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Technical Handbook

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FLENDER Drives Fundamental Principles of Mechanical Engineering Technical Handbook Technical Drawings 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Standardization Physics Mathematics / Geometry Mechanics / Strength of Materials Hydraulics Electrical Engineering Materials Lubricating Oils Cylindrical Gear Units Shaft Couplings Vibrations Bibliography .

In the manufacturing and the process industry. The industry software enables our industry customers to optimize the entire value chain – from product design and development through manufacture and sales up to after-sales service. Siemens offers automation. In industrial as well as in functional buildings. Our technology platform TIP offers robust solutions for power distribution. Check out the opportunities our automation and drive solutions provide. .Answers for Industry. and lowvoltage switching technology as well as industrial software from standard products up to entire industry solutions. And discover how you can sustainably enhance your competitive edge with us. Our electrical and mechanical components offer integrated technologies for the entire drive train – from couplings to gear units. Our drive and automation solutions based on Totally Integrated Automation (TIA) and Totally Integrated Power (TIP) are employed in all kinds of industry. Siemens Industry answers the challenges in the manufacturing and the process industry as well as in the building automation business. from motors to control and drive solutions for all engineering industries. drive.

Fit Tolerances Parallel Keys and Taper Keys.Contents Section 1 Technical Drawings Surface Texture Geometrical Tolerancing Sheet Sizes. Work. Allowances. Heat Flow Pressure and Tension Velocity Equations for Linear Motion and Rotary Motion 32 32 33 33 34 35 35 – 37 37 + 38 38 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 42 43 Section 4 Mathematics / Geometry Calculation of Areas Calculation of Volumes 45 46 Section 5 Mechanics / Strength of Materials Axial Section Moduli and Axial Second Moments of Area (Moments of Inertia) of Different Profiles Deflections in Beams Values for Circular Sections Stresses on Structural Members and Fatigue Strength of Structures Siemens MD · 2009 48 49 50 51 1 . Quantity of Heat Power. Title Block. Lines. Lettering Example Page 5+6 7 – 21 22 23 Section 2 Standardization ISO Metric Screw Threads (Coarse Pitch Threads) ISO Metric Screw Threads (Coarse and Fine Pitch Threads) Cylindrical Shaft Ends ISO Tolerance Zones. Energy Flow. Centre Holes 25 26 27 28 + 29 30 Section 3 Physics Internationally Determined Prefixes Basic SI Units Derived SI Units Legal Units Outside the SI Physical Quantities and Units of Lengths and Their Powers Physical Quantities and Units of Time Physical Quantities and Units of Mechanics Physical Quantities and Units of Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer Physical Quantities and Units of Electrical Engineering Physical Quantities and Units of Lighting Engineering Different Measuring Units of Temperature Measures of Length and Square Measures Cubic Measures and Weights Energy. Non-standard Formats Type Sizes.

Contents Section 6 Hydraulics Hydrostatics Hydrodynamics Page 53 54 Section 7 Electrical Engineering Basic Formulae Speed. Power Rating and Efficiency of Electric Motors Types of Construction and Mounting Arrangements of Rotating Electrical Machinery Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment (Protection Against Contact and Foreign Bodies) Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment (Protection Against Water) 56 57 58 59 60 Section 8 Materials Conversion of Fatigue Strength Values of Miscellaneous Materials Mechanical Properties of Quenched and Tempered Steels Fatigue Strength Diagrams of Quenched and Tempered Steels General-Purpose Structural Steels Fatigue Strength Diagrams of General-Purpose Structural Steels Case Hardening Steels Fatigue Strength Diagrams of Case Hardening Steels Cold Rolled Steel Strips Cast Steels for General Engineering Purposes Round Steel Wire for Springs Lamellar Graphite Cast Iron Nodular Graphite Cast Iron Copper-Tin.and Copper-Zinc-Tin Casting Alloys Copper-Aluminium Casting Alloys Aluminium Casting Alloys Lead and Tin Casting Alloys for Babbit Sleeve Bearings Conversion of Hardness Values Values of Solids and Liquids Coefficient of Linear Expansion Iron-Carbon Diagram Pitting and Tooth Root Fatigue Strength Values of Steels Heat Treatment During Case Hardening of Case Hardening Steels 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 69 70 71 71 72 72 73 74 75 76 77 77 77 78 Section 9 Lubricating Oils Viscosity-Temperature-Diagram for Mineral Oils Viscosity-Temperature-Diagram for Synthetic Oils of Poly-α-Olefine Base Viscosity-Temperature-Diagram for Synthetic Oils of Polyglycole Base Kinematic Viscosity and Dynamic Viscosity Viscosity Table for Mineral Oils 80 81 82 83 84 Siemens MD · 2009 2 .

and 12 138 + 139 Siemens MD · 2009 3 .Contents Section 10 Cylindrical Gear Units Symbols and Units General Introduction Geometry of Involute Gears Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears Gear Unit Types Noise Emitted by Gear Units Page 86 + 87 88 88 – 89 99 – 107 107 – 110 111 – 114 Section 11 Shaft Couplings General Fundamental Principles Torsionally Rigid Couplings. Flexible Pin Couplings Flexible Claw Couplings Highly Flexible Ring Couplings. Composite Couplings Miniature Couplings. Symbols and Units Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations Evaluation of Vibrations 126 127 – 129 129 + 130 130 + 131 131 132 133 – 135 135 + 136 Section 13 Bibliography of Sections 10. Highly Flexible Rubber Tyre Couplings Highly Flexible Rubber Disk Couplings. Gear Couplings Universal Gear Couplings. Torque Limiters High-speed Couplings. Torque Limiters Couplings for Pump Drives Coupling Systems for Railway Vehicles Coupling Systems for Wind Power Stations 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 Section 12 Vibrations Symbols and Units General Fundamental Principles Solution Proposal for Simple Torsional Vibrators Solution of the Differential Equation of Motion Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations Terms. Flexible Pin and Bush Couplings All-steel Couplings. Overrunning Clutches. Multiple Disk Clutches Fluid Couplings. 11.

Included Tolerances Additional Symbols Toleranced Features Tolerance Zones Datums and Datum Systems Theoretically Exact Dimensions Detailed Definitions of Tolerances Sheet Sizes. Non-standard Formats Sheet Sizes for Technical Drawings Title Block for Technical Drawings Non-standard Formats for Technical Drawings Sizes of Type Lines acc.Table of Contents Section 1 1 Technical Drawings Surface Texture Method of Indicating Surface Texture on Drawings acc. Part 20 and Part 24 Lettering Example 22 22 22 23 23 23 7 7 7 8 8 9 9 9 – 11 11 11 – 21 5 5+6 Page 4 Siemens MD · 2009 . Symbols. Title Block. to DIN EN ISO 1302 Surface Roughness Parameters Geometrical Tolerancing General Application. General Explanations Tolerance Frame Kinds of Tolerances. to DIN ISO 128.

or other requirements concerning the manufacturing method. etc.1 Symbols for the surface texture Graphic symbols Meaning Material removal by machining is required (without requirements). to DIN 4762 Part 1 is the distance of the base profile to the reference profile (see figure 1). Material removal. that contacts the point of the actual profile most distant from the reference profile (point T in figure 1). Machining allowance specified by a numerical value in mm (e. surface roughness value Ra = 6.4 .0. a = Requirements on the surface appearance b = Two or more requirements on the surface appearance c = Production method.2 Definition of the surface parameter Ra The centre line average height Ra of the assessed profile is defined in DIN EN ISO 4287 and 1. lead-free 0. Material removal applies to the external contour of the view. Requirement for the surface: “lead-free”.Technical Drawings Surface Texture 1 1. to DIN EN ISO 1302 1. Method of indicating surface texture on drawings acc.8 Material removal (by machining). surface roughness value Ra = 0.4 . Material removal is prohibited (without requirements). non-porous Material removal is prohibited (with additional indication).0. 3 mm).1 Peak-to-valley height Rt The peak-to-valley height Rt in mm acc. treatment. coating.3 Indications added to the graphic symbols the evaluation length for assessing the roughness in DIN EN ISO 4288.8 mm. 1. d = Surface grooves and their direction e = Machining allowance (x) = No longer applicable (formerly: indication of Ra) 2. Surface roughness parameters 2.3 mm. 5 . preserved Material removal by machining is required (with additional indication). The base profile is the reference profile displaced to Siemens MD · 2009 such an extent perpendicular to the geometrical ideal profile within the roughness reference length.g.

6 6. based on comparison measurements. a diagram for the conversion from Ra into Rz and vice versa is shown in supplement 1 to DIN 4768.05 0.3 250 N9 25 63 3. since they are given in inches. to DIN 4768 is the largest of the single irregularities Z1 occurring over the evaluation length lm (see figure 2). le = lm = lt = z1-z5 = Sampling length Evaluation length Traversed length Single irregularities Start-up length Figure 2 Run-out length An exact conversion of the peak-to-valley height Rz into the centre line average height Ra and vice versa can neither be theoretically justified nor empirically proved.5 1.Technical Drawings Surface Texture 1 Geometrical ideal profile Actual profile Reference profile Mean profile Roughness reference length l Figure 1 2.3 0.4 Roughness grade numbers N In Germany.5 0.5 500 N 10 40 100 6.1 0. N 12 Surface rough.15 12.8 4 0. For surfaces which are generated by manufacturing methods of the group “metal cutting”.1 4 N3 0.4 16 N5 1.3 Maximum roughness height Rmax The maximum roughness height Rmax in mm acc. to DIN 4768 is the arithmetic average of the single irregularities of five consecutive sam- Base profile pling lengths (see figure 2).5 31.6 63 N7 6.2 125 N8 12.2 8 N4 0.8 2000 1000 N 11 80 160 Roughness grade no. 2.025 2 N2 0.6 1 N1 0. Centre line average height Ra and roughness grade numbers in relation to the mean peak-to-valley height Rz Surface roughness value Ra μm μin 50 25 12. it is not allowed to use roughness grade numbers (N grades). 2.5 0. Note: The definition given for Rz in DIN differs from its definition in ISO.3 20 0. Rmax is applied only in cases where the largest single irregularity (“runaway”) is to be recorded for reasons important for function.8 32 N6 3.from ness value to Rz in μm 160 250 6 Siemens MD · 2009 .2 Mean peak-to-valley height Rz The mean peak-to-valley height Rz in mm acc. 3.4 2.25 1. The Ra values assigned to the Rz values are subject to scattering (see table).

2 Indicating geometrical tolerances does not necessarily imply the use of any particular method of production. for example “6 holes”. This standard gives the principles of symbolization and indication on technical drawings of tolerances of form. These compartments contain.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing 1 4. the general tolerances according to DIN ISO 2768 apply.4 Unless otherwise specified. or by the symbol “S∅” if the tolerance zone is spherical. or “6 x” shall be written above the frame (see figures 7 and 8). 5. .the space between two coaxial cylinders.the area within a circle. The term “geometrical tolerances” is used in this standard as generic term for these tolerances. Application. the tolerance zone is one of the following: . . The toleranced feature may be of any form or orientation within this tolerance zone.1 The particulars given are in accordance with the international standard DIN ISO 1101.the space within a parallelepiped or a sphere. i.if appropriate. according to which the tolerances of size and form are in direct relation with each other. location and runout. 5.the space within a cylinder. Siemens MD · 2009 5.e. . there is no direct relation between them. 5. According to the characteristic to be toleranced and the manner in which it is dimensioned. orientation. March 1985 edition. 5. and establishes the appropriate geometrical definition. in the following order (see figures 3. . . .5 The datum feature is a real feature of a part.the area between two concentric circles. Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Remarks referred to the tolerance. 4 and 5): . form and position According to current standards there are two possibilities of making indications on technical drawings in accordance with: a) the principle of independence according to DIN ISO 8015 where tolerances of size. 4. from top to bottom. General 4.1 Geometrical tolerances shall be specified on drawings only if they are imperative for the functioning and/or economical manufacture of the respective workpiece.the area between two equidistant lines or two parallel straight lines. or median plane) is to be contained. axis. the tolerance specifications are given in tolerance frames one under the other (see figure 9). Otherwise. 5. form and position must be adhered to independent of each other. b) the envelope requirements according to DIN 7167. If it is necessary to specify more than one tolerance characteristic for a feature. the tolerance applies to the whole length or surface of the considered feature. In this case reference must be made on the drawing to DIN ISO 8015. general explanations 5.e.6 Geometrical tolerances which are assigned to features referred to a datum do not limit the form deviations of the datum feature itself. This value is preceded by the symbol ∅ if the tolerance zone is circular or cylindrical.the space between two parallel planes. i. 5. 6 holes Figure 7 6x Figure 8 Figure 9 7 . The form of a datum feature shall be sufficiently accurate for its purpose and it may therefore be necessary to specify tolerances of form for the datum features (see table on page 8). the capital letter or letters identifying the datum feature or features (see figures 4. unless a more restrictive indication is given. . 5 and 6).the symbol for the characteristic to be toleranced.3 A geometrical tolerance applied to a feature defines the tolerance zone within which the feature (surface.7 Tolerance frame The tolerance requirements are shown in a rectangular frame which is divided into two or more compartments. measurement or gauging.2 Relationship between tolerances of size. which is used to establish the location of a datum. “4 surfaces”. .the tolerance value in the unit used for linear dimensions. that the size tolerances limit the form tolerances.

Parallelism Circularity. Concentricity Concentricity. Flatness. 8 Siemens MD · 2009 . form. Coaxiality (for axes) Symmetry Circular runout Runout tolerances Total runout – Straightness – Straightness. Coaxiality. Parallelism.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing 1 Table 1: Kinds of tolerances. Flatness. Coaxiality. symbols. Circularity – – Flatness Flatness Flatness – – Straightness. Parallelism. included tolerances Tolerances Toleranced characteristics Symbols Included tolerances Straightness Flatness Form tolerances Circularity (Roundness) Cylindricity Profile tolerances Profile any line Profile any surface Parallelism Orientation O i t ti tolerances Tol olerance ces of pos osition n Perpendicularity Angularity Position Location tolerances Concentricity (for centre points). Perpendicularity Table 2: Additional symbols Description Symbols direct Toleranced feature indications by letter Datum feature indication (by letter only) Datum target indication ∅2 = Dimension of the target area A1 = Datum feature and datum target number Theoretically exact dimension Projected tolerance zone Maximum material requirement Dependent on dimensional. and position tolerances Least material requirement Dimension describing the least material state of a form feature Free state condition (non-rigid parts) Envelope requirement: The maximum material dimension must not breach a geometrically ideal envelope.

10 Datums and datum systems Datum features are features according to which a workpiece is aligned for recording the toleranced deviations.8 Toleranced features The tolerance frame is connected to the toleranced feature by a leader line terminating with an arrow in the following way: . line. depends on the functional requirements. a capital letter enclosed in a frame is connected to a datum triangle (see figures 19 a and 19 b). the requirement is indicated by the words “common zone” above the tolerance frame (see figure 18). unless the tolerance value is preceded by the symbol ∅ (see figures 16 and 17).10. this is generally shown by datum letters. Siemens MD · 2009 Figure 19 a Figure 19 b 9 .Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing 1 5. Figure 15 Note: Whether a tolerance should be applied to the contour of a cylindrical or symmetrical feature or to its axis or median plane. Figure 10 Figure 11 . surface. median plane) must lie. Common zone Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 18 .9 Tolerance zones The tolerance zone is the zone within which all the points of a geometric feature (point. The same letter which defines the datum is repeated in the tolerance frame. The width of the tolerance zone is in the direction of the arrow of the leader line joining the tolerance frame to the feature which is toleranced. To identify the datum.as an extension of a dimension line when the tolerance refers to the axis or median plane defined by the feature so dimensioned (see figures 12 to 14).on the axis or the median plane when the tolerance refers to the common axis or median plane of two or more features (see figure 15).1 When a toleranced feature is referred to a datum. 5. 5. Figure 16 Figure 17 Where a common tolerance zone is applied to several separate features.on the outline of the feature or an extension of the outline (but clearly separated from the dimension line) when the tolerance refers to the line or surface itself (see figures 10 and 11). 5.

A datum system is frequently required because the direction of a short axis cannot be determined alone. In a datum system (see also 5. where the sequence from left to right shows the order of priority. The datum letters are to be placed in different compartments. Figure 26 Figure 27 Secondary datum Primary datum Tertiary datum Figure 28 5. when the datum feature is the line or surface itself (see figure 20).10.on the outline of the feature or an extension of the outline (but clearly separated from the dimension line).as an extension of the dimension line when the datum feature is the axis or median plane (see figures 21 and 22).Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing 1 The datum triangle with the datum letter is placed: . Figure 29 Figure 23 If the tolerance frame can be directly connected with the datum feature by a leader line. A common datum formed by two datum features is identified by two datum letters separated by a hyphen (see figures 27 and 29). Datum formed by two form features (common datum): Figure 21 Figure 22 . Datum system formed by two datums (directional datum “A” and short axis “B”). Figure 20 .2) the sequence of two or more datum features is important. b) the common axis or median plane formed by two features (see figure 23). one of them may be replaced by the datum triangle (see figure 22). and the datum letter placed first should refer to the directional datum feature (see figures 28.10.2 Datum system A datum system is a group of two or more datums to which one toleranced feature refers in common. the datum letter may be omitted (see figures 24 and 25). Note: If there is not enough space for two arrows.on the axis or median plane when the datum is: a) the axis or median plane of a single feature (for example a cylinder). Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 30 Siemens MD · 2009 10 . A single datum is identified by a capital letter (see figure 26). 30 and 31).

12 Definitions of tolerances Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone 5. Figure 36 Siemens MD · 2009 11 . The corresponding actual dimensions of the part are subject only to the position tolerance or angu- Figure 32 Figure 33 5. Figure 31 5. the axis being at right angles with datum “A” (see figure 31).Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing 1 Datum system formed by one plane and one perpendicular axis of a cylinder: Datum “A” is the plane formed by the plane contact surface. the dimensions determining the theoretically exact position or angle shall not be toleranced. Datum “B” is the axis of the largest inscribed cylinder. larity tolerance specified within the tolerance frame (see figures 32 and 33). is shown shall be contained between two parallel straight lines 0.11 Theoretically exact dimensions If tolerances of position or angularity are prescribed for a feature.1 apart in a plane containing the axis. These dimensions are enclosed. for example 30 .1 Straightness tolerance The tolerance zone when projected in a Any line on the upper surface parallel to the plane is limited by two parallel straight plane of projection in which the indication lines a distance t apart.1 apart.12. Indication and interpretation Figure 34 Figure 35 Any portion of length 200 of any generator of the cylindrical surface indicated by the arrow shall be contained between two parallel straight lines 0.

12. Figure 37 Figure 38 The tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder The axis of the cylinder to which the tolerof diameter t if the tolerance value is ance frame is connected shall be contained preceded by the symbol ∅.1 in the specified in two directions perpendicular vertical and 0.1 apart. Figure 43 Figure 44 The circumference of each cross-section shall be contained between two co-planar concentric circles 0.08. Figure 41 5. between two co-planar concentric circles 0.2 in the horizontal direction.3 Circularity tolerance Figure 42 The tolerance zone in the considered The circumference of each cross-section of plane is limited by two concentric circles the outside diameter shall be contained a distance t apart. Figure 45 12 Siemens MD · 2009 . in a cylindrical zone of diameter 0. Figure 39 5. parallel planes 0.The surface shall be contained between two lel planes a distance t apart.2 Flatness tolerance Figure 40 The tolerance zone is limited by two paral.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing 1 Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation The tolerance zone is limited by a parallel.The axis of the bar shall be contained within epiped of section t1 · t2 if the tolerance is a parallelepipedic zone of width 0.03 apart. to each other.12.08 apart.

5 Parallelism tolerance Figure 47 Parallelism tolerance of a line with reference to a datum line The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines a distance t apart and parallel to the datum line.1 apart. Figure 52 The toleranced axis shall be contained in a parallelepipedic tolerance zone having a width of 0. Figure 53 Siemens MD · 2009 Figure 54 Figure 55 13 . if the tolerance zone is only specified in one direction.1 apart. which are parallel to the datum axis A and lie in the horizontal direction. Figure 49 Figure 48 Figure 50 The toleranced axis shall be contained between two straight lines 0. which are parallel to the datum axis A and lie in the vertical direction (see figures 49 and 50).12. The toleranced axis shall be contained between two straight lines 0.12.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing 1 Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone 5. Figure 51 The tolerance zone is limited by a parallelepiped of section t1 · t2 and parallel to the datum line if the tolerance is specified in two planes perpendicular to each other. contained between two coaxial cylinders 0.1 in the vertical direction and which is parallel to the datum axis A (see figures 54 and 55).4 Cylindricity tolerance The tolerance zone is limited by two The considered surface area shall be coaxial cylinders a distance t apart. Indication and interpretation Figure 46 5.2 in the horizontal and 0.1 apart.

Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing 1 Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation Parallelism tolerance of a line with reference to a datum line The tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder The toleranced axis shall be contained in a of diameter t parallel to the datum line if cylindrical zone of diameter 0. Figure 56 Parallelism tolerance of a line with reference to a datum surface Figure 57 The tolerance zone is limited by two paral. shall be contained between two parallel planes 0.The toleranced axis of the hole shall be conlel planes a distance t apart and parallel to tained between two planes 0.01 apart and parallel to the datum surface A (figure 64). parallel to the datum surface B. Figure 63 Figure 62 Figure 64 All the points of the toleranced surface in a length of 100. parallel to the datum surface D (figure 63).The toleranced surface shall be contained lel planes a distance t apart and parallel between two parallel planes 0. the datum axis C of the hole. Figure 60 Figure 61 Parallelism tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum surface The tolerance zone is limited by two paral. Figure 58 Parallelism tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum line Figure 59 The tolerance zone is limited by two paral.01 apart and the datum surface.03 parallel to the tolerance value is preceded by the the datum axis A (datum line). placed anywhere on this surface.01 apart and to the datum surface. symbol ∅.1 apart and parallel to to the datum line. Siemens MD · 2009 14 .The toleranced surface shall be contained lel planes a distance t apart and parallel between two planes 0.

06 apart and perpendicular to the axis of the horizontal hole A (datum line).Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing 1 Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone 5.6 Perpendicularity tolerance Perpendicularity tolerance of a line with reference to a datum line The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines a distance t apart and perpendicular to the datum line. Figure 68 The toleranced axis of the cylinder shall be contained in a parallelepipedic tolerance zone of 0. perpendicular to the datum surface.2 which is perpendicular to the datum surface. Figure 67 The tolerance zone is limited by a parallelepiped of section t1 · t2 and perpendicular to the datum surface if the tolerance is specified in two directions perpendicular to each other.1 · 0.1 apart. Indication and interpretation Figure 65 Figure 66 Perpendicularity tolerance of a line with reference to a datum surface The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines a distance t apart and perpendicular to the datum plane if the tolerance is specified only in one direction. Figure 70 The toleranced axis of the cylinder to which the tolerance frame is connected shall be contained in a cylindrical zone of diameter 0.01 perpendicular to the datum surface A. Figure 69 The tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder of diameter t perpendicular to the datum surface if the tolerance value is preceded by the symbol ∅. The toleranced axis of the inclined hole shall be contained between two parallel planes 0.12. Figure 71 Siemens MD · 2009 Figure 72 15 . to which the tolerance frame is connected. The toleranced axis of the cylinder. shall be contained between two parallel planes 0.

Figure 77 Figure 78 Angularity tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum surface The tolerance zone is limited by two paral. The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines a distance t apart and inclined at the specified angle to the datum line.B (datum line).08 apart and perpendicular to the horizontal datum surperpendicular to the datum surface. 0.7 Angularity tolerance Angularity tolerance of a line with reference to a datum line Line and datum line in the same plane. Figure 73 Figure 74 Perpendicularity tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum surface The tolerance zone is limited by two The toleranced surface shall be contained parallel planes a distance t apart and between two parallel planes 0. surface.12. Figure 79 Figure 80 Siemens MD · 2009 16 .08 apart which are inclined at 60° to the horizontal axis A .Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing 1 Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation Perpendicularity tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum line The tolerance zone is limited by two The toleranced face of the workpiece shall parallel planes a distance t apart and be contained between two parallel planes perpendicular to the datum line.The toleranced surface shall be contained lel planes a distance t apart and inclined between two parallel planes 0. face A. Figure 76 The toleranced axis of the hole shall be contained between two parallel straight lines 0.08 apart and perpendicular to the axis A (datum line). Figure 75 5.08 apart which at the specified angle to the datum are inclined at 40° to the datum surface A.

with reference to the surfaces A and B (datum surfaces). Indication and interpretation Figure 82 Figure 81 The axis of the hole shall be contained within a cylindrical zone of diameter 0. The tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder Figure 84 of diameter t the axis of which is in the theoretically exact position of the Each of the axes of the eight holes shall be considered line if the tolerance value is contained within a cylindrical zone of diameter 0. exact position of the considered hole.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing 1 Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone 5. Each of the toleranced lines shall be contained between two parallel straight lines 0. with reference to the surfaces A and B (datum surfaces).08 the axis of which is in the theoretically exact position of the considered line. The inclined surface shall be contained between two parallel planes which are 0.05 apart which are symmetrically disposed about the theoretically exact position of the considered line. Figure 86 Siemens MD · 2009 Figure 87 17 . with reference to the surface A (datum surface).12.05 apart and which are symmetrically disposed with respect to the theoretically exact position of the considered surface with reference to the datum surface A and the axis of the datum cylinder B (datum line).8 Positional tolerance Positional tolerance of a line The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines a distance t apart and disposed symmetrically with respect to the theoretically exact position of the considered line if the tolerance is specified only in one direction.1 the axis of which is in the theoretically preceded by the symbol ∅. Figure 83 Figure 85 Positional tolerance of a flat surface or a median plane The tolerance zone is limited by two parallel planes a distance t apart and disposed symmetrically with respect to the theoretically exact position of the considered surface.

shall be contained in a cylindrical zone of diameter 0. to which the tolerance frame is connected.08 apart and symmetrically disposed about the median plane with respect to the datum feature A.08 coaxial with the datum axis A . shall be contained with the datum point. Figure 88 Coaxiality tolerance of an axis The tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder of diameter t.12.01 concentric with the centre of the datum circle A.9 Concentricity and coaxiality tolerance Concentricity tolerance of a point The tolerance zone is limited by a circle of The centre of the circle. Figure 93 The axis of the hole shall be contained between two parallel planes which are 0. Figure 90 5. Figure 91 The median plane of the slot shall be contained between two parallel planes. to which the tolerdiameter t the centre of which coincides ance frame is connected. Figure 94 Figure 95 Siemens MD · 2009 18 .B.10 Symmetry Symmetry tolerance of a median plane The tolerance zone is limited by two parallel planes a distance t apart and disposed symmetrically to the median plane with respect to the datum axis or datum plane. Figure 89 The axis of the cylinder. the axis of which coincides with the datum axis if the tolerance value is preceded by the symbol ∅.08 apart and symmetrically disposed with respect to the actual common median plane of the datum slots A and B. Figure 92 Symmetry tolerance of a line or an axis The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines a distance t apart and disposed symmetrically with respect to the datum axis (or datum plane) if the tolerance is specified only in one direction. in a circle of diameter 0.12.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing 1 Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation 5. which are 0.

1 in any plane of measurement during one the axis by two concentric circles a revolution about the datum axis A . the revolution about the datum axis D.05 in the vertical direction and the axis of which coincides with the datum axis formed by the intersection of the two median planes of the datum slots A .Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing 1 Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Symmetry tolerance of a line or an axis The tolerance zone is limited by a parallelepiped of section t1 · t2. The axis of the hole shall be contained in a parallelepipedic zone of width 0. Figure 100 Circular runout tolerance . Figure 98 Plane of measurement Runout normally applies to complete revolutions about the axis but could be limited to apply to a part of a revolution. the centre of which coincides with the datum axis.D. Cylinder of measurement Figure 101 Figure 103 Figure 102 Siemens MD · 2009 19 .B. distance t apart.B and C .2 in any plane of measurement when measuring the toleranced part of a revolution about the centre line of hole A (datum axis).1 position by two circles a distance t apart at any position of measurement during one lying in a cylinder of measurement.axial The tolerance zone is limited at any radial The axial runout shall not be greater than 0.1 in the horizontal and 0.11 Circular runout tolerance Circular runout tolerance . the axis of which coincides with the datum axis if the tolerance is specified in two directions perpendicular to each other. Toleranced surface Figure 99 The radial runout shall not be greater than 0. Indication and interpretation Figure 96 5. axis of which coincides with the datum axis.12.radial Figure 97 The tolerance zone is limited within any The radial runout shall not be greater than plane of measurement perpendicular to 0.

and with relative axial movement between part and measuring instrument.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing 1 Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Circular runout tolerance in any direction The tolerance zone is limited within any cone of measurement. the axis of which coincides with the datum axis by two circles a distance t apart. Figure 104 Figure 106 Circular runout tolerance in a specified direction The tolerance zone is limited within any cone of measurement of the specified angle. Figure 105 The runout in the direction perpendicular to the tangent of a curved surface shall not be greater than 0.12.1 in any cone of measurement during one revolution about the datum axis C. Unless otherwise specified the measuring direction is normal to the surface. With relative movement the measuring instrument or the workpiece shall be guided along a line having the theoretically perfect form of the contour and being in correct position to the datum axis.1 in any cone of measurement during one revolution about the datum axis C.1 at any point on the specified surface during several revolutions about the datum axis A-B.12 Total runout tolerance Total radial runout tolerance The tolerance zone is limited by two coaxial cylinders a distance t apart. the axis of which coincides with the datum axis by two circles a distance t apart. Figure 107 5. Figure 108 Figure 109 20 Siemens MD · 2009 .1 in any cone of measurement during one revolution about the datum axis C. The total radial runout shall not be greater than 0. the axes of which coincide with the datum axis. The runout in the specified direction shall not be greater than 0. Cone of measurement Indication and interpretation The runout in the direction indicated by the arrow shall not be greater than 0.

Indication and interpretation Figure 110 Figure 111 Siemens MD · 2009 21 .than 0.The total axial runout shall not be greater allel planes a distance t apart and per. during several revolutions about the datum axis D and with relative radial movement between the measuring instrument and the part. With relative movement the measuring instrument or the workpiece shall be guided along a line having the theoretically perfect form of the contour and being in correct position to the datum axis.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing 1 Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Total axial runout tolerance The tolerance zone is limited by two par.1 at any point on the specified surface pendicular to the datum axis.

Table 3 Formats of trimmed and untrimmed sheets and of the drawing area Sheet sizes acc. The sheet sizes listed below have been taken from DIN EN ISO 5457. Drawing area Trimmed drawing sheet Title block 6. Title Block.1 Title block Formats w A3 are produced in broadside. This standard may also be used for other technical documents. to DIN EN ISO 5457. extract from DIN EN ISO 5457. Siemens MD · 2009 22 . Sheet sizes The DIN EN ISO 5457 standard applies to the presentation of drawing forms even if they are created by CAD. etc. 5457 A series A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 Trimmed sheet a1 x b1 mm 841 x 1189 594 x 841 420 x 594 297 x 420 210 x 297 Drawing area a2 x b2 mm 821 x 1159 574 x 811 400 x 564 277 x 390 180 x 277 1) Untrimmed sheet a3 x b3 mm 880 x 1230 625 x 880 450 x 625 330 x 450 240 x 330 1) The actually available drawing area is reduced by the title block. 6. Non-standard Formats 1 Technical drawings. The title block area is in the bottom right corner of the trimmed sheet.2 Non-standard formats Non-standard formats should be avoided.Technical Drawings Sheet Sizes. 6. When necessary they should be created using the dimensions of the short side of an A-format with the long side of a greater A-format. the possible sectioning margin. For the A4 format the title block area is at the bottom of the short side (upright format). the filing margin.

4 Siemens MD · 2009 23 .7 with the pertaining line width according to table 5 may only be used.5 0. symbols 10 5 3.25 0. DIN 332 . For the A4.25 0.5 0.7 A 1.35 0. A 3 and A 4 h 7 3.5 A 0 and A 1 b 1 0.7 0.35 0. Lettering example 9. b = line width) Paper sizes Application range g for lettering g h Type.DS M24 DIN 509 E 2. 20% will be accepted if this is required in a drawing because of restricted circumstances.25 0.25 0.25 7.35 0. A 0 8.7 0.1 Line groups 0. to DIN ISO 128.5 2. line group 0.1 The type sizes as assigned to the paper sizes in table 4 MUST be adhered to with regard to their application range.35 0.25 0. Part 20 and Part 24 Table 5: Line groups. drawing no.35 A 2. A 3.4 DIN 509 F 2.5 b 0.5 x 0.1 Example for formats A 4 to A 2 A 0 is prescribed.5 x 0.35 0. Lines Lettering Example 1 7. roughness values.5 and 0. Larger type heights are also permissible. Lines acc. 8.7 may be used as well. Assignment to the drawing formats A1 and 9.35 0. Type sizes Table 4: Type sizes for drawing formats (h = type height. A 2 Line width 0.7 0.Technical Drawings Type Sizes. Type heights smaller by approx.5 A 4. Texts and nominal dimensions Tolerances. A3 and A2 formats.5 0. line types and line widths Line group Drawing format Line type Solid line (thick) Solid line (thin) Short dashes (thin) Dot-dash line (thick) Dot-dash line (thin) Dash/double-dot line (thin) Freehand (thin) 0.

