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Appendix 4

Dyadic Analysis

∗

DEFINITIONS

Vector d

**is a linear vector function of vector d when the following relationships hold:
**

d

x

= a

xx

d

x

+a

xy

d

y

+a

xz

d

z

d

y

= a

yx

d

x

+a

yy

d

y

+a

yz

d

z

d

z

= a

zx

d

x

+a

zy

d

y

+a

zz

d

z

. (A4.1)

These relationships can be represented in more compact form by means of the matrix

notation

d

= a

•

d. (A4.2)

The matrix operator itself can be expressed in terms of dyads as

a = a

xx

u

x

u

x

+a

xy

u

x

u

y

+a

xz

u

x

u

z

+a

yx

u

y

u

x

+a

yy

u

y

u

y

+ a

yz

u

y

u

z

+a

zx

u

z

u

x

+a

zy

u

z

u

y

+a

zz

u

z

u

z

(A4.3)

provided, by convention, ab

•

c stands for a(b

•

c). The symbol ab is called a dyad, and a

sum of dyads such as a is a dyadic. Also by convention, c

•

ab stands for (c

•

a)b, so that the

dot product of a dyad and a vector is now deﬁned for ab acting as both a prefactor and a

postfactor. The writing of a in “nonion” form, as shown above, is rather cumbersome, and

one often prefers to use the form

a = (a

xx

u

x

+a

yx

u

y

+a

zx

u

z

)u

x

+(a

xy

u

x

+a

yy

u

y

+a

zy

u

z

)u

y

+ (a

xz

u

x

+a

yz

u

y

+a

zz

u

z

)u

z

= a

x

u

x

+a

y

u

y

+a

z

u

z

(A4.4)

where the a

**are the column vectors of the matrix of a. Alternatively,
**

a = u

x

(a

xx

u

x

+a

xy

u

y

+a

xz

u

z

) +u

y

(a

yx

u

x

+a

yy

u

y

+a

yz

u

z

)

+ u

z

(a

zx

u

x

+a

zy

u

y

+a

zz

u

z

) = u

x

a

x

+u

y

a

y

+u

z

a

z

, (A4.5)

∗

Professor Lindell has been kind enough to check this appendix, make corrections, and suggest additional

formulas.

Electromagnetic Fields, Second Edition, By Jean G. Van Bladel

Copyright © 2007 the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

1035

“App4” — 2007/4/7 — page 1036 — 2

1036 Appendix 4 Dyadic Analysis

where the a are the row vectors of the matrix of a. It is obvious that a

•

d is, in general,

different from d

•

a. In other words, the order in which a and d appear should be carefully

respected. a

•

d is equal to d

•

a only when the dyadic is symmetric (i.e., when a

ik

= a

ki

).

The transpose of a is a dyadic a

t

such that a

•

d is equal to d

•

a

t

. One may easily check that

the transpose is obtained by an interchange of rows and columns. More precisely,

a

t

= a

x

u

x

+a

y

u

y

+a

z

u

z

= u

x

a

x

+u

y

a

y

+u

z

a

z

. (A4.6)

The trace of the dyadic is the sum of its diagonal terms. Thus,

tr a = a

xx

+a

yy

+a

zz

. (A4.7)

The trace is a scalar (i.e., it is invariant with respect to orthogonal transformations of the

base vectors). The trace of ab is a

•

b. Among dyadics endowed with special properties we

note

1. The unitary dyadic, which represents a pure rotation. The determinant of its elements

is equal to 1.

2. The identity dyadic

I = u

x

u

x

+u

y

u

y

+u

z

u

z

. (A4.8)

Clearly,

I

•

d = d

•

I = d. (A4.9)

3. The symmetric dyadic, characterized by a

ik

= a

ki

, for which a

t

= a. The dyadic ab

is symmetric when a ×b = 0. Further,

a

•

d = d

•

a. (A4.10)

4. The antisymmetric dyadic, characterized by a

ik

= −a

ki

. For such a dyadic a

t

= −a,

and

a

•

d = −d

•

a. (A4.11)

The diagonal elements are zero, and there are only three distinct components. The

dyadic can always be written in terms of I and a suitable vector b as

a = −b

z

u

x

u

y

+b

y

u

x

u

z

+b

z

u

y

u

x

−b

x

u

y

u

z

−b

y

u

z

u

x

+b

x

u

z

u

y

,

= I ×b, (A4.12)

where the skew product is the dyad

(bc) ×d = b(c ×d). (A4.13)

The antisymmetric a can also be expressed as

a = cb −bc. (A4.14)

“App4” — 2007/4/7 — page 1037 — 3

Deﬁnitions 1037

5. The reﬂection dyadic

r

f

(u) = I −2uu, (A4.15)

where uis a (real) unit vector. Applied to the position vector r, it performs a reﬂection

with respect to a plane perpendicular to u.

