VECTOR ANALYSIS

Vector Analysis 2 Vector Analysis 2 Vector Analysis 2
Contents
1. Vector algebra
• Addition, Subtraction, & Multiplication of Vectors.
2. Orthogonal coordinate system
• Cartesian, cylindrical, & spherical coordinates.
3. Vector calculus
• Differentiation and integration of vectors; line,
surface and volume integrals; “del” operator,
gradient, divergence, and curl operations.
Vector Analysis 3 Vector Analysis 3 Vector Analysis 3
Vector Addition and Subtraction
• A vector A can be written as:
– A=a
A
A
– Where A is the magnitude of A and has the
unit and dimension.
– A=|A|
– a
A
is a dimensionless unit vector with a unity
magnitude having the direction of A.
– a
A
=A / |A| = A / A
A=|A|
A=a
A
A
Vector Analysis 4 Vector Analysis 4 Vector Analysis 4
• Two vectors A and B can be added in two
ways. C=A+B
– Parallelogram rule
– Head to tail rule
Vector Addition and Subtraction
A
B
C
A
B
C
Vector Analysis 5 Vector Analysis 5 Vector Analysis 5
Vector Addition and Subtraction
• Vector addition obeys the commutative
and associative laws
– Commutative law
• A + B = B + A
– Associative law
• A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C
Vector Analysis 6 Vector Analysis 6 Vector Analysis 6
Vector Addition and Subtraction
• Vector subtraction is defined in following
way:
A – B = A + (-B)
Where –B has the same magnitude as B but
the direction is opposite to that of B.
-B = (-a
B
)B
A
B
-B A-B
Vector Analysis 7 Vector Analysis 7 Vector Analysis 7
• Multiplication of a vector A by a scalar k
changes only the magnitude of A by a
factor k.
kA = a
A
(kA)
• Scalar or Dot Product:
A . B = AB cos θ
AB
Product of Vectors
A
A
Bcosθ
AB
B
θ
AB
Vector Analysis 8 Vector Analysis 8 Vector Analysis 8
Product of Vectors
A . A = A
2
A = √ A . A
– Commutative law
A . B = B . A
– Distributive law
A . (B + C) = A . B + A . C
Vector Analysis 9 Vector Analysis 9 Vector Analysis 9
Product of Vectors
• Vector or Cross Product
A x B = a
n
|AB sin θ
AB
|
– Cross Product is not commutative
B x A = - A x B
– Cross Product obeys the distributive law
A x (B + C) = A x B + A x C
– Cross Product is not associative
A x (B x C) = (A x B) x C
A
B
Bsinθ
AB
θ
AB
a
n
A x B
Vector Analysis 10 Vector Analysis 10 Vector Analysis 10
Product of Vectors
• Product of Three Vectors
– Scalar Triple Product
A . (B x C) = B . (C x A) = C . (A x B)
A . (B x C) = -A . (C x B)
= -B . (A x C)
= -C . (B x A)
Vector Analysis 11 Vector Analysis 11 Vector Analysis 11
Product of Vectors
Magnitude is equal
to volume of the
parallelepiped formed
by vectors A, B, and C.
Base area is |B x C| = |BC sin θ
1
|
Height is |A cos θ
2
|
Hence the volume is |ABC sin θ
1
cos θ
2
|
B
C
A
B x C
θ
1
θ
2
Vector Analysis 12 Vector Analysis 12 Vector Analysis 12
Product of Vectors
• Vector Triple Product
Back-cab rule
A x (B x C) = B(A . C) – C(A . B)
A = A
||
+ A