Table of Contents Section 2

Standardization

ISO Metric Screw Threads (Coarse Pitch Threads)

Page 25 26 27 28 29 30

2

ISO Metric Screw Threads (Coarse and Fine Pitch Threads) Cylindrical Shaft Ends ISO Tolerance Zones, Allowances, Fit Tolerances; Inside Dimensions (Holes) ISO Tolerance Zones, Allowances, Fit Tolerances; Outside Dimensions (Shafts) Parallel Keys, Taper Keys, and Centre Holes

24

Siemens MD · 2009

Standardization ISO Metric Screw Threads (Coarse Pitch Threads)

**ISO metric screw threads (coarse pitch threads) following DIN 13, Part 1
**

Nut

**D1 + d * 2 H1 d 2 + D 2 + d * 0.64952 P d 3 + d * 1.22687 P H + 0.86603 P
**

Bolt

2

H 1 + 0.54127 P h 3 + 0.61343 P

Bolt thread diameter

Nut thread diameter

R + H + 0.14434 P 6

Diameters of series 1 should be preferred to those of series 2, and these again to those of series 3. Nominal thread diameter d = D

Series 1 Series 2 Series 3 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 52 56 60 64 68

Pitch P

mm 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.75 0.8 1 1 1.25 1.25 1.5 1.5 1.75 2 2 2.5 2.5 2.5 3 3 3.5 3.5 4 4 4.5 4.5 5 5 5.5 5.5 6 6

Pitch diameter d2 = D2

mm 2.675 3.110 3.545 4.013 4.480 5.350 6.350 7.188 8.188 9.026 10.026 10.863 12.701 14.701 16.376 18.376 20.376 22.051 25.051 27.727 30.727 33.402 36.402 39.077 42.077 44.752 48.752 52.428 56.428 60.103 64.103

Core diameter d3

mm 2.387 2.764 3.141 3.580 4.019 4.773 5.773 6.466 7.466 8.160 9.160 9.853 11.546 13.546 14.933 16.933 18.933 20.319 23.319 25.706 28.706 31.093 34.093 36.479 39.479 41.866 45.866 49.252 53.252 56.639 60.639

Depth of thread h3

mm 0.307 0.368 0.429 0.460 0.491 0.613 0.613 0.767 0.767 0.920 0.920 1.074 1.227 1.227 1.534 1.534 1.534 1.840 1.840 2.147 2.147 2.454 2.454 2.760 2.760 3.067 3.067 3.374 3.374 3.681 3.681

Round R

mm 0.072 0.087 0.101 0.108 0.115 0.144 0.144 0.180 0.180 0.217 0.217 0.253 0.289 0.289 0.361 0.361 0.361 0.433 0.433 0.505 0.505 0.577 0.577 0.650 0.650 0.722 0.722 0.794 0.794 0.866 0.866

D1

mm 2.459 2.850 3.242 3.688 4.134 4.917 5.917 6.647 7.647 8.376 9.376 10.106 11.835 13.835 15.294 17.294 19.294 20.752 23.752 26.211 29.211 31.670 34.670 37.129 40.129 42.587 46.587 50.046 54.046 57.505 61.505

H1

mm 0.271 0.325 0.379 0.406 0.433 0.541 0.541 0.677 0.677 0.812 0.812 0.947 1.083 1.083 1.353 1.353 1.353 1.624 1.624 1.894 1.894 2.165 2.165 2.436 2.436 2.706 2.706 2.977 2.977 3.248 3.248

**Tensile stress crosssection As 1)
**

mm2 5.03 6.78 8.78 11.3 14.2 20.1 28.9 36.6 48.1 58.0 72.3 84.3 115 157 193 245 303 353 459 561 694 817 976 1121 1306 1473 1758 2030 2362 2676 3055

**1) The tensile stress cross-section is calculated acc. to DIN 13 Part 28 with formula
**

Siemens MD · 2009

As =

π 4

S

ǒd

2

+ d3 2

Ǔ

2

25

**Standardization ISO Metric Screw Threads (Coarse and Fine Pitch Threads)
**

Selection of nominal thread diameters and pitches for coarse and fine pitch threads from 1 mm to 68 mm diameter, following DIN ISO 261

2

Coarse itch pitch Series Series Series thread 1 2 3 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.5 3 3.5 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 15 16 17 18 20 22 24 25 26 27 28 30 32 33 35 36 38 39 40 42 45 48 50 52 55 56 60 64 68 58 65 5.5 5.5 6 6 5 4.5 4.5 5 4 4 3.5 3.5 3 2.5 2.5 2.5 3 2 0.25 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.45 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2

Nominal thread diameter d=D

Pitches P for fine pitch threads 4 3 2 1.5 1.25 1 0.75 0.5

1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 2 2 2 2 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

1.25 1.25 1.25

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

0.75 0.75 0.75

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

26

Siemens MD · 2009

Standardization Cylindrical Shaft Ends Cylindrical shaft ends Acc. to DIN 748/1 Diameter Series 1 2 Cylindrical shaft ends Acc. to DIN 748/1 Diameter Series 1 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 2 mm mm FLENDER works standard W 0470 FLENDER works standard W 0470 2 ISO ISO Length tolertolerDiaL th ance Length ance meter zone Long Short zone ISO ISO Length tolertolerDiaL th ance Length ance meter zone Long Short zone mm mm 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 19 20 22 24 25 28 30 32 35 38 40 42 45 48 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 m6 mm 16 16 20 20 23 23 30 30 40 40 50 50 50 60 60 80 80 80 80 110 110 110 110 110 110 140 140 140 140 170 170 170 170 mm mm mm mm 210 210 210 250 250 250 300 300 300 350 350 350 mm 165 165 165 200 200 200 240 240 240 280 280 280 330 330 330 380 380 380 450 450 450 540 540 540 540 540 540 540 680 680 680 680 mm 100 mm m6 180 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 220 240 250 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 450 460 480 500 210 240 270 15 15 18 18 28 28 36 36 36 42 42 58 58 58 58 82 82 82 82 82 82 105 105 105 105 130 130 130 130 14 16 19 20 22 24 25 28 30 32 35 38 40 42 45 48 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 30 180 190 200 220 240 310 350 k6 35 k6 40 50 250 260 280 300 m6 6 410 410 410 470 470 470 550 550 550 650 650 650 650 650 650 650 800 800 800 800 400 n6 450 500 550 590 60 320 340 70 360 380 80 m6 90 105 120 140 400 420 440 450 460 480 500 530 560 600 630 650 690 750 790 160 Siemens MD · 2009 27 .

allowances. to DIN 7157. fit tolerances. Fit Tolerances Inside Dimensions (Holes) ISO tolerance zones. Inside dimensions (holes) acc.Standardization ISO Tolerance Zones. Series 2 from to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to 1 3 3 6 6 10 10 14 14 18 18 24 24 30 30 40 40 50 50 65 65 80 80 100 100 120 120 140 140 160 160 180 180 200 200 225 225 250 250 280 280 315 315 355 355 400 400 450 450 500 H7 P7 – 6 –16 – 8 –20 – 9 –24 –11 –29 N7 – 4 –14 – 4 –16 – 4 –19 – 5 –23 N9 – 4 –29 0 –30 0 –36 0 –43 M7 – 2 –12 0 –12 0 –15 0 –18 K7 0 –10 + 3 – 9 + 5 –10 + 6 –12 J6 + – + – + – 2 4 5 3 5 4 J7 + – + – + – 4 6 6 6 8 7 +10 0 +12 0 +15 0 +18 0 +14 0 +18 0 +22 0 +27 0 H8 H11 + 60 0 + 75 0 + 90 0 +110 0 G7 +12 + 2 +16 4 +20 + 5 +24 + 6 + + + + + + 20 6 28 10 35 13 + + + + + + 39 14 50 20 61 25 F8 E9 D9 + + + + + + 45 20 60 30 76 40 + + + + + + 60 20 78 30 98 40 +120 + 60 +145 + 70 +170 + 80 D10 C11 Tolerance zones shown for nominal dimension 60 mm A11 +330 +270 +345 +270 +370 +280 +400 +290 + 6 – 5 +10 – 8 + 43 + 75 + 93 +120 +205 + 16 + 32 + 50 + 50 + 95 –14 –35 – 7 –28 0 –52 0 –21 + 6 –15 + 8 – 5 +12 – 9 +21 0 +33 0 +130 0 +28 + 7 + 53 + 92 +117 +149 +240 + 20 + 40 + 65 + 65 +110 +280 + 64 +112 +142 +180 +120 + 25 + 50 + 80 + 80 +290 +130 +330 + 76 +134 +174 +220 +140 + 30 + 60 +100 +100 +340 +150 +390 + 90 +159 +207 +260 +170 + 36 + 72 +120 +120 +400 +180 +450 +200 +106 +185 +245 +305 +460 + 43 + 85 +145 +145 +210 +480 +230 +530 +240 +122 +215 +285 +355 +550 + 50 +100 +170 +170 +260 +570 +280 +620 +137 +240 +320 +400 +300 + 56 +110 +190 +190 +650 +330 +720 +151 +265 +350 +440 +360 + 62 +125 +210 +210 +760 +400 +840 +165 +290 +385 +480 +440 + 68 +135 +230 +230 +880 +480 F8 E9 D9 D10 C11 +430 +300 +470 +310 +480 +320 +530 +340 +550 +360 +600 +380 +630 +410 +710 +460 +770 +520 +830 +580 +950 +660 +1030 + 740 +1110 + 820 +1240 + 920 +1370 +1050 +1560 +1200 +1710 +1350 +1900 +1500 +2050 +1650 A11 –17 –42 – 8 –33 0 –62 0 –25 + 7 –18 +10 – 6 +14 –11 +25 0 +39 0 +160 0 +34 + 9 Nominal dimensions in mm –21 –51 – 9 –39 0 –74 0 –30 + 9 –21 +13 – 6 +18 –12 +30 0 +46 0 +190 0 +40 +10 –24 –59 –10 –45 0 –87 0 –35 +10 –25 +16 – 6 +22 –13 +35 0 +54 0 +220 0 +47 +12 –28 –68 68 –12 –52 52 0 –100 100 0 –40 40 +12 –28 28 +18 – 7 +26 –14 14 +40 0 +63 0 +250 0 +54 +14 –33 79 –79 –14 60 –60 0 115 –115 0 46 –46 +13 33 –33 +22 – 7 +30 16 –16 +46 0 +72 0 +290 0 +61 +15 –36 –88 –14 –66 0 –130 0 –52 +16 –36 +25 – 7 +36 –16 +52 0 +81 0 +320 0 +69 +17 –41 –98 –16 –73 0 –140 0 –57 +17 –40 +29 – 7 +39 –18 +57 0 +89 0 +360 0 +75 +18 – 45 –108 –17 –80 0 –155 0 –63 +18 –45 +33 – 7 +43 –20 +63 0 H7 +97 0 H8 +400 0 +83 +20 ISO Series 1 abbrev. Series 2 P7 N7 N9 M7 K7 J6 J7 H11 G7 28 Siemens MD · 2009 . Allowances. DIN ISO 286 Part 2 μm 2 + 500 + 400 + 300 + 200 + 100 0 – 100 – 200 – 300 – 400 – 500 ISO Series 1 abbrev.

5 0 0 0 0 0 –4.5 14.5 +27 +15 +15 + 3 + 3 –11 11 –12. Series 2 + 34 + 20 + 46 + 28 + 56 + 34 + 67 + 40 + 72 + 45 + 87 + 54 + 81 + 48 + 99 + 60 +109 + 70 +133 + 87 +148 +102 +178 +124 +198 +144 +233 +170 +253 +190 +273 +210 +308 +236 +330 +258 +356 +284 +396 +315 +431 +350 +479 +390 +524 +435 +587 +490 +637 +540 x8/u8 1) Tolerance zones shown for nominal dimension 60 mm 2 r6 s6 + + + + + + 20 14 27 19 32 23 + + + + + + r5 14 10 20 15 25 19 + + + + + + 16 10 23 15 28 19 n6 m5 m6 k5 +10 + 4 +16 + 8 +19 +10 + 6 + 2 + 9 + 4 +12 + 6 + 8 + 2 +12 + 4 +15 + 6 + 4 0 + 6 + 1 + 7 + 1 k6 + 6 0 + 9 + 1 +10 + 1 j6 + – + – + – 4 2 6 2 7 2 js6 h6 h7 h8 h9 h11 g6 – 2 – 8 – 4 –12 – 5 –14 – – – – – – f7 e8 6 16 10 22 13 28 – – – – – – 14 28 20 38 25 47 – – – – – – d9 20 45 30 60 40 76 c11 – 60 –120 – 70 –145 – 80 –170 a11 –270 –330 –270 –345 –280 –370 + 3 0 0 0 0 0 – 3 – 6 –10 –14 – 25 – 60 + 4 0 0 0 0 0 – 4 – 8 –12 –18 – 30 – 75 +4.5 +20 +11 +11 + 2 + 2 – 7 –9.5 –13 –21 –33 – 52 –130 –20 – 41 – 73 –117 –240 –430 –120 –310 0 0 0 0 0 – 9 – 25 – 50 – 80 –280 –470 –16 –25 –39 – 62 –160 –25 – 50 – 89 –142 –130 –320 –290 –480 –140 –340 0 –10 – 30 – 60 –100 –330 –530 0 0 0 0 –19 –30 –46 – 74 –190 –29 – 60 –106 –174 –150 –360 –340 –550 –170 –380 0 0 0 0 0 –12 – 36 – 72 –120 –390 –600 –22 –35 –54 – 87 –220 –34 – 71 –126 –207 –180 –410 –400 –630 –200 –460 –450 –710 0 0 0 0 0 –14 – 43 – 85 –145 –210 –520 –25 25 –40 40 –63 63 –100 100 –250 250 –39 39 – 83 –148 148 –245 245 –460 –770 –230 –580 –480 –830 –240 –660 –530 –950 0 0 0 0 0 –15 – 50 –100 –170 –260 – 740 29 –46 46 –72 72 –115 115 –290 290 –44 44 – 96 –172 172 –285 285 –550 –1030 –29 –280 – 820 –570 –1100 –300 – 920 0 –17 – 56 –110 –190 –620 –1240 0 0 0 0 –32 –52 –81 –130 –320 –49 –108 –191 –320 –330 –1050 –650 –1370 –360 –1200 0 0 0 0 0 –18 – 62 –125 –210 –720 –1560 –36 –57 –89 –140 –360 –54 –119 –214 –350 –400 –1350 –760 –1710 –440 –1500 0 –20 – 68 –135 –230 –840 –1900 0 0 0 0 –40 –63 –97 –155 –400 –60 –131 –232 –385 –480 –1650 –880 –2050 h6 h9 f7 h7 h8 h11 g6 e8 d9 c11 a11 + 59 + 45 + 50 +33 +20 +25 +13 +18 +11 + 43 + 34 + 34 +17 + 9 + 9 + 2 + 2 – 5 + 72 + 53 + 78 + 59 + 93 + 71 +101 + 79 +117 + 92 +125 +100 +133 +108 +151 +122 +159 +130 +169 +140 +190 +158 +202 +170 +226 +190 +244 +208 +272 +232 +292 +252 s6 + 54 + 41 + 56 + 43 + 66 + 51 + 69 + 54 + 81 + 63 + 83 + 65 + 86 + 68 + 97 + 77 +100 + 80 +104 + 84 +117 + 94 +121 + 98 +133 +108 +139 +114 +153 +126 +159 +132 r5 + 60 + 41 + 62 + 43 + 73 + 51 + 76 + 54 + 88 + 63 + 90 + 65 + 93 + 68 +106 + 77 +109 + 80 +113 + 84 +126 + 94 +130 + 98 +144 +108 +150 +114 +166 +126 +172 +132 r6 +8 –8 Nominal dimensions in mm +39 +24 +30 +15 +21 +12 +9. DIN ISO 286 Part 2 μm + 500 + 400 + 300 + 200 + 100 0 – 100 – 200 – 300 – 400 – 500 ISO Series 1 x8/u8 abbrev.5 12.5 +45 +28 +35 +18 +25 +13 +11 +23 +13 +13 + 3 + 3 – 9 –11 +52 +33 +40 +21 +28 +14 +12.Standardization ISO Tolerance Zones.5 –11 –18 –27 – 43 –110 –17 – 34 – 59 – 93 –205 –400 + 48 + 37 + 41 +28 +17 +21 +11 +15 + 9 +6.5 +31 +17 +17 + 4 + 4 –13 13 –14. Allowances. fit tolerances.5 0 0 0 0 0 – 6 – 16 – 32 – 50 – 95 –290 + 28 + 23 + 23 +12 + 7 + 7 + 1 + 1 – 3 –5.5 +60 +37 +46 +24 +33 +16 +14.5 +66 +43 +52 +27 +36 +16 +16 +34 +20 +20 + 4 + 4 –16 –16 +73 +46 +57 +29 +40 +18 +18 +37 +21 +21 + 4 + 4 –18 –18 +80 +50 +63 +32 +45 +20 +20 +40 +23 +23 + 5 + 5 –20 –20 n6 m5 m6 k5 k6 j6 js6 1) Up to nominal dimension 24 mm: x8. above nominal dimension 24 mm: u8 Siemens MD · 2009 29 .5 – 9 –15 –22 – 36 – 90 + 39 + 31 + 34 +23 +15 +18 + 9 +12 + 8 +5.5 0 0 0 0 0 – 7 – 20 – 40 – 65 –110 –300 + 35 + 28 + 28 +15 + 8 + 8 + 2 + 2 – 4 –6. Fit Tolerances Outside Dimensions (Shafts) ISO tolerance zones. to DIN 7157. Outside dimensions (shafts) acc. Series 2 1) from 1 to 3 above 3 to 6 above 6 to 10 above 10 to 14 above 14 to 18 above 18 to 24 above 24 to 30 above 30 to 40 above 40 to 50 above 50 to 65 above 65 to 80 above 80 to 100 above 100 to 120 above 120 to 140 above 140 to 160 above 160 to 180 above 180 to 200 above 200 to 225 above 225 to 250 above 250 to 280 above 280 to 315 above 315 to 355 above 355 to 400 above 400 to 450 above 450 to 500 ISO Series 1 abbrev. allowances.

4 7. and dimension tz the 32 20 12.2 16.4 45 180 45 180 11 7 4.9 1. 50 31 19.3 3.8 8.6 1.6 3. The shaft Lengths 36 22 14.4 4.2 8 45 10 45 5 3 2.4 6.6 12.5 10.8 0.5 0.5 2.8 12.4 6. to DIN 6885 Part 1 4 2.6 2.4 18 90 20 90 8 5 3. to DIN 6886 14 9 5.4 4.1 280 400 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 25 28 32 36 40 45 50 56 63 70 80 90 100 110 125 140 160 180 200 220 250 280 320 360 400 Centre holes i shaft in h ft ends d (centerings) ( t i ) acc.3 1.4 3.3 31. see below l1 DIN 6885/1 6886 l Parallel keys and taper keys acc.3 38 48 60 71 d3 5 6.4 11.1 180 400 largest depth of the hub keyway.1 23 28.7 10 56 12 56 Square and rectangular taper keys 6 3.4 8.4 9.4 28 140 32 140 9 5.6 0.are equal to those of DIN 6886.4 22 110 25 110 8 5 3.4 d4 5.9 56 220 56 220 Taper and round-ended round ended sunk key and 14 9 5.2 13 38 50 M16 14 17 50 85 M20 17.5 12 15 18 17 22 26 Minimum dimensions t 3.3 3.15 10 25 63 4 12.4 8 11 15 19 t5 ≈ 0.4 4.5 3.7 1.4 21 24 M8 6.1 250 400 mined head .1 110 400 110 400 shaft keyway width b with normal fit is ISO N9 25 15 10.3 8 10 12.8 8.1 100 400 100 400 with close fit ISO P9.2 1.4 10.2 6.5 16 18 t3 +1 2.4 80 320 80 320 1) The tolerance zone for hub keyway width b for 18 11 7.5 37 320 500 M42* 37 43 Form B b 0. 6886 and 6887 Side fitting square and rectangular keys above to 1) 2) mm mm mm 6 8 2 8 10 3 10 12 4 12 17 5 17 22 6 22 30 8 30 38 10 38 44 12 44 50 14 50 58 16 58 65 18 65 75 20 75 85 22 85 95 25 95 110 28 110 130 32 130 150 36 150 170 40 170 200 45 200 230 50 230 260 56 260 290 63 290 330 70 330 380 80 380 440 90 440 500 100 Lengths mm I1 or I from to from to mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm 2 1.4 5.3 6.1 200 400 keyway and hub keyway dimensions not 40 25 15.3 2.3 4.9 3.9 t4 ≈ 1.3 0.ta taper er keys with gib 45 28 17. to DIN 332 Part 2 Drill diameter for tapping-size holes acc.5 30 38 M12 10.5 13.6 5.8 2.1 125 400 125 400 and with close fit ISO P9.2 14.4 13.4 16.7 8.3 19.3 1.2 1.5 4.9 36 160 40 160 10 6 4.4 90 360 90 360 parallel keys with normal fit is ISO JS9 and 20 12 8.8 3.0 0.Standardization Parallel Keys.5 9.9 6 36 8 36 Parallel key and keyway acc.4 8. and Centre Holes Dimensions of parallel keys and taper keys Depth of keyDiameter Width Height way in shaft d b h t1 2 Depth of keyway in hub t2 DIN 6885/1 6886/ 6887 2) Lengths.4 0.4 0.2 10 13 M4 3.5 1.3 13 16 M5 4.4 5.1 9.5 18.8 2.9 2.4 50 200 50 200 12 7.6 1. to DIN 336 Part 1 30 Siemens MD · 2009 .1 220 400 deteraccording to DIN 6887 .5 17 16 21 19 25 22 30 28 37 36 45 42 53 50 63 60 77 74 93 84 105 K Keyway Form DS (with thread) DIN 332/2 1) 2) * 3) Cutting-off dimension in case of no centering Diameter applies a lies to finished workpiece work iece Dimensions not acc.2 d5 5.2 14 70 16 70 7 4 3.25 5.0 1.5 21 85 130 M24 21 25 130 225 M30* 26 31 225 320 M36* 31.35 4.7 8.3 2.4 34.3 6.4 24 30 M10 8.2 5. The tolerance zone for 22 13 9.8 7.1 2.4 2.6 10.3 0.4 70 280 70 280 16 10 6. Taper Keys. to DIN 6885 Part 1.5 10 25 2 6.5 10.1 160 400 largest height of the key. t to DIN 332 Part P t1 Dimensions of 60° centre holes in mm Recommended Bore diameters diameter d 2) d1 a 1) above to 6 10 1.5 6 20 6 20 3 1.8 25.3 2. 9 12 10 14 12.2 0.1 140 400 140 400 2) Dimension h of the taper key names the 32 20 12. 28 17 11.2 4 5 6 7.3 20 Recommended diameters d6 2) d1 d2 d3 3) above to 7 10 M3 2.8 10.3 3.5 8.2 44 55 65 d2 3.6 13.5 3.6 0.8 2.7 Form B DIN 332/1 Form DS t1 t2 +2 min.3 2.6 63 100 6.3 16 21 M6 5 6.7 5 15.8 1.3 5.4 11.8 1.9 18.4 63 250 63 250 keyway acc.8 4.4 0.4 14.

Energy Flow.Table of Contents Section 3 Physics Internationally Determined Prefixes Basic SI Units Derived SI Units Having Special Names and Special Unit Symbols Legal Units Outside the SI Physical Quantities and Units of Lengths and Their Powers Physical Quantities and Units of Time Physical Quantities and Units of Mechanics Physical Quantities and Units of Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer Physical Quantities and Units of Electrical Engineering Physical Quantities and Units of Lighting Engineering Different Measuring Units of Temperature Measures of Length Square Measures Cubic Measures Weights Energy. Heat Flow Pressure and Tension Velocity Equations for Linear Motion and Rotary Motion Page 32 32 33 33 34 35 35 – 37 37 + 38 38 39 39 40 40 41 41 41 42 42 42 43 3 Siemens MD · 2009 31 . Work. Quantity of Heat Power.

An exponent on the unit such a way that the numerical values are symbol also applies to the prefix symbol.– Combinations of prefixes and the following units are not allowed: gram (kg) but with the unit gram (g).Physics Internationally Determined Prefixes Basic SI Units Internationally determined prefixes Decimal multiples and sub-multiples of units are represented with prefixes and symbols. the prefixes should be chosen in symbol for a new unit. Example: 1 cm3 = 1 . Prefixes and symbols are used only in combination with unit names and unit symbols. Units of time: minute. day Unit of temperature: degree Celsius Basic SI units Physical quantity Length Mass Time Electric current Basic SI unit Name Metre Kilogram Second Ampere Symbol m kg s A Physical quantity Basic SI unit Name Symbol Thermodynamic temperature Amount of substance Luminous intensity Kelvin K Mol Candela mol cd 32 Siemens MD · 2009 .94 mm 1. Factor by which the unit is multiplied 10-18 10-15 10-12 10-9 10-6 10-3 10-2 10-1 Prefix Atto Femto Pico Nano Micro Milli Centi Deci Symbol a f p n μ m c d Factor by which the unit is multiplied 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 6 10 9 10 12 10 15 10 18 Prefix Deka Hecto Kilo Mega Giga Tera Peta Exa Symbol da h k M G T P E 3 – Prefix symbols and unit symbols are written – When giving sizes by using prefix symbols and without blanks and together they form the unit symbols. between 0. 10-6s 106s-1 = 106Hz = 1 MHz Example: 12 kN 3.401 kPa 31 ns instead of instead of instead of instead of 1.1 . NOT microkilogram (μkg).00394 m 1401 Pa 3. (10-2m)3 = 1 .2 . 10-8s – Prefixes are not used with the basic SI unit kilo. Units of angularity: degree. year. minute. 10-6m3 1 μs = 1 . second Example: Milligram (mg).1 and 1000. hour. 104N 0.

s3) / (kg . m2) 1 Ω = 1 V/A = 1 (kg . s3) 1 F = 1 C/V = 1 (A2 .Physics Derived SI Units Legal Units Outside the SI Derived SI units having special names and special unit symbols Physical quantity Plane angle Solid angle Frequency. m / s2 1 Pa = 1 N/m2 = 1 kg / (m . quantity of heat Power. s2) 1 J = 1 N . m2) / A2 . m2 / s3 1C = 1A. cycles per second Force Pressure. mechanical stress Energy. s/A 3 Legal units outside the SI Physical quantity Unit name Round angle Gon Degree Minute Second Litre Minute Hour Day Year Ton Bar Unit symbol 1) Definition 1 perigon = 2 π rad 1 gon = (π / 200) rad 1° = (π / 180) rad 1’ = (1/60)° 1’’ = (1/60)’ 1 l = 1 dm3 = (1/1000) m3 Plane angle gon ° ’ ’’ l min h d a t bar 2) 2) 2) Volume 2) 2) 2) 2) Time 1 min = 60 s 1 h = 60 min = 3 600 s 1 d = 24 h = 86 400 s 1 a = 365 d = 8 760 h 1 t = 103 kg = 1 Mg 1 bar = 105 Pa Mass Pressure 1) A symbol for the round angle has not been internationally determined 2) Do not use with prefixes Siemens MD · 2009 33 . m2) / (A . work. m2) 0 °C = 273. s = 1 kg . m2 / s2 1 W = 1 J/s = 1 kg . m = 1 W . heat flow Electric charge Electric potential Electric capacitance Electric resistance Electric conductance Celsius temperature Inductance SI unit Name Radian Steradian Hertz Newton Pascal Joule Watt Coulomb Volt Farad Ohm Siemens degrees Celsius Henry rad sr Hz N Pa J W C V F Ω S °C H Relation 1 rad = 1 m / m 1 sr = 1 m2 / m2 1 Hz = 1 s-1 1 N = 1 kg .s 1 V = 1 J/C = 1 (kg .15 K Δ 1 °C = Δ 1 K 1 H = 1 V . s4) / (kg . s3) 1 S = 1 Ω-1 = 1 (A2 .

: mrad. moment of resistance L. cm.: μm.U.: Note L.U.: mm3.: micron (μ): 1 μ = 1 μm Ångström (Å): 1 Å = 10-10 m L.A.: mm4. mrad Plane angle rad (radian) Degree ( o) : 1 o + p rad 180 o 1 Minute (Ȁ) : 1Ȁ + 60 Second (ȀȀ) : 1ȀȀ + 1Ȁ 60 Gon (gon) : 1 gon + p rad 200 N.: Further legal units N.U. cm4 N.: moment of a force. dm2. N. cm3 N.: mm3.U.: formerly: geometrical moment of inertia L.A.: Units no longer allowed N.U.: mm2. cm2.: Basic unit L. etc. cm3. km. dm.: 1 sr = 1 m2 (spherical surface) 1 m2 (square of spherical radius) = 1 m2 m2 34 Siemens MD · 2009 .Physics Physical Quantities and Units of Lengths and Their Powers Physical quantities and units of lengths and their powers Symbol Physical quantity SI unit Symbol Name m (metre) m2 (square metre) m3 (cubic metre) m3 m4 N.: 1 rad = 1 m (arc) 1m = = 1m/m 1 m (radius) 1m l Length 3 A Area V H Volume Moment of area Second moment of area Ι 1 rad 1 degree + 1 o + p rad 180 90 o + p rad 2 α β γ L.U. mm. km2 are (a): 1 a = 102 m2 hectare (ha): 1 ha = 104 m2 L.A. : Right angle (L) : 1L + p rad 2 Centesimal degree (g) : 1g + 1 gon Centesimal minute ( c) : 1 c + 1 gon 100 c cc cc Centesimal second ( ) : 1 + 1 100 Ω ω Solid angle sr (steradian) N. dm3 litre (l): 1 l = 1 dm3 N.U.

: ns.: Basic unit L. a) L. Normal gravity (gn): gn = 9.U. Period. g/m2. ms.U.U.: Time-related velocity L. m3/h. MHz.: Units no longer allowed N.: μg.: m’’ = m/A L. g. l/min. km/h 1 kmńh + 1 mńs 3. ks Minute (min): 1 min = 60 s Hour (h): 1 h = 60 min Day (d): 1 d = 24 h Year (a): 1 a = 365 d (Do not use prefixes for decimal multiples and sub-multiples of min.U. etc.A.: Units no longer allowed N.A. km/s.U.: Basic unit L.: Further legal units N. h.: g/mm2.U. mg.U. g/km In the textile industry: Tex (tex): 1 tex = 10-6 kg/m = 1 g/km N. t/m2 m m’ Mass per unit length Mass in relation to the surface kg/m m’’ kg/m2 Siemens MD · 2009 35 .U. dm3/s. Physical quantities and units of mechanics Symbol Physical quantity Mass SI unit Symbol Name kg (kilogram) N.: rad/min L.U. Mg ton (t): 1 t = 1000 kg N.: min-1 = 1/min t Time.: Further legal units N. GHz. μs.: cm/s.: Note L.U.: Reciprocal value of the duration of one revolution L.80665 m/s2 ≈ 9. rad/s rad/s2 m3/s L. THz Hertz (Hz): 1 Hz = 1/s N. d.: °/s2 L. l/h. Periodic frequency Rotational frequency (speed) Velocity Acceleration.Physics Physical Quantities and Units of Time and of Mechanics Physical quantities and units of time Symbol Physical quantity SI unit Symbol Name N.6 N.81 m/s2 a m/s2 m/s2 g ω α V .U.U.: Note L.: Gravity varies locally.: m’ = m/l L.U.: kHz. m/h.: l/s.: mg/m.: cm/s2 N. Duration s (second) 3 f Frequency. linear Gravity Angular velocity Angular acceleration Volume flow rate Hz (Hertz) n s-1 v m/s L.

: kg . etc. t/h L.: kpm..: Note L. L. T Mb .: kN.: Weight = mass acceleration due to gravity L. ata. MN. 1 N = 1 kg m/s2 N.: kp/cm2.A. etc. GN. kg/s N (Newton) N (Newton) Nm Nm p Pressure Pa (Pascal) pabs pamb Absolute pressure Ambient atmospheric pressure Pressure above atmospheric Direct stress (tensile and compressive stress) Shearing stress Extension Pa (Pascal) Pa (Pascal) Pa (Pascal) pe pe = pabs – pamb σ N/m2 L.80665 N) N. kNm. m2 L.U. mbar N.: kpm. kN. Ncm. MN.: kg/h.: Δl / l L. N. L. kg/dm3. mN. mNm.U.A.: g/cm3.U.U. mm/m Siemens MD · 2009 τ ε N/m2 m/m 36 . second mass moment Rate of mass flow Force Weight Torque Bending moment m2 Instead of the former flywheel effect GD2 2 GD 2 in kpm 2 now : J + GD 4 L.: μN. r Density 3 J Mass moment of inertia. t . kg/l 1g/cm3 = 1 kg/dm3 = 1 Mg/m3 = 1 t/m3 = 1 kg/l N.U.: g .: kp (1 kp = 9.322 N/m2 m F G M.322 Pa 760 1 mWS = 9806. mmHg. etc.: Units no longer allowed N.U.01325 bar 1 Torr + 101325 Pa + 133.U.U. m2. t/m3.65 Pa = 9806.: N/mm2 N.U.322 Pa = 133. MNm.: Bar (bar): 1 bar = 100 000 Pa = 105 Pa μbar. pmm.: r = m/V L. N.: Further legal units N. N.65 N/m2 1 mmHg = 133. kpcm.: Nmm.: 1 Pa = 1 N/m2 L. etc.A. kNm.U.980665 bar 1 atm = 101 325 Pa = 1. etc.Physics Physical Quantities and Units of Mechanics Physical quantities and units of mechanics (continued) Symbol Physical quantity SI unit Symbol Name kg/m3 N. Torr 1kp/cm2 = 1 at = 0.: μNm. mmWS.A. kpmm.A.U. atü. etc. pcm. at.: μm/m.U. Mg/m3. cm/m.: N/mm2 1 N/mm2 = 106 N/m2 = 1 MPa L.

A.70 W N.: Stokes (St): 1 St = 1/10 000 m2/s 1cSt = 1 mm2/s W.1868 J. TJ N. kWh 1 kWh = 3 3.: Note L. kcal a= λ r . N. s ν m2/s Physical quantities and units of thermodynamics and heat transfer Symbol Physical quantity Thermodynamic temperature SI unit Symbol Name K (Kelvin) N.: dPa . kW.Physics Physical Quantities and Units of Mechanics. s L. TJ.: Units no longer allowed N. etc.U.16 W 1 hp = 745. s.: 1 W = 1 J/s = 1 Nm/s L. kJ.U.: mK The degrees Celsius (°C) is a special name for the degrees Kelvin (K) when stating Celsius temperatures.: t Celsius temperature Heat.1 Pa .: cal. The temperature interval of 1 K equals that of 1 °C. GJ. MW.: Further legal units N. kJ/s.81 W 1 kcal/h = 1.U.U. K) ] = thermal conductivity r [ kg / m3 ] .: 1 Pa . s N. cm2/s N. 860 kcal = 1 kWh N.A. cp = density of the body a Temperature conductivity m2/s λ [ W / (m .: mJ. kJ/h. s = 1 Ns/m2 L. PS. η Dynamic viscosity Kinematic viscosity Pa .: μW.: mm2/s. MJ.: mJ.15 K = 0 °C 373. mW. Quantity of heat °C Q J 1 J = 1 Nm = 1 Ws L. MJ. W Energy SI unit Symbol Name N.: Units no longer allowed N.U.6 6 MJ N.: Basic unit 273. mPa .: 1 J = 1 Nm = 1 Ws L. T N. A 3 P Power W (Watt) Heat flow Q .49875 W 1 kpm/s = 9.: kpm.A.A.A.A.U.: PS m/s kcal/h 1 PS = 735.: Poise (P): 1 P = 0. MJ/h. kJ. cp [ J / (kg K) ] = specific heat capacity at constant pressure Siemens MD · 2009 37 .15 K = 100 °C L.: Further legal units N. etc. kcal 1 cal = 4. k kpm/s.U.U. Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer Physical quantities and units of mechanics (continued) Symbol Physical quantity Work J (Joule) E. GJ. cal.A.: Note L.

