vessel is slewed violently. Ship heels suddenly and unexpectedly to a large angle. Result: Positive stability disappears to the existing angle of heel. Vessel may capsize due to sudden change of heel and heading. Action: Reduce speed below 1.8L knots. A marginal zone (1.4L to 1.8L) below critical speed may cause a large surging motion (broach to). Speed to be reduced below 1.4L in the case. Reductions of intact stability when riding on a wave crest When a ship is riding on the wave crest, the intact stability can be decreased substantially according to changes of submerged hull form. This stability reduction may become critical for wave lengths within range of 0.6L to 2.3L; within this range the amount of stability reduction is nearly proportional to the wave height. This situation is particularly dangerous in following and quartering seas, because the time interval of reduced stability becomes longer. Synchronous rolling Large rolling motions may be excited when natural rolling period of a ship coincides with the encounter wave period. In following and quartering seas this may happen when the transverse stability is marginal and therefore the natural roll period becomes longer. How to determine: Vessel rolling heavily. There is no period of lull; rolling angle is almost same or increasing in every roll. Vessel is encountered by the same phase of wave almost all the times. Corrective actions: 1. Change apparent period of waves by: Alteration of course Alteration of speed 2. Change vessels rolling period by changing GM
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By ballasting By de-ballasting Shifting of ballast, FO, FW etc and changing transverse position of G.

Parametric Rolling Parametric roll motions with large and dangerous roll amplitudes in waves are due to variation of stability between the position on the wave crest and the position in the wave trough. It occurs when the encounter period is approximately half of the natural roll period of the ship. The stability attains a minimum twice during each roll period. It occurs when the ship has very marginal intact stability due to which its rolling period becomes very large. Parametric rolling may occur in head and bow seas when the encounter ratio is 1:0.5 Corrective actions: 1. Change apparent period of waves by: Alteration of course Alteration of speed 2. Change vessels rolling period by changing GM By ballasting By de-ballasting Shifting of ballast, FO, FW etc and changing transverse position of G. Combination of various dangerous phenomena The dynamic behavior of ship in following and quartering seas is very complex. Ship motion is three dimensional and various dangerous phenomena may occur simultaneously, such as: Additional heeling moments due to deck-edge immersion, water shipping and trapping on deck, or cargo shift due to large heeling motions. This may create extremely dangerous combinations, which may cause ship capsize.

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Successive high-wave attack When average wave length is larger than 0.8L and significant wave height is larger than 0.04L a ship may experience successive attack of high waves. Preventive Action: Ships speed should be reduced and course should be changed to keep the ship out of the danger zone.

What do you mean by short Round Turn, what is its purpose? Vessel is turned round in her own length. It will be useful, when turning a vessel where there is a less sea room such as: Within a channel Congested Anchorage Area Any danger close Principle When an engine is reversed a powerful swing to starboard is generated. Method a. b. c. Engine is worked full ahead on hard starboard helm. At first sign of head way the helm is put mid ship and engines are worked f ull astern. Swing to starboard continues.

The above sequence is repeated until the vessel is turned. Caution: If astern power is small the watch for headway must be carefully watched.

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What do you understand by ISPS? ISPS: On 12 December 2002 chapter XI-2 Special measures to enhance maritime security of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974 was adopted by IMO. From this chapter of SOLAS reference is made to the International Ship & Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code, which contains mandatory requirements to the security of ships and port facilities. The ISPS Code entered into force 1 July 2004. The ISPS Code contains in Part A sets a mandatory requirements to ships and port facilities, while Part B contains guidance to the requirements stated in SOLAS XI-2 and in the ISPS Code Part A. Objectives of ISPS: The objectives of this Code are: To establish an international framework involving co-operation between Contracting Governments, Government agencies, local administrations and the shipping and port industries to detect security threats and take preventive measures against security incidents affecting ships or port facilities used in international trade; To establish the respective roles and responsibilities of the Contracting Governments, Government agencies, local administrations and the shipping and port industries, at the national and international level for ensuring maritime security; To ensure the early and efficient collection and exchange of securityrelated information; To provide a methodology for security assessments so as to have in place plans and procedures to react to changing security levels; and To ensure confidence that adequate and proportionate maritime security measures are in place.

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Functional requirements of ISPS: In order to achieve its objectives, this Code embodies a number of functional requirements. These include, but are not limited to: Gathering and assessing information with respect to security threats and exchanging such information with appropriate Contracting Governments; Requiring the maintenance of communication protocols for ships and port facilities; Preventing unauthorized access to ships, port facilities and their restricted areas; Preventing the introduction of unauthorized weapons, incendiary devices or explosives to ships or port facilities; Providing means for raising the alarm in reaction to security threats or security incidents; Requiring ship and port facility security plans based upon security assessments; and Requiring training, drills and exercises to ensure familiarity with security plans and procedures. Ship security plan means a plan developed to ensure the application of measures on board the ship designed to protect persons on board, cargo, cargo transport units, ships stores or the ship from the risks of a security incident. Port facility security plan means a plan developed to ensure the application of measures designed to protect the port facility and ships, persons, cargo, cargo transport units and ships stores within the port facility from the risks of a security incident. Ship security officer means the person on board the ship, accountable to the master, designated by the Company as responsible for the security of the ship, including implementation and maintenance of the ship security plan and for liaison with the company security officer and port facility security officers. Company security officer means the person designated by the Company for ensuring that a ship security assessment is carried out; that a ship security plan is developed, submitted for approval, and thereafter implemented and maintained and for liaison with port facility security officers and the ship security officer.
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Port facility security officer means the person designated as responsible for the development, implementation, revision and maintenance of the port facility security plan and for liaison with the ship security officers and company security officers. Security level 1 means the level for which minimum appropriate protective security measures shall be maintained at all times. Security level 2 means the level for which appropriate additional protective security measures shall be maintained for a period of time as a result of heightened risk of a security incident. Security level 3 means the level for which further specific protective security measures shall be maintained for a limited period of time when a security incident is probable or imminent, although it may not be possible to identify the specific target. APPLICATION OF ISPS: This Code applies to the following types of ships engaged on international voyages: Passenger ships, including high-speed passenger craft; Cargo ships, including high-speed craft, of 500 gross tonnage and upwards; and Mobile offshore drilling units; and Port facilities serving such ships engaged on international voyages. Contracting Governments shall decide the extent of application of this Part of the Code to those port facilities within their territory which, although used primarily by ships not engaged on international voyages, are required, occasionally, to serve ships arriving or departing on an international voyage. This Code does not apply to warships, naval auxiliaries or other ships owned or operated by a Contracting Government and used only on Government non-commercial service.

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When DOC is issued: The ship is operating at a higher security level than the port facility or another ship it is interfacing with; There is an agreement on a Declaration of Security between Contracting Governments covering certain international voyages or specific ships on those voyages; There has been a security threat or a security incident involving the ship or involving the port facility, as applicable; The ship is at a port which is not required to have and implement an approved port facility security plan; or The ship is conducting ship to ship activities with another ship not required to have and implement an approved ship security plan.

OBLIGATIONS OF THE COMPANY: The Company shall ensure that the ship security plan contains a clear statement emphasizing the masters authority. The Company shall establish in the ship security plan that the master has the overriding authority and responsibility to make decisions with respect to the safety and security of the ship and to request the assistance of the Company or of any Contracting Government as may be necessary. The Company shall ensure that the company security officer, the master and the ship security officer are given the necessary support to fulfill their duties and responsibilities in accordance with chapter XI-2 and this Part of the Code.

ISPS Code requirement for statement of master's authority The company shall ensure that the Ship Security Plan must contain a clear statement emphasizing the master's authority. The company shall establish in the Ship Security Plan that the master has the overriding authority and the responsibility to make decisions with respect to safety and security of the ship and to request the assistance of the Company or of any SOLAS Contracting Government as may be necessary.

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COMPANY SECURITY OFFICER: The Company shall designate a company security officer. A person designated as the company security officer may act as the company security officer for one or more ships, depending on the number or types of ships the Company operates provided it is clearly identified for which ships this person is responsible. A Company may, depending on the number or types of ships they operate designate several persons as company security officers provided it is clearly identified for which ships each person is responsible. In addition to those specified elsewhere in this Part of the Code, the duties and responsibilities of the company security officer shall include, but are not limited to: advising the level of threats likely to be encountered by the ship, using appropriate security assessments and other relevant information; ensuring that ship security assessments are carried out; ensuring the development, the submission for approval, and thereafter the implementation and maintenance of the ship security plan; ensuring that the ship security plan is modified, as appropriate, to correct deficiencies and satisfy the security requirements of the individual ship; arranging for internal audits and reviews of security activities; arranging for the initial and subsequent verifications of the ship by the Administration or the recognized security organization; ensuring that deficiencies and non-conformities identified during internal audits, periodic reviews, security inspections and verifications of compliance are promptly addressed and dealt with; enhancing security awareness and vigilance; ensuring adequate training for personnel responsible for the security of the ship; ensuring effective communication and co-operation between the ship security officer and the relevant port facility security officers; ensuring consistency between security requirements and safety requirements; ensuring that, if sister-ship or fleet security plans are used, the plan for each ship reflects the ship-specific information accurately; and

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ensuring that any alternative or equivalent arrangements approved for a particular ship or group of ships are implemented and maintained.

SHIP SECURITY OFFICER A ship security officer shall be designated on each ship. In addition to those specified elsewhere in this Part of the Code, the duties and responsibilities of the ship security officer shall include, but are not limited to: undertaking regular security inspections of the ship to ensure that appropriate security measures are maintained; maintaining and supervising the implementation of the ship security plan, including any amendments to the plan; co-ordinating the security aspects of the handling of cargo and ships stores with other shipboard personnel and with the relevant port facility security officers; proposing modifications to the ship security plan; reporting to the company security officer any deficiencies and nonconformities identified during internal audits, periodic reviews, security inspections and verifications of compliance and implementing any corrective actions; enhancing security awareness and vigilance on board; ensuring that adequate training has been provided to shipboard personnel, as appropriate; reporting all security incidents; co-ordinating implementation of the ship security plan with the company security officer and the relevant port facility security officer; and ensuring that security equipment is properly operated, tested, calibrated and maintained, if any.

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PORT FACILITY SECURITY OFFICER: A port facility security officer shall be designated for each port facility. A person may be designated as the port facility security officer for one or more port facilities. In addition to those specified elsewhere in this Part of the Code, the duties and responsibilities of the port facility security officer shall include, but are not limited to: conducting an initial comprehensive security survey of the port facility taking into account the relevant port facility security assessment; ensuring the development and maintenance of the port facility security plan; implementing and exercising the port facility security plan; undertaking regular security inspections of the port facility to ensure the continuation of appropriate security measures; recommending and incorporating, as appropriate, modifications to the port facility security plan in order to correct deficiencies and to update the plan to take into account of relevant changes to the port facility; enhancing security awareness and vigilance of the port facility personnel; ensuring adequate training has been provided to personnel responsible for the security of the port facility; reporting to the relevant authorities and maintaining records of occurrences which threaten the security of the port facility; co-ordinating implementation of the port facility security plan with the appropriate Company and ship security officer(s); co-ordinating with security services, as appropriate; ensuring that standards for personnel responsible for security of the port facility are met; ensuring that security equipment is properly operated, tested, calibrated and maintained, if any; and assisting ship security officers in confirming the identity of those seeking to board the ship when requested.

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The port facility security officer shall be given the necessary support to fulfill the duties and responsibilities imposed by chapter XI-2 and this Part of the Code.

Cargo operation at Security Level 2 At security level 2, the SSP should establish the additional security measures to be applied during cargo handling, which may include: Detailed checking of cargo, cargo transport units and cargo spaces; Intensified checks to ensure that only the intended cargo is loaded; Intensified searching of vehicles to be loaded on car-carriers, ro-ro and passenger ships; and Increased frequency and detail in checking of seals or other methods used to prevent tampering. Detailed checking of cargo may be accomplished by the following means: Increasing the frequency and detail of visual and physical examination; Increasing the frequency of the use of scanning/detection equipment, mechanical devices, or dogs; and Coordinating enhanced security measures with the shipper or other responsible party in accordance with an established agreement and procedures. Security levels Security level 1 The level for which minimum appropriate protective security measures shall be maintained at all times. The following activities shall be carried out through appropriate measures, taking into account the guidance given in part B of ISPS code, in order to identify and take preventive measures against security incidents: Ensuring the performance of all ship security duties. Controlling access to the ship. Controlling the embarkation of persons and their effects. Monitoring restricted areas to ensure that only authorized persons have access. Monitoring of deck areas and areas surrounding the ship. Supervising the handling of cargo and ship's stores. Ensuring that security communication is readily available.

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Security level 2 The level for which appropriate additional protective security measures shall be maintained for a period of time as a result of heightened risk of a security incident. Additional protective measures specified in the ship security plan shall be implemented for each activity of security level 1, taking into account the guidance given in part B of ISPS Code.

Security level 3 The level for which further specific protective security measures shall be maintained for a limited period of time when a security incident is probable or imminent. It may not be possible to identify the specific target. Further specific protective measures, specified in the ship security plan, shall be implemented for each activity of security level 1, taking into account the guidance given in part B of this ISPS Code. (Security level three is the highest) Frequency of ISPS Drills: Drills should be conducted at least once every three months. In addition, in cases where more than 25 percent of the ships personnel has been changed, at any one time, with personnel that has not previously participated in any drill on that ship, within the last 3 months, a drill should be conducted within one week of the change. Exercise: - to be carried out at least one each calendar year or not exceeding 18 months.

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Continuous Synopsis Record: SOLAS Chapter XI-2 Regulation 5 A ship to carry CSR which is intended to provide an onboard record of history of the ship issued by flag state. Form 1: All CSR documents issued by ships administration. Form 2: All amendment forms, Company or Master to complete. Form 3: All indices of amendment. Note: CSR Must be issue ASAP but not latter than 3 months from the date of change. The Ship Security Alert System (SSAS):- This system should be provided in two location In navigating bridge. Other agreed by CSO.
Shall contain, at least, the following information: The name of the State whose flag the ship is entitled to fly; The date on which the ship was registered with that State; The ships identification number in accordance with regulation (IMO Number) The name of the ship; The port at which the ship is registered; The name of the registered owner(s) and their registered address(es); The name of the registered bareboat charterer(s) and their registered address(es), if applicable; The name of the Company, as defined in regulation IX/1, its registered address and the address(es) from where it carries out the safetymanagement activities; The name of all classification society(ies) with which the ship is classed; The name of the Administration or of the Contracting Government or of the recognized organization which has issued the Document of Compliance. The name of the Administration or of the Contracting Government or of the recognized organization that has issued the Safety Management Certificate The name of the Administration or of the Contracting Government or of the recognized security organization that has issued the International Ship Security Certificate and The date on which the ship ceased to be registered with that State. Any changes relating to the entries shall be recorded in the Continuous Synopsis Record so as to provide updated and current information together with the history of the changes. The Continuous Synopsis Record shall be kept on board the ship and shall be available for inspection at all times.

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How do you conduct an ESP (Enhanced Survey Program)? What is the application? Required for: Tanker: Mandatory for crude oil carrier 20,000DWT & above. Product tanker of 30,000DWT and above. Bulk Carriers: 150 meters and above. As the age increase the survey becomes more stringent. Required as per regulation-2, CH-XI-I of SOLAS convention. Aspects of ESP It is basically to detect structural weakness & area of corrosion. It has been in forced since 1st July 1993 for oil tankers & bulk carriers including OBO. It commences at 4th annual survey and progressed during succeeding year with a view to complete by 5th anniversary. Additionally Require internal examination; Close up survey; Thickness measurement report etc. A specific survey program in written format must be worked out in advance. Dry docking is required to complete a vessel's special survey of hull. All tank coatings are to be evaluated periodically. Tanks having poor coating conditions to be evaluated more frequently. Close up survey to be carried out to check the condition of critical members of ships structure. This includes: the transverse web frame ring, deck and bottom transverses and transverse bulkheads including girders and stiffener systems and adjacent structural members of cargo tanks in tankers and forward cargo hold frames, transverse webs and associated plating in ballast tanks, transverse bulkheads and associated stiffeners in ballast tanks and cargo holds, cross deck structure and hatch covers and coaming in bulk carriers. Enhanced survey carried out During Periodical Survey. During annual survey & Intermediate Enhanced survey. It covers all cargo spaces, ballast tanks, tunnel, cofferdam, void space, deck & outer hull.
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After survey the administrator will give an endorsed condition evolution report to the owner and a copy to be placed on board. Vessel to keep record of Thickness measurement report. Survey report Executive hull summary. The surveyor could extend the close up survey if deemed necessary. The final point is the inclusion of the term substantial corrosion which encompasses areas which have wastage of greater than 75% of the allowable margin. (e.g. say the wastage allowed is 10mm, then 75% of this margin is 7.5mm) These areas require further thickness measurements and an extended close up survey.

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Ship sanitation certificate As of 15 June 2007 the International Health Regulations (2005) ("IHR (2005)") have introduced new certification procedures for ships. The new certificates are entitled Ship Sanitation Control Exemption Certificate/Ship Sanitation Control Certificate ("Ship Sanitation Certificates" or "SSC"). These SSC replace the previous Deratting / Deratting Exemption Certificates ("DC/DEC") provided for under the IHR (1969). The advice that follows is designed to guide and facilitate the implementation of this new health document by States Parties to the IHR (2005). Ship Sanitation Control Exemption Certificate: issued when no evidence of a public health risk is found on board and the competent authority is satisfied that the ship is free of infection and contamination, including vectors and reservoirs. This certificate shall normally be issued only if the inspection has been carried out when the ship and holds are empty or when they contain only ballast or other material, of such nature or so disposed as to make a thorough inspection of the holds possible. Ship Sanitation Control Certificate: issued when evidence of a public health risk, including sources of infection and contamination, is detected on board and after required control measures have been satisfactorily completed; the SSC must record the evidence found and the control measures taken. When the conditions under which control measures are carried out are such that, in the opinion of the competent authority, a satisfactory result cannot be achieved at the port where the operation was performed, the competent authority shall make a note to this effect on this certificate, identifying all evidence of ship-borne public health risk, together with any required control measures to be applied at the subsequent port of call. If the ship is allowed to depart, the competent authority shall at the time of departure, inform the next known point of entry of the type of evidence and the requisite control measures, particularly in those contexts where the public health risk may spread internationally or may present a serious and direct danger to the health of human populations. Extension of the Ship Sanitation Control Exemption Certificate: when the inspection or control measures required cannot be carried out at a port and there is no evidence of infection or contamination, the competent authority may extend the validity of the certificate for a period of one month, allowing the ship to arrive at a port in which the inspection and any necessary control measures can be carried out and the new Ship Sanitation Control Certificate may be issued.