A

x (B x C) = 0 as both are parallel.
We are left with D = A
||
x (B x C)
A
||
A

C
B
B(A
||
. C)
-C(A
||
. B)
D
a
D
θ
1
θ
2
Vector Analysis 13 Vector Analysis 13 Vector Analysis 13
Product of Vectors
– Figure shows the plane containing B, C, A
||
.
– D also lies in the same plane and is normal to A
||
.
– Magnitude of (B x C) is BC sin (θ
1
– θ
2
).
– Magnitude of A
||
x (B x C) is A
||
BC sin (θ
1
– θ
2
).
D = D . a
D
= A
||
BC sin (θ
1
– θ
2
)
= (B sin θ
1
)(A
||
C cos θ
2
) - (C sin θ
2
) (A
||
B cos θ
1
)
= [B(A
||
. C) – C(A
||
. B)] . A
D
– It is not guaranteed that quantity inside the brackets is
equal to D; as it may contain a vector that is normal to
D; ie parallel to A
||
. Hence
Vector Analysis 14 Vector Analysis 14 Vector Analysis 14
Product of Vectors
B(A
||
. C) – C(A
||
. B) = D + kA||
Multiplying both sides by A||; we get
(A
||
. B)(A
||
. C) – (A
||
. C)(A
||
. B) = A
||
. D + kA
||
2
0 = A
||
. D + kA
||
2
Since A
||
. D = 0 ( as D is normal to A
||
), so k = 0
Hence
D = B(A
||
. C) – C(A
||
. B)
This proves the Back-Cab rule.
A
||
. C = A . C and A
||
. B = A . B
Vector Analysis 15 Vector Analysis 15 Vector Analysis 15
Division of Vectors
• Division of Vectors is not defined
• Expressions such as k/A and B/A are
meaningless.
Vector Analysis 16 Vector Analysis 16 Vector Analysis 16
Orthogonal Coordinate Systems
• We need position of the source and the location
of this point in coordinate system to determine
the Electric Field at a certain point in space.
• In three dimensional space a point can be
located as the intersection of three surfaces u
1
,
u
2
, u
3
.
• If these three surfaces are perpendicular to one
another; we have the Orthogonal Coordinate
System.
Vector Analysis 17 Vector Analysis 17 Vector Analysis 17
• Let a
u1
, a
u2
, and a
u3
be the unit vectors called the
Base Vectors in the three coordinate system;
then in a general right handed, orthogonal,
curvilinear coordinate system:
• a
u1
x a
u2
= a
u3
,
• a
u2
x a
u3
= a
u1
,
• a
u3
x a
u1
= a
u2
.
• Above three equations are not all independent,
as the specification of one automatically implies
the other two
Orthogonal Coordinate Systems
Vector Analysis 18 Vector Analysis 18 Vector Analysis 18
• a
u1
. a
u2
= a
u2
. a
u3
= a
u3
. a
u1
= 0
• a
u1
. a
u1
= a
u2
. a
u2
= a
u3
. a
u3
= 1
• A vector A can be written as:
• A = a
u1
A
u1
+ a
u2
A
u2
+ a
u3
A
u3
• Magnitude of vector A is
• A = |A| = (A
u1
2
+A
u2
2
+A
u3
2
)
1/2
.
Orthogonal Coordinate Systems
Vector Analysis 19 Vector Analysis 19 Vector Analysis 19
• EXAMPLE:
– Given three vectors A, B, and C, obtain the
expressions of:
(a) A . B (b) A x B (c) C . (A x B) in the
orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system
(u
1
,u
2
,u
3
).
Orthogonal Coordinate Systems
Vector Analysis 20 Vector Analysis 20 Vector Analysis 20
• SOLUTION:
A = a
u1
A
u1
+ a
u2
A
u2
+ a
u3
A
u3
B = a
u1
B
u1
+ a
u2
B
u2
+ a
u3
B
u3
C = a
u1
C
u1
+ a
u2
C
u2
+ a
u3
C
u3
a) A . B = (a
u1
A
u1
+ a
u2
A
u2
+ a
u3
A
u3
) . (a
u1
B
u1
+
a
u2
B
u2
+ a
u3
B
u3
)
= A
u1
B
u1
+ A
u2
B
u2
+ A
u3
B
u3
Orthogonal Coordinate Systems
Vector Analysis 21 Vector Analysis 21 Vector Analysis 21
b) A x B = (a
u1
A
u1
+ a
u2
A
u2
+ a
u3
A
u3
) x (a
u1
B
u1
+
a
u2
B
u2
+ a
u3
B
u3
)
= a
u1
(A
u2
B
u3
– A
u3
B
u2
) + a
u2
(A
u3
B
u1
– A
u1
B
u3
)
+ a
u3
(A
u1
B
u2
– A
u2
B
u1
)
a
u1
a
u2
a
u3
= A
u1
A
u2
A
u3
B
u1
B
u2
B
u3
Orthogonal Coordinate Systems
Vector Analysis 22 Vector Analysis 22 Vector Analysis 22
c) C . (A x B)
= C
u1
(A
u2
B
u3
– A
u3
B
u2
) + C
u2
(A
u3
B
u1
– A
u1
B
u3
)
+ C
u3
(A
u1
B
u2
– A
u2
B
u1
)
C
u1
C
u2
C
u3
= A
u1
A
u2
A
u3
B
u1
B
u2
B
u3
Orthogonal Coordinate Systems
Vector Analysis 23 Vector Analysis 23 Vector Analysis 23
• Differential change in length corresponds to the
change in one of the coordinates and a factor is
needed for such a change.
dl
i
= h
i
du
i
, (i = 1, 2, or 3)
Where h
i
is called metric coefficient and may
itself be a function of u
i
• e.g: In a two coordinate system (u
1
, u
2
) = (r, Ø) a
differential change dØ (=du
2
) in Ø (=u
2
)
corresponds to a differential length change dl
2
=
rdØ (h
2
= r = u
1
) in the a
Ø
(=au
2
) direction.
Orthogonal Coordinate Systems
Vector Analysis 24 Vector Analysis 24 Vector Analysis 24
• A directed differential length change in an
arbitrary direction can be written as vector
sum of component length changes;
dl = au
1
dl
1
+ au
2
dl
2
+ au
3
dl
3
dl = au
1
(h
1
du
1
) + au
2
(h
2
du
2
) + au
3
(h
3
du
3
)
Magnitude of dl is
dl = [(dl
1
)
2
+ (dl
2
)
2
+
(
dl
3
)
2
]
1/2
= [(h
1
du
1
)
2
+ (h
2
du
2
)
2
+ (h
3
du
3
)
2
]
1/2
Orthogonal Coordinate Systems
Vector Analysis 25 Vector Analysis 25 Vector Analysis 25
• The differential volume formed by differential
coordinate changes du
1
, du
2
, and du
3
in
directions au
1
, au
2
, and au
3
respectively is (dl
1
dl
2
dl
3
), or
dv = h
1
h
2
h
3
du
1
du
2
du
3
• In order to express the current or flux flowing
through a differential area, cross-sectional area
perpendicular to the current or flux is to be used
ds = a
n
ds
Orthogonal Coordinate Systems
Vector Analysis 26 Vector Analysis 26 Vector Analysis 26
• Let current density J is not perpendicular
to a differential area ds, the current dI,
flowing through ds must be the component
of J normal to the area, multiplied by the
area.
dI = J . ds
=J . a
n
ds
Orthogonal Coordinate Systems
Vector Analysis 27 Vector Analysis 27 Vector Analysis 27
• In general orthogonal curvilinear
coordinate system the differential area ds
1
normal to the unit vector a
u1
is:
• ds
1
= dl
2
dl
3
• ds
1
= h
2
h
3
du
2
du
3
• Similarly differential areas normal to
vectors au2 and au3 are respectively
• ds
2
= h
1
h
3
du
1
du
3
• ds
3
= h
1
h
2
du
1
du
2
Orthogonal Coordinate Systems
Vector Analysis 28 Vector Analysis 28 Vector Analysis 28
• Main orthogonal coordinate systems are:
• Cartesian (or Rectangular) Coordinates
• Cylindrical Coordinates
• Spherical Coordinates
Orthogonal Coordinate Systems
Vector Analysis 29 Vector Analysis 29 Vector Analysis 29
Cartesian Coordinates
• (u
1
, u
2
, u
3
) = (x, y, z)
• Point P(x
1
, y
1
, z
1
) is
Intersection of three
Planes x = x
1
, y = y
1
,
z = z
1
Base vectors are a
x
,
a
y
, a
z
in the
respective Directions.
z=z1 plane
y=y1 plane
X=x1 plane
Vector Analysis 30 Vector Analysis 30 Vector Analysis 30
• Base vectors satisfy following relations:
a
x
x a
y
= a
z
,
a
y
x a
z
= a
x
,
a
z
x a
x
= a
y
.
• Position vector to point P P(x
1
, y
1
, z
1
) is:
OP = a
x
x
1
+ a
y
y
1
+ a
z
z
1
.
• A vector A can be written as:
A = a
x
A
x
+ a
y
A
y
+ a
z
A
z
.
Cartesian Coordinates
Vector Analysis 31 Vector Analysis 31 Vector Analysis 31
• The dot product of two vectors A and B is:
A . B = A
x
B
x
+ A
y
B
y
+ A
z
B
z
• The cross product of A and B is:
A x B =
a
x
(A
y
B
z
-A
z
B
y
) + a
y
(A
z
B
x
-A
x
B
z
) + a
z
(A
x
B
y
-A
y
B
x
)
a
x
a
y
a
z
= A
x
A
y
A
z
B
x
B
y
B
z
Cartesian Coordinates
Vector Analysis 32 Vector Analysis 32 Vector Analysis 32
• Since x, y, and z are lengths so all three matric
coefficients are unity ie, h1 = h2 = h3 = 1. The
expressions for differential length, differential
area, and differential volume are:
dl = a
x
dx + a
y
dy + a
z
dz.
ds
x
= dydz,
ds
y
= dxdz,
ds
z
= dxdy.
dv = dxdydz
Cartesian Coordinates
Vector Analysis 33 Vector Analysis 33 Vector Analysis 33
x
y
z
dx
dy
dz
ds
x
=dydz
ds
z
= dxdy
Ds
y
= dxdz
o
Cartesian Coordinates
A differential volume in Cartesian Coordinates
Vector Analysis 34 Vector Analysis 34 Vector Analysis 34
Cartesian Coordinates
Vector Analysis 35 Vector Analysis 35 Vector Analysis 35
• EXAMPLE: Given A = a
x
5 – a
y
2 + a
z
, find
the expression of a unit vector B such
that:
a) B||A
b) B┴A, if B lies in the xy-plane.
• SOLUTION:
– Let B = a
x
B
x
+ a
y
B
y
+ a
z
B
z
. We know that
– B = (B
x
2
+ B
y
2
+ B
z
2
)
1/2
= 1
Cartesian Coordinates
Vector Analysis 36 Vector Analysis 36 Vector Analysis 36
a) B||A requires B x A = 0, hence we have
-2Bz – By = 0,
Bx – 5Bz = 0,
5By + 2Bx = 0.
Solving above equations along with magnitude
equation; we get:
Bx = 5/√30, By = -2/√30, Bz = 1/√30
Therefore
B = (ax5 – ay2 + az)/√30
Cartesian Coordinates
Vector Analysis 37 Vector Analysis 37 Vector Analysis 37
b) B┴A requires B . A = 0, hence we
have 5Bx – 2By = 0.
Bz = 0, since B lies in the xy-plane
Solution of above equation along with
magnitude equation yields:
Bx = 2/√29, By = 5/√29
Hence
B = (ax2 + ay5)/√29
Cartesian Coordinates
Vector Analysis 38 Vector Analysis 38 Vector Analysis 38
• EXAMPLE:
– (a) Write the expression of the vector going
from point P1(1,3,2) to point P2(3,-2,4) in
Cartesian coordinates.
– (b) What is the length of this line?
• SOLUTION:
Cartesian Coordinates
Vector Analysis 39 Vector Analysis 39 Vector Analysis 39
From Figure, we see
P
1
P
2
= OP
2
– OP
1
= (a
x
3-a
y
2+a
z
4) –
(a
x
+a
y
3+a
z
2)
= a
x
2 – a
y
5 + a
z
2
The length of the line is
P
1
P
2
=|P
1
P
2
| = √2
2
+ (-5)
2
+ 2
2
= √33
Cartesian Coordinates
P1(1,3,2)
P2(3,-2,4)
x
y
z
Vector Analysis 40 Vector Analysis 40 Vector Analysis 40
• (u
1
, u
2
, u
3
) = (r, Ø, z)
• Point P(r
1
, Ø
1
, z
1
) is
the intersection of a
cylindrical surface
r=r
1
, a half plane
containing the z axis
and making an angle
Ø=Ø
1
with the xz-
plane, and a plane
parallel to xy plane at
z=z
1
.
Cylindrical Coordinates
z
y
x
r
1
a
z
a
Ø
a
r
z
1
y
1
x
1
o
Ø
1
Ø=Ø
1
plane
z=z
1
plane
r=r
1
cylinder
Vector Analysis 41 Vector Analysis 41 Vector Analysis 41
Cylindrical Coordinates
• Angle Ø is measured from +ve x-axis, and
base vector a
Ø
is tangential to the
cylindrical surface.
• Following right handed relations apply.
a
r
x a
Ø
= a
z
a
Ø
x a
z
= a
r
a
z
x a
r
= a
Ø
Vector Analysis 42 Vector Analysis 42
Cylindrical Coordinates
Vector Analysis 42
, 0
, 0
, 0
, 1
, 1
, 1
= -
= -
= -
= -
= -
= -
r z
z
r
z z
r r
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
 
 
 
 
 
 
|
|
| |
, 0
, 0
, 0
= ×
= ×
= ×
z z
r r
a a
a a
a a
 
 
 
| |
Vector Analysis 43 Vector Analysis 43 Vector Analysis 43
Cylindrical Coordinates
• A vector in cylindrical coordinates is
written as:
A = a
r
A
r
+ a
Ø
A
Ø
+ a
z
A
z
• Dot and cross product of two vectors in
cylindrical coordinates follow the equations
as discussed on slides 20,21.
• Two of the coordinats, r and z (u
1
and u
3
)
are lengths; hence h
1
= h
3
= 1.
Vector Analysis 44 Vector Analysis 44 Vector Analysis 44
• However Ø is an angle requiring a metric
co-efficient h
2
= r to convert dØ to dl
2
.
• General expression for a differential length
in cylindrical coordinates is then:
dl = a
r
dr + a
Ø
rdØ + a
z
dz
• Expressions for differential areas and
differential volume are:
ds
r
= r dØ dz,
Cylindrical Coordinates
Vector Analysis 45 Vector Analysis 45 Vector Analysis 45
• ds
Ø
= dr dz,
• ds
z
= r dr dØ,
• dv = r dr dØ dz.
Cylindrical Coordinates
Vector Analysis 46 Vector Analysis 46 Vector Analysis 46
• A vector given in cylindrical coordinates
i.e A = a
r
A
r
+ a
Ø
A
Ø
+ a
z
A
z
can be transformed into Cartesian coordinates ie
A = a
x
A
x
+ a
y
A
y
+ a
z
A
z
.
• Z component remains un-altered.
• To find A
x
, we equate dot product of above both
expressions of A with ax. Thus:
A
x
= A . a
x
= a
r
A
r
. a
x
+ a
Ø
A
Ø
. a
x
• a
z
. a
x
= 0, hence A
z
disappears.
Cylindrical Coordinates
Vector Analysis 47 Vector Analysis 47 Vector Analysis 47
From figure:
a
r
. a
x
= cos Ø
a
Ø
. a
x
= cos(π/2 + Ø)
= - sin Ø
A
x
= A
r
cos Ø – A
Ø
sin Ø
Similarly Ay = A . ay
= a
r
A
r
. a
y
+ a
Ø
A
Ø
. a
y
a
r
. a
y
= cos(π/2 - Ø)
= sin Ø
a
Ø
. a
y
= cos Ø
A
y
= A
r
sin Ø + A
Ø
cos Ø
Cylindrical Coordinates
a
r
a
Ø
Vector Analysis 48 Vector Analysis 48
Cylindrical Coordinates
Vector Analysis 48
z
y
x
z
r
a
a
a
a
a
a






