P. 1
Atmosphere

Atmosphere

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© 2009 Auld -- www.aerodynamics4students.

com
Properties of the Atmosphere
1. International Standard Atmosphere (ISA).
The International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) has een a!reed to y many representati"e countries and
entities in the a"iation #ield. It is a representati"e model o# the atmosphere and not an a"era!e. $any o# the
participants in a"iation are in the northern hemisphere so their standard will need to e ad%usted to suit local
conditions elsewhere.
2. Sea Level Conditions
Property Metric unit Imperial nit
&ressure' P (0(.) *&a
2((+., l
#
-#t
2
.ensity' !
(.22/ 0!-m
)
0.002),1 slu!-#t
)
Temperature' "
(/
o
2 211.2 0 /9
o
3 /(1
o
4
Speed o# Sound' a )40.) m-s (((+.4 #t-s
5iscosity' #
(.,19 6 (0
-/
0!-m-s ).,), 6 (0
-,
slu!-#t-s
0inematic 5iscosity' $
(.4+06(0
-/
m
2
-s (./,2)6(0
-4
#t
2
-s
Thermal 2onducti"ity' % 0.02/9+ 7-m-0
0.0(/ 8T9-hr-#t-
o
4
:as 2onstant' & 21,.( ;-0!-0
(,(/., #t l
#
-slu!-
o
4
Speci#ic <eat' Cp (00/ ;-0!-0
+00/ #t l
#
-slu!-
o
4
Speci#ic <eat' Cv ,(,.91 ;-0!-0
4219 #t l
#
-slu!-
o
4
4atio o# Speci#ic <eats' ' (.40
:ra"itational Acceleration' (
9.10++/ m-s
2
)2.(,4 #t-s
2
). ISA *ariation +ith Altitude
&ressure' temperature' density' "iscosity and speed o# sound "ariation #or the international standard
atmosphere (ISA) can e calculated #or a ran!e o# altitudes #rom sea le"el upward. This is done usin! an
e6act solution to the hydrostatic e=uation #or a column o# air. The air is assumed to e a per#ect !as. In the
lower re!ion' the troposphere' the atmosphere has a lapse rate (L) o# +./0-0m . At an altitude o# )+019 #t the
stratosphere starts and the temperature remains constant at 2(,0. The hydrostatic e=uation' per#ect !as law
and the lapse rate e=uations are'
∂P
∂h
=−g ' P=RT and T=T
o
−L. h
where the "ariales used are'
P -- &ressure (&a) " -- Temperature (0)
( -- :ra"itational acceleration (9.1 m-s
2
)>
"
,
-- Standard sea le"el temperature (211 0)>
& -- :as constant #or air (21, m
2
-s
2
-0)>
h -- Altitude ao"e sea le"el (m)'
L -- ?apse rate (0.00+/ 0-m) and ! -- Air density' ( 0!-m
)
)>
-i(ure 1. Atmospheric ?ayers and Temperature 5ariation with Altitude.
Sol"in! the hydrostatic e=uation with a constant lapse rate !i"es the resultin! pressure "ariation in the
troposphere.
P
P
o
=

T
o
T

g
L.R
where sea le"el pressure' P
o
' is set at the standard (0(.) *&a.
Sol"in! the hydrostatic e=uation with a constant temperature !i"es the resultin! pressure "ariation in the
stratosphere.
P
P
s
=e

g h
s
−h
RT
S

where conditions with suscript (s) are "alues o# altitude (h
s
)' pressure (P
s
) or temperature ("
s
) at the
tropopause' the start o# the stratosphere> the line di"idin! the two distinct atmospheric re!ions.
@nce pressure has een calculated at a particular altitude' density is then calculated usin! the per#ect !as
law. 5iscosity and *inematic "iscosity are #ound y applyin! the Sutherland law
=0.1456×10
−5 T