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The necessary public health control measures should always be applied only after all key parties (e.g. the master of the ship, the port control office) have been fully informed of the methods to be used. Critical activities, such as the assignment of the port areas to be used for quarantine of ships suspected of carrying a public health risk, need to be completed well in advance in cooperation with the port control office for ship movement. In all cases, control measures carried out shall be conducted in a manner that avoids possible injury, and as far as possible discomfort to persons [and with respect for their dignity, human rights and fundamental freedom] or damage to the ship, baggage, its cargo and containers, and the public health aspects of the environment. Validity of a Ship Sanitation Certificate: A Ship Sanitation Certificate is valid for a period of six months from the date of issue. This period may be extended by one month if the inspection or control measures cannot be accomplished at the port. The certificate does not guarantee that the ship will remain in a sanitary condition after issue and may be reviewed or revoked should there be any change in relevant conditions on board the ship.

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As a Master, how do you beach a ship? What is your main concern and what are the factors to consider? What type of seabed and gradient would you consider? Beaching is a process wherein during an emergency situation a ship is intentionally taken towards shallow waters and at last grounded.

The word Beaching is used for such process because the type of emergency grounding is done only in those areas where the ground is of soft mud or sand (as in a Beach) in order to avoid damage to ships hull, propeller, rudder etc. Why Beaching is done The three main reasons for which Beaching of ship is done are: To prevent loss of ship due to flooding when there is major damage below the water line of the ship To refloat the ship when satisfactory repair has been done and water tight integrity is restored In order to hand it over to the scrap yard Ideal condition for beaching Daylight Gentle slopping beach Sandy or rock free beach Little or no current Sheltered waters Free from surf Less traffic

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Procedure to Perform Beaching of Ship: Ballast the ship to its maximum capacity Check where the damage is more-bow side or stern side. Head with the damage side for beaching with 90 o to the tides Take all measure to avoid ship going parallel to the beach (throw weather anchor first) If approaching from astern due to stern damage, drop both the anchor at good distance so that they can assist the vessel in heaving when going water Sounding of all tanks must be done before and after beaching Bow Approach Advantages Clear observation of approach. Propeller and rudder are in deeper water. Strong bow would cushion any pounding effect. Disadvantages Vessel is more likely to slew. Use of anti-slew wires in conjunction with the anchors is necessary. Difficult to lay ground tackle. On taking the ground Drive the vessel further on and reduce the possibility of pounding. Take additional ballast and secure the hull against movement from weather and sea/tide. Take precautions to prevent oil pollution.

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Explain an Emergency Wreck Marking Buoy. How soon does the authority must put the buoy and till when? What are the features? Emergency wreck marking buoy IALA has introduced on trial basis. For temporary response. Typically to be used for first 24-72 hrs. Deployment to be promulgated through usual maritime safety information system. Designed to provide a prominent aid to navigation. To be placed as close of wreck as possible. It will maintain a position until: The wreck is well known and has been promulgated in nautical publications e.g. notices to mariners. The wreck is fully surveyed and exact details such as position and least depth above the wreck is known. A permanent form of marking of the wreck has been carried out. Characteristics: Shape: Pillar or spar buoy, size dependent on location. Color: Equal number and dimensions of blue and yellow vertical stripes. Light: Altering blue and yellow flashing light. Nominal range: 4 nm, may be altered depending on local condition. Blue and yellow 1s flashes altered at interval of 0.5s. If multiple buoys deployed, their lights will be synchronized. Racon: May be fitted with Racon-D and/or AIS transponder. Topmark: If fitted, straight yellow cross.

Fig: Emergency wreck marking buoy & light characteristics


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What is the Conventional Direction of Buoyage? How is it being depicted on the chart? Conventional direction of buoys Local direction Direction taken by the mariner when approaching a harbor, river, estuary or other waterway from seaward. General direction Determined by the buoys authorities. Based whenever possible on the principle of following clockwise direction around continents. Usually given in Admiralty Sailing Directions and, if necessary, indicated on charts by appropriate symbol.

Buoys region There are two buoys regions: A and B. In the two regions, colours and lights of lateral marks are reversed. In region A, green buoys to starboard and red to port, when following conventional direction. In region B, green to port and red to starboard.

Region-A: Europe, Asia (Except Japan, Korea, Philippines), Australia, Africa. Region-B: North and South Americas, Japan, Philippines, Korea.

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How do you know that whether the TSS (Traffic Separation Scheme) is being adopted by the IMO? The International Maritime Organization (IMO), a body of the United Nations headquartered in London. Traffic separation schemes are adopted by the IMO after a country (or countries) submits a traffic separation scheme proposal, which must meet specific IMO guidelines. Normally a scheme will not be shown on charts until it has been formally adopted by the IMO. The IMO publishes Ships' Routing, which contains design standards and a list (with diagrams and coordinates) of all adopted traffic separation schemes.

HOW WILL YOU INSTRUCT YOUR CHIEF OFFICER TO CARRY OUT LIFEBOAT MAINTENANCE? Life Boat: The following items should be examined and checked for satisfactory condition and operation: engine and propulsion system; sprinkler system, where fitted; air supply system, where fitted; manoeuvring system; power supply system; and bailing system.

Release gear: The following should be examined for satisfactory condition and operation after the annual winch brake test with the empty boat: operation of devices for activation of release gear; excessive free play (tolerances); hydrostatic interlock system, where fitted; cables for control and release; and hook fastening.

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Operational test of free-fall lifeboat release function: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. engage the simulated launching arrangements as specified in the manufacturers operating instructions; the operator should be properly seated and secured in the seat location from which the release mechanism is to be operated; operate the release mechanism to release the lifeboat; reset the lifeboat in the stowed configuration; repeat procedures referred to in .2 to .4 above, using the back-up release mechanism, when applicable; remove the simulated launching arrangements; and verify that the lifeboat is in the ready to launch stowed configuration.

Davit The following items should be examined for satisfactory condition and operation: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. davit structure, in particular with regard to corrosion, misalignments, deformations and excessive free play; wires and sheaves, possible damages such as kinks and corrosion; lubrication of wires, sheaves and moving parts; functioning of limit switches; stored power systems; and hydraulic systems

Winch The following items should be examined for satisfactory condition and operation: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. open and inspect brake mechanism; replace brake pads, if necessary; remote control system; power supply system; and winch foundation.

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CREW MATTERS Medical Problems Crew member seriously sick at sea, action as a Master Conduct a medical assessment of victim for primary medical treatment. Attend to treatment as best as possible with onboard facilities and medication. Request for medical advice from the RCC or other appropriate authority, If medical evacuation is required, alert appropriate authorities. Prepare patent for evacuation. Gather appropriate paper work and attach to patient. Crew is dead, cold room is out of order action? Make sure he is dead. (Refer to Signs of death in SCMG Chapter 12) Master to take charge of his property. (Wages, Valuables & Personal effects) Make an inventory of his effects and enter in OLB. (Entry to be attested by the mate or any other crew member) Communicate with Owners, Next of Kin and MPA. Obtain explicit instructions from owners/next of kin. Consider deviate to land the body ashore. Since cold room is out of order, consider sea burial. (Ref: SCMG Ch:12 sea burial) Clean & wash the body, close all openings, provide burial rituals with the help of an elder seaman of same religion. Make OLB entry. (Burial position, time and date) in section Return of Births and deaths in ship Deliver the property of the deceased seaman within 48 hrs after arriving Singapore to DOM.

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DESERTED SHIP Crew missing before sailing 1. Check gangway roaster, register. 2. Quick search in accommodation, E/R and other places in the ship where he may be found. 3. Call the person who went ashore with him and ask. 4. Inform agent and ask him to check all suspicious places as hospitals, police station, seamen's club, night clubs etc. 5. Inform different parties: Owner MPA Local port authority P&I club Charterer (If required) Local police 6. Make a list of his personal belongings and money. 7. Sign him off from AOA (Marine 68D) Make an entry in OLB 8. Fill up form ENG-2A 9. Make his final wages account 10. Give him discharge certificate 11. All those things to be handed over to agent to send to DOM, MPA. 12. Keep the receive copy from agent. 13. Check safe manning doc and check if the ship is able to sail without him. 14. If ship is unable to sail, check from juniors if somebody have certificate, give him promotion after consult with dept head and owner. 15. If promoting is not possible, arrange permission from MPA to sail up to next port. 16. Keep an eye to the jetty up to departing for the last moment of his arrival. 17. Do a thorough search of the accommodation for any suspicious items he kept onboard.

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Article of agreement Before opening, master must ensure the followings: Terms and conditions of AOA are understood by all crews. A memorandum is signed. A change of command form Marine-40 is endorsed by MPA. Change of crews ENG-2A form is endorsed. New AOA effected before expiry date of old AOA. Procedures of opening AOA: 1. Expiry: If the AOA expires at sea, the new Agreement shall be valid until its next port of call. 2. The AOA: Consists of Marine 68A, 68B, 68C and 68D forms in duplicate. The black copy of AA is to be retained on board. The red copy is to be forwarded to the Marine Department. 3. a) b) c) d) e) f) Marine 68A This form is the front cover of the Agreement. The particulars of the ship which may be obtained from the Certificate of Registry shall be stated in the space provided at the top of the form. The trading area in which the ship is plying and the period of validity of the Agreement i.e. 12 or 24 months are to be indicated. Other stipulations: Blank space after "And it is also agreed that" is for inserting other stipulations such as: See Additional Clauses; As per individual agreement; As per collective agreement. A copy of any of the above documents so used must be attached to each copy of the AA. Voyages: Bottom boxed columns concerning "voyages" must be completed. Master is to sign at the bottom right side and end of voyage column. Particulars of statutory certificates: On the inside front cover of red copy of AA the Master is to complete particulars on SOLAS, ILL & IOPP certificates, as well as medical supplies certificate.

g)

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4. a) Marine 68B Additional clauses: On the page "Additional Clauses" certification by Master must be countersigned by Shipowner's representative or any member of the crew; on same page Master and/or Chief Engineer must sign concerning their responsibilities and duties to be performed by Cadets/Apprentices and/or Cadet Engineers. Scale of provisions: Scale of provisions to be furnished to each seaman. Position of loadlines: on the reverse page "Positions of the deck Line and Load Lines" to be written. Discipline: "Regulations for maintaining discipline" are stated. Offences: list of offences are written. Endorsements: Certificates or endorsements made by Consular Officers or Superintendents. Marine 68C Particulars of young persons under 18 years of age and apprentices employed on the vessel. Marine 68D Particulars of all persons employed on the vessel, including the Master and young persons Full name of seaman in BLOCK LETTERS Seaman to sign in "ENG" box after engagement The "Ref No" to run serially, and new seaman engaged given next consecutive number Master to witness seaman's signature and sign in the extreme right- hand column.

b) c) d) e)

5.

6.

7. FORM U It incorporates salient features of AOA. It is to be posted up in a conspicuous place on board the vessel. 8. Certificates of Competency Master is to sight the original COC and other certificates prior signing on a Seaman. A copy of these certificates to be forwarded to Marine Dept.

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9. Documents to be sent to MPA On completing the new Agreement, the Master shall forward the red copy of the Agreement to the Shipping Division, MPA together with the: 1. 2. Red & Terminated black copy of the previous crew agreement and official log book (in the case of renewing crew agreement); Officers Certificate of Endorsement numbers (COE) or their applications for COE and Tanker endorsement Certificates (*for vessels carrying Petroleum, Chemical and Liquefied Gas Products); The Order On A Druggist form duly completed; A copy of the Contract of Employment made between the crew members and the owners. Names of ratings forming part of a navigational or engine room watches as shown in the List of Ratings. The List of Ratings form (for (for foreign going ship only) is to be kept on board; A copy each of the ships Safety Radio and Safety Equipment Certificate with the sea areas i.e. A1, A2 and showing the number of crew the vessel is allowed to carry.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

10. OLB Entry The Master also enter in the narrative section of OLB a statement to the effect that a new Agreement has been opened, giving particulars such as date and place of opening the Agreement. The Log Book entry must be countersigned by the Chief Officer or any other member of the crew. Procedures of closing articles of agreement: Each seaman signs in the "RELEASE" column and the Master to initial in the extreme right hand column. The adjacent shaded boxes are to be completed. Certificate of Discharge must be given whether the seaman is re-engaged or not. Account of wages to be given upon discharge of a seaman. Master should complete the four boxes at the bottom of front cover of the Agreement. OLB Entry of termination of AA. Fines imposed on the seaman during the currency of the Agreement should be remitted by crossed cheque made in favour of the "Maritime Port and Authority, Shipping Division ".
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Form-U It is a legible copy article of agreement. To be made accessible to the ships crews. To be posted it on notice board in order to enable the crew to know the main features of article of agreement. Following are the contents of form U: Ships name / POR / Register Tonnage. No of crew to whom the accommodation is certified. Name of Master and his COC details. Scale of Provision. Regulation for maintaining discipline. Voyage Limit. Short summary of employment of under aged person. Fine for non-compliance: Not exceeding S$ 100. FRE-13 Notice of draft and freeboard. To be displayed in conspicuous place before sailing. Contains particulars of loadline, sailing draft and freeboard. Perform Voyage Beyond terms & condition of AOA: Preparation regarding legal/documentation part: Inform MPA / Class. Study additional clauses & collective agreement. Consult with union if necessary. Make a separate memorandum for crew to sign to proceed to voyage. Master to use tact to convince the crew. Any exemption required from class / MPA. Ensure vessel is permitted to proceed on voyage without violating insurance warranty. OLB entry about owners instruction / approval. Careful study of voyage order & proper planning of voyage. Owner to seek approval from MPA / Class / under writers.

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Crew miss-conduct / incompetency Seaman on drugs at sea what is your action? Investigate if he is an addict. Search for possibility of large quantity onboard or other crews involved. Take Urine/blood sample for testing. Communicate with owner. If seaman proved addict repatriate him and request Police. OLB entries to be sent to Owners and MPA. What are the possible consequences if seaman is found guilty of smuggling? Actions as Master? Drug smuggling will lead to heavy liability to ship-owners. Delays due to investigation. Ship may be arrested if unable to proof of not being a part of it. Seaman may be fined, and jailed. Masters Actions: Investigate and identify the crew and surrender him to the authorities. Communicate with owners, P&I club. Lodge note of protest for vessel not being held responsible. Determine the source of Drugs. Cooperate fully with the port authorities. Owners have right to: Sue the seaman. Forfeit his wages. Take Legal action against the offender to recover expenses. Crew member drunk and report for duty, action? If a seaman is under the influence of drink or drug that his capacity to fulfill his responsibility for the ship or to carry out his duties is impaired, he shall be guilty of an offence and liable to a fine. (S$2000)

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Chief officer complained that one of crew member has not reported for duty since last 2-3 days, state your action? General Disciplinary Offences: A. Striking or assaulting any person on board or belonging to the ship. B. Bringing or having onboard intoxication liquors. C. Drunkenness. D. Taking onboard and keeping possession of any fire-arm, knuckle-duster, loaded cane, slung shot, sword-stick, bowie-knife, dagger or any other offensive weapon or offensive instrument without the concurrence of the Master, for every day during which a seaman retains such weapon or instrument. E. Insolence and contemptuous language or behavior to the Master or any officer, or disobedience of any lawful command. F. Absence without leave for each day on which such absence occurs. Each of the above offences shall be punished by a fine equal to one days pay, for the first occasion and two days pay for the second and any subsequent occasion. Actions by Master Deal with disciplinary offences within 24hrs from the time it comes to notice, if any delay record in OLB. Complaint against food and water: 3 or more seamen can complain about food and water. They can complain if they consider the provision of food and water are of bad quality, unfit for use, Deficient in quality. They may complain to the master. Master shall investigate the complaint. If the seamen are dissatisfied with the action taken by the master or he fails to take any action, they may state their dissatisfaction to him and may complain to the director. Master shall make adequate arrangements to enable the seamen to complain, as soon as the route of the ship permits. (within 7 days) The director shall investigate the complaint. He may examine provision and water. If master fails to arrange to complain to director without reasonable cause He shall be guilty of an offence.
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Fine not exceeding S$ 2000. If, after complains and investigation, the investigate person notify the master in writing that any provision or water are unfit to use The master and owner shall be guilty if they are not replaced within a reasonable time. The fine is not exceeding S$5000. If master without reasonable cause permits them to use, he shall be guilty of an offence, fine not exceeding S$5000.

Other complaints: A seaman may complain to master: against master any seaman About the conditions onboard. Inadequate provision / water. Unsafe ship Overloaded ship Master is to investigate and take action about the complaint. If seaman is dissatisfied with the action taken by master or failure of master to take any action. He may state his dissatisfaction and may complain to the director. Master is to make adequate arrangements to enable seaman to do so as soon as the service of the ship permits. If he fails to do so without reasonable cause, Shall be guilty of an offence Shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding S$2000. Actions by master: Note down the complaints in official log book. Make statement of fact of each crew members with their signature. Elect a committee, members consisting of a crew from each department. Investigate all the allegations with the committee members. Make known the outcome of the investigation via an emergency gathering meeting. Rectify the problems as soon as possible, giving the completion date for the next follow up. Keep notes of all the proceedings, investigations, with proofs and photographs.
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Inform the office about the outcome. If the crews are not satisfied with the actions taken, inform the office. If the crews want to complain to the director, inform office and arrange so in the next suitable opportunity.

YOU HAVE STOWAWAY ONBOARD VSL COMING TO SPORE , YOUR ACTION? PROCEDURE/REQUIREMENTS TO DISEMBARK? Obtain identity of the stowaway. (Nationality) Check if he is carrying any other documents. Make an entry in the OLB. Inform Flag State within 24hrs. Lock him and provide food. Report to Last & Next port agents. Communicate with owners, agents, P&I club, ICA and Embassy. Arrange his repatriation as soon as possible. On arrival port, NO SHORE LEAVE board to be displayed, until the stowaway has been handed over to the authorities. (As per Port Marine Circular No.14 of 2006, CONDITIONS FOR REPATRIATION OF STOWAWAYS) CONDITIONS FOR THE REPATRIATION OF STOWAWAYS 1. Only vessels that are ISPS certified can apply for repatriation of stowaways via Singapore; 2. Stowaway must be kept on board the vessel in safe custody and under the masters responsibility. If necessary, private security officers are to be engaged; 3. The shipping company1 must satisfy ICA that timely arrangement has been made for the repatriation. These include, but not limited to, the following; a. The stowaway must have valid and recognized travel document; b. Confirmed air ticket to the intended destination to be provided. In the absence of a direct flight and should there be a need for the stowaway to enter any country during the repatriation, written confirmation of entry from the relevant authorities of these countries2; c. The stowaway will only be allowed to disembark from the vessel to board the flight. The shipping company must pay for any costs incurred in housing the stowaway in the Inadmissible Person (IP) Room prior to the flight; and
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d. Proof of satisfactory transport and security escort arrangement for the stowaway throughout the duration of the transit. Shipping company must also engage authorized security staff to escort the stowaway throughout the repatriation process (i.e. till he reaches the home country).

