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Advanced Literacy Practices

Advanced Literacy Practices

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  • (2006, PP. 17–18)
  • READING INSTRUCTION (2002, PP. 740–747)
  • NOTE


Series Editors: Evan Ortlieb and Earl H. Cheek, Jr
Previous Volume: Volume 1: Utilizing Informative Assessments towards Effective Literacy Instruction



Monash University, Victoria, Australia

Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA

United Kingdom – North America – Japan India – Malaysia – China

Emerald Group Publishing Limited Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley BD16 1WA, UK First edition 2013 Copyright r 2013 Emerald Group Publishing Limited Reprints and permission service Contact: permissions@emeraldinsight.com No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without either the prior written permission of the publisher or a licence permitting restricted copying issued in the UK by The Copyright Licensing Agency and in the USA by The Copyright Clearance Center. Any opinions expressed in the chapters are those of the authors. Whilst Emerald makes every effort to ensure the quality and accuracy of its content, Emerald makes no representation implied or otherwise, as to the chapters’ suitability and application and disclaims any warranties, express or implied, to their use. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN: 978-1-78190-503-6 ISSN: 2048-0458 (Series)


ix xiii



























USA University of Rhode Island. State University of New York. USA University at Buffalo. CA. USA University of Massachusetts. Boston. AR. Fayetteville. USA Brigham Young University. Ebert California State University. LA. CA. USA California State University. MD. USA Louisiana State University. USA University at Albany. Provo. UT. State University of New York. Kennesaw. Cheek. State University of New York. Kennesaw. D’Abate Stacy Delacruz Theresa Deeney Cheryl Dozier Ashlee A. USA Kennesaw State University. Baton Rouge. GA. Jr. USA Kennesaw State University. GA. Kingston. USA ix . Rose Marie Codling Debra Coffey Vicki Collet Rosa L. USA University of Arkansas.LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS Melissa Base Erica Bowers Mary Brady Nari Carter Earl H. USA University at Buffalo. MA. RI. NY. USA University of Maryland. Fullerton. College Park. Fullerton. NY. NY.

Victoria. USA Kennesaw State University. Kent. USA Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. USA Texas A&M University. USA University of Central Florida. USA University at Buffalo. Edwardsville. NY. GA. Australia University of Massachusetts. USA Texas A&M University. Kennesaw. NY. FL. IL. TX. Towson. UT. USA University of Richmond. McAndrews Mary B. Edwardsville. Kennesaw. USA University at Buffalo. Richmond. USA Kent State University. USA Monash University. Boston. IL. Laster Ula Manzo Stephanie L. USA Towson University. VA. State University of New York. USA . McVee Maria Melewski Tammy Milby Shadrack G. USA California State University. TX. MD. State University of New York. MA. Fullerton. State University of New York. USA Brigham Young University. NY. USA Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. OH. Corpus Christi. Emily Hayden Marie Holbein Daphne Hubbard Lucinda Marie Juarez Michelle Kelley B. Msengi JoAnn Munk Evan Ortlieb Patricia Paugh University at Buffalo. FluryKashmanian Sherrye Dee Garrett H. Orlando. Provo. USA Kennesaw State University. CA. P. GA.x LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS Caroline M. Corpus Christi.

USA University at Albany. USA Kent State University. Florida. USA Jacksonville University. USA Virginia Commonwealth University. NY. Richmond. State University of New York. Boise.List of Contributors xi Mary Anne Prater Timothy Rasinski Joan A. Kent. USA University of Alabama. Jacksonville. NY. NY. USA California State University. USA Kent State University. Shanahan Julie Smit Ann Tarantine Elizabeth A. State University of New York. USA University at Buffalo. NY. USA University at Buffalo. FL. Schiller Lynn E. Provo. State University of New York. Fullerton. Huntsville. OH. CA. State University of New York. UT. Orlando. OH. ID. State University of New York. Tynan Lee Ann Tysseling Wolfram Verlaan Taylar Wenzel Belinda Zimmerman Brigham Young University. VA. USA . Kent. Rinker Tammy Ryan Jennifer A. USA Boise State University. USA University at Buffalo. AL. Rhodes Tyler W. USA University of Central Florida. NY. USA University at Buffalo.


communicate. With current shifts toward common learning standards and new literacies. track progress over time. classroom. Particular focus is bestowed to various reading and writing components. and provide evaluation feedback to families. provide efficient. interdisciplinary) as they serve as the backbone to efficiently learn. Advancing the mission of literacy clinics requires their relevancy to be widely recognized by literacy professionals.INTRODUCTION As the second volume in the book series. xiii . real-world teaching and learning experiences. Diverse student populations require that teachers establish rapport and explore their students’ unique characteristics. all have the common goal of improving literacy skills and abilities for transfer to school experiences and beyond. and (4) complementary elements. this volume serves to springboard clinical practices back into the limelight. readers garner complete perspectives on how to create and/or improve their clinic and in turn. functioning to serve youth experiencing difficulties in reading and writing. From historical perspectives to cutting-edge practices. inclusive of attention devoted to subgroups of the population. apply. it is timely to focus on the many literacy proficiencies of students (print. Volume II – Advanced Literacy Practices: From the Clinic to the Classroom has been scripted to inform literacy professionals about the multitude of benefits and services provided by thoughtfully designed literacy clinics. or home) and utilized independently are highlighted throughout the volume. and create knowledge. Techniques that can be applied in multiple settings (clinic. and nearby communities. including their interests. (2) reading and writing elements. Practice and Evaluation. digital. Literacy Research. universities. The varied foci of literacy clinics highlight that there are numerous ways to promote literacy in clinical settings. this text was envisioned to disseminate salient information about literacy clinics. teacher education programs. Various assessment practices are also mentioned to provide readers with information on how to improve upon current abilities and levels of literacy proficiency. By addressing concerns from the conception of the literacy clinic to the day-to-day ongoings of clinic operations. (3) technological elements. This text includes four sections: (1) foundational elements of literacy clinics. this compilation fills a void in existing literature as it relates to best clinical practices.

As a result. dislikes. and those with learning disabilities in various chapters. Clinical literacy practices are often structured yet flexible. communication styles. aimed at addressing the individual student’s needs. likes. not necessarily the curricular framework. immediate progress is feasible with a team approach of reading improvement. Attention is given to both elementary and adolescent students as well as urban. and the teachers scaffold the learning of their students (all the while the clinic director learns too!). multilingual. Evan Ortlieb Editor . and background knowledge.xiv INTRODUCTION motivations. Advanced Literacy Practices: From the Clinic to the Classroom provides a fresh examination of current issues and trends salient to those interested in assorted issues around literacy clinics. as the clinic director scaffolds the learning of the teachers.



3–20 Copyright r 2013 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited All rights of reproduction in any form reserved ISSN: 2048-0458/doi:10. Laster ABSTRACT Purpose – This historical perspective highlights the evolution of reading clinics (also called literacy labs. also. mandates. Design/Methodology/Approach – A brief history of reading clinics since the 1920s is followed by a deep examination of some of the themes that have shaped more recent reading clinics and research that has emerged from the clinics: assessment. this chapter traces the history of research that has come out of reading clinics. and using assessment to inform instruction. particularly in the areas of reflection. a critical view of assessments. Furthermore. etc. teacher reflection.1108/S2048-0458(2013)0000002004 3 . Advanced Literacy Practices: From the Clinic to the Classroom Literacy Research. Of particular interest.) from medical-type clinics to instructional powerhouses for struggling readers. Volume 2. and twentyfirst Century Literacies.A HISTORICAL VIEW OF STUDENT LEARNING AND TEACHER DEVELOPMENT IN READING CLINICS B. P. centers. Practice and Evaluation. is the development of teacher expertise while participating in reading clinics.

teachers learn targeted approaches to assisting students (Freppon. current engagement with less-than-proficient readers is a secondary purpose of reading clinics. Most had never been out of their urban neighborhood. In clinic. As I will present a historical perspective of research . as a focus on concentrated teacher development is the principal objective. reflective learning for all participants. and reflect on best practices. The adults who greeted them (mostly classroom teachers enrolled in a graduate degree program to become reading specialists) had many goals for these students who struggled with reading or writing. or on virtual platforms. LASTER Practical implications – This chapter offers key information for stakeholders who are designing. Since Dr. Keywords: Reading clinics. or a specific set of materials. A third goal of many reading clinics has been to provide bountiful laboratories for literacy research. It is a place that is free from mandated assessments.4 B. In many instances. This chapter will provide a brief historical picture of all three of these strands. Social implications – Struggling readers and writers deserve and need experiences that help them acquire literacy skills. A reading clinic is a place for active. or refining a reading clinic. Grace Fernald at UCLA established the first continuing reading clinic in 1921. have always been sites of intensive assistance to struggling readers. the teachers had as much to learn from the children and their parents as the children and parents had to learn from the teachers. in schools. whether based in universities. either university-based or K-12 school-based. The reading clinic has evolved to become a site drawn from the community or communities rather than being separate from them. establishing. literacy research. and they were excited. enhance their skills as literacy leaders and literacy coaches. Yet. as it turned out. Of particular interest is the last purpose: the importance of reading clinics as centers for research about teacher learning and about literacy learners’ development. 1999) that have an impact on countless students beyond the reading clinic. adopted curricula. Teachers need support as they navigate mandates from educational policy-makers. including reading and writing for twenty-first century purposes. struggling readers A busload of middle schoolers and their parents tentatively stepped off of the bus at the university. and curious. hesitant. reading clinics. they were coming to the university to attend the reading clinic. P.

. The Educational Development Laboratories. There was a proliferation of reading clinics during the 1960s and 1970s. Iowa State University’s reading clinic was run by Samuel Orton. The Cappi Wadley Center for Reading and Technology opened at Northeastern State University. as well as reading? For example. in 2011. Since reading clinics had multiple titles – Reading Institute. and viewing. wider dissemination to other students. 2000). READING CLINICS: STANDING THE TEST OF TIME Early reading clinics were led by some of the pioneer researchers in the field of literacy. Robinson. I will give illustrations from a variety of research studies of how that research has had both an immediate impact on the students in clinic. For the sake of brevity. Gray and Helen M. Some have recently chosen the term ‘‘literacy center’’ since ‘‘clinic’’ sounds so medically oriented. . A ‘‘reading clinic’’ by any other name may be a variation on the theme or exactly the same entity of which we are speaking. The reading clinic has had many names both in the past and currently. writing. the University of Virginia’s McGuffey Reading Center was established in 1946. 1). A CLINIC BY ANY OTHER NAME . much like a soccer clinic or basketball clinic aims to advance skills. we will use the generic term ‘‘reading clinic’’ to describe a site for focused assessment and intensive instruction in reading and writing. Oklahoma. Or. A note is in order about terminology. The University of Albany (SUNY) has the Literacy Lab. At the University of Chicago were William S. others argue that we should stay with ‘‘clinic’’ as it is a place to focus on reading competencies and help boost students’ abilities.A Historical View of Student Learning and Teacher Development 5 in reading clinics. Durrell Reading and Writing Clinic is at Boston University. . usually one-onone or in small group. and Johns Hopkins University had a clinic led by Mary Dougherty (Laster. published a directory of reading clinics in 1960. Is ‘‘literacy clinic’’ more appropriate since most practitioners focus on oral language. and longer term influence on the teachers (and the future students of those teachers). according to Kolson and Kaluger (1963) that contained a list of 234 clinics that served more than just one public or private school. Inc. The Donald D. that is based either at a university or as an extracurricular activity at a school or community organization (Fig.

– it was hard to track them down. Timeline of Reading Clinics.Gutkoska 1900 1920–1950 Beginnings: The Medical Model 1950–1950 Special Reading Teachers 1960–1970 Peel off of Special Education as a separate discipline 1980–2010 Trending with “What’s Hot” 1985–2012 Teachers as Reflective Practitioners 1990–Present Social Contexts of Literacy Learning 2000–Present Reading Specialists as Literacy Coaches 2000–Present Disentangling from the Mandates 2005–Present Infusing 21st century literacies Fig. P. Joseph P. Bates reported on her survey of 242 reading clinics that they were challenged to maintain the status quo because of lack of administrative support. he could find only 145 reading clinics. Gray 1966 Califomia State University – Fullerton Hazel Miller Croy 1994 Texas A&M University Daniel Pearce 1946 University of Virginia Ullin W. etc.Carter 1921 UCLA Grace Fernald . some were placed in school sites.6 B. and 24% were at both university and school sites (Teale & Hester. 5% were at a school site only. LASTER 2004 University of Nebraska-Lincoln Joan Rankin-Erickson. Because funding was a major challenge to reading clinics in the latter part of the twentieth century. Although the number of reading clinics diminished during the late 1980s and into the 1990s because of financial constraints and unsympathetic administrators (Michel & Dougherty. In 1984. 1. Grant 1968 Towson University Dr. Guy Trainin & Kathleen Wilson 1980 University of Illinois–Chicago Eugene Cramer 1985 University of Cincinnati Victoria Purcell Gates 1958 Northern Illinois University Eugene B. so it may well be that this was only a fragment of the total number of clinics. 2012). Reading Laboratory. 2008 New Mexico State University Koomi Kim 2012 1953 University of Pittsburgh Donald Cleland 1972 National Louis University Bob Hillerich 1945 University of Chicago William S. Aaron 2006 Georgia State University–Atlanta Joyce Many & Lori Elliot 1966 Harvard University Jeanne Chall 1939 Rowan University Marion Little 1907 Northeastern State University Harrell E. A 1997 survey found that 71% were still based at a university. there has been a resurgence of interest in clinics and the establishment of multiple new sites during the last decade (Ortlieb. Reading Center. Garrison 1932 Western Michigan University Homer J. Bader and Wiesendanger’s (1986) survey of reading clinics reported on 151. LeaveII 1937 New York University Stella Center 1956 University of Georgia lra E. By the time of Zalud’s (1993) study. 1999). and Irwin and Lynch-Brown (1988) discuss 163 clinics that were part of their survey. 1997).

Furthermore. the site for the development of the Fernald Technique (Fernald. The skeletal template of reading clinic that Dr. though. throwing balls. So. one consistent purpose has been to provide a refuge and a source of help for struggling readers. as reading clinics took on the essence of medical clinics. the reading clinic has become a place where new techniques and research emerges. 1943). assessment and instruction. the first university-based reading clinic opened at UCLA. we see an evolution of the missions and visions of the reading clinic for these children or adolescents. By offering an exemplary practicum for aspiring reading teachers or reading specialists while providing direct service to students. it was. The focus was on remedial readers. as cited in McCormick & Braithwaite. that visual correction or vision therapy does not ameliorate their challenges. BEGINNINGS: FROM ‘‘DUMB OR LAZY’’ TO A MEDICAL MODEL Early reading clinics were a step forward from a time when students who did not progress were labeled as dumb or lazy. much attention was given to the idea that visual problems are the primary cause of reading difficulties (McCormick & Braithwaite. the missions/visions of clinics involve other essential stakeholders: teachers. As we look at the history of reading clinics. 2008). and other components and contexts of literacy instruction. and caregivers/parents/extended family. In the 1920s. research demonstrated. A variety of theories of why some students struggle with reading dominated the decades of 1920–1960 and the flavor of those discussions permeated the walls of the reading clinics. In the 1940s. Delacato (1959) built on the notion that neurological problems are the basis for reading problems and had children crawling. Emotional disturbance was proposed as a cause of reading failure. etc. they tried to solve the puzzle of readers who had deficits and tried to ‘‘cure’’ them. also. Others later explained that emotional distress is sometimes the result of reading problems rather than a cause . 2008) popularized the idea that lack of cerebral dominance is the cause of reading delay.A Historical View of Student Learning and Teacher Development 7 Through the many versions of reading clinics across the decades. literacy specialists or coaches. which is a whole word memory technique for word recognition. Fernald set up there has persisted for more than 90 years. Furthermore. Except for a very small minority of readers. Orton (1928. Research within reading clinics continues to provide leadership in theory and policy.

2012). SPECIAL STUDENTS AND SPECIAL EDUCATION The establishment of special education as a separate discipline had a major impact on the entire field of reading education and on the reading clinic (Zigmond & Kloo. ‘‘bottom up’’ vs.8 B. more and more practitioners. in fact. As special educators became distinct from general education teachers and reading specialists. 2008). The clinic is an ideal place for teacher development in the areas of appropriate assessment. With the movement toward Response to Intervention (RTI) established by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA. Sometimes. differentiating instruction. ‘‘top down’’ understandings of the reading process). ‘‘progress monitoring’’ vs. it is now widely accepted that the causes of delayed reading may vary from child to child. ‘‘ongoing assessment’’) as well as pedagogies. 2005). Since the 1950s. 2010). P.g. the Federal government had provided impetus and funds to train more than 30. LASTER (McCormick & Braithwaite. and collaboration among multiple stakeholders (IRA. TRENDING WITH ‘‘WHAT’S HOT’’ The reading clinics shifted from a stance that looked to ‘‘curing’’ what was wrong with particular students to a focus on what is the most effective instruction to advance all readers who struggle. many practitioners note the progression of reading proficiency in stages of development (Kucer. special educators and teachers of reading use distinct language (e.. and researchers have articulated that there are multiple causes of children’s delay in becoming proficient readers. theorists. 2004) law. their divergent practica resulted in separate silos of professional practice (Lipson & Wixson. there is some movement toward some conjoining of special education and general education (NJCLD. Johns (1992). responsive teaching. wrote about how the reading clinic’s new focus was as a ‘‘wellness center.’’ From . though. In fact.000 special education teachers (U. 2010). Department of Education. Furthermore. By 1968. As the communication between these divergent teacher education paths starts to converge.g. The separation between special educators and general educators leaves us now with the challenge of bridging different philosophies of language and literacy (e. the reading clinic can again become a useful site of collaboration across professional practice. 2009).S. 2012).

economic. Dr.A Historical View of Student Learning and Teacher Development 9 the 1990s onward. Many clinic directors spent the 1980s and the early 1990s cleaning out reading clinic closets filled with tachistoscopes. In dramatic contrast. provide a literature-based approach (Freppon. ripples circulated into reading clinics. 2000). the book closets or resource rooms of the reading clinics have changed along with the times. sentence level. Basal readers were – early on – focused on skill development and controlled vocabulary. 1999). Many now contain leveled readers. January). Freppon also pointed out that many clinics. supported the teaching of phonics in explicit and systematic ways for beginning readers. who directed the Harvard Reading Laboratory from 1966 until 1991. This yearly list is a metaphor for how reading clinics are both affected by the political. and praxis in literacy. The conversations during the 1980s and 1990s about how best to teach beginning reading in clinic and classroom offer another example. or in the philosophy of education generally. 1992). When there was a swing in the main discussions of the field of literacy or educational contexts in general. moved through reading clinics. such as the University of Cincinnati’s Literacy Center. Big waves of change in the field of literacy. as reading clinic directors forage into the field to find a variety of texts and approaches that reflect the latest best practices. Several examples of this are given below. later they were anthologies of literature (Pearson. The artifacts found in reading clinic book or resource rooms exemplified the current research and beliefs of literacy professionals. Some years. Jack Cassidy. has for multiple years published annual list of trends in literacy education (1999. Clymer’s (1963) article about the limitations of phonics generalizations turned the focus of clinics toward the work of Goodman . former director of several reading clinics (Cassidy & Hanes. other years digital texts are ‘‘what’s hot. and IPads. and commercial skills-based kits – which assisted teachers looking at word level. theory. controlled readers. and research forces in the larger society and how the reading clinic – as a site of research and practice – influences the larger world of literacy education. and skill level processes of reading. the clinics were more in the main flow of research. Dr. Carr. the texts used for literacy instruction are tangible reminders of how reading clinics have both responded to and influenced the field of literacy instruction. summarized how authentic children’s literature was the mainstay of instruction at her clinic (Carr. themed text sets of trade books. non-fiction has gotten more focus in literacy instruction. For example. 2003).’’ Not surprisingly. Jeanne Chall. who was clinic director at Central Missouri University. December/2000.

(2) the impact of mandates. The University of Nevada at Reno’s Center of Literacy and Learning was one of the sites for the development of Words Their Way (Bear. which grew out of the work in clinics. attitude. Earlier leveled passages laid the foundation for many other informal reading inventories. On the other hand. & Johnson. Chall (1967) continued to promote the explicit teaching of phonic generalizations and this had an impact on some clinics. each of which. Cobb and Allen (2000) created a Volunteer Tutor Instructional Practices Checklist . may create positive learning impacts for students. Salazar. and (4) twenty-first century literacies. Among others. or a combination of which.10 B. the reading clinics – crucibles of experience – were a moderating force as the controversy raged about how best to teach beginning reading. which have influenced reading clinics during the last two decades and continue to dominate. and self-efficacy – drove the clinics in the last half of the 1990s and throughout the next decade. Many reading clinics began to use miscue analysis as a central method of assessing students’ reading processes. In most cases. 2008). Considering the clinic as a laboratory to observe close examination of student progress. as well as in the clinics: (1) literacy assessment that informs instruction. Pearce. Using multiple assessments to inform reading instruction – assessments that provide information about many different aspects of reading. THEMES ACROSS TIME We now turn to four major themes. These themes have had important consequences for struggling readers in their classrooms and communities. P. 2000. FOCUS ON ASSESSMENTS Reading clinics have been a laboratory to bring clarity to issues of assessment. Invernizzi. LASTER (1965). 2004. Templeton. the reading clinic gives teachers and researchers a chance to experiment with multiple variables. miscues clarify for the teacher how readers make sense of the text. 2007). Dr. Goodman coined the term ‘‘miscues’’ to describe deviations from the text. (3) teacher reflection. 1996. motivation. Jerry Johns’s Basic Reading Inventory (2010) and the various editions of Leslie and Caldwell’s Qualitative Reading Inventory (2001) became widely used and are still popular (Garrett. writing. including many assessments for spelling. & Pate.

IL. RI. a group of reading clinic directors examined what teachers learned in reading clinic that they transferred to their classrooms. They collaborated to develop a national electronic survey in 2005 and an interview protocol in 2006 to examine the issue of transfer of practice from the reading clinic to literacy professionals’ roles in schools. they find professionals who are discussing the specific strengths and needs of their child. OK-2 sites). READING CLINIC AS A REFUGE: THE IMPACT OF FEDERAL. practice. The team of researchers developed the survey questions focused on teacher practices after they left reading clinic in the areas of assessment. 158).A Historical View of Student Learning and Teacher Development 11 (which is used to document a tutor’s growth over time and to provide useful feedback to a tutor) when they worked together at the reading clinic at the University of North Texas. One of the key findings of this research was that teachers did transfer from clinic to classroom techniques for assessing learners’ strengths and needs that were critical and purposeful. UT. They choose instruction . AND LOCAL MANDATES Since 2000 the reading clinic has become an oasis in a desert shielded away from high stakes testing and mandated curricula legislated by politicians (Cobb. For teachers. Over several years. MD. McCormick and Braithwaite (2008) state that one of the purposes of clinical education is to help teachers be aware of immoderate swings that have plagued literacy education and prompt teachers to seek ‘‘research. pay-for-performance. rather than fads. and high stakes observations by administrators. 2003. & Chitamba... STATE. TX. Because of the nature of the survey. 2007). For parents/guardians who bring their children or adolescents to reading clinic. and even the e-mail solicitations for participants did not come from the directors of their local program. In reading clinic. the reading clinic is a place where they can learn. 2012). The request for respondents went out to 500 practicing reading teachers/reading specialists/educators across 10 different sites. NM. Sargent. instruction. Deeney et al. and grow in their competencies as practitioners also away from the pressures of mandated assessments. teachers choose assessments based on the profile of the literacy learner (Carr. as their guide’’ (p. they used assessments to inform their day-to-day instruction. The subjects who completed the survey (n=150) spanned 10 sites (NY-2 sites. 2011). and leadership (Freppon et al. all participants were able to answer anonymously. coaching.

‘‘Well.85% 65.88% 0% Fall 2000 N=26 7.94% 11. Sometimes. In a review of the needs of the elementary-aged clients at the Towson University Reading Clinic.25% 0% 0% 0% Fall 2010 N=25 0% 0% 40% 24% 96% 0% 28% 0% Number of students Confidence/Self-esteem Motivation Word recognition. decoding. including the interests of the learner. The reading clinic is a refuge from these forces. The increased push toward seeing reading as reading words and reading them quickly overshadowed the focus on reading for meaning (Table 1). 35% needed assistance with comprehension in 1995.85% Fall 2005 N=16 0% 12. This is in contrast to what most teachers must do in their classrooms/ schools.38% 3. struggling readers come to reading clinic to ‘‘fix’’ what is askew in the school district.76% 35.65% 5.38% 0% 15. Component Major Needs of Students Who Came to Towson Reading Clinic. the supervisor in reading clinic will suggest student-specific assessments (Deeney.29% 17. 2005). although it often has to confront the pressures that teachers face in their schools. LASTER based on specific assessment results. and phonics Fluency Comprehension Research strategies Writing Handwriting .54% 3. & Lang. 2005). ‘‘But will he pass the state-mandated test?’’ A teacher who is a clinician in reading clinic might say. Fall 1995 N=17 0% 5. 2012. Pearson. in 2000.25% 43. Altwerger. For example. 2008). 68% had a primary need in the area of comprehension. a call for accountability.’’ Usually. Wiltz. 2011) has forced clinics to address issues within a wider context. a parent/guardian might say. I could use a DIBELS test with my client because that is what we do at my school.69% 0% 61. Yet.5% 56. and minimalist research have driven many of the changes in schools during the last 15 years (Allington. Political and business interests. & Woulfin. The development of teachers as literacy leaders in an age of accountability (Coburn.12 B. Table 1.75% 56.88% 52. P. This is likely the result of an emphasis on discrete skills and a shift away from comprehension-focused instruction in the surrounding school districts (Wilson.

A Historical View of Student Learning and Teacher Development


The goal of exceptional professional development of teachers as literacy coaches, collegial mentors, and appropriately sensitive educators has cycled through reading clinics. The teachers who participated in reading clinic during the 1990s and beyond were encouraged to be reflective practitioners (Miller & Grant, 1995). Supervisors in reading clinics promoted and helped sustain the professional development of teachers as they coached the teachers to use reflection as they planned instruction, made adjustments as they taught, and looked back at their teaching segments (Dozier, 2006). One strand of research, known as the Teacher Learning Instrument, asked teachers to transcribe a segment of their lesson before they reflected (Rosemary, Freppon, & Kunnican-Welsch, 2002). Close examination of teacher talk continues to be a focus of research coming out of reading clinics (2010). Sometimes video recording assisted with the conversations that occurred as teachers examined their own practice during reflections (Laster, 2011). Reflection by teachers (‘‘clinicians’’) and by clinic directors themselves was addressed by Kibby and Barr, clinic directors at University at Buffalo and University of Chicago, respectively (1999). Blachowicz et al. (1999) found, from their research, that clinicians reveal four types of reflection: technical, practical, conceptual, and critical. Even earlier, Miller and Grant (1995) described cycles of reflection in their reading clinic at the University of Maryland and stressed that reflection must not occur only after the act of teaching, but also during the processes of planning and during teaching. Hill (2000), at the reading clinic at the University of Houston-Clear Lake, examined the critical incidents that teachers identify and reflect upon that changed them from being teacher-centered to being child-centered.
y through careful analysis of data from both informal and formal assessments which inform teaching strategies; from standardized assessments to use of retellings, think alouds, running records or miscue analysis; and from multiple choice assessments to elaborate, thoughtful, and research rubrics y through careful analysis of videotaping and transcriptions, tutors can develop constructive means for instruction and measures for further assessment where they can chart and examine shifts, changes, and progress. Where the clinic was once an isolated tutoring situation, we now draw on many resources at the university, within the community, and include the parents in the entire instructional process (Hill, 2000, p. 1).