: H Enthalpy (Heat content) 3 s Entropy J/K α h Heat transfer coefficient Specific heat capacity Coefficient of linear thermal expansion Coefficient of volumetric expansion W / (m2 . K) N.: m3 / (m3 . m) L.A. etc. K) = K-1 N.U. h .: pC.: Units no longer allowed N.U. Heat Transfer and Electrical Engineering Physical quantities and units of thermodynamics and heat transfer (continued) Symbol Physical quantity SI unit Symbol Name J N. K) N. kA. mA.: G C Electric capacitance F (Farad) 38 .: W / (cm2 . mS.s 1 Ah = 3600 As L. s2 / J = 1 A2 . Siemens MD · 2009 Q U R N.U. kg) = W . A2) L. K).: μS.A. grd) kcal / (m2 . G = 1 / R L.2 kJ / (m2 . N.: Note L.A.: Further legal units N.: kJ. s . kcal / (kg . mm / (m . s/V = 1 A2 . μA. etc. kJ / (m2 . 1C = 1A.: Temperature unit/length unit ratio L.: pA. Reciprocal of electric resistance 1 S = 1 Ω-1 = 1 / Ω.Physics Physical Quantities and Units of Thermodynamics. kS 1 F = 1 C/V = 1 A . MJ. cm / (m . deg) N.A.: kcal/deg. kcal/°K L. K) m3 / (m3 . h .: Note L.A. etc. m / (m . etc. s / W = 1 A2 .U. A2) = 1 N .: μV.U. kΩ.U.U. K). s / (kg . A) L. MV. h . nA. mΩ.: μΩ. s2 / (N .: kJ/K N. m / (s . K) 1 J / (K .: cal.: Basic unit L. kC 1 V = 1 W / A = 1 J / (s . Ω = 1 N . 1 J/K = 1 Ws/K = 1 Nm/K L.: cal / (g . nC.U. Mcal. etc. K) = K-1 N.U.U.: Heat capacity referred to mass N. grd) ≈ 4. Quantity of electricity Electric voltage Electric resistance Electric conductance SI unit Symbol Name A (Ampere) C (Coulomb) V (Volt) Ω (Ohm) S (Siemens) N.: pF. K) c J / (K .A.: Temperature unit/volume ratio N. μC. etc.: Units no longer allowed Quantity of heat absorbed under certain conditions L.A. K). 1 Ω = 1 V / A = 1 W / A2 1 J / (s .: Further legal units N.U.: cal / (cm2 .U. kV. kg) αl K-1 αv γ K-1 Physical quantities and units of electrical engineering Symbol I Physical quantity Current strength Electric charge. m / (s . grd). grd).: μm / (m . A) = 1 A . μF. etc. mV.

Luminance Luminous flux Illuminance SI unit Symbol Name cd (Candela) N.U.25 hPa).67 ) t F Comparison of some temperatures 0.67 + 491.00 0.: cd / cm2.: Ι 3 L cd / m2 Φ E 1 Im = 1 cd .15 9 Degrees Fahrenheit °F tF t F + 9 @ T K * 459. Temperature comparison of °F with °C Siemens MD · 2009 39 .37 + 273.15 – 273.69 + 671.15 Ǔ 5 T R + 459.67 + 491.38 ) 5 @ t F 9 TK + 5 @ TR 9 Degrees Celsius °C tC t C + T K * 273.00 + 255.67 0.U.15 – 17.U.A.00 + 32.: Further legal units N.00 – 459.01 + 100. sr L.00 + 0.78 0.15 ) t C T K + 255.15 + 273.: mcd.: klm 1 lx = 1 lm / m2 Different measuring units of temperature Kelvin K TK T K + 273.: Note L.00 + 32.00 + 459. Different Measuring Units of Temperature Physical quantities and units of lighting engineering Symbol Physical quantity Luminous intensity Luminous density. etc.: Apostilb (asb): Nit (nt): Stilb (sb): lm (Lumen) lx (Lux) 1 nt = 1 cd / m2 1 sb = 104 cd / m2 N. The triple point of pure water is the equilibrium point between pure ice.67 1) 1) 1) The triple point of water is +0. 1 cdńm 2 1 asb + p N. kcd L.U. air-free water and water vapour (at 1013.67 5 t F + 32 ) 9 @ t C 5 t F + T R * 459.A.15 t C + 5 ǒt F * 32Ǔ 9 t C + 5 T R * 273.02 + 212.01 °C.16 + 373. mcd / m2.: Units no longer allowed Basic unit 1 cd = 1 lm (lumen) / sr (Steradian) L.67 Degrees Rankine °R TR TR + 9 @ TK 5 T R + 9 ǒt c ) 273.Physics Physical Quantities and Units of Lighting Engineering.

42 km2 40 Siemens MD · 2009 .01 1 100 10000 ha – – – 259 – – – 0.01 1 100 km2 – – – 2.609 1.12 m 1 furlong = 1000 surv link = 201.9144 1609.281 3281 Yard yd 0.0005067mm 2 4 (circular area with 1 mil dia. 3. 1012 km second distances to the stars) = 1 parsec (parallax second. 10-3 1.4 304.1076 10. nautical mile 1 German nautical mile (sm) 1 mille marin (French) } = 1852 m = 1 arc minute at the degree of longitude (1° at the meridian = 111.496 .4 – – 1 1000 106 m 0.26 l.59 – – – – 0.3333 1 1760 2027 1.047 a 1 acre = 4 rood = 40.029 m 1 surveyor’s chain = 100 surv link = 20.46 .7112 m 1 werst = 1.853 10–6 0.01196 1.138 km2 Japan: 1 tsubo 1 se 1 ho-ri = 3.3 1853. 10-3 3.Physics Measures of Length and Square Measures Measures of length Unit 1 in 1 ft 1 yd 1 stat mile 1 naut mile 1 mm 1m 1 km = = = = = = = = Inch in 1 12 36 63 360 72 960 0.001 1 1000 km – – – 1.0254 μm 1 mil = 1 thou = 0.01 sq in = 6.3030 m 1 ken = 1.376 mm Other measures of length of the metric system France: 1 toise = 1. 1 astronomical unit (mean distance of the earth from the sun) = 1.8684 1 – – 0.6214 Naut mile – – – 0.8 914.3861 cm2 6.29 m2 1 sq chain = 16 sq rod = 4. 108 km Typographical unit of measure: 1 point (p) = 0.) Other square measures of the metric system Russia: 1 kwadr.0668 km Japan: 1 shaku = 0.45 mm 1 saschen = 2.1 in = 2.452 929 8361 – 1 100 10000 – – – dm2 0.196 119.03937 39.04047 m2 1 sq rod = 1 sq perch = 1 sq pole = 625 sq surv link = 25. archin 1 kwadr.2 m 1 stat league = 3 stat miles = 4.02778 0.48 m 1 rod = 1 perch = 1 pole = 25 surv link = 5.0929 0.61 – 0. 10-6 sq in = 0.5522 m2 1.307 km) 1 internat.9917a = 15.01 1 100 10000 – – m2 – 0.6 – – sq mile – – – 1 – – – – – 0.949 m 1 myriametre = 10 000 m Russia: 1 werschok = 44. saschen 1 dessjatine 1 kwadr.24 km2 p 1 circular in + sq in + 5.829 m 1 engineer’s chain = 100 eng link = 100 ft = 30.001 in = 0.001 1 3 1 German statute mile = 7500 m 1 geograph.y.76 1076 – – sq yd – 0.0006452 mm2 1 sq line = 0.5396 mm 25.306 m2 = 0. mile = 7420.5 1550 – – – sq ft – 1 9 – – 0.818 m 1 ri = 3. (light-year) = 9.08333 1 3 5280 6080 3.0925 ha 1.152 – – 0.37 39 370 Foot ft 0.01 1 100 10000 – a – – – – – – 0.01 1 Other square measures of the Imperial system 1 sq mil = 1 .5058 m2 4.452 mm2 1 sq surveyor’s link = 0.8361 – – 0.) 4 p 1 circular mil + sq mil + 0.47 a 1 township (US) = 36 sq miles = 3.0254 mm 1 line = 0.2 0.067cm 2 (circular area with 1 in dia.y.828 km Square measures Unit 1 square inch 1 square foot 1 square yard 1 square mile 1 cm2 1 dm2 1 m2 1a 1 ha 1 km2 = = = = = = = = = = sq in 1 144 1296 – 0. werst = = = = 0.1111 1 – – 0.927 km Other measures of length of the Imperial system 1 micro-in = 10-6 in = 0.094 1094 Stat mile – – – 1 1.4 m = 4 arc minutes at the equator (1° at the equator = 111.3048 0.54 mm 1 fathom = 2 yd = 1.29 83.094 .155 15.0254 0.06452 9.1336 m 1 arschin = 0.281 .121 km) Astronomical units of measure 1 light-second = 300 000 km 1 l.

7 kg 1 quintal or 1 cental = 100 lb = 45. 10-9 37. 10-6 kWh kcal Btu 1.0625 0.9464 3.142 l 1 Imp pint = 4 gills = 0.9 1 4 1.4 3785 1136 4546 1 1000 106 dm3 (l) 0.016 10-6 0.9 778.5 gallons = 119. 10-15 10 .35 453.2642 264.1 . 10-9 10.06102 61.2082 0.2659 g (CIS) (CIS) 1 lot = 3 solotnik = 12.2 Imp quart 0.685 .02957 l 1 US gill = 4 fl oz = 0.04014 0.1337 0.95 kg 1 kilopound = 1kp = 1000 lb = 453.31 US liquid quart 0.5461 l 1 lmp pottle = 2 quarts = 2.75 kg (J) (J) 1 hyaku kin = 1 picul = 16 kwan = 60 kg (J) tdw = tons dead weight = lading capacity of a cargo vessel (cargo + ballast + fuel + stores).811 l 1 US bushel = 4 pecks = 35.02835 0.22 220 cm3 16.78 .05 50802 1 1.51 .0616 cm3 (USA) 1 US fl dram = 60 minims = 3.0625 16 1 1600 1792 32000 35840 100 112 2000 2240 1 short cwt (US) = 25600 1 long cwt (GB/US) = 28672 1 short ton (US) = 1 long ton (GB/US) = 1g 1kg 1t – – 0.653 .087 .001 1 1000 m3 – 0.7 . 106 1. 10-6 0.625 m3 1 Imp minim = 0.76 .201 – 0.409 kg (CIS) 1 pud = 40 funt = 16. 1 thermi (French) = 4. 10-3 94.48 10 2.057 1057 US gallon – 7.252 293 . 1 therm (English) = 105.68 (GB) (GB) (USA) (GB / USA) (USA) (F) (USA) – – – – 1.03531 35.804 – 1. Quantity of Heat Cubic measures Unit 1 cu in 1 cu ft 1 cu yd 1 US liquid quart 1 US gallon 1 Imp quart 1 Imp gallon 1 cm3 1 dm3 (l) 1 m3 = = = = = = = = = cu in 1 1728 46656 57.32 764.072 kpcm.102 0. 10-6 37.8326 3. 1012 3.8 907.648 10 270 10 1 1. i.25 1 – 0. 106 36 .5121 . 1.01639 28.36 2.067 J Siemens MD · 2009 41 .6 .3 1 860 -3 .286 .0592 cm3 (GB) 1 Imp fl drachm = 60 minims = 3.5 . 10-6 2. 106 9.01 1 1.9072 1.001 1 3 1 US minim = 0.36 kg 1 quintal = 100 livres = 48. 10-3 0.38 kg (CIS) 1 berkowetz = 163.92 672.9842 1 grain = 1 / 7000 lb = 0.5 0. 10-6 1 in oz = 0.92 807.4732 l 1 US liquid quart = 2 liquid pints = 0.9 .03527 0.9863 1 1.01968 = – 35270 2205 22.25 .229 168.35 kg 1 short quarter = 1/4 short cwt = 11. 1012 2. 109 1055 107.581 .02205 0. 1.2 0.94 l Weights Unit 1 dram 1 oz (ounce) 1 lb (pound) = = = dram 1 16 256 oz lb short cwt – – 0. 1 tdw = 1016 kg Energy.7376 1 0.8 l (for crude oil) 1 US cord = 128 cu ft = 3.002205 – – = 564.968 1 1 13. 10-15 372.25 1 0.324 . 109 4186.0508 0.3002 1.772 28.8929 1 17.8 kg 1 kwan = 100 tael = 1000 momme = 10000 fun = 3.00177 0.807 1 3.05 19.273 l 1 Imp peck = 4 pottles = 9.4 .704 .3768 .2 l 1 US barrel = 42 gallons = 158.03342 0.34 kg 1 long quarter = 1/4 long cwt = 12.75 231 69. 10-6 0. 106 367.8 426.Physics Cubic Measures and Weights.008929 0.102 377. 10-3 3.04464 45359 0.785 1. Work. .6 kg 1 solotnik = 96 dol = 4. 10-12 948. 106 273.1365 l 1 lmp gallon = 4 quarts = 4.092 l 1 Imp bushel = 4 pecks = 36.05 0.101 l 1 US peck = 8 dry quarts = 8.331 1 4 – 0.546 0. 10-3 2510 2545 3413 3.1183 l 1 US liquid pint = 4 gills = 0.84 .003906 1 0.39 – – 946.87 20 short ton – – – long ton – – – g 1. 103 1.8326 0.3 35.5506 l 1 US dry quart = 2 dry pints = 1.1605 – 0.8 .5682 l 1 Imp quart = 2 pints = 1.9464 l 1 US gallon = 4 liquid quarts = 3.12 20 22. 106 26. 10-6 73.2 .85 . 10-6 6 12 6 3 .205 0.02 61023 cu ft – 1 27 0.953 10 26.001 1 1000 t – – – 0.88 880 Imp gallon – 6. .56 . 10-6 2.233 98.9 .07 .4 long cwt – – 0.02841 l 1 Imp gill = 5 fl oz = 0.55 .7457 641.481 202 0. mostly given in long tons. 10-12 277.27 2. 106 0.356 0.8 0.7355 632. . 106 J.4 .6 10.344 .001 1 0.12 0.24 l 1 US liquid barrel = 31.113 Nm.7646 – – – – 106 0. 10-6 0. 103 41.1383 0. work.201 4.6 0.785 l 1 US dry pint = 0.87 .e. 10-9 1 100 .2 1016 0. 10-9 238 .552 cm3 1 Imp fl oz = 8 fl drachm = 0.056 0.725 .1855 .014 1.37 l 1 Imp quarter = 8 bushels = 64 gallons = 290.36 277.77 .7978 g (CIS) 1 funt = 32 lot = 0.0648 g 1 stone = 14 lb = 6. atmosphere) = 98.01442 24.341 1. 10-9 3. 106 J Common in case of piston engines: 1 litre-atmosphere (litre . 10-3 392.04536 0.98 .01732 29.301 .36 50.655 .559 . quantity of heat Work 1 ft lb 1 erg 1 Joule (WS) 1 kpm 1 PSh 1 hph 1 kWh 1 kcal 1 Btu = = = = = = = = = ft lb erg J = Nm = Ws kpm PSh hph 0. 1 in lb = 0.696 cm3 1 US fl oz = 8 fl drams = 0.163 10 1 0.8 . 10-15 23.505 .4 0. 103 1. 10-6 9. 10-3 27. 10-9 7.0833ft lb = 0.6 398.136 4.4536 45. Energy.5643 0.02832 0.8929 1 – – 1 1000 106 = 0.6 kg 0.

7355 0.6 0.804 .1758 0.7 – 1 2240 2000 – – – 1 0.5 – 0.10-3 1.001 1 100 0.341 .92 mile/h 2. The specific gravity of mercury is assumed to be 13. Velocity Power.9807 – – 1333 980. Velocity Unit m/s m/min km/h ft/min mile/h = = = = = m/s 1 0.785 0.00136 kp/ mm2 – – Torr = mm QS – 0.447 m/min 60 1 16.7501 atm lb sq ft – 2. 10-3 1 0.089 2089 0.4882 703. 10-3 13.7 98 067 0.068 152.71 – – 1 – 0.9 107. 10-12 Btu/s 3 0.406 760 0.8929 – – 0.415 23.622 0.4 .333 0. 109 7.31 – – 1 short ton/sq = in (US) 1 psi = 0.001 1 1000 – bar = daN/ cm2 – 0.9863 1.7068 1 0. flyweel effect: 1 kgm2 = 3418 lb in 2 Pressure and tension Unit 1 μb = daN 1 mbar = cN/cm2 1 bar = daN/cm2 μbar mbar = = cN/ dN/m2 cm2 = = = 1 1000 106 98. 10-9 kW 10-10 kcal/s . Heat Flow.87 .7112 – 1 kp/m2 = 1mm = WS at 4 °C 1 p/cm2 = 1 kp/cm2 = 1 at = (technical atmosphere) 1 kp/mm2 = 980.0703 157.278 0.7356 – – 0.1 0. 10-6 9.6 .5 140.048 2048 – lb sq in – 0.4 136.055 0. 10-3 13.8 0.609 ft/min 196.07 0.84 .33 .7 1000 4187 1055 kpm/s 0.1 2116 1 144 – – 14.9 94. energy flow.0051 0. Pressure and Tension. In the USA.136 0.7457 0.6 – – – 1.239 0. 1 hpz = 100 pz = 1.36 1.2048 2.296 .807 .279 54.0114 1 Siemens MD · 2009 42 .07 106 13.341 5.e.635 – – – – 0.001 Torr.807 735.12 1 478.4788 68 948 68.0001 0.36 – – 1.102 0.0689 154.1 – – 70.968 1.252 1 1 poncelet (French) = 980.Physics Power.9 10332 1033 1.55 .00689 N / mm2 1 N/m2 (Newton/m2) = 10 μb.001 mm QS = 0.22 1422 long ton sh ton sq in – – sq in – – – – 0.01934 – 1013 1.0167 0.595 kg/dm3.434 1.72 3.9807 10 000 98. 10-3 2.04 102 426.645 1 87.02 kp/m2.78 – 1 Torr = 1 mm = QS at 0 °C 1 atm (pressure of the = atmosphere) 1 lb/sq ft 1 lb/sq in = 1 psi 1 long ton/sq in (GB) = = = 1.457 .882 0. 10-9 hp .0102 750.033 – 0. 1 barye (French) = 1 μb.305 26. “inches Hg” are calculated from the top.102 1 75 76. 10-6 948.82 km/h 3. 10-7 PS .0005 1.0142 14. heat flow Power 1 erg/s 1W 1 kpm/s 1 PS (ch) 2) 1hp 1 kW 1 kcal/s 1 Btu/s = = = = = = = = erg/s 1 107 9.013 – 0.9869 – – 0.1341 1.00133 2.014 1 1.7 0. 10-3 9.02 1020 0.665 W.06 1 0.6972 0. 1 pièce (pz) (French) = 1 sn/m2 ≈ 102 kp/m2.9678 73 556 1 96.92 inches Hg = 0 mm QS = absolute vacuum.344 .67 0. 109 W 10-7 1 9. Energy Flow.0145 14.0064 0.187 1 3.0373 0.5 745.4 137.3591 51. 109 1010 41.614 1.575 1.001 1 – – kp/m2 kp/cm2 mm p/cm2 = at WS 0.6 735.95 – – – – 4.0183 1. 108 10.0102 10. 107 7.355 . i. 1 micron (USA) = 0. 10-3 0.1782 0.02 0. 0 inches Hg = 760 mm QS and 29.36 .0072 – – – 0.6 0.01 1 – – 0.1 1 1000 105 1.15 .9484 4.692 5.237 0.2 10 197 1 10 – 1. 10-12 10-3 239 .

second power of the angular velocity J J N Ek Ep FF Ek + m @ v2 2 Ek + J @ w2 2 weight . t2 – t1 Δt m/s rad/s rad m v ω ö s v = s2 – s1 Δs = = const.a Momentum (kinetic energy) equals half the mass . v2 t = t = 2 2 2a angle of rotation α . angular acceleration N F F = m.ϕ work in unit of time = torque .s work in unit of time = force . velocity W = M. t2 – t1 Δt motion accelerated from rest: 3 v+s t s = v.α Kinetic energy due to rotation equals half the mass moment of inertia . ω2 (rs = centre-of-gravity radius) 43 . 2 v . acceleration P+W+M@w t accel. second power of velocity M = J. h FF = m .Physics Equations for Linear Motion and Rotary Motion SI Sym Symunit bol Basic formulae Linear motion distance moved divided by time Definition Uniform motion Velocity Angular velocity Angle of rotation Distance moved Uniformly accelerated motion Acceleration Angular acceleration Rotary motion angular velocity = angle of rotation in radian measure/time ϕ2 – ϕ1 Δϕ ω = = = const. t angular acceleration equals change of angular velocity divided by time ω2 – ω1 Δω α = = = const. torque = second mass moment . 2 ω . t2 – t1 Δt motion accelerated from rest: a = 2s v = = t 2s t2 v2 α = ω t = ω2 2ϕ = 2ϕ t2 Velocity Circumferential speed Distance moved Uniform motion and constant force or constant torque Work m/s m/s m v v s v + a @ t + Ǹ2 a @ s w+a@t v+r@w+r@a@t s = a .t acceleration equals change of velocity divided by time ö w+ t angle of rotation ϕ = ω . t2 – t1 Δt m/s2 rad/s2 a α a = v2 – v1 Δv = = const. angular velocity Power Non-uniform (accelerated) motion Force In case of any motion Energie Potential energy (due to force of gravity) Centrifugal force Siemens MD · 2009 W P P+W+F@v t accelerating force = mass . rs . ω2 t = t = ϕ = 2 2 2α torque . angle of rotation in radian measure force . h = m . distance moved J W W = F. height Ep = G . g .

Table of Contents Section 4 Mathematics / Geometry Calculation of Areas Calculation of Volumes Page 45 46 4 44 Siemens MD · 2009 .

α_ b = 180_ r2 2 Equilateral triangle A+ a2 Ǹ 4 3 Circular segment A = ǐ α_ . α_ Triangle A = a. h1 + b .. π 4 a = A h [ 0.π = a. √3 2 + 1 [ r (b * s) ) sh ] 2 a s + 2 r sin 2 α s α h = r (1 – cos ) = tan 2 2 4 α_ .d.A h Circular sector A = = a = 360_ b.h 2 2. π = r2 .. π ^ α = 180_ ^ b+r@a d+2@a s + Ǹ3 @ a Ellipse Octagon A + 2a 2 (Ǹ2 ) 1) d + a Ǹ4 ) 2 Ǹ 2 s + a (Ǹ2 ) 1) D. h2 + b . ] + 256 a + b ǐ Ǒ ǐ Ǒ Siemens MD · 2009 45 .b. π 180_ – sin α Ǒ a d + Ǹ3 2 Hexagon A = 3 ...Mathematics / Geometry Calculation of Areas A = area Square A = a2 a + ǸA d + a Ǹ2 U = circumference Polygon A + A1 ) A2 ) A3 = a . π . h3 2 Rectangle A+a@b d + Ǹa 2 ) b 2 Formed area A + r (2 Ǹ3 * p) 2 [ 0.785 @ d 2 U+2@r@p + d@p Trapezium A+m@h Circular ring A+ p @ (D 2 * d 2) 4 + (d ) b) b @ p m = a+b 2 b = D–d 2 r2 . a2 .r 2 r . π .π 4 D+d .16 @ r 2 2 4 Parallelogram A+a@h Circle A = d2 . π U ≈ 2 U + p (a ) b) [ 1 ) A = 1 4 ǐ Ǒ 1 a–b 2 a–b 4 + a+b 64 a + b 1 a – b 6 .

π 12 (2 D2 + d2) Cone 3 M+r@p@m O + r @ p @ (r ) m) m+ h2 ) V = r2 . h Prismatoid V + h (A 1 ) A 2 ) 4A) 6 ǒd Ǔ 2 2 46 Siemens MD · 2009 . d 2 4 M+2@r@p@h O + 2 @ r @ p @ (r ) h) O + D @ d @ p2 Hollow cylinder V = h.Mathematics / Geometry Calculation of Volumes V = volume Cube V + a3 O + 6 @ a2 d + a Ǹ3 O = surface M = generated surface Frustum of cone π. π m (D + d) M = 2 +2@p@p@h V = m = ǐ Ǒ D–d 2 + h2 2 Square prism V+a@b@c O + 2 (ab ) ac ) bc ) d + Ǹa 2 ) b 2 ) c 2 Sphere V + 4 r3 p + 1 @ d3 p 3 6 [ 4.h 3 Spherical segment V = π.189 @ r 3 O + 4 p @ r2 + p @ d2 4 Parallelepiped Spherical zone V+A@h V= π.h (D2 + D d + d2) 12 .π 4 (D2 – d2) Barrel V = h. π 4 Cylindrical ring h V = D .r 2 (4 h + s) Cylinder V = d2 .h 3 2 s ) h2 4 6 + p h2 r * h 3 M+2@r@p@h p + (s 2 ) 4h 2) 4 ǒ Ǔ ǒ Ǔ Frustum of pyramid V= h 3 (A1 + A2 + ǸA 1 @ A 2) Spherical sector V + 2 @ h @ r2 @ p 3 O = π. π .h 6 (3 a2 + 3 b2 + h2) (Cavalier principle) M+2@r@p@h Pyramid V = A. π2 .

Table of Contents Section 5 Mechanics / Strength of Materials Axial Section Moduli and Axial Second Moments of Area (Moments of Inertia) of Different Profiles Deflections in Beams Values for Circular Sections Stresses on Structural Members and Fatigue Strength of Structures Page 48 49 50 51 5 Siemens MD · 2009 47 .

1908 r 3 4 = 0.5756 r with e = r 1 – 3π ǐ Ǒ Ι1 = π / 8 – 8 / (9 π) r4 = 0.1098 r4 ƨ Ʃ axis 1-1 = axis of centre of gravity 48 Siemens MD · 2009 .5413 R 3 W1 = for e = 6b2 + 6bb1 + b2 1 2 h 12 (3b + 2b1) 1 3b + 2b1 3 2b + b1 h I1 + I2 + 5 Ǹ 3 R 4 + 0.625 R 3 8 I 1 + bh 3ń 36 I 2 + hb 3ń 48 5 W 2 + 0.5413 R 4 16 Ι1 = 6b2 + 6bb1 + b2 1 3 h 36 (2b + b1) W1 = BH3 – bh3 6H Ι1 = BH3 – bh3 12 W 1 + W 2 + p D 3ń 32 [ D 3ń 10 I 1 + I 2 + p D 4ń 64 [ D 4ń 20 W1 = W2 = π 32 D4 – d4 D I1 + I2 + p (D 4 * d 4) 64 or in case of thin wall thickness s: W 1 + W 2 + Iń (r ) sń2) [ psr 2 I 1 + I 2 + psr 3 ƪ1 ) (sń2r) 2ƫ [ psr 3 W 1 + pa 2bń4 W 2 + pb 2ań4 I 1 + pa 3bń4 I 2 + pb 3ań4 p 3 (a b * a3 2 b 2) 4 1 1 W 1 + I 1ń a 1 I1 + or in case of thin wall thickness s: s + a 1 * a 2 + b 1 * b 2 + 2 (a * a 2) + 2 (b * b2) W1 [ p a (a ) 3b) s 4 I1 [ p 2 a (a ) 3b) s 4 W 1 + I 1 ń e + 0.Mechanics / Strength of Materials Axial Section Moduli and Axial Second Moments of Area (Moments of Inertia) of Different Profiles Cross-sectional area Section modulus W 1 + bh 2ń 6 W 2 + hb 2ń 6 Second moment of area I 1 + bh 3ń 12 I 2 + hb 3ń 12 W 1 + W 2 + a 3ń 6 I 1 + I 2 + a 4ń 12 W 1 + bh 2ń 24 for e + 2 h 3 W 2 + hb 2ń 24 W1 + 5 3 R + 0.

Mechanics / Strength of Materials Deflections in Beams

f, fmax, fm, w, w1, w2 a, b, l, x1, x1max, x2 E q, q0

**Deflection (mm) Lengths (mm) Modulus of elasticity (N/mm2) Line load (N/mm)
**

w (x) = FB = F w (x) = ql4 8EΙ Fl3 3EΙ

ƪ

1–

3 2

.

x l

+

1 2

ǐǑƫ

x 3 l x 4 l

**α, α1, α2, αA, αB Angles (°) Forces (N) F, FA, FB Ι Second moment of area (mm4) (moment of inertia)
**

f= Fl3 3EΙ tan α = Fl2 2EΙ

ƪ

1–

4 3

.

x l

+

1 3

ǐǑƫ ǐǑƫ

x 5 l

f=

ql4 8EΙ

tan α =

ql3 6EΙ

FB = q . l w (x) = FB = q0l4

120EΙ q0 . l 2

ƪ

4–5 .

x l

+

f=

q0l4 30EΙ

tan α =

q0l3 24EΙ

w (x) =

16EΙ F FA = FB = 2

w1 (x1) =

Fl3 . x l

ƪ

1–

4 3

ǐǑƫ

x 2 l

x≤

l 2

f=

Fl3 48EΙ

tan α =

Fl2 16EΙ

5

Fl3 . a 6EΙ l Fl3 . b 6EΙ l

w2 (x2) =

x1max + a Ǹ(l ) b)ń3a for a > b change a and b for a < b

ǐǑ ǒ ǐǑ ǒ

a l

x2 l b 2 x1 1+ – 1 b ab l l

Ǔ Ǔ

x1 ≤ a

f=

Fl3 3EΙ

ǐǑǐǑ

a 2 b 2 f l tan α1 = 1+ 2a l l b

x2 l l+b a 2 x2 2 1+ – x2 ≤ b fmax = f a ab 3b l l

l+b f l tan α2 = 1+ 3a a 2b

ǐ Ǒ ǐ Ǒ ǐ Ǒ

FA = F

w (x) =

b l

FB = F

Fl3 a 2 Fl2 . a a 1 x 2 Fl3 . x a 4 a a 1– tan α1 = – f= 1– . 1– l 3 l 2EΙ l 3 l 2EΙ l l 2EΙ l l x = ≤ a < l/2 Fl3 . a Fl2 . a x 1 a 2 Fl3 . a x 4 a 2 a 1– tan α2 = – w (x) = fm = 1– 1– 2 l 3 l 8EΙ l 3 l 2EΙ l l 2EΙ l l a ≤ x ≤ l/2

ƪ ǐ Ǒ ǐǑƫ

ǐǑǐ

Ǒ

ƪ ǐ Ǒ ǐ Ǒƫ

ƪ ǐ Ǒƫ

ǐ Ǒ

FA = FB = F w1 (x1) = Fl3 2EΙ

2 a a x1 1 x1 3 a a 2 + 1+ . – 1+ 3 l l l l 3 l l Fl2 . a a Fl3 a 2 2 a tan α1 = x1 ≤ a 1+ f= 1+ . 2EΙ l l 2EΙ l 3 l x2 Fl3 . a . x2 Fl3 . a Fl2 . a 1– w2 (x2) = x2 ≤ l fm = tan α2 = l 2EΙ l l 8EΙ l 2EΙ l FA = FB = F

ƪ ǐ Ǒ ǐ Ǒ ǐǑǐ

ǐǑǐ ǐ Ǒ

ƪ ǐ Ǒƫ

1– x1 2 l a l

Ǒ

Ǒƫ

ǐ Ǒ

w1 (x1) =

Fl3 . a . x1 l 6EΙ l

x1 ≤ l

f=

Fl3 3EΙ

x2 2 Fl3 . x2 2a 3a . x2 + – w2 (x2) = l l l l 6EΙ l

ƪ

FA = F w (x) = FA =

a l

FB = F 1 + 1–2

ql4 . x 24EΙ l q.l 2

ǐ Ǒ ƪ ǐǑ ǐǑƫ

x 2 l + x 3 l FB = q.l 2

ǐ Ǒƫ

ǐǑǐ Ǒ

a a 2 1+ l l Fl3 9 √3 EΙ

.

tan αA =

6EΙ

Fl2 . a l

x2 ≤ a

fmax =

a l

tan αB = 2 tan αA Fl2 . a a 2+3 l l

tan α =

6EΙ

ǐ

Ǒ

0≤x≤l

fm =

5ql4 384EΙ

tan α =

ql3 24EΙ

Siemens MD · 2009

49

Mechanics / Strength of Materials Values for Circular Sections

Axial section modulus: Polar section modulus: Axial second moment of area (axial moment of inertia): Polar second moment of area (polar moment of area):

d mm 6 7 8 9 10 11 A cm2 0.293 0.385 0.503 0.636 0.785 0.950 1.131 1.327 1.539 1.767 2.011 2.270 2.545 2.835 3.142 3.464 3.801 4.155 4.524 4.909 5.309 5.726 6.158 6.605 7.069 8.042 9.079 10.179 11.341 12.566 13.854 15.205 16.619 18.096 19.635 21.237 22.902 24.630 26.421 28.274 30.191 32.170 34.212 36.317 38.485 40.715 43.008 45.365 47.784 50.265 52.810 55.418 58.088 60.821 63.617 66.476 70.882 78.540 86.590 95.033 Wa cm3 0.0212 0.0337 0.0503 0.0716 0.0982 0.1307 0.1696 0.2157 0.2694 0.3313 0.4021 0.4823 0.5726 0.6734 0.7854 0.9092 1.0454 1.1945 1.3572 1.5340 1.7255 1.9324 2.1551 2.3944 2.6507 3.2170 3.8587 4.5804 5.3870 6.2832 7.2736 8.3629 9.5559 10.8573 12.2718 13.9042 15.4590 17.2411 19.1551 21.2058 23.3978 25.7359 28.2249 30.8693 33.6739 36.6435 39.7828 43.0964 46.5890 50.2655 54.1304 58.1886 62.4447 66.9034 71.5694 76.4475 84.1726 98.1748 113.6496 130.6706 Ιa cm4 0.0064 0.0118 0.0201 0.0322 0.0491 0.0719 0.1018 0.1402 0.1986 0.2485 0.3217 0.4100 0.5153 0.6397 0.7854 0.9547 1.1499 1.3737 1.6286 1.9175 2.2432 2.6087 3.0172 3.4719 3.9761 5.1472 6.5597 8.2448 10.2354 12.5664 15.2745 18.3984 21.9787 26.0576 30.6796 35.8908 41.7393 48.2750 55.5497 63.6173 72.5332 82.3550 93.1420 104.9556 117.8588 131.9167 147.1963 163.7662 181.6972 201.0619 221.9347 244.3920 268.5120 294.3748 322.0623 351.6586 399.8198 490.8739 596.6602 718.6884

Wa =

π . d3 32 π . d3 Wp = 16 π . d4 Ιa = 64 Ιp = π . d4 32

J/ I kgm2/m 0.000001 0.000002 0.000003 0.000005 0.000008 0.000011 0.000016 0.000022 0.000030 0.000039 0.000051 0.000064 0.000081 0.000100 0.000123 0.000150 0.000181 0.000216 0.000256 0.000301 0.000352 0.000410 0.000474 0.000545 0.000624 0.000808 0.001030 0.001294 0.001607 0.001973 0.002398 0.002889 0.003451 0.004091 0.004817 0.005635 0.006553 0.007579 0.008721 0.009988 0.011388 0.012930 0.014623 0.016478 0.018504 0.020711 0.023110 0.025711 0.028526 0.031567 0.034844 0.038370 0.042156 0.046217 0.050564 0.055210 0.062772 0.077067 0.093676 0.112834