4.

5.

6.

7. 8.

The shipping company is to provide a Security bond for issuance of special pass to repatriate stowaway (Form 104A) to take full responsibility for all costs for the repatriation and maintenance of the stowaway; If the repatriation is unsuccessful, the shipping company is to make arrangements to transfer the stowaway back to its vessel within 14 days to depart Singapore. If this transfer is not effected within 14 days, the Government may call on the security bond, withdraw this facility or take any other action as necessary. If the stowaway escapes from the custody of the shipping company, the Singapore authorities will call on the security bond (the sum is S$10,000 per stowaway subject to variation depending on the risk level); Singapore will not repatriate the stowaways if the vessel visits Singapore for the sole / main objective of repatriating the stowaway; and The authorities reserve the right not to allow the repatriation of nationals that have been known to create trouble while being repatriated.

The qualified repatriation of stowaway is administered at the discretion of the Singapore Government and subject to ongoing review. If deemed necessary, the Singapore Government will rescind this facility without prior notice.

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YOU RECEIVED MESSAGE FROM COMPANY FOR TAKING VSL INTO DRYDOCK WITH CARGO ONBOARD. WHAT IS YOUR PRIME CONCERN? SUBSEQUENT ACTIONS AND CONSIDERATIONS? 1. Entering dry-dock concern as a master Before entry: Check the stability of the vessel, especially during critical period. Check the vessel at required draft. No list. Prepare mooring lines. Unused mooring lines stowed. Standby for dock master and dock mooring gang. Proper flags displayed as required. Free surface effects minimum. Movable weights to be secured. Ship power, fire main, fresh water, telephone connections to be ready. Logs off/ retracted. Off echo sounders. Overboard discharges to be shut. Gangway/ accommodation ladders to be stowed. Anchors stowed and secured. Crew standby to assist moorings as required. While entering: Times of the followings to be logged down: When vessel enters dock. When the gate closed When pumping out commenced. When vessel sewed When pump out completed. After vessel docked: Tanks and bilge soundings throughout the vessel. Records to be kept with copy to dock-master. Hull high pressure wash as the level goes down. Initial inspection of the hull to be done as soon as possible: The extend of the hull damage if any. The extend of the rudder and propeller damage Suitable and efficient shoring arrangements Suitable and efficient keel blocks Plugs to be removed if draining of the tanks are required. All removed plugs to be in safe custody of C/O. Bridge equipments, gyro shut down, heading recorded.
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The preparation of a vessel for dry docking a. Arrange a meeting with the heads of departments. Inform them about the dry docking plan. Inform them about: The dry dock, particulars of dry dock, if any, expected date of dry dock etc. Instruct the chief engineer / chief officer to prepare a comprehensive dry docking and repair list. Arrange another meeting with the head of the departments to go through the repair list respectively. Determine which repairs can be done onboard by ships personnel. Check there is no overlapping of repairs between various departments. Recompile repair list of both departments. b. Prepare an official repair list; include proper photocopies of plans or diagrams of parts to repair. c. Send the repair list to office. Also send the list of repairs to be done by ships personnel. d. Ensure all plans are onboard. e. Approved list from head office will be send back to the ship. f. Heads of departments to have copy of repair lists. g. Send docking plan to dry dock for preparation of dock. h. Heads of departments to brief crew members regarding dry dock repairs. i. Safety committee also to be involved regarding dry dock repairs. j. The surveys due and to be done in dry dock. k. Required preparation for surveys. l. Any modification to be carried out. m. Order the necessary stores, materials for repair jobs by ship's crew. n. Ask to company for extra officer if deem necessary. o. Assign duties for officers and brief them about safety and security of the vessel and maintaining efficient watch at all times. For chief officer, overall supervision of deck work list, safety and organization of crew for dry dock and survey. For 2nd officer, supervision of hull cleaning and painting and to keep watch under c/o's instruction. For 3rd officer, in charge for safety while in dry dock and to keep watch under c/o's instruction. Designate personnel for fire patrol and gangway watch. Designate personnel for filling FW and disposal of garbage.

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p. Instruct c/o to brief the crews on general safety requirement, dock and regulations to be followed and procedures to be taken in case of emergency / accident. Stability of the ship to be calculated before entering. Following things to be considered: The GM of the ship, maximum loss of GM during critical period. Vessel to be stable throughout the process. Trim of the ship should be adequate. Vessel should be upright. Amount of ballast, FW, FO, cargo onboard and their distribution. Cranes to be stowed to avoid obstruction to dry dock cranes. High antennas to be lowered. Lifebuoys to be removed from deck to avoid over painting. Off-hire time and position to be ascertained and logged (if time chartered).

q.

r. s. t.

Plans required in dry dock For dock master: Docking plan. Cargo stowage plan (If docking with cargo). Reports from last dry dock. Following plans to be kept ready: Fire plan. Midship section plan. General arrangement plan. Capacity plan. Contents of a docking plan: Position of bulkheads Position of main structural members. Rise of floor (if any). Position of plugs.

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Critical instant Critical moment It is the moment just before the vessel takes blocks overall. The upthrust of bilge block acts on the stern frame. The upthrust is maximum at this moment. It can be calculated by following formula: Pmax = MCTC X t / l MCTC = Moment to change trim by 1 cm. t = Trim in cm. l = Distance of CF from AP. It is called critical instant because maximum loss of GM occurs at this instant. If GM becomes negative, the ship may capsize or slip from block

Critical period The period since the keel first touches the block until the vessel takes blocks overall. An upthrust is caused by the blocks, denoted by "P". P at any instant can be calculated by the following formula: P = TPC X Change in mean draft in cm. P is maximum at the instant before vessel takes blocks overall. It can be calculated as: P = MCTC X t / l { t = trim in cm, l = dist of CF from AP} Due to the upthrust, the vessel reduces its GM. The G moves UP, thereby GM is reduced. M moves down to M', thereby GM is reduced. Shift of G (Center of gravity) or M (Transverse metacenter) may be calculated as: GG' = (P X KG)/(W - P) MM' = (P X KM)/W The danger is, due to subsequent loss of GM, the vessel may lose positive stability and may capsize. Maximum loss of GM to be calculated beforehand. It is dangerous if negative GM occurs in dry dock.

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If negative GM occurs in dry dock The vessel will lose positive stability. She may capsize. She may slip off from the blocks. Dry docking with full cargo onboard: Followings things to be considered while docking with full cargo: Vessel is subjected to more severe stress and strains than normal dry dock. Uneven distribution of weight. Additional weight of the vessel Unable to achieve required draft for entering Certain extra precautions to be taken. Following actions to be considered if practicable, before entering: Discharge cargoes at port facility Transship cargo Press up the DB tanks beneath the holds. Distribute the weight of the cargo evenly over the inner bottom. Avoid local loading. Inform yard about cargo's characteristics, cargo plan and weight distribution in respective holds. All cargoes onboard properly lashed, secured. Communicate with yard with respect to extra shores or keel/bilge blocks. Vessel upright, minimize free surface effect, adequate stability, trimmed as per yard's requirement. Stand-by and prepare fire fighting equipments for repair and adjacent areas. Procedures: Not possible for normal dry docking. Damage or repair works in a suitable position. Possible to pump out some of the dock water sufficient to expose the affected area. Leave the vessel partly waterborne. Reduce the reactions on the blocks. Reduce the tendencies of hogging. Reduce the tendencies of sagging.

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What things you will check before refloating in dry dock Before: 1. Ships stability condition to be kept as close as to that when she is entering in the dry dock. 2. Enough GM and positive stability during critical period. 3. No changes of weight to be made without the consent of the dock-master. 4. Movable weights to be secured. 5. Minimum free surface effect and no list. 6. All plugs to be secured. 7. Anchors stowed and secured. 8. All overboard discharges secured. 9. Anodes fitted. 10. All pipings, cable connections with shore disconnected. 11. Start gyro, check heading. While refloating: 1. Inform E/R when flooding dock. 2. Check for water tightness. 3. Sound all tanks. 4. Following times to be logged down: Flooding commenced Vessel floated Dock gate opened Vessel left dock. After refloating: 1. Check operation of all equipments. 2. General cleaning and washing 3. Normal sailing checklist. 4. Check water tight integrity of the vessel.

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COGSA AND H/V RULES CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA ACT Carriage of Goods by Sea Act (COGSA 71) is the law enacted by a state, incorporating one or other of the three sets of internationally agreed rules, i.e. the Hague Rules, the Hague-Visby Rules, and the Hamburg Rules, defining the basic contractual obligations, rights, liabilities and immunities of sea carrier and cargo shippers where a Bill of Lading or sea waybill is issued. THE HAGUE-VISBY RULES In the early 19th century, due to the erratic, unreliable shipping facilities, frequent loss of ship, and ship-owners being exempted from liability of such losses, gave rise to insecurity of bankers, consignees and cargo insurers. In the case of B's/L, carriers were evading their obligations to a most unfair extent. Unfair burden of proof was thrust on shippers and consignees whenever they had loss or damage to goods during transit. The eventual outcome was that a meeting of the International Law Association was held at The Hague in 1921. A set of rules, thereafter known as the Hague Rules. The rules focused on: The rights & duties of ship-owner The rights & duties of cargo owners Due to new modes of carriage and change in value of money the Hague Rules were amended by protocol signed at Brussels in 1968. The amended version of the Hague Rules is called the Hague-Visby Rules. As for the master, the obligations under the Hague Rules and the HagueVisby Rules are the same. The HVRs apply to all goods shipped under B/L terms except for: live animals and cargo which is stated by the contract of carriage as being, and is actually carried on deck. Carrier's obligations under the HVRs are: 1. to ensure the vessel's seaworthiness 2. to look after the cargo 3. to issue B/L

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1. Obligations in respect of seaworthiness

Before and at the beginning of the voyage, the carrier must exercise due diligence to: make the ship seaworthy; properly man, equip and supply the ship; and make the holds, refrigerating and cool chambers, and all other parts of the ship in which the goods are carried, fit and safe for their reception, carriage and preservation. 2. Obligations towards the cargo

The carrier must properly and carefully load, handle, stow, carry, keep, care for and discharge any goods carried. 3. Obligations to issue a B/L

On receiving goods into his charge, the carrier, if the shipper demands, must issue a B/L showing: all leading marks for identification of goods; the number of packages or pieces or the quantity or weight as stated by the shipper; the apparent order and condition of the goods. The carrier needs not insert any inaccurate statements which he cannot reasonably check.

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The carrier's rights and immunities are: 1. 2. 3. exceptions to liability right to deviate rights in respect of dangerous goods.

Exceptions to liability ( 17 exceptions ) 1. Act, neglect or default of the master, mariner, pilot or the carrier's servants in navigation or management of the ship. 2. fire, unless caused by actual fault or privity of the carrier 3. perils of the sea 4. act of God 5. act of war 6. act of public enemies 7. arrest or restraint of princess, rulers or people, or seizure 8. quarantine regulations 9. act or omission of shipper or owner of the goods 10. strikes, lockouts, stoppage or restraint of labour 11. riots and civil commotions 12. saving or attempting to save life or property at sea 13. wastage or damage arising from inherent vice of the goods 14. insufficiency of packing 15. insufficiency or inadequacy of marks 16. latent defects not discoverable by due diligence 17. any other cause arising without the actual fault or privity of the carrier Deviation Any deviation in saving or attempting to save life or property at sea, or any reasonable deviation. Dangerous goods Goods of an inflammable, explosive or dangerous nature, if not properly marked or if shipped without the knowledge or consent of the carrier, may be landed, destroyed, jettisoned or render innocuous at any time before discharge. Such goods, even when shipped with the carrier's knowledge and consent, may be dealt with in this way without liability to the carrier, should they become dangerous.

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LIEN Lien is the right of a person to retain the possession of goods, properties or securities of other until a liability is satisfied. Three types of lien are: Possessory lien; Maritime Lien; and Equitable lien. Possessory lien can be divided into: a. Particular lien and b. General lien. Particular Lien A particular lien is the right of a person in possession of the goods to retain possession of them for money owing in respect of those goods; Such a lien arises: 1. when the person in possession has bestowed labour, skill or expense in altering or improving the goods; 2. where the person in receiving has been obliged to receive the goods or render the service which has given rise to the lien; 3. where the person in receiving has saved the goods from loss. At common law, a person enforcing a particular lien has no right to sell the goods; He may retain them until his charges are settled; Once he parts with either actual or constructive possession of the goods his right of lien is lost; In a contract for the carriage of goods by sea, the shipowner has a common law possessory lien on the cargo for: 1. unpaid freight; 2. general average charges; & 3. money spent in protecting the cargo.

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General Lien General lien is the right which arises by common law or by contract, to retain the goods not only for money owing in respect of those goods, but also for any other sum owing. Examples of general lien are: 1. a solicitor's lien over all the papers of his client except his will; 2. a factor's lien on the goods of his principal. Maritime Lien is a claim on a ship, her cargo or both as well as the freight earned, in respect of some service performed to them or some injury caused by any of them. it can be enforced by the arrest and sale of the property, regardless of the changes of the ownership, renaming, etc. Maritime liens are of two classes, namely: (1) contractual liens and (2) damage liens. Contractual Lien a contractual lien is one incorporated by a term in the contract such as: 1. bottomry 2. respondentia 3. salvage 4. seamen's wages 5. master's wages 6. master's claim for wrongful dismissal 7. master's claim for disbursements 8. fault in grounding in which coasts have been polluted 9. payment for services provided by repairer, bunker supplier, harbour authority etc. Damage Lien Damage lien is a maritime lien that arises mainly out of collision damage but: 1. damage must be done by the ship (not by the crew) 2. it must be in support of personal action 3. wrongful act or the neglect of the owner or his servant must be proved 4. suit must be brought within 2 years from the accident.
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Equitable Lien The right to have certain property applied in a particular manner; It exists irrespective of possession and confers on the holder the right to a judicial sale; e.g. Partnership lien.

Difference between a 'common law lien' and a 'contractual lien' A common law lien exists independently of contract. It is implied, i.e. it does not need to be expressly stated in the contract; whereas A contractual lien is one incorporated by a term in the contract.

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HOW TRS IS FORMED? DRAW DIAGRAM N/HEMISPHERE, WHY TRS CANNOT FORM 0 5 DEG LAT? Formation/characteristics For development of TSS, following conditions must be met: Over large ocean area. Near seasonal location of equatorial trough or existing low pressure or depression. In northern hemisphere, 5-25N, in southern hemisphere 5-18S, for sufficient Coriolis force. Sea water temp 27C or more. Moves along 275-350 in northern hemisphere, 225-250 (WSW-SSW) in southern hemisphere. Region of small vertical wind sheer.

Causes of TRS Latent heat released by condensation of moisture, when air moves up, available in the tropics Unstable condition of atmosphere, extreme surface heating Evolution is only possible where wind shear has a small value away from the jet stream Eye initially appears in upper troposphere (a pre existing depression) air descends warms Causes a decrease in surface pressure the TRS develops Continues to develop under favourable atmospheric and sea surface conditions Normally decays over land due to lack of moisture, and in high Latitudes because of decrease in surface temperature Weather signs of TRS Radio or storm warning Swell from the direction of storm Corrected barometric reading 3mb below expect 5 mb below confirmed Slow fall (500 to 120nm) Marked fall (60 to 120 nm) Rapid fall (60 to 10nm) Appreciable change in strength and direction of wind Clear sky preceding day Cirrus altostratus then cumulus clouds Rain squalls of increasing frequency and violence
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The Dangerous semicircle (DSC) the vessel must not run before the wind The dangerous quadrant advance quadrant of the DSC, wherein the TRS may re-curve over the vessel Navigable semicircle wherein the vessel may run before the wind Eye (Vortex) general area of calm Track path over which the cyclone has passed Path anticipated movement Trough line of lowest pressure Vertex point of re-curvature

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Areas of occurrance of TRS West Indies and North Atlantic (Hurricane) May to December peak in September Frequencies vary between 5 to 14 Coasts north of 150 N liable to experience these storms Arabian sea (Cyclone) Not very frequent Most originate over the Bay of Bengal Frequent in May/June and October/November Bay of Bengal (Cyclone) Occurs in May and September Normally originate in the Andaman sea Some could originate in South China sea and re-intensify when they reach the bay Western North Pacific & South China Sea (Typhoon) Originate between Philippines and the Long of 1700 E between Lats of 5 and 200N Mainly in September, July to December there is moderate frequency If wind in S China sea or Philippines blows from SW, you can expect a typhoon to the North Eastern North Pacific (Hurricane) Mainly from June to October Main areas between Lats of 10 to 400 N and Longs of 87 and 1400 W South West Indian Ocean (Cyclone) October to end of April Most frequent between Madagascar and the long of 700 E, and between 80 and 1000 E (eastern side) West of Long 800 E, mainly occur in Lats of 10 to 350 S (western side) South East Indian Ocean (Cyclone) November to April Originate over the sea to the North of Australia Mostly confined to latitudes south of 80 S South West Pacific (Cyclone) Main season December to April Originate mainly between Lats of 10 & 200 S between Longs of 150 and 1800

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Movement of TRS Generally east to west in lower Lats, steered by easterly tropospheric air flow Normally re-curves between Lats of 20 and 300 N & S of equator (western edge of anticyclone) Speeds about 10 knots before re-curving, could be stationary for sometime after re-curving, then could move at about 20 knots Tracks after re-curving are Northerly and then in the North Easterly direction, steered by the westerly tropospheric air flow It may not re-curve, sometimes caused by position and movement of the subtropical anticyclone Actions Find the bearing of the storms centre Centre lies 8 to 12 points on right (NH), left (SH), depending upon fall in barometric pressure The semicircle in which the vessel is located For a stationary observer if wind veers RHSC, backs LHSC, The distance from the storms centre Depends on fall in barometric pressure, if 5mb below normal about 200 miles, wind force 6, with a wind force of 8, probably 100 miles Predict the likely path of the storm Take two bearings of the storms centre at intervals of 3 hrs, note storm normally travels in an WNW direction if Lat is less than 200 Actions to avoid storm in NH & SH DSC keep wind on starboard bow, proceed at max practical speed, a/c as the wind veers (backs SH), if sea room is inadequate heave to, wind on starboard bow (port SH). NSC Keep wind on starboard quarter (port SH), proceed at max practical speed, a/c as wind backs (veers), if sea room is insufficient heave to, wind to be kept where it is most comfortable In the direct path Keep wind on starboard quarter and make all possible speed to NSC Vessel overtaking storm Heave to, wind will veer (back SH) , then keep the wind on the starboard bow (port SH)and allow the storm to clear

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HOW MANY METHODS OF ISSUING NAVIGATIONAL WARNINGS? WHAT IS HYDRO PAC AND HYDRO LANT? Two Methods Admiralty notices to mariners Radio navigational warnings.