Going deeper into the topic of reflection, Laster, Hill, and Freppon (1997) looked at the critical incidents (Tripp, 1993) that change the



thinking and/or practice of teachers at three clinic sites. Critical incidents are not dramatic incidents but the interpretation placed on the event when reflecting upon it. In reading clinic, teachers have time to carefully examine their own practice, consider changes in their pedagogy, their attitudes, and their perspectives toward their students, the families of their students, and their colleagues. Teaching demonstrations followed by extensive peer feedback help teachers unpack their practices and extend their expertise (Dozier, 2006; Rosemary et al., 2002). Furthermore, Dunston (2007) described key elements of clinic that advance teachers and teaching. Specifically, she observed how moving teachers beyond their comfort zones and encouraging teachers to self-evaluate and reflect are essential elements of reading clinic.

Students’ multimodal literacy practices are currently valued as powerful in non-school settings (Alvermann & Hagood, 2000; Lewis & Fabos, 2005), but print-based texts continue to dominate classroom instruction because of a lack of understanding of and training in the advantages of technology and because of the reality of high stakes testing-driven curricula (Alvermann, 2008; Alvermann, Huddleston, & Hagood, 2004). However, the reading clinic can still function as the intersection between young people’s everyday and school-based literacies. The National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE)’s (2008) definition of twenty-first century literacies states that students must be able to use technology and possess related competencies such as the ability to create, critique, and analyze multi-media texts. In line with these goals, subsequent chapters in this book give many suggestions for infusing technology into literacy instruction in productive ways – ways that give the most agency to the learner. Whether text-based or digital, the goal should continue to be assisting students to be critical literacy learners. Readers who struggle, in fact, need acceleration for full, active participation in the twenty-first century in these crucial skills:  communication;  critical evaluation of information;  flexibility/adaptability to changes in the technological and social environment;

A Historical View of Student Learning and Teacher Development



the creation and production of texts using multiple modes; critical thinking; problem-solving/decision-making; responsibility; and the ability to maintain and leverage interpersonal/social relationships (NCTE, 2008).

Although the national survey described above in the section on assessment provided windows into literacy professionals’ thinking and the range of ways they ‘‘took up’’ practices from the literacy lab/reading clinic (Freppon et al., 2007), the limited nature of the survey (i.e., Likert items and open-ended questions) did not allow for further exploration into current practices. Thus, we designed an interview protocol, and conducted and transcribed interviews of clinic graduates from 11 sites (n=28). Interview questions were designed to further our understanding of the topical areas we identified in the electronic survey – assessment, instruction, leadership, and coaching. We also asked interviewees to identify and discuss three selfselected artifacts that exemplify their practice. Furthermore, we found that the survey data revealed that federal, state, and district mandates had an overarching effect, and so we prompted our interviewees to talk more about them. Finally, we wanted to explore how reading teachers/specialists integrate technology, so we added two questions on that topic. This second research project involved systematic face-to-face interviews of graduates of reading clinics and followed this sequence: At each site we had graduates who were novices and veterans, had a range of roles in the schools from classroom teacher to literacy coach, and served elementary or secondary or special school populations. In the end, we included a vast range of voices. We visited schools to interact with the respondents in their own classrooms and to see first-hand what artifacts of their jobs, as reading teachers/reading specialists/literacy coaches, were prized. This more recent study provides some evidence about the prevalence of technology used in reading clinics/literacy labs, and adds to the knowledge base concerning technology integration (Dubert & Laster, 2011). One interviewee said, ‘‘I use technology as a tool not the tool.’’ This sums up the critical stance that she learned in reading clinic where she was challenged through questioning, contesting, evaluating, improving, and building upon previous ideas concerning assessments, new instructional materials including technology, and pedagogy. This teacher knows that the breadth of possible instructional approaches is always expanding (Deeney et al., 2011).



Cambourne (2009) provides a broad and supportive theoretical underpinning for much of the work in reading clinics when he says that the theory of natural learning is aligned with these three assumptions: Meaning is an internal cognitive construction; making sense of the world is essential for the individual and society; and the human mind is capable of constructing meaning using a variety of language (and symbolic) systems. Freire and other critical theorists have long noted that literacy has the potential to empower and liberate but also to dominate and repress citizens of a given society (Freire, 1985). This stance resonates with many directors of reading clinics; yet, they also take a pragmatic approach that results in the presence of a range of models of the reading process. In fact, flexible, pragmatic models of assessment and instruction within a frame of natural learning and critical literacy seem to be the norm in reading clinics during the second decade of the twenty-first century. A spotlight on struggling readers continues as a central focus of reading clinics. There is growing concern that unless we transform our literacy priorities and practices, this generation of students will be ill-equipped with the critical reasoning and high-level competencies needed for full, participatory, critical citizenship in the global community. Lack of instructional attention to development of critical literacy skills is often most apparent with students in urban systems (Morrell, 2008), such as we find in the Metropolitan Baltimore region and who attend Towson Reading Clinic. A safe space for teachers to develop their approaches to literacy teaching is an equally important purpose for reading clinics. We should continue to advance the research looking into the best practices of reflective teaching and teacher development. The reading clinic is also an ideal laboratory to explore the challenges of the role of literacy coach. Furthermore, as discussed throughout this chapter, the 90+ years of reading clinics has provided a rich laboratory for research and praxis concerning literacy assessment, effective instruction, and contextual issues. The use of different print genres and technology has become a significant center of attention. Clinics are responsive to legislated mandates and, as such they have become testing grounds for new approaches. Specifically, instead of a deficit model, reading clinics have moved from a medical model to an RTI (Response to Intervention) approach that assumes differentiated instruction (IRA, 2010; Lipson & Wixson, 2010). Reading clinics have expanded and contracted and are, in some cases, now becoming virtual. Earlier, Michel and Dougherty (1999) viewed the

A Historical View of Student Learning and Teacher Development


future of reading clinics with optimism. More than a decade later, we assume the same stance, as we observe more reading clinics being established, their service to struggling readers continuing, and their offerings of research results gifted to the field of education. We call, though, for more support for research in clinical settings that examines the links between teacher learning and student learning and that explores the social/cultural contexts of literacy learning including digital environments. It is important, also, to continue the research in reading clinics that has a lens that is wide enough to capture intergenerational literacy in families from diverse backgrounds. The future of literacy education will be brighter with answers to the questions necessarily raised by investigating those topics central to reading clinics.
The adults who greeted the busload of middle schoolers reflected back on the semester at the university reading clinic. Looking over the in-depth case reports, it was clear that the students were more poised about spending time out of their urban neighborhood; they knew their way around the university campus and considered it a possible venue for future studies. Most importantly, the students had made great gains as readers and writers, as evidenced in the thick case reports written about each student. The teachers, also, had learned much from the children and their dedicated parents, and their own reflections. The teachers had learned how to use powerful assessments, utilize a variety of instructional pathways, and change their pedagogy according to the strengths and needs of their students. Back in their own classrooms they could do the same for their future students.

Allington, R. L. (2012). What really matters for struggling readers: Designing research based programs. Boston, MA. Pearson Education. Altwerger, B. (Ed.). (2005). Reading for profit: How the bottom line leaves kids behind. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Alvermann, D. E. (2008). Why bother theorizing adolescents’ online literacies for classroom practice and research? Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 52(1), 8–19. Alvermann, D. E., & Hagood, M. C. (2000). Critical media literacy: Research, theory, and practice in ‘‘new times.’’ The Journal of Educational Research, 93(3), 193–205. Alvermann, D. E., Huddleston, A., & Hagood, M. C. (2004). What could professional wrestling and school literacy practices possibly have in common? Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 47(1), 532–540. Bader, L. A., & Wiesedanger, K. D. (1986, March). University-based reading clinics: Practices and procedures. The Reading Teacher, 39, 698–703. Bates, G. W. (1984). Profile of university-based reading clinics: Results of a U.S. survey. Journal of Reading, 27, 524–529. Bear, D. R., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S., & Johnson, F. (1996, 2000, 2004, 2008). Words their way: Word study for phonics, vocabulary and spelling instruction. Englewood, NJ: Prentice Hall.



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21–42 Copyright r 2013 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited All rights of reproduction in any form reserved ISSN: 2048-0458/doi:10. Practice and Evaluation. Daphne Hubbard. and (4) enhancing literacy development through support from home. (3) creating instructional frameworks. a process that could be replicated by the educators who read the chapter. They communicate the factors involved in (1) initiating the planning process. This description provides educators with insights that could facilitate the planning process and provide ideas for lesson planning and curriculum development in a Literacy Center. It focuses on instructional planning that brings the curriculum to life for P-12 students and emphasizes their strengths and interests.1108/S2048-0458(2013)0000002005 21 . Methodology/Approach – The authors describe the process of creating a Literacy Center that focuses on students’ strengths and enhances student achievement. Practical implications – This chapter includes a detailed overview of the creation of a Literacy Center. Volume 2.CREATING A UNIVERSITY-BASED LITERACY CENTER Debra Coffey. (2) designing a policy manual. Marie Holbein and Stacy Delacruz ABSTRACT Purpose – This chapter provides the reader with an overview of the process involved in creating a Literacy Center to help students to rise above challenges and flourish academically. Advanced Literacy Practices: From the Clinic to the Classroom Literacy Research.

instructors. formal assessment. Teacher talk and dialogue during informal assessment can impact the interpretation of student performance during informal assessment (Holbein & Harkins. and instructional leaders (Carr. work across grade levels. Parents are key stakeholders and are participants in their children’s learning. 2010). Geir. Common Core State Standards. Contemporary nomenclature reflects the change. 2008). Dunston. policy manual. research-based literacy instruction and promote outstanding literacy leadership in our schools. 2003. Literacy Centers provide unique opportunities for teachers to focus on oneon-one instruction and meet students’ needs with meaningful curriculum opportunities that promote higher levels of achievement (Houge. and learn to reflect on their own practice. interest inventories. & Peyton. 2006). Dunston. Instructional time frames and an array of expectations often limit their opportunities to meet students’ needs and match students’ interests with engaging literature. work with special education teachers. A major shift has occurred over the past three decades with respect to the philosophy and purpose for Literacy Centers. The medical model of years past focused on deficits of struggling readers (Carr. 2007. 2007). Classroom teachers often identify the needs of students and want to differentiate instruction more creatively to help them become successful readers. Johnson. A new vision shared between P-12 partners and university teacher preparation programs places children at the center and teachers as observers. Teachers advocate for students. Educators refer more frequently to facilitating children’s literacy acquisition rather than teaching reading. 2003. 1962). Keywords: Individualized instruction. Pre-Service and In-Service teachers often acquire and . Social implications – The chapter suggests how faculty could work together to create a Literacy Center to enhance student achievement in the community. informal assessment Reading is a powerful tool for successful achievement. The changing perspective from fixing readers to supporting them in their leaning has profound implications for what educators do and how they do it both in the P-12 classroom and in graduate and undergraduate teacher education programs. This could potentially help P-12 students in many locations to acquire the skills and strategies they need in order to turn challenges into strengths. This will help Literacy Centers to provide effective.22 DEBRA COFFEY ET AL. The literature on social interaction and discourse reinforces the power of learning through collaboration and communication (Vygotsky.

Rosner & Cooper. Parent interviews and applications are generally directed toward collecting information related to student health and physical factors. developmental status. 2007). The research literature resounds with the benefits of collaborative support during various designs for individualized instruction (Houge et al. and student interest inventories. and speaking with P-12 partners to establish a clear purpose and vision for a Literacy Center. 2008).. such as assistive technologies (McKenna & Walpole. instruction. communication.Creating a University-Based Literacy Center 23 hone their instructional skills through undergraduate and graduate programs where their classroom learning is augmented through authentic experiences working with children in university-based Literacy Centers. Johnson. 2003. A review of the literature suggests a number of varying models for Literacy Centers ranging from summer practicums to more extensive laboratory experiences linked to formal coursework (Carr. Emerging literature suggests promising learning support from strategic innovations. Instruction more effectively occurs in authentic ways through emersion in literature-based models where comprehension and word recognition skills are taught through the language arts. personal preferences. Proper intake is critical to meaningful and strategically focused intervention. THE PLANNING PROCESS Initial meetings: Two years ago an Institution of Higher Education in the Southeast embarked on a journey to develop a Literacy Center. Teamwork: The vision for the Literacy Center evolved slowly and eventually led to the consolidation of a small group of faculty whose expertise was in language and literacy. they all hold to common elements: assessment. the . The group melded into a smaller strategic committee whose primary objective was to create the proposal for the Literacy Center (Strieker et al. 2003. 2010). deliberating. As the Dean of the College initiated meetings. and collaboration. 2007. While those models vary in structure and delivery. Diagnostic measures often include informal inventories. interest in the endeavor was widespread throughout the teacher education preparation faculty. achievement history. 2006). Dunston. phonemic awareness assessments. A group composed of approximately 25 faculty and administrators from various disciplines met for two years researching.. Over the next year. 1982). exploring. and family histories (Carr.

Holbein. & Eaton. Associate Dean. and goals identified by the committee formed the guiding framework for the policy manual. 2011. Harrington. fosters independent learning. the committee’s attention was primarily.’’ The guiding policy of the Center ‘‘focuses on meeting the needs of diverse populations and learners with special needs by providing service to the community at large and to the education community from both P-12 schools and the university setting’’ (p. 2011) became the focus of each biweekly . 3). Delacruz. 3). DESIGNING A LITERACY CENTER POLICY MANUAL The Leadership and Planning Team started working on the policy manual after the Center was officially approved and the infrastructure was established in 2010. Challenging issues were negotiated: Curriculum objectives were uniform and accreditation assessments were strategically embedded into the courses aligned with the Literacy Center’s structure. Communication and collaboration among faculty subsequently yielded fruitful results. and Leadership and Planning Team began drafting the manual. The Center for Literacy and Learning was designed to ‘‘serve as a collaborative model for preparing practicing teachers to effectively assist P-12 learners in the improvement of their literacy through the use of research-based practices’’ (Strieker. The mission of the Center for Literacy and Learning states that ‘‘The Center promotes the acquisition and use of literacy strategies. As the Center Director. The Literacy Committee was committed to respecting the autonomy of programs within each department while finding common ground and purpose. and motivates learners to value all forms of literacy and lifelong learning.24 DEBRA COFFEY ET AL. p. & Robbins. Heckert. All the while. Action Plans (Strieker. Coffey. These variations and diverging agendas did not deter the groups’ mission. Hubbard. The state’s approved reading endorsement standards were infused into language/ literacy courses taught by faculty in three departments. Collaboration was hallmark among the stakeholders. The mission. vision. Coffey. appropriately. Extensive meetings were held to align the priorities of various programs in each department with the Literacy Center schedule. committee’s solidarity and diligent work led to the design of the Center’s infrastructure. and essentially directed to the needs of students who would eventually seek learning support from the Literacy Center.

Creating a University-Based Literacy Center 25 planning meeting. Who will be the constant contact for information? The fourth goal of the Center was to develop a system for recruiting P-12 students to attend the Center when it opened in 2011. (2) decision-makers. The Center Director and the Leadership and Planning Team created systems using five critical questions: 1. Over 1000 flyers were distributed to area school districts and schools. How will the advisory board be established? The second goal was to develop a cadre of practicing teachers. What procedures will be used for parent orientation and participation? 3. Which students will work in the Center? 2. and evaluation. How will assessments be checked out of the Center? 3. Which faculty will teach the courses in the endorsement program? The third goal of the plan focused on the establishment of a governance system to guide daily operations and foster communication among all parties. They provided the critical intersection for the strategic plan in the original proposal. and service. the manual. (3) actions and member(s) responsible. to teach P-12 students in the Center of Literacy and Learning. The Center Director spoke at the Annual Conference on Literature for Children and Young Adults to announce opportunities in the Center. Two critical questions for this goal included: 1. The first goal was to open the Literacy Center in an age-appropriate space that was well supervised. included columns for (1) critical questions. enrolled in the reading endorsement. which revolved around teacher preparation. These Action Plans featured goals that focused on the vision and mission of the Center. What will be the procedures for leveling and circulating books and other materials? 4. This message was reinforced with flyers and a Facebook page to utilize social media. operations. How will attendance be taken in the Center for teachers and P-12 students? 2. In this process the Action Plan was a management tool that bridged planning. and program evaluation. Critical questions were generated by the Leadership and Planning Team: 1. and (5) outcomes. research. These Action Plans. What are the procedures for enrolling new students? 2. Members of the Leadership and Planning Team visited with principals in area schools . How will fees be collected through the university online account? 5. (4) projected timelines.

which were shared with parents. Forms for the Center. the team wrote sections of the policy manual collaboratively. Then the Center Director developed an Individualized Student Reading Plan (Strieker. (2) student achievement. and (5) the summer program. and leaders of various community organizations to share opportunities in the Center. the budget outline. and . The Leadership and Planning Team decided to begin the manual with the mission. The questions. (4) faculty workshops. Literacy research efforts and goals were highlighted in the manual. emphasized motivation. and storage of information.26 DEBRA COFFEY ET AL. The final sections of the manual included the appendices with student service information. The vision and mission statements presented ways the Center would enhance the literacy development and achievement of P-12 students while serving the community. and personnel who would be working in the Center. As they discussed the Action Plans. The fifth goal of the Center was to assure that the university students who worked with the P-12 students demonstrated competencies consistent with the Center’s program evaluation and unit NCATE requirements. the organizational structure. Faculty members took lead roles in writing sections of the policy manual that focused on (1) information for parents and caregivers. and goals for the Center. The policy manual emphasized the teacher development opportunities in the Center. The initial section of the policy manual included the mission statement and policy goals. (2) cognitive coaching and comprehensive staff development. 2011) and a template for progress reports. (4) customer satisfaction. which aligned with goal five. the budgetary process. and the syllabi for those courses aligned with the expectations for the Center. The table of contents for the policy manual began to emerge during bimonthly meetings with a series of revisions. (3) the budget and a description of the Center faculty. The Leadership and Planning Team determined that graduate students in reading endorsement programs would work in the Center. The sixth goal was to design and implement research procedures and an evaluation model of P-12 students’ learning that was consistent with the vision and mission of the Center. The Leadership and Planning Team chose common assessments and the research methodology for the Center. data collection. and (6) operations. (5) personnel. This section was followed by a written policy for a safe and comfortable learning environment that informed parents and caregivers about the facility. policy. This section was divided into six program evaluation areas that included (1) teacher development. (3) summer programs.

2008). The original Individualized Student Reading Plan (Strieker. 2011) was very fluid and addressed the following research-based reading. (6) reading broadly at the independent level. (2) student reading levels. The Center Director worked along with a faculty member in the Elementary and Early Childhood and Education Department to order furniture that would be student-friendly. (3) word study. INSTRUCTIONAL PLANNING The original outline and focus of the individualized student literacy plans for one-on-one instruction in the Literacy Center were designed in the summer of 2011. a technology cart. The original plan gave graduate students an overview of instructional components that was readily accessible during the sessions. leveled. organized. 2011. Graves. bookcases. writing. cabinets. (4) reading strategies. and (10) ongoing assessment and progress monitoring (Houge et al. This helped them to enhance their lesson planning and meet individual needs more readily. it was time to design the space for the Center and select resources. Graduate students engaged in extensive reflection after each session of individualized instruction. (5) engaging texts. (7) writing. (8) motivational strategies.Creating a University-Based Literacy Center 27 information regarding reading endorsement courses associated with field experiences in the Literacy Center were highlighted in the final sections. and emerging digital literacy. Members of the Leadership and Planning Team strategically planned the facility in relation to the developmental needs of the P-12 students. reading. the current assessment of the literature. and created a circulation system for 2000 titles of literature for children and young adults. Wigfield et al. This planning template was strongly grounded in the role of reading engagement and motivation on reading outcomes and other research-based diagnostic. After consultation. chairs and tables. We titled. PLANNING THE SPACE FOR THE LITERACY CENTER Once the policy manual was complete. & Dewitz. See Appendix A to review the original Individualized Student Reading Plan. (9) social interaction/group work. Juel. . and white boards were purchased for the Center... and motivation strategies and components: (1) the dimensions of reading. and writing strategies (Graves. 2008).

2008 . 2011. reading faculty provided a guided reading template with additional scaffolding for the reading process as they encouraged graduate students to create individualized instructional plans that were more structured. 2005 Graves et al. 2012 Gambrell and Marinak. Walker. Trelease.. 2011. 2011. the reading faculty determined that the graduate students should plan the one-on-one sessions more intentionally by closely examining the Georgia Performance Standards and the Common Core State Standards relative to individualized instruction to support what the P-12 students were learning in their respective grades. To help graduate students fulfill this purpose. Marzano and Pickering. 2006 Cunningham and Cunningham. 1996. and Invernizzi. Pinnell.28 DEBRA COFFEY ET AL.. Harvey and Goudvis. 2000. 2010. Bear. and Fountas. McCarrier.. As the work progressed in the Literacy Center and graduate students progressed in the reading endorsement. 2010. 2006 Gunning. 2008 Gunning. 2000 Graves et al.. and rigorous. 2010. 2006. 2011) featured these research-based components and connections with the research literature: Individualized Student Literacy Plan Research-Based Components Selecting interesting engaging texts based on tutee preferences Determining a specific outcome for each tutoring session Addressing motivation levels Scaffolding instruction in a guided reading workshop model Opportunities for word work/ vocabulary building Comprehension instruction through guided questioning and the use of graphic organizers Interesting and engaging writing prompts Suggesting plans for home and family support Planning for ongoing assessment and progress monitoring Reflecting and planning next steps Research Connections Wigfield et al. 2009 Fountas and Pinnell. Ruddell. intentional.. 2011 Johnston.. 2012 Graves et al. Walker. The Individualized Student Literacy Plan (Hubbard. Houge et al. Graves et al.

and interviews. 2002). parents. and frustration reading levels. To support what the P-12 students were doing in their respective grade levels in school. independent. 2001) or the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test (GMRT) (MacGinitie. surveys. beliefs about teaching reading. and literacy practices in the home. & Hughes. Teachers administered the Qualitative Reading Inventory-5 (QRI-5) (Leslie & Caldwell. Maria. 2011). so appropriate texts could be secured for each session. the reading faculty determined that it would be beneficial for the teachers in the Literacy Center to review the Georgia Performance Standards and the Common Core State Standards in language arts and reading for each student’s grade level. depending on their grade levels. the teacher could support and enhance what the student was learning in school. were completed by teachers. . Other informal assessments. and students to determine motivation to read. MacGinitie. Dryer. the reading faculty in the Literacy Center collected information from students’ current classroom teachers and obtained school assessment data to further inform and individualize the instructional process.Creating a University-Based Literacy Center 29 See Appendix B to review a completed sample of the Individualized Student Literacy Plan using the guided reading template for lesson planning in the Literacy Center. By addressing the standards in each session. FORMAL AND INFORMAL ASSESSMENTS Another factor to consider in preparing the Individualized Student Literacy Plans was the data provided on formal and informal assessments. the teachers were also able to familiarize themselves with the more rigorous Common Core State Standards and prepare to implement those effectively in their own personal classrooms (Graves et al. 2011) to determine students’ instructional. such as interest inventories.. To add to the data for the individualized instruction. whenever possible. Students were administered the Gray Oral Reading Test-4 (GORT-4) (Wiederholt & Bryant. teachers in reading endorsement classes considered many factors while planning for each session of individualized instruction. By addressing grade level standards within each individualized session. STANDARDS In preparing the individualized student literacy plans.

According to Pitcher et al. Initially. 2001). and goals. and goals. needs. teachers carefully considered the texts. values. motivation is defined in terms of an individual’s beliefs. the greater the likelihood that students will expend effort and sustain interest in them’’ (p.30 DEBRA COFFEY ET AL. Lehr. the teachers were encouraged to increase rigor and broaden their use of a variety of texts that included different genres of recreational literature as well as expository and informational texts. the teachers determined an outcome for each session. and comprehension instruction (Ambruster. As the P-12 students’ needs changed. According to the research. the students’ motivation levels. AND MOTIVATION Before planning the actual content of instructional sessions. and technology that addressed P-12 students’ individual interests. & Osborn. To keep each session focused. (2007). ‘‘y the closer that literacy activities and tasks match these values. TEXTS. The teachers considered the standards. needs. the teachers selected highinterest. Establishing an outcome helped each teacher to stay focused and to plan a session to specifically meet this desired outcome (Gunning. skills. It was important to lay the groundwork to specifically and methodically address the data and the students’ needs on a session-by-session basis. recreational literature at the students’ instructional level to begin the instructional process and to provide a context to address ways to improve phonemic awareness. and strategies to increase motivation. Then they found literature. 378). it was important for teachers to know their students’ interests and activities the students enjoyed outside of school. To keep motivation and motivational strategies in the fore of planning for each session. vocabulary. the teachers were asked to consider the motivation levels of their students and articulate specific strategies to increase motivation within the session. Extrinsic rewards were not used in the instructional sessions to increase or sustain motivation. the skill focus. however. games. 2010. and strategies. the students’ data from formal and informal assessments. the desired outcome. SKILL FOCUS. Walker. fluency. It was important to establish specific outcomes for each session of individualized instruction. 1997). phonics instruction. An outcome was defined as what the teachers wanted the student to know and be able to do at the end of the session. 2012). and students’ needs may be vast as well. Standards are broad and encompassing. selecting the right text is highly motivational during reading instruction (Guthrie & Wigfield. To inspire motivation. a genuine and heartfelt interest and one-on-one time with teachers certainly helped create . OUTCOMES. According to Guthrie and Wigfield (1997).

2005). 2012.. prompt. DURING THE LESSON: GUIDED READING WITH A GRAPHIC ORGANIZER During the lesson. During the sessions for individualized instruction in the Literacy Center. Marzano. Fountas & Pinnell. 2000.. the students do all of the reading aloud while the teachers listen. which gave the teachers opportunities to model what good readers do (Florida Council on Reading Research. International Reading Association. The teachers listed a specific vocabulary strategy. and writing strategies throughout each instructional session enhanced motivation (Gambrell & Marinak. 2006. 2006). The teachers determined what graphic organizer would be appropriate and useful for the stated outcome and the skill focus determined in the planning phase for each session. BEFORE THE LESSON: WORD WORK/ VOCABULARY The first phase of the actual session consisted of word work or vocabulary instruction using a specific and engaging strategy. or record miscues. Many times the teachers and the P-12 students would take turns reading aloud.. 2011. Additionally. To prepare for the actual reading of the text. and they listed the procedures for this strategy. 2002. Ruddell. & Pickering. reading. The reading faculty stressed that vocabulary instruction and word work should be reinforced throughout the lesson and not taught in isolation (Johnston et al. Graves et al. Wigfield et al. 1996. the teachers created four chunks of texts and pre-determined stopping points to ask comprehension questions at every level of comprehension for each chunk. In an authentic guided reading session.Creating a University-Based Literacy Center 31 and sustain students’ motivation to move forward and improve reading levels. the teachers specifically stated a pre-reading strategy that would promote interest in the text. this was not always possible. The procedures for lessons were written by the teachers and included enough detail for anyone to teach the lesson. . Then they designed the procedure for recording information on a graphic organizer. 2001. 2008). the words and terms that would be covered. 2009. Harvey & Goudvis. and the procedures for carrying out this phase of the lesson. the incorporation of engaging vocabulary.