1−
110
T

And #inally speed o# sound is #ound ased on the temperature'
a=RT
8ased on the ao"e e=uations' se"eral applications are a"ailale that show atmospheric properties #or a
speci#ic altitude. The applications can also e used to predict $ach Aumer' .ynamic &ressure and other
altitude dependent properties i# an input speed and re#erence len!th are !i"en.
• Atmosphere &roperties 7e 2alculator
• Atmosphere &roperties 2alculator ($S 7indows B6ecutale)
• Tale o# Atmosphere &roperties.
.. *ariation of Local /round Conditions.
@n many occasions the !round temperature and pressure will not e6actly e e=ual to ISA standard
conditions. In these cases it is possile to ad%ust the atmosphere model to suit local conditions. As the depth
o# the atmosphere is "ery small ((2/0m-(/00m) local "ariations in temperature and pressure will
sustantially e##ect the #ull depth o# the atmosphere.
7here local sea le"el temperature is ao"e (/
o
2 an ISAC model is used. In this model the complete
atmosphere is incremented y the temperature di##erence etween the current sea le"el temperature and the
standard "alue o# (/
o
2. 3or e6ample' on a 20
o
2 day' an ISA C / model is used. Temperature at all le"els o#
the atmosphere model are incremented y /
o
2. 7ith this ad%ustment' the pre"ious #ormulae #or pressure'
density' "iscosity and speed o# sound "ariation can still e used.
Ao ad%ustments are made #or !round sur#ace altitude' all calculations are done ased on model startin! at
sea le"el. I# the local !round le"el locally is well ao"e sea le"el then the atmospheric model will still e
ased on sea le"el and will start at the altitude o# the !round compared to sea le"el.
0. *ariation of 1ensity due to 2umidity.
The density o# the air #or a !i"en le"el o# humidity can e #ound y applyin! a correction #actor to the ao"e
calculated per#ect !as density.
=
PG
. K
h
' 
PG
=
P
RT
The correction #actor' 3
h
' can e #ound y usin! wet and dry ul temperature measurements to predict
relati"e humidity as shown in the tale elow. The relati"e humidity can e used to otain the density
correction #actor #rom the #ollowin! !raph. Aote that the density correction #actor produced assumes
appro6imately sea le"el pressure in the application o# these #ormula.