Types of Navigational warnings: Three types: 1. Nav area warnings 2. Coastal warnings 3. Local warnings Nav area warnings: Issued by navarea coordinator for the navarea. For 16 navareas established by WWNWS (World Wide Navigational Warning Service) Immediate notification of new danger and changes in navigational aids. Warnings which ocean going ships normally require for safe navigation. Promulgated via NAVTEX, International Safety Net Service. In English. Coastal warnings: Promulgated by a national coordinator to cover a region. Necessary for safe navigation within a given region. Provides information for seaward of the fairway buoy or pilot stations. For the entire IMO approved service area of Navtex transmitter. If no Navtex transmitter provided, includes all warnings relevant to coastal waters up to 250 miles from coast. Issued by Navtex or International Safety Net Service Transmission. In English. Local warnings: Issued by port, pilotage or coastguard authority. Covers inshore waters. Supplements coastal warnings by giving details information. Ocean going ships normally not require. Broadcasted via VHF, Navtex local frequency. May be in English or local language.

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Hydrolants and hydropacs US radio navigational warnings. Originated by DMAHC (Defence Mapping Agency Hydrographic Center). Broadcasted twice daily via US navy and US coastguard radio stations. Published in Sec-3 of US notices to mariners.

Hydrolant areas: North Atlantic ocean South Atlantic ocean Caribbean seas Gulf of Mexico Mediterranean seas North seas Contagious areas. Hydropac areas: Pacific Ocean Indian Ocean South China Seas Contagious area COL A COL is a saddle-backed region between two highs and two lows. The wind is light and variable but does not remain so for long because the COL usually soon gives place to a low before long. No guide can be given regarding the associated weather because this depends upon the nature and interaction of the various air masses of which the COL is the meeting place.

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TELL ME WHAT YOU KNOW ABOUT TIMBER CODE? IN DETAILS EVERYTHING INCLUDING LASHING Code of Safe Practice for ships carrying timber deck cargoes Continuing occurrences of casualties involving shift and loss of timber deck cargo set the need to development of this code. Purpose: To make recommendation on safe stowage, securing and shipment of timber deck cargo. Application: This code applies to all ships of 24m or more in length engaged in carriage of timber deck cargoes. Ships that are provided with and making use of their timber load line should also comply with the requirements of the applicable regulation of the Load Line Convention. Stability: The ship should be supplied with comprehensive stability information which takes into account timber deck cargo. Such information should enable the Master, rapidly and simply, to obtain accurate guidance as to stability of the ship under varying conditions of service. Comprehensive rolling period tables or diagrams have provided to be very useful aid in verifying the actual stability conditions.

The stability of the ship at all times, including during the process of
loading and unloading timber deck cargo, should be positive and to a standard acceptable to the Administration. It should be calculated having regard to: The increased weight of the timber deck cargo due to: absorption of water due to dried or seasoned timber. ice accretion, if applicable; variation in consumables; free surface effect of liquids in tanks; and The weight of water trapped in broken spaces within the timber deck cargo and especially logs.

a. b. c. d.

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The master should: 1. cease all loading operations if a list develops for which there is no satisfactory explanation and it would be imprudent to continue loading; 2. before proceeding to sea, ensure that: The ship is upright; The ship has an adequate metacentric height; and The ship meets the required stability criteria. Excessive initial stability should be avoided as it will result in rapid and violent motion in heavy seas which will impose large sliding and racking forces on the cargo causing high stresses on the lashings. Operational experience indicates that metacentric height should preferably not exceed 3% of the breadth in order to prevent excessive accelerations in rolling provided that the relevant stability criteria are satisfied.* This recommendation may not apply to all ships and the master should take into consideration the stability information obtained from the ships stability manual.

STOWAGE Before timber deck cargo is loaded on any area of the weather deck: hatch covers and other openings to spaces below that area should be securely closed and battened down; air pipes and ventilators should be efficiently protected and check valves or similar devices should be examined to ascertain their effectiveness against the entry of water; accumulations of ice and snow on such area should be removed; and it is normally preferable to have all deck lashings, uprights, etc., in position before loading on that specific area. This will be necessary should a preloading examination of securing equipment be required in the loading port.

The timber deck cargo should be so stowed that:


safe and satisfactory access to the crews quarters, pilot boarding access, machinery spaces and all other areas regularly used in the necessary working of the ship is provided at all times; where relevant, openings that give access to the areas can be properly closed and secured against the entry of water; safety equipment, devices for remote operation of valves and sounding pipes are left accessible; and

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it is compact and will not interfere in any way with the navigation and necessary working of the ship. During loading, the timber deck cargo should be kept free of any accumulations of ice and snow. the ship should be carried out. Soundings should also be taken to verify that no structural damage has occurred causing an ingress of water. Height and extent of timber deck cargo The height of the timber deck cargo above the weather deck on a ship within a seasonal winter zone in winter should not exceed one third of the extreme breadth of the ship. The height of the timber deck cargo should be restricted so that: adequate visibility is assured; a safe margin of stability is maintained at all stages of the voyage; any forward facing profile does not present overhanging shoulders to a head sea; and the weight of the timber deck cargo does not exceed the designed maximum permissible load on the weather deck and hatches. On ships provided with, and making use of, their timber load line, the timber deck cargo should be stowed so as to extend: 1. 2. 3. over the entire available length of the well or wells between superstructures and as close as practicable to end bulkheads; at least to the after end of the aftermost hatchway in the case where there is no limiting superstructure at the aft end; athwart ships as close as possible to the ship sides, after making due allowance for obstructions such as guard rails, bulwark stays, uprights, pilot boarding access, etc., provided any area of broken stowage thus created at the side of the ship does not exceed a mean of 4% of the breadth; and to at least the standard height of a superstructure other than a raised quarterdeck. The basic principle for the safe carriage of any timber deck cargo is a solid stowage during all stages of the deck loading. This can only be achieved by constant supervision by shipboard personnel during the loading process.
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Upon completion of loading, and before sailing, a thorough inspection of

4.

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Appendix A provides general advice on stowage practices which have proved to be effective for various types of timber deck cargoes.

SECURING Every lashing should pass over the timber deck cargo and be shackled to eye plates and adequate for the intended purpose and efficiently attached to the deck stringer plate or other strengthened points. They should be installed in such a manner as to be, as far as practicable, in contact with the timber deck cargo throughout its full height. For a height of 4 m and below, the spacing should be 3 m; For heights of above 4 m, the spacing should be 1.5 m. Uprights

Uprights should be fitted when required by the nature, height or character be made of steel or other suitable material of adequate strength, taking
into account the breadth of the deck cargo; of the timber deck cargo. When uprights are fitted, they should:

be spaced at intervals not exceeding 3 m; be fixed to the deck by angles, metal sockets or equally sufficient means; and if deemed necessary, be further secured by a metal bracket to a strengthened point, i.e., bulwark, hatch coaming.

Stability Criteria for Timber carrier: a. The area under the righting lever (GZ curve) should not be less than 0.08 meter-radians up to q = 40 or the angle of flooding if this angle is less than 40. b. The maximum value of the righting lever (GZ) should be at least 0.25 m. c. At all times during a voyage the metacentric height GMo should be positive after correction for the free surface effects of liquid in tanks and, where appropriate, the absorption of water by the deck cargo and/or ice accretion on the exposed surfaces. Additionally, in the departure condition the metacentric height should be not less than 0.10 m.

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What is OLB? And what are the contents of the OLB Importance of Official Log Books Shows name of managing owners and masters on front cover Prescribed pages to indicate requirements of MSA regarding Emergency Drill, Inspection of accommodation; inspection of provisions & water; Entry of arrival/departure drafts and freeboard; Birth and death of person on board; desertion. List of crew's names against same ref no as in AA, rank and report of conduct. Entry in narrative sections for entry of abnormal events and activities. Most entries in OLB require Master and any other person usually the Ch Officers to witness/sign. Entries cannot be erased can only be superseded by another entry. OLB can be used as evidence and to support reports and claims. It is to be closed at the same time as the Art of Agreement.

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ISM The International Safety Management (ISM) Code means the International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention adopted by the International Maritime Organization Purpose of ISM: The ISM Code is the standard for establishing a system for the safe management and operation of vessels and for pollution prevention. It sets rules for the organization of the owner or company management in relation to safety and pollution prevention, and for the implementation of a Safety Management System (SMS).

Safety management system SMS means a structured and documented system enabling Company personnel to implement effectively the Company safety and environmental protection policy. Objectives The objectives of the Code are to ensure safety at sea, prevention of human injury or loss of life, and avoidance of damage to the environment, in particular to the marine environment and to property. Safety management objectives of the Company should, inter alia: Provide for safe practices in ship operation and a safe working environment; Establish safeguards against all identified risks; and Continuously improve safety management skills of personnel ashore and aboard ships, including preparing for emergencies related both to safety and environmental protection.

The safety management system should ensure: Compliance with mandatory rules and regulations; and That applicable code guidelines and standards recommended by the Organization, Administrations, classification societies and maritime industry organizations are taken into account. Application Chapter IX of SOLAS requires compliance to the ISM Code. It is mandatory for cargo ships over 500 Gross Tons, passenger ships, tankers, high-speed craft over 500GT and larger ships. Implemented in 1st July, 1998. Full force from 1st July 2002.

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The management company or owner ashore and the ship must comply with the requirements of the ISM Code, and the ship must be operated by a person or company holding a Document of Compliance.

The functional requirements of the SMS are: A safety and environmental protection policy. Instructions and procedures to ensure safe operation of ships and protection of the environment in compliance with relevant International and Flag State legislation. Defined levels of authority and lines of communication between, and amongst, shore and shipboard personnel. Procedures for reporting accidents and non-conformities with the provisions of the Code. Procedures to prepare for and respond to emergency situations. Procedures for internal audits and management reviews. DESIGNATED PERSONS ASHORE (DPA) The designated person(s) should be suitably qualified and experienced in the safety and pollution control aspects of ship operations. The Company should designate a person or persons ashore having direct access to the highest levels of management for the followings: To ensure the safe operation of each vessel To provide a link between the Company and those on board, To monitor the safety and pollution prevention aspects of the operation of the vessel. To ensure that adequate resources and shore based support are applied, as required. To conduct safety audit and provide/ monitor corrective actions.

MASTER'S RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITY The Company should clearly define and document the master's responsibility with regard to: Implementing the safety and environmental-protection policy of the Company; Motivating the crew in the observation of that policy; Issuing appropriate orders and instructions in a clear and simple manner; Verifying that specified requirements are observed; and Reviewing the safety management system and reporting its deficiencies to the shore-based management.
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The Company should ensure that the safety management system operating on board the ship contains a clear statement emphasizing the master's authority. The Company should establish in the safety management system that the master has the overriding authority and the responsibility to make decisions with respect to safety and pollution prevention and to request the Company's assistance as may be necessary.

INTERIM CERTIFICATION An Interim Document of Compliance may be issued to facilitate initial implementation of this Code when: A Company is newly established; or New ship types are to be added to an existing Document of Compliance, following verification that the Company has a safety management system that meets the objectives of this Code, provided the Company demonstrates plans to implement a safety management system meeting the full requirements of this Code within the period of validity of the Interim Document of Compliance. Such an Interim Document of Compliance should be issued for a period not exceeding 12 months by the Administration or by an organization recognized by the Administration or, at the request of the Administration, by another Contracting Government. A copy of the Interim Document of Compliance should be placed on board in order that the master of the ship, if so requested, may produce it for verification by the Administration or by an organization recognized by the Administration or for the purposes of the control referred to in regulation IX/6.2 of the Convention. The copy of the Document is not required to be authenticated or certified. An Interim Safety Management Certificate may be issued: To new ships on delivery; When a Company takes on responsibility for the operation of a ship which is new to the Company; or When a ship changes flag. Such an Interim Safety Management Certificate should be issued for a period not exceeding 6 months by the Administration or an organization recognized by the Administration or, at the request of the Administration, by another Contracting Government. An Administration or, at the request of the Administration, another Contracting Government may, in special cases, extend the validity of an Interim Safety Management Certificate for a further period which should not exceed 6 months from the date of expiry.
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An Interim Safety Management Certificate may be issued following verification that: The Document of Compliance, or the Interim Document of Compliance, is relevant to the ship concerned; The safety management system provided by the Company for the ship concerned includes key elements of this Code and has been assessed during the audit for issuance of the Document of Compliance or demonstrated for issuance of the Interim Document of Compliance; The Company has planned the audit of the ship within three months; The master and officers are familiar with the safety management system and the planned arrangements for its implementation; Instructions, which have been identified as being essential, are provided prior to sailing; and Relevant information on the safety management system has been given in a working language or languages understood by the ship's personnel.

WHAT ARE IN THE ANNEX IV DISTRESS SIGNALS 1. The following signals used or exhibited either together or separately, indicate distress and need of assistance: a. a gun or other explosive signal fired at intervals of about a minute; b. a continuous sounding with any fog-signalling apparatus; c. rockets or shells, throwing red stars fired one at a time at short intervals; d. a signal made by radiotelegraphy or by any other signalling method consisting of the group - - - (SOS) in the Morse Code; a. a signal sent by radiotelephony consisting of the spoken word Mayday; b. the International Code Signal of distress indicated by N.C.; c. a signal consisting of a square flag having above or below it a ball anything resembling a ball; d. flames on the vessel (as from a burning tar barrel, oil barrel, etc.); e. a rocket parachute flare or a hand flare showing a red light; f. a smoke signal giving off orange-coloured smoke; g. slowly and repeatedly raising and lowering arms outstretched to each side; h. the radiotelegraph alarm signal;
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i. j. k. 2. the radiotelephone alarm signal; signals transmitted by emergency position-indicating radio beacons; approved signals transmitted by radio communication systems, including survival craft radar transponders. The use or exhibition of any of the foregoing signals except for the purpose of indicating distress and need of assistance and the use of other signals which may be confused with any of the above signals is prohibited. Attention is drawn to the relevant sections of the International Code of Signals, the Merchant Ship Search and Rescue Manual and the following signals: a piece of orange-coloured canvas with either a black square and circle or other appropriate symbol (for identification from the air); a dye marker.

3.

a. b.

FORMAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT FSA Process of the actions taken before any disaster occurs. A rational and systematic for assessing risks associates with any activities onboard. Costs and benefits of different actions is also evaluated. It enables a balance to be drawn between the various technical and operational issues, including the human element and between safety and costs. Interim guidelines were adopted in 1997 and IMO Member States have been invited to carry out trials and report back to IMO. FSA consists of five steps. Identification of hazards: A list of all relevant accident scenarios with potential causes and outcomes. Assessment of risks: Evaluation of risk factors. Risk control options: Devising regulatory measures to control and reduce the identified risks. Cost benefit assessment: Determining cost effectiveness of each risk control option. Recommendations for decision-making: Information about the hazards, their associated risks and the cost effectiveness of alternative risk control options is provided.
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In simple terms, these steps can be reduced to: What might go wrong? = Identification of hazards (a list of all relevant accident scenarios with potential causes and outcomes) How bad and how likely? = Assessment of risks (evaluation of risk factors); Can matters be improved? = Risk control options (devising regulatory measures to control and reduce the identified risks) What would it cost and how much better would it be? = Cost benefit assessment (determining cost effectiveness of each risk control option); What actions should be taken? = Recommendations for decision-making (information about the hazards, their associated risks and the cost effectiveness of alternative risk control options is provided). About FSA Application of FSA may be particularly relevant to proposals for regulatory
measures that have far reaching implications in terms of costs to the maritime industry or the administrative or legislative burdens that may result. FSA is a structured and systematic methodology, aimed at enhancing maritime safety, including protection of life, health, the marine environment and property, by using risk and cost/benefit assessment. It can be used as tool to help in the evaluation of new regulations or making a comparison between existing and possibly improved regulations, with a view to achieving a balance between the various technical and operational issues including the human element, and between safety and costs. This is achieved by providing a clear justification for proposed regulatory measures and allowing comparison of different options of such measures to be made. This is in line with the basic philosophy of FSA in that it can be used as a tool to facilitate a transparent decision-making process. In addition, it provides a means of being proactive, enabling potential hazards to be considered before a serious accident occurs. FSA represents a fundamental change from what was previously a largely piecemeal and reactive regulatory approach to one which is proactive, integrated, and above all based on risk evaluation and management in a transparent and justifiable manner thereby encouraging greater compliance with the maritime regulatory framework, in turn leading to improved safety and environmental protection. FSA is highly technical and complex. But it does offer a way forward and a means of escaping from the dilemma of the past in which action was too often put off until something went wrong - with the result that the actions taken often owed more to public opinion and political considerations than they did to technical merit.

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Vessel Grounded Action? Immediate actions: Take the con. Follow emergency procedure as per company emergency procedure manual, which should include: Sound general emergency alarm. Stop Engines. Announce by PA. Head count, look for casualty and establish communication. Close watertight doors. Activate SOPEP and take preventive actions in case of any oil pollution. Order chief officer for damage assessment. Water tight integrity of hull and subsequent breaches of same. Obtain sounding form all tanks, bilges, hold Condition of machinery space. Check hull for damage. Determine which way deep water lies. Visually inspect compartments where possible Sound bilges and tanks. Sound around the ship to find possible point of grounding. Obtain following information from emergency teams: Details of casualties. Any fire risk Any other information regarding associate problems. On the bridge, the command team will do the followings: Maintained VHF watch. Exhibit light / shapes and any appropriate sound signals. Switch on deck lighting at night. Determine the vessels position. Obtain information on local currents and tides, particularly details of the rise and fall of the tide. Broadcast urgency or distress massage as required. Inform the accident with positions and time to the following parties: Local authorities. Owners, charterers. P & I club. Under-writer
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Next port agent. Class. (Emergency Technical Assistance Service) Make an accident report to MPA in the correct format.

Determine possibility of refloating the ship and take appropriate actions: Calculate height of tide and time of rise and fall. Reduce draught of ship: De-ballasting Jettisoning cargo Use main engines to maneuver. Obtain assistance from port authority, coast guard, salvage tugs. Subsequent legal and commercial actions: Try to minimize immediate danger such as pollution, fire etc. While taking tug assistance, consider: LOF, if the danger imminent. Salvage contract if the situation permits. Use all available means of the ship to refloat the vessel. Keep all records of incidents and actions. Appropriate records to be entered in: Deck log book Movement book Engine log book Telegraph recorder Echo sounder graph. Used chart Entry to be made in official log book. Record of all damage and subsequent actions. Prepare a statement of fact of all the happenings. Prepare a note of protest, stating the facts only. If it is possible to refloat the vessel, consider deviating to port of refuge.