. the teachers were asked to reflect on their own motivation to write and determine what affected their levels of motivation before determining a writing strategy and prompt. the teachers were often surprised that their writing strategies and prompts were not engaging. The teachers were encouraged to infuse technology.32 DEBRA COFFEY ET AL. 2000). Summarization in any subject is valid and necessary. ASSESSMENTS. 2011. nor would they want to personally complete the writing activity or be inspired to grade them. it is often overused and boring to students. thus allowing the teacher and student to come full circle in the individualized instructional process (Cunningham & Cunningham. the teachers were encouraged to ask themselves. and the focus of the session until the next session. They . and sustained silent reading for pleasure on a daily basis for 15–20 minutes as part of the home/ parent/family support component that is vital to improving the literacy abilities of all students. the teachers used an engaging writing strategy and prompt or allowed the students to illustrate some aspect of the reading after the lesson. This realization led the teachers to think critically and to conduct research to discover compelling and motivational writing strategies to incorporate after the lesson in each tutoring session. skill improvement. The teachers were also charged with planning the next formal or informal assessment as a form of progress monitoring. The writing strategy and prompt were also designed to informally measure and assess the outcome of the lesson. however. The teachers were encouraged by the reading faculty to be very creative and engaging when selecting a writing strategy and prompt. AFTER THE LESSON: WRITING OR ILLUSTRATING Due to the varying ages and literacy abilities of the tutees. McCarrier et al. REFLECTION In projecting to the end of the session. ‘‘Would I want to complete this writing activity?’’ In workshops and peer editing during class sessions. Graves et al. Thus. 2010.. HOME/PARENT/FAMILY SUPPORT. In determining an appropriate and engaging writing prompt and strategy for each session. the teachers needed to pre-determine what advice or support for parents and students would be useful in sustaining motivation. websites for games and further skill enforcement.

Creating a University-Based Literacy Center 33 reflected on the lesson and planned the next steps for the next session (Graves et al. In the final analysis. 2012). 2010. After the first year of operation. they quickly and eagerly saw the value in its intentionality and rigor. We will continue to refine our methodology and delivery of individualized reading instruction in the Literacy Center.. Gunning. Trelease. Houge et al. . 2011. The promises of new initiatives are sometimes accompanied by challenges. and (4) establishing a powerful home connection. It involved the input and commitment from many stakeholders within the college community who were well aware of the potential for meeting the learning needs of children in the community and the possibilities for enhancing the teacher preparation program. The early phases focused on establishing long. The reading faculty will continue to refine the Individualized Student Literacy Plan template as areas of need or improvement are noted. 2008. the data from pre-testing and post-testing the tutees indicates that gains were made in student reading levels and in motivation. The goal setting phase moved to the implementation phase where the focus was on (1) acquiring proper space conducive to communication and learning. 2006. (2) structuring effective instructional learning strategies linked to state standards.. research-based literacy instruction and promoting outstanding literacy leadership in our schools. It was very telling to see how the plans for individualized instruction developed and increased in quality over the course of the semester. Although the Individualized Student Literacy Plan template seemed laborious and daunting to the teachers at first.and short-terms goals followed by developing a framework within clearly established policies and procedures. the measure of success will be in the collective success stories of students whose literacy needs are met and whose learning is enriched. The Literacy Center faculty and staff are committed to providing the most effective. CONCLUSION The development of the Literacy Center was a comprehensive and time intensive process. (3) selecting assessments that included a broad range of solidly established formal and informal measures. Walker.

E. M. Words their way: Word sorts for derivational relations spellers. C. J. B. B. R. 640–650. 328–336. What really matters in writing: Researchbased practices across the elementary curriculum. & Pickering. Carr.. Newark. Portsmouth. (2007). & Hughes. S. Florida Council on Reading Research. REFERENCES Ambruster. Assessing and correcting reading and writing difficulties (4th ed. (2011). C. & Wigfield. Upper Saddle River. Building academic vocabulary teacher’s manual. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy. J. DE: International Reading Association. (2002). (2006). (2006). Boston. Today’s reading clinic: How relevant is the graduate reading practicum. 402–426. Kennesaw. Gates MacGinitie reading test (4th ed. Johnson. Graves. D. Harvey. and content literacy. Guthrie. Boston. Unpublished student programming Template. M. 51(8). K. Targeting adolescents’ literacy skills using one-toone instruction with research-based practices. G. I. Guiding reading: Good first teaching for all children. Kennesaw State University. (2011). C. 41(4). struggling readers. NH: Heinemann. F. T. Association of Literacy Educators and Researchers Yearbook.Reading motivation: What the research says. Instructional practices.1598/JAAL. Bear. (2001). The Reading Teacher. (2002). A. MA: Pearson. & Osborn. C. M.). MA: Pearson.. Fountas.. 57(3). Gambrell. & Invernizzi. P.. An investigation of teacher talk during the administration of an informal reading inventory. J.. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy. & Caldwell.).org/curriculum/glossary/glossaryOfReading.). genre. & Peyton. NJ: Pearson. International Reading Association. Preparing reading specialists to become competent travelers in urban settings. Portsmouth. Individualized student literacy plan.3 Hubbard. P. Guiding readers and writers grades 3–6: Teaching comprehension. Qualitative reading inventory-5 (5th ed. Reading engagement: Motivating readers through integrated instruction. L. F. S. DC: Partnership for Reading. Teaching reading in the 21st century: Motivating all learners (5th ed. NH: Heinemann. J.. B.. P. G. (1997).8. M. Put reading first: The research building blocks for teaching children to read. Boston. Maria. L.org/article/29624/ Graves. DE: International Reading Association. D. D. G. C. S. Boston. . F. A. Marzano. and university-based reading clinic. & Harkins. Strategies that work: Teaching comprehension to enhance understanding. D. York. T. Urban Education.pdf Fountas. B. GA. (2001). Washington.. & Goudvis. Retrieved from http:// www. W. MA: Pearson. H. VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. L. T. (2009). D. J. & Pinnell. Dryer..34 DEBRA COFFEY ET AL. K. T. (2010). Geir. 256–268. Marinak. Newark. M. R. & Dewitz.. MacGinitie. Holbein.. Leslie. Alexandria. Gunning. (2000).. K. R. Evidence-based reading instruction: Putting the National Reading Panel Report into practice. ME: Stenhouse. Cunningham. Glossary of reading terms. Dunston.. (2008). & Cunningham. (2010).. G. 31. K. Houge. M. Retrieved from http://www. MacGinitie..51. 50(5).... Boston. W. J. 237–249. I. MA: Allyn & Bacon. Juel. Johnston. (2012). (2010). & Pinnell. doi: 10. (1996)... (2011). (2005). S..readingrockets. Lehr.fcrr.). MA: Riverside Publishing.. (2003).

& Robbins. Strieker. J.. 50(5). F. Psychology in the Schools. Proposal for the Center for Literacy and Learning.. Seunarinesingh. MA: MIT Press. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy. (2007).. Kennesaw. M. P... Thought and language. Trelease. M. D.. Diagnostic teaching of reading: Techniques for instruction and assessment (7th ed. D.). (2012)... K. (2000). A. Coffey...Creating a University-Based Literacy Center 35 McCarrier. Perencevich. Opening new doors: Center for Literacy and Learning policy manual. D. Unpublished student programming Template. L.. & Eaton. S. Rosner. Kennesaw. Coffey. C. Mogge. (2007). (2010). P. Assistive technology in the reading clinic: Its emerging potential. S. A. Wallace. M. R. MA: Pearson. Holbein. L. & Fountas. Wigfield. Boston. 378–396. NY: Penguin Books. (1982). & Barbosa. & Bryant. L. The Temple University Reading Clinic. J. GA: Bagwell College of Education. GA: Kennesaw State University. Hubbard.. C. Vygotsky. N. S. Delacruz. Weiderholt. 45. Archives of the Center for Literacy and Learning. (2011). A. Coffey.... (2011). G. B. J. (2008). & Eaton.. B. 432–435. & Cooper. Albright... Strieker. Harrington. Role of reading engagement in mediating effects of reading comprehension instruction on reading outcomes. GA: Kennesaw State University.. A. D.. MA: Pearson.).. T. Individualized Student Reading Plan. K-2. T. NH: Heineman. J. Journal of Reading Disabilities. K.. 15(5). doi: 10. D. Portsmouth. T. S. The read-aloud handbook (6th ed. Cambridge. 42(1). L. Gray Oral Reading Test-4 (4th ed. 140–145. J.. 294–298. Heckert. MA: Pearson. R.. F. Assessing adolescents’ motivation to read.20307 . y Dunston. DeLaney. D. Boston. Interactive writing: How language and literacy come together.). Teaching children to read and write: Becoming an effective literacy teacher (4th ed. Walker..). A. Ruddell. (2006). Boston. Pinnell. (2011). S. B. Kennesaw. Walker. Holbein.. (1962). T. C. McKenna. June 2010). L. Delacruz. & Walpole. S. H. (2006). Kennesaw State University. S. A. M.. Guthrie. New York. Klauda. Pitcher. Strieker.. J. T. Bagwell College of Education. J. S. Action plans..1002/pits. Taboada.. (2001).. Kennesaw State University (Approved. Reading Research Quarterly. Strieker. K. McCrae. I.

36 DEBRA COFFEY ET AL. APPENDIX A Individualized Student Reading Plan Date: _________________________ Student Name:__________________Teacher Name:__________________ Student Goal(s):________________________________________________  Dimension of Reading  Reading Levels: Independent ____ Instructional ____ Frustration ______ Word Study Reading Strategy Text .

Creating a University-Based Literacy Center 37 Read Broadly at Independent Level Writing Motivational Strategies Social Interaction/Group Work Assessments (Attach)  Performance Monitoring of Reading  Performance Monitoring of Written Work Source: Strieker (2011). .

SS5H5: The student will explain how the Great Depression and New Deal affected the lives of millions of Americans. APPENDIX B Individualized Student Literacy Plan KSU Candidate: Mr. H Student Grade Level: 5 Student Reading Level: 3 Georgia Performance Standard(s) ELA5R1: The student demonstrates comprehension and shows evidence of a warranted and responsible explanation of a variety of literary and informational texts. Source: Retrieved from https://www.aspx .georgiastandards.org/Standards/Pages/ BrowseStandards/BrowseGPS.38 DEBRA COFFEY ET AL.

2: Determine a theme of a story. or poem from details in the text. drama.Creating a University-Based Literacy Center 39 Common Core Standard(s) RL.5. summarizing.corestandards. or poem. Source: Retrieved from http://www.5: Explain how a series of chapters. or stanzas fits together to provide the overall structure of a particular story. summarize the text. drama. Skill Focus: Comprehension. RL. elements of a novel or short story Level of Motivation: Good Strategy to Increase Motivation: YA Lit/WebQuest . including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic.org/in-the-states/georgiaadopts-common-core-state-standards/ Text(s): Out of the Dust by Karen Hesse Materials Needed: blank paper. colored pencils Date of Last Formal Assessment: 10/2011 Date of Last Informal Assessment: 12/2011 Student Goals and Outcome: The student will determine the characters and setting of a given text. novel.5. scenes.

As you read each stanza. As you read each stanza. Interpretive Question: How does her father feel about her? 3.40 DEBRA COFFEY ET AL. Review all the elements of short story or novel: plot. What do you think the title of the book means? Read Chunk 1: Page 3 1. . setting. Read Chunk 2: Page 4. Student and teacher complete a graphic organizer following each chunk to reinforce a specific skill. Applied Question: What skills would you need in order to know how to drive a tractor and work on a farm? 4. After skimming and scanning the layout of the text. First Phase Student reads text orally. Stanza 1 1. Teacher stops the reading at strategic points to ask questions to monitor comprehension at each level of comprehension. Lesson Outline Before the Lesson Procedures for Teaching Word Work/Vocabulary Name of Strategy: Acrostic Poem for the word Setting Procedures: 1. Literal Question: What does the narrator look like? 2. how does this book look similar or different from other novels you have read? 2. theme. 3. 2.’’ 3. characters. and point of view. Guided Reading with Key Word Search Name of Strategy: Skim/Scan Text Procedures: 1. Creative Question: If you lived on a farm far removed from people. Brainstorm and record adjectives that describe the word setting for each letter in the word setting. what would you want to have there with you to have fun? 5. Interpretive Question: Why does the narrator make this statement? ‘‘Red’s the color I’ve stayed ever since. Student and teacher complete a graphic organizer following each chunk to reinforce a specific skill. Label a blank piece of paper with the word setting listed vertically. Teacher stops the reading at strategic points to ask questions to monitor comprehension at each level of comprehension. Second Phase Student reads text orally. Applied Question: What would you say to people if you had been born at home on a wooden floor? 4. Creative Question: How would your family describe you? 5. write down three interesting or challenging words on sticky notes to add to the word wall. During the Lesson Preview the text and create motivation to read. Literal Question: What time of year was the narrator born? What is the narrator’s name? 2. write down three interesting or challenging words on sticky notes to add to the word wall.

’’ 3. Literal Question: How old is the narrator? 2. Procedures for Teaching Read Chunk 3: Page 4. Creative Question: If you were born like the narrator on a wooden floor. Surround the character sketch with adjectives that summarize the character and the setting based on the text and your own inferences.blogspot. Teacher stops the reading at strategic points to ask questions to monitor comprehension at each level of comprehension. Discuss the book. Procedures: 1. WebQuest: http://outofthedustwebquest. Literal Question: How many characters are in the story so far. write down three interesting or challenging words on sticky notes to add to the word wall. and what are her personality traits. Creative Question: How would you stay busy on a farm if you were the only child? 5. Writing or Illustrating Name of Strategy: Character and Setting Sketch Writing Prompt: In your mind. Read Chunk 4: Page 5 1. Home/Parent/Family Support . Student and teacher complete a graphic organizer following each chunk to reinforce a specific skill. After the Lesson Student writes or illustrates in response to the text.Creating a University-Based Literacy Center 41 Appendix B. Student and teacher complete a graphic organizer following each chunk to reinforce a specific skill. (Continued ) Lesson Outline Third Phase Student reads text orally. 15–20 minutes daily of sustained silent reading for pleasure at home. 2. write down three interesting or challenging words on sticky notes to add to the word wall. As you read each stanza. What can the family and student do at home to support the student’s reading goals? 1. As you read each stanza. Draw a picture of the character. and who are they? 2. 3. Interpretive Question: Can you explain this quote? ‘‘There is not much family to speak of. Fourth Phase Student reads text orally. what does this character/ narrator look like. Conduct research on the Dust Bowl. Applied Question: How many relatives do you have living close to you? Do you have family to speak of? 4. Stanza 2 1. Interpretive Question: How do you know her father wants a boy? What does ‘‘mean as a rattler’’ mean? What state do you think she lives in? 3. Teacher stops the reading at strategic points to ask questions to monitor comprehension at each level of comprehension.com/ 2. Applied Question: How did you feel when you knew your mom or another relative was expecting a baby? How did your family prepare for it? 4. what would you do to make sure your little brother or sister had a better situation for being brought into the world? 5.

42 DEBRA COFFEY ET AL. Appendix B. (Continued ) Lesson Outline Assessments Procedures for Teaching Ongoing Performance Monitoring of Reading and Writing 1. Informal reading assessment scheduled for late January. 2. Reflection Following the Lesson . What went well? What would you do differently? Did you meet your outcome? What are the next steps? What data supports your next steps? To be written following the lesson. Informal writing assessment scheduled for late January.

Volume 2. Practical implications – In addition to the foundational components involved in designing an effective off-campus clinic. using forms. Practice and Evaluation.DESIGNING AN OFF-CAMPUS LITERACY CLINIC Tammy Ryan ABSTRACT Purpose – The chapter describes how teacher preparation programs can design effective off-campus clinical programs.1108/S2048-0458(2013)0000002006 43 . Information provided is applicable to clinical practicums. the chapters describes a university-based model that uses two different off-campus clinical-based experiences that support community-based programs and local area schools. These components include selecting and building a partnership with an off-campus site. Methodology/Approach – The author describes the foundational components involved in designing a high-quality off-campus clinicalbased program. and materials. and to individual course assignments at the undergraduate and graduate levels. space. 43–61 Copyright r 2013 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited All rights of reproduction in any form reserved ISSN: 2048-0458/doi:10. grading. and acquiring funding. supervision. capstone experiences. aligning assignments to course content. fees. engaging families. Social implications – The chapter addresses the need for teacher preparation programs to build partnerships with off-campus community-based Advanced Literacy Practices: From the Clinic to the Classroom Literacy Research.

When doing so. is not well-defined in the literature (NCATE. pedagogical practices. teacher preparation programs. Roskos. and contribute to society. teacher education must shift away from a norm which emphasizes academic preparation and course work loosely linked to school-based experiences. work. preservice teacher training The education of teachers in the United States needs to be turned upside down. and sociopolitical factors affecting the academic.44 TAMMY RYAN programs to better prepare teachers to meet the literacy demands of all students. in general. 2010. it must move to programs that are fully grounded in clinical practice and interwoven with academic content and professional courses (National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education. community-based programs. & Risko. particularly students living and learning in urban communities. This statement included as part of the executive summary report of the Blue Ribbon Panel on Clinical Preparation and Partnerships for Improved Student Learning (NCATE. Vukelich. and socioeconomic backgrounds. linguistic. and in reading . With today’s classrooms increasingly pulsating with varying degrees of racial. prospective teachers more deeply connect to educational theory. through supervised clinical experiences. prospective teachers are more capable to meet the literacy demands of all students. Rather. What constitutes a clinical practice. in graduate programs. extensive opportunities to work with K-8 students in real situations. By redesigning programs with high-quality clinical practices. ii). in district schools. cultural. 2001). p. particularly students living and learning in urban communities. These experiences occur in undergraduate four to five year initial teacher preparation programs. Keywords: Designing reading clinics. and socialemotional development of all students. it is essential that prospective teachers receive. in professional development schools. Clinical experiences range from lightly supervised course assignments completed in classroom settings to lab-based simulated case studies to extensive clinical practicums (NCATE. 2010) clearly articulates the need for teacher education programs to design high-quality clinical-based programs to better prepare prospective teachers to face the challenges involved in educating today’s children to learn. linguistic. To prepare effective teachers for 21st century classrooms. off-campus reading clinics. and during student teaching. 2003. 2006. Levine. Yet. clinical practices are conducted in reading clinics on and off college and university campuses. 2010) and experiences vary greatly among teacher preparation programs (IRA. 2010).

2004. 2004). and 23% reported having off-campus sites in local area . these experiences expose any disjunctures between socioeconomic conditions. & Tyson. 2008). motivational challenges. in 1984. with most occurring at the graduate level (Barnes et al. and policy affecting teaching and learning (International Reading Association. prospective teachers learn to negotiate ‘‘issues of cultural diversity and social justice’’ (p. there is an increase in off-campus clinical practices in teacher preparation programs. Research clearly indicates that teacher preparation programs designed with high-quality clinical practices produce more graduates with higher levels of confidence and graduates who transition more successfully into the teaching profession (IRA. When trained to critically examine the relationships between diversity. 2004. High-quality clinical practices offered off-campus carefully integrate course content. 2010. 202) affecting language and literacy development. 2006). Risko et al. findings show that quality clinical practices increase new teacher retention rates (Smith & Ingersoll. 2006). Bosse. and a shortage of tenured-track faculty to teach courses and supervise clinical practices (Zeichner. 2003).. 2006). between discourse patterns. Marshall. funding (Bevans. mostly because on-campus clinics lack administration support. For instance. and assignments to train prospective teachers to become skilled practitioners in the areas of theory and pedagogical knowledge.. 2010). Further. prospective teachers develop essential attributes of highly effective teachers to bring positive change to K-12 student’s academic futures (National Research Council. Currently. 2008. curriculum materials. these teachers learn to critically examine any personal biases and abilities to work in high-needs schools.Designing an Off-Campus Literacy Clinic 45 endorsement certification areas. Bevans. Notably. programs. and societal constraints affecting teaching and learning. Research also indicates that students who receive instruction from teachers trained with quality clinical experiences show higher achievement gains than students working with less trained or prepared teachers (NRC. 67% of the 242 institutions surveyed across the United States reported having on-campus reading clinics. 2003). space to conduct sessions. when working with K-8 students in urban settings. and between in-school and out of school literacy practices affecting K-8 student’s academic success. pedagogy. At the same time. For example. Bosse. Such settings provide unique experiences for prospective teachers to grapple with the complexities involved in educating diverse populations of students (Rogers. 2010). well-designed reading clinics offered off-campus in urban or rural schools and in community-based programs provide robust opportunities for prospective teachers to experience through real-life situations the academic struggles. Specifically.

and extensive homework support. and materials. many after-school community-based programs offer activities that support the school district’s curricular requirements. and to individual course assignments at the undergraduate and graduate levels. The chapter begins with a discussion on the foundational components involved in designing a high-quality offcampus clinical-based program. (4) aligning assignments to course content. while providing invaluable experiences to prospective teachers to wrestle with the many complexities affecting teaching and learning. grade-level reading and math reviews. (2) using forms. to the literacy experiences of K-8 students. Importantly. 1984). capstone experiences. offcampus clinics conducted in such settings provide unique support to a community-based program. Twenty-two years later in a similar study. and 25% reported having both on. 2004).and off-campus clinics (Bosse. 44% of the 32 institutions surveyed reported having on-campus reading clinics. Off-campus clinical-based programs benefit teacher education programs and the community. 40% offered on-campus clinics and 60% offered off-campus clinics (Bevans. 2006). The chapter then moves to describe a university-based model that uses an off-campus clinical-based experience before offering a discussion and conclusion. of the 25 institutions surveyed in Ohio. . These components include (1) selecting and building a partnership with an off-campus site.46 TAMMY RYAN schools (Bates. grading. Information provided is applicable to clinical practicums. 31% reported having off-campus clinics. A few of these programs even apply for and receive funding through Supplemental Educational Services to offer tutoring services to children attending schools not making annual yearly progress after three consecutive years (Bosse. fees. With accountability issues looming. space. This chapter describes how teacher preparation programs design effective off-campus clinical programs. Similarly. FOUNDATIONAL COMPONENTS INVOLVED IN DESIGNING AN OFF-CAMPUS CLINIC This section details information on the foundational components needed to design high-quality off-campus clinical program. 2006). Such activities often include test-taking preparation. and supervision. (3) engaging families. These clinics support and provide important services to local area schools and community-based programs. and (5) acquiring funding.

Designing an Off-Campus Literacy Clinic


Selecting and Building a Partnership with an Off-Campus Site Public, private, or charter schools, religious affiliations, public libraries, and organizations such as YMCA, Big Brothers Big Sisters, and Boys and Girls Clubs are excellent locations to establish off-campus clinical partnerships. Internet searchers, word-of-mouth, door-to-door solicitation, phone calls, and distribution of flyers or brochures are effective ways to locate potential sites in a community. In fact, university faculty members responsible for conducting clinical practices should also consider less obvious options such as after-school programs tucked quietly away in residential apartment complexes located near the university. These complexes often offer safe havens and after-school activities to support children’s literacy development. Before pursuing an off-campus site, however, a clinical director needs to carefully consider the mission of the university, program goals, state requirements, and course assignments. Further, the clinical director needs to consider the number of tutors available, times a clinic can operate at a site (e.g., before, during, or after-school hours), any weekend options, if the clinic will offer services one semester, across the school year, or during the summer months, the distance a site is from the university, and any transportation issues prospective teachers might face getting to and from the site. Careful analysis of these specific conditions and establishing goals and criteria (Zeichner & McDonald, 2011) are necessary considerations to locate potential matches. For instance, if a program focuses on early childhood theory and pedagogical approaches, a clinical director might seek a partnership with a local area preschool. If a program focuses on elementary education, a clinical director might expand a search to include after-school programs conducted in local area elementary schools and in community-based programs, such as Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts, and daycare centers. Likewise, a program that focuses on adolescent readers might seek a partnership with a middle school, or even juvenile center or alternative school. Once a corpus of potential partnerships is determined, a clinical director then needs to meet with potential after-school program directors to introduce the university program and to share the requirements of the clinical experience. During this meeting, it is important that the after-school program director specifies the number and grade-levels of children available for tutoring services, any special needs of children, types of struggling readers, location where services can be conducted at the site, days and times services can be offered, and length of a session to avoid any interference with agency requirements. Also, the after-school program director needs to acknowledge if materials, computers, and storage spaces are available for



prospective teachers to use when working with children. Accordingly, the program director should provide information on the program’s goals and mission, schedule, types of activities offered to children, and any types of parental involvement. Careful consideration of these key ingredients ensures a more positive and productive working relationship between the university and the after-school program. Further, these ingredients develop important elements of trust (Noel, 2011) necessary for building an effective working relationship with a community-based program. For example, an initial meeting held between a university reading director and after-school program director revealed that 99% of the children attending the program were African American, attended one of the lowest performing schools in the district, lived in a zip code associated with low income, high crime, and high teenage pregnancy birth rates. Thirty-seven percent of the children spoke a language other than English, 65% lived with a female guardian only, and 51% dropped out of school before starting their junior year. Knowing such contextual factors allows a clinical director to personalize clinical experiences to better meet the needs of the clinical program and the needs of the children receiving tutoring services from the prospective teachers. Once a partnership is established, a clinical director needs to observe at the site two to three times before prospective teachers begin offering tutoring services. In doing so, the clinical director can further align clinical experiences to the community-based program’s inside and outside building routines, behavior management system, disposition of staff to children, and interaction between staff, director, children, and parents. Understanding these conditions and using them to structure class discussions enable a clinical director to better support prospective teachers’ learning experiences while ensuring that the clinical practice supports the routines and procedures of the after-school community-based program. University programs that offer tutoring services off-campus typically provide services to K-6 students (Bevans, 2004). Sessions conducted on- and off-campus are usually held Monday through Thursday, offered once or twice a week for 60–90 minutes, last approximately 10–12 weeks (Bosse, 2006), and are designed for 11–20 children a semester (Bevans, 2004).