"a4le 1. &elative 2umidity (5) 4ased on measured "emperature 1ifference6
4elati"e <umidity (D)
.ry 8ul
Temperature .i##erence'
o
2 T
.4E
- T
7BT
o
2
1 2 ) . 0 7 8 9 : 1; 11 12
1( +4 4+ 29 ()
2 14 +1 /2 ), 22 ,
. 1/ ,( /, 4) 29 (+
7 1+ ,) +0 41 )/ 24 ((
9 1, ,/ +) /( 40 29 (9 1
1; 11 ,, ++ // 44 )4 24 (/ +
12 19 ,1 +1 /1 41 )9 29 2( (2
1. 90 ,9 ,0 +0 /( 42 )4 2+ (1 (0
17 90 1( ,( +) /4 4+ )1 )0 2) (/ 1
19 9( 12 ,) +/ /, 49 4( )4 2, 20 (4 ,
2; 9( 1) ,4 ++ /9 /( 44 ), )( 24 (1 (2
22 92 1) ,+ +1 +( /4 4, 40 )4 21 22 (,
2. 92 14 ,, +9 +2 /+ 49 4) ), )( 2+ 20
27 92 1/ ,1 ,( +4 /1 /( 4+ 40 )4 29 24
29 9) 1/ ,1 ,2 +/ /9 /) 41 42 ), )2 2,
); 9) 1+ ,9 ,) +, +( // /0 44 )9 )/ )0
)2 9) 1+ 10 ,4 +1 +2 /, /( 4+ 4( ), )2
). 9) 1, 1( ,/ +9 +) /1 /) 41 4) )9 )/
)7 94 1, 1( ,/ ,0 +4 /9 /4 /0 4/ 4( ),
Reference: "Handbook of Chemistry and Physics" Ed R.C.Weast, The Chemical Rubber Co., hio, !"#$
-i(ure 2. 2umidity Correction -actor.
"a4le 2. *ariation of Atmosphere +ith Altitude
Altitude Temperature &-&o F-F
o
G-G
o
H-H
o
Speed o#
Sound
m #t
o
2
m-s
0 0 (/.2 ( ( ( ( )40.)
(/2 /00 (4.2 0.912( 0.91// 0.99,) (.0(2( ))9.,
)04 (000 ().2 0.9+44 0.9,(( 0.994, (.024) ))9.(
4/, (/00 (2.2 0.94, 0.9/+1 0.992 (.0)+, ))1./
+09 2000 ((.2 0.9291 0.9421 0.919) (.049) ))1
,+2 2/00 (0.2 0.9(29 0.9219 0.91++ (.0+22 )),.4
9(4 )000 9.) 0.19+2 0.9(/( 0.91)9 (.0,/2 ))+.1
(0++ )/00 1.) 0.1,91 0.90(/ 0.91(2 (.0114 ))+.2
(2(9 4000 ,.) 0.1+), 0.111( 0.9,1/ (.(0(1 ))/.+
(),( 4/00 +.) 0.14,, 0.1,41 0.9,/1 (.((// ))/
(/24 /000 /.) 0.1)2 0.1+(, 0.9,)( (.(29) ))4.4
Altitude Temperature &-&o F-F
o
G-G
o
H-H
o
Speed o#
Sound
(+,+ //00 4.) 0.1(++ 0.141, 0.9,04 (.(4)4 ))).1
(121 +000 ).) 0.10(4 0.1)/9 0.9+,, (.(/,, ))).2
(91( +/00 2.) 0.,1+4 0.12)2 0.9+49 (.(,22 ))2.+
2()) ,000 (.) 0.,,(+ 0.1(0+ 0.9+22 (.(1, ))2
221+ ,/00 0.) 0.,/,( 0.,91) 0.9/9/ (.202 ))(.4
24)1 1000 -0.+ 0.,421 0.,1+ 0.9/+, (.2(,2 ))0.1
2/90 1/00 -(.+ 0.,21, 0.,,)9 0.9/4 (.2)2, ))0.2
2,4) 9000 -2.+ 0.,(41 0.,+2 0.9/(2 (.2414 )29.+
219/ 9/00 -).+ 0.,0(2 0.,/0( 0.941/ (.2+44 )29
)041 (0000 -4.+ 0.+1,, 0.,)1/ 0.94/, (.210, )21.4
)200 (0/00 -/.+ 0.+,4/ 0.,2+9 0.94) (.29,2 )2,.1
))/2 ((000 -+.+ 0.++(4 0.,(// 0.9402 (.)(4 )2,.2
)/0/ ((/00 -,.+ 0.+41+ 0.,04) 0.9),4 (.))( )2+.+
)+/, (2000 -1.+ 0.+)+ 0.+9)2 0.9)4, (.)414 )2+
)1(0 (2/00 -9.+ 0.+2)+ 0.+122 0.9)(9 (.)++ )2/.4