1 0 0
0 cos sin
0 sin cos
| |
| |
|
÷ =
Vector Analysis 49 Vector Analysis 49 Vector Analysis 49
• Conversion Matrix is:
A
x
cosØ -sinØ 0 A
r
A
y
= sinØ cosØ 0 A
Ø
A
z
0 0 1 A
z
Cylindrical Coordinates
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

z
y
x
z
r
A
A
A
A
A
A
1 0 0
0 cos sin
0 sin cos
| |
| |
|
Vector Analysis 50 Vector Analysis 50 Vector Analysis 50
• Conversions formulas are:
Cartesian Cylindrical
x = r cos Ø r = √ x
2
+ y
2
y = r sin Ø Ø= tan
-1
y/x
z = z z = z
Cylindrical Coordinates
Vector Analysis 51 Vector Analysis 51 Vector Analysis 51
• EXAMPLE: The cylindrical coordinates of
an arbitrary point P in the z = 0 plane are
(r, Ø, 0). Find the unit vector that goes
from a point z = h on z-axis toward P.
• SOLUTION:
QP = OP – OQ
= (a
r
r) – (a
z
h)
a
QP
= QP/|QP|
= (1/√r
2
+ h
2
) (a
r
r – a
z
h)
Cylindrical Coordinates
Vector Analysis 52 Vector Analysis 52 Vector Analysis 52
• EXAMPLE: Express the vector
A = a
r
(3cosØ) – a
Ø
2r + a
z
5 in cartesian
coordinates:
A
x
cosØ -sinØ 0 3cosØ
A
y
= sinØ cosØ 0 -2r
A
z
0 0 1 5
• A = a
x
(3cos2 Ø + 2r sin Ø) + a
y
(3sin Øcos Ø
– 2r cos Ø) + a
z
5
Cylindrical Coordinates
Vector Analysis 53 Vector Analysis 53 Vector Analysis 53
• Cos Ø = x / √x
2
+ y
2
• Sin Ø = y / √x
2
+ y
2
• Therefore:
A = a
x
(3x
2
/(x
2
+ y
2
) + 2y)
+ a
y
(3xy/(x
2
+ y
2
) - 2x)
+ a
z
5
Cylindrical Coordinates
Vector Analysis 54 Vector Analysis 54 Vector Analysis 54
Spherical Coordinates
• (u
1
, u
2
, u
3
) = (R, θ, Ø)
• Point P(R
1
, θ
1
, Ø
1
) is the intersection of a
spherical surface centered at the origin
with a radius R=R
1
, a right circular cone
with it’s apex at the origin, it’s axis
coincides with the + z-axis and having a
half angle θ=θ
1
and a half plane containing
the z axis and making an angle Ø=Ø
1
with
the xz-plane.
Vector Analysis 55 Vector Analysis 55 Vector Analysis 55
Spherical Coordinates
Vector Analysis 56 Vector Analysis 56 Vector Analysis 56
Spherical Coordinates
• The base vector a
R
at P is radial from the
origin and is quite different from a
r
in
cylindrical coordinates, as the latter is
perpendicular to the z-axis. The base
vector a
θ
lies in the Ø=Ø
1
plane and is
tangential to the spherical surface,
whereas the base vector a
Ø
is the same as
in the cylindrical coordinates.
Vector Analysis 57 Vector Analysis 57
0
0
0
1
1
1
= -
= -
= -
= -
= -
= -
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
R
R
R R
 
 
 
 
 
 
|
| u
u
| |
u u
Spherical Coordinates
Vector Analysis 58 Vector Analysis 58 Vector Analysis 58
Spherical Coordinates
• For a right-handed system we have
a
R
x a
θ
= a
Ø,
a
θ
x a
Ø
= a
R,
a
Ø
x a
R
= a
θ
• Spherical coordinates are important for
problems involving point sources and
regions with spherical boundaries.
• Spherical coordinates are used in solving
antenna problems in the far field.
Vector Analysis 59 Vector Analysis 59 Vector Analysis 59
Spherical Coordinates
• A vector in spherical coordinates is written
as:
A = a
R
A
R
+ a
θ
A
θ
+ a
Ø
A
Ø
.
• Expressions for dot and cross products of
two vectors in spherical coordinates are
similar to those shown on slide 31.
• In spherical coordinates only R (u
1
) is a
length. The other two coordinates θ and Ø
(u
2
and u
3
) are angles.
Vector Analysis 60 Vector Analysis 60 Vector Analysis 60
Spherical Coordinates
Vector Analysis 61 Vector Analysis 61 Vector Analysis 61
• Metric coefficients h
2
=R and h
3
=R sinθ are
required to convert dθ and dØ into dl
2
and
dl
3
respectively.
• From equation on page 24 the general
expression for differential length is:
• dl = a
R
dR + a
θ
R dθ + a
Ø
R sinθ dØ
Spherical Coordinates
Vector Analysis 62 Vector Analysis 62 Vector Analysis 62
Spherical Coordinates
• Differential areas and differential volume
resulting from differential changes dR, dθ,
dØ are:
• ds
R
= R
2
sinθ dθ dØ,
• ds
θ
= R sinθ dR dØ,
• ds
Ø
= R dR dθ,
• dv = R
2
sinθ dR dθ dØ.
Vector Analysis 63 Vector Analysis 63 Vector Analysis 63
• A vector in spherical coordinates can be
transformed into Cartesian coordinates as:
x = R sinθ cosØ,
y = R sinθ sinØ,
z = R cosθ,
Spherical Coordinates
Vector Analysis 64 Vector Analysis 64 Vector Analysis 64
Spherical Coordinates
• Cartesian coordinates can be converted to
spherical coordinates as:
R = √x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
,
θ = tan
-1
√(x
2
+ y
2
)/z,
Ø = tan
-1
y/x
Vector Analysis 65 Vector Analysis 65
Spherical Coordinates
, cos
, sin sin
, cos sin
u
| u
| u
= -
= -
= -
z R
y R
x R
a a
a a
a a
 
 
 
, sin
, sin cos
, cos cos
u
| u
| u
u
u
u
÷ = -
= -
= -
z
y
x
a a
a a
a a
 
 
 
, 0
, cos
, sin
= -
= -
÷ = -
z
y
x
a a
a a
a a
 
 
 
|
|
|
|
|
z
y
x R
a
a
a
a
a
a






0 cos sin
sin sin cos cos cos
cos sin sin cos sin
| |
u | u | u
u | u | u
|
u
÷
÷ =
Vector Analysis 66 Vector Analysis 66
Spherical Coordinates
• Transformation of Vector
. sin cos cos cos sin
,
,
| | u | u
| u
| | u u
| | u u
A A A
a a A a a A a a A a A A
a A a A a A A
R
x x x R R x x
R R
÷ + =
- + - + - = - =
+ + =
      

  

Vector Analysis 67 Vector Analysis 67
Spherical Coordinates
|
u
u u
| | u | u
| | u | u
A
A
A
A
A
A
R
z
y
x
0 sin cos
cos sin cos sin sin
sin cos cos cos sin
÷
÷
=
z
y
x R
A
A
A
A
A
A
0 cos sin
sin sin cos cos cos
cos sin sin cos sin
| |
u | u | u
u | u | u
|
u
÷
÷ =
Vector Analysis 68 Vector Analysis 68 Vector Analysis 68
• Example: The position of a point P in
spherical coordinates is (8, 120, 330).
Specify it’s location (a) in Cartesian
coordinates (b) in cylindrical coordinates.
• Solution: Coordinates of the point P are
R=8, θ=120°, Ø=330°.
Spherical Coordinates
Vector Analysis 69 Vector Analysis 69 Vector Analysis 69
• a) Let us use the equations on page 60.
• x = 8 sin120° cos330° = 6,
• y = 8 sin120° sin330° = -2√3,
• z = 8 cos120° = -4.
• Hence the location of point is P(6, -2√3, -4).
• And the position vector is:
• OP = a
x
6 – a
y
2√3 – a
z
4.
Spherical Coordinates
Vector Analysis 70 Vector Analysis 70 Vector Analysis 70
• b) The cylindrical coordinates of point P
can be obtained by applying equations on
page: 48; but these can also be calculated
directly from the spherical coordinates by
using following equations:
– r = R sinθ,
– Ø = Ø,
– z = R cos θ.
• Hence we get the point P(4√3, 330, -4).
Spherical Coordinates
Vector Analysis 71 Vector Analysis 71 Vector Analysis 71
• Position vector in cylindrical coordinates is:
OP = a
r
4√3 – a
z
4
• We note that position vector does not contain
Ø=330°; however exact direction of a
r
depends on
Ø.
• In spherical coordinates position vector contains
only one term:
OP = a
R
8.
• Here the direction of a
r
changes with the θ and Ø
coordinates of point P.
Spherical Coordinates
Vector Analysis 72 Vector Analysis 72 Vector Analysis 72
• Example: Convert the vector A = a
R
A
R
+
a
θ
A
θ
+ a
Ø
A
Ø
into Cartesian coordinates.
• Solution: In this problem we want to write
A in the form of A = a
x
A
x
+ a
y
A
y
+ a
z
A
z
.
1) We assume that the expression of the given
vector A holds for all points of interest and
that all three given components A
R
, A
θ
, and
A
Ø
may be functions of coordinate variables.
2) At a given point A
R
, A
θ
, and A
Ø
will have
definite numerical values, but these values
Spherical Coordinates
Vector Analysis 73 Vector Analysis 73 Vector Analysis 73
that determine the direction of A will, in general, be
entirely different from the coordinate values of the
point.
• Taking dot product of A with ax, we get:
Ax = A . a
x
= A
R
a
R
. a
x
+ A
θ
a
θ
. a
x
+ A
Ø
a
Ø
. a
x
• a
R
. a
x
, a
θ
. a
x
,
and
a
Ø
. a
x
yield respectively, the
component of unit vectors a
R
, a
θ
, and a
Ø
in the
direction of a
x
, we find from fig on page 57 and
equations on page 60:
Spherical Coordinates
Vector Analysis 74 Vector Analysis 74 Vector Analysis 74
• a
R
. a
x
= sinθ cosØ = x/√(x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
)
• a
θ
. a
x
= cosθ cosØ = xz/ √((x
2
+ y
2
)
(x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
))
• a
Ø
. a
x
= - sinØ = -y/√(x
2
+ y
2
)
• Thus A
x
= A
R
sinθ cosØ + A
θ
cosθ cosØ
- A
Ø
sinØ
• = A
R
x/√(x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
) + A
θ
xz/√((x
2
+ y
2
)
(x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
)) - A
Ø
y/√(x
2
+ y
2
)
Spherical Coordinates
Vector Analysis 75 Vector Analysis 75 Vector Analysis 75
• Similarly A
y
= A
R
sinθ sinØ + A
θ
cosθ sinØ
+ A
Ø
cosØ
• = A
R
y/√(x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
) + A
θ
yz/√((x
2
+ y
2
)
(x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
)) + A
Ø
x/√(x
2
+ y
2
)
• A
Z
= A
R
cosθ + A
θ
sinθ
= A
R
z/√(x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
) - A
θ
√(x
2
+ y
2
) /
√(x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
))
Spherical Coordinates
Vector Analysis 76 Vector Analysis 76 Vector Analysis 76
• Example: Assuming that a cloud of
electrons confined in a region between two
spheres of radii 2 and 5 cm has a charge
density of -3x10
-8
cos
2
Ø / R
4
C/m
3
.
• Solution: ρ = -3x10
-8
cos
2
Ø / R
4
,
Q = ∫ ρdv.
Q =
0