Forms, Fees, Space, and Materials Off-campus clinical directors prepare and provide family members with various forms. These forms include but are not limited to applications,

Designing an Off-Campus Literacy Clinic


contracts, interest sheets, contact information, and consent forms. Forms are made available in both English and Spanish. Consent forms should include permission statements to audio and videotape sessions and spaces to write in names of tutor and tutee, location of sessions, days, times, and length of sessions. To conduct research and to publish findings, most universities require an approved Institution Review Board Human Subjects application. Interest sheets include questions pertaining to a child’s interests, behavior, reading, writing, and learning strengths and needs. Guardians sign forms and return by a specific date to the clinic director before students receive services at the site. Additionally, many community-based programs require prospective teachers to complete and receive clearance on specific agency background checks, applications, or consent forms before working with children at the site. These requirements are separate from any university or school district requirements. Similar to on-campus clinical-based practices, many universities require a fee or deposit for tutoring services. While some universities offer services for free, others charge fees that range from $5 to over $100 (Barnes et al., 2008; Deeney et al., 2005) Fees support the clinical-based program by encouraging students to attend sessions and to return all materials owned by the university or off-campus site. Returnable deposits range from $5 to $50, and money is returned in full or partially to students who attended a set number of sessions and who return all materials. For example, a university program might require a $40 fee for services offered during a semester. Students who attended all sessions and returned all materials will receive $20 at the end the semester. The remaining $20 is used to replace paper, pencils, and other supplies consumed during the semester. Likewise, many university clinics offer fee waivers or scholarships to students who qualify for free or reduced lunch (Bevans, 2004). Clinics conducting off-campus sites in local area schools typically do not require fees or deposits, and universities receiving departmental funds often do not charge a tutoring fee (Barnes et al., 2008). Prospective teachers conducting clinical experiences in community-based settings, like in a boys and girls club, hold sessions where space is available and quiet. Because space is most often limited inside buildings, prospective teachers creatively find places outside the buildings to work with students such as on picnic tables, on empty basketball courts, or on blankets spread on the ground. When programs utilize space inside a building, the noise level is often too distracting for prospective teachers to conduct successful teaching and learning activities with the students. Also, most after-school programs willingly share any available books, materials, computers, tables, chairs, and rooms with prospective teachers.



Off-campus clinics held in school settings conduct tutoring sessions in classrooms, the library, cafeteria, hallways, or outside on picnic tables. These schools most often provide prospective teachers with grade-level materials and books, use of any computers, and storage space to house materials between sessions. When materials are needed to conduct sessions, retail stores such as Dollar General or Good Will stores offer inexpensive options for prospective teachers to purchase pencils, crayons, markers, paper, glue, books, manipulatives, and games. Likewise, online sites such as http:// www.ReadingTutors.com offer leveled reading materials, reading assessments, and various reading activities matched to student’s interests and needs for prospective teachers to use when designing lessons.

Engaging Families Like most on-campus clinical practices, off-campus clinics provide family members with some type of brochure, pamphlet, or packet that overviews the clinical experience, including instructional tips, to encourage reading at home (Barnes et al., 2008; Bevans, 2004). Some clinical practices offer a before session orientation to familiarize family members with session formats and to assist family members with the completion of forms. Often prospective teachers engage family members in various literacy nights during the semester and offer family members celebrations at the end of a session (Medcalf, Bessette, & Gibbs, 2009). To enhance home school connections, many universities require, as part of course requirements, some form of weekly communication with family members. For instance, some prospective teachers create newsletters that include work samples, photographs of children engaged in literacy events, highlights of session accomplishments, dates for upcoming events, or instructional tips. Such newsletters are printed as handouts. Others are e-mailed or posted on websites or blogs. Often when a session ends, prospective teachers provide family members or classroom teachers with some type of report that overviews tutoring outcomes, provides assessment results, and offers suggestions for future reading instruction. Of the universities Barnes et al. (2008) surveyed, 34% reported offering family members activities four times during the semester, while 66% reported offering activities two or fewer times a semester. Likewise, 3% of the universities reported offering family members weekly updates either

Designing an Off-Campus Literacy Clinic


electronically or through hard-copy newsletters, and 8% provided family members with end-of-term conferences. The benefits of offering opportunities for prospective teachers to engage with family members in various events across a semester not only enhance K-8 student’s learning experiences but also enrich prospective teachers’ abilities to effectively communicate with family members (Deeney et al., 2010). For instance, through repeated collaborations with family members, prospective teachers acquire important skills to articulate assessment results and learning outcomes in parent-friendly terms. Further, conducting sessions in the context of urban or rural settings thrusts prospective teachers into real-life situations to deeply experience and reflect on ways home language, culture, and context influence effective teaching and learning. Designing clinical practices in urban off-campus sites, in particular, increases prospective teachers’ effectiveness in teaching low-income, minority, and diverse populations of students (Catapano & Huisman, 2010). For instance, after working one semester in an off-campus clinic located in an after-school community-based program, a prospective teacher stated on a course evaluation, ‘‘Taking account of student’s background and home experiences can be helpful in understanding how students learn. If you build a relationship and a supportive environment with the family a student is more likely to succeed.’’

Aligning Assignments to Course Content, Grading, and Supervising High-quality, clinical-based practices provide prospective teachers with important experiences to use various qualitative and quantitative reading assessments (Irvin & Lynch-Brown, 1988) to monitor student learning and to measure instructional effectiveness. In the process, prospective teachers learn important habits of instructional routines to administer, analyze, and use results to plan lessons matched to students’ identified needs. Through these important instructional cycles, prospective teachers develop skill in using screening, diagnostic, monitoring, and outcome assessments to design effective lessons in the areas of decoding, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension that affect student outcomes (Jensen & Tuten, 2007). Most clinical practices offer prospective teachers training in using informal reading inventories, running records, word lists, spelling inventories, writing samples, and miscue analysis to measure student progress (Barnes et al., 2008). Barnes et al. (2008) reported that 78% of the clinics surveyed used various informal assessments such as think alouds, running records, and



interest inventories, while 71% used informal reading inventories. Additionally, Barnes et al. (2008) reported that 45% of the universities used professional development experiences to assist in bridging mandates to effective instruction practices. Off-campus clinical assignments align to course content, to university degree requirements, and to the particular needs of the community-based program. These weighted assignments include but are not limited to reflections on course readings, class participation, online posts, classroom observations, writing and implementing lesson plans, administering and analyzing various assessments, debriefings with course instructor, case study reports, and reflections (Deeney et al., 2005). Assignments receiving the most weight include written lesson plans, administration and evaluation of assessments, and written clinical reports. Other assignments include group projects, observation of student work, and class presentations. Assignments receiving the least weight include tests and exams (Barnes et al., 2008). Other chapters in this volume offer specific information on instructional elements used in clinical-based practices in the areas of reading, writing, and technology. Lastly, supervision of clinical practices on- and off-campus typically falls to the responsibility of the clinical director with 68% of these directors being full-time, tenured-track faculty. Bevans (2004) reported that clinical directors observe sessions 84% of the time while graduate assistants observe sessions 16% of the time. Nearly 50% of the institutions reported that the role of a clinical director also included answering phones, returning phone messages, and collecting and reporting fees. However, a majority of the universities reported using graduate students, undergraduate students, or community volunteers to complete such clerical duties. Clearly, well-designed off-campus clinical practices offer prospective teachers important opportunities to demonstrate skill in instructional decision-making based on assessment results. Such experiences deeply influence prospective teachers’ abilities to use assessments, practice pedagogical approaches, test theory, and critically evaluate key issues affecting teaching and learning such as policy mandates and curricular decisions.

Acquiring Funding Off-campus clinical-based programs benefit from funding acquired through grants, donations, or university departmental funds. Such funding is used to replenish and update materials used with K-8 students.

Designing an Off-Campus Literacy Clinic


Often, universities offer tenure-track faculty members opportunities to apply for university sponsored grants. These grants focus on scholarship interests and include budget lines that can be used to purchase materials for a clinic. For example, a clinical director applied for and received a $2500 grant and used the funds to purchase flip cameras. During tutoring sessions conducted off-campus, half the prospective teachers used the cameras to videotape lessons taught to K-8 students and to analyze videos for lesson strengths and weaknesses. While doing so, the course instructor was able to compare the effects of videotaped reflections on prospective teacher’s progress in delivering high-quality reading lessons compared to prospective teachers not completing videotaped reflections and completing handwritten reflections only. Other funding options include applying for corporation grants. For example, Dollar Store, Verizon, State Farm, Smart Technologies, and Hewlett Packard offer grants that support higher education initiatives. Information about these grants is available on the Internet. In addition, some universities receive grants from Supplemental Educational Services to offer tutoring services to children attending low performing schools. Using Internet searches will help to locate additional grant options. Lastly, clinical directors and prospective teachers should try innovative approaches to solicit for items on campus. For example, placing empty boxes in campus offices or buildings to collect pencils, crayons, or children’s books or using large water-cooler containers to collect coins are a few creative ways clinics replenish supplies.

Jacksonville University, a small, private, liberal arts campus, offers an off-campus clinical-based experience as part of its Master’s in Elementary Education degree program and reading endorsement certification requirements. Prospective teachers complete the clinical experience during a reading methods course. The course is offered during the sophomore year and focuses on the foundations of reading instruction and application of research-based instructional practices in the areas of oral language, phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Prospective teachers register for the course, which is taught on-campus twice a week and once a week at the off-campus site located three miles from campus. The course is the first course in a sequence of four courses that lead



to the reading endorsement certification. These courses include reading methods, reading assessment, differentiating instruction, and student teaching. The purpose of the clinical experience is to enhance prospective teacher’s connections to, growing understandings about, and immediate application of course content to a supervised practice. Across the semester, students work with a small group of K-8 students at a community-based center to practice instructional approaches discussed in class and read about in assigned course readings. Fifteen minutes before the session starts at the site, the course instructor meets with the prospective teachers to review the purpose and focus of the day’s session and to overview its significance to teaching and learning. The instructor also discusses management techniques, answers any questions, and responds to concerns. While the prospective teachers work with K-8 students, the course instructor rotates among the groups to observe instructional techniques, complete informal observation forms, offer support, and videotape various lesson components that demonstrate the week’s instructional focus. These short videos captured with an iPad are immediately e-mailed to individual prospective teachers for review at home. Prospective teachers are responsible for analyzing the videos for instructional strengths and weaknesses and for sharing results in class. After the session, the instructor debriefs with the prospective teachers to share lesson outcomes and to answer questions. Students then return to their cars to write reflections to document session outcomes following an assignment template. During this time, the instructor selects a few individual prospective teachers to meet with to further guide their growing understandings about and use of effective instructional practices. These weekly clinical sessions are carefully crafted to provide prospective teachers with important opportunities to teach particular reading skills or strategies while immediately transferring course content to practice. Through repeated practice, prospective teachers deepen their understandings about the reading components and how each component supports reading development. Prospective teachers also develop important instructional skill to integrate the reading components. Weekly, prospective teachers plan and implement lessons with K-8 children that include a fiction or non-fiction read aloud and an extension activity. Lesson plans are written before implementing the lesson and a detailed reflection is completed after the lesson. Twice a week, the class meets on campus. The class starts with a discussion on how the clinical experience relates to teaching and learning. Building on this knowledge combined with course content, the course instructor then

before closing. The prospective teachers also purchase pencils. To continue offering a clinical-based model as part of the reading endorsement program. This partnership between the university and the off-campus communitybased program formed because the university closed the on-campus reading clinic in order to make room for a new degree program and to use the space for faculty offices. lacked motivation. and field placement assignments. and in documenting classroom instruction. and complete hands-on activities for future use with K-8 children at the community-based program. Because the program was located in a low-income section of the city. Through the rigorous combination of on-campus class sessions. Importantly. prospective teachers begin to develop key attributes of highly qualified teachers in the area of reading instruction. and paper for extension activities and checkout . These unsupervised assignments completed in a classroom setting engage the prospective teachers in conducting read aloud lessons to a small group or whole group of K-5 students. The program eagerly accepted the invitation to partner with the university to enhance the services it provided to K-8 students. earned failing grades on report cards. the clinical director took immediate action to locate an off-campus site. the assignments are designed to support prospective teachers in making important connections between theory and practice. However. sharing space with other departmental programs. it received little attention or support from outside agencies. After a quick Internet search. off-putting support from administration. crayons. and simply trying to obtain parking passes for clients. the director located a community-based program near the university that offered after-school activities to local area boys and girls. and needed boosts in self-confidence. the reading clinic struggled with funding cuts. prospective teachers complete 15 hours of fieldwork in a local area school. Prospective teachers also discuss assigned readings. The clinical director stopped by the program to introduce the reading program and to announce that prospective teachers were available to tutor children twice a week at the site. Specifically. each semester before working with students at the site.Designing an Off-Campus Literacy Clinic 55 provides a visual presentation to extend learning to new topics. analyze instructional videos. In addition to on-campus class sessions and off-campus clinical experiences. a prospective teacher pays $10 to complete the agency’s required background check and fingerprint check. offcampus clinical experiences. Many of the students enrolled in the program struggled with reading and writing. in observing.

During the process. In addition. speaking. students fed off my energy. prospective teachers learn to design and implement lessons that integrate the reading components to foster listening. dry erase boards.56 TAMMY RYAN books from the local or university library to design read aloud lessons aligned to weekly reading component topics. and where’’ on the ball’s colored stripes to scaffold student’s comprehension development. and writing abilities.’’ CONCLUSION Clearly. I learned that students become easily discouraged and need tremendous amounts of encouragement and support. why. These off-campus clinical-based experiences provide unique opportunities for prospective teachers to practice pedagogical approaches and to evaluate various instructional techniques used to motivate and enhance struggling reader’s literacy development. a prospective teacher stated on the course evaluation. Yet another prospective teacher purchased balls and had students bounce the balls on alphabet letters written in chalk on the sidewalk to spell words. discussion are in-depth. what. and other materials in car trunks between sessions. the goal of any teacher education program is to prepare highly qualified teachers of reading to successfully meet the literacy needs of all . many of the prospective teachers purchase other materials at retail stores to creatively engage K-8 students in literacy activities that involve art and movement. For example.’’ Another student commented. in class. games. students stored books. For example. ‘‘When I was interested and motivated. and purposeful as prospective teachers demonstrate stronger connections to course material because they filter learning through the eyes of the K-8 students they build relationships with across the semester. Another prospective teacher purchased a beach ball and wrote ‘‘who. Because the site had limited space. Consequently. the prospective teachers need to move instruction beyond scripted text to hands-on experiences to engage students. one prospective teacher purchased sidewalk chalk to engage students in drawing story responses on the basketball court. ‘‘Vocabulary is more effective when taught through real experiences and not through drills. vibrant. reading. when. Students tossed the ball to one another and answered the question their right thumb touched. Similar to Ranke and McDermott’s (2009) study. ‘‘I learned that self-esteem is key in helping students with reading.’’ Yet another student stated.

After the session. time to reflect on tutoring sessions provides important opportunities for prospective teachers to seek advice from colleagues and to analyze positive and negative effects of important instructional decisions. When students are absent. When K-8 students attend one session a week. With many on-campus clinics facing budget cuts. a second obstacle involves the challenge of K-8 students retaining information between session. For instance. Yet. Well-designed off-campus clinics provide rich opportunities to deepen prospective teacher’s knowledge about theory and research-based pedagogical practices while supporting a community to enhance the literacy development of K-8 students. prospective teachers can design lessons that produce written products. elimination of space for other university programs. (2000) reported. designing reading clinics offcampus in after-school community-based programs provide important options for teacher preparation programs. these partnerships enhance an off-campus clinic experience because prospective teachers work where K-8 students are most familiar and where they reside after-school. these occasions become rich opportunities to further extend prospective teachers’ understandings about effective reading instruction as they observe colleagues’ instructional practices. books. and behavior management techniques. grade-level materials. and closings. progress monitoring practices. prospective teachers can observe and take important notes on colleagues’ uses of instructional approaches. while attendance rates pose limited problems when tutoring sessions are designed in community-based programs where students reside after-school. These products .Designing an Off-Campus Literacy Clinic 57 students. However. K-8 students often miss a session or two during a semester. low-socioeconomic. and computers to enhance the teaching learning experience. they often face difficulties retrieving from memory skills and topics focused on during previous sessions. To overcome this obstacle and to build-on previous instruction. particularly students living and learning in urban. the success of any off-campus clinical program requires flexibility to adjust to obstacles and difficulties. As Roskos et al. prospective teachers often become discouraged because they missed an opportunity to apply a purposefully designed lesson align to course content. and rural communities. These unexpected experiences become important collaborative exchanges that further deepen prospective teachers’ understandings of teaching and learning. Partnerships with after-school community-based programs support a clinic as they share available resources such as classroom space. Further. prospective teachers collaborate with colleagues to share observational notes and ask questions before submitting the notes to the clinical director. For example. Similar to on-campus clinical experiences.

58 TAMMY RYAN are stored on portable bulletin boards. One solution involves using online resources such as http:// www. As a final point. prospective teachers can use flip cameras or iPads to capture student engagements in videos or photographs. 2012. Skype. Additionally. The boards easily become important instructional tools to assist students in retaining information between sessions. these photographs or videos became warm-up activities to stimulate discussions about previous learned topics before moving on to new topics. future research should explore the use of digital technologies and digital literacies on clinical-based tutoring outcomes. While reading literature encourages the use of digital literacies to better meet the needs of today’s tech savvy students (Ortlieb. The boards were placed in hightraffic areas in the community-based setting and referred to between sessions. A second copy is stored in a special tutoring notebook at the community-based site for the student to review during the week. tutored students shared content on the boards with nontutored students. a third obstacle involves the lack of materials being returned to sessions. Lastly. or webcams to offer virtual. virtual learning partnerships with community-based agencies might provide important options for teacher preparation programs to design and . research might explore the use of videoconferencing as a way to design off-campus clinical-based programs with community-based programs. or displayed in a special tutoring area in the community-based agency. one community-based program allowed prospective teachers to use trifold display boards to showcase student work.ReadingTutors. Ryan. 2012). Then. During the next session.com. For instance. research might investigate the ways prospective teachers incorporate an iPad. Prospective teachers can print multiple copies of reading materials. Internet videos. placed in notebooks. With virtual schools and blended learning experiences increasing as instructional options. research should investigate ways teacher preparation programs might use videoconferencing. limited research is available to report the effects of digital instruction on prospective teachers’ clinical practices and on student learning. As many community-based programs receive funding to purchase computers and interactive whiteboards. and a third copy is stored in the prospective teacher’s tutoring notebook. For instance. off-campus clinical-based programs.0 tools into tutoring sessions to develop student’s domain vocabulary or ways students incorporate instructed vocabulary in blogs or wikis. teachers send one copy home with the tutee to share with family members and friends. and various Web 2. Additionally to assist students in retaining material.

. . Through well-designed off-campus clinics. 524–529. P. and reflective orientation required for their success’’ (IRA. D. Dissertation Abstracts International. culture. 535A(UMI. (2004). G.. and it is important to show them you care and that you want them to succeed. December). T. and socioeconomic conditions influence successful teaching and learning. survey.. Likewise. Bevans. y Patchen. a prospective teacher demonstrates and guides practice between a parent and child. a session might focus on a fluency instructional approach that a parent can use at home to increase a student’s words read per minute or an instructional practice that focuses on text discussions to enhance reading comprehension. Profiles of university-based reading clinics: Results of a U. (1984). These experiences deepen prospective teachers’ understandings on how beliefs. S. In closing. and structured real-time teaching experiences that immerse prospective teachers in the complexities of teaching.. Bates. well-designed off-campus clinical-based programs provide intense. practice. J. Bosse. discourse patterns.Designing an Off-Campus Literacy Clinic 59 use clinical experiences to further enhance prospective teacher’s skills to learn and work with today’s tech savvy twenty-first century students. practical skills. Freepon. It made me really think about what I needed to do to help students and to pace lessons that fit their interests and needs. B. C. G. The role of the university reading clinic in reading instruction. starting with things they know is important. Reading clinics and reading labs: The state of the art 2008. p. L. Deeney.S. teacher preparation programs strongly support a national goal ‘‘to prepare teachers with the values.. USA. supportive. Doing small things and showing them you care is very important. Alternative session presented at the 58th annual meeting of the National Reading Conference. REFERENCES Barnes. research might investigate ways videoconferencing can include family members in tutoring sessions. Journal of Reading. No. No 3221686). 65(07). During a session. (UMI. C. Dissertation Abstracts International. materials. (2008. For example. W. curricular decisions. FL. (2006). Orlando.. knowledge. 23). 2007. Laster. As one prospective teacher summarized on a course evaluation: Working off-campus with children better prepared me to become an effective teacher because I got to see first-hand learning and experience diversity. A study to determine the status and features of reading clinics that serve elementary students in teacher education institutions in the state of Ohio. Dubert. and theory. Gurvitz. Sessions might focus on ways parents can incorporate important instructional techniques at home to enhance K-8 students’ reading development. 27. 3141758).

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Along with the tutoring process. Practice and Evaluation. and to strengthen their reading program courses and practicum experiences.COACHING FOR SUCCESS: UCF ENRICHMENT PROGRAMS IN LITERACY Michelle Kelley and Taylar Wenzel ABSTRACT Purpose – The chapter provides the reader with an overview of the UCF Enrichment Programs in Literacy that includes a year-round reading clinic with undergraduate and graduate students serving as clinicians and a summer Digital Storytelling Camp. adapting it to their clinical setting. 63–86 Copyright r 2013 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited All rights of reproduction in any form reserved ISSN: 2048-0458/doi:10. Practical implications – In addition to providing a comprehensive overview of the UCF Enrichment Programs in Literacy. in the delivery of tutoring. to meet the current high demand for reading coaches in schools. this chapter includes the nuts and bolts of how the authors ‘‘coach for success’’ in the reading clinic. Methodology/approach – The authors describe how they used Bean’s Levels of Coaching Complexity (2004). in the analysis and decision-making process.1108/S2048-0458(2013)0000002007 63 . with an emphasis on the role of coaching in the clinic process. and beyond the clinic setting. specific Advanced Literacy Practices: From the Clinic to the Classroom Literacy Research. The focus of the chapter is on the development and evolution of these programs. This involves coaching for success during data collection. Volume 2.

Without specific guidelines for the selection and training of coaches. (2) promote self-reflection and collaborative professional learning. and instructional delivery. tutoring. diagnosis. Social implications – This chapter suggests how reading programs in colleges of education can reexamine their existing field experiences to develop a more deliberate model intended to (1) extend clinician skills in reading assessment. Applying this to education would seem to be a natural fit. This chapter proposes programs that offer consistent. the faculty at the University of Central Florida (UCF) have redesigned specifically the graduate practicum experience to meet the needs of schools and prepare teachers for the role of a reading coach. seminars. and (3) ongoing and intensive can yield improvement in students’ reading skills. reading assessment. but more than likely the term coaching conjures up the image of an athletic coach. the demand for literacy coaches in recent years has dramatically increased. and (3) provide mentoring experiences that can be replicated in school and district settings by graduate student clinicians as they acquire new leadership roles and responsibilities. Coaches utilize a variety of approaches including motivational talks. So what knowledge and skills are required of a reading coach and how can we embed these in our preparation programs? . Critical to successful coaching is the process of monitoring and providing feedback. yet the reality is it can be problematic because not all teachers are equipped with the knowledge and skills to serve as a coach. Keywords: Reading clinic. Former Football Player and College Coach Coaching is used in a variety of settings and takes many forms. diagnosis. Most of us can make connections to this concept. and supervised practice in order to train an individual or group of people to do a specific task and/or achieve a particular goal. affordable instructional support in literacy for children and families in the surrounding community. Ara Parasheghia. clinics. (2) based on student needs. coaching A good coach will make his players see what they can be rather than what they are.64 MICHELLE KELLEY AND TAYLAR WENZEL teaching tools (including student samples) and photographs are shared in order to allow for replication by educators who read this chapter. workshops. The International Reading Association (2006) purports that literacy coaching that is (1) grounded in theory and reflection. Not surprisingly then.

leading study groups. and (3) teacher support. analyzing student data. and provides feedback to teachers. occurs when the reading coach models lessons. the practicum was held at local public school sites in conjunction with summer school offerings. successful literacy coaches must be knowledgeable in      adult learner characteristics coaching processes effective (literacy) teaching literacy acquisition reading assessment. 2004). the most formal.Coaching for Success: UCF Enrichment Programs in Literacy 65 According to Toll (2005). Beyond possessing a particular skill set. Prior to 2009. 2003). THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE UCF ENRICHMENT PROGRAMS IN LITERACY Like most reading programs. and providing professional development. Level 3. the UCF’s Masters in Reading includes significant course work in reading assessment and instruction with a culminating practicum. She has delineated these into three levels. what does a reading coach do on a daily basis? Recent analyses reveal that there are distinct roles for a reading coach that are separate from those of a reading specialist (IRA. Furthermore. At Level 1. Bean (2004) has suggested that there are specific coaching activities in which reading coaches engage and that these activities vary in intensity. So how do we at higher institutions prepare reading coaches for these varying roles and experiences? This chapter seeks to describe how we have taken on this challenge and provides other institutions with support in enhancing or developing their own reading clinic using a coaching model. The International Reading Association (in press) describes this role as follows: (1) instruction. the coach intensifies his/her involvement more formally with teachers by coplanning lessons. a literacy coach informally develops relationships among teachers by participating in conferences and workshops with teachers. At Level 2. The elimination . (2) assessment. literacy coaches provide teachers with additional abetment needed to successfully implement various programs or practices (Nowak. visits and observes classroom instruction. and developing curriculum.

including examples of digital stories created by former student participants.com. in the spring 2011 semester. The final project is created by students on the computer using Microsoft PowerPoint. and a kid-friendly digital storytelling website called www. coplanning lessons. and delivering intervention with their mentee. The camp was and continues to be offered weekly in the morning. They wanted a program that was not diagnostic in nature. the clinic was expanded to involve undergraduate students who collaboratively executed assessment instruments taught in their course with school-age students. Simultaneously.ucf. students learn about the writing process. In the camp.66 MICHELLE KELLEY AND TAYLAR WENZEL of public summer school programming in 2009 caused us to pilot an on-campus clinic. Thus. our community partners requested that we offer something different from a reading clinic. although students have the option to spend the entire day with us.edu/litinitiative/program. attending the reading clinic in the afternoon. we expanded upon this program the following summer and have continued offering it since. using reading and writing to ultimately create a storyboard. we launched a Digital Storytelling Camp designed to enhance student motivation to read and write through the use of technology.littlebirdtales. In the summer of 2011. engaging in data analysis. Every day she has come home wanting to write a story. The graduate students served as their mentors throughout the clinic. Of particular interest was tapping into students’ natural disposition toward technology and promoting motivational literacy experiences throughout the summer months. with undergraduate and graduate student clinicians. ‘‘She has learned to enjoy writing. Building on 2009 outcomes. they were assigned to work with a graduate student. This is a big change from before. Windows Movie Maker. all of which framed the origin of our coaching approach. To get these students back on track.’’ therefore. but one that would be for all students. not just struggling readers. Concurrently. undergraduate program revision left many undergraduate students displaced because they had failed to follow the suggested course sequence. enabling our UCF students to have necessary field experiences related to their graduate practicum and addressing the need for summer instruction for struggling K-8 students. we now offer a multifaceted reading clinic year-round. Because of the overwhelming success of the summer clinic (especially the addition of undergraduates as clinicians). . Additional information about the Digital Storytelling Camp. The addition of the Digital Storytelling Camp was met with great accolades from participants as noted from this parent’s written comment. cfm. we refined the 2010 summer clinic to include more direct coordination of graduate course work that continued to provide a needed service to the community. can be found at the program website: http://education.

with each weekly session offered on our local school districts’ early release days. Using a professional learning community model. COACHING THROUGHOUT THE DATA COLLECTION PROCESS Once I administered the Running Record. COACHING FOR SUCCESS: HOW WE COACH FOR SUCCESS As we moved to an on-campus clinic and in response to the increasing demand for reading coaches. undergraduate clinicians staff the clinic under our supervision. In our core graduate classes. We also aligned the International Reading Association’s Standards for Reading Professionals (2010) to this matrix. we adjusted our curriculum and our way of work in the clinic to further reflect that of coaches. I was able to uncover what difficulties he had specifically in decoding and word recognition. We wanted to model what our clinicians would be doing back at their school sites. In the fall and spring semesters. and Standard 6 – Professional Learning & Leadership. emphasizing Standard 2 – Curriculum & Instruction. This clinic runs for 10 weeks each semester. We also developed tools to model the coaching process with both our undergraduate and graduate students serving as clinicians in the reading clinic. –Pre-Service Teacher Reflection . and is operated by graduate clinicians who also serve as assistants at our morning Digital Storytelling Camp. We adapted Bean’s Levels of Coaching Complexity for Reading Coaches (2004) to include clinical supervision (see Table 1: Supervising Clinicians: Levels of Coaching Complexity as Applied to Clinical Settings). thus it was crucial to provide them with an opportunity and context to engage in student-centered professional discourse and self-reflection similar to what teachers would experience in a professional learning community.Coaching for Success: UCF Enrichment Programs in Literacy 67 Presently. The summer clinic runs in the afternoon for three weeks. Standard 3 – Assessment & Evaluation. we planned for interactions where assessment and teaching practices would be shared more deliberately by collaborating and reflecting on connections between class and clinic. We strengthened our focus on leadership and professional development as it relates to reading and writing. the UCF Literacy Enrichment Programs include a year-round reading clinic and the Digital Storytelling Camp (summer only). we infused more content related to coaching.