)9+2 ()000 -(0.+ 0.+(() 0.+,() 0.929( (.)14 )24.,
4((4 ()/00 -((./ 0./99) 0.++0+ 0.92+) (.4022 )24.(
42+, (4000 -(2./ 0./1,/ 0.+/ 0.92)/ (.420, )2)./
44(9 (4/00 -()./ 0./,/1 0.+)9+ 0.920, (.4)9+ )22.9
4/,2 (/000 -(4./ 0./+4) 0.+292 0.9(,9 (.4/11 )22.)
4,24 (//00 -(/./ 0.//)( 0.+(9 0.9(/( (.4,1) )2(.,
41,+ (+000 -(+./ 0./42 0.+09 0.9(2) (.491( )2(
/029 (+/00 -(,./ 0./)(( 0./99 0.9094 (./(1) )20.4
/(1( (,000 -(1./ 0./20) 0./192 0.90++ (./)11 )(9.1
/))4 (,/00 -(9./ 0./091 0./,9/ 0.90)1 (.//9+ )(9.2
/41+ (1000 -20./ 0.4994 0./+99 0.9009 (./109 )(1./
/+)1 (1/00 -2(./ 0.4192 0./+04 0.191( (.+02/ )(,.9
Altitude Temperature &-&o F-F
o
G-G
o
H-H
o
Speed o#
Sound
/,9( (9000 -22.4 0.4,9( 0.//(( 0.19/) (.+244 )(,.)
/94) (9/00 -2).4 0.4+9) 0./4(9 0.1924 (.+4+1 )(+.,
+09+ 20000 -24.4 0.4/9/ 0./)21 0.119/ (.++9+ )(+
+241 20/00 -2/.4 0.4/ 0./2)1 0.11+, (.+92, )(/.4
+400 2(000 -2+.4 0.440+ 0./(/ 0.11)1 (.,(+) )(4.1
+//) 2(/00 -2,.4 0.4)(4 0./0+2 0.1109 (.,40) )(4.(
+,0/ 22000 -21.4 0.422) 0.49,+ 0.1,1( (.,+4, )()./
+1/1 22/00 -29.4 0.4()4 0.419( 0.1,/2 (.,19/ )(2.9
,0(0 2)000 -)0.4 0.404+ 0.410+ 0.1,2) (.1(41 )(2.2
,(+2 2)/00 -)(.4 0.)9+ 0.4,2) 0.1+94 (.140+ )((.+
,)(/ 24000 -)2.) 0.)1,+ 0.4+42 0.1++/ (.1++1 )((
,4+, 24/00 -)).) 0.),9) 0.4/+( 0.1+)+ (.19)/ )(0.)
,+20 2/000 -)4.) 0.),(( 0.441( 0.1+0, (.920, )09.,
,,,2 2//00 -)/.) 0.)+)( 0.4402 0.1/,1 (.9414 )09
,924 2+000 -)+.) 0.)//2 0.4)2/ 0.1/41 (.9,++ )01.4
10,, 2+/00 -),.) 0.)4,4 0.4241 0.1/(9 2.00/) )0,.,
1229 2,000 -)1.) 0.))91 0.4(,) 0.149 2.0)4/ )0,.(
1)12 2,/00 -)9.) 0.))24 0.4091 0.14+ 2.0+4) )0+.4
1/)4 21000 -40.) 0.)2/ 0.402/ 0.14)( 2.094, )0/.1
1+1+ 21/00 -4(.) 0.)(,1 0.)9/) 0.1402 2.(2/+ )0/.(
11)9 29000 -42.) 0.)(0, 0.)11( 0.1),2 2.(/,( )04./
199( 29/00 -4).2 0.)0)1 0.)1(( 0.1)42 2.(192 )0).1
9(44 )0000 -44.2 0.29, 0.),4( 0.1)() 2.22(9 )0).2
929+ )0/00 -4/.2 0.290) 0.)+,) 0.121) 2.2//) )02./
9441 )(000 -4+.2 0.21), 0.)+0/ 0.12/) 2.2192 )0(.9
9+0( )(/00 -4,.2 0.2,,2 0.)/)9 0.122) 2.)2)9 )0(.2
9,/) )2000 -41.2 0.2,09 0.)4,) 0.1(94 2.)/92 )00./
Altitude Temperature &-&o F-F
o
G-G
o
H-H
o
Speed o#
Sound
990+ )2/00 -49.2 0.2+4, 0.)401 0.1(+4 2.)9/2 299.9
(00/1 ))000 -/0.2 0.2/1+ 0.))4/ 0.1()4 2.4)(1 299.2
(02(0 ))/00 -/(.2 0.2/2+ 0.)212 0.1(04 2.4+92 291.+