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PASSAGE PLANNING IN PLANNING STAGE, WHAT WILL YOU INSTRUCTS YOUR SECOND OFFICER Checking a Passage Plan: 1) The following checks should be made while checking a passage plan: 2) All voyage charts are corrected upto the latest NTM available including T&P Notices. 3) All voyage publications are corrected upto the latest NTM. 4) Largest scale charts are available and are being used especially during coasting. 5) Latest Met/Nav. Warning are identified and plotted on chart. 6) The reliability of charts (e.g. Survey dates, date of publishing) has been taken into account. 7) Errors of datum shift is taken into account. 8) NO GO AREAS has been marked appropriately. 9) True courses plotted on the charts are clear of all dangers, taking into account vessels deepest navigational draft, minimum UKC and controlling depth. 10) Places of tidal streams and strong currents are identified and clearly marked on the appropriate charts. 11) Calculation for squat at different speeds of the vessel is done. 12) Contingencies have been identified at each leg of passage and shown on chart, such as abort point, point of no-return and contingency anchorages. 13) Bridge manning levels and position fixing methods (primary and secondary) identified at various legs of the passage plan. 14) Radar conspicuous objects, transit bearings, clearing bearings/ranges and indexing lines are marked on chart. 15) Course/Speed alteration points taking into consideration, advance/transfer, w/o positions marked. 16) Points where change of machinery status is required. (e.g. Standby Engines, Change over to manual steering, etc.) are marked properly. 17) Reporting points with reference to mandatory or voluntary ship reporting systems (Pilot stations, port control, VTIS, etc.) are marked. 18) Places where less depth may be encountered shall be marked with Echo sounder on & monitor UKC. 19) Pilot embarkation/disembarkation points, points where anchor or mooring stations to be standby are marked. 20) All courses transferred on charts are correct and distance and ETA to each point is shown. 21) Tidal predictions are included at all critical positions. 22) Focal points of heavy traffic are marked.
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23) Places where master to be called and master to be on bridge are clearly marked. 24) MARPOL Special areas are marked. HOW WILL YOU LAUNCH YOUR LIFEBOAT IN HEAVY WEATHER Preparation Some steadying method to be used so that the life boat does not land hard against the ship side. Prevent the fall blocks to hit ship crew or lifeboat. Boat crews must wear life jacket, helmet and immersion suit in cold climate for rescuing operation. Sea quelling oil may be used to reduce the seas. Vessel to create a good lee. Wind to be on the opposite bow. Ship plugs. Lower lifeboat into the trough of a wave. On the next rising crest, release the hooks immediately and simultaneously. Cast off the painter once clear. Bear off the ship's side with tiller, oars or boat hook. Engine is started before the release of blocks and kept neutral. Once lifeboat is underway, tiller put against ship's side and with full throttle clear off the ship. Precautions Rig fenders, mattresses or mooring ropes to prevent the boat from being staved during an adverse roll. A cargo net, slung between davits and trailing in the water for crew to hang on in case the boat capsize alongside. It should not hamper the operation of the boat. The painter is rigged and kept tight throughout so as to keep the boat in position between the falls. The falls are loosely tied with a line, led to the deck and manned. When the boat is unhooked, the line will steady the falls and prevent accidental contact with the boat crews. Once unhooked, the blocks should be taken up to avoid injuring the crews in lifeboat.

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Have you heard UNCLOS? Tell me what it is? The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, a treaty document which attempts to codify the international law of the sea. It came into force internationally on 16 November 1994. It sets the width of the Territorial Sea at 12 nautical miles, with a Contiguous Zone at 24 nautical miles from the baseline. It defines innocent passage through the Territorial Sea and defines transit passage through international straits. It defines Archipelagic States and allows for passage through Archipelagic Waters. It establishes Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) extending to 200 nautical miles from baselines. It defines the Continental Shelf and extends jurisdiction over the resources of the shelf beyond 200 miles where appropriate. It defines the legal status of the High Seas and establishes regulations for the control of marine pollution. What zones of coastal state jurisdiction does UNCLOS provide for? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Internal Waters Territorial Sea Archipelagic Waters Contiguous Zone Fisheries Limits Continental Shelf; and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).

Internal waters Waters on the landward side of the baseline of the territorial sea form part of the internal waters of the State. Breadth of the territorial sea Every State has the right to establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a limit not exceeding 12 nautical miles, measured from baselines. Normal baseline Except where otherwise provided in this Convention, the normal baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea is the low-water line along the coast as marked on large-scale charts officially recognized by the coastal State.

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Roadsteads Roadsteads which are normally used for the loading, unloading and anchoring of ships, and which would otherwise be situated wholly or partly outside the outer limit of the territorial sea, are included in the territorial sea.

Contiguous zone In a zone contiguous to its territorial sea, described as the contiguous zone, the coastal State may exercise the control necessary to: a. prevent infringement of its customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations within its territory or territorial sea; b. punish infringement of the above laws and regulations committed within its territory or territorial sea.

The contiguous zone may not extend beyond 24 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.

What types of Fisheries Zone does UNCLOS provide for? Although not specifically mentioned in UNCL OS, there is a recognised Inshore Fisheries Zone (IFZ) of 12 nautical miles within which the coastal state may exercise exclusive rights to living resources. Beyond this is the Extended Fisheries Zone (EFZ) extending to a maximum distance of 200 nautical miles and within which coastal states may exercise preferential rights over fish stocks. (The UK claims an EFZ of 200 nautical miles but does not recognise claims to Fisheries Zones exceeding 200 nautical miles.) What is a 'Continental Shelf'? A resource zone (but not a security zone), which is defined geologically. It may extend well beyond 200 nautical miles from the baseline. (A maximum of 350 nautical miles is specified.) It does not form part of the territory of the coastal state and the seas above the continental shelf remain 'high seas' if an EFZ is declared (but not if an EEZ is declared). The UK claims jurisdiction over its Continental Shelf. What is an 'EEZ'? An Exclusive Economic Zone, within which the coastal state has rights and duties in relation to natural resources. Freedom of navigation is the same as on the high seas, but in the interests of safety near offshore installations, coastal states may restrict navigation in the EEZ.
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How far from the baseline can a coastal state's EEZ extend? To a maximum of 200 nautical miles from the baseline Where the coastal state has declared an EEZ, where do High Seas commence? If an EEZ has been declared, the coastal state's rights and jurisdiction are increased to the extent that the zone can no longer be described as 'high seas. (If there is no EEZ, high seas commence where territorial seas end.)

Explain you understanding of Innocent Passage. What rights do you have? What rights does the country have under whose jurisdiction you are presently? 1. Passage is innocent so long as it is not prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of the coastal State. Such passage shall take place in conformity with this Convention and with other rules of international law. 2. Passage of a foreign ship shall be considered to be prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of the coastal State if in the territorial sea it engages in any of the following activities: a. any threat or use of force against the sovereignty, territorial integrity or political independence of the coastal State, or in any other manner in violation of the principles of international law embodied in the Charter of the United Nations; b. any exercise or practice with weapons of any kind; c. any act aimed at collecting information to the prejudice of the defence or security of the coastal State; d. any act of propaganda aimed at affecting the defence or security of the coastal State; e. the launching, landing or taking on board of any aircraft; f. the launching, landing or taking on board of any military device; g. the loading or unloading of any commodity, currency or person contrary to the customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations of the coastal State; h. any act of wilful and serious pollution contrary to this Convention; i. any fishing activities; j. the carrying out of research or survey activities;

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k. l. any act aimed at interfering with any systems of communication or any other facilities or installations of the coastal State; any other activity not having a direct bearing on passage.

Purse seine Gear used by fishing vessel

Demersal fishing gear

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Pelagic longline:

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Draw the diagram and explain how you will perform Anderson Turn? The Anderson turn is a maneuver used to bring a ship or boat back to a point it previously passed through, often for the purpose of recovering a man overboard, an emergency situation in almost all circumstances. The Anderson turn is most appropriate when the point to be reached remains clearly visible. For other situations, a Scharnov turn or a Williamson turn might be more appropriate. Both will require more time before returning to the point in question. 1. 2. If the turn is in response to a man overboard, stop the engines. Put the rudder over full. If in response to a man overboard, put the rudder toward the person (e.g., if the person fell over the starboard side, put the rudder over full to starboard). When clear of the person, go all ahead full, still using full rudder. After deviating from the original course by about 240 degrees (about 2/3 of a complete circle), back the engines 2/3 or full. Stop the engines when the target point is 15 degrees off the bow. Ease the rudder and back the engines as required.

3. 4. 5.

If dealing with a man overboard, always bring the vessel upwind of the person. Stop the vessel in the water with the person well forward of the propellers

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Williamson turn The Williamson turn is a maneuver used to bring a ship under power back to a point it previously passed through, often for the purpose of recovering a man overboard. The Williamson turn is most appropriate at night or in reduced visibility, or if the point can be allowed to go (or already has gone) out of sight, but is still relatively near. For other situations, an Anderson turn (quickest method) or a Scharnov turn might be more appropriate. The choice will in large part depend on prevailing wind and weather conditions. 1. 2. Put the rudder over full. If in response to a man overboard, put the rudder toward the person (e.g., if the person fell over the starboard side, put the rudder over starboard full). After deviating from the original course by about 60 degrees, shift the rudder full to the opposite side. When heading about 20 degrees short of the reciprocal, put the rudder amidships so that vessel will turn onto the reciprocal course. Bring the vessel upwind of the person, stop the vessel in the water with the person alongside, well forward of the propellers.

3. 4. 5.

If dealing with a man overboard, always bring the vessel upwind of the person. Stop the vessel in the water with the person well forward of the propellers.

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Scharnov turn The Scharnov turn is most appropriate when the point to be reached is significantly further astern than the vessel's turning radius. For other situations, an Anderson turn or a Williamson turn might be more appropriate. 1. Put the rudder over hard. If in response to a man overboard, put the rudder toward the person (e.g., if the person fell over the starboard side, put the rudder over hard to starboard). 2. After deviating from the original course by about 240 degrees, shift the rudder hard to the opposite side. 3. When heading about 20 degrees short of the reciprocal course, put the rudder amidships so that vessel will turn onto the reciprocal course. If dealing with a man overboard, always bring the vessel upwind of the person. Stop the vessel in the water with the person well forward of the propellers.

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Received a distress 50nm off state actions and plans, State defence if cannot go Upon receiving a distress alert 50 miles off Check distress position and own ships position. If able to provide assistance without endangering own ship and crew: On receipt of distress alert Listen on VHF CH-16 for 5 minutes. If RCC does not acknowledge, acknowledge alert by radiotelephony (CH16). Inform CS and/or RCC. Enter details in log. Reset system. Establish plain language communication as soon as possible and obtain details of distressed vessel such as: Identity Position Course Speed Nature of distress Type of assistance required. Provide the distressed vessel my following information: Identity Position Course Speed ETA at the scene Distressed vessels bearing and distance. I will contact RCC / SMC via coast radio station. I will take required onboard preparation for search and rescue. If I cannot find any survivor after going to the scene, I will report to RCC and conduct a search. When master is not obliged to assist When vessel is unable to rescue, e.g., vessel does not have enough bunker. When it is unreasonable e.g., the distance is so far the vessel will rake 4/5 days to rescue, but that place is a traffic dense place and survivors may be easily picked by other vessel.

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When it is unnecessary, e.g., a man overboard in ice/cold region and distance is so far that vessel will take long time to go there. So it is impossible for a man to survive in this situation. If the vessel has not been requisitioned by the master of distress vessel, but more other ships have been requisitioned and they are complying with the requisition. The master of a requisitioned vessel will be released from the obligation if he is informed by the distressed vessel or by the search and rescue service or by the master of another vessel which has reached the distressed position that assistance is no longer required.

Demurrage A sum of liquidated damages which becomes payable by charterers to owners for each day, or part thereof if stipulated, that the ship is detained beyond the time of expiry of laytime. A Demurrage Clause may state the number of days and the rate payable, usually in US dollars per day. Demurrage is normally paid per running day, i.e. without exclusion of any Sundays, holidays, or bad weather, strikes, etc., occurring during the detention period - hence the wellknown expression 'once on demurrage, always on demurrage Dispatch A monetary reward, normally payable by owners to charterers, for completion of cargo operations within the agreed laytime period. Early completion may give owners an opportunity to complete the voyage early and fix the vessel on another charter, and is obviously also to charterers' benefit. The rate for despatch is stated in the Demurrage and Dispatch Clause and is usually half the demurrage rate for all time saved, which means that the laytime exclusions (for weather, etc.) are not taken into account after the completion of cargo. If for working time saved, laytime exclusions must be taken into account.

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Smelling the ground The effect of water pressure against the bows from the presence of shelving water on one side, causing the bows to swing away into deeper water, is the phenomenon known as smelling the ground. In a narrow passage or canal it can produce a dangerous sheer towards the opposite shore or bank, but it can be beneficial if the water opposite the shoal is deep add safe. The effect is most marked if the bottom shelves steeply. If in shallow waters and with great speed, the effect of squat is amplified. There is very less water below the keel and also there is reduced water flow by way of the rudder, thus the following may be experienced, the requirement is to slow down: Increased vibrations Rudder sluggish Vessel tending to take a sheer Mud being churned up aft Acutely a sharp drop in speed.

Squat Squat is defined as the reduction of under-keel clearance resulting from bodily sinkage and change of trim, which occurs when a ship moves through the water. The effect of squat is noticed only in shallow waters and then it is a potential hazard. Entering and navigating a canal/ river or a narrow channel without having taken the squat into account can lead to grounding in the extreme case or may damage the propeller blades.

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Cavitations may take place at the propellers due to lack of water flowing past the propeller and rudder. The effect of squat is to sink the ship bodily as well as to trim her gently by the stern. It is accentuated by increase in speed and the only way to avoid be grounded on some occasions is to reduce the speed, when the underwater clearance allows the ship to pass over the shallow patch. Shallow water effects are magnified by squat. The amount by which a ship would squat depends upon the: Speed of the ship The underwater cross section of the ship and The cross section area of the sea area through which the ship is transiting The ratio of the ships underwater cross section to the cross section of the sea area is called the blockage factor and as this ration increases the squat increases.

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Bow cushion and bank suction effect: Occurs in narrow channels near proximities of banks. There is a tendency for the bow of a ship to be pushed away from the bank, called bow cushion. The ship moves bodily towards the bank, which appears at the stern, called bank suction. Caused by the restricted flow of water on the bank's side. Velocity of water to the bank increases and pressure reduces. Results in drop of water level towards the bank. As a result, a thrust is set up towards bank. A vessel approaching to the bank will have to apply helm to the bank and reduce speed to prevent the sheer from developing.

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Snub round turn A descriptive term for a manoeuvre, where a ship turns on its anchor when deployed at short stay.

WHAT IS CLASIFICATION SOCIETY AND HOW THEY WORK Classification Societies The construction of merchant ships is considerably influenced and regulated by a number of organisations and their various requirements. Classification societies, with their rules and regulations relating to classification, provide a set of standards for sound merchant ship construction which have developed over many years. These rules are based on experience, practical knowledge and considerable research and investigation. A classification society exists to classify or `arrange in order of merit' such ships as are built according to its rules or are offered for classification. A classed ship is therefore considered to have a particular standard of seaworthiness. All the major maritime nations have their own societies, examples include, Lloyds in the UK, and ABS in USA. Consultation takes place on matters of common interest through the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS). The classification societies operate by publishing rules and regulations relating to the structural efficiency and the reliability of propelling machinery and equipment. These rules are a result of years of experience, research and investigation into ship design and construction. They are in fact a set of standards. There is no compulsion on a ship owner to have his ship classed. However the insurance premiums depend upon the class of a ship - the higher the standard the lower the premium. Also a classed ship is shown to be of sound construction and a safe means of transport of cargo and passengers. Some of the functions of all classification societies are: To ensure that the ship maintains her strength and seaworthiness throughout her life. Check that the vessel complies with international codes and conventions. Publishes a register book. Collection of data on behaviour of ship structures. Damage surveys.
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Surveys of the various machinery on ships. Inspection of land based engineering projects. Research of ship problems. Technical investigations of problems in service. Risk and reliability analysis and quality assurance inspections.

Ship Classification Standards set for the classification of ships (by classification societies) are based on experience, research, technical knowledge and information gained by regular communication with its customers. The society has the responsibility of ensuring that these standards are met during the design and construction of the vessel and are maintained during the working life of the vessel. To ensure that the vessel maintains the standards that are set as per class rules she will have to undergo surveys and these will provide for: Structural strength of all material parts of the hull and where necessary watertight integrity. Safety and reliability of steering and propulsion systems. Effectiveness of other features and auxiliary systems built into ships, in order to safely carry appropriate cargoes and personnel when at sea, moored or at anchor. Why Class a Ship? The owner wishes to ensure that he is getting value for money, i.e. a sound ship built to internationally accepted standards, to ensure favourable charter arrangements and insurance rates for the ship, to ensure that the vessel is maintained to international standards throughout its working life. Classification Societies in Singapore The Societies that have their offices in Singapore include: America Bureau of Shipping (ABS). Lloyds Register of Shipping (LR). Bureau VERITAS (BV). Det Norske VERITAS (DNV). Germanischer Lloyd (GL). Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (NKK). Registro Italiano Navale.
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Withdrawal/suspension of class conditions include owners request regulations as regards surveys on hull equipment or machinery have not been complied with when defects to hull/machinery have not been rectified as per the societies regulations when the vessel proceeds to sea with less freeboard other than approved by the committee or the freeboard marks are placed higher on the sides than approved by the committee when a specialised ship is being operated in a manner contrary to that agreed at the time of classification COC (condition of class) Issued to a classed vessel. Issued by classification society surveyor. Enables the vessel to proceed to voyage when as per surveyor: The vessel is fit. In efficient condition. Certificates will embody surveyors recommendation for continuance of class. Subjected to the confirmation of the committee.

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TYPES of Fog 1. 2. 3. 4. Advection fog Sea Smoke Radiation fog Frontal fog

Advection Fog Advection fog develops as a result of a mass of warm air, with a high relative humidity value, moving horizontally (hence the term advection) over a cooler surface, whose temperature is below the dew-point temperature of the air. As a result of conduction aided by turbulence, the air is cooled below its dew-point temperature. Water vapour condenses, the water droplets producing the mist/fog condition. At sea advection often termed sea fog, occurs at certain times of the year. In northern latitudes, the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and the North Pacific zones are notorious particularly in July, when warm air from the south-west and south pass over the cold waters of the Labrador, and the Oyo Shio or Aleutian Currents respectively. Sea fog also occurs in lower latitudes during the summer in the region of the cold California, Canary, Peru and Benguela Currents. Sea fog not only develops where cold currents exist. But also where there are favorable conditions of wind speed, air and sea surface temperatures. Examples are the spring and early summer fogs of the Western Approaches to the British Isles, where the south-westerly warm air stream from the Azores moves over the sea which at this time of the year, is at its lowest temperature. In the North Sea. Sea fog develops during the summer when warm northeast, east and sometimes south-easterly winds from Europe pass over the colder sea surface. Along the east coast of the British Isles this sea fog is called haar or sea fret. On land, warm air moving over cold surfaces may also produce advection fog. In the British Isles this usually occurs in winter through advection of a warm air stream from the Azores. At this time of year advection fog also develops over the southern and eastern areas of the United States of America, when warm air is advected from the Gulf of Mexico and the Bermuda region.
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Sea fog is a frequent threat to the seafarer and its prediction is therefore important. As sea and dew-point temperatures are critical in its formation, their observation at frequent intervals is recommended, and should be recorded in graphical form. By drawing straight lines to establish the trend of each temperature. It is possible to determine the point of intersection, which indicates when fog may be encountered.