6. The rotation dyadic

r

r

(u) = uu +sin θ(u ×I ) +cos θ(I −uu). (A4.16)

Applied to a vector, it performs a rotation by an angle θ in the right-hand direction

around the direction of u.

The elements of a dyadic may be complex (a case in point is the free-space dyadic discussed

in Chapter 7). It then becomes useful to introduce concepts such as the Hermitian dyadic

(a

ik

= a

∗

ki

), or the anti-Hermitian dyadic (a

ik

= −a

∗

ki

). Useful products of dyads are deﬁned

as follows:

(ab)

•

(cd) = a(b

•

c)d (the direct product, a dyad). (A4.17)

(ab) : (cd) = (a

•

c)(b

•

d) (the double product, a scalar). (A4.18)

(ab) ×

×

(cd) = (a ×c)(b ×d) (the double cross-product, a dyad). (A4.19)

(ab)

•

×

(cd) = (a ×c)(b

•

d) (a vector). (A4.20)

(ab) ×

•

(cd) = (a

•

c)(b ×d) (a vector). (A4.21)

General Multiplicative Relationships

(b

•

a)

•

c = b

•

(a

•

c) = b

•

a

•

c (A4.22)

(b ×c)

•

a = b

•

(c ×a) = −c

•

(b ×a) (A4.23)

(a ×b)

•

c = a

•

(b ×c) = −(a ×c)

•

b (but not (a

•

b) ×c) (A4.24)

(b ×a)

•

c = b ×(a

•

b) (A4.25)

(b

•

a) ×c = b

•

(a ×c) (A4.26)

(b ×a) ×c = b ×(a ×c) = b ×a ×c (A4.27)

b ×(c ×a) = c(b

•

a) −a(b

•

c) (A4.28)

(bc −cb)

•

d = (c ×b) ×d (A4.29)

(c

•

a)

•

b = c

•

(a

•

b) = c

•

a

•

b (A4.30)

(a

•

b)

•

c = a

•

(b

•

c) = a

•

b

•

c (A4.31)

(c ×a)

•

b = c ×(a

•

b) = c ×a

•

b (A4.32)

(a

•

b) ×c = a

•

(b ×c) = a

•

b ×c (A4.33)

(a ×c)

•

b = a

•

(c ×b) (A4.34)

“App4” — 2007/4/7 — page 1038 — 4

1038 Appendix 4 Dyadic Analysis

b

•

a

•

c = c

•

a

t

•

b (A4.35)

a

•

(b

•

c) = (a

•

b)

•

c. (A4.36)

The identity dyadic satisﬁes the following relationships:

(I ×b)

•

c = b

•

(I ×c) = b ×c (A4.37)

(I ×b)

•

a = b ×a = (b ×I)

•

a (A4.38)

I ×(b ×c) = cb −bc. (A4.39)

DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONSHIPS

Differentiation with Respect to a Parameter

d

dt

(f a) =

df

dt

a +f

d a

dt

(A4.40)

d

dt

(a

•

b) =

d a

dt

•

b +a

•

db

dt

(A4.41)

d

dt

(a ×b) =

d a

dt

×b +a ×

db

dt

(A4.42)

d

dt

(a

•

b) =

d a

dt

•

b +a

•

db

dt

. (A4.43)

Basic Differential Operators

The action of a linear operator L on a dyadic is deﬁned by the formula

La = (La

x

)u

x

+(La

y

)u

y

+(La

z

)u

z

. (A4.44)

In particular,

div a = ∇

•

a = (div a

x

)u

x

+(div a

y

)u

y

+(div a

z

)u

z

=

∂a

x

∂x

+

∂a

y

∂y

+

∂a

z

∂z

(A4.45)

curl a = ∇ ×a = (curl a

x

)u

x

+(curl a

y

)u

y

+(curl a

z

)u

z

= u

x

_

∂a

z

∂y

−

∂a

y

∂z

_

+u

y

_

∂a

x

∂z

−

∂a

z

∂x

_

+u

z

_

∂a

y

∂x

−

∂a

x

∂y

_

(A4.46)

∇

2

a =

∂

2

a

∂x

2

+

∂

2

a

∂y

2

+

∂

2

a

∂z

2

= grad div a −curl curl a. (A4.47)