**Area: Mass: Density of steel: Second mass moment of inertia (mass moment of inertia):
**

d mm 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190 195 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 A cm2 103.869 113.097 122.718 132.732 143 139 153.938 165.130 176.715 188.692 201.062 213.825 226.980 240.528 254.469 268.803 283.529 298.648 314.159 346.361 380.133 415.476 452.389 490.874 530.929 Wa cm3 149.3116 169.6460 191.7476 215.6900 241.5468 269.3916 299.2981 331.3398 365.5906 402.1239 441.0133 482.3326 526.1554 572.5553 621.6058 673.3807 727.9537 785.3982 909.1965 1045.3650 1194.4924 1357.1680 1533.9808 1725.5198 1932.3740 2155.1326 2650.7188 3216.9909 3858.6612 4580.4421 5387.0460 6283.1853 7273.5724 8362.9196 9555.9364 10857.3442 12271.8463 13804.1581 15458.9920 17241.0605 19155.0758 21205.7504 23397.7967 25735.9270 28224.8538 30869.2894 33673.9462 36643.5367 39782.7731 43096.3680 46589.0336 50265.4824 54130.4268 58188.5791 62444.6517 66903.3571 71569.4076 76447.5155 81542.3934 86858.7536 92401.3084 98174.7703 Ιa cm4 858.5414 1017.8760 1198.4225 1401.9848 1630.4406 1895.7410 2169.9109 2485.0489 2833.3269 3216.9909 3638.3601 4099.8275 4603.8598 5152.9973 5749.8539 6397.1171 7097.5481 7853.9816 9546.5638 11499.0145 13736.6629 16286.0163 19174.7598 22431.7569 26087.0491 30171.8558 39760.7820 51471.8540 65597.2399 82447.9575 102353.8739 125663.7060 152745.0200 183984.2320 219786.6072 260576.2608 306796.1572 358908.1107 417392.7849 482749.6930 555497.1978 636172.5116 725331.6994 823549.6636 931420.1743 1049555.8389 1178588.1176 1319167.3201 1471962.6056 1637661.9830 1816972.3105 2010619.2960 2219347.4971 2443920.3207 2685120.0234 2943747.7113 3220623.3401 3516585.7151 3832492.4910 4169220.1722 4527664.1126 4908738.5156

π . d2 4 π . d2 . . l r m = 4 kg r = 7.85 dm3 A = J= π . d4 . l . r 32

J/ I kgm2/m 0.134791 0.159807 0.188152 0.220112 0.255979 0.296061 0.340676 0.390153 0.444832 0.505068 0.571223 0.643673 0.722806 0.809021 0.902727 1.004347 1.114315 1.233075 1.498811 1.805345 2.156656 2.556905 3.010437 3.521786 4.095667 4.736981 6.242443 8.081081 10.298767 12.944329 16.069558 19.729202 23.980968 28.885524 34.506497 40.910473 48.166997 56.348573 65.530667 75.791702 87.213060 99.879084 113.877076 129.297297 146.232967 164.780267 185.038334 207.109269 231.098129 257.112931 285.264653 315.667229 348.437557 383.695490 421.563844 462.168391 505.637864 552.103957 601.701321 654.567567 710.843266 770.671947

Mass / I kg/m 0.222 0.302 0.395 0.499 0.617 0.746 0.888 1.042 1.208 1.387 1.578 1.782 1.998 2.226 2.466 2.719 2.984 3.261 3.551 3.853 4.168 4.495 4.834 5.185 5.549 6.313 7.127 7.990 8.903 9.865 10.876 11.936 13.046 14.205 15.413 16.671 17.978 19.335 20.740 22.195 23.700 25.253 26.856 28.509 30.210 31.961 33.762 35.611 37.510 39.458 41.456 43.503 45.599 47.745 49.940 52.184 55.643 61.654 67.973 74.601

Mass / I kg/m 81.537 88.781 96.334 104.195 112.364 120.841 129.627 138.721 148.123 157.834 167.852 178.179 188.815 199.758 211.010 222.570 234.438 246.615 271.893 298.404 326.148 355.126 385.336 416.779 449.456 483.365 554.884 631.334 712.717 799.033 890.280 986.460 1087.572 1193.617 1304.593 1420.503 1541.344 1667.118 1797.824 1933.462 2074.032 2219.535 2369.970 2525.338 2685.638 2850.870 3021.034 3196.131 3376.160 3561.121 3751.015 3945.840 4145.599 4350.289 4559.912 4774.467 4993.954 5218.374 5447.726 5682.010 5921.227 6165.376

5

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 95 100 105 110

270 572.555 280 615.752 300 706.858 320 804.248 340 907.920 360 1017.876 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 700 720 740 760 780 800 820 840 860 880 900 920 940 960 980 1000 1134.115 1256.637 1385.442 1520.531 1661.903 1809.557 1693.495 2123.717 2290.221 2463.009 2642.079 2827.433 3019.071 3216.991 3421.194 3631.681 3848.451 4071.504 4300.840 4536.460 4778.362 5026.548 5281.017 5541.769 5808.805 6082.123 6361.725 6647.610 6939.778 7238.229 7542.964 7853.982

50

Siemens MD · 2009

**Mechanics / Strength of Materials Stresses on Structural Members and Fatigue Strength of Structures
**

Diffusion of stress in structural members: loading types

static Maximum stress limit: Mean stress: Minimum stress limit:

dynamic s o + s sch s m + s schń2 su + 0

alternating so + ) sw sm + 0 su + * sw

oscillating so + sm ) sa s m + s v (initial stress) su + sm * sa

Ruling coefficient of strength of material for the calculation of structural members: Resistance to Fatigue strength under Fatigue strength under Resistance to breaking Rm fluctuating stresses σSch alternating stresses σW deflection σA Yield point Re; Rp0.2 Coefficients of fatigue strength σD

Stress-number diagram

Stress-number curve Stress σ Damage curve Endurance limit Fatigue limit Fatigue strength under alternating stresses Example: Tension-Compression Coefficients of strength

**Fatigue strength diagram acc. to SMITH
**

Resistance to breaking Rm Yield point Re

5

Resistance to deflection σA Fatigue strength under fluctuating stresses σSch Mean stress σm

Number of cycles to failure N

In case of stresses below the damage curve initial damage will not occur to the material. Reduced stress on the member sv ≤ Permissible stress sperm. =

Alternate area / Area of fluctuation

Design strength of the member sD . b0 . bd S . ßk

with: σD = ruling fatigue strength value of the material b0 = surface number (≤ 1) bd = size number (≤ 1) ßk = stress concentration factor (≥ 1) S = safety (1.2 ... 2) with: σ = single axis bending stress τ = torsional stress α0 = constraint ratio according to Bach

Reduced stress σv For the frequently occurring case of combined bending and torsion, according to the distortion energy theory: s v + Ǹs 2 ) 3 (a 0t) 2

**Alternating bending, dynamic torsion: α0 ≈ 0.7 Alternating bending, alternating torsion: α0 ≈ 1.0 Static bending, alternating torsion: α0 ≈ 1.6
**

Surface roughness Rt in μm Surfaces with rolling skin Resistance to breaking of the material Rm

For bending and torsion

for tension/ compression bd = 1.0

Diameter of component d

Siemens MD · 2009

Surface number b0

Size number bd

51

Table of Contents Section 6 Hydraulics Hydrostatics (Source: K. Technische Formelsammlung. Heilbronn) Page 53 54 6 52 Siemens MD · 2009 . Heilbronn) Hydrodynamics (Source: K. Gieck Verlag. Gieck Verlag. 29th edition. Gieck. 29th edition. Technische Formelsammlung. Gieck.

kN) (N.2. F A + g r V ) g rȀ VȀ FA [ g r V (N. Ť FV Ť + g r V (N.2 is resolved into a horizontal component FH and a vertical component FV. The line of application runs through the centre of gravity. the following applies: For rk density of the body applies: r > rk the body floats in the liquid r = rk the body is suspended r < rk the body sinks } S D Ιx.e. without consideration of pressure p0.and y-axes Siemens MD · 2009 53 . F + g r y s A cos a + g r h s A yD = Ιx Ι = ys + s y sA ys A .Hydraulics Hydrostatics Pressure distribution in a fluid p1 + p0 ) g r h1 P 2 + p 1 ) g r (h 2 * h 1) + p 1 ) g r Dh Linear pressure Hydrostatic force of pressure on planes The hydrostatic force of pressure F is that force which is exerted on the wall by the fluid only . Buoyance The buoyant force FA is equal to the weight of the displaced fluids having densities r and r ’. kN) FH is equal to the hydrostatic force of pressure on the projection of surface 1 .2 perpendicular to FH. FV is equal to the weight of the fluid having a volume V located (a) or thought to be located (b) over the surface 1 . xD = Ιxy ysA m.i. Ιs Ιxy = = = = centre of gravity of plane A centre of pressure moments of inertia product of inertia of plane A referred to the x. kN) If the fluid with density r ’ is a gas. mm 6 Hydrostatic force of pressure on curved surfaces The hydrostatic force of pressure on the curved surface 1 .

Hydraulics Hydrodynamics Discharge of liquids from vessels Vessel with bottom opening v + ö Ǹ2 g H . V + ö e A Ǹ2 g H Vessel with small lateral opening v + ö Ǹ2 g H s + 2Ǹ H h (without any coefficient of friction) . F+rVv Vessel with wide lateral opening 6 . V : volume flow rate b: width of opening Siemens MD · 2009 54 . V + 2 e b Ǹ2 g (H 2 3 3ń2 * H1 3ń2 ) Vessel with excess pressure on liquid level v+ö . Ǹ2 ( g H ) pr ) ü V+öeA Ǹ2 ( g H ) pr ) ü Vessel with excess pressure on outlet v+ö . Ǹ2 pü r V+öeA v: g: r: pü: ϕ: ε: Ǹ2 pü r discharge velocity gravity density excess pressure compared to external pressure coefficient of friction (for water ϕ = 0. V + ö e A Ǹ2 g H .62 for sharp-edged openings) (ε = 0.97 for smooth-rounded openings) F: force of reaction .97) coefficient of contraction (ε = 0.

Table of Contents Section 7 Electrical Engineering Basic Formulae Speed. Power Rating and Efficiency of Electric Motors Types of Construction and Mounting Arrangements of Rotating Electrical Machinery Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment (Protection Against Contact and Foreign Bodies) Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment (Protection Against Water) Page 56 57 58 59 60 7 Siemens MD · 2009 55 .

32 15.2 0.85 0. Retort graphite 36 0.05556 0.2066 0.107 0.7.061 0.135 0.0 48 36 18 2.r l R= = A γ.73 .92 2. cos ϕ Ι = P U .15.5 58 22 14.2 16.0769 0.. Ι .50 0.063 0.84 13 6.962 0.12 7 P+U@I I+P U P = U .033 0.02083 0. U .045 0.13 0.0278 1. cos ϕ Three-phase current 30.0 7. homog.02778 0.046 0. cos ϕ 0.5 9.7 1.20 0.023 0.055 0.09 0.73 .33 0.10 43.35 1. Ι .0164 0.9 3.4 18. cos ϕ Ι = P 1.01724 0.54 Single-phase alternating current P = 1.04 61 7.015 0.014 22 65 70 Resistance of a conductor: l.0 2..1 0. U .3 0.0.83 4.43 0.A R l γ A r = = = = = resistance (Ω) length of conductor (m) electric conductivity (m/Ω mm2) cross section of conductor (mm2) specific electrical resistance (Ω mm2/m) Siemens MD · 2009 56 .43 0.Electrical Engineering Basic Formulae Ohm’s law: U+I@R I+U R R+U I Material ƪ Ω mm ƫ ƪ Ω mm ƫ m m 2 2 g r Series connection of resistors: R + R 1 ) R 2 ) R 3 ) AAA ) R n R + total resistance ƪWƫ R n + individual resistance ƪWƫ Shunt connection of resistors: 1 + 1 ) 1 ) 1 ) AAA ) 1 R1 R2 R3 Rn R R + total resistance ƪWƫ R n + individual resistance ƪWƫ Electric power: Power Direct current Current consumption a) Metals Aluminium Bismuth Lead Cadmium Iron wire Gold Copper Magnesium Nickel Platinum Mercury Silver Tantalum Tungsten Zinc Tin b) Alloys Aldrey (AlMgSi) Bronze I Bronze II Bronze III Constantan (WM 50) Manganin Brass Nickel silver (WM 30) Nickel chromium Niccolite (WM 43) Platinum rhodium Steel wire (WM 13) Wood’s metal c) Other conductors Graphite Carbon.30 1.5 8.32 5..069 0.

cosö . h Three-phase current: Pab = 1.Electrical Engineering Speed. p = 2 n = 50 . 60 2 = 1500 min-1 Direct current: Pab = U . cosö . I .1-kW motor and a 132-kW motor dependent on the load 7 Power factor cos ϕ Efficiency η 132-kW motor 1. I . η Single-phase alternating current: Pab = U .73 .1-kW motor Power output P / PN 1) Pab = mechanical output power on the motor shaft Pzu = absorbed electric power Siemens MD · 2009 57 . h Efficiency: h+ P ab 1) @ 100 ƪ%ƫ P zu Example: Efficiency and power factor of a four-pole 1. 60 p Power rating: Output power 1) n = speed (min-1) f = frequency (Hz) p = number of pole pairs Example: f = 50 Hz. U . Power Rating and Efficiency of Electric Motors Speed: n = f . I .

if necessary end shields turned through 180° mounting flange close to bearing. if necessary end shields turned through 90° design B3. horizontal arrangement Design Symbol B3 Figure Bearings 2 end shields 2 end shields 2 end shields 2 end shields 2 end shields 2 end shields Explanation Stator (Housing) with feet Shaft free shaft end free shaft end free shaft end free shaft end free shaft end free shaft end General design – mounting flange close to bearing.Electrical Engineering Types of Construction and Mounting Arrangements of Rotating Electrical Machinery Types of construction and mounting arrangements of rotating electrical machinery (Extract from DIN EN 50347) Machines with end shields. access from housing side Design / Explanation Fastening or Installation V1 2 end shields without feet flanged at the bottom V3 2 end shields without feet flanged at the top V5 2 end shields 2 end shields with feet – fastening to wall or on substructure fastening to wall or on substructure Siemens MD · 2009 V6 with feet – 58 . access from housing side Design / Explanation Fastening or Installation installation on substructure B5 without feet flanged B6 with feet wall fastening. access from housing side mounting flange close to bearing on input side. access from housing side design B3. feet on LH side when looking at input side wall fastening. if necessary end shields turned through -90° design B3. vertical arrangement Design Symbol Figure Bearings Stator (Housing) Shaft free shaft end at the bottom free shaft end at the top free shaft end at the bottom free shaft end at the top Explanation General design mounting flange close to bearing on input side. feet on RH side when looking at input side fastening on ceiling installation on substructure with additional flange B7 with feet 7 B8 with feet B 35 with feet Machines with end shields.

the respective expert commission is responsible for the application of this table for equipment with drain holes. by hand. however. however. e. 3) Complete protection against contact Protection against the ingress of dust (dust-tight) Complete protection against contact Type of protection DIN EN 60529 IP 4 4 7 2 3 4 5 6 1) For equipment with degrees of protection from 1 to 4. 3) For degree of protection 5.g. uniformly or non-uniformly shaped foreign bodies with three dimensions perpendicular to each other and above the corresponding diameter values are prevented from ingress. Degrees of protection for protection against contact and foreign bodies (first type number) First type number 0 1 Degree of protection (Protection against contact and foreign bodies) No special protection Protection against the ingress of solid foreign bodies having a diameter above 50 mm (large foreign bodies) 1) No protection against intended access. wires or similar objects having a thickness above 1 mm Protection against harmful dust covers.5 mm (small foreign bodies) 1) 2) Keeping away tools.Electrical Engineering Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment (Protection Against Contact and Foreign Bodies) Types of protection for electrical equipment (Extract from DIN EN 60529) Example of designation Designation DIN number Code letters First type number Second type number An enclosure with this designation is protected against the ingress of solid foreign bodies having a diameter above 1 mm and of splashing water. dust may not enter to such an amount that operation of the equipment is impaired (dustproof). The ingress of dust is not entirely prevented. the respective expert commission is responsible for the application of this table for equipment with drain holes or cooling air slots. wires or similar objects having a thickness above 2. 2) For degrees of protection 3 and 4. Siemens MD · 2009 59 .5 mm Protection against the ingress of solid foreign bodies having a diameter above 1 mm (grain sized foreign bodies) 1) 2) Keeping away tools. protection of persons against contact with live parts Protection against the ingress of solid foreign bodies having a diameter above 12 mm (medium-sized foreign bodies) 1) Keeping away of fingers or similar objects Protection against the ingress of solid foreign bodies having a diameter above 2.

The equipment (enclosure) is suitable for permanent submersion under conditions to be described by the manufacturer (submersion). It may not have any harmful effect on equipment (enclosure) inclined by up to 15° relative to its normal position (diagonally falling dripping water). It may not have any harmful effect (spraying water). 1) Degree of protection (Protection against water) Type of protection DIN EN 60529 IP 4 4 7 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1) This degree of protection is normally for air-tight enclosed equipment. No harmful quantities of water may enter the equipment (enclosure) (immersion). It may not have any harmful effect (hose-directed water). Protection against water falling at any angle up to 60° relative to the perpendicular. Protection against water if the equipment (enclosure) is immersed under determined pressure and time conditions. 60 Siemens MD · 2009 . Protection against heavy sea or strong water jet. Protection against a water jet from a nozzle which is directed on the equipment (enclosure) from all directions. Protection against dripping water falling vertically. Degrees of protection for protection against water (second type number) Second type number 0 1 No special protection Protection against dripping water falling vertically. For certain equipment.Electrical Engineering Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment (Protection Against Water) Types of protection for electrical equipment (Extract from DIN EN 60529) Example of designation Designation DIN number Code letters First type number Second type number An enclosure with this designation is protected against the ingress of solid foreign bodies having a diameter above 1 mm and of splashing water. It may not have any harmful effect (dripping water). Protection against water spraying on the equipment (enclosure) from all directions. It may not have any harmful effect (splashing water). however. No harmful quantities of water may enter the equipment (enclosure) (flooding). water may enter provided that it has no harmful effect.

and Copper-Zinc-Tin Casting Alloys Copper-Aluminium Casting Alloys Aluminium Casting Alloys Lead and Tin Casting Alloys for Babbit Sleeve Bearings Conversion of Hardness Values Values of Solids and Liquids Coefficient of Linear Expansion Iron-Carbon Diagram Pitting and Tooth Root Fatigue Strength Values of Steels Heat Treatment During Case Hardening of Case Hardening Steels Page 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 69 70 71 71 72 72 73 74 75 76 77 77 77 78 8 Siemens MD · 2009 61 .Table of Contents Section 8 Materials Conversion of Fatigue Strength Values of Miscellaneous Materials Mechanical Properties of Quenched and Tempered Steels Fatigue Strength Diagrams of Quenched and Tempered Steels General-Purpose Structural Steels Fatigue Strength Diagrams of General-Purpose Structural Steels Case Hardening Steels Fatigue Strength Diagrams of Case Hardening Steels Cold Rolled Steel Strips Cast Steels for General Engineering Purposes Round Steel Wire for Springs Lamellar Graphite Cast Iron Nodular Graphite Cast Iron Copper-Tin.

8 .6 . for spring steel σdSch ≈ 1.5 . Rm 1. σW 0. Rm – 0. Rm τSch 1) σSch 1.7 . σbW 1. τW 0. Rm 1. σSch is larger.4 .5 . Re 0. Re 0.30 .1 . Re Grey cast iron Light metal 0.3 . Rm and Re of core material.49 .g.44 .36 . Rm – – 0.40 .25 . σbW – 0. σbW 1.7 . Re 1. Rm 1.3 .4 .7 .37 .Materials Conversion of Fatigue Strength Values of Miscellaneous Materials Conversion of fatigue strength values of miscellaneous materials Material Tension σW 0. Rm 1. σSch For grey cast iron σdSch ≈ 3 .25 .7 . τW 0. τW – 0. Rm – – 8 1) For polished round section test piece of about 10 mm diameter.35 . 3) For compression. Rm 1. Re 0. Rm 1.4 .6 . e. σW τF Structural steel Quenched and tempered steel Case hardening steel 2) 1. σW 0.45 .6 . σw 0.7 .30 . Rm 1.40 . Rm 1. 2) Case-hardened. Rm 3) Bending σbW 0.6 . σbW 1. Rm σbSch 1) Torsion σbF τW 0.41 . τW 0.41 . Rm 1.7 . Re 0. σSch Type of load Ultimate stress val values es Tension Tensile strength Yield point Fatigue strength under alternating stresses Fatigue strength under fluctuating stresses Bending Torsion Rm Re – σbF – τF σW σbW τW σSch σbSch τSch 62 Siemens MD · 2009 . determined on round section test piece of about 30 mm diameter.30 .

7218 34CrMo4 1. Re Rp 0.1209 1.0503 1.7003 1.1180 1.6582 1000 1200 –1400 800 1000 –1200 900 1100 –1300 700 900 –1100 30CrNiMo8 1.1201 1.2 above 100 up to 160 mm Yield point (0.2 Num.2 strength Gr) 2 N/mm N/mm2 min.2 Tensile strength N/mm2 Rm Tensile strength N/mm2 Rm Tensile strength N/mm2 Rm Tensile strength N/mm2 Rm C22 C35 C45 C55 C60 C22E C35E C35R C45E C45R C55E C55R C60E C60R 28Mn6 38Cr2 46Cr2 34Cr4 34CrS4 37Cr4 37CrS4 41Cr4 41CrS4 1.Materials Mechanical Properties of Quenched and Tempered Steels Quenched and tempered steels (Extract from DIN EN 10083) Mechanical properties of steels in quenched and tempered condition Diameter Material up to 16 mm above 16 up to 40 mm Yield point (0.2 Gr) N/mm2 min.1223 1.6511 800 1000 –1200 800 1000 –1200 900 1100 –1300 900 1100 –1300 900 1100 –1300 900 1100 –1300 750 1000 –1200 750 1000 –1200 780 1000 –1200 800 1000 –1200 900 1100 –1300 34CrNiMo6 1.2 Gr) N/mm2 min.7225 42CrMoS4 1.7033 1.1151 1.1191 1.7220 34CrMoS4 1.6580 1050 1250 –1450 1050 1250 –1450 51CrV4 1.Gr) ber N/mm2 min.7035 1.7038 1.7037 1.7006 1. Rm Re Rp 0.2 Symbol Yield point (0.0535 1.7039 350 430 500 550 580 350 430 430 500 500 550 550 580 580 590 550 650 700 700 750 750 550 – 700 630 – 780 700 – 850 800 – 950 850 –1000 550 – 700 630 – 780 630 – 780 700 – 850 700 – 850 800 – 950 800 – 950 850 –1000 850 –1000 780 – 930 800 – 950 900 –1100 900 –1100 900 –1100 950 –1150 950 –1150 300 370 430 500 520 300 370 370 430 430 500 500 520 520 490 450 550 590 590 630 630 660 660 600 650 650 500 – 650 600 – 750 650 – 800 750 – 900 800 – 950 500 – 650 600 – 750 600 – 750 650 – 800 650 – 800 750 – 900 750 – 900 800 – 950 800 – 950 690 – 840 700 – 850 800 – 950 800 – 950 800 – 950 850 –1000 850 –1000 900 –1100 900 –1100 800 – 950 900 –1100 900 –1100 – 320 370 430 450 – 320 320 370 370 430 430 450 450 440 350 400 460 460 510 510 560 560 450 550 550 650 650 700 700 – 550 – 700 630 – 780 700 – 850 750 – 900 – 550 – 700 550 – 700 630 – 780 630 – 780 700 – 850 700 – 850 750 – 900 750 – 900 640 – 790 600 – 750 650 – 800 700 – 850 700 – 850 750 – 900 750 – 900 800 – 950 800 – 950 700 – 850 800 – 950 800 – 950 900 –1100 900 –1100 900 –1100 900 –1100 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 400 500 500 550 550 650 600 700 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 650 – 800 750 – 900 750 – 900 800 – 950 800 – 950 850 –1000 800 – 950 900 –1100 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 450 450 500 500 550 550 600 700 600 700 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 700 – 850 700 – 850 750 – 900 750 – 900 800 – 950 750 – 900 800 – 950 900 –1100 800 – 950 900 –1100 8 800 1000 –1200 800 1000 –1200 700 900 –1100 25CrMo4 1.2 above 40 up to 100 mm Yield point (0.7228 36CrNiMo4 1.7034 1. Re Rp 0. Re Rp 0.1170 1.0601 1.1203 1.1181 1. Re Rp 0.2 Gr) N/mm2 min.8159 900 1100 –1300 800 1000 –1200 800 1000 –1200 650 850 –1000 30CrMoV9 1.7226 42CrMo4 1.0501 1.7707 1050 1250 –1450 1020 1200 –1450 900 1100 –1300 800 1000 –1200 Siemens MD · 2009 63 .1221 1.2 above 160 up to 250 mm Yield point Tensile (0.7227 50CrMo4 1.0402 1.

C35. test piece diameter d = 10 mm) a) Tension/compression fatigue strength c) Torsional fatigue strength 8 Quenched and tempered steels not illustrated may be used as follows: 34CrNiMo6 30CrMoV4 42CrMo4 36CrNiMo4 51CrV4 34CrMo4 28Cr4 C45 C22 like 30CrNiMo8 like 30CrNiMo8 like 50CrMo4 like 50CrMo4 like 50CrMo4 like 41Cr4 like 46Cr2 like C45E like C22E C60 and C50 lie approximately between C45E and 46Cr2. 32Cr2.Materials Fatigue Strength Diagrams of Quenched and Tempered Steels Fatigue strength diagrams of quenched and tempered steels. Loading type I: static Loading type II: dynamic b) Bending fatigue strength Loading type III: alternating Siemens MD · 2009 64 . C40. C30 and C25 lie approximately between C22E and C45E. DIN EN 10083 (in quenched and tempered condition.

. 290. N 335 325 315 305 295 St70-2 1.0037 S235JR U... N. N 310... 470..0570 S355J2G3 430.0114 S235JO St37-3N 1. 540 510 185 175 2) – – – St37-2 1. N U. 570.. 900 830 To be agreed upon 235 225 215 215 215 355 345 335 325 315 8 St50-2 1... 410. 680 630 490.0060 E335 U..0038 S235JRG2 St37-3U 1. 770 710 690. N U. 510 470 To be agreed upon USt37-2 1.0143 S275JO St44-3N 1.. N 295 285 275 265 255 St60-2 1. U hot-rolled.Materials General-Purpose Structural Steels General-purpose structural steels (Extract from DIN EN 10025) Material Symbol acc. untreated 2) This value applies to thicknesses up to 25 mm only Siemens MD · 2009 65 . N 365 355 345 335 325 1) N normalized..0044 S275JR 235 225 215 205 195 St44-3U 1.. 660 610 590... U N U..0050 E295 U.....0036 S235JRG1 RSt37-2 1.0070 E360 U..0144 S275J2G3 St52-3U 1.. 670.0035 U.... 490. to DIN EN 10025 S185 Treatment condi condition 1) Tensile strength Rm in N/mm2 for product thickness in mm <3 ≥3 > 100 ≤ 16 ≤ 100 Upper yield point ReH in N/mm2 (minimum) for product thickness in mm > 16 ≤ 40 > 40 ≤ 63 > 63 > 80 > 100 ≤ 80 ≤ 100 y Symbol (i in Germany ) Number St33 1.0116 S235J2G3 St44-2 1. 580 560 275 265 255 245 235 510... 340.0553 S355JO St52-3N 1. N U N U N 360 340 360..

DIN EN 10025 (test piece diameter d = 10 mm) E360 E335 E295 S275 S235 E360 E335 E295 S275 S235 a) Tension/compression fatigue strength c) Torsional fatigue strength 8 E360 E335 E295 S275 S235 Loading type I: static b) Bending fatigue strength Loading type II: dynamic Loading type III: alternating 66 Siemens MD · 2009 .Materials Fatigue Strength Diagrams of General-Purpose Structural Steels Fatigue strength diagrams of general-purpose structural steels.

1141 1.Materials Case Hardening Steels Case hardening steels.5919 1. 30 Yield point Re N/mm2 min.7149 1) For dia.1140 1. the Brinell hardness is different.7139 1.7015 1.6587 18CrNiMo7-6 1) Dependent on treatment.0401 1.7147 1. see DIN EN 10084 510 635 635 735 735 635 635 735 685 835 835 20MoCr4 1. Quality specifications (Extract from DIN EN 10084) Material Symbol Num( in ber Germany ) C10 Ck10 C15 Ck15 Cm15 15Cr13 16MnCr5 16MnCrS5 20MnCr5 20MnCrS5 1. 390 390 440 440 440 For dia. 11 Yield point Re N/mm2 min.7325 15CrNi6 18CrNi8 1. 295 295 355 355 355 440 590 590 685 685 590 590 685 635 785 785 For dia.7323 25MoCrS4 1.7131 1.7321 20MoCrS4 1. to DIN EN 10084 C10 C10E C15 C15E C15R 15Cr13 16MnCr5 16MnCrS5 20MnCr5 20MnCrS5 20MoCr4 20MoCrS4 25MoCrS4 15CrNi6 18CrNi8 Treatment condition Tensile strength Rm N/mm2 640 – 790 640 – 790 740 – 890 740 – 890 740 – 890 780 –1030 880 –1180 880 –1180 1080 –1380 1080 –1380 880 –1180 880 –1180 1080 –1380 960 –1280 1230 –1480 1180 –1430 Tensile strength Rm N/mm2 490 – 640 490 – 640 590 – 790 590 – 790 590 – 790 690 – 890 780 –1080 780 –1080 980 –1280 980 –1280 780 –1080 780 –1080 980 –1280 880 –1180 1180 –1430 1080 –1330 Tensile strength Rm N/mm2 – – – – – – 640 – 940 640 – 940 780 –1080 780 –1080 – – – 780 –1080 1080 –1330 980 –1280 For details. – – – – – – 440 440 540 540 – – – 540 685 685 Symbol acc.5920 8 17CrNiMo6 1. 63 Yield point Re N/mm2 min.0301 1.1121 1. Treatment condition C G BF BG Meaning treated for shearing load soft annealed treated for strength treated for ferrite/pearlite structure Siemens MD · 2009 67 .

test piece diameter d = 10 mm) a) Tension/compression fatigue strength c) Torsional fatigue strength 8 Case hardening steels not illustrated may be used as follows: 25MoCr4 like 20MnCr5 17CrNiMo6 like 18CrNi8 Loading type I: static Loading type II: dynamic b) Bending fatigue strength Loading type III: alternating Siemens MD · 2009 68 .Materials Fatigue Strength Diagrams of Case Hardening Steels Fatigue strength diagrams of case hardening steels. DIN EN 10084 (Core strength after case hardening.

0420 1.1274 1.Materials Cold Rolled Steel Strips Cast Steels for General Engineering Purposes Cold rolled steel strips (Extract from DIN EN 10132) Material Symbol ( in Germany ) C55 Ck55 C60 Ck60 C67 Ck67 C75 Ck75 Ck85 Ck101 71Si7 67SiCr5 50CrV4 Number 1.2 2 Symbol Number N/mm2 min.1231 1. in so far as the wall thickness is ≤ 100 mm. Siemens MD · 2009 69 .0601 1. 1) Determined from three individual values each. 380 450 520 600 Notched bar impact work (ISO-V-notch specimens) Av ≤ 30 mm > 30 mm 1) 8 Mean value J min.0535 1. Furthermore.1203 1. 35 27 27 27 GS-38 ( GE200 ) GS-45 ( GE240 ) GS-52 ( GE260 ) GS-60 ( GE300 ) 1. to DIN EN 10132 C55 C55E C60 C60E C67 C67S C75 C75S C85S C100S 71Si7 67SiCr5 50CrV4 Tensile strength Rm 1) 2 N/mm maximum 610 620 640 640 670 690 800 800 740 1) Rm for cold rolled and soft-annealed condition.0552 1.1269 1.7103 1.0603 1.5029 1. for strip thicknesses up to 3 mm Cast steels for general engineering purposes (Extract from DIN 1681) Material Yield point Re. the yield point values also apply to the casting itself. e Rp 0 0.1248 1. 200 230 260 300 Tensile strength Rm N/mm2 min.0605 1.8159 Symbol acc.0446 1.0558 35 27 22 20 The mechanical properties apply to specimens which are taken from test pieces with thicknesses up to 100 mm.1221 1.

07 0.Materials Round Steel Wire for Springs Round steel wire for springs (Extract from DIN EN 10218) Diameter of wire mm 0.3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 – – 1720 – 1970 1520 – 1750 1410 – 1620 1320 – 1520 1260 – 1450 1210 – 1390 1160 – 1340 1120 – 1300 1090 – 1260 1060 – 1230 – – – – – – – – – – Grade of wire A B C D Tensile strength Rm in N/mm2 – 2370 – 2650 1980 – 2220 1760 – 1970 1630 – 1830 1530 – 1730 1460 – 1650 1400 – 1580 1350 – 1530 1310 – 1480 1270 – 1440 1240 – 1400 1210 – 1370 1180 – 1340 1160 – 1310 1130 – 1280 1110 – 1260 1090 – 1230 1070 – 1210 1050 – 1190 1030 – 1170 1020 – 1150 – – – 1980 – 2200 1840 – 2040 1740 – 1930 1660 – 1840 1590 – 1770 1540 – 1710 1490 – 1660 1450 – 1610 1410 – 1570 1380 – 1530 1350 – 1500 1320 – 1470 1290 – 1440 1270 – 1410 1240 – 1390 1220 – 1360 1200 – 1340 1180 – 1320 1160 – 1300 2800 – 3100 2660 – 2940 2230 – 2470 1980 – 2200 1840 – 2040 1740 – 1930 1660 – 1840 1590 – 1770 1540 – 1710 1490 – 1660 1450 – 1610 1410 – 1570 1380 – 1530 1350 – 1500 1320 – 1470 1290 – 1440 1270 – 1410 1240 – 1390 1220 – 1360 1200 – 1340 1180 – 1320 1160 – 1300 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 70 Siemens MD · 2009 .