3.4 Scaffold technical writing of case study report. IRA Standard 2. IRA Standard 6. 6. Assist with parent communication of student needs and instructional decisions – Parent Update and Parent Summary IRA Standard 3.1 Provide a forum (the clinic) for clinicians to apply knowledge of teaching and assessing reading and writing under supervision and scaffolding. 3 Assist clinicians with assessment (this includes selection and implementation of assessments) – Diagnostic Toolkit IRA Standard 3. meet with clinician to debrief on observation.4 Provide a forum (course) for clinicians to deliver Family Literacy Workshop to receive feedback – Family Literacy Workshop Assignment IRA Standard 6.1.1 Have clinicians give Family Provide professional development to clinicians Literacy Workshop during clinic.2 based on student needs (this may include lesson study). 3. 6. IRA Standard MICHELLE KELLEY AND TAYLAR WENZEL Table 1. 6.2. 3. 3. and determine IRA Standard 2.3.3 instructional focus for clinic – Data Conference Sheet IRA Standard 3. 3. Tutoring Form IRA Standard 2. work. IRA Standard 3.3 Have clinicians self-reflect on observation. IRA Standard 6. interpret assessment data.2 Level 2: More Formal Level 3: Formal Hold data conferences with Observe clinicians working with students (both clinicians to analyze student assessment and instruction).3 Provide suggestions for instruction and feedback on lessons (lessons and resources).2. Supervising Clinicians: Bean’s Levels of Coaching Complexity Applied to Clinical Settings. and provide feedback – Observation Form IRA Standard 6. 3. 1996). Source: Adapted from Bean (2004).1. 3.2 .1 Develop and deliver course content based on clinician needs and course objectives (this includes providing materials and resources). Level 1: Informal Create an environment that promotes conversations and encourages self-reflection (focus is on goal setting based on clinician needs) – Self-Assessment of Proficiency in Reading Diagnosis (adapted from Shearer & Homan.2 Facilitate and encourage collaboration of content for Family Literacy Workshop – Family Literacy Workshop Assignment IRA Standard 6.

we administer the Self-Assessment of Proficiency in Reading Diagnosis. each clinician is expected to . we explain that this resource may also be useful in the coaching process in the future when the clinicians are in leadership roles and working to increase the knowledge and skill of their colleagues. Unless a rationale is provided. The clinicians become competent in administering and interpreting each assessment through a variety of methods. In this process. In the corequisite course. and other observations of reading processes and behaviors. Because our clinic serves a wide range of children from grades K-8. Further. adapted from Shearer and Homan (1996). phonics. role play. letter sounds. and notes about the protocol for administration. This assessment is also readministered to the student clinicians at the end of the semester to aid in their reflection on personal growth from the clinic experience and to provide data for us on the effectiveness of teaching and learning outcomes from the clinic and corequisite course work. fluency. including video observation. they write rationales for each assessment area to justify the need for assessing that area and to explain their included assessment choices. we introduce a wide variety of informal reading assessments that build on the clinicians’ knowledge from prerequisite courses in order to identify strengths and needs in the following areas: motivation. group assignments according to assessment areas. and even experiential approaches with children. emergent reading skills (concepts of print. While these tool kits will be valuable resources for clinicians during and after the reading clinic. in which they keep master copies of each assessment. Ultimately. 1). we have implemented a differentiated approach to data collection in which each clinician is supported to select the appropriate assessments to administer to their assigned child. the clinicians are charged with using their developing knowledge about reading assessments in order to identify additional assessments to include in their Diagnostic Tool Kit (see Fig. Guidance in assessment selection is provided in class and individually as needed. comprehension. etc. vocabulary. phonemic awareness. and all students are given a data conference form to use as a template to record assessment selection and student strengths and needs for each.). comparison of assessments. spelling. they are required to create a Diagnostic Tool Kit (Table 2: Diagnostic Toolkit Rubric).Coaching for Success: UCF Enrichment Programs in Literacy 69 At the beginning of the semester. This assessment serves dual purposes by (1) informing us of our students’ prior knowledge of reading assessment that is used to guide subsequent instruction and (2) laying the foundation for student goal setting by exposing areas in which they need additional instruction and support in order to assess children and diagnose reading difficulties. to each of our students who will serve as reading clinicians. letter identification.

While each clinician will primarily refer to their Diagnostic Tool Kit for assessment selection.) I included a complete reference section identifying all resources in the kit (10 pts. for the fluency assessment section you would not place the Concepts About Print tool) (14 pts. to which clinicians have full access and use.) The Diagnostic Kit is housed in a sturdy container and labeled (5 pts. The data collection process begins on a designated date before the first reading clinic session on which parents bring the participating clinic students to campus for assessment. we do provide additional assessments and access to informal reading inventories in the reading clinic office.) The quality of the assessments for each section of the Diagnostic Kit demonstrates knowledge of assessment (e. we observe. and complete (14 pts. .) I included clear and complete directions for each test (14 pts. At least 8 sections per assignment description (15 pts. circulate.70 MICHELLE KELLEY AND TAYLAR WENZEL Table 2. easy to read. Throughout the data collection process.g. RED 6845 Evaluation of a Reading Diagnostic Kit Self-Assessment Rubric. and debrief with students to ensure that they are completing their data conference form and beginning to develop an authentic literacy profile.) For each section of the Diagnostic Kit there is a brief (and accurate) overview of the area being assessed and the identification of at least 2 appropriate assessments for that area (28 pts.) The tests included are neat..) Total Score: My SelfEvaluation Instructor Evaluation select an assessment for each area of reading indicated on the data conference Form (Table 3: RED 6846 Reading Practicum Data Conference Sheet: Using Assessment to Inform Instruction). Criteria for Evaluation I included an annotated table of contents and section dividers for each section of the Diagnostic Kit.

. in which they can apply course content and meet course goals. Each of the described processes in the coaching of the data collection process reflects elements of Level 1 from Bean’s Levels of Coaching Complexity. Thus. 1. Before this course I understood the need to differentiate. in this informal coaching approach. Reading Diagnostic Tool Kit Table of Contents. engage in conversations with peers and instructors to extend their learning. COACHING THROUGHOUT THE DATA ANALYSIS AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESS This course has changed my view on how to differentiate instruction. This can only be done through assessment. clinicians are provided with a setting for reading assessment. but through this course I have come to understand how to differentiate effectively.Coaching for Success: UCF Enrichment Programs in Literacy 71 Fig. and reflect on their own knowledge of reading assessment.

his growth from last year is only 7 months. start a new book. and read on a variety of nonfiction topics Average on oral vocabulary Student’s Needs Gender: M RED 6846 Reading Practicum Data Conference Sheet: Using Assessment to Inform Instruction (completed). Student’s Age/Grade: 9/Grade 4 Student’s Strengths Wide range of interests: sports. 5 months Stanine 6 and 61st percentile. based on the PPVT.72 Table 3. Needs to build confidence! While vocabulary is average for age. 11 months. also received stanine of 6. DRA. and predictions Shows frustration on implicit questions (answers that are implied or inferred). Legos. fluency. Needs to work on inferences Needs to improve fluency . Age equivalent 9 years. retelling. 66 percentile. Last year. Likes to receive books as gifts. 4 months) Grade 1 Fluency – independent Comprehension – independent Can successfully read independently and comprehend first grade passages Grade 2 passages are the level that is best MICHELLE KELLEY AND TAYLAR WENZEL Qualitative reading inventory (QRI) Grade 2 Fluency – instructional Comprehension – instructional Retelling – 45% Correct predictions – 66% Grade 3 Fluency – instructional Comprehension – instructional Retelling – 55% Correct predictions – 83% Grade 2 (level) should be used for instruction due to comprehension questions. Needs to be exposed to other vocabulary Comprehension: Reading Level QRI. etc. and age equivalence of 9 years. anything science. or other Chronological age: 9 years. Student’s Name: Tom Area Assessed/Tool Used Results Motivation: interests Personal interest survey Motivation: attitude Elementary reading attitude Survey Standardized test Peabody picture vocabulary test (PPVT) (tests oral vocabulary) Least favorite thing is spelling and/or writing because doesn’t feel confident Does not like to read aloud or answer questions about reading for fear of messing up or being laughed at by classmates. He needs to do more wide reading. He tends to only read on specific nonfiction subjects.


Easy curriculum based measurement (easy CBM) Words correct per minute (WCPM) Spelling Independent-level features: Initial and final consonants, short vowels, digraphs, blends, common long vowels Knows words that follow basic phonetic words and have one short or one long vowel Frustration-level features: Other vowels, inflected endings, syllable junctures, unaccented final syllables, harder suffixes, bases and roots

Word reading fluency Level 3.9 (grade 3, 9th month) 54 WCPM Passage reading fluency Level 4.1 (Grade 4, 1st month) 74 WCPM

Feeling more confident and learning from errors made the day before

Often misses words completely or completely substitutes other words, which changes meaning of the passage. Sometimes, skips whole lines of text and does not realize he has not read it

Elementary spelling inventory Phonemic awareness/phonics Phonics survey (letter/ sound recognition)

Spelling stage: Within word pattern – middle 10/25 Power score 40/62 Feature points Total 50/87

Scored nearly perfect on basic phonics/letter recognition/ sounds

Observations of reading Observation checklist of student’s expository reading

Observed behavior – having trouble with multiple syllable words, chunking and recognizing common prefixes and suffixes Inserts or deletes words when reading and has trouble decoding longer words. Commonly loses place while reading. If asked for name of text feature, cannot recall, but can point to it if name is given

Coaching for Success: UCF Enrichment Programs in Literacy

Book preference test

Text feature assessment

Print features (title, heading/ subheading, bold print, italics, caption, pronunciation guide, bullets, sidebar) Identifies 4/8, knows purpose 5/8, applies 6/8

Relates information to prior knowledge and commonly shares what else he knows on subject reading. He reads every bit of page, including captions and titles Opens books, reads front cover, flips through books and reads parts and checks out different text features Correctly identifies:

Only chose nonfiction text and graphic novels to read. Each chapter book he judged solely by its cover and never read the back of the book Trouble identifying: heading/subheading, italics, pronunciation guide, sidebar, cross section/cutaway, and labeled diagram Cannot explain purpose of:bold print, pronunciation guide, bullets, labeled diagram, chart/table, and index Title, bold print, caption, bullets, photograph, drawing, inset, diagram, map, graph, timeline, chart/table, table of contents, index, glossary Correctly explains purpose of:


Organizational features (table of contents, index, glossary)


Table 3. (Continued )
Student’s Age/Grade: 9/Grade 4 Student’s Strengths Title, heading/subheading, italics, caption, sidebar, photograph, drawing, inset, cross section/ cutaway, diagram, map, graph, timeline, table of contents, glossary Can correctly apply when reading: Identifies 8/10, knows purpose 8/ 10, applies 7/10 Cannot apply knowledge when reading: pronunciation guide, bullets, photograph, labeled diagram, chart/ table, and index Student’s Needs Gender: M

Student’s Name: Tom

Area Assessed/Tool Used


Identifies 3/3, knows purpose 2/3, applies 2/3

Title, heading/subheading, bold print, italics, caption, sidebar, table of contents, glossary, drawing, inset, cross section/cutaway, diagram, map, graph, and time line

Graphic features (photograph, drawing, inset, cross section/ cutaway, diagram, labeled diagram, map, graph, time line, chart/table)


Possible Focus for Future Instruction (based on data): He needs lots of word work on vowel combinations (oi, ea, ee, oo) and blends so that he can feel confident while reading. He overly relies on sight words and needs to work on word families. He has a hard time knowing how to sound out words and would benefit from lessons on chunking words and breaking words into syllables or manageable parts. He needs a lot of help on spelling and sentence construction. He could benefit by working to have better tracking skills because he commonly deletes or adds words when reading and loses his place or skips a whole line and doesn’t realize he has skipped a line. He could also benefit from a lesson on book choice so that he is not picking out books that are too hard and giving up, or the same genre of books over and over. He needs more help on fluency and can benefit from reading into a microphone and taping his readings and then listening to them as well as reading out loud at home or doing repeated readings with poetry. In addition, he needs to practice making inferences and retelling to improve on his comprehension.

Coaching for Success: UCF Enrichment Programs in Literacy
because it is assessment which drives instruction and informs the teacher about what skills a student lacks –Pre-Service Teacher Reflection


To coach students in the data analysis process, we designate data conference meeting times with each clinician so that they can present their data conference forms, demonstrate their comprehensive knowledge of the child that they are working with, and share their perceived focus areas for instruction. To support clinicians in these processes needed to create individual instructional plans for each child, we use a specific data conference protocol. This element of the reading clinic is one example of more formal coaching practices, as represented in Level 2 of Bean’s Coaching Complexity Model. In preparation for the data conference, we discuss with the clinicians that the expected presentation of student data is very similar to what they might expect in their school buildings, and is actually a process that they may be leading once in the coaching role at their school site. Thus, clinicians learn that the analysis and presentation of student assessment data are not only a reading clinic requirement but also a necessary skill for a successful educator and reading coach in today’s schools. At each designated data conference, we begin by giving the clinician an opportunity to present their assessment selections, results, and interpretations. In addition to the data conference form, each clinician brings all of the raw assessment data so that we can review their assessment results and accuracy of administration if necessary. Through selective questioning and probing, we help to ensure that the assessment data collected is accurate, valid, and reliable. In this process, it is sometimes necessary for clinicians to administer additional assessments after the conference and meet with us again before moving forward. Thus, while we use specific protocol in the data conference process, the outcome for each clinician is truly differentiated based on their case. As we coach the clinicians in triangulating their data, they determine the most critical area for instructional focus and target 2–3 instructional goals, which will frame their tutoring emphasis in the clinic.

I used different types of texts that appealed to his interests, including cartoons from newspapers, informational texts pertaining to his favorite animal, and books with humorous plots and characters. I was eager each session to see whether or not he enjoyed what I had planned, and then reflecting on it for my next session as to whether or not I should do something similar. – Pre-Service Teacher Reflection



In the corequisite and prerequisite courses to the practicum, we emphasize and encourage clinicians to carefully consider students’ motivational profiles when selecting tutoring materials and making decisions about instructional delivery (Fig. 2). This includes supporting clinicians to consider grade level/age expectations and knowledge of grade level benchmarks as indicated in Florida’s Next Generation Sunshine State Standards and the Common Core State Standards as they develop lessons. To further facilitate their tutoring, we have accumulated a variety of materials and resources that are available to clinicians so they are able to differentiate their instruction (see Fig. 5). These materials range from magnetic letters and whiteboards to premade lessons and reader theater scripts. When clinicians arrive to tutor, they are greeted by a message board (see Fig. 3) posted in a central area, which allows us to communicate important information. We monitor undergraduate students’ instructional decisions

Fig. 2.

Clinic Resources: Trade Books.

Coaching for Success: UCF Enrichment Programs in Literacy


Fig. 3.

Clinic Resources: Big Books and Leveled Readers.

Fig. 4.

Clinic Observation Devices.

and provide them with specific feedback via a tutoring form they complete per session (Fig. 4). In contrast, our graduate students complete a weekly report using their expertise to develop an effective lesson format for their students based on assessment data and motivational factors.



The clinic is housed in the UCF Teaching Academy where we have access to classroom space and lounge areas for tutoring (see Fig. 5). Additionally, we have three individual clinic rooms that have mirrored glass and video cameras, which allow us to observe tutoring sessions without causing any distractions from our presence (since they are unable to see us). Television monitors via video feed allow us to choose our viewing method (through the mirrored window or on TV) and let us listen in on the tutoring session. At this point in the coaching process, our involvement becomes more formal, aligned with Level 3 of Bean’s Coaching Complexity Model. To assist us in the observation process and to model a true coaching experience, we have developed an observational protocol (Table 4). Prior to observing students, we have them identify what they want us to pay attention to, and whether they are assessing or delivering instruction. During the lesson we take related notes and after the lesson they are asked to self-reflect on the

Fig. 5.

Daily Clinician Message Board.

Coaching for Success: UCF Enrichment Programs in Literacy


Table 4.

RED 6846 Observation Form (completed).
Date ___________________ _____ X Assessment Instruction

Graduate Student ________________________ Observation (check one):

Goal of session: I want to improve the overall delivery of a lesson on making connections to a text when reading, specifically I want them to go deeper with their connections. What went really well Students were engaged in the book because they were interested in the topic Students understood the lesson content. We continued to practice after the observation and it became easier for them What I would do differently Choose a book on their independent reading level so we can focus on the strategy instead of decoding Connect their connections to higher level questions. Ex- Asking, why does it make you think of that? Why is that connection important to under standing the text? Model my own connections to the text to show them how to go deeper

Overall: What I have learned about teaching and/or assessing readingy. I have learned you must remember the purpose of the lesson when choosing a text to use. One of my students spent so much time decoding it was nearly impossible for him to make connections while reading. Normally for guided reading I would use an instructional text but to teach them the strategy I needed to have them in an easier text. Text level must be considered. I have also learned I need to spend more time questioning and probing my students to encourage a deeper connection rather than being satisfied with a surface connection. I also need to model my use of the strategy so they can see how I use it. My own connections were weak and could have been better explained. I will continue to use this strategy with my clinical students. Dr. Kelley’s reflections: Excellent job stating the learning goal and I thought your examples were helpful. I do believe that you could have asked them what they knew already about making connections (accessing their background knowledge to build upon). I agree with your analysis, the text was too difficult and decoding efforts interfered with their ability to make meaningful connections. I would’ve asked them, ‘‘How does that connection help you to remember the text or understand the text better?’’ to get them to go deeper.

observation, highlighting what went well and what they might do differently if given the opportunity. Additionally, they are asked to contextualize their experience to what they have learned about assessing and teaching reading. When they have completed their self-reflection, they meet with us, sharing their thoughts and learning. We add our observations, including providing positive and constructive feedback.



Table 5.

Week 1 Parent Update.

This week y. We worked on improving oral fluency in two ways: word reading with a high frequency word list and by reading several passages on his reading level. We are reading the same passages/word list each day this week and graphing our scores each day. He is so excited to see his improvement! While working on vocabulary development, we have been practicing our homophones (words that sound the same, but are spelled differently) and remembering which one to use at specific times. We have also been working with the spelling of words he has found difficult, specifically the Long-A sound spelled with ‘‘ay,’’ ‘‘ey,’’ and ‘‘ei,’’ and working with words that have the sounds ‘‘ow’’ and ‘‘ou.’’ As we practice comprehension skills, we are reading a new novel called Wall Ball, which is a part of The Super Sluggers series by Kevin Markey. Before reading, we set a purpose for reading and discuss our predictions each day. During reading, we have been stopping periodically to write down questions we might have thought while we read and place them on a sticky note. This helps to stay focus and encourage understanding and deep thinking. After reading, we have been deciding on the most important events to retell in a summary. When he comes to a word he does not know or recognize, we use one of several strategies. We either break the word apart, skip the word and go back and try to see if we can name it using the context clues (other words in the sentence), or we try to use our word knowledge to sound out the word. We have also been evaluating nonfiction text structure and features using science books on mummies, hurricanes, and Jackie Robinson. Next week we willy. Continue to work on word reading fluency and passage reading fluency with a new set of high-frequency words and a new passage that we will track all week long. We will also be working on prosody, which is reading using proper expression and remembering to stop at a period and pause at a comma, by working on a reader’s theater play. We will continue to read Wall Ball, as well as nonfiction books too and specifically work on making connections while we read. Suggestions for the weekendy. He will bring home his chapter book Wall Ball and read chapters 4&5 either independently or aloud to you. He will have a few sticky notes with him to practice writing down questions as he is reading. We will use those questions and discuss them on Monday. If he has a question about a word, please encourage him to use a strategy we have been learning such as:  Break a word apart.  Sound the word out.  Skip the word and then go back and try to figure it out using context clues.  Replace the word with a likely synonym. When he is finished reading, ask him some specific questions. As a guide, here are some questions that you may use:  What is the problem in the story?  How are they working to solve the problem?  What are some character traits of the main character?  Can you summarize what has happened in the story so far?  What do you predict will happen next? If you should have any questions, please feel free to contact me at _______________. Have a wonderful and safe weekend! Mrs. Vaughn

6. Fig. . the graduate clinicians are also required to complete a weekly update to parents. This allows us to monitor the tutoring process and provide clinicians with further feedback (Table 5) including suggestions related to their next steps.Coaching for Success: UCF Enrichment Programs in Literacy 81 Because the summer clinic is completed over a three-week period. Developing Readers Tutoring Form (completed).

82 MICHELLE KELLEY AND TAYLAR WENZEL Fig. Additionally. we may recommend further assessment based on preliminary findings or inconsistent student performance during instruction. . 6. (Continued) which may include feeding them a specific strategy or resource to assist them in the tutoring process.

Jessica has been WONDERFUL! I have already found Isabella using some newly introduced tactics. the clinician explains what they have been doing during the tutoring sessions. At this point. i. This assignment is completed in the spring prerequisite course prior to the practicum and then tweaked during the practicum as a center activity that engages on the last day of the clinic. students and their families rotate from center to center in order to learn easy. Parent Recognizing the significant role parent(s) play in the literacy process. During the conference.e. . text coding. 7). we have recently added the development of a Family Literacy Workshop. to further support families. fun ways they Fig. During this culminating celebration. shares pre-post assessment data. the clinicians serve as coaches to the parents. In addition to the weekly updates we described earlier. and provides the parent(s) with concrete activities and suggestions to support their child at home (see Fig. 7. Isabella is learning not only to read books but to question herself as she reads to make sure she understands what she has read. At the graduate level.Coaching for Success: UCF Enrichment Programs in Literacy 83 COACHING BEYOND THE CLINIC Ms. Tutor and Students. all clinicians are required to complete an end of practicum summary and conference with their students’ parent(s) (see Fig. 6). we have emphasized the relationship between the clinician and parent throughout the practicum.

By serving as clinicians. student clinicians receive feedback and coaching in a unique setting and through a deliberate model that has proven to extend their skills in reading assessment. and instructional delivery for three consecutive years based on the postadministration of the Self-Assessment of Proficiency in Reading Diagnosis. and children’s families. CONCLUSION After only three years of development. based on the selected activities planned and delivered by the clinicians (Fig. diagnosis. peers. our students have authentic teaching opportunities in a supported environment where they can engage in problem solving with faculty. can continue literacy learning at home. Parent Summary At-Home Take-Away Materials. The clinic . 8. we now consider the student requirements in the UCF Enrichment Programs in Literacy to be one of the most powerful instructional and experiential components of our graduate and undergraduate reading education curricula. Beyond a standard field experience. 7 and 8).84 MICHELLE KELLEY AND TAYLAR WENZEL Fig.

DE: International Reading Association (IRA). Newark. and may be used for a variety of purposes.and postassessment data of participating students in the reading clinic. including (1) to provide a record of reading assessment results for children enrolled in the clinic across multiple sessions in order to inform the data collection needs at the beginning of a given clinic term and 2) to aid in the evaluation of instructional effectiveness at the student level. (2006). DE: International Reading Association (IRA). (2004). piloted in Summer 2012. Standards for middle and high school literacy coaches. International Reading Association. REFERENCES Bean.reading. The role and qualifications of the reading coach in the United States (Position statement).pdf. Retrieved from http://www. International Reading Association (in press). R. DE: International Reading Association (IRA). We remain eager and dedicated to intensify our coaching model across each level of coaching complexity as we prepare high-quality literacy educators and reading coaches who are already having a significant impact on student achievement. 58–63. 37(3).org/ downloads/positions/ps1065_reading_coach. International Reading Association (IRA). . (2004). Promoting effective literacy instruction: The challenge for literacy coaches. the programs offer consistent. The California Reader. An update: Roles and responsibilities of reading specialists/literacy coaches. the literacy programs further offer us an opportunity for professional development and self-reflection. Newark. a service that appears to be invaluable gauging by how quickly enrollment reaches capacity each semester. which provides an additional indicator for program evaluation and offers increased quantitative data that can be presented to funding sources in the future to potentially expand clinic offerings. An emerging component of the reading clinic. Simultaneously. affordable instructional support in literacy for children and families in the community. Diagnostic and progress monitoring data stored in this portal can be accessed by clinicians and supervising faculty. Newark. As faculty. M. involves the development of an on-site database to record the pre. as we continuously examine the efforts from our early successes and make refinements to future iterations of the clinic and camp offerings.Coaching for Success: UCF Enrichment Programs in Literacy 85 experience also promotes self-reflection and collaborative professional learning and provides mentoring experiences that can be replicated in school and district settings by graduate student clinicians as they acquire new leadership roles and responsibilities.

Unpublished doctoral dissertation.. R. A. The discourse of literacy coaching: Teacher-coach interactions during a summer school practicum. Self-assessment of proficiency in reading diagnosis. (2003). C. Gainesville. A. P. S. Shearer. DE: International Reading Association. Newark. The literacy coach’s survival guide: Essential questions and practical answers. & Homan. P.86 MICHELLE KELLEY AND TAYLAR WENZEL Nowak. Toll. (1996). (2005). . University of Florida.

This theory has been widely researched in a variety of fields and contexts. Methodology/approach – The reading clinic described in this chapter is based largely on the theoretical premises of self-determination theory.1108/S2048-0458(2013)0000002008 87 . including educational settings. The purpose of the chapter is to explain this foundation and how it has informed the structure and day-to-day operations of a successful clinic program. provide support for appropriate practices designed to create a motivating classroom environment. Volume 2. this reading clinic continually evolves as it is founded on well-grounded theory and the most current research. Created over 40 years ago. conducted from a multitude of perspectives. Self-determination theory research and reading research. 87–113 Copyright r 2013 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited All rights of reproduction in any form reserved ISSN: 2048-0458/doi:10. The author describes various ways in which the theory and research have led to Advanced Literacy Practices: From the Clinic to the Classroom Literacy Research. Practice and Evaluation.CREATING AN OPTIMAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT FOR STRUGGLING READERS Rose Marie Codling ABSTRACT Purpose – This chapter describes a university-based reading clinic for struggling readers. Practical implications – The ideas presented in this chapter show how research and theory can be successfully applied to classroom settings.