0

π
0.02

0.05
ρR2 sinθ dR dθ dØ
Spherical Coordinates
Vector Analysis 77 Vector Analysis 77 Vector Analysis 77
• Q = -3x10
-8
0


0

π
0.02

0.05
(1/R
2
) cos
2
Ø
sinθ dR dθ

• = -3x10
-8
0


0

π
(-1/0.05 + 1/0.02) cos
2
Ø
sinθdθ dØ
• = -0.9x10
-6
0


(-cosθ)
0
|
π
cos
2
ØdØ
• = -1.8x10
-6
(Ø/2 + (sin2Ø)/4)
0
|

• = -1.8π (µC).
Spherical Coordinates
Vector Analysis 78 Vector Analysis 78
Integrals Containing Vector
Functions
• Above integral can be evaluated as the sum of
three scalar integrals by first resolving the vector
F into it’s three components in the appropriate
coordinate system.
• dv represents the differential volume.
• This is the triple integral over three dimensions
shown in a shorthand way.
}
V
Fdv
Vector Analysis 79 Vector Analysis 79
Integrals Containing Vector
Functions
}
C
Vdl
}
1
2
P
P
Vdl
•This integral is a scalar function of space.
•dl shows the differential increment of length.
•C is the path of integration.
•If the integral is from P
1
to P
2
, we write
•If it is for a closed path C, we write
}
C
Vdl
Vector Analysis 80 Vector Analysis 80
Integrals Containing Vector
Functions
• In Cartesian coordinates Integral can be written
as:
|
} } } }
} }
+ + =
+ + =
C
z
C C
y x
C
C
z y x
C
dz z y x V a dy z y x V a dx z y x V a Vdl
dz a dy a dx a z y x V Vdl
) , , ( ) , , ( ) , , (
)[ , , (
•Three integrals on right hand side are ordinary
scalar integrals. These can be evaluated for a
given V(x,y,z) around a path C.
Vector Analysis 81 Vector Analysis 81
Integrals Containing Vector
Functions
• Example: Evaluate the integral , where
___________, from the origin to the point P(1,1):
• a) Along the direct path OP.
• b) Along the path OP
1
P, and
• c) Along the path OP
2
P.
}
P
O
dr r
2
2 2 2
y x r + =
Vector Analysis 82 Vector Analysis 82
Integrals Containing Vector
Functions
• Solution:
• a) Along the direct path OP
3
2
3
2
) 45 sin 45 cos (
3
2 2
3
2 2
2
0
2 2
y x
y x
P
O
r r
a a
a a
a dr r a dr r
+ =
° + ° =
= =
} }
Vector Analysis 83 Vector Analysis 83
Integrals Containing Vector
Functions
• Solution:
• b) Along the path OP
1
P
.
3
1
3
4
)
3
1
(
3
1
) 1 ( ) (
1
0
3
1
0
3
2 2 2 2
1
1
y x
x y
P
P
x
P
O
y
P
O
a a
x x a y a
dx x a dy y a dr y x
+ =
+ + =
+ + = +
} } }
Vector Analysis 84 Vector Analysis 84
• Along the path OP
2
P
.
3
4
3
1
)
3
1
(
3
1
) 1 ( ) (
1
0
3
1
0
3
2 2 2 2
2
2
y x
y x
P
P
y
P
O
x
P
O
a a
y y a x a
dy y a dx x a dr y x
+ =
+ + =
+ + = +
} } }
Integrals Containing Vector
Functions
Vector Analysis 85 Vector Analysis 85
Integrals Containing Vector
Functions
}
-
C
dl F
•Above is a line integral, in which integrand
represents the component of F along the path of
integration.
•If F is a force, the integral is work done by the
force in moving an object from a point P1 to P2
along a specified path C.
•If F is replaced by E, then the integral is work
done by electric field in moving a unit charge from
P1 to P2.
Vector Analysis 86 Vector Analysis 86
Integrals Containing Vector
Functions
• Example: Given , evaluate the
scalar line integral , along the quarter
circle shown in figure.
x a xy a F
y x
2 ÷ =
}
-
B
A
dl F
Vector Analysis 87 Vector Analysis 87
Integrals Containing Vector
Functions
• Solution:
• a) In Cartesian coordinates:
)
2
1 ( 9
3
sin 9 9 ) 9 (
3
1
9 2 9
) 3 , 0 ( 9
2
3
0
1 2
0
3
2
3
2
3
0
2
0
3
2
2 2
t
+ ÷ =
(
¸
(

¸

+ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ ÷ = -
s s = +
÷ = -
÷
} } }
y
y y x
dy y dx x x dl F
y x y x
xdy xydx dl F
B
A
Vector Analysis 88 Vector Analysis 88
Integrals Containing Vector
Functions
• Solution:
• b) In cylindrical coordinates:
) cos 2 sin ( ) sin 2 cos (
0
2
1 0 0
0 cos sin
0 sin cos
1 0 0
0 cos sin
0 sin cos
| | | |
| |
| |
| |
| |
|
|
|
x xy a x xy a F
x
xy
F
F
F
A
A
A
A
A
A
r
z
r
z
y
x
z
r
+ ÷ ÷ =
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