Sea Smoke Sea smoke, arctic sea smoke, frost smoke, or steam fog is present when the surface of the sea has a steaming or smoky appearance. This fog is often patchy and extends to a limited height above the surface, with good visibility at bridge level but poor from the upper deck. The condition is caused by the movement of cold air over a warmer surface, the temperature difference usually being of the order of 10C, although given favorable wind conditions it may occur with smaller differences. The air immediately above the surface is heated and becomes saturated through evaporation from the surface. It ascends and mixes with colder unsaturated air above. Since the mixture is supersaturated, condensation occurs and the water droplets form sea smoke. The wind speed associated with the formation of sea smoke may vary from very low to gale force. Higher speeds are more favorable when the temperature difference is small, as they ensure a continuous supply of cold air immediately above the surface. Off the cast coasts of the North American and Asian Continents Sea smoke occurs during the winter months, when cold air from the continent passes over estuaries, coastal waters, and adjacent ocean areas. During winter it occurs in the Baltic Sea which is surrounded by a colder land mass, and in higher latitudes it is associated with cold winds from the Arctic Basin and the ice covered sea areas to the south. In lower latitudes it occurs occasionally in the Gulf of Mexico and off Hong Kong. ( Arctic sea smoke could be harmful because cant see small boats which are of less heights)

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Radiation Fog Radiation fog is a land based fog in its development. Clear skies. a high relative humidity, very low wind speeds and a relatively long period during which the air can cool are the most suitable conditions for its formation. The clear sky condition allows the maximum loss of long wave radiation from the surface during the night. Surface temperatures decrease rapidly and the air immediately above is cooled through conduction aided by turbulence. Once the air is cooled below its dew-point temperature, condensation occurs and radiation fog is produced. Since the length of the cooling period is critical, radiation fog is more common during the autumn and winter in mid and high latitudes e.g. in the British isles. Radiation fog will affect visibility at sea if it drifts over estuaries and coastal waters as a result of light offshore winds. Radiation fog may disperse as a result of an increase in land surface temperature during the day, since the surface heats the air immediately above, and lowers its relative humidity. An increase in wind speed can also cause dispersal since it overturns the air. In tropical regions, radiation fog is comparatively rare at sea level, but may be experienced over river estuaries during the early hours of the morning. The fog develops during the night over adjacent river banks, where the air has a high relative humidity due to the presence of open water.

Frontal Fog Is a type of fog that is associated with weather fronts, particularly warm fronts. This type of fog develops when frontal precipitation falling into the colder air ahead of the warm front causes the air to become saturated through evaporation.

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What is the difference between GA & PA? Who are the parties involved in GA & PA? Give example of GA & PA? Particular Average A partial loss of the subject-matter insured caused by a peril against which is not a general average loss; or An accidental partial loss of insured property; General average sacrifices and expenditures, particular charges and salvage charges do not arise by accident and, therefore, are not included in particular average; A particular average loss falls directly upon the party interested in the subject-matter; Examples of particular average loss are: 1. Straining of ship in bad weather; 2. Loss of masts through heavy weather; 3. Damage to hull, machinery or cargo due to heavy weather or fire; 4. Damage to ship or cargo due to collision or stranding; etc. General Average: In marine insurance, in the case of a partial loss or emergency repairs to the vessel, average may be declared. This covers situations where, for example, a ship in a storm might have to jettison certain cargo to protect the ship and the remaining cargo. "General Average" requires all parties concerned in the venture (Hull/Cargo/Freight/Bunkers) to contribute to compensate the losses caused to those whose cargo has been lost or damaged YORK-ANTWERP RULES 1994 A set of internationally-recognised rules, drawn up to enable the assessment of GA contribution. The rules are not incorporated into national law but are voluntarily and mutually accepted by shippers, owners and insurers. The rules are generally incorporated into the contract of carriage by means of a General Average Clause. The rules consist of 7 lettered rules (A to G) stating the general principles of GA and 22 numbered rules (I to XXII) dealing with detailed settlement of GA.

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The rules define a GA act as: ''There is a GA act when, and only when, any extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure is intentionally and reasonably made or incurred for the common safety for the purpose of preserving from peril the property involved in a common maritime adventure''. No allowance for sacrifice unless reasonably made. All persons claiming GA shall give in writing to Average loss adjuster of the claimed contribution within 12 months from the date of maritime adventure.

Elements of GA (under YARs) (1) The sacrifice or expenditure must be extraordinary. (2) The sacrifice or expenditure must be reasonable. (3) The act must be intentional or voluntary and not inevitable. (4) There must be a peril. (5) The action taken must be for the common safety and not merely for the safety of part of the property involved. Examples of GA acts 1. Taking a tow to a port of refuge after a major machinery failure. 2. Jettisoning or discharging cargo to aid refloating after stranding. 3. Extinguishing a fire. 4. Wetting previously undamaged cargo while extinguishing a fire. 5. Beaching a ship to avoid foundering. 6. Putting into a port of refuge during a loaded voyage due to fire, shifting of cargo, collision, grounding, leakage, etc. 7. Putting into a port of refuge to effect essential hull or machinery repairs. Examples of GA sacrifices (1) Damaging engine, propeller or hull in refloating operations. (2) Jettison of cargo from under deck. (3) Jettison of cargo carried on deck by a recognised custom of trade. (4) Slipping an anchor and cable to avoid a collision. Examples of GA expenditures (1) Cost of hiring a tug to refloat a stranded ship with cargo on board. (2) Cost of discharging cargo to refloat a stranded ship or to carry out repairs at port of refuge. (3) Salvage costs. (4) Agency fees at a POR. (5) Surveyors' fee.
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(6) (7) (8) (9) Warehousing charges. Port charges. Master's and crew wages while a ship is being repaired. Average adjuster's fee.

P.A Procedure Inform owners and P & I club correspondent; Note protest; In case of hull or machinery damage, notify underwriters or the nearest Lloyd's agent; Arrange for damage survey by classification surveyor; Inform the underwriter surveyor to attend the damage survey; On receipt of class surveyor's report, advertise for tenders according to notice of claim and tender clause; Tenders should only accepted with guidance from underwriter surveyor; Carry out repairs under class and underwriter surveyors' guidance; On completion of repairs, arrange survey and obtain 'Interim Certificate of Class' or 'Certificate of Seaworthiness'; Port agent will pay repairers. Let the underwriter surveyor see the accounts before paying. G.A Procedure Inform owners and P & I club correspondent. Note protest. Declare G.A at discharging port. Appoint average adjuster and get his advice. Obtain average bonds or average guarantees from cargo owners or cargo underwriters. Discharge cargo under survey. The average adjuster will assess the various contributory values for each party. All details entered in OLB.

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What is Lien? How many types of Lien? LIEN Lien is the right of a person to retain the possession of goods, properties or securities of other until a liability is satisfied. Three types of lien are: (1) Possessory lien; (2) Maritime Lien; and (3) Equitable lien. Possessory lien can be divided into: a. Particular lien and b. General lien. Particular Lien A particular lien is the right of a person in possession of the goods to retain possession of them for money owing in respect of those goods; Such a lien arises: 1. when the person in possession has bestowed labour, skill or expense in altering or improving the goods; 2. where the person in receiving has been obliged to receive the goods or render the service which has given rise to the lien; 3. where the person in receiving has saved the goods from loss. At common law, a person enforcing a particular lien has no right to sell the goods; He may retain them until his charges are settled; Once he parts with either actual or constructive possession of the goods his right of lien is lost; In a contract for the carriage of goods by sea, the shipowner has a common law possessory lien on the cargo for: 1. unpaid freight; 2. general average charges; & 3. money spent in protecting the cargo.

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General Lien General lien is the right which arises by common law or by contract, to retain the goods not only for money owing in respect of those goods, but also for any other sum owing. Examples of general lien are: 1. a solicitor's lien over all the papers of his client except his will; 2. a factor's lien on the goods of his principal. Maritime Lien is a claim on a ship, her cargo or both as well as the freight earned, in respect of some service performed to them or some injury caused by any of them. it can be enforced by the arrest and sale of the property, regardless of the changes of the ownership, renaming, etc. Maritime liens are of two classes, namely: 1. contractual liens and 2. damage liens. Contractual Lien a contractual lien is one incorporated by a term in the contract such as: 1. bottomry 2. respondentia 3. salvage 4. seamen's wages 5. master's wages 6. master's claim for wrongful dismissal 7. master's claim for disbursements 8. fault in grounding in which coasts have been polluted 9. payment for services provided by repairer, bunker supplier, harbour authority etc. Damage Lien damage lien is a maritime lien that arises mainly out of collision damage but: 1. damage must be done by the ship (not by the crew) 2. it must be in support of personal action 3. wrongful act or the neglect of the owner or his servant must be proved
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4. suit must be brought within 2 years from the accident.

Equitable Lien The right to have certain property applied in a particular manner; It exists irrespective of possession and confers on the holder the right to a judicial sale; e.g. Partnership lien. Difference between a 'common law lien' and a 'contractual lien' A common law lien exists independently of contract. It is implied, i.e. it does not need to be expressly stated in the contract; whereas A contractual lien is one incorporated by a term in the contract.

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Anabatic wind: Anabatic wind, also called upslope wind, local air current that blows up a hill or mountain slope facing the Sun. During the day, the Sun heats such a slope (and the air over it) faster than it does the adjacent atmosphere over a valley or a plain at the same altitude. This warming decreases the density of the air, causing it to rise. More air rises from below to replace it, producing a wind. An anabatic wind often attains a velocity of 35 metres per second (711 miles per hour). Katabatic wind: Katabatic wind, also called downslope wind, or gravity wind, wind that blows down a slope because of gravity. It occurs at night, when the highlands radiate heat and are cooled. The air in contact with these highlands is thus also cooled, and it becomes denser than the air at the same elevation but away from the slope; it therefore begins to flow downhill. This process is most pronounced in calm air because winds mix the air and prevent cold pockets from forming. When a Katabatic wind is warmed by compression during its descent into denser air, it is called a foehn. A large-scale katabatic wind that descends too rapidly to warm up is called a fall wind. In areas where fall winds occur, homes and orchards are situated on hill slopes above the lowlands where the cold air accumulates.

Disable ship Towing arrangement procedure, preparation & precautions Following reasons may cause a vessel to be towed in a long distance towage: Poor steering ability in the proximity of navigational hazards. Loss of steering. Loss of propulsion power. INITIAL ACTIONS BY MASTER Display NUC light or shape. Assess the distance from the nearest danger. Calculate the estimated time as per the present drift to the danger. Obtain weather forecast. Actions to be taken to save persons onboard. Assess actions to take to save life of persons onboard and/or the ship. Carry out repairs. Advise owner about the present situation and actions taken.

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Seek owner's advice and remind them to inform underwriters about the situation. Adopt measures to get the persons onboard to safety.

SECONDARY ACTIONS Adopt means of reducing drift. This may involve lowering down the anchors, using thrusters. Prepare the vessel for grounding or bad weather, if applicable. Inform the present situation to the vessels in vicinity that own ship is NUC, position, direction and rate of drift. Inform shore authorities if the vessel is drifting towards the shore and if there is likelihood of any oil spill. Consider negotiating a tow to a safe port. Make appropriate log book entries. FACTORS TO TAKE WHILE NEGOTIATING TOWAGE While negotiating a deep sea towage, following factors to be considered: Condition of the towing vessel, her power, towing arrangements, whether she will be able to tow safely. Is the towing vessel professional in this field? Type of contract is there with the towing vessel. The port to be towed. Is the port safe? Salvage award does not depend only if the ship is towed. It also depends on the effort put on by the towing vessel and the risk taken to save the ship/ environment. If repair works can be done in the intended port.

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Paramount clause? Paramount clause (Voy. Charter; B.L) Common Law absolute warranty of seaworthiness has been modified by the Hague Rules (COGSA) to require that the ship-owner only has to exercise due diligence before and at the commencement of the voyage to make a vessel seaworthy and this is provided for in the Bill of Lading but not in the charter party. In order that the owner of the vessel operating under a charter party may acquire this and the other rights and exceptions granted by COGSA, a clause Paramount is included in the charter party to incorporate Hague Rules or COGSA.

What are warranty, Expressed and Implied warranty? Warranty A contractual undertaking, or promise, given by one party to the other. E.g. in a Charter party the ship owner might warrant that his ship will be classed with a certain society and that class will be maintained, while the charterer might warrant that he will not load dangerous or hazardous cargoes. Express warranty is stipulated in the contract warranted .. That some thing or condition to be fulfilled. Implied warranty will not be in the policy but understood to be required by law.

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Note of protest, when to extend Note of Protest is the true declaration by the master of the ship that due to circumstances beyond his control and despite his due diligence, loss or damage may have or have resulted to ship or cargo. When to note Protest (1) During the voyage, the vessel has encountered heavy weather conditions which may result in cargo damage; (2) During the voyage, the vessel has encountered heavy weather conditions which caused failure to make a cancelling date; (3) The ship is in anyway damaged (or) there is reason to suspected damage to the ship may have occurred; (4) Normal ventilation of perishable cargo not possible due to bad weather; (5) Cargo shipped in condition that it is likely to be damaged during the voyage; (6) Charterer (or his agent) commits serious breach of charter party terms; (7) Consignees fail to discharge cargo, take delivery or pay freight according to B/L or C/P terms. (8) General average act has occurred during the voyage. Procedure for noting protest (1) Protest made before Notary Public, Magistrate, Consular Office or other authority; (2) Noted as soon as possible, in any case within 24 hrs arrival port; (3) If in connection with cargo, it should be noted before breaking bulk; (4) Statements under Oath taken from the master and other crew members; Statements supported by log book entries and supporting evidence as necessary; (5) At least three true and certified copies obtained; One copy retained on board and the others sent to owners; (6) Protest shall be noted at each discharging port and not just at 1st port of call; (7) When noting protest, the master shall reserve the 'Right to Extend'; (8) If damage found later, it is necessary to extend protest. Extended Protest When noting protest, it is often impossible to ascertain the full extent of loss or damage, and therefore the master shall reserve the right to extend; If damage found later, an extended protest should be made; Extension need not be made in the same place as the original protest was made;
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It must be in strict conformity with local law regarding time limits & contents; Go to another Notary Public, Magistrate, Consular office or other authority with original protest and relevant documents; The extension is entered, witnessed, signed and sealed in the same manner as the initial protest; Pay fee and receipt obtained.

LETTER OF PROTEST Letter of Protest is a written communication intended to record dissatisfaction on the part of one party concerning any operational matter over which recipient or other party has control, and holding the other party responsible for the consequences of the matter being complained of; Letter of protest should be typed or hand-written by the master; The letter should always end in an appropriate formal manner, (e.g. when there is a discrepancy between ships & shore cargo figures: 'The undersigned hereby declares that the Bill of Lading will be signed under protest'); Issue original to other party and retain copies for ships file, agent and owners. When to send a letter of protest (1) There is a discrepancy between ship's and shore cargo figures; (2) Rate of loading or discharging is too slow / too fast; (3) Berth or fendering arrangements are inadequate; (4) Dockers are misusing ship's equipment and ignoring duty officer's advice; (5) Passing vessels caused ranging, wash damage, etc., whilst loading / discharging; (6) Any other situation where the master whishes to formally record his dissatisfaction with arrangements over which the other party has some control. The ship will receive a Letter of Protest when: 1. discharged cargo quantity does not match the B.L quantity; 2. the ship is discharging too slow; 3. the specification, color, temperature, etc. of discharged cargo is wrong; 4. making smoke in port; 5. after the ship has allegedly caused damage to a quay or other properly.
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When a Letter of Protest is given: (1) Sign it `FOR RECEIPT ONLY`; (2) Return the original to the sender; (3) File the ship's copy. Describe warm front, cold front & occlusion? Fronts Early weather charts consisted simply of station plots and isobars, with the weather being written as comments, like 'Rain, heavy at times'. During the 1920s, a group of Scandinavian meteorologists, known collectively as the Bergen School, developed the concept of representing the atmosphere in terms of air masses. Since the air masses could be considered as being in conflict with each other, the term 'front' was used to describe the boundary between them. Three types of front were identified which depend on the relative movement of the air masses. Cold Front A cold front marks the leading edge of an advancing cold air mass. On a synoptic chart a cold front appear as a blue line with triangles. The direction in which the triangles point is the direction in which the front is moving.

Cold Fronts Characteristics Cold air replacing warm air. Generally moves from NW to SE. Behind cold front air is colder & drier. When a cold front passes through, temp can drop even by >15C. Slope / gradient of the Cold front is 1:50.
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Slow moving cold fronts have gentle gradient. Average speed of cold front is about 25 kts. Cold air wedges under warm air & forces warm air to rise upward. As moist air rises upward, forms cloud. Cumuliform cloud appears far in advance. At front - narrow layer of Cb produces heavy shower with gusty wind. Behind front sky is clear or have fair wx Cu. Behind front air cools more quickly & have more clouds & causes heavy precipitation. If rising air is dry, scattered cloud & no precipitation.

Warm Front A warm front marks the leading edge of an advancing warm air mass. On a synoptic chart a warm front appears as a red line with semi-circles. The direction in which the semi-circles point is the direction in which the front is moving.

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Warm Fronts Characteristics Warm air replacing cold air Generally moves from SW to NE Behind warm front air is warmer & more moist than ahead. When a warm front passes through, air becomes noticeably warmer & more humid. Slope / gradient of the warm front is about 1:200 Average speed of warm front is 10 kts. Warm air slides upward over the cold air. As moist air rises upward it forms cloud. Cloud appear far in advance of a approaching front, in order of Ci, Cs, As, Ns & St. At front, cloud is mainly of Ns type. Behind the front, clear sky with scattered St. Before passing of w/front, - lt to moderate rain, At the front - drizzle or none; After it passes cloudy, lt rain or drizzle If overrunning warm air is dry, scattered cloud & no precipitation

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Occlusion (or occluded front) Occlusions form when the cold front of a depression catches up with the warm front, lifting the warm air between the fronts into a narrow wedge above the surface. On a synoptic chart an occluded front appears as a purple line with a combination of triangles and semi-circles. The direction in which the symbols point is the direction in which the front is moving.

