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LEADING RESEARCH ECONOMIES AND THE NEW GEOGRAPHY OF KNOWLEDGE
JONATHAN ADAMS COMMITTEE ON INSTITUTIONAL COOPERATION GLOBAL UNIVERSITY SUMMIT 2012, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS
GLOBAL RESEARCH REPORT
DEVELOPING TALENT TO DRIVE INNOVATION
Germany’s GERD is substantially greater than any other country. Graduates and doctoral researchers contribute to the development of the knowledge capital within their institutions. EU countries have around 8 researchers per thousand people in the labor force but the USA is at 9 and Japan at 10. THE FOLLOWING ANALYSES USE CONSISTENT COLORS TO DESIGNATE THESE COUNTRIES: OECD data on Gross expenditure on R&D (GERD) confirm that Japan. Laboratories and institutions with great research records also produce people who have been soaked in that environment and have experienced the culture and discipline of identifying the most important information and then putting it to the best use. This is unlikely to be counterbalanced by established economies. the numbers of trained researchers and the output and impact of the research base are key performance indicators of value to governments. Within Europe. France has broadly maintained its research spend but in the UK the level of investment shows signs of decline and the UK remains behind the general EU target on expenditure. new design concepts or breakthrough economic theory. This report summarizes a key set of such indicators for a group of major research economies that collectively account for about 60% of global research publications in journals indexed in Thomson Reuters Web of KnowledgeSM. For these reasons the level of investment.GLOBAL RESEARCH REPORT LEADING RESEARCH ECONOMIES AND THE NEW GEOGRAPHY OF KNOWLEDGE There is no question that economic competitiveness depends on innovative processes and products developed by talented people working in knowledgebased organizations. innovative materials. They are also supporting the knowledge-rich environment in which people are trained and develop their talents. But the graduates also leave those institutions and spread out across the economy bringing with them both knowledge and the ability to use knowledge to the huge benefit of their employers. it all impacts on wealth creation and the quality of life. create start-up companies and collaborate with local and global commercial partners. Research spend in Asia will be the major change factor in the next decade. China’s GERD has increased dramatically in absolute terms and is also growing as a share of an expanding GDP. R&D-competent workers in Asia will grow very significantly over the next decade. Countries that invest in their research base are not only committing to the direct development of knowledge and innovation. the US and Germany are investing relatively more of GDP in their research base. but in absolute numbers it has as many researchers — OECD’s relatively more skilled category of workers — as Western Europe. Ph.D. It is evident that the balance of highly skilled. This represents a huge additional investment in global research. More researchers as well as greater expenditure are characteristic of the research economies in Japan and the USA. That enables those institutions to generate cuttingedge papers and reports. The Higher Education sector has a unique and critical role to play because it is the source of skilled and knowledge-competent people. Whether this is in molecular biology. China’s labor force remains relatively unskilled. research and higher education agencies and all research-oriented institutions and companies. GLOBAL RESEARCH REPORT . training in China is still expanding.
the Middle East.0). New economies bring new ideas about problem definition and problem solving as well as innovative outcomes. It will become equally competitive in these key areas. Research impact is essential for identifying output that is worth exploiting. Data confirm that it is producing many excellent papers. China’s output has risen so rapidly that it has more than doubled its share of world papers in the last decade. showing governments where national interest could be directed. The USA has somewhat the highest citation impact in physical sciences and engineering but the UK has a clear advantage in the life sciences. Universities can lead the way in establishing knowledge partnerships. What we see in China is written more finely but equally clearly for other Asia-Pacific countries. Much of its output explosion is more modest in quality. We can index impact by comparing the average number of citations per paper to the relevant world average for year and subject area. This was initially due to research growth in Europe but is now much more reflective of growth by Asia and in particular China. the UK and Germany remain well ahead of France but all three see their world share declining. China is clearly stronger in engineering and weaker in molecular biology. outputs and impact — point less to a weakening of old economies and more to unprecedented change in new research economies. Knowledge will be gained not only through intelligence and literature reviews but much more via hands-on engagement. Brazil is creating a Latin-regional focus. GLOBAL RESEARCH REPORT . North Africa and Latin America. Future global research will require a shift in mindset towards balanced partnerships in which the old alliances will not always lead. In Europe. In Asia. workforce. China has improved its average performance. China is diversifying a collaborative network around the Pacific basin. The US share of world papers has been declining for some time. Egypt is a key hub between the Middle East and Africa. Germany and France are close behind the USA in engineering and ahead in biology. A Research Footprint® uses a deconstructed picture of citation impact to compare each country by major discipline area both with the others in the analysis and with a world average (1.THE FOLLOWING ANALYSES USE CONSISTENT COLORS TO DESIGNATE THESE COUNTRIES: Research papers (journal articles and reviews) are the primary route to disseminating new knowledge in most science disciplines. however. The USA was the world leader but research quality in Europe has improved over the last decade and the UK is on average now producing higher-impact papers. That reflects its historical research investment but it is now diversifying its research base into the life sciences. This unprecedented trajectory shows little sign of flattening. which means that its average impact remains well behind the world average. The changing geography of knowledge requires us to review our assumptions. But the data — on investment.
Based on the objective. FOR MORE GLOBAL RESEARCH REPORTS VISIT: researchanalytics. the UK specialist on research performance analysis and interpretation and was formerly a member of the science policy staff of the UK Advisory Board for the Research Councils. Our Research Analytics solutions from the IP & Science business allow administrators to track.com/contact ISBN 1-904431-31-3 SSR 1204 042 Copyright ©2012 Thomson Reuters . giving leaders concrete evidence to define strategic direction.com/grr Science Head Offices Americas Philadelphia +1 800 336 4474 +1 215 386 0100 Europe. For more information. measure. these offerings provide insight into trends and performance. reliable data in Web of Science.thomsonreuters. He was a founding Director of Evidence Ltd.thomsonreuters. Research Evaluation.ABOUT THOMSON REUTERS Thomson Reuters is the world’s leading source of intelligent information for businesses and professionals. Middle East and Africa London +44 20 7433 4000 Asia Pacific Singapore Tokyo +65 6775 5088 +81 3 5218 6500 For a complete office list visit: science. go to researchanalytics.com/impact/ ABOUT THE AUTHOR Jonathan Adams is Director. analyze and compare research at their institution and others around the world.thomsonreuters.
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