Vector Analysis 89 Vector Analysis 89
Integrals Containing Vector
Functions
• Path of integration is along a quarter-circle of a
radius 3. There is no change in r or z along the
path (dr=0 and dz=0); hence equation dl = a
r
dr +
a
Ø
rdØ + a
z
dz simplifies to:
).
2
1 ( 9
) cos sin (sin 9
) cos 6 cos sin 9 ( 3
) cos 2 sin ( 3
3
2
0
3
2
0
2 2
t
| | | |
| | | |
| | |
|
t
t
|
+ ÷ =
+ + ÷ =
+ ÷ = -
+ ÷ = -
=
} }
B
A
d dl F
d x xy dl F
d a dl
Vector Analysis 90 Vector Analysis 90
Integrals Containing Vector
Functions
• This is a surface integral. It is actually a double
integral over two dimensions.
• The integral measures the flux of the vector field
A flowing through the area S.
• Vector differential surface element ds=a
n
ds has
a magnitude ds and the direction shown by a
n
.
• The conventions for the +ve direction of ds are
as follows:
}
-
s
ds A
Vector Analysis 91 Vector Analysis 91
Integrals Containing Vector
Functions
• If the surface of integration S is a closed surface
enclosing a volume, then the +ve direction of a
n
is always is the outward direction.
• Positive direction of an depends on the location
of ds.
• Further closed surface integral requires a small
circle added over the integration sign.
} }
- = -
s
n
s
ds a A ds A .
Vector Analysis 92 Vector Analysis 92
• If S is an open surface, the +ve direction of a
n
depends on the direction in which the perimeter
of the open surface is traversed.
• Acc to right hand rule if the fingers follows the
direction of travel around the perimeter then the
thumb points in the direction of +ve a
n
.
• Again the +ve direction of a
n
depends on the
location of ds.
Integrals Containing Vector
Functions
Vector Analysis 93 Vector Analysis 93
Integrals Containing Vector
Functions
• Example: Given , evaluate the
scalar surface integral over the surface
of a closed cylinder about the z-axis specified
by z=±3 and r=2.
z k a r k a F
z r 2 1
+ =
}
-
s
ds F
•Solution: The specified
surface of integration is
that of closed cylinder as
shown. It has three
surfaces: The top face,
the bottom face, and the
side wall.
Vector Analysis 94 Vector Analysis 94
Integrals Containing Vector
Functions
} } }
} }
+ + =
- = -
sidewall
n
topface bottomface
n n
s
n
ds a F ds a F ds a F
ds a F ds F
. . .
•Where an is a unit vector normal outwards from
the respective surfaces.
•Three integrals on the right side can be
evaluated separately.
Vector Analysis 95 Vector Analysis 95
Integrals Containing Vector
Functions
• a) Top face z = 3, a
n
= a
z
,
} } }
= = -
=
= = -
TopFace
n
n
k rdrd k ds a F
rdrd ds
k z k a F
t
t |
|
2
0
2
0
2 2
2 2
12 3
;
, 3
Vector Analysis 96 Vector Analysis 96
Integrals Containing Vector
Functions
• b) Bottom Face: z = -3, a
n
= -a
z
,
} } }
= = -
=
= ÷ = -
BottomFace
n
n
k rdrd k ds a F
rdrd ds
k z k a F
t
t |
|
2
0
2
0
2 2
2 2
12 3
;
, 3
Vector Analysis 97 Vector Analysis 97
Integrals Containing Vector
Functions
• C) Side Wall r = 2, a
n
= a
r
,
} } }
÷
= = -
= =
= = -
SideWall
n
n
k dz d k ds a F
dz d dz rd ds
k
r
k
a F
. 12
; 2
,
2
3
3
2
0
1 1
1 1
t
t |
| |
Vector Analysis 98 Vector Analysis 98
Integrals Containing Vector
Functions
• Therefore
) 2 ( 12
12 12 12
2 1
1 2 2
k k
k k k ds F
s
+ =
+ + = -
}
t
t t t
•This surface integral gives the net outward flux
of the vector F through the closed cylindrical
surface.
Vector Analysis 99 Vector Analysis 99
Gradient of a Scalar Field
• We encounter scalar and vector fields that are
functions of four variables: (t, u
1
, u
2
, u
3
).
• Method is required for describing the space rate
of change of a scalar field at a given time.
• Consider a scalar function of space coordinates
V(u
1
, u
2
, u
3
) which represents say, the
temperature distribution in a building, the altitude
of a mountainous terrain, or the electric potential
in a region
Vector Analysis 100 Vector Analysis 100
Gradient of a Scalar Field
• Magnitude of V depends on the position of the
point in space, but it may be constant along
certain lines or surfaces as shown in figure two
surfaces having constant magnitudes V
1
and
V
1
+dV.
• Point P
1
is on the surface V
1
; P
2
is the
corresponding point on surface V
1
+dV along the
normal vector dn; and P
3
is a point close to P
2
along another vector dl ≠ dn.
Vector Analysis 100
Vector Analysis 101 Vector Analysis 101
Gradient of a Scalar Field
Vector Analysis 101
•For the same change dV in V the space rate of
change, dV/dl, is greatest along dn as dn is the
shortest distance b/w the two surfaces.
•Since the magnitude
of dV/dl depends on
the direction of dl,
dV/dl is a directional
derivative
Vector Analysis 102 Vector Analysis 102
• “We define the vector that represents both
the magnitude and the direction of the
maximum space rate of increase of a
scalar as the gradient of that scalar.”
Vector Analysis 102
Gradient of a Scalar Field
dn
dV
a V
dn
dV
a gradV
n
n
= V
V V
=
gradV of place in V write and
symbol by the d represente del, operator employ to customary is It
.
Vector Analysis 103 Vector Analysis 103
• We have assumed that dV is +ve if increase in
V; if dV is –ve (a decrease in V from P1 to P2) ,
V will be –ve in a
n
direction.
• Directional derivative along dl is
Vector Analysis 103
Gradient of a Scalar Field
V
l l n
a V a a
dn
dV
dn
dV
dl
dn
dn
dV
dl
dV
- V = - =
= =
) (
coso
•This equation states that the space rate of increase
of V in the a
l
direction is equal to the projection of
the gradient of V in that direction
Vector Analysis 104 Vector Analysis 104
• We can also write
Vector Analysis 104
Gradient of a Scalar Field
,
: s coordinate in changes al differenti the of terms
in expressed be can it hence ); P to P (from position in change a
of result a as V of al differenti total the is dV Now , Where
, ) (
3
3
2
2
1
1
3 1
dl
l
V
dl
l
V
dl
l
V
dV
dl a dl
dl V dV
l
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
=
- V =
•Where dl
1
, dl
2
, and dl
3
are the components of the
vector differential displacement dl in a chosen
coordinate system.
Vector Analysis 105 Vector Analysis 105
• In terms of general orthogonal coordinates (u1,
u2, u3), dl is:
Vector Analysis 105
Gradient of a Scalar Field
dl
l
V
a
l
V
a
l
V
a
dl a dl a dl a
l
V
a
l
V
a
l
V
a dV
du h a du h a du h a
dl a dl a dl a dl
u u u
u u u u u u
u u u
u u u
-
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
+ + -
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
+ + =
+ + =
) (
) ( ) (
: follows as vectors
two of product dot as written be can dV
) ( ) ( ) (
3
3
2
2
1
1
3 3 2 2 1 1
3
3
2
2
1
1
3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1
3 3 2 2 1 1
Vector Analysis 106 Vector Analysis 106
Gradient of a Scalar Field
• Comparing above equation with the equation on
top of slide 104.
3 3
3
2 2
2
1 1
1
3
3
2
2
1
1
u h
V
a
u h
V
a
u h
V
a V
l
V
a
l
V
a
l
V
a V
u u u
u u u
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
• Above equation is useful for computing gradient of
a scalar, when the scalar is given as a function of
space coordinates.
Vector Analysis 107 Vector Analysis 107
Gradient of a Scalar Field
• In Cartesian coordinates, (u1, u2, u3) = (x, y, z)
and h1 = h2 = h3 = 1, hence we have:
z
a
y
a
x
a
V
z
a
y
a
x
a V
z
V
a
y
V
a
x
V
a V
z y x
z y x
z y x
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
V
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
operator. al differenti vector a as
s coordinate Cartesian in consider to convenient is It
) (
Vector Analysis 108 Vector Analysis 108
Gradient of a Scalar Field
• We see that we can define in general
orthogonal coordinates as:
) (
3 3
3
2 2
2
1 1
1
u h
a
u h
a
u h
a
u u u
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
V
Vector Analysis 109 Vector Analysis 109
Gradient of a Scalar Field
• Example: The Electrostatic field intensity E is
derivable as the –ve gradient of a scalar electric
potential V; that is, E= - V. Determine E at the
point (1, 1, 0) if
V
u
t
o
o
cos )
,
4
sin )
R E V b
y
e V V a
x
=
=
÷
Vector Analysis 110 Vector Analysis 110
Gradient of a Scalar Field
• We use Cartesian Coordinates for part (a) and
spherical coordinates for part (b) to solve E= - V.
• a)
V
).
4
(
) 16 ( 1
1
, )
16
1 (
2
1

,
2
)
4
( ) 0 , 1 , 1 (
. )
4
cos
4 4
sin (
4
sin ] [
2
2
t
t
t
t
t t t
t
o
o
o
o
y x E
E y x
x
y x
x
z y x
a a a
E E where
E a
E
a a E Thus
e E
y
a
y
a
y
e E
z
a
y
a
x
a E
÷
+
=
+ =
= ÷ =
÷ =
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
÷ =
÷
÷
Vector Analysis 111 Vector Analysis 111
Gradient of a Scalar Field
b)
.
) sin cos (
cos ]
sin
[
o u
o | u
u u
u
| u u
E a a
R E
R
a
R
a
R
a E
R
R
÷ ÷ =
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
÷ =
In view of following equation:
AZ = AR cosθ + Aθ sinθ
= ARz/√(x2 + y2 + z2) - Aθ√(x2 + y2) /
√(x2 + y2 + z2))
the result of above converts to E = -a
z
E
o
in
Cartesian coordinates.
Vector Analysis 112 Vector Analysis 112
Gradient of a Scalar Field
• This is not surprising, as careful examination
of the given V reveals that EoRcosθ is infact
equal to Eoz. Hence in Cartesian coordinates:
o o
E a z E
z
a V E
z z
÷ =
c
c
÷ = ÷V = ) (
Vector Analysis 113 Vector Analysis 113
Divergence of a Vector Field
• Flux lines or streamlines are directed lines or
curves indicating at each point the direction of
the vector field.
• Magnitude of the field at a point is depicted
either by the density or by the length of the
directed lines in the vicinity of the point.
• This figure shows that the field in the
region A is stronger than that in region
B, as there is higher density of equal
length directed lines in region A.
Vector Analysis 114
Divergence of a Vector Field
Vector Analysis 114
• This figure indicate a radial field
that is strongest in the region
closest to the point q and
decreasing arrow lengths show
the weaker field away from the
charge q.
• This figure depicts a uniform field.
• Vector Field Strength is measured by the
number of flux lines passing through a unit
surface normal to the vector.
Vector Analysis 115
Divergence of a Vector Field
• The flux of vector field is analogous to the flow of
an incompressible fluid such as water.
• Net +ve divergence indicates the presence of a
source of fluid inside the volume.
• Net –ve divergence indicates the presence of
sink inside the volume.
• In the uniform field, there is an equal amount of
inward and outward flux going through any
closed volume containing no source or sink,
resulting in a zero divergence.
Vector Analysis 115
Vector Analysis 116
Divergence of a Vector Field
• We define the divergence of a vector field at a
point, (abbreviated div A) as the net outward flux
of A per unit volume as the volume about the
point tends to zero:
Vector Analysis 116
v
ds A
v divA
s
A
-
÷ A =
}
0 lim
• The numerator represents the net outward flux,
is an integral over the entire surface S that
bounds the volume
Vector Analysis 117
Divergence of a Vector Field
• Div A is a scalar quantity whose magnitude may
vary from point to point.
• Consider a differential volume of sides Δx, Δy,
and Δz centered about a point P(x
o
, y
o
, z
o
) in the
field of a vector A; and we wish to find div A at
the point (x
o
, y
o
, z
o
).
• Since the differential volume has six faces, the
surface integral can be decomposed into six
parts.
Vector Analysis 117
Vector Analysis 118
Divergence of a Vector Field
Vector Analysis 118
z y z y
x
x A
z y a A S A ds A
ds A ds A
x
x frontface frontface
frontface
frontface
s bottomface topface leftface rightface backface frontface
A A
A
+ =
A A - = A - = -
-
(
¸
(