(0)+) )4000 -/2.2 0.24+, 0.)22 0.10,) 2./0,4 29,.9
(0/(/ )4/00 -/).2 0.24( 0.)(/9 0.104) 2./4+) 29,.2
(0++1 )/000 -/4.( 0.2)/) 0.)099 0.10() 2./1/9 29+./
(0120 )//00 -//.( 0.2291 0.)0)9 0.,91) 2.+2+4 29/.9
(09,2 )+000 -/+.( 0.224) 0.291( 0.,9/2 2.++,, 29/.2
11;;; )7;9: <07.0 ;.22). ;.2:81 ;.8:.8 2.7801 2:0.1
((2,, ),000 -/+./ 0.2()1 0.214) 0.,94, 2.,941 29/.(
((/12 )1000 -/+./ 0.20)1 0.2,( 0.,94, 2.9)24 29/.(
((11, )9000 -/+./ 0.(942 0.2/1) 0.,94, ).0,+1 29/.(
(2(92 40000 -/+./ 0.(1/( 0.24+2 0.,94, ).221) 29/.(
(249+ 4(000 -/+./ 0.(,+4 0.2)4+ 0.,94, ).)1,2 29/.(
(210( 42000 -/+./ 0.(+1( 0.22)+ 0.,94, ).//4 29/.(
()(0+ 4)000 -/+./ 0.(+02 0.2()( 0.,94, ).,29 29/.(
()4(( 44000 -/+./ 0.(/2, 0.20)( 0.,94, ).9(2+ 29/.(
(),(+ 4/000 -/+./ 0.(4/+ 0.(9)+ 0.,94, 4.(0/2 29/.(
(4020 4+000 -/+./ 0.()1, 0.(14/ 0.,94, 4.)0,) 29/.(
(4)2/ 4,000 -/+./ 0.()22 0.(,/1 0.,94, 4./(94 29/.(
(4+)0 41000 -/+./ 0.(2+ 0.(+,+ 0.,94, 4.,4(9 29/.(
(49)/ 49000 -/+./ 0.(20( 0.(/9, 0.,94, 4.9,/4 29/.(
(/240 /0000 -/+./ 0.((4/ 0.(/22 0.,94, /.220) 29/.(
(//44 /(000 -/+./ 0.(09( 0.(4/( 0.,94, /.4,,) 29/.(
(/149 /2000 -/+./ 0.(04 0.()1) 0.,94, /.,4, 29/.(
(+(/4 /)000 -/+./
0.9909
-(
0.()(1 0.,94, +.0) 29/.(
(+4/9 /4000 -/+./
0.9444
-(
0.(2/+ 0.,94, +.)2+1 29/.(
Altitude Temperature &-&o F-F
o
G-G
o
H-H
o
Speed o#
Sound
(+,+4 //000 -/+./
0.900(
-(
0.((9, 0.,94, +.+)1) 29/.(
(,0+1 /+000 -/+./
0.1/,9
-(
0.((4( 0.,94, +.9+/2 29/.(
(,),) /,000 -/+./
0.1(,+
-(
0.(01, 0.,94, ,.)01( 29/.(
(,+,1 /1000 -/+./
0.,,9)
-(
0.(0)+ 0.,94, ,.++,9 29/.(
(,91) /9000 -/+./
0.,42,
-(
0.91,1
-(
0.,94, 1.04/4 29/.(
(1211 +0000 -/+./
0.,0,9
-(
0.94(4
-(
0.,94, 1.44(+ 29/.(
(1/92 +(000 -/+./
0.+,4+
-(
0.19,2
-(
0.,94, 1.1/,2 29/.(
(119, +2000 -/+./
0.+4)0
-(
0.1//(
-(
0.,94, 9.29)2 29/.(
(9202 +)000 -/+./
0.+(21
-(
0.1(/0
-(
0.,94, 9.,/01 29/.(
(9/0, +4000 -/+./
0./14(
-(
0.,,+1
-(
0.,94, (0.2)( 29/.(
(91(2 +/000 -/+./
0.//++
-(
0.,40)
-(
0.,94, (0.,)/ 29/.(
20((+ ++000 -/+./
0./)0/
-(
0.,0/+
-(
0.,94, ((.2+) 29/.(
2042( +,000 -/+./
0./0/+
-(
0.+,2/
-(
0.,94, ((.1(1 29/.(
20,2+ +1000 -/+./
0.41(9
-(
0.+409
-(
0.,94, (2.)99 29/.(
2(0)( +9000 -/+./
0.4/9)
-(
0.+(01
-(
0.,94, ().0( 29/.(
2())+ ,0000 -/+./
0.4),,
-(
0./122
-(
0.,94, ().+/ 29/.(
4eturn to Tale o# 2ontents

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