“App4” — 2007/4/7 — page 1039 — 5

Integral Relationships 1039

Also

grad a = ∇a = u

x

∂a

∂x

+u

y

∂a

∂y

+u

z

∂a

∂z

= grad a

x

u

x

+grad a

y

u

y

+grad a

z

u

z

(A4.48)

a grad = a∇ = au

x

∂

∂x

+au

y

∂

∂y

+au

z

∂

∂z

. (A4.49)

Derived Relationships

grad(b ×c) = (grad b) ×c −(grad c) ×b (A4.50)

grad( f b) = (grad f )b +f grad b ( f is any scalar function) (A4.51)

(b

•

grad)a = b

x

∂ a

∂x

+b

y

∂ a

∂y

+b

z

∂ a

∂z

(A4.52)

dr

•

grad a = da (A4.53)

div(bc) = (div b)c +b

•

grad c (A4.54)

div curl a = 0 (A4.55)

div(f a) = grad f

•

a +f div a (A4.56)

div(a

•

b) = (div a)

•

b +tr(a

t

•

grad b) (A4.57)

div(b ×a) = (curl b)

•

a −b

•

curl a (A4.58)

div(bc −cb) = curl (c ×b) (A4.59)

div( f I) = grad f (A4.60)

div(I ×a) = curl a (A4.61)

curl(bc) = (curl b)c −b ×grad c (A4.62)

curl grad a = 0 (A4.63)

curl( f a) = grad f ×a +f curl a (A4.64)

curl( f I) = grad f ×I (A4.65)

curl(a ×b) = curl a ×b −grad b ×

×

a (A4.66)

curl curl( f I) = curl(grad f ×I) = grad grad f −I∇

2

f . (A4.67)

INTEGRAL RELATIONSHIPS

The integral relationships of vector analysis have their equivalent in dyadic analysis. The

most important examples are

_

N

M

dc

•

grad a = a(N) −a(M) (A4.68)

“App4” — 2007/4/7 — page 1040 — 6

1040 Appendix 4 Dyadic Analysis

_

c

dc a =

_

S

u

n

×grad a dS, (A4.69)

where the contour is described in the positive sense with respect to u

n

.

_

c

dc

•

a =

_

S

u

n

•

curl a dS (A4.70)

_

V

grad a dV =

_

S

u

n

a dS (A4.71)

_

V

div a dV =

_

S

u

n

•

a dS (A4.72)

_

V

curl a dV =

_

S

u

n

×a dS (A4.73)

_

V

_

b

•

grad div a −(grad div b)

•

a

_

dV =

_

S

_

(u

n

•

b) div a −div b(u

n

•

a)

_

dS (A4.74)

_

V

_

(curl curl b)

•

a −b

•

curl curl a

_

dV =

_

S

_

(u

n

×b)

•

curl a +(u

n

×curl b)

•

a

_

dS

=

_

S

_

u

n

•

(b ×curl a) +u

n

•

(curl b ×a)

_

dS

(A4.75)

_

V

_

b

•

∇

2

a −(∇

2

b)

•

a

_

dV =

_

S

_

(u

n

•

b) div a −div b(u

n

•

a)

+ u

n

•

(b ×curl a) +u

n

•

(curl b ×a)

_

dS

(A4.76)

_

V

(a∇

2

f −f ∇

2

a) dV =

_

S

u

n

•

(grad f a −f grad a) dS. (A4.77)

RELATIONSHIPS IN CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES

Dyadic a can be written as

a = a

r

u

r

+a

ϕ

u

ϕ

+a

z

u

z

= u

r

a

r

+u

ϕ

a

ϕ

+u

z

a

z

.

The basic differential operators are then:

grad a =

_

grad a

r

−

a

ϕ

u

ϕ

r

_

u

r

+

_

grad a

ϕ

+

a

r

u

ϕ

r

_

u

ϕ

+grad a

z

u

z

= u

r

∂a

∂r

+u

ϕ

1

r

∂a

∂ϕ

+u

z

∂a

∂z

(A4.78)

div a =

_

div a

r

−

a

ϕϕ

r

_

u

r

+

_

div a

ϕ

+

a

ϕr

r

_

u

ϕ

+(div a

z

)u

z

=

1

r

a

r

+

∂a

∂r

+

1

r

∂a

ϕ

∂ϕ

+

∂a

z

∂z

(A4.79)

“App4” — 2007/4/7 — page 1041 — 7

Relationships in Spherical Coordinates 1041

curl a =

_

curl a

r

+

a

ϕ

×u

ϕ

r

_

u

r

+

_

curl a

ϕ

−

a

r

×u

ϕ

r

_

u

ϕ

+curl a

z

u

z

= u

r

_

1

r

∂a

z

∂ϕ

−

∂a

ϕ

∂z

_

+u

ϕ

_

∂a

r

∂z

−

∂a

z

∂r

_

+u

z

_

a

ϕ

r

+

∂a

ϕ

∂r

−

1

r

∂a

r

∂ϕ

_

. (A4.80)