Stationary front A stationary front has no movement. On a weather map, it is drawn as an alternating red & blue lines. Red semicircles facing colder air & blue triangles pointing warm air.

If warm air from W begins to move & replace cold air on E, it will no longer be stationary & becomes a warm front. If cold air from E replaces the warmer air, the front becomes a cold front. Weather along a stationary front is clear to partly cloudy. Both air masses are relatively dry & cause no precipitation. Surface wind tends to blow parallel to the front but in opposite directions on either side of it.
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Explain stability criteria for General cargo, Grain & Timber deck cargo vessels? General cargo ships The area under GZ curve should not be less than: 0.055m-r up to an angle of 30. 0.09m-r up to an angle of 40 degrees or angle of flooding (angle at which the lower edges of any openings in the hull, superstructures or deck houses, being openings which cannot be closed water tight are immersed) whichever is lower. 0.03m-r between the angle of 30 degrees and 40 degrees or angle of flooding whichever is lower. The righting lever shall be at least 0.2m at an angle of heel equal to or greater than 30 degrees. The maximum righting lever shall occur at an angle of heel of not less than 30 degrees. The initial transverse metacentric height (GM) shall not be less than 0.15m.

Curve of Statical Stability This is a curve that shows the following: 1. Angle of maximum stability 2. Maximum GZ 3. The righting lever at any angle 4. Angle of vanishing stability 5. The range of stability 6. Angle where deck-edge immersion begins
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7. 8. The amount of dynamic stability a vessel has The point of contra flexure(where deck edge will immerse or shape changes from concave to convex) 9. The angle of inclination 10. The initial GM 11. The radians for that vessel Stability - This is an act of keeping the vessel stable. Transverse or Statical Stability - The vessels ability to return to the upright position. Reserve Buoyancy - This is the volume of air trapped in a watertight space above the waterline. Center of Floatation - This is the center of the water-plane area of a vessel at any draught. Deadweight - This is the cargo, stores water, fuel that you've taken aboard Light Displacement - the total weight of the vessel, machinery etc that stays on the vessel and cannot be moved, (stores, fuel water etc not included). Lightship - the total weight of the vessel, machinery etc that stays on the vessel and cannot be moved, (stores, fuel water etc not included). A righting moment or a moment of statical stability The total weight x the righting lever (GZ). A moment - A moment = weight x distance. Loaded weight regarding the centre of gravity - When a weight is loaded onto a vessel the center of gravity moves towards it. Discharged weight regarding the centre of gravity - When a weight is discharged from a vessel the center of gravity goes back to where it was before the weight came on board (Opposite direction from where the weight was placed at on the vessel). Shifted weight regarding the center of gravity - When a weight is shifted on a vessel the center of gravity moves from where the weight was to the weights new position. Dynamic stability - The amount of work taken to bring a vessel back to its upright position. Range of positive stability - This is on a curve of statical stability , where the curve starts on the angle of inclination to where the curve stops at the point of vanishing stability.
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Angle of vanishing stability - This is on the curve of statical stability and where the curve comes down and has no (GZ) (+ or -) then this is where stability vanishes. Initial GM - This is on the curve of statical stability, on the angle of inclination at 57.3 degrees there is a radian line , and a tangent line which starts from 0 degrees and leaves the first arc of the curve of statical stability and where the tangent line and the radian line at 57.3 degrees meet then this is the initial GM. Angle of Maximum stability - This is on the curve of statical stability, on the curve itself at the top of the curve down to the angle of inclination and this is the angle of maximum stability. Maximum GZ (on curve of static stability) - This is on the curve of statical stability, at the top of the curve look at the distance on the scale (meters) and this is the maximum GZ. Importance of adequate freeboard - With freeboard raised then this will give: A greater range of stability A greater range of vanishing stability A greater maximum GZ. The maximum GZ occurs at a greater angle Greater dynamic stability Angle of flooding: angle at which the lower edges of any openings in the hull, superstructures or deck houses, being openings which cannot be closed weather tight are immersed) whichever is lower. Angle of deck edge immersion: it is an angle at which the deck edge immersed in water; it is also known as point of contra fluxture. Stable Equilibrium This is when a vessel has a positive righting lever (G below M) Neutral Equilibrium This is when the vessel has no righting lever (G & M together) (Danger of Capsize) Unstable Equilibrium This is when the vessel has a negative righting lever (G above M) (Capsizing lever) Stiff Vessel This is a vessel with a very large righting lever (G near the Keel)
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Tender Vessel This is a vessel with a vessel small righting lever (G very near M) Stability criteria for Grain ship: The intact stability characteristics of any ship carrying bulk grain shall be shown to meet, throughout the voyage, at least the following criteria after taking into account in the manner described in part B of this Code and, in figure the heeling moments due to grain shift:

the angle of heel due to the shift of grain shall not be greater than 12 or in the case of ships constructed on or after 1 January 1994 the angle at which the deck edge is immersed, whichever is the lesser; in the statical stability diagram the net or residual area between the heeling arm curve and the righting arm curve up to the angle of heel of maximum difference between the ordinates of the two curves, or 40 or the angle of flooding (), whichever is the least, shall in all conditions of loading be not less than 0.075 metre-radians; and the initial metacentric height, after correction for the free surface effects of liquids in tanks, shall be not less than 0.30 m.

Before loading bulk grain the master shall, if so required by the Contracting Government of the country of the port of loading, demonstrate the ability of the ship at all stages of any voyage to comply with the stability criteria required by this section. After loading, the master shall ensure that the ship is upright before proceeding to sea.
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Document of authorization A document of authorization shall be issued for every ship loaded in accordance with the regulations of this Code either by the Administration or an organization recognized by it or by a Contracting Government on behalf of the Administration. It shall be accepted as evidence that the ship is capable of complying with the requirements of these regulations. The document shall accompany or be incorporated into the grain loading manual provided to enable the master Such a document, grain loading stability data and associated plans may be drawn up in the official language or languages of the issuing country. If the language used is neither English nor French, the text shall include a translation into one of these languages. A copy of such a document, grain loading stability data and associated plans shall be placed on board in order that the master, if so required, shall produce them for the inspection of the Contracting Government of the country of the port of loading. A ship without such a document of authorization shall not load grain until the master demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Administration, or of the Contracting Government of the port; of loading acting on behalf of the Administration, that, in its loaded condition for the intended voyage, the ship complies with the requirements of this Code. A ship not having on board a document of authorization may be permitted to load bulk grain provided that: 1. the total weight of the bulk grain shall not exceed one third of the deadweight of the ship; 2. all filled compartments, trimmed, shall be fitted with centerline divisions extending, for the full length of such compartments, downwards from the underside of the deck or hatch covers to a distance below the deck line of at least one eighth of the maximum breadth of the compartment or 2.4 m, whichever is the greater, except that saucers may be accepted in lieu of a centerline division in and beneath a hatchway except in the case of linseed and other seeds having similar properties; 3. all hatches to filled compartments, trimmed, shall be closed and covers secured in place; 4. all free grain surfaces in partly filled cargo space shall be trimmed level and 5. throughout the voyage the metacentric height after correction for the free surface effects of liquids in tanks shall be 0.3 m
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Stability criteria for Timber carrying vessels: a. The area under the righting lever (GZ curve) should not be less than 0.08 meter-radians up to q = 40 or the angle of flooding if this angle is less than 40. b. c. The maximum value of the righting lever (GZ) should be at least 0.25 m. At all times during a voyage the metacentric height GMo should be positive after correction for the free surface effects of liquid in tanks and, where appropriate, the absorption of water by the deck cargo and/or ice accretion on the exposed surfaces. Additionally, in the departure condition the metacentric height should be not less than 0.10 m.

ISPS Code requirement for statement of master's authority The company shall ensure that the Ship Security Plan must contain a clear statement emphasizing the master's authority. The company shall establish in the Ship Security Plan that the master has the overriding authority and the responsibility to make decisions with respect to safety and security of the ship and to request the assistance of the Company or of any SOLAS Contracting Government as may be necessary. ISM Code requirement for statement of master's authority The company should ensure that the SMS operating on board the ship contains a clear statement emphasizing the master's authority. The company should establish in the SMS that the master has the overriding authority and the responsibility to make decisions with respect to safety and pollution and to request the Company's assistance as may be necessary. MASTERS RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITY under STCW 1. Ensure trainings are conducted as per the requirements. 2. Arrangement of watches. 3. Monitoring rest hours. 4. Ensure crew have their valid documents 5. Ensure safe Navigation. 6. Ensure maintenance of shipboard equipments 7. Ensure safe loading & discharging 8. Keep vessel ready for Inspection. 9. Ensure safe working procedures on board. 10. Ensure personnel hygiene onboard.

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MASTERS RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITY under ISM The Company should clearly define and document the Masters responsibility with regards to implementing the Companies safety and environmental protection policy and the SMS should include a clear statement emphasizing the Masters authority. Any system of checks used by the Company should allow for and take account of the Masters overriding authority to take whatever action he considers to be in the best interests of persons on board, the yacht and the marine environment. Master's responsibility and authorities are defined in the following aspects: 1. Implementing the safety and environmental protection policy of the company. 2. Motivating the crews in the observation of the policy. 3. Issuing appropriate orders and instruction in clear and simple manner. 4. Verifying the specified requirements are being observed. 5. Reviewing the SMS and reporting its deficiencies to the shore based management.

Which parts of SSP can be accessible by PSC? When the attending inspector have clear ground to believe that the vessel is not complying as per SOLAS XI 2 and or ISPS Code then only he can but have limited access to specific section of the plan relating to the non compliance is exceptionally allowed but only with the consent of the contracting Government or the Master except the following area as per ISPS CODE A. Identification of restricted area & measures to prevent unauthorized access. Procedure for responding to security threat. Procedure for responding to any security instructions. Duties of ship board personnel. Procedures to ensure inspection test calibration of security equipments. Identification of location of Security alert activation point. Procedure, Instructions and Guidance of SSAS.
(4-Procedure, 2-Identification & 1-Duty.)

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Duties of OSC 1) Co-ordinate operations of all SAR facilities on-scene. 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Obtains the search action plan from the SMC. Plan the search or rescue operation, if no plan is otherwise available. Modify the search action or rescue action plan as the situation on- scene dictates, keeping the SMC advised. Co-ordinate on-scene communications. Monitor the performance of other participating facilities. Ensure operations are conducted safely, paying particular attention to maintaining safe separations among all facilities both surface and air. Make periodic situation reports (SITREPs) to the SMC. The standard SITREP format may be found in IAMSAR Vol-3, appendix D. SITREP should include but not be limited to: Weather and sea conditions The results of search to date Any actions taken Any future plans or recommendations. Maintain a detailed record of the operation: On-scene arrival and departure times of SAR facilities, other vessels and aircraft engaged in operation Areas searched Track spacing used Sightings and leads reported Actions taken Result obtained.

10) Advice the SMC to release facilities no longer required. 11) Report the number and names of survivors to the SMC. 12) Provide the SMC with the names and designations of facilities with survivors aboard. 13) Report which survivors are each facility. 14) Request additional SMC assistance when necessary (for example, medical evacuation of seriously injured survivors).

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What are the factors on which reliability of charts depends? The reliability of charts depends on following factors: 1. Survey dates 2. date of publishing 3. Printing

When do you transmit danger message? What are the contents? When encounter any bad weather and force increases to 10 or more then take heavy weather precautions and maneuver safely to ensure safety of the vessel. Transmit a danger message with the suitable equipments to the ships in the vicinity and to the nearest coast station. The message shall include following information: Barometric pressure. Barometric tendency. True wind direction. Wind force in Beaufort scale. State of the sea. True course and speed of the ship. The message may be transmitted by telex/ VHF or by any means, and may be preceded by securit or TTT.

Annex I special areas 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Mediterranean seas Baltic seas Black seas Red seas Gulf area (Persian gulf) Gulf of Aden Antarctic areas North-west European waters Oman area of Arabian sea South of South Africa

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Annex-V special areas As per regulation 5, followings are the special areas. 1. Mediterranean seas 2. Baltic seas 3. Black seas 4. Red seas 5. Gulf area (Persian gulf) 6. North seas 7. Antarctic areas 8. Wider Caribbean regions

In special areas, only food waste can be disposed off in seas greater 12 nautical miles from shores. In wider Caribbean regions only food waste comminuted to 25mm can be discharged in seas more than 3miles from the coast.

Control of discharge of oil from tank areas including cargo pump room Within special areas OR outside special areas, within 50 nautical miles (nm) from the nearest land ANY DISCHARGES IS PROHIBITED, except clean or segregated ballast Outside special areas, more than 50 nm from the nearest land ANY DISCHARGE IS PROHIBITED, except clean or segregated ballast, or when: 1. 2. 3. the tanker is proceeding en route, and the instantaneous rate of discharge of oil does not exceed 30 litres/nm, and the total quantity of oil discharged into the sea does not exceed 1/15,000 (for existing tankers) and 1/30,000 (for new tankers) of the total quantity of the cargo which was carried on the previous voyage, and 4. the tanker has in operation a monitoring and control system for the discharge of oil, and slop tank arrangements as required by Regulation 15
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Control of discharge of oil from machinery spaces Within special areas ANY DISCHARGES IS PROHIBITED, except when: 1. 2. 3. 4. the ship is proceeding en route, and the oil content of the effluent without dilution does not exceed 15 ppm, and the ship has in operation oil filtering equipment with automatic 15 ppm stopping device, and bilge water is not mixed with oil cargo residue or cargo pump room bilges (on oil tankers)

Outside special areas ANY DISCHARGE IS PROHIBITED, except when 1. 2. 3. the ship is proceeding en route the oil content of the effluent is less than 15 ppm, and the ship has in operation an oil discharge monitoring and control systems, oily-water separating or filtering equipment of other installation required by Regulation 16, and bilge water is not mixed with oil cargo residue or cargo pump room bilges (on oil tankers)

4.

Note: Oily mixtures which are not mixed with oil cargo residue or cargo pump room bilges, and where the oil content of the effluent without dilution does not exceed 15 ppm may be discharge outside special areas without any additional restrictions.

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Regulation - 17 LIST OF ITEMS TO BE RECORDED IN OIL RECORD BOOK PART 1 A. BALLASTING OR CLEANING OF OIL FUEL TANKS B. DISCHARGE OF DIRTY BALLAST OR CLEANING WATER FROM OIL FUEL TANKS C. COLLECTION, TRANSFER AND DISPOSAL OF OIL RESIDUES (SLUDGE) D. DISCHARGE OVERBOARD OR DISPOSAL OTHERWISE OF BILGE WATER WHICH HAS ACCUMULATED IN MACHINERY SPACES E. BUNKERING OF FUEL OR BULK LUBRICATING OIL Regulation - 36 LIST OF ITEMS TO BE RECORDED IN OIL RECORD BOOK PART II Cargo/ballast operations (Oil Tankers) A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. LOADING OF OIL CARGO INTERNAL TRANSFER OF OIL CARGO DURING VOYAGE UNLOADING OF OIL CARGO CRUDE OIL WASHING (COW TANKERS ONLY) BALLASTING OF CARGO TANKS BALLASTING OF DEDICATED CLEAN BALLAST TANKS (CBT TANKERS ONLY) CLEANING OF CARGO TANKS DISCHARGE OF DIRTY BALLAST DISCHARGE OF WATER FROM SLOP TANKS INTO THE SEA COLLECTION, TRANSFER AND DISPOSAL OF RESIDUES AND OILY MIXTURES NOT OTHERWISE DEALT WITH K. DISCHARGE OF CLEAN BALLAST CONTAINED IN CARGO TANKS L. DISCHARGE OF BALLAST FROM DEDICATED CLEAN BALLAST TANKS (CBT TANKERS ONLY) M. CONDITION OF OIL DISCHARGE MONITORING AND CONTROL SYSTEM N. ACCIDENTAL OR OTHER EXCEPTIONAL DISCHARGES OF OIL O. ADDITIONAL OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES AND GENERAL REMARKS

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REGULATION 37 (ANNEX I) Shipboard oil pollution emergency plan 1) Every oil tanker of 150 tons gross tonnage and above and every ship other than an oil tanker of 400 tons gross tonnage and above shall carry on board a shipboard oil pollution emergency plan approved by the Administration. In the case of ships built before 4 April 1993 this requirement shall apply 24 months after that date. 2) Such a plan shall be in accordance with guidelines* developed by the Organization and written in the working language of the master and officers. The plan shall consist at least of: The procedure to be followed by the master or other persons having charge of the ship to report an oil pollution incident, as required in article 8 and Protocol I of the present Convention, based on the guidelines developed by the Organization;{ The list of authorities or persons to be contacted in the event of an oil pollution incident; A detailed description of the action to be taken immediately by persons on board to reduce or control the discharge of oil following the incident; and The procedures and point of contact on the ship for coordinating shipboard action with national and local authorities in combating the pollution. In the case of ships to which Regulation 17 of Annex II of the Convention also apply, such a plan may be combined with the shipboard marine pollution emergency plan for noxious liquid substances required under regulation 17 of Annex II of the Convention. In this case, the title of such a plan shall be Shipboard marine pollution emergency plan. All oil tankers of 5000 tonnes deadweight or more shall have prompt access to computerised shore based damage stability and residual structural strength calculation programs.

a.

b. c. d.

3.

4.

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Regulation 17 (Annex II) Shipboard marine pollution emergency plan for noxious liquid substances 1. Every ship of 150 gross tonnage and above certified to carry noxious liquid substances in bulk shall carry on board a shipboard marine pollution emergency plan for noxious liquid substances approved by the Administration. Such a plan shall be in accordance with Guidelines* developed by the Organization and written in a working language or languages understood by the master and officers. The plan shall consist at least of: a. the procedure to be followed by the master or other persons having charge of the ship to report a noxious liquid substances pollution incident, as required in article 8 and Protocol I of the present Convention, based on the Guidelines developed by the Organization; b. the list of authorities or persons to be contacted in the event of a noxious liquid substance pollution incident; c. a detailed description of the action to be taken immediately by persons on board to reduce or control the discharge of noxious liquid substances following the incident; and d. the procedures and point of contact on the ship for coordinating shipboard action with national and local authorities in combating the pollution. In the case of ships to which regulation 37 of Annex I of the Convention also applies, such a plan may be combined with the shipboard oil pollution emergency plan required under regulation 37 of Annex I of the Convention. In this case, the title of such a plan shall be Shipboard marine pollution emergency plan.

2.

3.

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HOW WILL YOU PREPARE FOR YOUR SHIP BEFORE GOING TO PIRACY INFESTED AREA? Prior to entering high risk area: 1. 2. 3. 4. Briefing crew and conduct drill Prepare an emergency communication plan Define the ships AIS policy If company has not submitted Vessel Movement Registration Form to MSCHOA then the Master should submit it by email / fax.