¸

+ + + + + = -
}
} } } } } } }
) , ,
2
(
) (
face front On the
o o o
Vector Analysis 119
Divergence of a Vector Field
• The quantity can be expanded as a
Taylor series about its value at (x
o
, y
o
, z
o
), as
follows:
Vector Analysis 119
) , ,
2
(
o o o
z y
x
x A
x
A
+
, _ _
2
) , , ( ) , ,
2
(
) , , (
terms order higher
x
A x
z y x A z y
x
x A
z y x
x
x x
+
c
c A
+ =
A
+
o o o
o o o o o o
Where the higher order terms (H.O.T) contain
the factors (Δx/2)
2
,(Δx/2)
3
, etc.
Vector Analysis 120
Divergence of a Vector Field
Vector Analysis 120
. ) . . ( ] [
: get we face back and front for equations Combining
. .
2
) , , ( ) , ,
2
(
: is ) , ,
2
( of expansion series - Taylor The
) , ,
2
(
) (
) , , (
) , , (
z y x T O H
x
A
ds A
T O H
x
A x
z y x A z y
x
x A
z y
x
x A
z y z y
x
x A
z y a A S A ds A
z y x
x
Backface Frontface
z y x
x
x x
x
x
x backface backface
backface
backface
A A A +
c
c
= - +
+
c
c A
÷ =
A
÷
A
÷ ÷
A A
A
÷ ÷ =
A A ÷ - = A - = -
} }
}
o o o
o o o
o o o o o o
o o o
o o o
Vector Analysis 121
Divergence of a Vector Field
• Following the same procedure for the right and
the left faces, where the coordinate changes are
+Δy/2 and –Δy/2, respectively and Δs=ΔxΔz, we
find:
Vector Analysis 121
. z) ( z, factors the contains H.O.T the Here
. ) . . ( ] [
: have we faces bottom
and top For the , y) ( y, factors the contains H.O.T the Here
. ) . . ( ] [
2
) , , (
2
) , , (
A A
A A A +
c
c
= - +
A A
A A A +
c
c
= - +
} }
} }
z y x T O H
z
A
ds A
z y x T O H
y
A
ds A
z y x
z
Bottomface Topface
z y x
y
Leftface rightface
o o o
o o o
Vector Analysis 122
Divergence of a Vector Field
• Now combining the results of all the sides:
Vector Analysis 122
. , , ) (
) , , (
z y x in terms order higher z y x
z
A
y
A
x
A
ds A
z y x
z
y
s
x
A A A ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + A A A
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= -
}
o o o
• Since Δv=ΔxΔyΔz substituting above equation
in div A equation in Cartesian coordinates we
get:
z
A
y
A
x
A
divA
z
y
x
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
•The higher order terms vanish as the differential
volume ΔxΔyΔz approaches zero.
Vector Analysis 123
Divergence of a Vector Field
• Value of div A depends on the position of the
point at which it is evaluated.
• We have dropped notation (x
o
, y
o
, z
o
) in above
equation because it applies to every point at
which A and its partial derivates are defined.
Vector Analysis 123
. ) ( ) ( ) (
1
: have we ), , , ( s coordinate orthogonal general In
3 2 1
3
2 3 1
2
1 3 2
1 3 2 1
3 2 1
(
¸
(

¸

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= - V
= - V
A h h
u
A h h
u
A h h
u h h h
A
u u u
divA A
Vector Analysis 124
Divergence of a Vector Field
• Example: Find the divergence of the position
vector to an arbitrary point.
• Solution: We will find the solution in Cartesian as
well as in spherical coordinates.
a) Cartesian coordinates:
Expression for a position vector to an arbitrary point
(x, y, z) is:
Vector Analysis 124
. 3 ) (
.
=
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= - V
+ + =
z
z
y
y
x
x
OP
z a y a x a OP
z y x
Vector Analysis 125
Divergence of a Vector Field
b) Spherical coordinates: Here the position
vector is simply:
Its divergence in spherical coordinates (R, θ, Ø)
can be obtained from equation on page: 123:
Vector Analysis 125
. R a OP
R
=
3
: get e equation w above in OP of value the ng Substituti
sin
1
) sin (
sin
1
) (
1
2
2
= - V
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= - V
OP
A
R
A
R
A R
R R
A
R
| u
u
u u
|
u
Vector Analysis 126
Divergence of a Vector Field
• Example: The magnetic flux density B outside a
very long current-carrying wire is circumferential
and is inversely proportional to the distance to
the axis of the wire. Find div B.
• Solution: Let the long wire be coincident with the
z-axis in a cylindrical coordinate system. The
problem states that:
Vector Analysis 126
.
r
k
a B
|
=
Vector Analysis 127
Divergence of a Vector Field
• The divergence of a vector field in cylindrical
coordinates (r, Ø, z) can be found from equation
on page: 123.
Vector Analysis 127
. 0
: gives equation above Hence , 0 and ,
.
1
) (
1
= - V
= = =
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= - V
B
B B r k B
z
B
B
r
rB
r r
B
z r
z
r
|
|
|
• Above vector is not a constant but its divergence is
zero. Hence magnetic flux lines close upon
themselves and there are no sources or sinks. A
divergence less field is called a solenoidal field.
Vector Analysis 128
Divergence Theorem
• The volume integral of the divergence of a
vector field equals the total outward flux of the
vector through the surface that bounds the
volume; that is,
• This identity is called the divergence theorem,
also known as Gauss’s theorem.
• The direction of ds is always outward
perpendicular to the surface ds and directed
away from the volume.
Vector Analysis 128
} }
- = - V
S V
ds A Adv
Vector Analysis 129
Divergence Theorem
• For a very small differential volume element Δv
j
bounded by a surface s
j
, the definition of in
previous equation gives directly:
• Let an arbitrary volume V, subdivided into many
say N, small differential volumes of which Δv
j
is
typical as shown in figure.
Vector Analysis 129
A - V
}
- = A - V
Sj
j j
ds A v A . ) (
Vector Analysis 130
Divergence Theorem
• Combine the contribution of all these differential
volumes to both sides of previous equation:
• Left side of above equation is by definition the
volume integral of :
Vector Analysis 130
(
¸
(

¸

- ÷ A =
(
¸
(

¸

A - V ÷ A
¿
}
¿
= =
N
j
Sj
j
N
j
j j j
ds A v v A v
1 1
0 lim ) ( 0 lim
A - V
dv A v A v
V
N
j
j j j
) ( ) ( 0 lim
1
- V =
(
¸
(

¸

A - V ÷ A
}
¿
=
Vector Analysis 131
Divergence Theorem
• The surface integrals on the right side of
equation on the top of page 130 are summed
over all the faces of all the differential volume
elements.
• The contributions from the internal surfaces of
adjacent elements will cancel each other,
because at a common internal surface the
outwards normals of the adjecent elements point
in opposite directions.
• Hence the net contribution is due to only that of
external surface S bounding the volume V.
Vector Analysis 131
Vector Analysis 132
Divergence Theorem
• The last three equations yield the divergence
theorem.
• Validity of the limiting processes leading to the
proof of the divergence theorem requires that
the vector field A, as well as its first derivatives,
exist and be continuous both in V and on S.
• The Divergence theorem converts a volume
integral of the divergence of a vector to a closed
surface integral of the vector, and vice versa.
Vector Analysis 132
}
¿
}
- =
(
¸
(