Parents are doing everything they can to help. struggling readers get messages about themselves that they internalize. which seems like a punishment. and I think we both know that he will be much more prepared for sixth grade than he would have been otherwise. I’m so relieved that he has enjoyed it. Wallace’s letter echoes what I often hear from parents of children in our reading clinic. performance-oriented. We must move toward creating classrooms where the focus is on learning and where children enjoy ownership of the learning process. as most educators claim. unsound practices continue to be used in classrooms everywhere. but who are. practical decisions in the reading clinic setting. other children tease them for stumbling over words. (Post-program parent letter) Mr. If. then we need to seriously examine the controlling. . and his subject matter interests. Broadening the use of these practices to regular classroom contexts is also discussed. competitive practices that are typical in many classrooms today. These are children who work diligently and put much effort into their work. While their academic difficulties may be obvious. basketball and swimming camps and trips y. Initially he was upset about the news [that he would be attending the reading clinic] but knows he needs to be a better reader. Keywords: Reading motivation. in the end. struggling readers Luke is a kinetic learner who excels at all things physical. or parents subtly imply their disappointment. Children are frustrated and reluctant to attend ‘‘summer’’ school. we want students to become independent thinkers who are able to contribute meaningfully to society. Social implications – Despite research that has established how teachers can create a meaningful. The program appears to have been targeted perfectly to his individual level. motivating classroom environment. and now we get to the point of my note: I’m just amazed at how much he likes it! I can’t say that he has been converted instantly to a consumer of thick novels. only minimally successful and they don’t understand why.’’ these students quietly suffer. believing that they are not as smart as their classmates. Even if teachers do not pick up on the subtle ways in which they are not quite ‘‘getting it.88 ROSE MARIE CODLING specific. his issues. but he has left the program almost every day talking about a new trick or technique he can use to enhance his reading. affective factors that are not always as visible are powerful influences. and normally summer is a series of soccer. This chapter describes a program for struggling readers that operates from this stance. Whether teachers explicitly tell them that they are not trying.

but their hands are tied by external. I then focus on reading motivation research within this larger context and describe the practical applications of the theory and research findings to our program. 1999. 1997). there is little evidence that research in the area of reading motivation has had any widespread impact on classroom practices (Fawson & Moore. 2003. Hoffman. SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY Self-determination theory (SDT) provides a solid foundation for the University of Maryland Reading Clinic. 1990) and the positive influence of intrinsic motivation on time spent reading and reading comprehension (Guthrie. The University of Maryland Reading Clinic is such an environment and I have been fortunate to see energetic. encourage competition among students. any instructional environment must help them to feel better about themselves and encourage them to take risks that will enable them to become better.Creating an Optimal Learning Environment for Struggling Readers 89 Because the affective domain is so salient for struggling readers. This is an exciting outcome given that research has established the importance of wide reading (Anderson. Wilson. I begin this chapter by describing the theory and research base that undergird the University of Maryland Reading Clinic program. Wigfield. or that they do not care. Frye. bright struggling readers such as Luke thrive there and begin to read for pleasure. Patterson. The theory has been tested over . that they are lazy. In fact. & Cox. reading amount. Cunningham & Stanovich. & Nietfeld. Luke’s experience in our reading clinic is not unusual. Huff. & Maruyama. & Fielding. In some instances. more motivated readers. Taylor. politically motivated influences. 2009). and intrinsic motivation. it is what we plan for and what we expect for every child. I continually go into classroom settings where I observe teachers rely heavily on external rewards. Whatever the cause. 1999. Despite the findings linking reading achievement. teachers genuinely want to provide relevant. motivating reading experiences. Metsala. Some teachers say that children are not motivated. 1988. and provide few opportunities for students to read. I propose that typical classroom environments are not structured in such a way that reading motivation is evident or facilitated. Wigfield & Guthrie. These findings provide a strong rationale for an environment that promotes intrinsic motivation for reading as a high priority within the context of a strong instructional program. But talk with children about their reading and you find that many of them do indeed like to read and read outside of school for pleasure.

2008. the theory also holds that individuals operate within a social context that greatly influences actions. Of particular importance are (1) the external regulation of behavior. A fundamental assumption of SDT is that humans are innately inclined to strive for well-being. Regulation of Behavior by External Means Once thought of as a dichotomy.90 ROSE MARIE CODLING more than three decades and has evolved to explain much about human behavior. It is the constant interplay between the innate human striving for well-being and factors in the environment that determines whether or not an individual will become selfdetermined. & Nisbett. 2000). highlighting the value of applying SDT to school environments. This state engenders in the individual a sense of satisfaction and fulfillment that leads to well-being. 2001. and (4) teachers’ autonomy support. 2000. They possess a level of control over their own lives that enables them to make decisions and act in ways that are in accord with their personal values. This strong inner core then enables us to continuously integrate new experiences as we face challenges and strive toward our potential. and creativity (Deci & Ryan. 2006. Research also finds that people have many motivations for their actions and that externally oriented motivations can vary in terms of the control they exert (Wigfield & Guthrie. When SD is undermined or thwarted. reflection. & Koestner. These findings extend to children and to educational settings. researchers have demonstrated that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are complex. Vallerand. interactive constructs (Deci. Pelletier. challenge-seeking. 1997). . & Deci. The following discussion highlights aspects of SDT that have direct applicability to school contexts. Self-determined individuals are confident and have a strong inner sense of themselves. Huta. 2008). SD has been associated with general wellbeing. In studies across a variety of domains and cultures. persistence. 1973. Ryan & Deci. A strong sense of self enables us to act confidently and competently in accord with our own knowledge. and control (Deci & Ryan. A subtheory of SDT. Ryan & Deci. adaptability. beliefs. Lepper. Koestner. Self-determination (SD) can be described as a state in which an individual operates from a stance of awareness. (3) influences on intrinsic motivation. 2000). (2) basic psychological needs. The theory posits that we naturally attempt to integrate our life experiences in ways that help us to grow emotionally and psychologically and to develop a strong sense of ourselves. & Ryan. and values. Critically important. the result can be dysfunction and maladaptive behavior. Greene. Ryan.

the type of internal motivation that is based on deeply held personal interests. (‘‘I will read this book about video games because playing video games is my hobby. is the most self-determined form of extrinsic motivation. (‘‘I will read this book on electricity because it has information that I need to write my science report.’’) The difference between identified and integrated regulation is that when integrated the individual fully endorses the activity as important and valuable. Between the extremes of amotivation and intrinsic motivation. which is what distinguishes it from intrinsic motivation. (‘‘I will read for exactly 15 minutes after school because I can’t go out to play until I do. also a form of extrinsic motivation.Creating an Optimal Learning Environment for Struggling Readers 91 Organismic Integration Theory (OIT). external pressure. making them self-determined. engagement occurs for instrumental reasons. the individual begins to recognize that the targeted task will lead to some end result that has value. one finds varying forms of external influence. The next point. In this context. is less controlling but still not self-determined because the individual feels pressured to act.’’) These behaviors are devoid of SD as they are completely regulated by separate. At the opposite end of the continuum is intrinsic motivation. Not engaging in the desired behavior might mean looking stupid or being shamed. In this category. individuals act in order to avoid feelings that affect their inner sense of themselves. However.’’) With this type of motivation. The third point on the autonomy continuum is identified regulation. which SD theorists consider the absence of motivation. (‘‘I will read for 15 minutes after school because my teacher will be disappointed in me if I don’t. Introjected regulation. Intrinsically motivated behavior is done strictly as a result of interest in the task itself. At one end of the continuum is amotivation. external and introjected motivations are not self-determined because they are viewed as controlling. . Even so. Within this category fall behaviors that an individual recognizes as important and personally beneficial making engagement volitional. each form of regulation will result in motivated action. an individual is unwilling to engage in a task except for the promise of some external reward. when integrated. integrated regulation. posits that extrinsic and intrinsic motivations are more appropriately placed on a continuum. (‘‘I love to read and I will read this book right now even if it makes me late for school!’’) With the exception of amotivation.’’) The individual engages in the uninteresting task acknowledging that it is instrumental to some other end. External regulation is the most controlling form of motivation. Identified and integrated regulation and intrinsic motivation are seen as amenable to the individual’s control.

refers to individuals’ perceptions that their actions are within their own control. recognize the value or importance of an activity that they do not find inherently interesting.92 ROSE MARIE CODLING Central to this discussion is the SDT concept of internalization. Alternatively. when the rationale for a task is understood. the second approach would help them to see the value in the practice so that they might be more willing to engage. individuals are more likely to identify or integrate an external regulation. Factors in the social environment that influence internalization take many forms. and relatedness – and that these needs are essential to the development of SD. Autonomy The first need. Basic Needs The second relevant subtheory of SDT is basic needs theory. internalization is more likely to occur with the second approach. she could explain that rapid identification of sight words will make them stronger readers so that they can read the Harry Potter books they aspire to read. the individual is able to reconcile the behavior to his/ her own personal values (Koestner & Losier. Internalization is a process whereby individuals. psychological needs – autonomy. As an example. influenced by supports in the social environment. This influence could be encouragement from a parent to persist even though the homework is challenging or a reminder from the teacher to use a strategy that has been taught. research shows that when a task has been acknowledged by others in the social environment as tedious or difficult. autonomy. Similarly. This type of supportive interaction and encouragement facilitates the process of internalization. Additionally. SDT asserts that there exist in human beings three universal. While students may not be intrinsically motivated to practice sight words. Sometimes an autonomous person chooses . According to SDT. The movement to identifying or integrating an extrinsic motivation enables individuals to endorse the behavior so that they can feel comfortable engaging in it. The process of internalization is instrumental in these instances when students are not intrinsically motivated for important tasks. A social context that supports these needs facilitates SD. Even though not intrinsically motivated. individuals will feel more autonomous. competence. 2002). a teacher determines that limited knowledge of high frequency sight words is slowing students down as they read aloud. The teacher could reward students with stickers for studying words on cards. There will always be activities that are necessary but that students may not find interesting.

2009). but in any culture or social situation. A strong sense of self-competence also enables an individual to manage novel or challenging situations. Autonomy means being able to endorse one’s own actions whether their source is externally. A tenth grader might prefer to watch TV. yet still feel autonomous. Taken together. but she instead opts to read with the family in order to provide a positive role model for her younger sister. A long line of research supports the conclusion that perceptions of competence exert powerful influence on an individual’s motivation (Schunk & Pajares. competence. but they must also perceive themselves to be capable. Influences on Intrinsic Motivation Over the last 40 years. the three needs provide a particularly useful framework for examining a classroom environment. The subtheory of SDT called Cognitive Evaluation Theory . individuals develop trust and feel safe to take risks. An environment that supports individuals’ basic needs for autonomy. 2006).or internally-derived (Ryan & Deci.Creating an Optimal Learning Environment for Struggling Readers 93 actions strictly for personally valuable. Perceptions of their own competence will determine whether individuals will even attempt a task. or encouragement of trusted significant others in the environment that individuals begin to identify and integrate external regulations. Individuals must possess the skills and knowledge necessary for success. many studies have explored factors that influence motivation. This scenario shows how an individual may participate in activities for reasons that are externally oriented. an individual’s actions will be influenced by external factors as well. To be autonomous does not mean being oblivious to external factors while pursuing personal satisfaction. Competence The second universal psychological need identified in SDT is competence. Relatedness Relatedness is the need to have social relationships that are perceived as nurturing and supportive. Conversely. and relatedness is one that will facilitate internalization and intrinsic motivation. When the environment supports relatedness. enthusiasm. Relatedness is particularly important with regard to the internalization process. intrinsic reasons. the development of SD will be derailed. It is through the example. if the environment does not support these needs.

Similarly. Cameron and Pierce (1994) concluded from a meta-analysis of 96 studies that external rewards do not undermine intrinsic motivation. Koestner. 2009). As many as 91% reported using tangible rewards at least monthly and 100% used written . Lepper. Fawson and Moore (1999) found that among their sample. 1994. Deci et al. intrinsic motivation is enhanced. & Ryan. That is. Whereas Cameron and Pierce reported that verbal rewards enhanced intrinsic motivation. When Deci. citing methodological flaws that obscured several significant findings. while 95% of teachers reported the same. the wisdom of using tangible external rewards and incentives continues to be contentiously debated (Cameron & Pierce. 1996). 1999. Cameron and Pierce claimed that there were no negative effects of rewards on intrinsic motivation. intrinsic motivation increases when individuals feel capable and self-confident. Hoffman et al. Particularly damaging were rewards that were contingent on performance and not received by all subjects. Eisenberger & Cameron. Deci. whereas they may be received more positively if they affirm an individual’s perceptions of competence. Ryan & Deci. separating expected and unexpected rewards into different categories. 1999b. 1996. 1999a. Hoffman et al. Deci.1999. & Gingras. (1999b) criticized the Cameron and Pierce meta-analysis. Koestner.94 ROSE MARIE CODLING (CET). Despite a substantial amount of study. For example. (1999b) procedure of separating verbal rewards into controlling versus informational demonstrated a significant undermining effect for controlling feedback. Research has found that when individuals enjoy agency around their own decisions and behavior. (2009) reported that. of the teachers they surveyed. Henderlong.. CET predicts that extrinsic rewards will be detrimental to intrinsic motivation if they are viewed as controlling and threaten autonomy. The influence of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation is closely associated with autonomy and competence perceptions and has particular relevance to the present discussion. & Ryan. and Ryan conducted a more fine-tuned analysis. These findings have special significance when considering teachers’ practices related to intrinsic motivation and the use of external inducements. 100% of principals reported having an incentive plan in place in their school. Koestner. the findings indicated that there was indeed an undermining effect on intrinsic motivation for expected tangible rewards. 100% reported using rewards in the classroom. the Deci et al. This conversation is of critical importance given the widespread use of external inducements designed to influence children in schools (Fawson & Moore. explains how intrinsic motivation is influenced by individuals’ perceptions of their own autonomy and competence.

To summarize. The foundation of SDT merges well with reading motivation research to guide decisions about classroom contexts. Through a process termed internalization. & Barch. Finally. and (4) provide explanations that help students to identify with the behavior at least to some extent. and relatedness. Third. The widespread use of incentives in schools shows why it is imperative for researchers and teachers to consider the impact of external influences on students’ autonomy and competence. 2006. OIT tells us that the more controlling external regulations are perceived to be the less autonomous the individual feels. CET provides insights about what influences intrinsic motivation. (2) encourage students with feedback that provides information to help students be reflective and take ownership of their learning. teachers can learn to create an autonomy-supportive environment that will facilitate their students’ SD. Autonomy-supportive teachers (1) nurture and capitalize on children’s intrinsic motivation and interests. which enables the individual to identify with them enough to engage willingly.versus performance-oriented classrooms (Reeve & Jang. Second. 2004). SDT provides a foundation that is highly appropriate for educational settings. Reeve. Jang.Creating an Optimal Learning Environment for Struggling Readers 95 or verbal praise on a weekly basis. (3) acknowledge students’ negative reactions or resistance. behaviors emanating from external origins may be viewed as valuable. Much of this work coincides with SDT research and . but a robust body of research now provides helpful insights about motivation related specifically to reading. Carrell. READING MOTIVATION Literature on reading motivation was scant until the mid 1990s. First. Teachers’ Autonomy Support Studies have shown that autonomy-supportive teachers use fewer tangible. Jeon. competence. however. Becoming autonomysupportive requires teachers to carefully consider the students’ perspective. including the use of rewards and praise in classroom settings. This research has identified teacher practices that promote SD. It may require a new way of thinking about how to interact with students. external incentives to encourage behavior and have been observed to create learning. basic needs theory provides a useful framework for critiquing the social environment to see if it facilitates SD by meeting individuals’ needs for autonomy.

Reading motivation research. Mason. 2010. & Cramer. and strategy use (Guthrie et al. Gambrell. Wang & Guthrie. 2012. A range of CORI studies has consistently found high correlations between intrinsic motivation and reading amount. and compliance. Additionally. Many recent studies have confirmed and extended our understanding of the positive relationship between intrinsic motivation and reading achievement. For example. McElvany. Wigfield & Guthrie. moderately challenging tasks that provided meaningful opportunities to apply strategies) were associated with higher motivation demonstrated by increased engagement. reward. These researchers have identified intrinsically oriented motivations such as curiosity. the classroom became learning-oriented versus performance oriented. 1996. Meece and Miller (1999) found that when third. Several studies have confirmed the positive influence of intrinsic motivation on reading achievement. 2000. The social nature of reading was a constant theme in this study. CORI integrates science and literacy instruction through conceptual themes and is characterized by instructional support (explicit reading strategy instruction and hands-on activities) and motivation support (opportunities for self-directed learning and social interaction). many of their findings are consistent with the findings of SDT (Becker. 2011. and persistence when faced with challenge. interest. Meadan. and knowledge seeking. & VonSecker. Guthrie. Wigfield. 2004). social factors.and fifth-grade teachers focused on increasing social interaction and providing choices and challenging tasks. and despite differing philosophical orientations of reading researchers. comprehension. Medford. self-efficacy.. & Hughes. Similarly. 2011.. 2007. They have also identified extrinsically oriented motivations such as public recognition. and Mazzoni (1996) established that elementary students’ reading motivation was influenced by opportunities for challenge and choice.96 ROSE MARIE CODLING many of the findings are compatible with the tenets of SDT. preference for challenge. curiosity. they often gave detailed descriptions of things they were reading outside of school. Codling. & Kortenbruck. confirms the feasibility of . competition. strategy use. Logan. 2011). reading researchers have established that individuals have many motivations for reading and that these motivations take many forms (Guthrie et al. reading engagement. Turner (1995) found that among first graders. Hedin. 1997). notably conducted in authentic classrooms. Paige. Palmer. when children who were identified by their teachers as unmotivated were asked by researchers about what they like to read. Park. strategy learning. Concept Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) is an example of how research findings on motivation and reading have been effectively applied to classroom settings. open tasks (authentic.

The overarching goal of our program is to help students become more strategic. When it comes to instruction. THE UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND READING CLINIC Based on the excellent explanatory power of SDT and the research on intrinsic motivation and reading. We provide explicit instruction in research-based literacy strategies and students learn about the utility of strategies as we facilitate their independent application to authentic reading contexts. reading motivation research supports the assertion that a context that supports autonomy. competence. During the 6-week summer clinic. This means that we focus on both the cognitive aspects of their literacy difficulties and the motivation issues that accompany them. This leaves afternoons for the teachers to reflect together on the day and plan subsequent lessons. Carefully assessing students’ reading levels to ensure that they have access to appropriate materials. we create an environment that is designed to optimize their learning. The clinic is a 6-week teaching experience and is the equivalent of 6 credit hours. motivated. and relatedness. competence. 2008). Our program consists of 33 credits in reading and related areas. for example. Once they complete the prerequisites. which are identified during a diagnostic screening. Children attend the program three mornings per week. Each aspect of the program is carefully considered to determine how it meets students’ needs for autonomy. The University of Maryland Reading Clinic is the practicum for master’s degree candidates pursuing reading specialist certification. SDT would suggest that instructional . The next section highlights aspects of our program that are founded on this theory and research base. and relatedness will facilitate intrinsic motivation. Our instructional program is designed around students’ individual needs. That is. Candidates are then prepared for the reading clinic that takes place in the summer. the final clinic sequence involves a fall semester course on advanced diagnostic assessment followed by the spring semester course on advanced instructional practices. motivating literacy program in our reading clinic.Creating an Optimal Learning Environment for Struggling Readers 97 applying SDT in elementary classroom settings. we have a strong foundation for creating a productive. We also have whole group seminars where candidates present individual student cases for discussion. Most of our candidates are part-time students and full-time classroom teachers and they take one course at a time. teachers coteach groups of 12 children. and reflective (Lipson & Wixson.

knowing that this setting is highly supportive and accepting. y OK. When they have conversations at home. Jonathan is 10. and assessment. but y OK!’’ (Supervisor’s notes from lesson observation) We convey to students that their feelings and beliefs matter. supporting autonomy.’’ ‘‘Why are we signing it?’’ Wesley asked. Miss Diane said. The teachers share information about themselves and learn about students’ school experiences. Competence support would be ensured by instruction that is explicit and based on individual needs. the faces seemed to say. grab a marker and come on up and sign your name.98 ROSE MARIE CODLING tasks are designed to include meaningful. ‘‘Well. His older brothers did not attend the clinic because they have no problems with reading. We want them to realize that this is a learning environment and that they have a certain level of control over what happens here. Diane recorded them on chart paper. Developing and Maintaining Relationships Interviews with students during the diagnostic screening provide teachers with an opportunity to become acquainted with students. Jonathan doesn’t always understand what they are talking about. a lesson environment that has a learning orientation in which students support each other and learn from each other would be supportive of students’ need for relatedness. It began as a language experience lesson. They quickly begin to feel comfortable. our reading motivation plan. It’s yours! You own it!’’As they all willingly went up to sign. access. ‘‘Let’s talk about what kind of classroom you want to have. interesting topics. What is cannibalism? . and interests. explicit instruction. Examining each aspect of the program from this framework ensures that the students’ needs will be explicitly addressed. ‘‘Because you own it! This is your classroom and this document tells what you want it to be.’’ As children shared ideas. These interests become a starting place for planning the instructional program. You are the authors. In the clinic. These include developing and maintaining relationships. ‘‘Let’s read it together to be sure it’s what you meant to say. leisure activities. the students’ input is important in creating the environment. this is not what I’m used to. They call him retarded. interest. So the next day he comes to the clinic where he feels safe to ask what words mean. Finally. The following section describes five major aspects of our program. and choice in the clinic environment. She responded.

right? (Teacher observation notes) 99 In our reading clinic. These practices help to build a social setting that supports relatedness. you can do it’’. read-aloud is highly interactive. Students quickly realize that this is a safe place. We plan specific times to discuss what we are reading. We emphasize that this is a learning environment where mistakes are expected and accepted. It is made clear that calling out words when someone else stumbles. and Choice in the Clinic Environment Incorporated into all aspects of the day are research-supported practices related to access. deriding someone for reading at a lower level.Creating an Optimal Learning Environment for Struggling Readers That’s when people eat each other. Students may read with a buddy during sustained silent reading time and we encourage students to chat after silent reading to share what they have read. . during. Students are encouraged to make personal connections or to question unfamiliar circumstances or information. (Clinic teacher final reflection) In order to build a supportive environment around literacy. We try to make multiple copies of read-aloud books available in the classroom library to encourage rereading and discussion with peers. interest. is such a nice reminder of what a positive environment we are in and have created. or showing impatience while another student painstakingly applies a new reading strategy are unacceptable behaviors. Interest. and choice. there is an atmosphere of respect that is absolutely devoid of sarcasm. Access. Hearing students say. Teachers and students talk about the read-aloud before. The classroom library often contains book reviews on which students include their name so that peers can ask questions or chat about the book. For example. It is generally easy for teachers to assimilate into this setting but we are explicit about this expectation with the students. They begin to trust each other. we incorporate opportunities for positive social interaction throughout the day. ‘‘keep going. Oh! y and that’s bad. Overall I think all of the students have gained a sense of confidence that they never had before. and after the reading. Huh? In some places people eat other people. We find these concepts to be inextricably connected. or ridicule. impatience. sharing personal responses. They are taking more chances and supporting each other when they are struggling.

This means they should achieve 99% accuracy and good comprehension without any assistance. we observe perceptions of competence soar as they realize that they can read and that they can get better. 2006. Wigfield. 2007. Tonks. The result of this is that students have not experienced productive free reading time. 2006). 2003. including books. Guthrie. reading aloud. they have always been faced with materials that are just too difficult. When students gain access to appropriate books. magazines. we are cautious about popular strategies that identify books as too hard. Interest is often described as situational (initial fleeting engagement) and individual (a stable. but meaningful engagement as well. maintained disposition) (Hidi & Renninger. and the internet. . We find that in their regular classrooms. From the time they started formal schooling. We are encouraged by research finding that in a supportive environment. We provide books with a wide range of difficulty levels to ensure not just physical access. we are seeking their independent reading level. longer term interest or motivation (Guay. A variety of genres is always available in the classroom and we make sure to have a wide range of interesting narrative and informational text that will appeal to diverse students. & Perencevich. repeated positive short-term experiences transitioned into more stable. We address this issue by carefully assessing students’ reading levels so that we can provide them with appropriate materials. Teachers continually attempt to spark situational interest by sharing their own reading. 2006). newspapers. As we teach students how to choose books for free reading. Hidi & Renninger. We don’t consider that ‘‘too easy. Hoa. Interest We know that interest has a positive effect on reading achievement and reading motivation and so we try to ensure access to materials that will interest students. Guthrie et al..100 ROSE MARIE CODLING Access Reading materials used in the clinic include print sources of all kinds. Situational interest is easily sparked by novelty or curiosity but it is not necessarily long-lasting. too easy and just right. Megeau. & Vallerand. We have a large collection of commercial instructional texts that are used for guided reading and strategy instruction that we make available after lessons. our students seldom (sometimes never) have materials in their hands that they can actually read on their own. We prefer to have students think about books as providing a fruitful independent reading experience.’’ Rather. and introducing good books.

& Turner. We encourage students to read anything. Some of the materials students are surprised to find in the clinic library and especially enjoy are graphic novels. In our reading clinic. individuals are always free to make their own personal decisions. We explicitly teach them a strategy for selecting books and provide guided practice until students are picking appropriate books. when teachers need more control over the difficulty level of the materials. We find that many students enjoy rereading these books because the first reading affords them an extra level of support. but all choices are not created equal and having choices does not necessarily mean one is autonomous (Guthrie et al. Choice Choice is often associated with autonomy as it is presumed that when autonomous. DiCintio.. Stefanou. we find that students often do not know how to select an appropriate book. and Roth (2002) supported this notion finding that personal relevance may be more important than choice in motivation. they may offer the students a choice of three different books for the lesson. For children who do not know what they like to read. It is true that there is wide support that choice enhances intrinsic motivation. Again. A natural implication would be to increase choices in order to enhance autonomy. 2006. we make suggestions and make a wide range of topics available. teachers acknowledge and note the child’s perspective for subsequent lessons. Cooper. Teachers may place books used during guided reading lessons into bins for quick access to books for rereading. We model reading for interest. Assor. newspapers and magazines. Perencevich. Choice extends to learning activities as well. the choices reflect students’ personal interests as much as possible but if students respond negatively to the choices. & Robinson. enjoyment and practice without judgment about others’ selections. teachers might label a large plastic bag with each child’s name and place suggested books inside.Creating an Optimal Learning Environment for Struggling Readers 101 We sometimes find that students do not have expressed reading interests. 2008. Katz & Assor. Opportunities for choice are never random or . We model for older students the joy of reading a picture book with a riveting story or one that is a piece of artwork in its illustration. 2004). 2006. Making fun of another’s reading selection is unacceptable. At instruction times. Kaplan. One can be autonomous without any choices or nonautonomous when faced with several meaningless choices. children are free to choose the materials they wish to read during independent reading times. Ryan & Deci. They have never had a chance to develop interests because they have never been readers. In those cases. 2007. However. Patall.