In particular:

grad u

r

=

u

ϕ

u

ϕ

r

(A4.81)

grad u

ϕ

= −

u

ϕ

u

r

r

(A4.82)

grad u

z

= 0 (A4.83)

grad(ru

r

) = u

r

u

r

+u

ϕ

u

ϕ

= I −u

z

u

z

. (A4.84)

Note that the dyadic operators expressed in terms of the row vectors a are identical with

their vector counterparts provided bars are put above scalar projections to transform them

into row vectors, and provided the unit vectors are used as prefactors. This simple rule,

which is also valid in spherical coordinates, allows one to write composite operators such

as grad div simply by referring to the vector formula. For example:

∇

2

a = u

r

_

∇

2

a

r

−

a

r

r

2

−

2

r

2

∂a

ϕ

∂ϕ

_

+ u

ϕ

_

∇

2

a

ϕ

−

a

ϕ

r

2

+

2

r

2

∂a

r

∂ϕ

_

+u

z

∇

2

a

z

. (A4.85)

RELATIONSHIPS IN SPHERICAL COORDINATES

Dyadic a can be written as

a = a

R

u

R

+a

θ

u

θ

+a

ϕ

u

ϕ

= u

R

a

R

+u

θ

a

θ

+u

ϕ

a

ϕ

.

The basic differential operators are

grad a =

_

grad a

R

−

a

ϕ

u

ϕ

R

−

a

θ

u

θ

R

_

u

R

+

_

grad a

θ

+

a

R

u

θ

R

−

a

ϕ

u

ϕ

Rtan θ

_

u

θ

+

_

grad a

ϕ

+

_

a

R

R

+

a

θ

Rtan θ

_

u

ϕ

_

u

ϕ

= u

R

∂a

∂R

+u

θ

1

R

∂a

∂θ

+u

ϕ

1

Rsin θ

∂a

∂ϕ

(A4.86)

div a =

_

div a

R

−

a

θθ

+a

ϕϕ

R

_

u

R

+

_

div a

θ

+

a

θR

R

−

a

ϕϕ

Rtan θ

_

u

θ

+

_

div a

ϕ

+

a

ϕR

R

+

a

ϕθ

Rtan θ

_

u

ϕ

=

∂a

R

∂R

+

2a

R

R

+

1

R

∂a

θ

∂θ

+

a

θ

Rtan θ

+

1

Rsin θ

∂a

ϕ

∂ϕ

(A4.87)

“App4” — 2007/4/7 — page 1042 — 8

1042 Appendix 4 Dyadic Analysis

curl a =

_

curl a

R

+

a

θ

×u

θ

R

+

a

ϕ

×u

ϕ

R

_

u

R

+

_

curl a

θ

−

a

R

×u

θ

R

+

a

ϕ

×u

θ

Rtan θ

_

u

θ

+

_

curl a

ϕ

−

a

R

×u

ϕ

R

−

a

θ

×u

ϕ

Rtan θ

_

u

ϕ

= u

R

_

1

R

∂a

ϕ

∂θ

+

a

ϕ

Rtan θ

−

1

Rsin θ

∂a

θ

∂ϕ

_

+ u

θ

_

1

Rsin θ

∂a

R

∂ϕ

−

∂a

ϕ

∂R

−

a

ϕ

R

_

+u

ϕ

_

∂a

θ

∂R

+

a

θ

R

−

1

R

∂a

R

∂θ

_

. (A4.88)

In particular:

grad u

R

=

u

θ

u

θ

R

+

u

ϕ

u

ϕ

R

(A4.89)

grad u

θ

= −

u

θ

u

R

R

+

u

ϕ

u

ϕ

Rtan θ

(A4.90)

grad u

ϕ

= −

u

ϕ

u

R

R

−

u

ϕ

u

θ

Rtan θ

(A4.91)

grad(Ru

R

) = I. (A4.92)

NOTES

In addition to [12, 165, 173] of the general bibliography:

I. V. Lindell, Elements of Dyadic Algebra and Its Applica-

tion in Electromagnetics. Report S126, Radio Laboratory,

Helsinki University of Technology, 1981.

I. V. Lindell, Complex Vectors and Dyadics for Electromag-

netics. Report 36, Electromagnetics Laboratory, Helsinki

University of Technology, 1988.

C. T. Tai, Some essential formulas in dyadic analysis and their

applications. Radio Sci. 22, 1283–1288, 1987.

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