1) These values are reference values.Materials Lamellar Graphite Cast Iron Nodular Graphite Cast Iron Lamellar graphite cast iron (Extract from DIN EN 1561) Material Symbol EN-GJL-100 EN-GJL-150 Number EN-JL1010 EN-JL1020 Symbol acc. 100 2) 130 110 95 80 180 155 130 115 225 195 170 155 270 240 210 195 315 280 250 225 HB 30 – 225 205 – – 250 235 – – 265 250 – – 285 265 – – 285 275 – – N/mm2 – 600 EN-GJL-200 EN-JL1030 GG-20 720 EN-GJL-250 EN-JL1040 GG-25 840 EN-GJL-300 EN-JL1050 GG-30 960 EN-GJL-350 EN-JL1060 GG-35 1080 The values apply to castings which are made in sand moulds or moulds with comparable heat diffusibility.3 EN-GJS-400-15U EN-GJS-500-7U EN-GJS-600-3U EN-GJS-700-2U Siemens MD · 2009 EN-JS1072 EN-JS1082 EN-JS1092 EN-JS1102 GGG-40 GGG-50 GGG-60 GGG-70 from 30 up to 60 above 60 up to 200 from 30 up to 60 above 60 up to 200 from 30 up to 60 above 60 up to 200 71 . to DIN 1693 from above from above Wall thickness of casting mm 30 60 30 60 up to 60 up to 200 up to 60 up to 200 0. 2) Values in the separately cast test piece with 30 mm diameter of the unfinished casting.2% Thickness Tensile proof of cast-on strength stress test piece Rm Rp0.2 mm 40 70 40 70 40 70 40 70 40 70 N/mm2 N/mm2 390 370 390 370 450 420 600 550 700 650 250 240 250 240 300 290 360 340 400 380 8 Symbol Number EN-GJS-400-18U-LT EN-JS1049 GGG-40. to DIN 1691 GG-10 GG-15 Wall thicknesses in mm above 5 10 20 40 80 10 20 40 80 10 20 40 80 10 20 40 80 10 20 40 80 up to 40 20 40 80 150 20 40 80 150 20 40 80 150 20 40 80 150 20 40 80 150 Tensile Brinell Compressive strength 1) hardness strength 2) Rm σdB 1) N/mm2 min. Nodular graphite cast iron (Extract from DIN EN 1563) Properties in cast-on test pieces Material Symbol acc.

2 min. to DIN 1705 G-CuSn12 GZ-CuSn12 GC-CuSn12 G-CuSn12Ni GZ-CuSn12Ni GC-CuSn12Ni G-CuSn12Pb GZ-CuSn12Pb GC-CuSn12Pb G-CuSn10 G-CuSn7ZnPb GZ-CuSn7ZnPb GC-CuSn7ZnPb G-CuSn6ZnNi G-CuSn5ZnPb G-CuSn2ZnPb Condition on delivery 0. in N/mm2 500 550 550 500 530 600 600 600 700 700 680 680 750 CC331G Sand-mould cast iron Chilled casting Centrifugally cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Chilled casting Centrifugally cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Chilled casting Centrifugally cast iron Continuously cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Chilled casting Centrifugally cast iron CC332G CC333G CC334G 1) Material properties in the test bar 72 Siemens MD · 2009 . to DIN 1714 G-CuAl10Fe GK-CuAl10Fe GZ-CuAl10Fe G-CuAl9Ni GK-CuAl9Ni GZ-CuAl9Ni G-CuAl10Ni GK-CuAl10Ni GZ-CuAl10Ni GC-CuAl10Ni G-CuAl11Ni GK-CuAl11Ni GZ-CuAl11Ni Condition on delivery 0. in N/mm2 180 200 200 200 230 250 270 300 300 300 320 400 400 Rm min.Materials Copper-Tin and Copper-Zinc-Tin Casting Alloys Copper-Aluminium Casting Alloys Copper-tin and copper-zinc-tin casting alloys (Extract from DIN EN 1982) Material Symbol CuSn12-C-GS CuSn12-C-GZ CuSn12-C-GC CuSn12Ni-C-GS CuSn12Ni-C-GZ CuSn12Ni-C-GC CuSn12Pb2-C-GS CuSn12Pb2-C-GZ CuSn12Pb2-C-GC CuSn10-Cu-GS CuSn7Zn4Pb7-C-GS CuSn7Zn4Pb7-C-GZ CuSn7Zn4Pb7-C-GC CuSn7Zn2Pb3-C-GS CuSn5Zn5Pb5-C-GS CuSn3Zn8Pb5-C-GS Number Symbol acc. in N/mm2 140 150 140 160 180 170 140 150 140 130 120 130 120 140 90 90 Rm min.2% Tensile proof stress 1) strength 1) Rp0.2 min.2% Tensile proof stress 1) strength 1) Rp0. in N/mm2 260 280 280 280 300 300 260 280 280 270 240 270 270 270 220 210 CC483K Sand-mould cast iron Centrifugally cast iron Continuously cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Centrifugally cast iron Continuously cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Centrifugally cast iron Continuously cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Centrifugally cast iron Continuously cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Sand-mould cast iron CC484K CC482K CC480K CC493K CC492K CC491K CC490K 8 1) Material properties in the test bar Copper-aluminium casting alloys (Extract from DIN EN 1982) Material Symbol CuAl10Fe2-C-GS CuAl10Fe2-C-GM CuAl10Fe2-C-GZ CuAl10Ni3Fe2-C-GS CuAl10Ni3Fe2-C-GK CuAl10Ni3Fe2-C-GZ CuAl10Fe5Ni5-C-GS CuAl10Fe5Ni5-C-GM CuAl10Fe5Ni5-C-GZ CuAl10Fe5Ni5-C-GC CuAl11Fe6Ni6-C-GS CuAl11Fe6Ni6-C-GM CuAl11Fe6Ni6-C-GZ Number Symbol acc.

Materials Aluminium Casting Alloys Aluminium casting alloys (Extract from DIN EN 1706) Material Symbol Number Symbol acc. to DIN 1725-2 G-AlCu4TiMg G-AlCu4Ti G-AlSi7Mg G-AlSi10Mg G-AlSi10Mg(Cu) G-AlSi9Mg G-AlSi10Mg G-AlSi11 G-AlSi12 GD-AlSi12 G-AlSi6Cu4 GD-AlSi9Cu3 G-AlSi9Cu3 G-AlSi12(Cu) GD-AlSi12(Cu) G-AlMg3 GD-AlMg9 G-AlMg5 G-AlMg5Si 0.2 in N/mm2 Tensile strength Rm in N/mm2 AC-AlCu4MgTi AC-AlCu4Ti AC-AlSi7Mg AC-AlSi10Mg(a) AC-AlSi10Mg(Cu) AC-AlSi9Mg AC-AlSi10Mg(Fe) AC-AlSi11 AC-AlSi12(a) AC-AlSi12(Fe) AC-AlSi6Cu4 AC-AlSi9Cu3(Fe) AC-AlSi8Cu3 AC-AlSi12(Cu) AC-AlSi12Cu1(Fe) AC-AlMg3(a) AC-AlMg9 AC-AlMg5 AC-AlMg5(Si) AC-21000 AC-21100 AC-42100 AC-43000 AC-43200 AC-43300 AC-43400 AC-44000 AC-44200 AC-44300 AC-45000 AC-46000 AC-46200 AC-47000 AC-47100 AC-51100 AC-51200 AC-51300 AC-51400 200 up to 220 180 up to 220 180 up to 210 80 up to 220 80 up to 200 180 up to 210 140 70 up to 80 70 up to 80 130 90 up to 100 140 90 up to 140 80 up to 90 140 70 130 90 up to 100 100 up to 110 300 up to 320 280 up to 330 230 up to 290 150 up to 240 160 up to 240 230 up to 290 240 150 up to 170 150 up to 170 240 150 up to 170 240 150 up to 240 150 up to 170 240 140 up to 150 200 160 up to 180 160 up to 180 8 Siemens MD · 2009 73 .2% proof stress Rp0.

3391 2.3392 2.2 in N/mm2 20 °C 39 43 46 39 61 47 62 50 °C 37 32 39 32 60 44 44 1) 100 °C 25 30 27 27 36 27 30 1) Material properties in the test bar 8 74 Siemens MD · 2009 .3792 Brinell hardness 1) HB 10/250/180 20 °C 18 21 22 16 25 22 28 50 °C 15 16 22 16 20 17 25 120 °C 14 14 16 14 12 11 19 0.Materials Lead and Tin Casting Alloys for Babbit Sleeve Bearings Lead and tin casting alloys for babbit sleeve bearings (Extract from DIN ISO 4381) Material Symbol PbSb15SnAs PbSb15Sn10 PbSb14Sn9CuAs PbSb10Sn6 SnSb12Cu6Pb SnSb8Cu4 SnSb8Cu4Cd Number 2.3791 2.3790 2.3390 2.3393 2.2% proof stress Rp 0.

9 66.2 64.0 95.7 76.7 38.8 70.0 46.1 51.4 83. e.2 66.8 57.8 50.0 80.95 HV (Vickers hardness) Determination of Rockwell hardness HRA.3 80.4 67.3 57.5 90.3 56.3 76.2 59.3 34.1 63.5 72.2 62.8 66.4 (104) 27.8 59. to DIN EN 10003 Part 1 Determination of tensile strength acc.1 51.2 43.7 85.7 85.8 31.7 48.1 81.8 65. to DIN EN 10002 Part 1 and Part 5 Siemens MD · 2009 75 .5 63.2 79.5 79.0 48.7 63.0 78.7 81.102 ǐ 2) F D2 = 30 N mm2 Ǒ Rockwell hardness HRC HRA HRD 1) 255 270 285 305 320 335 350 370 385 400 415 430 450 465 480 495 510 530 545 560 575 595 610 625 640 660 675 690 705 720 740 755 770 785 800 820 835 850 865 880 900 915 930 950 965 995 1030 1060 1095 1125 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190 195 200 205 210 215 220 225 230 235 240 245 250 255 260 265 270 275 280 285 290 295 300 310 320 330 340 350 76.3 74.Materials Conversion of Hardness Values (DIN EN ISO 18265) Tensile strength Vickers hardness Brinell hardness .4 71.0 67. and HRD acc.5 29.6 78. ASTM E 18-74 (American Society for Testing and Materials) 2) Calculated from HB = 0.0 87.0 85.1 47.5 74.1 61.7 43.1 42.0 77.0 24.9 79.9 63.2 82.9 The figures in brackets are hardness values outside the domain of definition of standard hardness test methods which.1 20.7 71.1 (101) 24.6 41.0 52.3 61.7 40.3 56.8 74.1 8 67.0 83.8 73.9 45.1 49.7 23.1 99.1 27.7 67.3 68.6 83.0 52.0 69.9 68.5 51. HRB. to DIN EN 10109 Part 1 Determination of Vickers hardness acc.8 70.3 61.3 65.0 96.6 73.3 73.3 46.2 75.7 60.4 62.1 72.3 81.1 60.3 60.8 62.5 94.2 62.7 56.5 62.0 68.2 29.3 73.9 47.7 69.0 56.8 78.4 50.8 59.3 75.6 37.5 92.8 71.6 54.2 95.8 58. N/mm2 (F≥ 98N) 0.3 44.2 51.7 55.2 61.5 68.6 54.8 42.5 58.4 67. 1) Internationally usual.4 60.8 65.4 76.4 78. in practice are frequently used as approximate values.7 69.0 96.7 61.4 69.3 58. the Brinell hardness values in brackets apply only if the test was carried out with a carbide ball.3 53.8 41.1 84.7 44.5 45.3 33.6 74.2 69. Furthermore.7 76. to DIN 50133 Part 1 Determination of Brinell hardness acc.8 (102) 25.5 93.2 65.8 57.7 77.3 70.1 76.0 78.8 80.5 91.8 39.3 64.8 105 109 114 119 124 128 133 138 143 147 152 156 162 166 171 176 181 185 190 195 199 204 209 214 219 223 228 233 238 242 247 252 257 261 266 271 276 280 285 295 304 314 323 333 41.8 71.2 55.5 47.8 82.6 76. HRC.7 85.0 62.6 26.8 53.5 22.4 84.0 56.6 62.8 84.8 72.1 74.3 72. however.3 66.8 64.8 75. N/mm2 (F≥ 98N) 0.0 32.8 40.0 80.5 48.0 53.7 98.9 1155 1190 1220 1255 1290 1320 1350 1385 1420 1455 1485 1520 1555 1595 1630 1665 1700 1740 1775 1810 1845 1880 1920 1955 1995 2030 2070 2105 2145 2180 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700 720 740 760 780 800 820 840 860 880 900 920 940 342 352 361 371 380 390 399 409 418 428 437 447 (456) (466) (475) (485) (494) (504) (513) (523) (532) (542) (551) (561) (570) (580) (589) (599) (608) (618) 36.5 70.4 49.1 70.g.2 58.8 81.8 (105) 28.6 80.5 63.4 65.9 64.6 44.3 75.0 61.7 52.4 49.0 64.0 67.4 77.6 68.1 43.5 64.9 75.3 46.4 35.102 ǐ 2) F D2 = 30 N mm2 Ǒ Rockwell hardness HRB HRC HRA HRD 1) Tensile strength Vickers hardness Brinell hardness .5 67.5 85.8 66.5 63.0 99.5 64.1 54.1 89.1 46.3 21.7 65.2 41.4 55.

6 2990 54 6.10.14.2..22 76 Siemens MD · 2009 ..2.2.21 24 0.52 39 58 12.9.35 – 0..2.81 ≈ 1300 0.9.45 ≈ 700 0.92.6.8 – 0.698 704 – 960 – – 1..69.1.13 44 – 1770 70 ≈ 250 0.8 19..8 2..4.5 8.9 8.5.83 0. dry Sandstone Brick.79 630 – 6.53 1.1 7.89 3.6.15 > 175 0.2.6 22.2 3410 130 1.0.0.2.1.2.12.2.26 – 0.6 2.100 0.9.14 210.5 4 2200 11.25 1.9 0..5 12 0.8 – 0.67 5.3. pure Grease Gallium Germanium Gypsum Glass.2.4 0.14 2.1 8.34 Ra Re Rh Rb Ru S S Se Ag Si Sr Ta Te Th Ti U V Bi W Cs Ce Zn Sn Zr 2.5 1670 15.5.3.16 > 360 0.99% Vanadium Soft rubber White metal Bismuth Wolfram Cesium Cement.86 0.14 316 0. crude Cobalt Salt...6.3 1800 8.3.83 7.87 29 – 2.8..64 0.3 ≈ 2000 ≈ 1.13 Melting point t in °C Thermal conductivity λ at 20 °C W/(mK) Mean density of the earth = 5.6 1500.93...1 1890 31.1700 0.175 0.1 19.8 8.25 1.92 1083 384 – 0.14 > 150 0.07 112.96 ≈ 0.26 7.75 – 936 58......94 5.0.85 7.4 1816 1.1 300.93 0.5 1. strong Silicon fluid SymSym y bol D Density it r at g/cm3 0...95 0.400 34.17 2000 81 – 0.17 156 24 2450 59.1.Materials Values of Solids and Liquids Values of solids and liquids Substance (solid) Agate Aluminium Aluminium bronze Antimony Arsenic Asbestos Asphaltum Barium Barium chloride Basalt...7.3 1.9.517 g/cm3 Substance (solid) Porcelain Pyranite Quartz-flint Radium Rhenium Rhodium Gunmetal Rubidium Ruthenium Sand. common Coke Constantan Corundum (AL2O3) Chalk Copper Leather.69 2..3 2050 12. plain + low-alloy stainless non-magnetic Tungsten steel 18W Hard coal Strontium Tantalum Tellurium Thorium Titanium Tombac Clay Uranium 99.400 0...66 0..28 8.7 2300 – 740 – 1565 – 910 64 774 – 1800 69 1430 52.. natural Beryllium Concrete Lead Boron (amorph...91 0.....34.83 21..67 1280 1. B ≈ 1600 11.33 1420 83 3.2.9 1460 47.125 65 0.74 1.5 ≈ 2.1..8.9 52 0.5 1580 – 4.2 2..72 ≈ 0.. red Silver Silicon Silicon carbide Sillimanite Soapstone (talcous) Steel.13 > 40 0.8 271 8.24 2.32 2..300 0.58 7.5 ≈ 1650 ≈1 3..5 – – ≈1300 – 80.65 – ≈1 327.35 – 0.29 150.8 0..9 11.23 – 0.20 658 204 1040 128 630 22.13 4.8 0..7 1450 26 1.8.7 8.4 802 – – 0.4 8..0.2 2300 106 1.1..1 2.73 1.26 0.15 1.210 0.5 338 0.8 0.27 1..6 3.95 8..184 1600 23.1.81 13.2 – 0.6 110 – 2.89 5 700 – 21 3175 71 12..91 0.6 1480 0.2 6.8 1480 9.28 18.9 5.6 1.6 8..29 2.13 80 0..15 179 71 657 157 650 69.2 7.73 0..5.47 – 0..24 7.7 ≈ 1800 38 4.13 357 10 102 0.9.83 0.5 ≈ 1500 2..5 126 1020 48 1452 59 2415 54.85 ≈2 11.380 0.3 1960 88 8..2 10.72 ≈ 2. fire Slate Emery Sulphur. window Mica Gold Granite Graphite Grey cast iron Laminated fabric Hard rubber Hard metal K20 Symbol Density r g/cm3 Al Sb As 2.55 3.12 – 15..1.43 2..84 0.6.15 290 0.2 1.86 419 110 7..8 9.7 97. dry Lithium Magnesium Magnesium.4.145.. hard Cerium Zinc Tin Zirconium Symbol Density r g/cm3 Melting point t in °C Thermal conductivity λ at 20 °C W/(mK) Ba Be Pb B Cr C Fe Ga Ge Au C 8 Woods Indium Iridium Cadmium Potassium Limestone Calcium Calcium oxide (lime) Caoutchouc.05 1.31 22.8 2.43 2500 – 1552 70... pure Diesel oil Glycerine Resin oil Fuel oil EL Linseed oil Machinery oil Methanol Methyl chloride Mineral oil Petroleum ether Petroleum Mercury Hydrochloric acid 10% Sulphuric acid.96 119 0.7 – 3.0.4 14.8 0.4 1.3 ≈ 2.9 1...42 ≈1.1.98 8..86 2.2 1490 69.8 950 38 1.8..5 1850 22 Substance (liquid) Ether Benzine Benzole.35 1063 310 – 3..) Borax Limonite Bronze Chlorine calcium Chromium Chromium nickel Delta metal Diamond Iron.7 1133 28 6.5 1...58 2..72 3.4 220 0. monoclinic Barytes Selenium..335 950 104..4 1...9 8.4 1250 30 1290 2.65 1000 159 1..83 2..209 29.17 380.55 1.2..59 3..5 10.2 232 65 6.45..9 1450 14 8 1450 16.14 25. rhombic Sulphur.8 2.1.4 34.1.2 2.615 1200 0.23 16.6.013MPa at 20 °C °C W/(mK) 35 0.7 – – 1530 81 30...8.2 8..7 900 116 2600 145 ≈ 1300 19.23 7.3 321 92...7 ≈ 2000 ≈ 0..1 0.7 7..5 960 407 2.83 1.5 ≈ 3800 168 1200 58 – 0.54 797 0.5 7.2.9 8.3 1.5 8.7 6.2 850 – 2572 – 125 0...5 3.25 455 4.1 63.94 °C 20 15 15 15 20 20 20 20 15 15 15 20 20 20 20 15 15 20 Hg Thermal g Boiling point at conductivity λ 1 013MPa 1. alloyed Manganese Marble Red lead oxide Brass Molybdenum Monel metal Sodium Nickel silver In Ir Cd K Ca Co Cu Li Mg Mn Mo Na Ni Nb Os Pd P Pt Nickel Niobium Osmium Palladium Paraffin Pitch Phosphorus (white) Platinum Polyamide A.

+ sec.c.5 17. plain and low-alloy Steel.g. Iron-Carbon Diagram. Pearlite Ledeburite Primary cementite + ledeburite Mixed crystals Mixed crystals (ferrite) 8 Sec... For the linear expansion of a body applies: Dl + l 0 @ a @ DT where Δl: change of length l0: original length α: coefficient of linear expansion ΔT: rise of temperature Coefficients of linear expansion of some substances at 0 .5 11..cem. cementite + ledeburite γ-m. Fatigue Strength Values for Gear Materials Coefficient of linear expansion α The coefficient of linear expansion α gives the fractional expansion of the unit of length of a substance per 1 degree K rise in temperature.5 Iron-carbon diagram Mixed crystals Mixed crystals Temperature in °C Melting + δ-mixed crystals Melting (cementite) γ-mixed crystals (austenite) Melting + γ-mixed crystals Melting + primary cementite (cubic face centered) γ-mixed crystals + sec. case-hardened Quenched and tempered steels. rapid machining steel Copper Brass CuZn37 Bronze CuSn8 α [10-6/K] 21 . GG-20. quenched and tempered Quenched and tempered steels.cem.5 17 18. 24 10. nitrided Siemens MD · 2009 Material symbol 16MnCr5 20MnCr5 18CrNiMo7-6 30CrNiMo8 34CrNiMo6 42CrMo4 34CrNiMo6 42CrMo4 Hardness on finished gear HV1 720 680 740 290 310 280 630 600 σHlim N/mm2 1470 1470 1500 730 770 740 1000 1000 σFlim N/mm2 430 430 500 300 310 305 370 370 77 .cem. 100 °C Substance Aluminium alloys Grey cast iron (e.. + pearlite + ledeburite Primary cementite + ledeburite Sec. stainless (18CrNi8) Steel.5 16 11.Materials Coefficient of Linear Expansion. + pearlite pearlite (cubic body centered) Carbon content in weight percentage Cementite content in weight percentage Pitting and tooth root fatigue strength of steels Grade of steel Case hardening steels. GG-25) Steel.

6523 1. 78 Siemens MD · 2009 . For direct hardening. In particular if there is a risk of warping. quenching is carried out either from the carburizing temperature or any lower temperature. and the plant available. the shape and cross section of the work piece to be hardened. Single hardening C.7016 1. lower hardening temperatures are preferred.0401 1.7139 1.0301 1.6587 Carburizing temperature 1) b Core hardening Case hardening temperature 2) temperature 2) Quenchant c Tempering 8 y Symbol C10 C10E C15 15Cr3 17Cr3 16MnCr5 16MnCrS5 20MnCr5 20MnCrS5 20MoCr4 20MoCrS4 20NiCrMo2-2 20NiCrMoS2-2 15CrNi6 18CrNiMo7-6 °C °C 880 up to 920 °C °C 880 up to 980 860 up to 900 780 up to 820 830 up to 870 With regard to the properties of th component. the t the selection of the quenchant depends on the hardenability or case-hardenability of the steel.1121 1. to DIN EN 10084 Usual heat treatment during case hardening A. Direct hardening or double hardening B.7149 1.7323 1.7131 1.6526 1. carburizing temperatures up to above 1000 °C are applied. 150 up to 200 1) Decisive criteria for the determination of the carburizing temperature are mainly the required time of carburizing.Materials Heat Treatment During Case Hardening of Case Hardening Steels Heat treatment during case hardening of case hardening steels acc.7321 1. Hardening after isothermal transformation Direct hardening from carburizing temperature Single hardening from core or case hardening temperature Hardening after isothermal transformation in the pearlite stage (e) Direct hardening after lowering to hardening temperature Single hardening after intermediate annealing (soft annealing) (d) Hardening after isothermal transformation in the pearlite stage (e) and cooling-down to room temperature Double hardening a b c d e carburizing temperature hardening temperature tempering temperature intermediate annealing (soft annealing) temperature tem erature transformation temperature in the pearlite stage Usual case hardening temperatures Material a Number 1.7015 1. carburizing usually is carried out at temperatures below 950 °C. the chosen carburizing agent.7147 1.5919 1. 2) In case of direct hardening. the provided course of process. In special cases. as well as the required structural constitution. as well as on the effect of the quenchant.

Table of Contents Section 9 Lubricating Oils Viscosity-Temperature-Diagram for Mineral Oils Viscosity-Temperature-Diagram for Synthetic Oils of Poly-α-Olefine Base Viscosity-Temperature-Diagram for Synthetic Oils of Polyglycole Base Kinematic Viscosity and Dynamic Viscosity Viscosity Table for Mineral Oils Page 80 81 82 83 84 9 Siemens MD · 2009 79 .

Lubricating Oils Viscosity-Temperature-Diagram for Mineral Oils Viscosity-temperature-diagram for mineral oils 9 Kinematic viscosity (mm2/s) Temperature (°C) 80 Siemens MD · 2009 .

Lubricating Oils Viscosity-Temperature-Diagram for Synthetic Oils of Poly-α-Olefine Base Viscosity-temperature-diagram for synthetic oils of poly-α-olefine base Kinematic viscosity (mm2/s) 9 Temperature (°C) Siemens MD · 2009 81 .

Lubricating Oils Viscosity-Temperature-Diagram for Synthetic Oils of Polyglycole Base Viscosity-temperature-diagram for synthetic oils of polyglycole base 9 Kinematic viscosity (mm2/s) Temperature (°C) 82 Siemens MD · 2009 .

905 0.897 0.0007 t [°C]: r15 [kg/dm3]: r [kg/dm3]: υ [cSt]: η [Ns/m2]: temperature density at 15 °C density kinematic viscosity dynamic viscosity W (1) (2) 1) slope thermodynamic temperature auxiliary quantity at 40 °C auxiliary quantity kinematic viscosity (3) (4) 9 Density r15 in kg/dm3 of lubricating oils for gear units VG grade ARAL Degol BG Plus MOBIL Mobilgear 600 XP MOBIL Mobilgear XMP CASTROL Optigear BM CASTROL Tribol 1100 2) (Example) 320 460 0.1775 W = m (2.923 0.890 0.2143 3.909 0.896 0.49575 – lgT) + W40 u + 10 10 * 0.8 m [-]: T [K]: W40 [-]: W [-]: υ [cSt]: 1) T = t + 273.888 100 0.3201 3.910 0.7664 3. They are suitable for operating temperatures from -10 °C up to +90 °C (briefly +100 °C).880 – 0.22278 0.908 2) Mineral base gear oils in accordance with designation CLP as per DIN 51517 Part 3.916 68 – 0.2958 3.915 0.4020 3.39900 0.890 0.3151 3.930 0.50192 m [–] 3.5562 3.30178 0. Siemens MD · 2009 83 .880 0.902 0.Lubricating Oils Kinematic Viscosity and Dynamic Viscosity for Mineral Oils at any Temperature Kinematic viscosity υ Quantities for the determination of the kinematic viscosity VG grade 32 46 68 100 150 220 320 460 680 1000 1500 W40 [–] 0.895 0.42540 0.904 680 0.45225 0.897 220 0.900 0.890 0.18066 0.900 0. 0. These oils comply with the minimum requirements as specified in DIN 51517 Part 3.890 0.4610 3.892 0.15 [K] Dynamic viscosity η η = υ .36990 0.001 r = r15 − (t – 15) .26424 0.892 150 0.47717 0.905 0.33813 0.6214 3.920 0.900 0. 0.903 0.917 0. r .7231 3.893 0.897 0.888 0.

5 50 90 320 460 680 1000 1500 1340 2060 3270 5170 8400 320 460 680 1000 1500 180 250 360 510 740 24 33 47 67 98 24 30 40 50 1484 2132 3152 6 6 EP 6.7 E) 12 (2 E) 21 (3 E) 34 55 88 16 25 46 36 68 49 100 150 68 92 114 144 169 225 324 345 550 219 137 80 W 9 220 865 220 125 16 19 1020 5 5 EP 5.5 85 8. viscosities in mm2/s (cSt) at 40 °C cSt 46 4.5 35 3. Saybolt assignment universal to AGMA seconds lubricant motor(SSU) N° at car motor ° C at 40 100 °C 40 °C gear oils (mean 1) oils value) cSt 15 1.4 15 W 20 W 20 30 85 W 40 70 W 75 W 5W 1) SAE SAE 5 7 10 15 22 32 2 4 9 – 8 (1.5 11 15 214 316 464 696 1 EP 2 2 EP 2.3 14 1. Approx. assignment to previous 20 °C DIN 51502 cSt Mean viscosity (40 °C) and approx.0 25 2.4 17 1.6 68 6.8 10 15 22 32 46 68 100 150 50 °C cSt 4 5 8 11 15 21 30 43 61 90 Engler 13 1.5 65 6.3 EP 4 4 EP 4.9 23 2.5 20 2.5 45 4.3 3 4 6 8 12 Approx.5 10 W 55 5.6 7 EP 8 EP 140 250 65 1) Approximate comparative value to ISO VG grades 84 Siemens MD · 2009 .7 19 1.Lubricating Oils Viscosity Table for Mineral Oils ISO-VG ISO VG DIN 51519 A rox.2 3.

Table of Contents Section 10 Cylindrical Gear Units Symbols and Units General Introduction Page 86 + 87 88 88 88 89 89 90 91 91 91 92 93 93 93 94 95 – 97 98 + 99 99 + 100 100 + 101 102 102 102 102 102 103 103 103 + 104 104 104 – 106 106 106 106 + 107 Geometry of Involute Gears Concepts and Parameters Associated With Involute Teeth Standard Basic Rack Tooth Profile Module Tool Reference Profile Generating Tooth Flanks Concepts and Parameters Associated With Cylindrical Gears Geometric Definitions Pitches Addendum Modification Concepts and Parameters Associated With a Cylindrical Gear Pair Terms Mating Quantities Contact Ratios Summary of the Most Important Formulae Gear Teeth Modifications Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears Scope of Application and Purpose Basic Details General Factors Application Factor Dynamic Factor Face Load Factor Transverse Load Factor Tooth Flank Load Carrying Capacity Effective Hertzian Pressure Permissible Hertzian Pressure Tooth Root Load Carrying Capacity Effective Tooth Root Stress Permissible Tooth Root Stress Safety Factors Calculation Example Gear Unit Types Standard Designs Load Sharing Gear Units Comparisons Load Value Referred Torques Efficiencies Example 107 107 107 + 108 108 109 + 110 110 110 111 + 112 112 112 + 113 113 113 + 114 114 10 Noise Emitted by Gear Units Definitions Measurements Determination via Sound Pressure Determination via Sound Intensity Prediction Possibilities of Influencing Siemens MD · 2009 85 .

compression Pitch on the reference circle Pitch on the base circle Normal base pitch Normal base pitch at a point Normal transverse pitch Axial pitch Transverse base pitch. reference circle pitch Protuberance value on the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Machining allowance on the cylindrical gear tooth flanks Reference circle radius.Cylindrical Gear Units Symbols and Units for Cylindrical Gear Units a mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm Hz mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm Centre distance Reference centre distance Facewidth Bottom clearance between standard basic rack tooth profile and counter profile Reference diameter Tip diameter Base diameter Root diameter Pitch diameter Spacewidth on the reference cylinder Spacewidth on the standard basic rack tooth profile Frequency Length of path of contact Tooth depth Addendum Addendum of the standard basic rack tooth profile Addendum of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Dedendum Dedendum of the standard basic rack tooth profile Dedendum of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Tooth depth of the standard basic rack tooth profile Tooth depth of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Protuberance height of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Working depth of the standard basic rack tooth profile and the counter profile Addendum modification factor Module Normal module Transverse module n p p pbt pe pen pet pex pt prP0 q r ra rb rw s san sp sP0 u v w x xE z A As BL min-1 N/mm2 mm mm mm mm mm mm mm Speed Pressure. radius Tip radius Base radius Radius of the working pitch circle Tooth thickness on the reference circle Tooth thickness on the tip circle Tooth thickness of the standard basic rack tooth profile Tooth thickness of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Gear ratio Circumferential speed on the reference circle Line load Addendum modification coefficient Generating addendum modification coefficient Number of teeth Gear teeth surface Tooth thickness deviation Load value Siemens MD · 2009 ad b cp d da db df dw e ep f gα h ha haP haP0 hf hfP hfP0 mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm – m/s N/mm – – – m2 mm N/mm2 10 hp hP0 hprP0 mm hwP k m mn mt mm – mm mm mm 86 .

A-weighted Nominal power driven machine rating of ZX α a αat αn αP – Size factor Transverse pressure angle at a point. Siemens MD · 2009 87 .Cylindrical Gear Units Symbols and Units for Cylindrical Gear Units D Fn Ft G HV1 KA KFα KFβ KH α KHβ Kv LpA LWA P RZ SF SH S T Yβ Yε YFS YR YX Zβ Zε ZH ZL Zv mm N N N – – – – – – – dB dB kW μm – – m2 Nm – – – – – – – – – – Construction dimension Load Nominal peripheral force at the reference circle Weight Vickers hardness at F = 9. A-weighted Sound power level. pressure angle Angle α in the circular measure ǒa + a @ p ń180Ǔ Transverse pressure angle at the tip circle Normal pressure angle Pressure angle at a point of the standard basic rack tooth profile Pressure angle at a point of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Protuberance pressure angle at a point Transverse pressure angle at the reference circle Working transverse pressure angle at the pitch circle Helix angle at the reference circle Base helix angle Transverse contact ratio Overlap ratio Total contact ratio Working angle of the involute Efficiency Radius of curvature Tip radius of curvature of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Root radius of curvature of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Effective Hertzian pressure Allowable stress number for contact stress Allowable Hertzian pressure Effective tooth root stress Bending stress number Allowable tooth root stress Lubricating oil viscosity at 40 °C Degree rad Degree Degree Degree αP0 Degree αprP0 Degree αt αwt β βb εα εβ εγ ζ η r raP0 rfP0 σH Degree Degree Degree Degree – – – Mean peak-to-valley height Factor of safety from tooth breakage Factor of safety from pitting Enveloping surface Torque Helix angle factor Contact ratio factor Tip factor Roughness factor Size factor Helix angle factor Contact ratio factor Zone factor Lubricant factor Speed factor Degree – mm mm 10 mm N/mm2 σHlim N/mm2 σHP σF σFlim σFP υ40 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 mm2/s Note: The unit rad ( = radian ) may be replaced by 1.81 N Application factor Transverse load factor (for tooth root stress) Face load factor (for tooth root stress) Transverse load factor (for contact stress) Face load factor (for contact stress) Dynamic factor Sound pressure level.