We want them to recognize the importance and pleasure of reading so that they will begin to internalize the motivation to read. We are explicit in discussing this idea with students. Additionally. counsellor-in-training. to gain knowledge and to learn to think. for the camp theme. and relatedness. Therefore. The self-determined reader knows this.102 ROSE MARIE CODLING haphazard but are carefully crafted by the teacher and informed by the teacher’s goals. a hallmark of our reading clinic is a motivation plan that is consistent with these findings. In sum then. When students arrive on the first day. and choice together in planning reading opportunities. the teachers enthusiastically describe the theme to the students and distribute reading logs in folders that are returned each Monday. verbal feedback that is affirming and informational enhances students’ intrinsic motivation (Deci et al. They must read to get better at reading. We shun the use of tangible external inducements to encourage reading and we use positive. Each aspect of the plan has been carefully thought-out to ensure that it is research-based and that it supports students’ needs for autonomy. competence. The teachers model for students how to fill out the reading log. strategy application. We model good reading habits constantly. The self-determined reader reads. Reading Motivation Plan Our motivation plan is based on the simple assumption that children must read. We encourage them to think of things at which they excel and consider how practice has made them better. The plan is an example of how theory and research can meaningfully inform practice. Each summer begins with teachers brainstorming a theme that unifies the classes. The levels reflect a natural increasing progression from Level 1 to Level 5. This ensures that students will read varied materials that will be both interesting and appropriate and they will have opportunities to be meaningfully engaged with the materials. counsellor. For example. informational verbal feedback freely to encourage reading. interest. and facilitates their motivation to read. and reading ranger. 1999b). We determine five theme-related levels through which all students will progress. and persistence. we consider the important concepts of access. junior counsellor. Students record the number of minutes they read each day and .. There is considerable evidence that expected tangible extrinsic rewards will undermine intrinsic motivation for interesting activities. excites students. the levels were camper.

and what we could do to support them in their home reading. On the last day of the program. The teacher announces to students that they have met the class goal and all students move to the next level. students return their final log and move to the highest level of the theme. students are never singled out or chastised for not contributing to the class goal. The number of minutes for the goal is discussed and determined by the class when the plan is introduced. In this way. most of which are out of our control. We strive to determine the goal collaboratively so that it is more intrinsically oriented. the total number of minutes for the class is calculated by a teacher. we have a celebration where students receive a certificate of congratulations for their summer reading and they are invited to select two new books that they may take home and keep. based on SDT. When we identify students who are not recording minutes on their log or not returning it. their motivation will become integrated or intrinsic. We might send another log home or send books home that we know the student can manage. we reiterate the importance of reading practice. we have individual conversations with them. Three points about the motivation plan deserve explication: 1. The students discuss all the activities that consume their time and offer each other ideas for finding time to read. Reading logs are kept private. We encourage these students to reflect on why they aren’t reading. On that day. SDT predicts that students will begin to internalize the motivation to read because they see the value in reading. but especially the nonreaders. which usually works out to be approximately 20 minutes per day for each child. begin to internalize the motivation to practice reading. There are many reasons why students do not read. Throughout the program. As we expound on the enjoyment and value of reading and we continually model this through read-aloud and our own personal reading. We hope that through successful. what they could do differently. pleasurable reading experiences. We ensure that the goal is not competitive or contingent on performance. They agree on a number that seems reasonable for a class goal. Our expectation. These small steps often pay off simply because there are no books at home or no adult home in the evenings to help with hard words. This dialogue is designed to help all readers. Flexibility and student input are paramount. is that the students’ motivation at first may be nonautonomous.Creating an Optimal Learning Environment for Struggling Readers 103 when the logs are collected. . 2. We also use positive verbal feedback in the group setting to specifically point out instances where students’ reading practice is strengthening their reading or helping them use reading strategies.

arguing that students should not benefit when they do not put forth effort or that students should understand the connection between their effort and eventual outcomes. And she’d say. strengthening students’ reading skill. We have encouraged all the children to read more and we have given new books to every child.104 ROSE MARIE CODLING 3. All students are thrilled with surprise books at the end of the program. This simple plan for encouraging reading is consistent with SDT. It supports autonomy in several ways. In the end. Our goal is to encourage the students to read. On occasion. which is what we want. Some will object to this tactic. We have accomplished what we set out to do. Everybody move to the next level!’’ We leave out the fact that the numbers fell short. Most important is that there are no tangible. we are especially pleased to give nonreaders two new books because they are usually the ones who need them most. Explicit Instruction She was definitely able to decode some words and she read every night and she kept a positive attitude throughout the whole thing. We do everything we can to facilitate that end. Since the students seldom ask about the exact number of minutes read by the class. Relatedness is supported at first through the discussion that determines the class goal and throughout the program in opportunities to share their reading with others in varied. I can read.’’ And she was learning some decoding strategies. Children select their own books and they monitor and record their own reading. nonthreatening ways. extrinsic rewards promised and teachers’ active involvement and positive feedback enthusiastically encourage students to read. but there are certain factors over which we have no control. This generally happens when one or two students aren’t returning a log. ‘‘Look mom. The plan is goal-oriented and appropriately challenging. Personal relevance and choice are characteristic. a group will not quite meet the goal. we have a clear rationale for this practice. The program supports competence by providing opportunities to apply taught strategies with appropriate level materials. There is no point in letting the group ‘‘fail’’ particularly when most of them are reading more than they typically do. While it is true that we want students to be responsible and accountable. we can sometimes report to them this way: ‘‘Wow. increasing the chances that all students will internalize the motivation to read. but she also learned some . you did some serious reading this week.

In our clinic. (Post-program parent interview) We know how important a sense of competence is to students’ motivation and their ultimate achievement (Eliot. We focus on a small number of strategies that are determined by the needs identified during the diagnostic screening. guided practice. it seems that their regular classroom instruction stops short of the explicitness they need. The passages must be short. shows Eric’s response to a journal prompt asking How will this strategy help you? Opportunities for authentic reading are integrated into the day to ensure the application of reading strategies that are being taught. These characteristics of learning activities make them more likely to be sanctioned by students. Fig. Our instruction includes extensive teacher modeling through think-alouds. 1. Eric’s Response to the Journal Prompt How Will This Strategy Help You? .Creating an Optimal Learning Environment for Struggling Readers 105 self-confidence. Reading strategy lessons are integrated with Fig. In keeping with the research on reading strategy instruction. Quite often. and conducive to the strategy. we write our own passages that can be tailored both to the strategy and to the students’ interests. we rely heavily on explicit instruction of reading strategies and the gradual release of responsibility model (Pearson & Gallagher. focused objectives. 2002). and independent practice. sustained silent reading (SSR) is a standard part of each day. Teachers also ensure that students are reading connected text during teacher-guided instructional blocks. Our students respond positively and quickly to explicit instruction. we believe that the best way to support students’ sense of competence is to make them competent through a strong instructional program. For many of our students. & Thrash. We emphasize the conditional aspect of reading strategies so that students can make decisions independently about how and when to apply them. supporting autonomy. Learning activities are presented in such a way that students see them as meaningful. We locate passages for modeling. She was having some problems and kept saying she was dumb and I really think it helped her self-esteem and confidence. 1983). McGregor. and relevant. The clinic day is highly structured and planned by the teachers with clear. valuable. 1. well-written. For example.

However. So many of them have all these ideas and they can tell you a story. This thwarts autonomy. and it’s so much more competition. This supports students’ sense of competence as they can sometimes rely on their prior knowledge to be the classroom ‘‘expert. they felt a huge sense of accomplishment at the end when they get it done. And he doesn’t feel good about himself. and y I think the program is important for doing that for him. So we did two large writing assignments that lasted a week y and I think that giving them a bigger assignment. . (Post-program parent interview) Competition is inconsistent with the environment that SDT supports. Mistakes are natural. Turner. 1998). smarter. Indeed it could be argued that if mistakes are not being made. winning and losing are nonissues. reasonable challenge is accompanied by strong instructional support. Research indicates that competitive environments engender a performance orientation as individuals compare themselves to others and frequently work for externally originated motivations. (Clinic teacher post-program interview) Some may equate challenge with competition. whatever.’’ We consider the use of challenge within the context of instruction. to help them get their ideas in an organized form on paper. they just lock up. y unfortunately the way they have the school classroom set up he loses so much y the minute he walks into that classroom. y and so [in the reading clinic] he feels as though he is smart. within the context of SDT and the literacy classroom. 2006. In our reading clinic. but if you ask them to write it. Just sitting with them one-on-one when they were writing was the most helpful. It’s all about who is better. he knows something. which will lead to a positive cycle of challenge-seeking (Katz & Assor. This research and our own experience highlight the importance of appropriate challenge.106 ROSE MARIE CODLING opportunities to apply reading strategies to connected text. he is confident. We know from this research that reasonable challenge facilitates perceptions of competence. it is clear that the concept of competition is contrary to a learning environment. materials used during lessons have been selected by the teacher based on students’ interests. We carefully assess students’ reading levels so that we can provide them with appropriately challenging materials and instruction around those materials is carefully scaffolded. In a learning environment. learning is not happening. Thorpe. As much as possible. They are expected and accepted. Much research supports the premise that challenge can be motivating. So we taught them some strategies for that. & Meyer.

how they fared. Collaboration is central to the assessment system. teachers have students reflect in their journals. Explicit instruction and appropriate challenge are the keys to this environment. An essential element in our assessment system is that students are an integral part of their own assessment. perceptions of competence may be undermined in an environment that is not learning-focused but about performing well. or where they could never be the winner no matter how hard they tried. This can be challenging at first as most students are not accustomed to participating in their learning in this way. There is no place for competition in a strong. Sometimes these reflections are discussed and other times. is an example of one such written closure exercise. children reflect together regarding what was accomplished. 3. . learning-oriented instructional environment. By the end of the program students are much more comfortable about self-assessment. Some closure exercises are conducted through oral discussion. as seen in Fig. teachers discuss assessment results of individual cases. Every lesson closure includes opportunities for students to reflect on what was learned. Since we use a coteaching model. and when they might use the strategy. Children cannot learn to trust and take risks in an environment where their performance is compared to others. Fig. 2. Teachers primarily rely on a system of anecdotal note-taking.Creating an Optimal Learning Environment for Struggling Readers 107 Additionally. The ability to collaborate in this way is rare for teachers and it is this feature of our program that master’s candidates report as most beneficial. assessment in our reading clinic is individual and ongoing. The very nature of competition means that there will always be losers. We do not use standardized assessments. there are many opportunities for dialogue about individual students. At the end of the day. We frequently use Running Records and various informal assessments of sight words or fluency. Perhaps most harmful. As such. during seminars. We find that involvement in one’s own assessment enhances ownership and enables students to become more aware of themselves as learners. They record notes using a system that encourages much reflection on their instruction and students’ responses to it. competition undermines relatedness as it pits students against each other. how a taught strategy might help them. the purpose of assessment is to inform subsequent instruction. Assessment In our view. and how they might progress. where they risk losing. Additionally.

3. Written by Students and Discussed at the End of Each Lesson. ‘‘Teachers often ask how they can motivate their students to read but that’s the wrong question. 2. A large body of research on intrinsic motivation and reading . If intrinsic motivation comes from within. Typical Written Closure Example.108 ROSE MARIE CODLING Fig. then the more appropriate question is: How do I create an environment in which children will become motivated?’’ This seemingly simple remark set me on a new path that has become my mantra as a teacher educator and reading clinic director. Fig. Example of Jamal’s End of Day Journal Reflection. I heard Edward Deci say. CONCLUSION A few years ago when I was trying to wade through the motivation literature in order to write a coherent dissertation.

it is especially encouraging to know that through modeling of literacy behaviors. These controlling practices take away any opportunity for SD. But what about regular classroom contexts? Is it possible to create an environment in a regular classroom that supports autonomy. Further. Consequently. The autonomy continuum also explains how extrinsic rewards. The teacher then subtly entices the students to consider the notion that when expectations are clear. Particularly helpful is the concept of internalization that provides a mechanism for the development of autonomous forms of motivation. Even if they wanted to come on board. We have learned as well that an environment that supports autonomy. instead of having the classroom rules posted along with the penalty for breaking the rules. shame. though the challenges. explanations about the utility and instrumental value of reading strategies.Creating an Optimal Learning Environment for Struggling Readers 109 supports the tenets of SDT and this work provides an excellent foundation for reading clinic and classroom settings where students’ academic and motivation issues can be addressed in concert. the teacher must be the architect of the environment in his or her own classroom to enable students to become self-determined. Guiding questions might include: Is this an authentic task that students will find relevant to their lives? Will this task or material be meaningful to my students? How might students be more involved in creating their learning experiences? On the first day of fifth grade. for instance. they would not know how. and threats of punishment are counter-productive. particularly with older students. and encouraging ownership of learning. In the case of reading. perhaps the teacher guides a discussion about appropriate behavior and the students produce the rules themselves. may seem insurmountable. competence. these practices send powerful messages to children that coercion is necessary because reading and learning are inherently unnatural or unpleasant. and relatedness facilitates intrinsic and integrated forms of motivation. competence. The autonomy continuum provides an effective lens for thinking about reading motivations. Most important in creating an autonomy-supportive classroom. teachers can help students internalize the motivation to read. This chapter has outlined ways in which intrinsic motivation can be both evident and facilitated in a reading clinic setting. We have learned from this body of work that self-determined individuals exhibit a wide range of positive and productive behaviors. and relatedness? I contend that it is. teachers must consider learning activities and materials from the students’ perspectives. there should be no need for . Consider that most students have been immersed in a system where they have never been the architects of their own learning.

‘‘I believe that my classroom is a learning environment. coupled with an excellent instructional program. we see evidence of this and it takes time for some students to acclimate to the setting. competence and relatedness. But every child can begin to internalize the motivation to read and engage more fully. I strive to make learning activities and materials supportive of students’ autonomy. just as every student is not intrinsically motivated to play soccer. Every thoughtful decision about instructional tasks or materials can move students one step closer to SD. 2006. This careful individualization of instruction is a hallmark of our program.’’ With this mindset. We are especially interested in research on meeting the academic and motivation needs of students with diverse backgrounds. These decisions will evolve from a particular way of thinking that says. It goes without saying that this will be challenging in some settings. For example. This idea will also be challenged by some teachers as ‘‘impossible in my school.110 ROSE MARIE CODLING penalties. motivated. We are also cognizant of the research on new literacies and we reflect on ways that technology and internet resources can be effectively and appropriately integrated into instruction.’’ This is an understandable response considering that the notion of being in control of their own learning will be completely foreign to most students. Our clinic teachers are fortunate to have the autonomy to make decisions and choose materials that are best suited to the students’ needs. 2004). and using the findings on autonomysupportive teaching practices (Reeve & Jang. It should be a place where my students feel confident and safe to risk learning. While teachers may not have complete autonomy themselves. Reeve et al. It has contributed to helping us develop a strong and respected clinical program. A path we wish to pursue is to follow some of our students into their regular school year to explore whether or not and how our program carries over for them. there are many ways that they might make classroom modifications that will facilitate students’ SD. I have created a space in which my students can become motivated and self-determined. . will ensure the development of capable. teachers can evaluate what is happening in their classrooms currently and gradually make changes that can shift the classroom trajectory toward the enhancement of SD.. we often look at new research with an eye toward considering its applicability to our program. recognizing the personal value of reading and the value of becoming a proficient reader. Every student may not be intrinsically motivated to read. This disposition. selfdetermined learners in classroom and reading clinic settings. Even in our reading clinic. but we continually consider ways to improve.

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VOCABULARY/COMPREHENSIONBASED MODELS OF READING CLINICS Evan Ortlieb. Design/methodology/approach – The chapter highlights underlying themes of reading failure. Cheek. Volume 2. Jr. Findings – Content provides detailed information on designing clinics that prepare students to meet the vocabulary and comprehension demands of reading in the 21st century. ABSTRACT Purpose – To provide educators with an overview of strategies that can be incorporated into clinical settings that foster vocabulary and comprehension development. and components for remediation/instruction. benefits of large vocabularies and comprehension skills. Advanced Literacy Practices: From the Clinic to the Classroom Literacy Research. 117–136 Copyright r 2013 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited All rights of reproduction in any form reserved ISSN: 2048-0458/doi:10. Practice and Evaluation. Wolfram Verlaan and Earl H.1108/S2048-0458(2013)0000002009 117 . Research limitations/implications – The chapter highlights the most reliable and practical reading strategies that are fundamental to every reader’s advancement.

has room for reading improvement. Using a vocabulary and comprehension based literacy clinic model. Originality/value of paper – This compilation of vocabulary and comprehension strategies works in tandem to produce highly skilled readers who can in turn learn independently. where students gain a variety of both word attack and comprehension strategies with the goal of transferring these abilities to a full range of subject areas.g. clinical instructional frameworks are geared toward the development of student abilities. providing a wealth of ideas for incorporation into their clinics and classrooms. A student reading this would not only have to know the meaning of the word ‘‘erroneously’’ but must also use its meaning to understand the rest of the sentence. reading skills can be augmented through a ‘‘mastery and then move on’’ approach. comprehension. As common core curriculums expand into classrooms nationwide. Classroom instruction does not always reach every child’s needs and as a result. Readers flourish when provided with learning environments that are conducive to developing vocabulary and comprehension competencies. Sometimes. alternative instructional programs are needed to ensure expeditious academic progress. For students who struggled to understand the event(s) that led up to Jerry’s ‘‘error. Take the example below: Jerry erroneously marked ‘true’ on the quiz as he was absent the day prior to the examination. For instance. many fourth graders would struggle to fully understand the sentence. and adult for that matter. Without other reading skills like context clues. clinic. rather than the bolstering of content knowledge. difficult vocabulary presents a host of challenges to youth not only in determining a word’s meaning but also in comprehending the sentence or text in which it appears. syntactical knowledge.’’ clinical instructors could facilitate a lesson on looking for . reading. Practical implications – This chapter serves as a resource for all clinical instructors.118 EVAN ORTLIEB ET AL. clinical instruction’s aim to support reading skills that have not already been mastered within classroom instruction becomes increasingly important. classroom Every child.. and inferencing abilities (e. Jerry’s absence caused him to miss the review/material for the quiz). Keywords: Vocabulary.

2012a). Among the factors implicated in contributing to this gap are (a) a higher rate of single parent families in lower SES environments. Clinic models that focus on vocabulary and comprehension. pause. by the age of three. Facebook. 1995). and many students will have difficulty with acquiring reading proficiency. even before students reach school-age. the fundamentals of reading. which may also have an impact on their future reading acquisition (Chall.Vocabulary/Comprehension-Based Models of Reading Clinics 119 known word parts. Yet. having a knowledgeable mentor ready and eager to provide attuned assistance toward literacy growth is essential to fostering success that will transfer to a classroom setting. a student’s reading development is often influenced by his or her socioeconomic status (SES) (NCES. The controlled setting of a reading clinic serves to minimize the distractions often inherent in a regular classroom environment. interactive. As discussed in Hart and Risley’s research. and ever changing (Ortlieb. are necessary if students are to meet and surpass grade-level expectations and curricular requirements. many students coming from low SES home environments may have as little as 1/3 the vocabulary of students coming from middle to upper SES home environments. Clinical literacy instructors play. 2011). Hart & Risley. and (c) a lower . rewind. & Baldwin. their home environment will have played a significant role in the quantity and quality of vocabulary to which they are exposed. Unfortunately. Despite being in the age of electronic library catalogues. it is highly individualized. having someone who can guide learning in novel ways promotes engagement. There are no manuals that provide all the requisites for reading success. like driver’s education or ballet class. Addressing specific areas for improvement using a greatest-to-least-needs approach is how clinical operations excel in leading children to successful literacy experiences. interest. play again. Jacobs. (b) a larger number of children per family in lower SES environments. and meaningfulness. 1990. thereby allowing for the maximizing of student gains. Google. and repeat their instructional sequences as students develop and refine their literacy skills and strategies. understanding. especially those who can scaffold us in timely and efficient ways. UNDERLYING THEMES OF READING FAILURE There is a large range in the individual reading abilities of students as they begin school. Many learning theories are framed around notions that we learn more proficiently with the help of others. Indeed. and YouTube.

1998). Gaden. struggling readers also face motivational issues that can be caused by not having had sufficient exposure to reading materials containing high interest subject matter. 1986). which results in struggling readers having less opportunity to develop contextual reading skills than proficient readers (Hiebert. it has been theorized that over time the cumulative results of what have been termed ‘‘Matthew Effects’’ (so-named for the observation in the Gospel of Matthew that the ‘‘rich get richer and the poor get poorer’’) cause struggling readers to fall further and further behind their more proficient peers (Stanovich. In addition. For example. 2010). Moreover. Consequently. many children coming from lower SES environments will be at risk of having neither the language development nor the oral vocabulary as their peers who come from middle to upper SES environments. and comprehension ability (Guthrie. Thurlow. Moody. the remainder of this chapter will focus on the benefits of increasing students’ vocabulary and comprehension skills and how to achieve these goals in clinical settings. & Schumm. With sufficient research on the underlying causes of reading difficulty. Vauhn. & Algozzine. Because intervention efforts for struggling readers often limit their interaction with actual text. a single parent with several children may not be able to read to his or her children with the same frequency as a two-parent family with fewer children. In addition to having an effect on vocabulary knowledge at the start of school. These factors often result in limiting both the quality and the quantity of the verbal exchanges that take place between parents and children in lower SES environments. 1983. 1984. lower SES households will often have less disposable income to spend on items such as books and magazines. 1998). Indeed. education level of parents in lower SES environments. subject matter knowledge. 2004). the quality and quantity of the language to which children are exposed at an early age also affects later reading acquisition and comprehension development. Ysseldyke. . One of the reasons for this is that struggling readers often receive classroom interventions that tend to emphasize skill development over practice with authentic texts. thus reducing opportunities for print exposure that has been shown to have a positive effect on reading acquisition and development (Cunningham & Stanovich.120 EVAN ORTLIEB ET AL. the most recent data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) included survey results that indicated a high correlation between the scores of 15-year-old students and the frequency with which they were read to during preschool years (OECD. This lack of motivation or engagement with reading materials can affect the development and acquisition of vocabulary knowledge.

with most of these words acquired outside of explicit instruction. vocabulary instruction is not that important.’’ there is a significant correlation between vocabulary knowledge and comprehension ability (Anderson & Freebody. 280) Because some students will enter school with a more limited vocabulary than that of their peers. Nagy and Scott (2000) note: Students who need help most in the area of vocabulary – those whose home experience has not given them a substantial foundation in the vocabulary of literate and academic English – need to acquire words at a pace even faster than that of their peers.’’ and although some struggling readers may have difficulty with decoding. these students will benefit from instruction focusing on vocabulary development. however. Baumann. the verb multiply is changed to a . it is typically their struggles with ‘‘meaning-making. that will require significant intervention. but by no means do they always find this process easy or automatic. which can lead to frustration with reading and a lack of engagement with reading materials. It has been tempting to assume that because many of these words are acquired naturally. vocabulary knowledge leads to greater vocabulary knowledge because many words in the English language share root words and/or word parts with other words. To this end.g. These 2000 to 3000 words per year is an estimated average. It has been estimated that children learn between 2000 and 3000 words a year (Beck & McKeown.’’ or comprehension. students who are frustrated or disengaged from reading will likely not acquire words at a rate necessary for later academic success. 2005). Although perhaps it borders on the tautological to say that ‘‘one needs to know the meaning of the words one is reading to know the meaning of what one is reading.. This means that a word is often changed into another part of speech with a similar meaning by changing or adding a prefix or suffix (e. Acquiring vocabulary knowledge is important for several reasons. it is largely due to intensive exposure to written language via reading and spoken language in their homes. (p. 1991). and although some students certainly acquire that many words per year or more.Vocabulary/Comprehension-Based Models of Reading Clinics 121 LARGE VOCABULARY BENEFITS The act of reading is often referred to as ‘‘making meaning from text. First. students who enter school with a limited vocabulary will not only have more difficulty acquiring decoding skills. clinical efforts targeting vocabulary acquisition can play a vital role in overall comprehension development. 1981. Second. Because wide reading is arguably the most effective means of increasing vocabulary knowledge. they will also have more difficulty with comprehension.