¸

- ÷ A
=
S
N
j
Sj
j
ds A ds A v
1
0 lim
Vector Analysis 133
Divergence Theorem
• Example: Given A=a
x
x
2
+a
y
xy+a
z
yz, verify the
divergence theorem over a cube one unit on
each side. The cube is situated in the first octant
of the Cartesian coordinate system with one
corner at the origin.
Vector Analysis 133
• Refer to figure. We first
evaluate the surface integral
over the six faces.
Vector Analysis 134
Divergence Theorem
1. Front face: x=1, ds=a
x
dydz;
2. Back face: x=0, ds=-a
x
dydz;
3. Left face: y=0, ds=-a
y
dxdz;
Vector Analysis 134
} } }
= = -
Frontface
dydz ds A
1
0
1
0
1
}
= -
Frontface
ds A 0
}
= -
Leftface
ds A 0
Vector Analysis 135
Divergence Theorem
4. Right face: y=1, ds=a
y
dxdz;
5. Top face: z=1, ds=a
z
dxdy;
6. Bottom face: z=0, ds=-a
z
dxdy;
Vector Analysis 135
} } }
= = -
Rightface
xdxdz ds A
1
0
1
0
2
1
} } }
= = -
Topface
ydxdy ds A
1
0
1
0
2
1
}
= -
Bottomface
ds A 0
Vector Analysis 136
Divergence Theorem
• Adding above six values:
• Now the divergence of A is:
• Hence:
• Results are same; so divergence theorem is
therefore verified.
Vector Analysis 136
2 0
2
1
2
1
0 0 1 = + + + + + = -
}
S
ds A
y x yz
z
xy
y
x
x
A + =
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= - V 3 ) ( ) ( ) (
2
} } } }
= + = - V
V
dxdydz y x Adv
1
0
1
0
1
0
2 ) 3 (
Vector Analysis 137
Divergence Theorem
• Example: Given F=a
R
kR, determine whether the
divergence theorem holds for the shell region
enclosed by spherical surfaces at R=R
1
and
R=R
2
(R
2
>R
1
) centered at the origin, as shown in
figure:
Vector Analysis 137
• Solution: Here the
region has two
surfaces at R=R
1
and
R=R
2
.
Vector Analysis 138
Divergence Theorem
• At the outer surface: R=R
2
, ds=a
R
R
2
2
sinθdθdØ;
• At the inner surface: R=R
1
, ds=-a
R
R
1
2
sinθdθdØ;
. 4 sin ) (
3
2
2
2
2
0
2
0
2
kR d d R KR ds F
ce OuterSurfa
t | u u
t t
= = -
} } }
) ( 4
: have we results, two the Adding
. 4 sin ) (
3
1
3
2
3
1
2
1
2
0 0
1
R R k ds F
kR d d R KR ds F
S
ce InnerSurfa
÷ = -
÷ = ÷ = -
}
} } }
t
t | u u
t t
138 Vector Analysis
Vector Analysis 139
Divergence Theorem
• To find the volume integral, we first determine
• for an F that has only F
R
component:
• Since is a constant, its volume integral
equals the product of the constant and the
volume. The volume of the shell region between
the two spherical surfaces with radii R1 and R2
is
F - V
k kR
R R
F R
R R
F
R
3 ) (
1
) (
1
3
2
2
2
=
c
c
=
c
c
= - V
F - V
.
3
) ( 4
3
1
3
2
R R ÷ t
139 Vector Analysis
Vector Analysis 140
Divergence Theorem
• Therefore:
• This is the same result as in surface integral.
• This example shows that the divergence
theorem holds even when the volume has holes
inside.
), ( 4 ) (
3
1
3
2
R R k V F dv F
V
÷ = - V = - V
}
t
140 Vector Analysis
Vector Analysis 141
Curl of a Vector Field
• There is a kind of source called Vortex Source,
which causes a circulation of a vector field
around it.
• The net circulation of a vector field around a
closed path is defined as the scalar line integral
of the vector over the path. We have:
• The physical meaning of circulation depends on
what kind of field the vector A represents.
Vector Analysis 141
}
- =
C
dl A C contour around A of n Circulatio
Vector Analysis 142
Curl of a Vector Field
• If A is a force acting on an object, its circulation
will be the work done by the force in moving the
object once around the contour.
• If A represents an Electric Field Intensity, then
the circulation will be an Electromotive Force
around the closed path.
• The familiar phenomenon of water whirling down
a sink drain is an example of a vortex sink
causing a circulation of fluid velocity.
• A circulation of A may exist even when div A=0.
Vector Analysis 142
Vector Analysis 143
Curl of a Vector Field
• As circulation is a line integral of a dot product,
its value obviously depends on the orientation of
the contour C relative to the vector A.
• To define a point function, which is the measure
of the strength of a vortex source, we must make
C very small and orient it in such a way that the
circulation is a maximum. We define:
Vector Analysis 143
| | .
1
0 lim curl
max
}
-
A
÷ A = × V =
C
n
dl A a
s
s A A
Vector Analysis 144
Curl of a Vector Field
• The curl of a vector field A, denoted by curl A
or , is a vector whose magnitude is the
maximum net circulation of A per unit area as
the area tends to zero and whose direction is
the normal direction of the area when the area
is oriented to make the net circulation
maximum.
• Normal to an area can point in two
opposite directions, we stick to the
right hand rule that when fingers
follow the direction of dl, the thumb points to
the a
n
direction
Vector Analysis 144
A × V
Vector Analysis 145
Curl of a Vector Field
• Curl A is a vector point function its component in
any other direction a
u
is , which can be
determined from the circulation per unit area
normal to a
u
as the area approaches zero.
• Here the direction of the line integration is
around the contour C
u
bounding the area Δs
u
and the direction a
u
follow the right hand rule.
Vector Analysis 145
) ( A a
u
× V -
) (
1
0 lim ) ( ) (
}
-
A
÷ A = × V - = × V
u
C
u
u u u
dl A
s
s A a A
Vector Analysis 146
Curl of a Vector Field
• Let us find the three components of in
Cartesian coordinates. Differential rectangular
area parallel to the yz-plane and having sides Δy
and Δz is drawn about a typical point P(x
o
, y
o
,
z
o
). We have a
u
=a
x
and
Δs
u
= ΔyΔz, and the
contour C
u
consist of the
four sides 1,2,3, and 4.
Thus:
Vector Analysis 146
A × V
Vector Analysis 147
Curl of a Vector Field
Vector Analysis 147
). (
1
0 lim ) (
4 , 3 , 2 , 1
}
-
A A
÷ A A = × V
sides
dl A
z y
z y A
•In Cartesian coordinates A=a
x
A
x
+a
y
A
y
+a
z
A
z
. The
contribution of the four sides to the line integral are
as follows:
T O H
y
A y
z y x A z
y
y x A
z
y
y x A
z z
y
y x A dl A z a dl
Side
z y x
z
z z
z
z z
. .
2
) , , ( ) ,
2
, (
: series Taylor a as expanded be can ) ,
2
, ( where
, ) ,
2
, ( ,
1 _
) , , (
+
c
c A
+ =
A
+
A
+
A
A
+ = - A =
o o o
o o o o o o
o o o
o o o
Vector Analysis 148
Curl of a Vector Field
• Where H.O.T (higher order terms) contain the
factors (Δy)
2
, (Δy)
3
, etc. Thus:
Vector Analysis 148
). ( . .
2
) , , (
. .
2
) , , ( ) ,
2
, (
: , ) ,
2
, ( ,
3 _
. . .
2
) , , (
3 _
) , , (
) , , (
1 _
) , , (
z T O H
y
A y
z y x A dl A
T O H
y
A y
z y x A z
y
y x A
where z z
y
y x A dl A z a dl
Side
z T O H
y
A y
z y x A dl A
side
z y x
z
z
z y x
z
z z
z z
side
z y x
z
z
A ÷
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
+
c
c A
÷ = -
+
c
c A
÷ =
A
÷
A
A
÷ = - A ÷ =
A
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
+
c
c A
+ = -
}
}
o o o
o o o
o o o
o o o
o o o o o o
o o o
o o o
Vector Analysis 149
Curl of a Vector Field
• Combining equations of side 1 and side 3 we
have:
Vector Analysis 149
. ) . . (
: shown that be
can it Similarly y. of powers contain still equation above in H.O.T
. ) . . (
) , , (
4 & 2
) , , (
3 & 1
z y T O H
z
A
dl A
z y T O H
y
A
dl A
z y x
y
sides
z y x
z
sides
A A +
c
c
÷ = -
A
A A +
c
c
= -
}
}
o o o
o o o
Vector Analysis 150
Curl of a Vector Field
Vector Analysis 150
). ( ) ( ) (
A. of components - z and - y write to us enable and z and y, x,
in order cyclic a reveal ill equation w above of n examinatio close A
) (
: A of component
- x obtain the we 0, y as zero to tend H.O.T that the noting and
147 page of top on the equation in the equations above ng Substituti
y
A
x
A
a
x
A
z
A
a
z
A
y
A
a A
z
A
y
A
A
x
y
z
z x
y
y
z
x
y
z
x
c
c
÷
c
c
+
c
c
÷
c
c
+
c
c
÷
c
c
= × V
× V
c
c
÷
c
c
= × V
× V
÷ A
Vector Analysis 151
Curl of a Vector Field
• can be remembered easily by arranging it
in the determinantal form in the manner of the
cross product.
A × V
z y x
z y x
A A A
z y x
a a a
A
c
c
c
c
c
c
= × V
Vector Analysis 152
Curl of a Vector Field
• The expression for in general orthogonal
curvilinear coordinates (u
1
, u
2
, u
3
) is as below:
A × V
3 3 2 2 1 1
3 2 1
3 3 2 2 1 1
3 2 1
1
A h A h A h
u u u
h a h a h a
h h h
A
u u u
c
c
c
c
c
c
= × V
• The expression of cylindrical and spherical
coordinates can be easily obtained from above
equation by using the appropriate u
1
, u
2
, and u
3
and their metric coefficients h
1
, h
2
, and h
3
.
A × V
Vector Analysis 153
Curl of a Vector Field
• Example: Show that = 0 if
a) A = a
Ø
(k/r) in cylindrical coordinates.
b) A= a
R
f(R) in spherical coordinates, where
f(R) is any function of the radial distance R.
• Solution:
a) In cylindrical coordinates the following apply:
(u
1
, u
2
, u
3
) = (r, Ø, z); h
1
= 1, h
2
= r, h
3
= 1.
We have:
A × V
Vector Analysis 154
Curl of a Vector Field
. 0
0 0
1
A, given for the yields which
,
1
=
c
c
c
c
c
c
= × V
c
c
c
c
c
c
= × V
k
z r
a r a a
r
A
A rA A
z r
a r a a
r
A
z r
z r
z r
|
|
|
|
|
Vector Analysis 155
Curl of a Vector Field
a) In spherical coordinates the following apply:
(u
1
, u
2
, u
3
) = (R, θ, Ø); h
1
= 1, h
2
= R, h
3
= R
sinθ. Hence:
,
sin
sin
sin
1
2
| u
| u
u
| u
u
u
A R RA A
R
R a R a a
R
A
R
R
c
c
c
c
c
c
= × V
Vector Analysis 156
Curl of a Vector Field
• And, for the given A,
• A curl-free vector field is called an Irrotational or
a Conservative field.
0
0 0 ) (
sin
sin
1
2
=
c
c
c
c
c
c
= × V
R f
R
R a R a a
R
A
R
| u
u
u
| u
Vector Analysis 157
Stokes’s Theorem
• For a very small differential area Δs
j
bounded by
a contour C
j
, the definition of in above
equation leads to:
• For an arbitrary surface S, we can subdivide it
into many, say N, small differential areas. Figure
on next page shows such a scheme with Δs
j
as a
typical differential element
| | .
1
0 lim curl
max
}
-
A
÷ A = × V =
C
n
dl A a
s
s A A
A × V
}
- = A - × V
j
C
j j
dl A s A ) ( ) (
Stokes’s Theorem
• Left side of above equation is the flux of the
vector through the area Δsj. Adding the
contributions of all differential areas to the flux,
we have:
Vector Analysis 158
A × V
}
¿
- × V =
A - × V ÷ A
=
S
N
j
j j j
ds A
s A s
) (
) ( ) ( 0 lim
1
Stokes’s Theorem
• Now we sum up the line integrals around the
contours of all the differential elements
represented by the right side of equation on
page 157.
• Since the common parts of the contours of two
adjacent elements is traversed in opposite
directions by two contours, the net contribution
of all the common parts in the interior to the total
line integral is zero, and only the contribution
from the external contour C bounding the entire
area S remains after the summation:
Vector Analysis 159
Stokes’s Theorem
• The Stokes’s theorem states that the surface
integral of the curl of a vector field over an open
surface is equal to the closed line integral of the
vector along the contour bounding the surface.
Vector Analysis 160
} }
¿
} }
- = - × V
- = - ÷ A
=
C S
N
j
C C
j
dl A ds A
dl A dl A s
j
) (
theorem. s Stokes' obtain we equations, two previous Combining
. ) ( 0 lim
1
Stokes’s Theorem
• As with the divergence theorem, the validity of the
limiting processes leading to Stokes’s theorem
requires that the vector field A, as well as its first
derivatives, exist and be continuous both on S and
along C.
• Stokes’s theorem converts a surface integral of the
curl of a vector to a line integral of the vector and
vice versa.
• Like the divergence theorem, Stokes’s theorem is
an important identity in vector analysis, and we use
it frequently in estabilishing other theorems and
relations in electromagnetics.
Vector Analysis 161
Stokes’s Theorem
• If the surface integral of is carried over a
closed surface, there will be no surface
bounding external contour, and previous
equation tells us that:
• The geometry in figure on page 158 is chosen
deliberately to emphasize the fact that a
nontrivial application of Stokes’s theorem always
implies an open surface with a rim.
Vector Analysis 162
A × V
}
= - × V
S
ds A S. surface closed any for , 0 ) (
Stokes’s Theorem
• Example: Given F=axxy-ay2x, verify Stokes’s
theorem over a quarter circular disk with a
radius 3 in the first quadrant as shown in figure.
• Solution: Let us first find the
surface integral of
Vector Analysis 163
F × V
), 2 (
0 2
x a
x xy
z y x
a a a
F
z
z y x
+ ÷ =
÷
c
c
c
c
c
c
= × V
Stokes’s Theorem
• Therefore
Vector Analysis 164
.
2
1 9
6 2
9
3
sin 9 9
) 9 (
2
1
9 2
) 2 (
) ( ) ( ) (
3
0
3
1 2
3
0
2 2
3
0
9
0
3
0
9
0
2
2
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ =
(
¸
(