As a rule.1. i.4. the tooth depth by hP = 2 m + cP. – The bottom clearance cP between basic rack tooth profile and counter profile is 0.2 Geometry of involute gears The most important concepts and parameters associated with cylindrical gears and cylindrical gear pairs with involute teeth in accordance with DIN 3960 are represented in sections 1. gear units have the best efficiencies. for example.1 Standard basic rack tooth profile The standard basic rack tooth profile is the normal section through the teeth of the basic rack which is produced from an external gear tooth system with an infinitely large diameter and an infinitely large number of teeth.Cylindrical Gear Units General Introduction Geometry of Involute Gears 1. gear units with case hardened gears have higher power capacities. 1.1 to 1. have quenched and tempered or nitrided gears. to DIN 867) 88 Siemens MD · 2009 . Further.2. From figure 1 follows: – The flanks of the standard basic rack tooth profile are straight lines and are located symmetrically below the pressure angle at a point αP to the tooth centre line.1 Introduction In the industry. – Between module m and pitch p the relation is p = πm. which. Compared with other tooth profiles. Load sharing gear units mostly have one input and one output shaft. – The working depth of basic rack tooth profile and counter profile is hwP = 2 m. output torques can be doubled or tripled in comparison with gear units without load sharing. – The nominal dimensions of tooth thickness and spacewidth on the datum line are equal.2. they require less space for the same speeds and torques.2. In industrial gear units mainly involute gears are used.2.e. – The addendum is fixed by haP = m. /1/ 1. H Good availability on the market.1 m up to 0. H Uniform transmission of motion even in case of centre distance errors from the nominal value. In comparison with other gear units. H Generating different tooth profiles and centre distances with the same number of teeth by means of the same tool by addendum modification. mainly gear units with case hardened and fine-machined gears are used for torque and speed adaptation of prime movers and driven machines. the technical and economical advantages are basically: H Simple manufacture with straight-sided flanked tools. i.e. an infinitely variable change-speed gear unit with primary or secondary gear stages presents the most economical solution even in case of variable speed control. 10 Tip line Counter profile Datum line Standard basic rack tooth profile Root line Fillet Tooth root surface Tooth centre line Figure 1 Basic rack tooth profiles for involute teeth of cylindrical gears (acc. H The same tool for all numbers of teeth. Inside the gear unit the load is distributed and then brought together again on the output shaft gear.4 m. sP = eP = p/2. the tooth flanks are fine-machined by grinding (or removing material by means of shaping or generating tools coated with mechanically resistant material). H Advanced stage of development. After carburising and hardening. Motion is transmitted without slip at constant speed.1 Concepts and parameters associated with involute teeth 1. Cylindrical gear units 1. H The direction of the normal force of teeth remains constant during meshing. The uniform sharing of the load between the individual branches is achieved by special design measures. the dedendum by hfP = m + cP and thus. When load sharing gear units are used.

leads to warping of the teeth and growing of the root and tip circles. and for finishmachining tools sP0 = p / 2. The pre-machining tool generates the root diameter and the fillet on a cylindrical gear. On the tool. Between pre. For a helical gear with helix angle β on the reference circle. In order to prevent the tip circle of the mating gear from touching the fillet it is necessary that a check for meshing interferences is carried out on the gear pair. normally it does not touch the root circle – like on the tooth profile in figure 3a. The finish-machining tool removes the machining allowance on the flanks. To avoid this.1.3 Tool reference profile The tool reference profile according to figure 2a is the counter profile of the standard basic rack tooth profile according to figure 1.5 1. the tooth thickness for pre-machining tools is sP0 < p / 2. The pre-machining tool leaves on both flanks of the teeth a machining allowance q for finishmachining. For industrial gear units. Table 1 Selection of some modules m in mm (acc. The tooth thickness sP0 of the tool on the tool datum line depends on the stage of machining. They generate a root undercut on the gear.2 Module The module m of the standard basic rack tooth profile is the module in the normal section mn of the gear teeth. Especially for cylindrical gears with a relatively large number of teeth or a small module there is a risk of generating a notch in the root on finishmachining.5 3 3.75 2 2.1. figure 3c. to DIN 780) Series 1 Series 2 1 1.and finish-machining. On cylindrical gears with small modules one often accepts on purpose a notch in the root if its distance to the root circle is large enough and thus the tooth root load carrying capacity is not impaired by a notch effect. Therefore.Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears 1. the transverse module in a transverse section is mt = mn / cosβ.5 4 4. as well as the tip radius of curvature raP0 must be so dimensioned that the active tooth profile on the gear will not be reduced and the tooth root will not be weakened too much. In order to limit the number of the required gear cutting tools. as a rule. see figure 3b. For a spur gear β = 0 and the module is m = mn = mt. as a rule. module m has been standardized in preferred series 1 and 2.25 1. however.5 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 25 32 28 1.2. protuberance value prP0. see table 1. cylindrical gears are subjected to a heat treatment which. protuberance pressure angle at a point αprP0.2. /1/ 10 a) Tool datum line b) Protuberance flank Figure 2 Reference profiles of gear cutting tools for involute teeth of cylindrical gears a) For pre-machining and finish-machining b) For pre-machining with root undercut (protuberance) Siemens MD · 2009 89 . the pressure angle at a point of the tool reference profile αP0 = αP is 20°. pre-machining tools are provided with protuberance flanks as shown in figure 2b.

The involute which is always lying in a transverse section. A straight line inclined by a base helix angle βb to the envelope line in the developed envelope is the generator of an involute surface (involute helicoid) of a helical gear. figure 4. and the angle ζ = a + invα = tanα tanα is termed working angle. 10 Developed envelope line Generator Developed base cylinder envelope Involute of base cylinder Figure 4 Base cylinder with involute helicoid and generator Figure 5 Involute in a transverse section Siemens MD · 2009 90 .2. The angle invα is termed involute function.4 Generating tooth flanks With the development of the envelope.1. an envelope line of the base cylinder with the base diameter db generates the involute surface of a spur gear.and finish-machining a) Pre. figure 5. is described by the transverse Base cylinder envelope line Involute of base cylinder Involute helicoid Base cylinder Involute pressure angle at a point α and radius r in the equations invα = tanα − a r = rb / cosα (1) (2) rb = db / 2 is the base radius.and finish-machining down to the root circle b) Pre-machining with root undercut (protuberance) c) Finish-machining with notch 1.Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears Pre-machining Finish-machining Machining allowance q Root undercut a) b) Notch c) Figure 3 Tooth profiles of cylindrical gears during pre.

Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears 1. see figure 13. The reference circle is the intersection of the reference cylinder with a plane of transverse section. da.2. π · d = p · z. thus pet = pbt = π · db / z. The base diameter db is given by the reference diameter d. Many geometric quantities of the cylindrical gear are referred to the reference circle. the trans- verse pressure angle at a point α in the transverse section is termed transverse pressure angle αt. at the point of intersection of the involute with the reference circle. With the number of teeth z results pt = π · d / z = π · mt. Between the base helix angle βb and the helix angle β on the reference circle the relationship is sinβb = cosαn · sinβ.2 Concepts and parameters associated with cylindrical gears 1. Therefore. Figure 7 Pitches in the transverse section of a helical gear Siemens MD · 2009 91 .2. Since mt = p / π.2. If a tangent line is put against the involute surface in the normal section at the point of intersection with the reference circle. the number of teeth z and thus also the diameters d. see figures 6 and 7. see figures 5 and 7. db. When generating tooth flanks. The normal transverse pitch pet of a helical gear is equal to the pitch on the basic circle pbt.2. and in the axial section the axial pitch pex = pet / tanβb. the straight pitch line of the tool rolls off at the reference circle.2. in the normal section the normal base pitch at a point pen = pet / cosβb is resulting from it. this is equal to the pressure angle αP0 of the tool. For a helical gear.1 Geometric definitions In figure 6 the most important geometric quantities of a cylindrical gear are shown. by db = d · cosαt. the reference circle periphery corresponds to the product of pitch p and number of teeth z. i.2 Pitches The pitch pt of a helical gear (p in the case of a spur gear) lying in a transverse section is the length of the reference circle arc between two successive right or left flanks. On a spur gear αn = αt. df are negative values. the equation for the reference diameter thus is d = mt · z. The interrelationship with the helix angle β at the reference circle is tanαn = cosβ · tanαt. Right flank Left flank Tooth trace Reference cylinder Reference circle d da df b h ha hf s Figure 6 Definitions on the cylindrical gear e p Reference diameter Tip diameter Root diameter Facewidth Tooth depth Addendum Dedendum Tooth thickness on the reference circle Spacewidth on the reference circle Pitch on the reference circle 10 1.e. In the case of internal gears. the corresponding angle is termed normal pressure angle αn. Hence.

and /4/. see figure 19.g. The distance (x · mn) between the straight pitch line and the datum line of tool is the addendum modification.2. see figure 8. a straight pitch line parallel to the datum line of tool rolls off on the reference circle.25 mn. if the datum line of tool is displaced from the reference circle towards the tip. x = 0 b) Negative addendum modification. and x is the addendum modification coefficient. x > 0 XE = x + + (3) Figure 9 Addendum modification limit xmax (intersection circle) and xmin (undercut limit) for external gears dependent on the virtual number of teeth zn (for internal gears. a) Zero addendum modification. This is true for both external and internal gears. 92 Siemens MD · 2009 . One mostly strives for a greater addendum modification on pinions than on gears in order to achieve equal tooth root carrying capacities for both gears. When falling below the lower limit xmin this results in an undercut which shortens the usable involute and weakens the tooth root. a hob). A positive addendum modification results in a greater tooth root width and thus in an increase in the tooth root carrying capacity. The addendum modification limits xmin and xmax are represented dependent on the virtual number of teeth zn = z / (cosβ · cos2βb). /3/. The addendum modification coefficient x refers to gear teeth free of backlash and deviations. see /1/ and /3/).Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears 10 1. The upper limit xmax takes into account the intersection circle of the teeth and applies to a normal crest width in the normal section of san = 0. x < 0 c) Positive addendum modification. In order to take into account tooth thickness deviation As (for backlash and manufacturing tolerances) and machining allowances q (for premachining). In the case of internal gears the tip points to the inside. one has to give the following generating addendum modification coefficient for the manufacture of a cylindrical gear: As 2mn · tan αn q mn · sin αn Datum line of tool = straight pitch line a) Straight pitch line b) Datum line of tool Straight pitch line c) Figure 8 Different positions of the datum line of tool in relation to the straight pitch line through pitch point C. An addendum modification for external gears should be carried through approximately within the limits as shown in figure 9.3 Addendum modification When generating tooth flanks on a cylindrical gear by means of a tooth-rack-like tool (e. Further criteria for the determination of addendum modification are contained in /2/. and it is negative if the datum line is displaced towards the root of the gear. In the case of small numbers of teeth this has a considerably stronger effect than in the case of larger ones.2. An addendum modification is positive.

In the case of a gear pair at reference centre distance. x1 + x2 ≠ 0. i.Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears 1. have an addendum modification x = 0.2 Mating quantities The gear ratio of a gear pair is the ratio of the number of teeth of the gear z2 to the number of teeth of the pinion z1. Figure 10 Transverse section of an external gear pair with contacting left-handed flanks In a cylindrical gear pair either the left or the right flanks of the teeth contact each other on the line of action.1 Terms The mating of two external cylindrical gears (external gears) gives an external gear pair. The subscript 1 is used for the size of the smaller gear (pinion). the centre distance is equal to the zero centre distance ad = (d1 + d2) / 2. in the case of a modified gear pair.3.e.e. One of the cylindrical gears in this case may. In the case of Siemens MD · 2009 internal gear pairs k > 0.3 Concepts and parameters associated with a cylindrical gear pair 1. The line of action with contacting left flanks in figure 10 is the tangent to the two base circles at points T1 and T2. αwt = αt. In the case of external gear pairs k < 0.2. According to figure 10 it is determined by cos αwt = db1 / dw1 = db2 / dw2. In the case of a helical internal gear pair. and the subscript 2 for the larger gear (wheel or internal gear). figure 11. both gears have as addendum modification coefficient x1 = x2 = 0 (zero gears). the tip diameters of both gears become larger (on an internal gear with negative tip diameter the absolute value becomes smaller). In the case of unmodified gear pairs and gear pairs at reference centre distance. i. which have the same circumferential speed at their mutual contact point (pitch point C). 1. The mating of an external cylindrical gear with an internal cylindrical gear (internal gear) gives an internal gear pair. The starting point A of the length of path of contact is the point at which the line of action intersects the tip circle of the driven gear. and the pitch circles are simultaneously the reference circles. The working pitch circles divide the centre distance a = rw1 + rw2 in the ratio of the tooth numbers. i. the tip diameters of both gears become smaller. then an addendum modification is to be carried out. In the case of a helical external gear pair one gear has left-handed and the other one right-handed flank direction. both gears have addendum modifications (modified gears). Changing the flanks results in a line of action each lying symmetrical in relation to the centre line through O1 O2. figure 10. 10 93 .2.3. thus u = z2 / z1. Working pitch circles with diameter dw = 2 · rw are those transverse intersection circles of a cylindrical gear pair. the working pressure angle is equal to the transverse pressure angle on the reference circle. In the case of an unmodified gear pair (a zero gear pair). and the pitch circles are not simultaneously the reference circles. In the case of both an unmodified gear pair and a gear pair at reference centre distance. The working pressure angle αwt is the transverse pressure angle at a point belonging to the working pitch circle.x2 . i. that is either right-handed or left-handed. both gears have the same flank direction. If in the case of modified gear pairs the bottom clearance cp corresponding to the standard basic rack tooth profile is to be retained (which is not absolutely necessary). the sum is not equal to zero.e. that is with x1 + x2 = 0.e. For unmodified gear pairs and gear pairs at reference centre distance.2.(x1 + x2). however. i. i. However. k = 0.e.ad) / mn . For a modified gear pair. The addendum modification factor is k = (a . The length of path of contact gα is that part of the line of action which is limited by the two tip circles of the cylindrical gears. With the common tangent on the pitch circles it includes the working pressure angle αwt. dw = d. x 1 = . and the finishing point E is the point at which the line of action intersects the tip circle of the driving gear.e. the centre distance is not equal to the zero centre distance. thus dw1 = 2 · a / (u + 1) and dw2 = 2 · a · u / (u +1).

as the ratio of the facewidth b to the axial pitch pex.Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears Driven Driven Line of action Driving Figure 11 Length of path of contact AE in the transverse section of an external gear pair A Starting point of engagement E Finishing point of engagement C Pitch point 1.3. D Individual points of contact A. The overlap ratio εβ gives the contact ratio.e. see figure 12. respectively C Pitch point 10 Length of path of contact Figure 13 Pitches in the plane of action A Starting point of engagement E Finishing point of engagement Siemens MD · 2009 94 . εα = gα / pet. the left-hand tooth pair is in the individual point of contact D while the right-hand tooth pair gets into mesh at the starting point of engagement A. In the case of helical gear pairs it is possible to achieve that always two or more pairs of teeth are in mesh simultaneously.e. εγ = εα + εβ. the load carrying capacity increases. owing to the helix of the teeth. In the case of spur gear pairs. the transverse contact ratio gives the average number of pairs of teeth meshing during the time of contact of a tooth pair. as a rule. i. see figure 13. The righthand tooth pair is in the individual point of contact B when the left-hand tooth pair leaves the mesh at the finishing point of engagement E. The total contact ratio εγ is the sum of transverse contact ratio and overlap ratio. With an increasing total contact ratio.3 Contact ratios The transverse contact ratio εα in the transverse section is the ratio of the length of path of contact gα to the normal transverse pitch pet. Along the individual length of path of contact BD one tooth pair is in mesh. i. According to figure 12.2.e. and along the double lengths of paths of contact AB and DE two pairs of teeth are simultaneously in mesh. while the generation of noise is reduced. Line of action Driving Figure 12 Single and double contact region in the transverse section of an external gear pair B. E Starting and finishing point of engagement. i. εβ = b / pex.

in exceptional cases also up to 30 degree. from the output quantities of tables 2 and 3 only the normal pressure angle αn and the gear ratio u are given.Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears 1. When designing a cylindrical gear pair for a gear stage. The number of teeth of the pinion is determined with regard to silent running and a balanced foot and flank load carrying capacity. z1 = 18 . as a rule. If a high foot load carrying capacity is required. The addendum modification limits as shown in figure 9 are to be observed.2 up to 0. On the pinion.2. also the centre distance a or ad and the gear ratio u as well as the diameters d2.35 to 0. Thus. and this for both external and internal gear pairs. β = 10 up to 15 degree is given. dw2 and the virtual number of teeth zn2 are negative. 23. da2. at approx. db2. df2.45) a..6 and from IuI > 2 the width within the range b1 = (0.4 Summary of the most important formulae Tables 2 and 3 contain the most important formulae for the determination of sizes of a cylindrical gear and a cylindrical gear pair. 10 Siemens MD · 2009 95 . The following rules for signs are to be observed: In the case of internal gear pairs the number of teeth z2 of the internal gear is a negative quantity.. Centre distance a is determined either by the required power to be transmitted or by the constructional conditions. the number may be reduced to z1 = 10. For the helix angle. the addendum modification coefficient should be within the range of x1 = 0.

Transverse base pitch mt = mn cosβ tanαn cosβ normal module normal pressure angle reference helix angle number of teeth *) addendum modification coefficient generating addendum modification coefficient. see table 3) Root diameter Base diameter Transverse pitch Transverse pitch on path of contact. 96 . see equation (1). see equation (3) addendum of the tool Formula tanαt = sinβb = sinβ · cosαn d = mt · z da = d + 2 mn (1 + x + k) df = d – 2 (haP0 – mn · xE) db = d · cosαt pt = π·d = π · mt z π · db = pt · cosαt z pet = pbt = 10 Transverse pressure angle at tip circle Transverse tooth thickness on the pitch circle Normal tooth thickness on the pitch circle Transverse tooth thickness on the addendum circle Virtual number of teeth cos αat = db da π + 2 · x · tanαn) 2 st = mt ( sn = st · cosβ sat = da ( dt z s + invαt – invαat) **) zn = cosβ · cos2βb **) For invα.Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears Table 2 Parameters for a cylindrical gear *) Output quantities: mm mn degree αn β degree z – x – – xE mm haP0 Item Transverse module Transverse pressure angle Base helix angle Reference diameter Tip diameter (for k. Siemens MD · 2009 *) For an internal gear. z is to be used as a negative quantity.

Item Gear ratio Working transverse pressure angle (“a” given) Sum of the addendum modification coefficients Working transverse pressure angle (x1 + x2 given) Centre distance u = z2 z1 mt 2·a (z1 + z2) cosαt Formula cosαwt = x1 + x2 = z1 + z 2 2 · tanαn (invαwt – invαt) invαwt = 2 mt 2 mt 2 x1 + x2 tanαn + invαt z1 + z2 cosαt cosαwt = d1 + d2 2 a = (z1 + z2) Reference centre distance ad = (z1 + z2) Addendum modification factor **) Working pitch circle diameter of the pinion Working pitch circle diameter of the gear Length of path of contact k = a – ad – (x1 + x2) mn 2 · a = d cosαt 1 cosαwt u+1 cosαt 2·a·u = d2 u+1 cosαwt dw1 = dw2 = 10 da22 – db22 gα = 1 2 ( da12 – db12 + u IuI ) – a · sinαwt Transverse contact ratio εα = gα pet b · tanβb pet b = min (b1. Siemens MD · 2009 97 .Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears Table 3 Parameters for a cylindrical gear pair *) Output quantities: The parameters for pinion and wheel according to table 2 must be given.2. further the facewidths b1 and b2. b2) Overlap ratio εβ = Total contact ratio εγ = εα + εβ *) For internal gear pairs. as well as either the centre distance a or the sum of the addendum modification coefficients x1 + x2.2. z2 and a are to be used as negative quantities.3. **) See subsection 1.

a high load utilization of the gear units is possible. contact patterns which do not cover the entire tooth depth and Bending Torsion Manufacturing deviation Bearing deformation Housing deformation Running-in wear Effective tooth trace deviation Fβ = Σf-yβ Load distribution across the facewidth w Figure 15 Deformations and manufacturing deviations on a gear unit shaft In figure 16. d Tooth pair getting into engagement Further. making the noise generating levels increase in the lower part load range. In the case of profile correction. Root relief may be applied instead of tip relief which. This results in skewing of the tooth flanks which often amounts considerably higher than the tooth trace deviations caused by manufacture. the flanks on pinion and wheel are relieved at the tips by an amount equal to the length they are protruding at the entering and leaving sides due to the bending deflection of the teeth.1 to 1. b Tooth pair being in engagement c. Under partial load. In order to restore the high load carrying capacity of case hardened gears and reduce the generation of noise.2.4 refer to non-deviating cylindrical gears. 6. see figure 15. the load causes bending and twisting of pinion and wheel shaft. as well as settling of bearings. Because of the high-tensile gear materials. This leads to meshing interferences at the entering and leaving sides.5 Gear teeth modifications The parameters given in the above subsections 1. however. as a rule. pinion and wheel body. Non-uniform load carrying occurs along the face width which also has a negative effect on the load carrying capacity and generation of noise. There is a negative effect on the load carrying capacity and generation of noise.2. This has to be taken into consideration especially in the case of checks of contact patterns carried out under low loads.. Noticeable deformations of the elastic gear unit components result from it. Wheel Line of action Pinion Figure 14 Cylindrical gear pair under load 1 Driving gear 2 Driven gear a. Thus. In the case of modified gear teeth. The running-in wear of case hardened gears amounts to a few micrometers only and cannot compensate the mentioned deviations. however. however.2. 100% of the permanently acting nominal load – /5. At low partial load. The deflection at the tooth tips is.Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears 1. With increasing load. the local maximum load rise is always lower than the theoretical uniform load distribution under full load. is much more expensive. a gradual load increase is achieved on the tooth Siemens MD · 2009 10 98 . 7/. The load-related form corrections are calculated and made for one load only – as a rule for 70 . the contact ratio is reduced under partial load because of incomplete carrying portions. see figure 14. the carrying portions and thus the contact ratio increase so that the generating levels drop. Gear pairs which are only slightly loaded do not require any modification. intentional deviations from the involute (profile correction) and from the theoretical tooth trace (longitudinal correction) are produced in order to attain nearly ideal geometries with uniform load distribution under load again. a multiple of the manufacturing form errors. usual profile and longitudinal corrections are illustrated.. facewidth are achieved. and housing deformations.

**Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears
**

getting into engagement, and a load reduction on the tooth leaving the engagement. In the case of longitudinal correction, the tooth trace relief often is superposed by a symmetric longitudinal crowning. With it, uniform load carrying along the facewidth and a reduction in load concentration at the tooth ends during axial displacements is attained.

Profile correction

Longitudinal correction

Figure 16 Gear teeth modifications designed for removing local load increases due to deformations under nominal load 1.3 Load carrying capacity of involute gears 1.3.1 Scope of application and purpose The calculation of the load carrying capacity of cylindrical gears is generally carried out in accordance with the calculation method according to DIN 3990 /8/ (identical with ISO 6336) which takes into account pitting, tooth root bending stress and scoring as load carrying limits. Because of the relatively large scope of standards, the calculation in accordance with this method may be carried out only by using EDP programs. As a rule, gear unit manufacturers have such a tool at hand. The standard work is the FVA-Stirnradprogramm /9/ which includes further calculation methods, for instance, according to Niemann, AGMA, DNV, LRS, and others. In DIN 3990, different methods A, B, C ... are suggested for the determination of individual factors, where method A is more exact than method B, etc. The application standard /10/ according to DIN 3990 is based on simplified methods. Because of its – even though limited – universal validity it still is relatively time-consuming. The following calculation method for pitting resistance and tooth strength of case-hardened cylindrical gears is a further simplification if compared with the application standard, however, without losing some of its meaning. Certain conditions must be adhered to in order to attain high load carrying capacities which also results in preventing scuffing. Therefore, a calculation of load carrying capacity for scuffing will not be considered in the following.

Siemens MD · 2009

It has to be expressly emphasized that for the load carrying capacity of gear units the exact calculation method – compared with the simplified one – is always more meaningful and therefore is exclusively decisive in borderline cases. Design, selection of material, manufacture, heat treatment, and operation of industrial gear units are subject to certain rules which lead to a long service life of the cylindrical gears. Those rules are: – Gear teeth geometry acc. to DIN 3960; – Cylindrical gears out of case-hardened steel; Tooth flanks in DIN quality 6 or better, fine machined; – Quality of material and heat treatment proved by quality inspections acc. to DIN 3990 /11/; – Effective case depth after carburizing according to instructions /12/ with surface hardnesses of 58 ... 62 HRC; – Gears with required tooth corrections and without harmful notches in the tooth root; – Gear unit designed for fatigue strength, i.e. life factors ZNT = YNT = 1.0; – Flank fatigue strength σHlim y 1200 N/mm2; – Subcritical operating range, i.e. pitch circle velocity lower than approx. 35 m/s; – Sufficient supply of lubricating oil; – Use of prescribed gear oils of criteria stage 12 acc. to the gear rig test by the FZG-method and sufficient grey staining load capacity; – Maximum operating temperature 95 °C.

10

99

Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears

If these requirements are met, a number of factors can be definitely given for the calculation of the load carrying capacity according to DIN 3990, so that the calculation procedure is partly considerably simplified. Non-observance of the above requirements, however, does not necessarily mean that the load carrying capacity is reduced. In case of doubt one should, however, carry out the calculation in accordance with the more exact method. 1.3.2 Basic details The calculation of the load carrying capacity is

based on the nominal torque of the driven machine. Alternatively, one can also start from the nominal torque of the prime mover if this corresponds with the torque requirement of the driven machine. In order to be able to carry out the calculation for a cylindrical gear stage, the details listed in table 4 must be given in the units mentioned in the table. The geometric quantities are calculated according to tables 2 and 3. Usually, they are contained in the workshop drawings for cylindrical gears.

Table 4 Basic details Abbreviation P n1 a mn da1 da2 b1 b2 z1 Power rating Pinion speed Centre distance Normal module Tip diameter of the pinion Tip diameter of the wheel Facewidth of the pinion Facewidth of the wheel Number of teeth of the pinion Number of teeth of the wheel Addendum modification coefficient of the pinion Addendum modification coefficient of the wheel Normal pressure angle Reference helix angle Kinematic viscosity of lubricating oil at 40 °C Peak-to-valley height on pinion flank Peak-to-valley height on wheel flank Meaning Unit kW min-1 mm mm mm mm mm mm – – – – Degree Degree mm2 / s μm μm

Siemens MD · 2009

10

z2 x1 x2 αn β υ40 Rz1 Rz2

100

Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears

In the further course of the calculation, the quantities listed in table 5 are required. They are derived from the basic details according to table 4.

Table 5 Derived quantities Designation Gear ratio Reference diameter of the pinion Transverse tangential force at pinion reference circle Transverse tangential force at pitch circle Circumferential speed at reference circle Base helix angle Virtual number of teeth of the pinion Virtual number of teeth of the wheel Transverse module Transverse pressure angle Working transverse pressure angle Transverse pitch Base diameter of the pinion Base diameter of the wheel Length of path of contact Transverse contact ratio Overlap ratio

Siemens MD · 2009

Relation u = z2 / z1 d1 = z1 · mn / cosβ Ft = 6 · 107 P · π d1 · n1 d1 (u + 1) 2·a

Unit – mm

N

F u = Ft ·

N

v = π · d1 · n1 / 60000 βb = arc sin (cosαn · sinβ) zn1 = z1 / (cosβ · cos2βb) zn2 = z2 / (cosβ · cos2βb) mt = mn / cosβ αt = arc tan (tanαn / cosβ) αwt = arc cos [(z1 + z2) mt · cosαt / (2 · a)] pet = π · mt · cosαt db1 = z1 · mt · cosαt db2 = z2 · mt · cosαt gα = 1 2

m/s Degree –

– mm Degree Degree

10

mm mm

mm u

IuI

(

da12 – db12 +

da22 – db22

) – a · sinαwt

mm –

εα = gα / pet εβ = b · tanβb / pet b = min (b1, b2)

–

101

Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears 1. Under such conditions.00 Heavy shock loads 1.18 (b / d1)2 + 0. the masses and stiffness of the system.50 Moderate shock loads 1. Face load factor KFβ for the determination of increased tooth root stress can approximately be deduced from face load factor KHβ according to the relation KFβ = ( KHβ) 0.3.9 (6) with b = min (b1.25 1.5 and 2.25. for the face load factors for gears without longitudinal correction the values may lie between 1. Under the conditions as laid down in subsection 1. it is calculated from Kv = 1 + 0. additional internal dynamic forces caused in the meshing are taken into consideration.00 1.75 Average shock loads 1. see subsection 1. the face load factor can be calculated according to method D in accordance with /8/ dependent on facewidth b and reference diameter d1 of the pinion. are not exact. b2). as well as the couplings. 40 to 50%. he makes longitudinal corrections in order to 1.3. If required.60 1. and a directly made longitudinal correction by approx.3.0 by approx. If possible.0003 · z1 · v u2 1 + u2 (4) 10 1. Taking z1.3.0 (7) 102 Siemens MD · 2009 . the result for surface stress and for tooth root stress according to method B in accordance with /8/ is KHα = KFα = 1.1 Application factor With the application factor KA.10 1. In the case of slim shafts with gears arranged on one side. As a rule.3 General factors 1. all additional forces acting on the gears from external sources are taken into consideration.15 + 0..5. as a consequence of which estimations made to be on the safe side mostly result in higher factors.75 1. For normal cylindrical gear teeth without longitudinal correction. v and u from tables 4 and 5. it can be determined by means of different methods.0003 · b (5) attain uniform load carrying over the facewidth. the factor KA should be determined by means of a careful measurement or a comprehensive analysis of the system. 1.00 or higher 2. According to /8/. The application factor is determined by the service classification of the individual gear.3. Since very often it is not possible to carry out the one or other method without great expenditure.0 and in extreme cases even at 2.3.25 1..5. or in the case of lateral forces or moments acting on the shafts from external sources.3. Simple methods. Table 6 Application factor KA Working mode of prime mover Uniform Moderate shock loads Average shock loads Heavy shock loads Working mode of the driven machine Uniform 1.3. reference values are given in table 6 which equally apply to all gears in a gear unit. the gear unit manufacturer carries out an analysis of the load distribution over the facewidth in accordance with an exact calculation method /13/.2.1 . the face load factor lies within the range of KHβ = 1.3.1.4 Transverse load factors The transverse load factors KHα and KFα take into account the effect of the non-uniform distribution of load between several pairs of simultaneously contacting gear teeth. It is dependent on the characteristics of the driving and driven machines.50 1.50 1. as follows: KHβ = 1. and the operating conditions. Exact methods based on comprehensive measurements or calculations or on a combination of both are very expensive.2 Dynamic factor With the dynamic factor Kv. however. 60 to 70%.3 Face load factor The face load factor KHβ takes into account the increase in the load on the tooth flanks caused by non-uniform load distribution over the facewidth.25 or higher 1.75 2.35 1. As a rough rule applies: A sensibly selected crowning symmetrical in length reduces the amount of KHβ lying above 1.3.85 2.

to equation (4) KHβ Face load factor acc. to eq (10) or (11) With ß according to table 4 applies: Zβ = cosβ (9) With εα and εβ according to table 5 applies: Zε = ε 4 – εα (1 – εβ) + β for εβ < 1 εα 3 (10) Zε = 1 εα for εβ y 1 (11) Figure 17 Zone factor ZH depending on helix angle β as well as on the numbers of teeth z1. to table 6 Kv Dynamic factor acc. It must not exceed the permissible Hertzian pressure σHP . see table 4.25 10 1.4.Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears 1.4.91 + 0. to table 5 KA Application factor acc.3.2 Permissible Hertzian pressure The permissible Hertzian pressure is determined by σHP = ZL Zv ZX ZR ZW σHlim SH (12) σHP permissible Hertzian pressure in N/mm2. σH x σHP . Zv. σH = ZE ZH Zβ Zε 1.3.e. u. ZE = 190 N/mm2 for gears out of steel ZH Zone factor acc. pinion and wheel and are determined in the following. d1 acc. i. For pinion and wheel the same effective Hertzian pressure σH is assumed.1 Effective Hertzian pressure The effective Hertzian pressure is dependent on the load. to figure 17 Zβ Helix angle factor acc.4 Tooth flank load carrying capacity The calculation of surface durability against pitting is based on the Hertzian pressure at the pitch circle. It is of different size for pinion and wheel if the strengths of materials σHlim are different. z2.3. The lubricant factor is computed from the lubricating oil viscosity υ40 according to table 4 using the following formula: ZL = 0. to eq (7) ZE Elasticity factor. ZR. and for pinion and wheel is equally derived from the equation KA Kv KHα KHβ u+1 Ft u d1 · b (8) σH Effective Hertzian pressure in N/mm2 Further: b Common facewidth of pinion and wheel Ft. and addendum modification coefficients x1. x2. to eq (5) KHα Transverse load factor acc. Factors ZL. ZW and ZX are the same for Siemens MD · 2009 (1 + 112 ) 2 υ40 (13) 103 . to eq (9) Zε Contact ratio factor acc.

05 – 0. σF < σFP . from ZR = [ 0. to equation (4) KFβ Face load factor acc. Flank hardness HV1 1. to figure 19.157 40 1+ v sF = KA Kv KFα KFβ · (14) Ft · YFS Yβ Yε (18) b · mn σF Effective tooth root stress in N/mm2 The roughness factor can be determined as a function of the mean peak-to-valley height RZ = (RZ1 + RZ2) / 2 of the gear pair as well as the gear ratio u and the reference diameter d1 of the pinion. b2 Facewidths of pinion and wheel acc. depending on the surface hardness HV1 of the tooth flanks and the material quality.513 R z 3 (1 + IuI) d1 ] 0. (17) 10 σHlim Endurance strength of the gear material. Ft acc. the following applies using the circumferential speed v according to table 5: Zv = 0. Tip factors acc. the work hardening factor is ZW = 1. SH Required safety factor against pitting.3. see subsection 1.6. ML modest demands on the material quality MQ normal demands on the material quality ME high demands on the material quality.e.3. to tables 4 and 5 KA Application factor acc. They are calculated from the following equation: Figure 18 Allowable stress number for contact stress σHlim of alloyed case hardening steels. If the facewidths of pinion and wheel are different. case hardened.3.Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears For the speed factor. They account YFS2 for the complex stress condition inclusive of the notch effect in the root fillet.08 (15) The following factors are of equal size for pinion and wheel: mn.93 + 0.9 x ZX x 1.3.1 Effective tooth root stress As a rule. it may be assumed that the load bearing width of the wider facewidth is equal to the smaller facewidth plus such extension of the wider that does not exceed one times the module at each end of the teeth. case hardened. see table on page 77. to eq (19) Helix angle factor acc. figure 18 shows a range from 1300 .1. For a gear pair with the same tooth flank hardness on pinion and wheel. to table 4.5. the load-dependent tooth root stresses for pinion and wheel are different. material quality MQ may be selected for pinion and wheel.0 (16) The size factor is computed from module mn according to table 4 using the following formula: ZX = 1. see tables 4 and 5.. i. to equation (6) KFα Transverse load factor acc. to table 6 Kv Dynamic factor acc. Under the conditions as described in subsection 1. YFS1. to eq (20) Yβ The following factors are of different size for pinion and wheel: b1..005 mn with the restriction 0. to eq (7) Yε Contact ratio factor acc. 1650 N/mm2 depending on the surface hardness of the tooth flanks and the quality of the material. see /11/ Siemens MD · 2009 104 . 1.5 Tooth strength The maximum load in the root fillet at the 30degree tangent is the basis for rating the tooth strength. For gears made out of case hardening steel. For pinion and wheel it shall be shown separately that the effective tooth root stress σF does not exceed the permissible tooth root stress σFP .