Upon entering high risk area: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Upon entering submit Vessel Position Reporting Form Initial Report to UKMTO. Reduce maintenance and engineering work to minimum Daily submit Vessel Position Reporting Form Daily Position Report to UKMTO Carefully review all warnings and information Use International recommended Transit Corridor (IRTC) group transit scheme while transiting through Gulf of Aden Make adjustments to passage plans to conform to MSCHOA advice. Follow the National Convoy in the group.

Garbage management plan requirement & contents? MARPOL Annex V Regulation 9 Placards, garbage management plans and garbage record-keeping 1. a. Every ship of 12 m or more in length overall shall display placards which notify the crew and passengers of the disposal requirements of regulations 3 and 5 of this Annex, as applicable. b. The placards shall be written in the working language of the ships personnel and, for ships engaged in voyages to ports or offshore terminals under the jurisdiction of other Parties to the Convention, shall also be in English, French or Spanish.

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2. Every ship of 400 tons gross tonnage and above, and every ship which is certified to carry 15 persons or more, shall carry a garbage management plan which the crew shall follow. This plan shall provide written procedures for collecting, storing, processing and disposing of garbage, including the use of the equipment on board. It shall also designate the person in charge of carrying out the plan. Such a plan shall be in accordance with the guidelines developed by the Organization* and written in the working language of the crew. Every ship of 400 tons gross tonnage and above and every ship which is certified to carry 15 persons or more engaged in voyages to ports or offshore terminals under the jurisdiction of other Parties to the Convention and every fixed and floating platform engaged in exploration and exploitation of the sea-bed shall be provided with a Garbage Record Book. The Garbage Record Book, whether as a part of the ships official log-book or otherwise, shall be in the form specified in the appendix to this Annex; each discharge operation, or completed incineration, shall be recorded in the Garbage Record Book and signed for on the date of the incineration or discharge by the officer in charge. Each completed page of the Garbage Record Book shall be signed by the master of the ship. The entries in the Garbage Record Book shall be at least in English, French or Spanish. Where the entries are also made in an official language of the State whose flag the ship is entitled to fly, these entries shall prevail in case of a dispute or discrepancy; the entry for each incineration or discharge shall include date and time, position of the ship, description of the garbage and the estimated amount incinerated or discharged; the Garbage Record Book shall be kept on board the ship and in such a place as to be available for inspection in a reasonable time. This document shall be preserved for a period of two years after the last entry is made on the record; in the event of discharge, escape or accidental loss referred to in regulation 6 of this Annex an entry shall be made in the Garbage Record Book of the circumstances of, and the reasons for, the loss. The Administration may waive the requirements for Garbage Record Books for:
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3.

a.

b.

c.

d.

4.

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a. b. 5. any ship engaged on voyages of 1 hour or less in duration which is certified to carry 15 persons or more; or fixed or floating platforms while engaged in exploration and exploitation of the sea-bed. The competent authority of the Government of a Party to the Convention may inspect the Garbage Record Book on board any ship to which this regulation applies while the ship is in its ports or offshore terminals and may make a copy of any entry in that book, and may require the master of the ship to certify that the copy is a true copy of such an entry. Any copy so made, which has been certified by the master of the ship as a true copy of an entry in the ships Garbage Record Book, shall be admissible in any judicial proceedings as evidence of the facts stated in the entry. The inspection of a Garbage Record Book and the taking of a certified copy by the competent authority under this paragraph shall be performed as expeditiously as possible without causing the ship to be unduly delayed. In the case of ships built before 1 July 1997, this regulation shall apply as from 1 July 1998.

6.

Garbage category and disposal? Garbage means all kinds of victual, domestic and operational waste excluding fresh fish and parts thereof, generated during the normal operation of the ship and liable to be disposed of continuously or periodically except those substances which are defined or listed in other Annexes to the present Convention. Regulation 3 Disposal of garbage outside special areas 1. Subject to the provisions of regulations 4, 5 and 6 of this Annex: a. the disposal into the sea of all plastics, including but not limited to synthetic ropes, synthetic fishing nets, plastic garbage bags and incinerator ashes from plastic products which may contain toxic or heavy metal residues, is prohibited; b. the disposal into the sea of the following garbage shall be made as far as practicable from the nearest land but in any case is prohibited if the distance from the nearest land is less than:
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25 nautical miles for dunnage, lining and packing materials which will float; ii. 12 nautical miles for food wastes and all other garbage including paper products, rags, glass, metal, bottles, crockery and similar refuse; c. Disposal into the sea of garbage specified in subparagraph(b)(ii) of this regulation may be permitted when it has passed through a comminuter or grinder and made as far as practicable from the nearest land but in any case is prohibited if the distance from the nearest land is less than 3 nautical miles. Such comminuted or ground garbage shall be capable of passing through a screen with openings no greater than 25 mm. 2. When the garbage is mixed with other discharges having different disposal or discharge requirements the more stringent requirements shall apply. Regulation 5 Disposal of garbage within special areas a. disposal into the sea of the following is prohibited: i. all plastics, including but not limited to synthetic ropes, synthetic fishing nets, plastic garbage bags and incinerator ashes from plastic products which may contain toxic or heavy metal residues; and ii. all other garbage, including paper products, rags, glass, metal, bottles, crockery, dunnage, lining and packing materials; b. except as provided in subparagraph (c) of this paragraph, disposal into the sea of food wastes shall be made as far as practicable from land, but in any case not less than 12 nautical miles from the nearest land; c. disposal into the Wider Caribbean Region of food wastes which have been passed through a comminuter or grinder shall be made as far as practicable from land, but in any case not less than 3 nautical miles from the nearest land. Such comminuted or ground food wastes shall be capable of passing through a screen with openings no greater than 25 mm. i.

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Description of the garbage The garbage is to be grouped into categories for the purposes of this record book as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Plastics Floating dunnage, lining, or packing material Ground-down paper products, rags, glass, metal, bottles, crockery, etc. Paper products, rags, glass, metal, bottles, crockery, etc. Food waste Incinerator ash

Entries in the Garbage Record Book Entries in the Garbage Record Book shall be made on each of the following occasions: a. b. c. d. When garbage is discharged into the sea When garbage is discharged to reception facilities ashore or to other ships When garbage is incinerated Accidental or other exceptional discharges of garbage

What are GMDSS areas A1, A2, A3 & A4 Sea Area A1 An area within the radiotelephone coverage of at least one VHF coast station in which continuous digital selective calling (Ch.70/156.525 MHz) alerting and radiotelephony services are available. Such an area could extend typically 30 nautical miles (56 km) to 40 nautical miles (74 km) from the Coast Station. Sea Area A2 An area, excluding Sea Area A1, within the radiotelephone coverage of at least one MF coast station in which continuous DSC (2187.5 kHz) alerting and radiotelephony services are available. For planning purposes, this area typically extends to up to 180 nautical miles (330 km) offshore during daylight hours, but would exclude any A1 designated areas. In practice, satisfactory coverage may often be achieved out to around 400 nautical miles (740 km) offshore during night time.

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Sea Area A3 An area, excluding sea areas A1 and A2, within the coverage of an Inmarsat geostationary satellite. This area lies between about latitude 76 Degree NORTH and SOUTH, but excludes A1 and/or A2 designated areas. Inmarsat guarantees their system will work between 70 South and 70 North though it will often work to 76 degrees South or North. Sea Area A4 An area outside Sea Areas A1, A2 and A3 is called Sea Area A4. This is essentially the Polar Regions, north and south of about 76 degrees of latitude, excluding any A1 or A2 areas. What is FSA? One way of ensuring that action is taken before a disaster occurs is the use a process known as formal safety assessment. This has been described as "a rational and systematic process for assessing the risks associated with shipping activity and for evaluating the costs and benefits of IMO's options for reducing these risks." It can be used as a tool to help evaluate new regulations or to compare proposed changes with existing standards. It enables a balance to be drawn between the various technical and operational issues, including the human element and between safety and costs. FSA - which was originally developed partly at least as a response the Piper Alpha disaster of 1988, when an offshore platform exploded in the North Sea and 167 people lost their lives - is now being applied to the IMO rule making process. What is FSA? FSA is a structured and systematic methodology, aimed at enhancing maritime safety, including protection of life, health, the marine environment and property, by using risk analysis and cost benefit assessment. FSA can be used as a tool to help in the evaluation of new regulations for maritime safety and protection of the marine environment or in making a comparison between existing and possibly improved regulations, with a view to achieving a balance between the various technical and operational issues, including the human element, and between maritime safety or protection of the marine environment and costs.
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FSA consists of five steps: 1. identification of hazards (a list of all relevant accident scenarios with potential causes and outcomes); 2. 3. 4. 5. assessment of risks (evaluation of risk factors); risk control options (devising regulatory measures to control and reduce the identified risks); cost benefit assessment (determining cost effectiveness of each risk control option); and

recommendations for decision-making (information about the hazards, their associated risks and the cost effectiveness of alternative risk control options is provided). In simple terms, these steps can be reduced to: What might go wrong? = identification of hazards (a list of all relevant accident scenarios with potential causes and outcomes) How bad and how likely? = assessment of risks (evaluation of risk factors); Can matters be improved? = risk control options (devising regulatory measures to control and reduce the identified risks) What would it cost and how much better would it be? = cost benefit assessment (determining cost effectiveness of each risk control option); What actions should be taken? = recommendations for decision-making (information about the hazards, their associated risks and the cost effectiveness of alternative risk control options is provided).

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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What is port state control? Port State Control (PSC) is the inspection of foreign ships in national ports to verify that the condition of the ship and its equipment comply with the requirements of international regulations and that the ship is manned and operated in compliance with these rules. Many of IMO's most important technical conventions contain provisions for ships to be inspected when they visit foreign ports to ensure that they meet IMO requirements. IMO has encouraged the establishment of regional port State control organizations and agreements on port State control - Memoranda of Understanding or MoUs - have been signed covering all of the world's oceans: Europe and the north Atlantic (Paris MoU); Asia and the Pacific (Tokyo MoU); Latin America (Acuerdo de Via del Mar); Caribbean (Caribbean MoU); West and Central Africa (Abuja MoU); the Black Sea region (Black Sea MoU); the Mediterranean (Mediterranean MoU); the Indian Ocean (Indian Ocean MoU); and the Riyadh MoU.

1.

Cargo securing manual contents & requirement?

Cargo Securing Manual: Requirements & Purpose of Cargo Securing Manual In accordance with the SOLAS 1974 chapters VI, VII and Code of safe practice for Cargo stowage and securing, cargo units, including containers shall be stowed and secured throughout the voyage in accordance with a Cargo Securing Manual, approved by the Administration. The Cargo Securing Manual is required on all types of ships engaged in the carriage of all cargoes other than solid and liquid bulk cargoes. The purpose of these guidelines is to ensure that Cargo Securing Manuals cover all relevant aspects of cargo stowage and securing and to provide a uniform approach to the preparation of Cargo Securing Manuals, their layout and content. It is important that securing devices meet acceptable functional and strength criteria applicable to the ship and its cargo. It is also important that the officers on board are aware of the magnitude and direction of the forces involved and
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the correct application and limitations of the cargo securing devices. The crew and other persons employed for the securing of cargoes should be instructed in the correct application and use of the cargo securing devices on board the ship. Contents of Cargo Securing Manual: Chapter 1 (General) Chapter 2 (Securing devices and arrangements) Chapter 3 (Stowage & securing of non-standardized & semi standardized cargo) Chapter 4 (Stowage & securing of container & standardized cargo) The information contain in the Cargo Securing Manual should include the following items as appropriate: Details of fixed securing arrangements and their locations. eg. Pad eyes, eye bolts, D-rings, elephant feet etc. Location and stowage of portable securing gear. Details of portable securing gear including an inventory of items provided and their strength. Examples of correct application of portable securing gear on various cargo units, vehicles and other entities carried on the ship. Indication of the variation of transverse, longitudinal and vertical accelerations to be expected in various positions on board the ship. Cargo Securing Devices are all fixed and portable devices used to secure and support cargo units. Maximum Securing Load (MSL) is a term used to define the allowable load capacity for a device used to secure cargo to a ship. SWL may be substituted for MSL for securing purposes, provided this is equal to or exceeds the strength defined by MSL. Standardized Cargo means cargo for which the ship is provided with an approved securing system based upon cargo units of specific types. Semistandardized Cargo means cargo for which the ship is provided with a securing system capable of accommodating a limited variety of cargo units, such as vehicles, trailers, etc. Non-standardized cargo means cargo which requires individual stowage and securing arrangements.

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As a Master, what is your main concern in the usage of an IMSBC Code when loading bulk cargo? (SOLAS, CH: VI, REG-6) Prior to loading a bulk cargo, the master shall be in possession of comprehensive information on the ships stability and on the distribution of cargo for the standard loading conditions. The method of providing such information shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration. Concentrates or other cargoes which may liquefy shall only be accepted for loading when the actual moisture content of the cargo is less than its TML. However, such concentrates and other cargoes may be accepted for loading even when their moisture content exceeds the above limit, provided that safety arrangements to the satisfaction of the Administration are made to ensure adequate stability in the case of cargo shifting and further provided that the ship has adequate structural integrity. Prior to loading a bulk cargo which is not a cargo classified in accordance with the provisions of the IMDG Code but which has chemical properties that may create a potential hazard, special precautions for its safe carriage shall be taken. To enable the master to prevent excessive stresses in the ships structure, the ship shall be provided with a booklet, which shall be written in a language with which the ships officers responsible for cargo operations are familiar. If this language is not English, the ship shall be provided with a booklet written also in the English language. The booklet shall, as a minimum, include: stability data ballasting and deballasting rates and capacities; maximum allowable load per unit surface area of the tank top plating; maximum allowable load per hold; general loading and unloading instructions with regard to the strength of the ships structure including any limitations on the most adverse operating conditions during loading, unloading, ballasting operations and the voyage;

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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6. any special restrictions such as limitations on the most adverse operating conditions imposed by the Administration or organization recognized by it, if applicable; and where strength calculations are required, maximum permissible forces and moments on the ships hull during loading, unloading and the voyage. Before a solid bulk cargo is loaded or unloaded, the master and the terminal representative shall agree on a plan* which shall ensure that the permissible forces and moments on the ship are not exceeded during loading or unloading, and shall include the sequence, quantity and rate of loading or unloading, taking into consideration the speed of loading or unloading, the number of pours and the deballasting or ballasting capability of the ship. The plan and any subsequent amendments thereto shall be lodged with the appropriate authority of the port State. The master shall ensure that ships personnel continuously monitor cargo operations. Where possible, the ships draught shall be checked regularly during loading or unloading to confirm the tonnage figures supplied. Each draught and tonnage observation shall be recorded in a cargo log-book. If significant deviations from the agreed plan are detected, cargo or ballast operations or both shall be adjusted to ensure that the deviations are corrected.

7.

Characteristics of cargo such as: Angle of Repose. Bulk density. Stowage factor. Size. Class (For DG). Group. Other information: a. Hazards. b. Stowage & segregation. c. Hold precautions. d. Weather precautions. e. Loading precaution.
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f. Ventilation. g. Clean up. If cargo is classed as DG, refer to IMDG Code for EMS, MFAG. Hazards associated with shipment of Bulk Cargo 1. Structural damage due to improper distribution of the cargo. 2. Loss or reduction of stability during voyage. Shift of cargoes. Cargoes liquefying. 3. Chemical reactions. Emission of toxic or explosive gases. Spontaneous combustion or severe corrosive effects. 8. 9. What do you concern as a ship master when your chief officer carries out the ballast operation? Why coefficient E is not normally found onboard merchant ships?

10. As a Master, you are departing from Singapore to China via Taiwan Strait. Wind is backing, pressure dropping; which quadrant are you in and what is your action? (Hint: at the fwd side of the navigable semi circle, keep the true wind direction on my stbd quarter and keep altering course as it backs, moving away from the center) 11. Explain ROR Rule 2: Responsibility, in your own understanding. What do you mean by exonerate? 12. Explain ROR Rule 8: Action to Avoid Collision, in your own understanding. 13. Explain ROR Rule 19: Conduct of Vessel in Restricted Visibility, in your own Understanding. 14. Explain ROR Rule 6: Safe Speed, in your own understanding. 15. CHAIN STOPPER, WEST COUNTRY STOPPER, (PRACTICAL + ALL DETAILS WHILE YOU ARE MAKING THEM) ROLLING HITCH, SINGLE SHEET BAND, (HE GAVE ME TWO ROPES OF UN EQUAL SIZE TO JOIN) REEF KNOT, CARRICK BAND, (USE OF ALL KNOTS WHILE YOU ARE MAKING)
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16. DRAW REGION A PREFERRED CHANNEL TO STARBOARD. EXPLAIN EVERYTHING YOU KNOW? 17. WHAT ADDITIONAL LIGHTS A FISHING VSL USING PURSE SEINE GEARS? 18. DO YOU KNOW HOW THEY ARE FISHING WHEN USING DEMERSAL AND PELAGIC GEAR? DRAW PURSE SEINE GEAR? 19. WHAT IS THE ARC OF VISIBILITY OF ASTERN LIGHT? 20. WHY TO TAKE VFI ASHORE? 21. PSC OF SPORE BOARDED YOUR VSL, INSPECTOR TELL YOU THAT YOUR VSL IS NOT COMPLY ISPS & HE WANT TO VERIFY YOUR SSP. WOULD YOU SHOW HIM OR NOT? IF YES WILL YOU SHOW FULL SSP? 22. FITNESS FOR DUTY AS PER STCW? 23. TELL ME HOW MANY TYPES OF SEGREGATION FOR IMDG CARGO? 24. HOW MANY TYPES OF GRAIN SECURING? DRAW STRAPPING AND LASHING AND EXPLAIN? 25. WHEN DO YOU SWING YOUR COMPASS? 26. SWINGING THE COMPASS, FINDING COEFFICIENTS, CORRECTION APPLICATIONS, WHAT METHOD DO YOU USE? 27. What you know about WPSHA? 28. HANGING OFF PORT ANCHOR. 29. MARPOL Annex6. What is in MARPOL Annex 6 and the future of Annex 6. Area of Annex 6, what are SECA and ECA? SO2 level for each and SECA area. Master concern? 30. What are the things you will consider before proceeding to a river port? 31. What logs are important for you to sign as Master, as required for Claims & international regulations?

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32. How many parts of chain register? 33. What is the difference between inspection & thorough examination? 34. Loading heavy weight Master concern? 35. Timber cargo loading Master concern? 36. Grain cargo loading Master concern? 37. Man overboard Already 4hrs passed which search method you will use? 38. Annex IV, sewage equipment and disposal range & requirement?

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