¸

÷ + + ÷ ÷ =
(
¸
(

¸

÷ + ÷ ÷ =
(
¸
(

¸

+ ÷ =
- × V = - × V
÷
÷
÷
}
} }
} } }
t
y
y
y
y y
dy y y
dy dx x
dxdy a F ds F
y
S
y
z
Stokes’s Theorem
• For the line integral around ABOA, we have
already evaluated the part around the arc from A
to B in example on page 86-89.
• Hence Stokes’s Theorem is verified.
Vector Analysis 165
,
2
1 9
89 - 86 page on example per as
. 0 ) ( and 0, y : A to O From
. 0 2 ) ( and 0, x : O to B From
} }
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ = - = -
= = ÷ - = - =
= = ÷ - = - =
ABOA
B
A
x
y
dl F dl F
Hence
xydx dx a F dl F
xdy dy a F dl F
t
Two Null Identities
• Identity 1:
“The curl of the gradient of any scalar field is
identically zero.”
• As per Stokes’s theorem:
• The combination of above two equations states
that the surface integral of over any
surface is zero.
Vector Analysis 166
( ) 0 = V × V V
( ) | | ( )
( ) 0
104 page of top on the equation per as However
= = - V
- V = - V × V
} }
} }
C C
C S
dV dl V
dl V ds V
( ) V V × V
Two Null Identities
• A converse statement of Identity 1 can be made
as follows:
“If a vector field is curl-free, then it can be
expressed as the gradient of a scalar field.”
• Let a vector field be E. Then, if , we can
define a scalar field V such that:
• The –ve sign is unimportant as far as Identity 1
is concerned, as it is used in a future concept.
Vector Analysis 167
0 = × V E
V E ÷V =
Two Null Identities
• Identity II
“ The divergence of the curl of any vector field is
identically zero.”
• Taking volume integral of above equation on the
left side and applying divergence theorem:
• Let us choose the arbitrary volume V enclosed
by a surface S in figure on next page. The
closed surface S can be split into two open
surfaces S1 and S2 connected by a common
boundary that has been drawn twice as C1 and
C2.
Vector Analysis 168
( ) 0 = × V - V A
( ) ( )
} }
- × V = × V - V
S V
ds A dv A
Two Null Identities
Vector Analysis 169
• We than apply Stokes’s
theorem to surface S1
bounded by C1 and
surface S2 bounded by
C2, and we write the
right side of above
equation as:
( ) ( ) ( )
} }
} } }
- + - =
- × V + - × V = - × V
2 1
2 1
2 1
C C
n
S
n
S S
dl A dl A
ds a A ds a A ds A
• The normals an
1
and an
2
to surfaces S
1
and S
2
are outward normals and their relation with the
Two Null Identities
path directions of C
1
and C
2
follow the right hand
rule.
• As contours C
1
and C
2
are one and the same
common boundary between S
1
and S
2
, the two
line integrals on the right side of above equation
traverse the same path in opposite direction.
Their sum is therefore zero, and the volume
integral of on the left side of equation
on slide 168 vanishes.
• As this is true for any arbitrary volume , the
integrand itself must be zero, as indicated by the
Identity II.
Vector Analysis 170
( ) A × V - V
Two Null Identities
• A converse statement of Identity II is:
• “If a vector field is divergence-less, then it can
be expressed as the curl of another vector field.”
• Let the vector field be we can define a
vector field A such that:
• A divergence-less field is also called a
solenoidal field. Solenoidal fields are not
associated with flow sources or sinks.
• The net outward flux of a solenoidal field through
any closed surface is zero, and the flux lines
close upon themselves.
Vector Analysis 171
, 0 = - V B
. A B × V =
Helmholtz’s Theorem
• We may classify vector fields in accordance with
their being solenoidal and / or irrotational.
1. Solenoidal and irrotational if:
e.g: A static electric field in a charge free region.
2. Solenoidal but not irrotational if:
e.g: A steady magnetic field in a current carrying
conductor.
Vector Analysis 172
. 0 and 0 = × V = - V F F
. 0 and 0 = × V = - V F F
Helmholtz’s Theorem
3. Irrotational but not solenoidal if:
e.g: A static electric field in a charged region.
4. Neither solenoidal nor irrotational if:
e.g: An electric field in a charged medium with a
time varying magnetic field.
• The most general vector field then has both a
nonzero divergence and a nonzero curl, and
can be considered as the sum of a solenoidal
field and an irrotational field.
Vector Analysis 173
. 0 and 0 = × V = - V F F
. 0 and 0 = × V = - V F F
Helmholtz’s Theorem
• Helmholtz’s theorem states that:
“A vector field (vector point function) is determined
to within an additive constant if both its divergence
and its curl are specified everywhere.”
• In an unbounded region we assume that both the
divergence and the curl of the vector field vanish at
infinity.
• If a vector field is confined within a region bounded
by a surface, then it is determined if its divergence
and curl throughout the region, as well as the
normal component of the vector over the bounding
surface are given.
Vector Analysis 174
Helmholtz’s Theorem
• Here we assume that the vector function is
single-valued and that its derivatives are finite
and continuous.
• We remind that the divergence of a vector is a
measure of the strength of the flow source and
that the curl of a vector is a measure of the
strength of the vortex source.
• When the strength of both the flow source and
vortex source are specified, we expect that the
vector field will be determined.
Vector Analysis 175
Helmholtz’s Theorem
• We can decompose a general vector field F into
an irrotational part F
i
and a solenoidal part F
s
:
Vector Analysis 176
.
: have We known. be to assumed are G and g Where
0
0
,
G F F
g F F
G F
F
g F
F
F F F
s
i
s
s
i
i
s i
= × V = × V
= - V = - V
¹
´
¦
= × V
= - V
¹
´
¦
= - V
= × V
+ =
Helmholtz’s Theorem
• Helmholtz’s theorem asserts that g and G are
specified, the vector function F is determined.
• The fact that F
i
is irrotational enables us to
define a scalar (potential) function V, in view of
Identity-I discussed earlier.
• Similarly Identity-II and equations on previous
page allow the definition of a vector (potential)
function A such that:
Vector Analysis 177
V F
i
÷V =
. A F
s
× V =
Helmholtz’s Theorem
• Hence according to Helmholtz’s theorem that a
general vector function F can be written as the
sum of the gradient of a scalar function and the
curl of a vector function.
Vector Analysis 178
. A V F × V + ÷V =
Helmholtz’s Theorem
• Example: Given a vector function:
a) Determine the constants c
1
, c
2
, and c
3
if F is
irrotational.
b) Determine the scalar potential function V whose –ve
gradient equals F.
Vector Analysis 179
( ) ( ) ( ). 2 3
3 2 1
z y c a z x c a z c y a F
z y x
+ ÷ ÷ + ÷ =
Helmholtz’s Theorem
• Solution:
a) For F to be irrotational that is:
Vector Analysis 180
; 0 = × V F
( )
. 2 c , 3 c , 0 c
: Hence h. must vanis F of component Each
. 0 ) 3 ( ) 2 (
2 3
3 2 1
2 1 3
3 2 1
= = =
× V
= ÷ + ÷ + ÷ =
+ ÷ ÷ ÷
c
c
c
c
c
c
= × V
c a c a c a
z y c z x c z c y
z y x
a a a
F
z y x
z y x
Helmholtz’s Theorem
b) Since F is irrotational, it can be expressed as the
negative gradient of a scalar function V; that is:
Vector Analysis 181
( ) ( )
z y
z
V
z x
y
V
y
x
V
z y a z x a y a
z
V
a
y
V
a
x
V
a V F
z y x
z y x
+ =
c
c
+ ÷ =
c
c
÷ =
c
c
+ ÷ ÷ + =
c
c
÷
c
c
÷
c
c
÷ = ÷V =
2
, 2 3
, 3
: obtained are equations Three
. 2 2 3 3
Helmholtz’s Theorem
• Integrating above three equations with respect
to x, y, and z respectively; we get:
• Examination of above three equations enable us
to write the scalar potential function as:
• Addition of any constant would still make V an
answer.
Vector Analysis 182
( )
( )
). , (
2
2
, , 2 3
, , 3
3
2
2
1
y x f
z
yz V
z x f yz xy V
z y f xy V
+ + =
+ + ÷ =
+ ÷ =
2
2 3
2
z
yz xy V + + ÷ =

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