The following only approximately applies to internal gears: YFS = YFS∞ (≈ value for x = 1.025 · mn αn = 20 degree ha0 = 1.4 · mn ra0 = 0. Siemens MD · 2009 105 .25 · mn αpr0 = 10 degree pr0 = 0. see tables 4 and 5.35 · mn ra0 = 0.2 · mn αn = 20 degree YFS ha0 = 1.4 · mn ra0 = 0.0205 · mn 10 Figure 19 Tip factor YFS for external gears with standard basic rack tooth profile acc.3 · mn αpr0 = 10 degree pr0 = 0. to DIN 867 depending on the number of teeth z (or zn in case of helical gears) and addendum modification coefficient x.Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears αn = 20 degree ha0 = 1.0 and z = 300).

75 · cos2β εα (19) SF Safety factor required against tooth breakage. Under the conditions according to subsection 1. case hardened. Given: Nominal power rating P = 3300 kW.3. and in most cases even higher for the cheaper preliminary stages. YST = 2. is the stress correction factor of the referYST ence test gears for the determination of the bending stress number σFlim.01 mn (23) with the restriction 0.1.310 and x2 = 0.3. with the restriction 0.0 against tooth breakage SF = 1. to table 5 follows: Yε = 0.0. depending on module mn: Figure 20 Bending stress number σFlim of alloyed case hardening steel. to table 4 and the overlap ratio εβ acc.6. ML modest demands on the material quality MQ normal demands on the material quality ME high demands on the material quality. YδrelT is the relative sensitivity factor (notch sensitivity of the material) referring to the standard reference test gear. higher safety factors are usual. tip diameter da1 = 615. numbers of teeth z1 = 25 and z2 = 47..25 εβ).8 x YX x 1.98 for 8 mm < mn x 16 mm (22) = 0. 1. σFlim Bending stress number of the gear material.. For standard reference test gears. YRrelT and YX may be approximately equal for pinion and wheel.3. (1– β/120)].05 – 0.625 x Yε x 1 Yβ = 1 – ε β · with the restriction Yβ y max. depending on the surface hardness HV1 of the tooth flanks and the material quality.00 for mn x 8 mm = 0. the safety factors are determined about 10 to 20% higher for the expensive final stages. It is not equal for pinion and wheel if the material strengths σFlim are not equal. 1.0 has been fixed in the standard.6 Safety factors The minimum required safety factors according to DIN are: against pitting SH = 1. normal module mn = 22 mm.8 μm. 520 N/mm2 is shown in figure 20 depending on the surface hardness of the tooth flanks and the material quality. [(1 .3.3. addendum modification coefficients x1 = 0. helix angle β = 10 degree. a strength pertaining to quality MQ may be used as a basis for pinion and wheel. By approximation YδrelT = 1. YδrelT.203. Factors YST. 106 . The low speed gear stage is to be calculated.96 for mn > 16 mm and for the size factor YX = 1. see table on page 77. case hardened. For multistage gear units. see /11/ 1. For gears out of case hardening steel. normal pressure angle αn = 20 degree. see subsection 1. centre distance a = 815 mm. Siemens MD · 2009 10 YRrelT = 1.0. kinematic viscosity of the lubricating oil υ40 = 320 cSt. Also for risky applications a higher safety factor is given. They are case hardened and ground with profile corrections and width-symmetrical crowning.5. In practice. The cylindrical gears are made out of the material 18CrNiMo7-6.3.Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears With the helix angle β acc. For the relative surface factor (surface roughness factor of the tooth root fillet) referring to the standard reference test gear the following applies by approximation.5 mm and da2 = 1100 mm. pinion and wheel widths b1 = 360 mm and b2 = 350 mm.2 Permissible tooth root stress The permissible tooth root stress for pinion and wheel is determined by σFP = YST YδrelT YRrelT YX σFlim (SF) (21) 18CrNiMo7-6 15CrNi6 16MnCr5 β 120 _ (20) Flank hardness HV1 σFP permissible tooth root stress in N/mm2. mean peak-tovalley roughness Rz1 = Rz2 = 4.25 + 0.7 Calculation example An electric motor drives a coal mill via a multistage cylindrical gear unit. a range from 310 . pinion speed n1 = 141 min-1.

342. These single-stage to four-stage gear units according to the modular construction system cover a wide range of speeds and torques required by the driven machines. Then. relative surface factor YRrelT = 0.20 [acc.0. the transmission ratio can be obtained from the formula i = n1 / n2 10 (24) 107 . normal transverse pitch pet = 65.4 Gear unit types 1. helix angle factor Zβ = 0.123 m/s.50 (electric motor with uniform mode of operation. Adding further gear stages in order to achieve higher transmission ratios thus does not change anything about the following fundamental description. Without taking into consideration the safety factor. speed factor ZV = 0. But there are also cases where no standard drives are used.08 and zn2 = 49. Lubricant factor ZL = 1.96. virtual numbers of teeth zn1 = 26. size factor ZX = 0. αpr0 = 10 degree.3 Comparisons In the following. transverse module mt = 22.4 mn. helix angle factor Yβ = 0. size factor YX = 0. The safety factor referring to the torque is SH2 = 1.2 Load sharing gear units In principle.94. because of symmetrical crowning the calculation may be made with a smaller value]. the permissible tooth root stresses for pinion and wheel σFP1 = σFP2 = 797 N/mm2 can be obtained from equation (21) with the bending stress number σFlim = 500 N/mm2. With the allowable stress number for contact stress (pitting) σHlim = 1500 N/mm2.485 mm.927.0. the most economical drive solution. Among others. Load carrying capacity of the tooth root: Contact ratio factor Yε = 0.992.018.852 mm and db2 = 984.18 (for ha0 = 1. The effective tooth root stresses σF1 = 537 N/mm2 for the pinion and σF2 = 540 N/mm2 for the wheel can be obtained from equation (18). Application factor KA = 1. 1. contact ratio factor Zε = 0. According to equation (8).4.842 mm. With speeds n1 and n2. relative sensitivity factor YδrelT = 1.18. 70 to 80% of the total weight and also of the manufacturing expenditure. nominal circumferential force on the reference circle Ft = 800425 N.48 and for the wheel SF2 = 797/540 = 1. Some typical features of the one or other type are described in the following.4. For common gear units the last or the last and the last but one gear stage usually come to approx. pr0 = 0. KFβ = 1.88.978. Siemens MD · 2009 The safety factors against tooth breakage referring to the torque are SF = σFP/σF: for the pinion SF1 = 797/537 = 1.83.0205 mn). special design gear units are used.244 degree.879. face load factor KHβ = 1. In figure 21. 1. Combined with a standard electric motor such gear units are.326. Load carrying capacity of the tooth flanks: Elasticity factor ZE = 190 ǸNńmm 2. to equation (5) follows KHβ = 1. circumferential speed on the reference circle v = 4. Preferably. roughness factor ZR = 1.0.28 and YFS2 = 4.041 mm. zone factor ZH = 2.391 degree.738. as a rule. however.832. In such cases. transverse contact ratio εα = 1.829 mm. first the permissible Hertzian pressure σHP = 1470 N/mm2 is determined from equation (12) without taking into account the safety factor. standard helical and bevel-helical gear units with fixed transmission ratio and size gradation are applied.027. also widely used for lower torques as they provide certain advantages in spite of the larger number of internal components. among others they are also used in standard design. dynamic factor Kv = 1.047. the Hertzian pressure for pinion and wheel is σH = 1251 N/mm2. however.3 mn. coal mill with medium shock load). The safety factor against pitting is found by SH = σHP/σH = 1470/1251 = 1. transverse pressure angle αt = 20. the output torque can be increased further only by means of load sharing in the gear unit. tip factors YFS1 = 4.284 degree.48. working transverse pressure angle αwt = 22. Stress correction factor YST = 2.Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears Gear Unit Types Calculation (values partly rounded): Gear ratio u = 1. load sharing gear units playing an important role there. the highest output torques of gear units are limited by the manufacturing facilities. ra0 = 0. base diameters db1 = 523. different types of gear units are used.0. since gear cutting machines can make gears up to a maximum diameter only. length of path of contact gα = 98.339 mm. single-stage and two-stage gear units up to a ratio of i = 16 are examined.489. shaft 1 each being the HSS and shaft 2 being the LSS.4. base helix angle βb = 9.1 Standard designs In the industrial practice.38. KHα = KFα = 1. this is true for high torques above the range of standard gear units. reference diameter of the pinion d1 = 558. overlap ratio εβ = 0. gear units without and with load sharing are shown.03. 1. work hardening factor ZW = 1. Load sharing gear units are.178.

In gear unit D the load of the high-speed gear stage is equally shared between three gears which is achieved by the radial movability of the sun gear on shaft 1. F. The large internal gear is an annulus gear which in the case of gear unit E is connected with shaft 2. According to /14/. cylindrical gears out of quenched and tempered steel BL = 1 . Gear units C. and G have two stages and are load sharing. F. Load value BL is a specific quantity and independent of the size of the cylindrical gear unit. The idler gears rotate as planets around the central axle. Siemens MD · 2009 108 . Gear units A. and G with coaxial shaft arrangement.3. as shown in /15/ (see section 1. application factor KA and factor of safety from pitting SH. the load value is the tooth peripheral force Fu referred to the pinion pitch diameter dw and the carrying facewidth b.. 1... The value of the gear ratio u is always greater than 1. double helical teeth and axial movability of the idler gears guarantee equal load distribution between six branches.Cylindrical Gear Units Gear Unit Types The diameter ratios of the gears shown in figure 21 correspond to the transmission ratio i = 7.. The following applies for practically executed gear units: cylindrical gears out of case hardening steel BL = 4 . The idler gears in gear units C and D have different diameters. i. Uniform load distribution is achieved in the highspeed gear stage by double helical teeth and the axial movability of shaft 1. planet gears and sun gears out of case hardening steel BL = 2. BL ≈ 7 · 10-6 u u+1 σ2Hlim KA · SH2 (26) 10 Gear unit A has one stage. gear unit B has two stages.. In gear units E. In the low-speed gear stage the load is shared six times altogether by means of the double helical teeth and the axial movability of the intermediate shaft. and G the sun gear on shaft 1 mostly is radially movable. In order to achieve equal load distribution between the three intermediate gears of gear units E.. F. and is negative for internal gear pairs (see table 3).5 N/mm2. web and shaft 2 form an integrated whole. 3. and C are with offset shaft arrangement. E. Size comparison to scale of gear units with the same output torque. 1. E. with BL in N/mm2 and allowable stress number for contact stress (pitting) σHlim in N/mm2 as well as gear ratio u. and in the case of gear units F and G with the housing. B. and G the idler gears of one shaft have been joined to one gear so that they are also considered to be singlestage gear units.e. BL = Fu b · dw (25) The permissible load values of the meshings of the cylindrical gear units can be computed from the pitting resistance by approximation. so that in figure 21 a size comparison to scale is illustrated.3.4.1 Load value By means of load value BL. and gear units D.5 N/mm2. using the following formula: Figure 21 Diagrammatic view of cylindrical gear unit types without and with load sharing. In gear units F and G. Gear unit C has double load sharing.0 . F. D. Both gear units are without load sharing. planetary gear stages with annulus gears out of quenched and tempered steel. it is possible to compare cylindrical gear units with different ultimate stress values of the gear materials with each other in the following examinations. In gear unit G.4). 6 N/mm2. Transmission ratio i = 7. The gear units have the same output torques.

Further explanations are given in table 7. Siemens MD · 2009 109 .Cylindrical Gear Units Gear Unit Types 1. Explanations are given in table 7 as well as in the text. referred torques for the gear units shown in figure 21 are represented. to the weight of the gear unit G when comparing the weights. and to the generated surface A of the pitch circle cylinders when comparing the gear teeth surfaces. Gear unit weight G and gear teeth surface A (= generated surface) are measures for the manufacturing cost.3. The torque T2 is referred to the construction dimension D when comparing the sizes.4.2 Referred torques In figure 22. dependent on the transmission ratio i. The higher a curve. Table 7 Referred Torques Comparison criteria Size Weight Gear teeth surface Definition δ = T2 Dimension m mm m mm2 kg mm2 m2 Units of the basic details T2 in Nm BL in N/mm2 D in mm G in kg A in m2 D3 BL T2 γ = G BL T2 A3/2 BL α = Ratio i a) Torque referred to size Ratio i b) Torque referred to gear unit weight 10 Ratio i c) Torque referred to gear teeth surface Ratio i d) Full-load efficiency Figure 22 Comparisons of cylindrical gear unit types in figure 21 dependent on the transmission ratio i. in figure 22. the better the respective gear unit in comparison with the others.

With regard to the gear teeth surface. gears without addendum modification and numbers of teeth of the pinion z = 17 are uniformly assumed for all gear units /15/. there is not enough space for the rolling bearings of the planet gears in the stage with i = 4. more planetary gear stages are to be arranged in series so that the advantage of a better efficiency compared to gear units B. have the highest torque referred to size and weight for ratios above i ≈ 7. the planet gear becomes the pinion instead of the sun gear.5. Referred to size and weight. however. that internal gears require higher manufacturing expenditure than external gears for the same quality of manufacture.Cylindrical Gear Units Gear Unit Types 10 For all gear units explained in figures 21 and 22.4. and D is lost. In addition. the output torque referred to size and weight is the most favourable for the planetary gear unit. With increasing ratio. the smaller the transmission ratio in the planetary gear stage.3. C.2 t according to figure 22 with γ = 11 m mm2/kg and is thus heavier by 67%. D. and D which only have external gear pairs. which is a total 40. The advantage is a better efficiency of η = 0.4 Example Given: Two planetary gear stages of type F arranged in series. 85% of the total power loss for common cylindrical gear units with rolling bearings. the weight for the HS stage is approximately 10. total transmission ratio i = 20.15. Gear units C and D.4. E. the construction dimension D is larger than the sum of the pitch diameters by the factor 1.3. Under full load.98. The total efficiency according to figure 22 d is η = 0. and G are lower because the power flow passes two meshings. It is to be taken into consideration. The two planetary gear stages of type F together have a power loss which is by 45% higher than that of the gear unit type D. load value BL = 2. Siemens MD · 2009 110 . however.9 t and for the LS stage approximately 30 t. so that a comparison is possible. C. Thus. the planet gear bearings are arranged in the planet carrier for ratio i < 4. F. and G show better efficiencies owing to lower sliding velocities in the meshings compared to gear units B. with a better load value BL = 4 N/mm2 this gear unit has a weight of 68. which have only external gears. planetary gear units F and G have the highest torques at small ratios i.9 t. For higher transmission ratios. Usually. Furthermore. the referred torque decreases considerably.971. figure 22d. since the housing dimensions are determined according to different points of view. At γ1 = 30 m mm2/kg and γ2 = 45 m mm2/kg according to figure 22 b. the gear unit weight G. the construction dimension D.986 · 0. load sharing gear units having external gears only are more favourable because with increasing ratio the referred torque decreases only slightly. F. the weights of modular-type gear units are usually higher. they come to approx.3 Efficiencies When comparing the efficiencies.3 N/mm2. planetary gear units do not have such big advantages if compared to load sharing gear units having external gears only. It is therefore higher than that of other comparable load sharing gear units. The single stage gear unit A has the best efficiency. Also the wall thickness of the housing is in a fixed relation to the construction dimension D /15/. 1. 1. A minimum of weight is approximately achieved by a transmission ratio division of i = 5 · 4 of the HS and LS stage. and the gear teeth surface A can be determined by approximation by figure 22 for a given transmission ratio i. output torque T2 = 3 · 106 Nm. however. The internal gear pairs in gear units E. the torque referred to the gear teeth surface is more favourable only in case of small ratios. and this all the more.06. Space requirement and load carrying capacity of the planet gear bearings decrease considerably. Similar definitions are valid for gear unit height and width. the same prerequisites are valid. With a given torque T2 and with a load value BL computed according to equation (26). C. The efficiencies of the two stage gear units B. however. For all gear units. The lossfree coupling performance of planetary gear units F and G results in a further improvement of the efficiency.985 = 0. For ratios above i = 8. only the power losses in the meshings are taken into consideration. For ratios i < 4. However. For planetary gear units. if compared with other gear units. In comparison to a gear unit of type D with the same transmission ratio i = 20 and the same output torque T2 = 3 · 106 Nm. The efficiency as a quantity of energy losses results from the following relation with the input power at shaft 1 and the torques T1 and T2 h+ 1 i Ť T2 T1 Ť (27) All gear units shown in figure 21 are based on the same coefficient of friction of tooth profile μz = 0. The comparisons show that there is no optimal gear unit available which combines all advantages over the entire transmission ratio range.

g. In general. From the gear unit power a very small part is turned into sound power. From the outside surfaces. It is dependent on the distance to the source of sound. sound powers and sound intensities of a whole system can be determined. For the sound pressure. A-weighted quantities are marked by subscript “A” (e. p0 and P0) have been determined in DIN EN ISO 1683. This mainly occurs in the meshings. 10 and for the sound power using equation LW = 10 · log(P/P0) [dB] Siemens MD · 2009 (29) 111 . Conversion of the absolute values is made for the sound pressure using equation Lp = 20 · log(p/p0) [dB] (28) The reference values (e.Cylindrical Gear Units Noise Emitted by Gear Units Level correction (dB) Correction curve A Frequency (Hz) Figure 23 Correction curve according to DIN 45635 /16/ for the A-weighted sound power level or sound pressure level 1. Measure of intensity is the sound pressure p which is the difference between the highest (or lowest) and the mean pressure in a sound wave detected by the human ear. the physical sound pressure value at the different frequencies is corrected according to rating curve A. air borne noise is emitted.5 Noise emitted by gear units 1. the threshold of audibility of the human ear at 2 kHz has been taken as reference value (p0 = 2 · 10-5 Pa). or by oil movements. A-weighted sound pressure LpA). In order to take into consideration the different sensitivities of the human ear at different frequencies. no absolute values are used but amplification or level quantities in bel (B) or decibel (dB).5. see figure 23. The sound pressure can be determined for a single frequency or – as a combination – for a frequency range (single-number rating). For the conversion of the sound power applies (P0 = 10-12 W). fan blades.g.1 Definitions Noise emitted by a gear unit – like all other noises – is composed of tones having different frequencies f. but also on bearings. The sound power is transmitted from the sources to the outside gear unit surfaces mainly by structure-borne noise (material vibrations). Apart from sound pressures at certain places. sound pressure Lp.

Very small frequency ranges. In the one-third octave spectrum (spectrum with 1/3 octaves). fu = lower band frequency. fo = fm .g. i. Bandwidth Frequency (Hz) Figure 25 One-third octave spectrum of a gear unit (sound intensity level. see example in figure 27. For a point source of sound it results from the sound power LW divided by the spherical enveloping surface 4 · π · r2. fo = upper band frequency. Siemens MD · 2009 2.41. concentrically enveloping the source of sound.5.12. The total level is the common logical value for gear unit noises. see figure 24. the bandwidth results from f o / fu = 3 The total level (resulting from logarithmic addition of individual levels of the recorded frequency range) is a single-number rating. see figures 25 and 26. 112 . however. sound pressure levels LpA are measured at fixed points surrounding the gear unit and converted into sound power levels LWA. unlike the sound pressure it is a directional quantity. A-weighted) (Frequency) Figure 24 Narrow band frequency spectrum for LpA (A-weighted sound pressure level) at a distance of 1 m from a gear unit. 1. fm = mean band frequency. Sound intensity level [dB(A)] The sound power LWA is the A-weighted sound power emitted from the source of sound and thus a quantity independent of the distance. In case of octaves.2 Measurements The main noise emission parameter is the sound power level. Like the sound pressure. fo / fu = 1.1 Determination via sound pressure DIN 45635 Part 1 and Part 23 describe how to determine the sound power levels of a given gear unit /16/. For this purpose. 1.26. The measurement surface ratio LS is an auxiliary quantity which is dependent on the sum of the measurement surfaces. the bottom is not taken into consideration. the upper frequency is twice as big as the lower one. The recording instrument stores the sound pressure or sound intensity over a certain period of time and writes the dB values in frequency ranges (bands) into the spectrum (system of coordinates). The sound power can be converted to an average sound pressure for a certain place. in general 1 m from the housing surface as an ideal parallelepiped.2.e. e. 1.12 and fu = fm / 1. The sound pressure decreases with increasing distance from the source of sound. The sound pressure level is valid for a certain distance. When the gear unit is placed on a reverberant base. 10 Hz or 1/12 octaves are termed narrow bands.5.Cylindrical Gear Units Noise Emitted by Gear Units The sound intensity is the flux of sound power through a unit area normal to the direction of propagation.41 and fu = fm / 1. 1. A-weighted) Bandwidth Sound intensity level [dB(A)] Frequency (Hz) Figure 26 Octave spectrum of a gear unit (sound intensity level. the sound intensity is dependent on the distance to the source of sound. 10 Histograms occur in the one-third octave spectrum and in the octave spectrum. or fo = fm .

for example.9 . For the 80%-lines.4 . manufacturing quality. a distinction is made between cylindrical gear units with rolling bearings. for instance. log P / kW (dB) 65. Furthermore. one can base the calculations on experience.3 .7 + 15. log P / kW (dB) 87. this method can no longer be used because of insufficient accuracy. that 80% of the recorded industrial gear units radiate lower noises.3 Prediction It is not possible to exactly calculate in advance the sound power level of a gear unit to be made. However. The VDI guidelines are based on measurements carried out on a large number of industrial gear units. the equations according to VDI 2159 are: Total sound power level LWA 77. 1. As a rule. The lines are determined by mathematical equations. e. information on speed variators can be found in the guidelines. If the background noises are too loud (limit values of correction factors are achieved).g. corrections for background noise and environmental influences are to be made. Figure 28 exemplary illustrates a characteristic diagram of emissions for cylindrical gear units. The sound intensity determined in this way is the average sound energy flow penetrating the scanned surface. Similar characteristic diagrams are also available for the other gear unit types mentioned. Main influence parameters for gear unit noises are gear unit type.5. Because of the special property of the measuring device – to determine the direction of sound incidence – it is very easy to eliminate background noises. mostly have own records. see figure 28. Gear unit manufacturers. The mean of the levels is taken via the specified time. log P / kW (dB) 85. They are estimated by measuring background noises (caused by noise radiating machines in the vicinity) and the characteristics of the room (reverberation time. the sound intensity method is more accurate (less measurement uncertainty) because it is less insensitive to noises and can also be used in case of loud background noises (e. reference values are given. planetary gear units. and worm gear units. for example. resonances in the room) and are used as correction values in the sound power calculation. log P / kW (dB) 71.2. in industrial plants). cylindrical gear units with sliding bearings (highspeed gear units).and 80%-lines are drawn.5. 10 cm. see VDI 2159.6 + 6. and speed. The results correspond to the values as determined in accordance with DIN 45635. transmitted power. Within the characteristic diagrams. 1. bevel gear and bevel-helical gear units. by means of a special measuring device containing two opposing microphones.Cylindrical Gear Units Noise Emitted by Gear Units Machine enclosing reference box Measurement surface This method has been standardized in DIN EN ISO 9614-2. two minutes. Gear units Cylindrical gear units (rolling bearings) Cylindrical gear units (sliding bearings) Bevel gear and bevel-helical gear units Planetary gear units Worm gear units For restrictions. 50%. In VDI 2159. The 80%-line means.0 + 15.2 Determination via sound intensity The gear unit surface is scanned manually all around at a distance of.1 + 12. Siemens MD · 2009 10 113 .4 . The sound power can be determined by multiplying the sound intensity by the scanned surface area.9 .g. too. log P / kW (dB) Figure 27 Example of arrangement of measuring points according to DIN 45635 /16/ In order to really detect the noise radiated by the gear unit alone.7 + 4. In the VDI guidelines 2159 /17/.

in any case. the average sound pressure at a determined distance to the gear unit.13.2. dependent on the conditions. distribution of masses. This assumption results in the so-called measurement surface sound pressure level. in special design and manufacturing expenditure. gear unit noises can be positively influenced. module reduction) for the same size. such a procedure results in a reduction in the performance (e. connections) to other places from where then airborne noise will be emitted. however. DIN quality 5 to 8 Logarithmic regression LWA = 77. lubrication and cooling are also important. If it is agreed that measurements are to be made they will be carried out on the manufacturer’s test stand.” 114 .7 up to 2400 kW Input speed ( = max. is 102 ± 3 dB (A). 1. hardened. and it requires more space.3 x log P/kW dB (80%-line) Certainty rate r2 = 0.g. to VDI 2159 /17/ Note: For this example.) Individual levels in a frequency spectrum cannot safely be predicted for gear units because of the multitude of influence parameters. tolerance ± 3 dB. log S (dB) (31) S = Sum of the hypothetical surfaces (m2) enveloping the gear unit at a distance of 1 m (ideal parallelepiped) Example of information for P = 100 kW in a twostage cylindrical gear unit of size 200 (centre distance in the 2nd gear stage in mm). is calculated at a distance of 1 m with a measurement surface S = 21 m2 and a measurement surface ratio LS = 13.2 dB. of standard quality: “The sound power level. speed): 1000 up to 5000 min-1 (mostly 1500 min-1) Max.5). of gear stages: 1 to 3 Information on gear teeth: HS gear stage with helical teeth (b = 10° up to 30°). Room and connection influences have not been taken into consideration.1 + 12. with rolling bearings. circumferential speed: 1 up to 20 ms-1 Output torque: 100 up to 200 000 Nm No.83 Probability 90% Sound power level LWA Mechanical power rating P Figure 28 Characteristic diagram of emissions for cylindrical gear units (industrial gear units) acc. (Error of measurement according to DIN EN ISO 9614-2 for measurements in the industrial area with accuracy grade 2. A sound screen does not only hinder the propagation of airborne noise but also the heat dissipation of a gear unit. Attention has to be paid to it. that no structureborne noise is radiated via coupled elements (couplings. Siemens MD · 2009 To calculate a sound pressure level from the given sound power values a measuring method is used comparable with that described in DIN 45635.4 Possibilities of influencing With the selection of other than standard geometries and with special tooth modifications (see section 1. It is assumed that the sound energy is uniquely radiated from the object in all directions and can propagate undisturbed (free sound propagation). fine-machined.5. a measurement surface sound pressure level of 102 . In some cases. type of rolling bearing. determined in accordance with DIN 45635 (sound pressure measurement) or according to the sound intensity measurement method.Cylindrical Gear Units Noise Emitted by Gear Units Type: Cylindrical gear units with external teeth mainly (> 80%) having the following characteristic features: Housing: Cast iron housing Bearing arrangement: Rolling bearings Lubrication: Dip lubrication Installation: Rigid on steel or concrete Power rating: 0. The measurement surface sound pressure level LpA at a distance of 1 m is calculated from the total sound power level LpA = LWA – Ls (dB) (30) 10 Ls = 10 . Housing design. the only way is to enclose the gear units which makes possible that the total level is reduced by 10 to 25 dB.2 ≈ 89 dB (A). Sometimes.

Multiple Disk Clutches Fluid Couplings. Torque Limiters High-speed Couplings.Table of Contents Section 11 Shaft Couplings General Fundamental Principles Torsionally Rigid Couplings. Flexible Pin and Bush Couplings All-steel Couplings. Highly Flexible Rubber Tyre Couplings Highly Flexible Rubber Disk Couplings. Flexible Pin Couplings Flexible Claw Couplings Highly Flexible Ring Couplings. Gear Couplings Universal Gear Couplings. Composite Couplings Miniature Couplings. Torque Limiters Couplings for Pump Drives Coupling Systems for Railway Vehicles Coupling Systems for Wind Turbines Page 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 11 Siemens MD · 2009 115 . Overrunning Clutches.

axial. and driven machine. gear unit. Limiting the torque (torque limiters). S Reducing the torsional vibration load. Such components are connected by couplings which have the following tasks: S Transmitting motion of rotation and torques. shafts. drives are consisting of components like prime mover. rigid Gear couplings All-steel couplings Universal joint couplings Parallel offset couplings Tors. The diversity of possible coupling variants is shown in the overview in figure 29. influencing and displacing the resonant ranges. flexible Steel spring couplings Pin and bush couplings Claw couplings Flexible element couplings Highly flexible Rubber tyre couplings Rubber disk couplings Rubber ring couplings 11 Figure 29 Overview of possible shaft coupling designs 116 Siemens MD · 2009 . A distinction is made between the two main groups: couplings and clutches. S S S S S Damping torque and speed impulses. S Compensating shaft misalignments (radial. angular). Electrical insulation.Shaft Couplings General Fundamental Principles Rigid and Torsionally Flexible Couplings 2. Sound isolation. Shaft couplings 2.1 General fundamental principles In mechanical equipment. Interrupting the motion of rotation (clutches). Shaft couplings Couplings Clutches Rigid Clamp couplings Flange couplings Radial tooth couplings Flexible Externally operated Clutches Torque controlled Torque limiters Speed controlled Centrifugal clutches Direction-of-rotation controlled Overriding clutches Overrunning clutches Friction Hydrodynamic couplings Magnetic couplings Friction couplings Positive Tors.

Shaft Couplings Torsionally Rigid Couplings... high power capacity S very well suitable for plug-in assembly and assembly into bell housing S also with Taper bush for easy assembly and bore adaptation Nominal torque: 13....5 .1 N-EUPEX-DS Flexible pin couplings Disconnecting driving and driven machines upon failure of flexible elements (without fail-safe device) S universally applicable since combination with all parts of the N-EUPEX product range is possible Nominal torque: 19 . Flexible Pin Couplings Flexible Claw Couplings Flange couplings Torsionally rigid couplings Connect two shafts ends torsionally rigid and exactly centered to each other S designed for heavily stressed shafts S not subject to wear and require no maintenance S suitable for both directions of rotation Nominal torque: 1 300 .1 Siemens MD · 2009 117 . 21 200 Nm Brochure MD 10. 180 000 Nm on request N-EUPEX Flexible pin couplings Universally applicable coupling for compensating shaft displacements S maximum operational reliability owing to fail-safe device S suitable for plugin assembly and simplified assembly of the design consisting of three parts Nominal torque: 19 .... 3 700 Nm 11 Brochure MD 10. 62 000 Nm Brochure MD 10.1 BIPEX Flexible claw couplings Fail-safe universal coupling S very compact design.

. to SAE J620d Nominal torque: 330 . Highly Flexible Rubber Tyre Couplings Highly Flexible Rubber Disk Couplings. 1 300 000 Nm Brochure MD 10.1 11 RUPEX Flexible pin and bush couplings Fail-safe universal coupling for medium up to high torques. 90 000 Nm Brochure MD 10.1 ELPEX-S Highly flexible rubber disk couplings For connecting machines having a very nonuniform torque characteristic S very easy plug-in assembly S replacement of rubber disk element is possible without the need to move the coupled machines S flange with dimensions acc. 14 500 Nm Brochure MD 10. 63 000 Nm Brochure MD 10... Flexible Pin and Bush Couplings ELPEX Highly flexible ring couplings Coupling without torsional backlash S can be used for large shaft misalignments S suitable for high dynamic loads..1 118 Siemens MD · 2009 ....1 ELPEX-B Highly flexible rubber tyre couplings Coupling without torsional backlash S compensating very large shaft misalignments S the rubber tyre can be easily replaced without the need to move the coupled machines S easy mounting on the shafts to be connected by means of Taper bushes Nominal torque: 24 .. good damping properties Nominal torque: 1 600 . absorbing large shaft displacements S compact design.Shaft Couplings Highly Flexible Ring Couplings. low weights and mass moments of inertia S suitable for plug-in assembly Nominal torque: 200 .

Composite Couplings ARPEX ..ARS Composite Composite couplings Corrosion-resistant.. 1 450 000 Nm Brochure MD 10.Shaft Couplings All-steel Couplings.1 ARPEX ..5 11 Siemens MD · 2009 119 .. 7 600 Nm Brochure MD 10.g.9 ARPEX . 535 000 Nm Brochure MD 10.ART High-speed couplings Were designed for the energy and petrochemical industries and marine propulsion drives S are used for all high-speed purposes where reliable power transmission is required even with unavoidable shaft misalignment S meet the requirements of API 671 Nominal torque: 1 000 .ARS (ARF / ARC / ARW) All-steel couplings Torsionally rigid coupling without clearance S compensates radial. the torque limiter separates the coupled drive components both during slow and fast rising torques S after the disengagement process the coupling halves are out of contact. Torque Limiters High-speed Couplings. extreme light weight coupling for drives with great shaft distances (e.AKR Torque limiters On reaching the preset disconnecting torque. so that a wear-free running down can be realized Nominal torque: 10 . cooling tower fan) S up to 6 metres without centre bearing support S easy to handle and to install S maintenance-free and wear-free S reduced coupling vibrations Nominal torque: 1 250 ... angular and axial shaft displacements by means of two flexible disc packs S packs made out of stainless spring steel S easy assembly of coupling due to compact disc packs S modular system: many standard types by combination of standard components Nominal torque: 92 .11 ARPEX ... 75 000 Nm Brochure MD 10.

pneumatic or hydraulic disengaging devices S protects drives against overloading Nominal torque: 10 . 30 000 Nm on request 120 Siemens MD · 2009 .. to international standards Nominal torque: 850 . test stands Nominal torque: 5 ....1 11 PLANOX Multiple disk clutches Constant torque transmission by means of contact pressure ensured by springs S many applications possible owing to mechanical. 7 200 000 Nm Brochure MD 10...ARM Miniature couplings Designed for applications with very low torques S fields of application: control systems. machine tools. can be used for high shock loads S available in many types and variants Nominal torque: 1 300 . 125 000 Nm Brochure MD 10. tacho drives. computer technology. 25 Nm Brochure MD 10. Gear Couplings Universal Gear Couplings.Shaft Couplings Miniature Couplings.1 ZAPEX-ZI Universal gear couplings Double-jointed gear coupling with hobbed and crowned external gear teeth and low torsional backlash S largest possible bore range with grease lubricated gear teeth S mounting dimensions in metric and inch measures acc. Multiple Disk Clutches ARPEX . parallel and axial misalignment of shafts S long-term lubrication is ensured by design measures and by using special seals S small dimensions. printing and packaging machines. electrical.. stepping and servomotors. measuring and registering systems.10 ZAPEX-ZW Gear couplings Double-jointed coupling compensating angular..

sliding hubs in the wind energy industry. 100 000 Nm Dimensioned drawing M 495 Certified according to directive 94/9/EC (ATEX 95) This coupling is particularly suitable for the use in hazardous locations SECUREX Torque limiters With SECUREX. With this combination. SECUREX is based on the wide range of Flender’s standard couplings of different basic types and on standardized safety elements. shear pin solutions in rolling mills. the auxiliary drive then being shut off by overrunning. Flender has concentrated its experiences gained over decades in the fields of both overload protection and compensation of shaft misalignments in one product line.5 . torque limiters in extruder applications. Brochure K 440 11 Siemens MD · 2009 121 . Nominal torque: 9 000 .and product-related R&D (e. 2 500 kW Brochure MD 10. With the development of SECUREX..1 UZWN Overrunning clutches Flender overrunning clutches allow to drive shafts and machines first by means of an auxiliary drive at low speed for startup and then by means of the main drive at higher speeds for full-load operation. economical coupling solutions can be realized. Owing to a variety of possibilities to combine standard components. the functions Protection from overload as well as Compensation of shaft misalignment can be fulfilled with just one compact unit. Flender provides a unique modular system of mechanical torque limiters... With the modular SECUREX system.000 Nm and benefits from its rich fund of knowledge and experience gained from application.).g. Overrunning Clutches Torque Limiters FLUDEX Fluid couplings Soft starting without shocks and acceleration of large masses during a load-relieved start of motor S torque limitation during starting and overload S excellent vibration separation and shock damping S torque transmission without wear Nominal power ratings: 0. Flender has focused on its core competence in the torque range of up to 1..Shaft Couplings Fluid Couplings. etc.500.

