Fundamental Concepts and Definitions

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Fig. 1.10 P-V-T surface for ideal gas

For certain gases the molecular weight and gas constant are given in table 1.5. Table 1.5 Gas Air Carbon dioxide Hydrogen Helium Nitrogen Oxygen Steam Molecular weight, kg/kmol 28.97 44.01 2.016 4.004 28.01 32.00 18.02 Gas constant, kJ/kg.K 0.287 0.189 4.124 2.077 0.297 0.260 0.461

1.15 DALTON’S LAW, AMAGAT’S LAW AND PROPERTY OF MIXTURE OF GASES
Dalton’s law of partial pressures states that the “total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of partial pressures of constituent gases.” Partial pressure of each constituent can be defined as the pressure exerted by the gas if it alone occupied the volume at the same temperature. Thus, for any mixture of gases having ‘j’ gases in it, the mathematical statement of Dalton’s law says, p = p1 + p2 + p3 + ..... + pj if and V = V1 = V2 = V3 = ..... = Vj T = T1 = T2 = T3 = ..... Tj Dalton’s law can be applied to both mixture of real gases and ideal gases. (a) V , T + V , T
m1 , p1 m2 , p2 m, p m1 ,V1 m2 ,V2 p,T m, V

→ V ,T

(b) p, T +

→ p, T

constituent gases

Mixture

Fig. 1.11 (a) Dalton’s law of partial pressures, (b) Amagat’s law

Let us take mixture of any three, perfect gases, say, 1, 2, 3 in a container having volume ‘V’ and temperature T.