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Geography Notes 01-04-12

Geography Notes 01-04-12

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Chapter 2: Portraying Earth

McKnight’s Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation, Tenth Edition, Hess

Portraying Earth
• • • • • • • The Nature of Maps Map Scale Map Essentials The Role of Globes Map Projections Families of Map Projections Isolines

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Inc. 3 .Portraying Earth • • • • GPS—Global Positioning System Remote Sensing GIS—Geographic Information Systems Tools of the Geographer © 2011 Pearson Education.

Inc.The Nature of Maps • 2-dimensional representation of Earth’s surface • Show 4 key properties of a region – – – – Size Shape Distance Direction Figure 2-2b • Maps are imperfect. since Earth is a sphere © 2011 Pearson Education. 4 .

5 Figure 2-3 .Map Scale • Maps are usually smaller than the area they represent • Map scales are necessary to understand realistic distances on map • Scale is relationship between area on map and area on Earth • Three primary types – Graphic – Fractional – Verbal © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc.

Map Scale • Large versus small map scales Figure 2-4 © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. 6 .

7 .Map Essentials • Need several properties of maps to help with interpretation: – – – – – – – – Title Date Legend Scale Direction Location Data Source Map Projection Figure 2-5 © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc.

Inc. 8 .The Role of Globes • Advantages of Globes – Maintains correct geographic relationships between points – Can accurately represent spatial relationships between points on Earth • Disadvantages of Globes – Only can see a hemisphere at a time – Large and bulky – Cannot contain much detail Figure 2-6 © 2011 Pearson Education.

Inc. 9 .Map Projections • Challenge of the cartographer (―mapmaker‖) – Combine geographic exactness of globe with convenience of flat map • Definition of map projection • Principle behind map projections • Two primary types – Equivalent—ratio of areal size on map and Earth is the same – Conformal—shape of locations on the map is the same as on Earth © 2011 Pearson Education.

Map Projections • Equivalence versus conformality dilemma Figure 2-10 © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. 10 .

11 . Inc.Families of Map Projections • Cylindrical Projections – ―Wrap‖ the globe in a cylinder of paper – Paper tangent to Earth at equator – Conformal projection – Mercator projection is most famous Figure 2-7 © 2011 Pearson Education.

12 .Families of Map Projections • Plane Projections – Project globe onto a paper that is tangent to globe at some point – Displays one hemisphere well – Equivalent projection – An example is an orthographic plane projection (Figure 2-13) Figure 2-9 © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc.

Inc.Families of Map Projections • Conic Projections – Project the map onto a cone tangent to or intersecting the globe – Principal parallel – Good for mapping small areas on Earth – Impractical for global mapping Figure 2-8 © 2011 Pearson Education. 13 .

distortion increases as you move away from the center Figure 2-11 © 2011 Pearson Education.Families of Map Projections • Pseudocylindrical Projections – A mix of conformal and equivalent – Central parallel and meridian cross at right angles – Oval shaped. Inc. 14 .

Families of Map Projections • Interrupted Projections – Minimize distortion – Discontinuous map. land masses maintain original shape and size – Goode’s projection Figure 2-14 © 2011 Pearson Education. shapes and sizes maintained – Typically oceans are distorted. 15 . Inc.

Inc. 16 .Isolines • Definition • Many types – Isobar: line of constant pressure – Isotherm: line of constant temperature – Isohyet: line of constant rain – Isoamplitude: line of constant wave amplitude • Construction steps/rules Figure 2-16 © 2011 Pearson Education.

17 . Inc.Isolines 800 700 600 500 400 300 © 2011 Pearson Education.

18 . Inc.Isolines • Topographic Maps – Show elevation contours – Contour lines – Lines closer together represent steeper terrain – Often used in geography Figure 2-15 © 2011 Pearson Education.

Isolines • Topographic Maps – Show elevation contours – Lines closer together represent steeper terrain – Often used in geography Figure 2-15 © 2011 Pearson Education. 19 . Inc.

GPS—Global Positioning System • Global navigation satellite system for determining location on Earth’s surface • Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) • Continuously Operating GPS Reference Stations (CORS) Figure 2-19 © 2011 Pearson Education. 20 . Inc.

21 .Remote Sensing • Measurement by a device not in contact with Earth’s surface • Common types include: – Aerial Photographs – Orthophoto maps – Visible Light and Infrared (IR) Scanning – Thermal IR scanning – Radar and Sonar – Many others Aerial Photography—Figure 2-20 © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc.

Inc.Remote Sensing • Orthophoto maps – Photographic maps that are multicolored and distortion free – Useful in low-lying coastal regions to show marsh topography Figure 2-21 © 2011 Pearson Education. 22 .

Inc.Remote Sensing • Visible light and IR scanning – Based off of visible light and IR part of electromagnetic spectrum (Figure 2-22) – Shows ―false color‖ Figure 2-23 Figure 2-22 © 2011 Pearson Education. 23 .

24 .Remote Sensing • Radar Imagery – ―Radio Detection and Ranging‖ – Useful for identifying atmospheric moisture • Sonar Imagery – ―Sound Navigation and Ranging‖ – Permits underwater imaging • Thermal IR scanning – Scans in the thermal IR part of spectrum – Shows images based on temperature – Often utilized in meteorology © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc.

25 . Inc.GIS—Geographic Information Systems • Computer systems used to analyze and display spatial data • Layers of data used in mapping • Requires high powered computing to process multiple maps Figure 2-29 © 2011 Pearson Education.

Inc.Tools of the Geographer • Vast array of maps. 26 . and computer applications • Difficult to determine the best way to use all of this information • Some tools better at identifying features on Earth than others • Ultimate goal: ―To better understand Earth. remotely sensed satellite imagery.‖ © 2011 Pearson Education.

Inc.Summary • Maps are essential to portray features on Earth’s surface • Need a map scale to identify how a map relates to the actual surface features on Earth • Many other map properties are essential to interpreting a map • Globes have several advantages and disadvantages • Representing Earth in 2 dimensions can be done through map projections © 2011 Pearson Education. 27 .

28 . Inc.Summary • Many different map projections exist • Dilemma of equivalent versus conformal • Plotting isolines on a map can help with interpretation of features on the map • The global positioning system (GPS) helps to identify location on Earth’s surface • Remote sensing is a measurement of Earth’s surface from a system not on Earth’s surface © 2011 Pearson Education.

Inc. including satellite. and sonar • GIS are computer systems used to analyze and display spatial data. often in layers • The geographer has many tools. but the ultimate goal is ―To better understand Earth.Summary • Many different remote sensing instruments exist. radar.‖ © 2011 Pearson Education. 29 .

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