1 122 Siemens MD · 2009 . a variant without fail-safe device is available especially developed for hazardous locations Types B / BDS .in two parts Types A / ADS .in three parts Types H / HDS .ARP All-steel couplings Were specially designed for pump drives D Meet the requirements of API 610 D Design according to API 671. reliable. to directive 94/9/EC (ATEX 95) also available Nominal torque: 100 .Shaft Couplings Couplings for Pump Drives Couplings for pump drives N-EUPEX Flexible pin couplings D Tried and tested drive element in millions of pump drives D Good value for money.. “NON-SPARKING” and certified acc.with intermediate sleeve Certified acc.1 ARPEX . 17 000 Nm 11 Katalog MD 10. available worldwide D Complete application-oriented assortment! In addition to the fail-safe standard design.. to directive 94/9/EC (ATEX 95) Type BDS Type A Type H Katalog MD 10.

shaft diameter: 86 mm Gear coupling. shaft diameter: 100 mm on request Output side couplings Articulated joint rubber coupling. with low restoring forces Max.Shaft Couplings Coupling Systems for Railway Vehicles Coupling systems for railway vehicles Input side couplings Membrane coupling. Type MBG D All-steel membrane coupling for the connection of motor and gear unit D Without backlash. compensating relatively small shaft misalignments Max. flexible coupling without backlash. nominal torque: 15 000 Nm Max. Type ZBG D Double-jointed grease lubricated gear coupling between motor and gear unit D Compensating extremely large shaft misalignments D Split spacer with crowned gear teeth Max. Type GKG D Double-jointed. shaft diameter: 260 mm 11 on request Siemens MD · 2009 123 . nominal torque: 3 425 Nm Max. nominal torque: 13 440 Nm Max. between axle drive and driving wheel shaft D Low wear and low maintenance D Compensating extremely large shaft misalignments.

Peak torques caused by gusts of wind are compensated D Combination with RUPEX coupling for small shaft misalignments D Combination with articulated joint rubber coupling or ARPEX coupling for large shaft misalignments on request Articulated joint rubber couplings Type GKGW with brake disk D Rubber-elastic ball bearings for extremely large shaft misalignments between gear unit and generator D Very low restoring forces D Electrically insulating and structure-borne noise absorbing D Wearing parts and coupling can be removed without the need to move the generator D Optional with torque-limiting slip hub on request ARPEX All-steel couplings D Design with hexagonal or square disc pack for very large shaft misalignments D Optionally with slip hub for limiting the torque load in case of generator short-circuit D Light spacer out of glass-fibre compound material for lightning insulation D Conical bolt connection of disc packs for easy assembly 11 on request 124 Siemens MD · 2009 .Shaft Couplings Coupling Systems for Wind Turbines Coupling systems for wind turbines FLUDEX Fluid couplings in combination with other couplings D Fluid coupling with slip between 2 and 3%.

and Units Determination of Stiffness Overlaying of Different Stiffnesses Conversions Natural Frequencies Evaluation of Vibrations Page 126 127 – 129 129 + 130 130 + 131 131 131 131 132 133 134 134 134 135 + 136 12 Siemens MD · 2009 125 .Table of Contents Section 12 Vibrations Symbols and Units General Fundamental Principles Solution Proposal for Simple Torsional Vibrators Solution of the Differential Equation of Motion Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations Mass Mass Moment of Inertia Terms. Symbols.

. natural radian frequency of the damped vibration Natural radian frequency of the undamped vibration Radian frequency of the excitation on vibration Nm/rad Torsional stiffness N/m m m m – m 2.14159 kg/m3 rad rad rad/s rad/s2 rad Period of a vibration Torque Volume Magnification factor. Dynamic / static load ratio Displacement co-ordinate (translational. elastic energy T T V V x ^ x s Nm m3 – m m rad rad 1/s rad – – – 3. Ae c c’ d di da D Dm e= E f. distance between bearings Mass Time-variable excitation moment Amplitude of moment Reduced amplitude of moment of a two-mass vibration generating system Natural frequency (vibrations per minute) Input speed. ϕi ö ^ ö ö öh öp ^ ö p . to DIN 740 /18/ Angular velocity. mi M (t) M0 M0* m m2 m. output speed Influence factor for taking into account the mass of the shaft when calculating the natural bending frequency Time ψ ω – rad/s rad/s rad/s ^ ö stat α γ δ ε η λi Λ π= r ϕ. natural frequency Deformation Force Time-variable force Shear modulus Transmission ratio Number of windings (coil spring) Second axial moment of area Second polar moment of area Mass moment of inertia Reduced mass moment of inertia of a two-mass vibration generating system Viscous damping in case of torsional vibrations Viscous damping in case of translational and bending vibrations Length. rad rad rad 12 ne n1. rad Length of overhanging end Cross-sectional area Amplitude of oscillation Damping energy. n2 q t w0 Ω Note: The unit “rad” ( = radian ) may be replaced with “1”. bending stiffnes Diameter Inside diameter Outside diameter Attenuation ratio (Lehr’s damping) Mean coil diameter (coil spring) Euler’s number Modulus of elasticity Frequency. Ji J* k k’ l m.718 N/m2 Hz m N N N/m2 – – m4 m4 kgm2 kgm2 Nms/ rad Ns/m m kg Nm Nm Nm 1/min min-1 – s Translational stiffness.Vibrations Symbols and Units a A A AD.. Siemens MD · 2009 126 . fe f F F (t) G i iF la lp J. bending) Displacement amplitude Phase angle Phase angle with free vibration Damping constant Phase displacement angle with forced vibration Excitation frequency / natural frequency ratio Inherent value factor for i-th natural frequency Logarithmic decrement Peripheral / diameter ratio Specific density Angle of rotation Angular amplitude of a vibration Angular velocity (first time derivation of ö) Angular acceleration (second time derivation of ö) Vibratory angle of the free vibration (homogeneous solution) Vibratory angle of the forced vibration (particular solution) Angular amplitude of the forced vibration Angular amplitude of the forced vibration under load (ö = 0) Damping coefficient acc.

electric voltage/ current. the mass acting as kinetic energy store and the spring as potential energy store. cosine) the arguments of which contain natural radian frequency ω = 2 · π · f (f = natural frequency in Hertz) and time. velocity. figure 32 a. During vibration. and the like. angle.1 General fundamental principles Vibrations are more or less regularly occurring temporary variations of state variables. see figure 31. such as displacement. and vice versa. Translational vibration generatig system Bending vibration generating system Torsional vibration generating system Figure 30 Different vibrating systems with one degree of freedom Further. The simplest form of a mechanical vibrating system consists of a mass and a spring with fixed ends. The state of a vibrating system can be described by suitable variables. a distinction is made between translational (bending) and torsional vibrating systems as well as coupled vibrating systems in which translational and torsional vibrations occur at the same time. In this case the system carries out steady-state natural Amplitude vibrations the frequency of which is determined only by the characteristics of the spring/mass system (natural frequency). Amplitude Vibration Period x A ω t = = = = A · sinω · t Amplitude Radian frequency Time x = A · sin (ω · t + α) α = Phase angle 12 Figure 31 Mathematical description of an undamped vibration with and without phase angle Siemens MD · 2009 127 . Vibrations 3. and whether the vibration takes place without energy losses (undamped) or with energy losses (damped). The vibration variation with time x can be described by the constant amplitude of oscillation A and a harmonic function (sine. temperature. pressure. A vibration is free and undamped if energy is neither supplied nor removed by internal friction so that the existing energy content of the vibration is maintained. a distinction is made between free vibrations and externally forced vibrations. a periodic conversion of potential energy to kinetic energy takes place. i.Vibrations General Fundamental Principles 3. Dependent on the mode of motion of the mass. see figure 30.e. influencing each other. the kinetic energy of the mass and the energy stored in the spring are converted at certain intervals of time.

For unsteady loaded vibrating Siemens MD · 2009 c) Stimulated vibration (δ < 0) Time t Figure 32 Vibration variations with time (A = initial amplitude at time t = 0. As a rule. when the applied frequency is at the natural frequency of the system. In damped systems. control actions. δ = damping constant) If the vibrating system is excited by a periodic external force F(t) or moment M(t). Such systems have as many natural frequencies with the corresponding natural vibration modes as degrees of freedom of motion. When analysing vibration processes. this is a forced or stimulated vibration. system short circuits. A free. b) From transmitting elements: Meshing. In case of simple vibrating systems with one or few (maximum 4) masses. a damped vibrating system does no longer vibrate with its natural frequency but with the frequency of the external excitation force. alignment error. starting shock impulses.g. c) From the output side: Principle of the driven machine. With the periodic external excitation force. The range of the occurring amplitudes of oscillation is divided by the resonance point (natural frequency = excitation frequency.Vibrations General Fundamental Principles A damped vibration exists. a Fourier analysis may often be helpful where periodic excitation processes are resolved into fundamental and harmonic oscillations and thus in comparison with the natural frequencies of a system show possible resonance points. Then. e. turbines. Technical vibrating systems often consist of several masses which are connected with each other by spring or damping elements. After a building-up period. critical vibrations) into the subcritical and supercritical oscillation range. a minimum frequency distance of 15% or larger from a resonance point is required. Resonance points may lead to high loads in the components and therefore are to be avoided or to be quickly traversed (example: natural bending frequency in high-speed gear units). Resonance exists. energy can be supplied to or removed from the vibrating system. the amplitude of oscillation 12 128 . where mostly only the lower natural frequencies and especially the basic frequency (first harmonic) are of importance. has n-1 natural frequencies. unbalance. in undamped systems the amplitudes of oscillation grow at an unlimited degree. uniform.e. All these natural frequencies can be excited to vibrate by periodic external or internal forces. unsteady processes. All technical vibration generating systems are subject to more or less strong damping effects. the amplitudes of oscillation decrease in accordance with a geometric progression. periodic excitation functions can be described by means of sine or cosine functions and the superpositions thereof. Diesel and Otto engines. i. unfixed torsional vibration system with n masses. piston compressor. As a rule. vibrations are excited by the following mechanisms: a) From the input side: Starting processes of electric motors. figure 32 b. drives). In technical drive systems. figure 32 c. influences from bearings. Displacement x a) Undamped vibration (δ = 0) b) Damped vibration (δ > 0) grows until the energy supplied by the excitation force and the energy converted into heat by the damping energy are in equilibrium. If a constant viscous damping (Newton’s friction) exists. propeller. analytic solutions for the natural frequencies and the vibration variation with time can be given for steady excitation.g. for technical vibrating systems (e. for instance. if during each period of oscillation a certain amount of vibrational energy is removed from the vibration generating system by internal or external friction. universal-joint shaft. nonuniform.

Drive systems with torsionally flexiFixed one-mass vibration generating system ble couplings can be designed dynamically in accordance with DIN 740 /18/. ..2 Solution proposal for simple torsional vibrators Analytic solution for a periodically excited one(fixed) or two-mass vibration generating system. time-variable angle of rotation [rad]. loads with steady as well as unsteady excitation can be simulated for complex vibrating systems (linear. J2 c k M (t) = = = = = mass moment of inertia [kgm2] torsional stiffness [Nm/rad] viscous damping [Nms/rad] external excitation moment [Nm]. and overvoltages of resonance. ö Differential equation of motion: One-mass vibration generating system: ω0 = (32) c J [rad/s] (36) M (t) . This applies even more to vibrating systems with non-linear or periodic variable parameters (non-linear torsional stiffness of couplings. J2 J1 + J2 d + k + damping constant J [1/s] (40) J* = (35) ω0 = natural radian frequency of the undamped vibration [rad/s] fe = natural frequency [Hertz] ne = natural frequency [1/min] Siemens MD · 2009 129 . ö .. figure 33. With EDP programmes. fe = ne = [Hz] [1/min] (38) (33) 2d w2 0 (34) ω0 . the drive train having been reduced to a two-mass vibration generating system. 30 π (39) 12 with ö + ö 1 * ö 2 J 1 . In this standard. 3. however. load as a function of time.Vibrations General Fundamental Principles Solution Proposal for Simple Torsional Vibrators systems with one or more masses. simplified solution proposals for shockloaded and periodically loaded drives are made. ö)k ö )c@ö+ J J J w2 2d 0 ( ( w0 + Ǹ ω0 2π c@ J1 ) J2 J1 @ J2 ƪradńsƫ (37) Two-mass vibration generating system with relative coordinate: Natural frequency: ( ( M(t) ö) k @ö) c @ö+ J1 J* J* .. solutions can be calculated only with the aid of numerical simulation programmes. Free two-mass vibration generating system Figure 33 Torsional vibrators J. periodic meshing stiffnesses). . non-linear. parameter-excited) and the results be represented in the form of frequency analyses. ( ϕ = ϕ1 – ϕ2 for two-mass vibration generating systems as relative angle) = angular velocity [rad/s] (first time derivation of ϕ) = angular acceleration [rad/s2] (second time derivation of ϕ) Natural radian frequency (undamped): ω0 ö . J1.

0.g.0.001. b) Forced vibration (particular solution öp ) D = 0.04.Vibrations Solution Proposal for Simple Torsional Vibrators Solution of the Differential Equation of Motion Damped natural radian frequency: Ǹ 2 2 w + Ǹw 2 0 * d + w0 @ 1 * D 3. ω0 δ = = ω0 4π 2.. In damped vibrating systems (δ > 0) the free component of vibration disappears after a transient period.0.01 D = 0. cos ( ω .3 Solution of the differential equation of motion (41) Periodic excitation moment M(t) + M 0 @ cos W @ t (43) Attenuation ratio (Lehr’s damping): D D = ψ k . cos (Ω .01. t – γ ) (45) Reference values for some components: D = 0.c M0 = amplitude of moment [Nm] Ω = exciting circuit frequency [rad/s] (42) ψ = damping coefficient on torsionally flexible coupling.08 shafts (material damping of steel) gear teeth in gear units Constants A and γ are determined by the start.2) torsionally flexible couplings D = 0. to Flender brochure. ψ = damping energy elastic deformation energy = AD Ae Total solution: ö + öh ) öp (44) a) Free vibration (homogeneous solution öh ) ϕh = A . universal joint shafts M* 1 ö p + c0 @ Ǹ(1 * h 2) 2 ) 4D2 @ h 2 @ cos (W @ t * ε) (46) Static spring characteristic for one load cycle Phase angle: tan ε = Frequency ratio: 2. ing conditions..04. to DIN 740 /18/ and/or acc... by ö h = 0 and ö h = 0 (initialvalue problem). determined by a damping hysteresis of a period of oscillation acc.D.. V .t ...η 1 – η2 0 (47) W h+w (48) One-mass vibration generating system: M0 * + M0 Two-mass vibration generating system: J2 . e – δ .04 gear couplings.15 (0. all-steel couplings. M M0 * = 0 J1 + J2 (49) (50) 12 c) Magnification factor Figure 34 Damping hysteresis of a torsionally flexible component ϕp = V+ M0 * c .. t – ε) (51) ^ ö p 1 + ^ + M (52) Ǹ(1 * h 2) 2 ) 4D2 @ h 2 ö stat M * 0 130 Siemens MD · 2009 . e.0.

damped and undamped vibrations at periodic moment excitation (power excitation).π. (D4 – d4) J= D2 r. (D1 3.2 Mass moment of inertia J = Phase displacement angle ε Figure 35 Magnification factors for forced.G 32 L . The magnification factor shows the ratio of the dynamic and static load and is a measure for the additional load caused by vibrations (figure 35). D23) (D1 + D1D2 + D22) 2 J= d2 D2 r. 3. ǐ 12 D1 – D2 D1 – D2 5 5 c= 3.π.G 32 L . D2 3) – d15 – d25 d1 – d2 Ǒ (D12 + D1D2 + D22) – (d13 . (D4 – d4) c= π. d23) (d12 + d1d2 + d22) 131 .π.L 160 .G 32 L . spring and damping elements without mass. (D13 .4. D4 D J= r. D4 c= π.π.L 32 . D15 – D25 D1 – D2 c= 3.4. Magnification factors V and phase displacement angle ε.1 Mass m = r · V [kg] V = volume [m3] r = specific density [kg/m3] 3.π.4 Formulae for the calculation of vibrations For the calculation of natural frequencies and vibrational loads.L 32 .G 32 L .L 160 .Vibrations Solution of the Differential Equation of Motion Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations ^ ö p = vibration amplitude of forced vibration ^ ö stat = vibration amplitude of forced vibration at a frequency ratio η = 0.π. a general vibration generating system has to be converted to a calculable substitute system with point masses. Magnification factor V W Frequency ratio + h + w 0 3. ŕ r dm: 2 general integral formula Torsional stiffness Cylinder D L Hollow cylinder d L Cone D1 L Hollow cone D1 d1 L Siemens MD · 2009 Mass moment of inertia J= r.

Radian frequency of excitation Resonance exists at η = 1. Radian frequency is the number of vibrations in 2 . an aperiodic case exists. m) δ = k / (2 . π / ω0 f = 1/T = ω0 /(2 . Moment of inertia forces Spring rate. angle) Amplitude Oscillating velocity Inertia force. A ^ ö max. π seconds. vibrations per sec. π) ω0 = 2 . x c. time-dependent value of vibration amplitude Amplitude is the maximum instantaneous value (peak value) of a vibration. the spring recoil N·m is proportional to deflection. Attenuation constant for rotary motion Damping factor (Decay coefficient) Attenuation ratio (Lehr’s damping) Damping ratio Logarithmic damping decrement Time Phase angle Phase displacement angle Period of a vibration Frequency of natural vibration Radian frequency of natural vibration Quantity m J x ϕ ^ x max.ϕ k’ k δ = k’ / (2 . 1/s 1/s – – – – s rad rad s Hz rad/s rad/s rad/s rad/s rad/s – The damping factor is the damping coefficient referred to twice the mass. f w 0 + Ǹcńm w 0 + ǸcńJ 2 w d + Ǹw 2 0*d Coordinate of running time In case of a positive value..Vibrations Terms. ö m@x . Torsionally vibrating mass with mass moment of inertia J Instantaneous. one cycle apart. Siemens MD · 2009 12 Natural radian frequency (Natural frequency) Natural radian frequency when damped Excitation frequency Radian frequency ratio Ω η = Ω/ω0 *) The unit “rad” may be replaced with “1”. Difference between phase angles of two vibration processes with same radian frequency. J) D = δ/ω0 ^ ^ x n ń x n) 1 ^ ^ ön ń ö n) 1 . The damping ratio is the relation between two amplitudes. ö . J@ö c’ c c’ . Time during which a single vibration occurs. Velocity is the instantaneous value of the velocity of change in the direction of vibration. π . x . For a very small attenuation ratio D < 1 becomes ωd ≈ ω0. Vibration frequency of the natural vibration (undamped) of the system. Mass moment of inertia Instantaneous value of vibration (displacement. The d’Alembert’s inertia force or the moment of inertia force acts in the opposite direction of the positive acceleration. ^ ^ L + In (x n ń x n) 1 ) ^ ^ L + In (ö n ń ö n) 1 ) L+2@p@D Ǹ1 * D 2 t α ε = α1 − α2 T = 2 . . N N·m Nm Linear springs N · m/rad N In case of linear springs. it is a lead angle. Spring moment Attenuation constant (Damping coefficient). Oscillating velocity. a damped vibration exists. For D < 1. for D ≥ 1. N · s/m In case of Newton’s friction. 132 .. A Unit kg kg · m2 m rad *) m rad m/s rad/s Explanation Translatory vibrating mass m. Symbols and Units Table 8 Symbols and units of translational and torsional vibrations Term Mass. Frequency is the reciprocal value to a period of vibrations. the damping force is proportional to velocity and Nms/rad attenuation constant (linear damping). Torsional spring rate Spring force. x .

Dm . E . Ιa l3 ƨ Ʃ N m Transverse beam with overhanging end c’ = F f = 3 . di. d4 64 π 64 ƨ Ʃ N m ( da – di ) 4 4 F f Shaft: Ιa = Hollow shaft: Ιa = Transverse beam (single load in the middle) F f Ιa = force = deformation at centre of mass under force F = second axial moment of area c’ = = 48 .Vibrations Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations 3. (l + a) ƨ Ʃ N m l a = distance between bearings = length of overhanging end 12 1) For steel: E = 21 S 1010 N/m2.3 Determination of stiffness Table 9 Calculation of stiffness (examples) Example Stiffness Symbols Coil spring c’ = G .4. G = 8. Ιa l3 π . d4 32 π 32 4 4 Shaft: Ιp = Hollow shaft: Ιp = Tension bar c’ = E.A l ( da – di ) Ιp = second polar moment of area l = length d.1 S 1010 N/m2 Siemens MD · 2009 133 . d4 8 . da = diameters of shafts ƨ Ʃ N m E A = modulus of elasticity 1) = cross-sectional area Cantilever beam c’ = F f = 3 . Ιp l ƨ Ʃ Nm rad π . Ιa a2 . E . iF 3 ƨ Ʃ N m iF = number of windings G = shear modulus 1) d = diameter of wire Dm = mean coil diameter Torsion bar c = G . E .

which is measured at a vibrational 134 .4 Overlaying of different stiffnesses To determine resulting stiffnesses. conversion to the common reference speed has to be carried out first.4.4. to rubber materials of which the resilient properties are dependent on temperature. single stiffnesses are to be added where arrangements in series connection or parallel connection are possible. stiffness can be determined by measuring the deformation. shearing). however.4. Series connection: Rule: The individual springs in a series connection carry the same load. Conversion is carried out as a square of the transmission ratio: Transmission ratio: i = reference speed n1 = n2 speed (57) Slope = static stiffness Conversion of stiffnesses cn2 and masses Jn2 with speed n2 to the respective values cn1 and Jn1 with reference speed n1: c n1 + c n2ńi 2 (58) (59) Slope = dynamic stiffness J n1 + J n2ńi 2 12 Figure 36 Static and dynamic torsional stiffness Before combining stiffnesses and masses with different inherent speeds. for instance. These components often have non-linear progressive stiffness characteristics. 3.6 Natural frequencies a) Formulae for the calculation of the natural frequencies of a fixed one-mass vibration generating system and a free two-mass vibration generating system. as a rule. Natural frequency fe in Hertz (1/s): Siemens MD · 2009 For couplings the dynamic stiffness is given. compression. Examples of application are torsionally flexible couplings and resilient buffers for vibration isolation of machines and internal combustion engines.5 Conversions If drives or shafts with different speeds are combined in one vibration generating system. This applies. and mode of stress (tension. The dynamic torsional stiffness is greater than the static torsional stiffness. frequency of 10 Hz (vibrational amplitude = 25% of the nominal coupling torque). see figure 36. dependent on the direction of load of the rubber material.Vibrations Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations Measuring the stiffness: In a test. load frequency. 3. 1 1 1 1 1 c ges + c 1 ) c 2 ) c 3 ) AAA ) c n (55) (53) (54) Parallel connection: Rule: The individual springs in a parallel connection are always subject to the same deformation. the stiffnesses and masses are to be converted to a reference speed (input or output). load. c ges + c 1 ) c 2 ) c 3 ) AAA ) c n (56) 3. This is particularly helpful if the geometric structure is very complex and very difficult to acquire. Translation: cȀ + F ƪNńmƫ f F = applied force [N] f = measured deformation [m] Torsion: T ƪNmńradƫ c+ö T = applied torsion torque [Nm] ϕ = measured torsion angle [rad] Measurements of stiffness are furthermore required if the material properties of the spring material are very complex and it is difficult to rate them exactly. they are subjected to different deformations.

etc. fe + q 2p Table 10 λ-values for the first three natural frequencies. 2nd. 3. equation (65) is simplified to: f e.875 4.i + p @ d 8 ǒ il Ǔ @ ǸE r 2 ƪHzƫ (66) i = 1st.03 . i. velocity and acceleration can be recorded and evaluated in a sum (effective vibration ǒ Ǔ @ ǸrI@EA 2 ƪHzƫ (65) λi = inherent value factor for the i-th natural frequency l = length of shaft [m] E = modulus of elasticity [N/m2] Ι = moment of area [m4] r = density [kg/m3] A = cross-sectional area [m2] d = diameter of solid shaft [m] Siemens MD · 2009 12 135 . the amplitudes of vibration displacement.5 Evaluation of vibrations The dynamic load of machines can be determined by means of different measurement methods. for example.927 λ2 4. l f e.210 Ǹgf [Hzƫ (64) g = 9.. signal transmission and evaluation.81 m/s2 gravity f = deformation due to dead weight [m] q = factor reflecting the effect of the shaft masses on the applied mass q = 1 shaft mass is neglected compared with the applied mass q = 1..09 common values when considering the shaft masses q = 1.730 π 3. mi = masses [kg] b) Natural bending frequencies of shafts supported at both ends with applied masses with known deformation f due to the dead weight. however. much time for fixing the strain gauges. order of natural bending frequencies. 1. belt drives. structure-borne noise is generated which can be acquired by sensing elements at the bearing points in different directions (axial.13 solid shaft without pulley c) Natural bending frequencies for shafts. in case of dynamic loads.Vibrations Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations Evaluation of Vibrations One-mass vibration generating system: Torsion: fe = 1 2π c J (60) Two-mass vibration generating system: fe + 1 2p Ǹ c J1 ) J2 J1 @ J2 (61) c = torsional stiffness [Nm/rad] J. Torsional vibration loads in drives. Bending : f e + 1 2p cȀ Ǹm (62) fe + 1 2p ǸcȀ m1 ) m2 m1 @ m2 (63) c’ = translational stiffness (bending stiffness) [N/m] m. dependent on mode of fixing Bearing application λ1 1.853 2π 7. for calibration..855 10. vertical). 3rd . can be measured directly on the shafts by means of wire strain gauges.i + 1 @ i 2p l For the solid shaft with free bearing support on both sides. Ji = mass moments of inertia [kgm2] Translation. general formula for the natural frequency in the order fe. This requires.966 3π 10. taking into account dead weights (continuum). horizontal. Dependent on the requirements.069 λ3 7..694 7.. Since torques in shafts are generated via bearing pressure in gear units.

... to VDI 2056 (“Effective value of the vibration velocity” in mm/s) Good . rigid or heavy foundations.1 .. “still permissible”. displacing the resonance) are required.. . the vibrational state of a machine is judged to be “good”.Vibrations Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations velocity) or frequency-selective. For the evaluation of noise. 16/.8 2. replacing defective machine parts. meshing impulses.7 0.5 . bearing noises. 15 kW without special foundation... 18 from 18 up 1) 08/97 withdrawn without replacement. taking into account structure-borne noise in the frequency range between 10 and 1. over 75 kW and installation on broadly tuned resilient foundations (especially also steel foundations designed according to light-construction guidelines). The structure-borne noise signal reflects besides the torque load in the shafts also unbalances. 15 up to 75 kW without special foundation... 75 up to 300 kW and installation on highly tuned.. improving the alignment. see /20/ 136 Siemens MD · 2009 .7 . If vibration velocities are in the “nonpermissible” range.. to VDI guideline 2056 1) for four machine groups Range classification acc... 7 7 .000 Hertz. and possibly developing machine damages.5 up Machine groups Including gear units and machines with input in ut power ower ratings of . alignment errors. rigid or heavy foundations.. measures to improve the vibrational state of the machine (balancing. a distinction is made between four machine groups (table 11).1 up Acceptable Still Nonpermissible permissible 1. Dependent on the machine support structure (resilient or rigid foundation) and power transmitted.. see subsection 1. K up to 0.... . Table 11 Boundary limits acc. over 300 kW and installation on highly tuned. M . as a rule. and “non-permis- sible”. “acceptable”. up to approx. 2.. as a rule..8 .5 4. up to 1..8 G up to 1. 11 from 11 up 12 T up to 2. 20/ is consulted for the effective vibration velocity.8 . 4... 4...1 1.5 from 4. VDI guideline 2056 1) or DIN ISO 10816-1 /19. To evaluate the actual state of a machine. sound pressure level and sound intensity are measured..1 from 7.8 .. from approx. or it has to be verified in detail that the vibrational state does not impair the service life of the machine (experience.5. verification by calculation).8 2. . from approx.8 .8 1. Gear unit noises are evaluated according to VDI guideline 2159 or DIN 45635 /17. Dependent on the vibration velocity. 7. 1.. Structure-borne noise is emitted from the machine surface in the form of airborne noise and has an impact on the environment by the generated noises.

and 12 138 + 139 13 Siemens MD · 2009 137 . 11.Table of Contents Section 13 Page Bibliography of Sections 10.

Part 5: Endurance limits and material qualities.: Profile and longitudinal corrections on involute gears. Beuth Verlag GmbH. Berlin /2/ /3/ /4/ /5/ /6/ /7/ /8/ /9/ /10/ /11/ 13 138 Siemens MD · 2009 . Berechnungen mit dem FVA-Programm “Ritzelkorrektur”. Getriebe allgemein. Heidelberg. Part 1: Introduction and general influence factors Part 2: Calculation of pitting resistance Part 3: Calculation of tooth strength Part 4: Calculation of scuffing load capacity Beuth Verlag GmbH. 3rd edition. Berlin DIN 3990: Calculation of load capacity of cylindrical gears. Band II. Draft May 1987 Beuth Verlag GmbH. Beuth Verlag GmbH. 1. G. Forschungsvereinigung Antriebstechnik. December 1987 FVA-Stirnradprogramm: Vergleich und Zusammenfassung von Zahnradberechnungen mit Hilfe von EDV-Anlagen (jeweils neuester Programmstand). Springer Verlag. Berlin DIN 3994: Addendum modification of spur gears in the 05-system. Berlin. Paper 109. Beuth Verlag GmbH.16 Hösel. und Winter. parameters and equations for involute cylindrical gears and gear pairs. Berlin Niemann. Beuth Verlag GmbH. Frankfurt am Main DIN 3990: Calculation of load capacity of cylindrical gears. Berlin DIN 3992: Addendum modification of external spur and helical gears. Zeitschrift Antriebstechnik 22.: Maschinenelemente. Part 3. Stirnradgetriebe. December 1987 Beuth Verlag GmbH. Application standard for industrial gears. March 1987 edition.Bibliography /1/ DIN 3960: Definitions. Semi-Annual Meeting of the AGMA 1965. (1983) Nr. February 1989 edition Part 12: Simplified method. FVA-Forschungsvorhaben Nr. Th. New York. H. Zahnradgetriebe-Grundlagen. Berlin DIN 3993: Geometrical design of cylindrical internal involute gear pairs. H. 12 DIN 3990: Calculation of load capacity of cylindrical gears. Tokyo (1985) Sigg. August 1981 edition.: Ermittlung von Tragbild und Flankenrichtungskorrekturen für Evolventen-Stirnräder. March 1964 edition. August 1963 edition. Part 11: Detailed method.

Evaluation of machine vibration by measurements on non-rotating parts. Springer-Verlag Berlin. August 1986 edition. Getriebegeräusche. October 1964. Beuth Verlag GmbH. Enveloping surface method. April 1984 edition Part 23: Measurement of airborne noise. Parameters and design principles. Verein Deutscher Ingenieure. Part 1: Airborne noise emission. Frankfurt am Main Niemann.mehr Know how für morgen”. 1965 Theissen. August 1997 edition. Stand Dezember 1976.97 withdrawn without replacement) DIN ISO 10816-1: Mechanical vibration . July 1985 DIN 740: Flexible shaft couplings. Enveloping surface method. Verein Deutscher Ingenieure.und Biegebeanspruchung. Forschungsvereinigung Antriebstechnik. FVA-Forschungsvorhaben Nr. divided into 3 grades of accuracy. Berlin /13/ /14/ /15/ /16/ /17/ /18/ /19/ /20/ 13 Siemens MD · 2009 139 . Forschungsvereinigung Antriebstechnik.: Vergleichskriterien für Grossgetriebe mit Leistungsverzweigung. New York. Gear transmission. 1983 DIN 45635: Measurement of noise emitted by machines. J. July 1978 edition Beuth Verlag GmbH. Part 2. Bd. Frankfurt am Main FVA-Ritzelkorrekturprogramm: EDV-Programm zur Ermittlung der Zahnflankenkorrekturen zum Ausgleich der lastbedingten Zahnverformungen (jeweils neuester Programmstand). G. VDI-Verlag.. VDI-Handbuch Schwingungstechnik. (08. Basic method. Berlin VDI-Richtlinien 2056: Beurteilungsmaßstäbe für mechanische Schwingungen von Maschinen.Bibliography /12/ FVA-Arbeitsblatt zum Forschungsvorhaben Nr. VDI-Bericht 488 “Zahnradgetriebe 1983 . 8: Grundlagenversuche zur Ermittlung der richtigen Härtetiefe bei Wälz. Beuth Verlag GmbH.: Maschinenelemente 2. 30. Berlin VDI-Richtlinien 2159: Emissionskennwerte technischer Schallquellen. Heidelberg.

TRANSLATION of Technical Handbook 5th Edition 03/2009 Copyright by FLENDER AG Bocholt 140 Siemens MD · 2009 .

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: E86060-T5701-A101-A1-7600 Dispo 18500 BU 0309 3. Box 1364 46393 BOCHOLT GERMANY Subject to change without prior notice Order No.0 Ro 148 En Printed in Germany © Siemens AG 2009 www. All product designations may be trademarks or product names of Siemens AG or supplier companies whose use by third parties for their own purposes could violate the rights of the owners.The information provided in this brochure contains merely general descriptions or characteristics of performance which in actual case of use do not always apply as described or which may change as a result of further development of the products.00 3 . An obligation to provide the respective characteristics shall only exist if expressly agreed in the terms of contract.O.com/drivetechnology Token fee: 3.siemens. Friedrich Flender AG P. A.

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