Beck & . For example. the easier it will be for that individual to comprehend a wider range of text. knowing a particular word allows children to learn or guess the meanings of a new word that shares its word parts with the word they already know. which becomes especially important when students begin to make the transition from the ‘‘learning-to-read’’ stage to the ‘‘reading-to-learn’’ stage. and nerves that surround it but also how those parts are interrelated along with the vocabulary used to specifically describe those interrelationships. or schema. This background knowledge of the world around us. the larger an individual’s vocabulary. blood vessels.g. VOCABULARY COMPONENTS FOR REMEDIATION/ INSTRUCTION Vocabulary knowledge is one of the key components of reading comprehension. will know not only the names of all the parts of the knee as well as the muscles. and so forth. our knowledge of a topic is often related to the range of our vocabulary about that topic. Consequently. the easier it becomes to comprehend wider varieties of text. An orthopedic surgeon. the richer one’s vocabulary knowledge. is largely constructed through language. the more words that a child knows. the easier it is for that child to ascertain the meaning of new words that contain the word parts with which the child is already familiar. so clinical efforts directed at improving reading ability should include an instructional component addressing vocabulary acquisition. Because many words in English are modified according to predictable patterns. 1991. in other words. Thus. noun by modifying the ending of the word so that it becomes multiplication). This knowledge may allow a layperson to read medical advice from a popular periodical or the Internet. specific ligaments.122 EVAN ORTLIEB ET AL. because our ability to comprehend reading material is dependent to a large degree on our background knowledge of the subject matter about which we are reading. however. 1991. Although there has been a significant amount of research into both the processes of vocabulary acquisition and effective instructional methods (e. the average person probably knows the word knee and the names of some of the parts of the knee such as the kneecap. Third. Anderson & Nagy. s/he will be able to read and understand much more complex text than a layperson.. Baumann & Kameenui. Thus. such as highly technical research articles published in medical journals and so forth.

then. and this can be motivational for helping create an interest in new . 31). Nagy & Scott. Students should be immersed in words. that clinical/classroom instruction incorporates these guiding principles. Elevating self-efficacy Engendering interest in new learning Connecting outside with inside school literacies Making an abundance of interesting texts available Expanding choices and options Structuring collaboration for motivation. and Thomas (2009): ‘‘For new and experienced teachers alike. therefore. Students should personalize word learning. research into vocabulary instruction has made it clear that traditional vocabulary instruction based on memorizing word lists and definitions is not as effective as more interactive approaches. It is useful. 2000). 6. Manzo. One method of helping develop student interest in words is to introduce puns and other jokes that rely on wordplay – as students enter late elementary and middle school. 4. 5. It is important. The first principle is largely related to motivating students and getting them interested in vocabulary words. In addition. especially for struggling readers. research-based methods for delivering vocabulary instruction are often not fully utilized in the classroom because. 4. 2. Students should be active in developing their understanding of words and ways to learn them.Vocabulary/Comprehension-Based Models of Reading Clinics 123 McKeown. it is not clear to what extent classroom teachers have embraced the need for vocabulary instruction. and we provide some suggestions for their application. according to Manzo. Students should build on multiple sources of information to learn words through repeated exposures (p. 3. to mention six evidence-based guidelines that Brozo and Flynt (2008) suggest are important for developing motivation (it should be noted that these guidelines apply not only to vocabulary instruction but also to instruction in general): 1. Moreover. they begin to appreciate word-based humor. 1991. 2. 504). it is more comfortable to teach in the traditional manner they most likely experienced as students than it is to acquire a more strategy-based interactive/intervention teaching style’’ (p. 3. In summarizing an extensive analysis of instructional methodologies. Blachowitz and Fisher (2000) recommend that four guidelines should be used to develop vocabulary instruction: 1.

a student might use the word speed to make a connection with the word expedient. using a (print-based. This sense of community plays an important role in the third guideline for vocabulary instruction: immersion. physical movement. and instruction and guidance in this area can help foster a sense of self-efficacy as well as personal responsibility in arriving at word meanings. online. 1987). visually. many students are not very skilled at using a dictionary or thesaurus. & McDaniel. Assigning students to bring in a word they noticed at home or that they find interesting is another way to help students build personal connections with words. For example. structuring vocabulary instruction to allow students to personalize word learning can assist in this effort. Marshall. 1986). Having students make a personal connection with the words being learned can increase not only motivation but also the likelihood that students will assimilate the words into their vocabulary. Although word walls (which can also be created online) are often an attempt to build an immersive vocabulary environment. instead of a word’s . or even visual) dictionary or a thesaurus wisely can increase interest and curiosity in word meanings (Bromley. Instructional techniques that encourage students in making a personal connection with words they are learning often involve having students create a mental image. The keyword method consists of using a word that one already knows to create an image that is in some way connected verbally. and/or conceptually to the word being learned. In addition. Although motivating students who have had a history of reading failure may be one of the more difficult challenges an educator faces. Immersion approaches are typically used to accomplish directed vocabulary goals such as learning a set of specific words. Levin. this technique may also be effective in helping students develop schema for interrelated topics and ideas (Pressley. Allowing students to create their own mental images fosters a sense of ownership for the word. and so forth for the word being learned. One specific instructional method that employs a type of mental imagery to facilitate recall of information is known as the keyword method. and research studies suggest that the keyword method is effective in assisting struggling readers with vocabulary acquisition (Condus.124 EVAN ORTLIEB ET AL. In addition. Moreover. it requires effort and vigilance on the part of teacher to keep the classroom word wall an active and vital component in classroom instruction. 2007). verbal connection. and instruction in using mental imagery to recall information dates back at least as far as the ancient Greeks. & Miller. Having students share these words with the class and adding them to a word wall can also help to build a sense of community that can be motivational for many students. This kind of learning is not new. vocabulary.

and  Generally raise word consciousness and induce playful self-teaching. It requires considerable planning but has numerous benefits. In their article titled. The authors also suggest that this type of concerted effort on the part of the adults in the school sends a message to the students that vocabulary is important and valued. and even the cafeteria staff making an effort to use the words so that they become a part of the students’ total school experience (Manzo. .  Raise the probability that a student will get a fuller picture of the scope and contexts influencing a word’s often variable meanings. 617). Words in the English language often have multiple meanings that are contextually dependent. the sometimes overlooked object of all intentional and incidental instruction (p. and Thomas present the following goals for this type of immersion: Object words are introduced into the very air that children breathe. Rationale for Systematic Vocabulary Development: Antidote for State Mandates. & Hurley.Vocabulary/Comprehension-Based Models of Reading Clinics 125 final resting place. the role of oral language in assimilating new vocabulary should not be underestimated since vocabulary acquisition is linked to the number and types of words that we hear in our environment (Hart & Risley. Rothlein. Perfetti. 1996).  Minimize the social–emotional downside and heighten the semantic sentiments that some words seem to conjure. & McKeown. 1978) to as many as 40 (Beck. and this spirit of cooperation in building a shared lexicon creates ties that bind the school community together. and the more exposures one has to a word being used in its various contexts. The object words are introduced in high frequency into the students’ surroundings with all of the teachers. Additionally. The object of this approach is to immerse the students in an environment where they are surrounded by conditions created to foster vocabulary development of the words targeted for learning. Manzo. 2006). administrators. with the expectation that this will do the following things:  Increase the frequency of appearance of otherwise low-frequency terms. Manzo. & Thomas. Immersion approaches such as the word wall can be especially effective if the wider community of the school also participates (Brett. 1982). the more likely it is that the word will become part of one’s vocabulary. Increasing the number of exposures to words in multiple contexts will aid in each student’s development of his or her personal lexicon. Manzo. depending on word complexity and the level of word knowledge required for mastery. The number of exposures required to acquire and/or retain a word is estimated to range from 5 (Saragi. & Meister. Nation.

Teachers can use a wide variety of both fiction and nonfiction texts to show how context gives clues to a word’s meaning. with different words created by adding or removing prefixes and suffixes. First. in another. and roots can be very helpful in maximizing the effects of multiple exposures to words and word families (Ortlieb. which can serve to complement and deepen dictionary exploration. One of the best preparations a student can have for standardized tests such as the SAT is to hear great literature read aloud (Trelease. This is especially true if one concentrates on the . dividing the rest of the page into three or four sections. and in the fourth section. & Richman. the student writes the original sentence in which the word appeared. the student writes the word in the center of the page. Having students hear a word in context before beginning to analyze it helps to activate prior knowledge of the word that the student may possess. 1995). Davies. 1971). in a third section. Vocabulary maps are also an effective strategy in that they activate learning at several levels of the brain. Hearing new words in combination with studying various contexts in which a word may appear aid in reinforcing the meaning of new words. 2001). Here a dictionary can be helpful in exploring the various meanings for frequently used words. so a context for the word is often necessary in beginning to comprehend how it is being used. which provides a basis for the reading and writing that a student will do later on. the student draws a picture representing the word (which can be difficult with more abstract words because students will have to access their knowledge of symbols). the student draws a picture representing the opposite of or a nondefinition of the word. Audio recordings of literature being read by professional readers are an excellent resource and many are available at the public library for no cost (Verlaan & Ortlieb. not drudgery. suffixes. Almost 70% of the most frequently used words have multiple meanings. 2012b). Hearing and speaking the words that we learn reinforces our understanding of them and the contexts in which they are used. 2002). a systematic study of prefixes. the student writes the definition of the word. Reading aloud to students is something that every teacher should do. and speaking to students in a challenging vocabulary is a way to prepare their brains to assimilate new words (Hahn. but the assignment should entail exploration. Because nearly 80% of the words that a student will encounter as they read are comprised of just 2000 word families (Carroll.126 EVAN ORTLIEB ET AL. In one section. especially if it has an irregular spelling. It is important to plan written and oral activities in which students have multiple opportunities to make use of the words on their vocabulary maps. 2012). Many students already recognize a word orally before they can decode it in a text.

If a teacher is not using an explicit vocabulary instructional text. Although there are a great number and variety of quality instructional texts specifically addressing vocabulary acquisition. In addition. such as a vocabulary workbook. Using Blachowicz and Fisher’s four . educators are encouraged to adapt instructional methods to the needs of the individual students with whom they are working. In addition. and distributed to one’s students.Vocabulary/Comprehension-Based Models of Reading Clinics 127 most frequently occurring roots and the prefixes and suffixes that have the least variance in their meaning (Bromley. and write sample sentences (either their own or those written by others) that contain the new word they have found in the section of the vocabulary notebook that contains the root. & Nichols. lists of roots and their meanings are available on the Internet and can be printed. students can find a common synonym that they already know for the word being learned. and keep a record of this word wall and/or these more difficult roots in a vocabulary notebook. 1999). Students should be given explicit instruction for a short time in the meanings of the more frequently occurring roots so that they can associate the root with its denotation. teachers should be careful to direct students to find those that are meaningful to the individual student. textbooks and vocabulary workbooks often provide examples that show words created from combinations of roots with prefixes and suffixes. 2002). thus. Students can also explain how any prefixes and suffixes attached to the root give it a particular meaning. Also. Logan. that is. the teacher should preview the words that are going to be learned for either a grading period or even a semester to identify the most commonly occurring root words and/or the roots of those words the teacher knows will give students the most difficulty. Students can then create a ‘‘root wall. When instructing students to find synonyms. the student’s existing schema is activated and it is more likely that the new word will be remembered later (Rupley.’’ either by itself or in addition to the standard word wall. but if a teacher is planning on using an explicit instructional text. a student with a more developed vocabulary may have a different synonym than a student whose vocabulary is less developed. Many strategies can be employed to reinforce root meanings throughout the year. the meanings of over half of the polysyllabic words in the English language can be determined by analyzing word parts if students have been given practice in doing this (Nagy & Scott. low frequency words typically found on standardized tests such as the SAT or in the more difficult literature. In this manner. Students place new words they find words in their vocabulary study or in their reading underneath the word wall and/or the appropriate root in their notebooks. reproduced. and copy it next to the word in their notebooks. such as a vocabulary workbook. 2000).

which helps to engage a reader’s schema. The good news is that through explicit instruction and practice. 1984). COMPREHENSION COMPONENTS FOR REMEDIATION/INSTRUCTION Over the last 40 years. prediction activities typically entail either providing or enhancing background knowledge about the subject matter. In their review of the research. An overview of each strategy and its place within clinical practice follows. (b) how might this topic relate to students’ own lives or experiences?. These strategies can be easily modified and crafted to fit the reading ability level of students in grades K-8 and beyond. And although vocabulary instruction should be an important component of clinical practice. thereby causing them difficulty with one or more aspects of the comprehension process. Although these strategies are typically second nature for proficient readers. In the following section. reading comprehension has been one of the most researched areas in the field of reading/literacy studies. we address important components of clinical programs designed to improve comprehension. The more background knowledge a reader has about the reading material. the easier it tends to be to comprehend what is being discussed in the text (Anderson & Pearson. these strategies can be acquired by readers who may not have been actively employing them. it should not become overly compartmentalized or become an end in itself. . Before reading begins. instructional guidelines to inform the design of a vocabulary program will improve one’s likelihood of success.128 EVAN ORTLIEB ET AL. and (f) questions/questioning. (e) summarization. Prediction is often associated with both prereading and during-reading activities. because the ultimate goal of any reading program is not simply to create lists of word meanings and usages but to improve comprehension. (c) text structure. It has become widely accepted that readers make meaning from text by actively enlisting cognitive processes that facilitate comprehension. Prereading activities frequently include asking students to make predictions such as (a) what does the title and/or introduction suggest about the topic?. (b) think-aloud. (d) visual representations of text. Duke and Pearson (2002) recommend that comprehension instruction include development of the following six strategies: (a) prediction. struggling readers often do not effectively employ any of these strategies. These cognitive processes have come to be viewed as strategies that proficient readers use to comprehend text.

and frequent repetition of this type of questioning also helps to make it more habitual. questioning. Herbert. predictions. Another element that contributes to improved comprehension is understanding text structure. often to highlight prevailing views or ideas about the subject matter. and this during-reading aspect of prediction is addressed in the following section. Usually modeled first by the clinician. Think-alouds are strategies designed to model for struggling readers the meta-cognitive activities (thinking about thinking) that are part of the comprehension process. and visualizations that they are form while they read. Many struggling readers. however. These questions or statements are presented to the students before reading. The goal of these guides is to help set a purpose for reading by stimulating student curiosity about the subject. Not only have teacher-led think-alouds been demonstrated to have a positive impact with struggling readers. 1932). A think-aloud is carried out just like it sounds – while clinicians read a piece of text aloud for the class. Comprehension is an active process requiring the reader to continuously engage with the text. think-alouds often will encompass several of the specific strategies that are part of the comprehension process. 1994. Another activity characterized as employing prediction (and which can be helpful for both motivating and increasing the interest of reluctant readers) is the Anticipation-Reaction (A/R) Guide (Duffelmeyer. 1978). with the goal of having it eventually become second nature. For instance. 1992). and/or application-oriented) or statements about the reading material. Prediction is also employed during the reading act. inferential. by improving important aspects of the comprehension process such as summarization (Silven & Vauras. they periodically stop to verbally model the questions. the goal of frequent modeling of think-alouds is to have these metacognitive activities become a natural part of the student’s reading process. Text structure refers to the predictable patterns found in texts of a particular genre. and (d) how might studying this topic be useful? Having students answer these questions explicitly before a reading assignment provides modeling for what good readers do. and reflection. thinkalouds have also been shown to benefit comprehension when students are asked to engage in them. This guide usually takes the form of a set of multilevel questions (factual. As with the use of explicit prereading questions.Vocabulary/Comprehension-Based Models of Reading Clinics 129 (c) what information do they believe the reading material may give them?. Familiarity with these patterns has been shown to facilitate parts of the comprehension process such as recall (Bartlett. such as prediction. beginning readers are often first exposed to . are usually not accustomed to enlisting a sufficient number of those cognitive functions while they are reading to allow for successful comprehension.

1987). they would be meaningless to us and no image would be formed because we would not know the language well enough to create a visual representation of what we heard.130 EVAN ORTLIEB ET AL. As readers and listeners.g. Although the logic of headings with sections and subsections may appear obvious to an adult. Instructing students in how to create visual representations of the subject matter can be a valuable method for enhancing their comprehension of the material (Armbruster. oral language. Such organization of content area text material (e. narrative texts with predictable structures including a protagonist. sections divided by major headings and further subdivided into minor headings) is nearly ubiquitous. we create images in our mind to make sense of the language we read or hear. our ability to comprehend a piece of text is related to our ability to create a meaningful image of what that text represents. it may not be obvious to students how. if we hear the words ‘‘the cat ran up a tree.’’ we would likely form some image in our mind of a cat moving up a tree. Additionally. These visual representations include not only assignments for which students use structured devices (such as graphic organizers) adapted to particular content but also assignments for which students create their own drawings or other visual representations . rising action. students begin to encounter expository text almost exclusively in their textbooks. and resolution. and they are usually not as familiar with the type of text structure employed in expository texts. Although the research is somewhat mixed as to the extent to which this helps all students (Duke & Pearson. As with narrative text structures. especially in content area subjects that deal almost exclusively with expository text. Starting in late elementary school. or even that the material is organized. there is enough evidence to indicate that some specific instruction in text structure should be included in comprehension curricula. 2002). Our knowledge of the meaning of these words allows us to form the corresponding image in our mind. some type of conflict or problem. Anderson. Expository texts – texts with which many students often struggle – are typically designed to categorize information in a manner that promotes a logical assimilation of the content being discussed. or trade/chapter books. & Ostertag. Because identifying and placing different elements of a narrative text into these structural categories is a common assignment. why. For example. If these words were spoken to us in a language with which we were not familiar. whether in picture books. however. specific instruction in the organizational structure of content area texts and material can help students with their comprehension of expository texts.. climax. students tend to become quite familiar with narrative text structure.

Although summarization is an important indicator of comprehension. Both the rule-based and the GIST strategy have been demonstrated to be effective in improving elements of comprehension (Bean & Steenwyk. Another summarization strategy known as GIST (Cunningham. Compose a word to replace a list of items. It is difficult for many students to summarize what they have read or heard without explicit instruction. Students will. Questions/questioning can arguably be considered the lynchpin of the comprehension process. students might be asked to create drawings of a scene from a story. McNeil and Donant (1982) developed the following rule-based sequence as a means of instructing summarization:       Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: Delete unnecessary material. or a math problem. 1984). Indeed. of course. Invent a topic sentence if one is not available. hence the inclusion of this skill on many standardized tests (questions testing this skill often take the form of: ‘‘Which of the following answer choices best summarizes the passage?’’). 1982) asks students to summarize a piece of text using a maximum of 15 words. Select a topic sentence. assignments in which students are asked to create a visual representation of what they are studying can also serve as a diagnostic tool to help clinicians identify where students may be struggling so that targeted planning and instruction can be refined and implemented. Delete redundant material.Vocabulary/Comprehension-Based Models of Reading Clinics 131 of important elements of a text. For example. an historical event. Having students create visual representations of what they read can contribute to both an increased mastery of the subject matter and an improvement in overall comprehension ability. need instruction and practice in each of these steps in order to successfully apply these rules. Instruction in this strategy includes not only the use of larger and larger pieces of text but also scaffolding the strategy by gradually transitioning it from a whole-group activity to an assignment for each student. One of the characteristics of good readers is that they monitor their own comprehension by constantly asking themselves (though not out loud or with formed words) ‘‘Am I understanding what I . the ability to summarize something effectively is itself considered a measure of comprehension. a scientific phenomenon. Compose a word to replace individual parts of an action. it is important not to confuse assigning summarization with instruction in summarization. In addition. Another important element to include in a comprehension curriculum is instruction in summarization.

but they also seem to be less aware that they are no longer comprehending what they are reading because they do not always engage in self-questioning.’’ and so forth. Although it is certainly appropriate and necessary to target instruction toward a specific strategy. & Pressley.132 EVAN ORTLIEB ET AL. Meister. Gambrell. re-reading all or part of the text with which they are having difficulty. & Chapman. 2003). Questions generated to evaluate the reading process might include. teaching students to use these strategies in combination can be even more effective than when they are taught to use only one of them at a time (Block. not only do not often use or know how to effectively implement correctional strategies. Comprehension curricula that incorporate these six strategies will likely be more successful than those that do not. they employ correctional strategies that may include looking up a problematic vocabulary word. the types of questions that students generate can serve as a diagnostic tool by affording the educator an insight into students’ levels of comprehension and where in the material their comprehension breaks down. research suggests that encouraging and instructing students in how to generate their own questions to a text can improve their comprehension by helping them monitor their own comprehension as they read (Rosenshine.’’ whereas questions generated to evaluate the reading product. ‘‘Did I understand what I just read?. 2002). Struggling readers. might include ‘‘What was the theme of the story?. Perhaps even more important. asking students to generate their own questions also promotes increased attention on the part of struggling readers – students pay more attention both to what they are and are not understanding when they are asked to generate meaningful questions to what they have read. 1996). In addition to fostering increased engagement with the material. When good readers no longer answer these questions in the affirmative. In addition. Although asking students questions about what they have read is a common instructional practice. or reducing the speed at which they are reading (Beers. the greater the likelihood of success.’’ ‘‘What is the meaning of that word?. Analyzing the questions a student has generated can provide a clinician guidance as to the types of intervention and/or scaffolding from which a struggling reader might benefit. am reading?’’ Almost every aspect of reading comprehension is driven by some type of question or questioning activity that evaluates either the reading process or reading product. Moreover. these comprehension strategies should be introduced at as early an age as possible and are even appropriate for students who have not yet mastered .’’ ‘‘What is the main idea of the third paragraph?. however. these strategies should not be taught in isolation – the more they are integrated into a complete comprehension curriculum.

and complexity of text concomitant with grade-level progression can present reading challenges for many students at some point(s) in their lives. When learners are given meaningful strategy instruction. and motivation for literacy empowerment. CONCLUSION The escalation in the amount. variation. when we encounter new words. Moreover. our schema might include information about the roots and suffix of which this word is comprised and the context in which it is used to allow us to determine that it might have something to do with a bone ailment. or using context to determine the meaning of a word in its surroundings. research-based learning. we utilize strategies we learned in school or reading clinics such as analyzing word parts.Vocabulary/Comprehension-Based Models of Reading Clinics 133 decoding by introducing and practicing these strategies during the reading and discussing of text (Pearson & Fielding. However. Regardless of the level of education offered at a particular college or university. Reading clinics. Using proven methods directed toward students’ needs and derived from assessment data in areas such as vocabulary and comprehension will ultimately lead students to have more successful experiences in every subject area. The medical models of reading clinics used for decades often attempted to focus on a treatment for specific symptoms of reading difficulties. they are more likely to draw from that knowledge and transfer it to different contexts when needed – true learning persists while symptomatic fixes have no longevity. Even as adults and reading professionals. but only if they are structured in ways that promote active engagement. In trying to determine the meaning of this term. For instance. we might see the term ‘‘osteopathic’’ as it is commonly referred to when discussing a medical condition. Reading clinical programs are an effective means to improve the skills and abilities of students of all ages. practice opportunities. because of their focus on . models of clinical practice that integrate vocabulary and comprehension strategy instruction into intervention programs stand a much better chance of helping students realize lasting improvement in their reading abilities. clinical models that include a focus on strategies that transfer from one setting to another rather than those that primarily attempt to address a specific problem are better equipped to help students tackle the demands placed on them throughout their educational careers. reading clinics should no longer be viewed as either a luxury item or only for schools that can afford/accommodate them. determining the etymology of a word. 1983).

(1987). In B. Barr. D. Although much effort is required to successfully accomplish both these goals.. W. Maloch. M. L. meeting individual student needs. & Freebody. the successful operation of a reading clinic requires significant time. Although there is considerable research supporting best practices in reading instruction as illustrated by the number of ideas presented in this chapter regarding vocabulary and comprehension development. & Pearson. there seems like no better time for stressing the benefits of clinical experience to teacher education programs. attention. V. New York: Longman. 331–346.134 EVAN ORTLIEB ET AL. Baumann. Kamil & P. Anderson. (1991). C. P. D. Mosenthal & P. P. R. Worthy (Eds. White Plains. REFERENCES Anderson. Fifty-fourth yearbook of the National Reading Conference (pp. Bartlett. yet time restrictions frequently allow for just a nominal number of hours to be spent with children on an individual basis.. WI: National Reading Conference. Pearson. Newark. E. allow for varied instruction to accomplish the goal of reading improvement. R. Hoffman. Handbook of reading research (Vol. F. P. however. and supervision. Comprehension and teaching: Research reviews (pp. (1984).. The greatest challenge lies in preparing preservice and practicing teachers engaged in a clinical course while also targeting their students’ reading abilities. J. Mosenthal (Eds. (1981). Anderson. 22. Schallert. It is in clinical settings. J. B. C. 690– 724). Barr. Does text structure/summarization instruction facilitate learning from expository text? Reading Research Quarterly. F. C. pp. R. II. M. that both preservice and practicing teachers can develop and refine their teaching practices by experiencing what works in a clinical environment while students receive the individual attention that they need. D. Pearson (Eds. Vocabulary knowledge.. Remembering: A study in experimental and social psychology. C. New York: Cambridge University Press. Guthrie (Ed. As educational funding becomes reevaluated in coming years. Long-term impacts are desired from every educator. 255–291). Armbruster. Vocabulary-comprehension relationships. the benefits to both the educators and the students certainly outweigh the costs. Word meanings. J. (1932). Handbook of reading research (pp.).). In P. D. Oak Creek. C. DE: International Reading Association. R. Anderson.). . In J. Kamil. 77–117).). Fairbanks & J. T. A schema-theoretic view of basic processes in reading comprehension. M. (2005). L. And this is continuously confirmed by many capable clinicians and reading professionals in the field. B. 117–131). & Ostertag. L. In R. & Nagy.. NY: Longman.

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A description is provided of the instructional routine employed at the clinic that focuses on fluency and has been shown to assist students in making significant improvements in their literacy progress. Prior to instruction. 137–160 Copyright r 2013 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited All rights of reproduction in any form reserved ISSN: 2048-0458/doi:10. The chapter asserts that struggling readers can become successful when instruction is designed around research-based principles of teaching and learning. Practice and Evaluation.WHEN KIDS CAN’T READ.1108/S2048-0458(2013)0000002010 137 . clinicians administered an informal Advanced Literacy Practices: From the Clinic to the Classroom Literacy Research. WHAT A FOCUS ON FLUENCY CAN DO: THE READING CLINIC EXPERIENCE AT KENT STATE UNIVERSITY Belinda Zimmerman. Each step in the FDL is explained. Methodology/approach – The authors describe how teachers and intervention specialists work together to provide an effective intervention to the students that emphasizes a specific guided oral fluency routine known as the Fluency Development Lesson (FDL). Timothy Rasinski and Maria Melewski ABSTRACT Purpose – This chapter profiles a summer reading clinic that utilizes graduate students (clinicians) to provide diagnostic literacy intervention for students in grades one through six who struggle with reading and writing. Volume 2.

‘‘Well.138 BELINDA ZIMMERMAN ET AL. Some of the factors such as the importance of instructional routine. Originality/value – This chapter shows how a summer reading clinic strives to apply research-based. Instead. common sense factors that matter most in teaching struggling students to read in intervention and classroom settings. text selection. Andy was recommended for retention because he was significantly behind his peers in reading achievement. Additionally. Andy cried when he found out that he had to attend ‘‘summer school. struggling readers. time-on-task. posttests were administered. that was when I didn’t know what it was . Andy’s parents then decided to seek additional help for their son.001) from pretest to posttest in all areas measured. and comprehension and to subsequently inform instruction. The reading clinic setting is ideal for further FDL research including its impact on older students and the incorporation of digital texts on student performance.’’ Recently. readers of the chapter are encouraged to apply the methods and processes to their own classrooms. where clinicians – all certified teachers seeking a master’s degree in reading specialization – provide diagnostic guided instruction for students in grades one through six who struggle with reading and writing. Keywords: Reading clinic. and instructional talk are considered key to the successful implementation of the FDL and the clinical experience. Following first grade. fluency School has not always come easily for Andy Bauer. T-Tests indicated that students made significant progress (p o. Research implications – The study’s primary purpose was to improve the reading outcomes of the students involved. reading inventory to gain baseline data about the students in the areas of word recognition. intervention. During the fifth and final week of the program. Andy slipped further behind and became increasingly frustrated. when he was asked about his initial reaction. targeted teaching. fluency. Andy said. The Bauer’s turned to a reading clinic. His parents and teachers hoped that Andy would overcome his reading difficulties and achieve grade level status. and the results may have been influenced by outside factors beyond their control. the intervention period was limited. instructional routine. Limitations – The authors acknowledge that the study is small in scale.

they read effortlessly and with good expression. real boring with lots of papers and homework. The accurate reading of connected text marks fluency. phonics or decoding. comprehension is enhanced because the reader’s . Andy reflected on his own progress and stated. & Modla. Applegate. ‘‘I know how to read better and I even sound like a good reader now!’’ In this chapter. fluency. In Andy’s case. fluency (words correct per minute). I guess I didn’t know that it was like a really fun reading camp. Andy acquired a more positive attitude about reading than they had previously observed. At the end of the program. The data we report suggest that students who have engaged in this instructional routine make significant improvements in their reading.When Kids Can’t Read. FLUENCY DEFINED In recent years. Of the five. the findings concerning the importance of fluency instruction attracted the most unexpected attention (Applegate. pre. and comprehension. I mean. where the reader maintains a conversational rate and appropriate prosody (Torgesen & Hudson. targeting proficient expressive reading. 2009).. and starred in a reader’s theater performance during the final day of the program. a departure from the time when Allington (1983) described fluency as a neglected aspect of the reading curriculum. repeated interactions with authentic texts.’’ What a contrast the fearful. 2009. 2000) that identified five instructional factors associated with reading success: phonemic awareness. jokes. In turn. and comprehension. vocabulary. and reading performance. considerable focus has been given to the study of fluency. Fluency is a developmental process that bridges word recognition and reading comprehension (Applegate et al. I thought it was going to be like summer school – you know. We describe a summer reading clinic that employs an instructional routine that focuses on fluency. Equally important.and post-assessments showed that he made progress in several key areas of literacy development: word recognition (percentage of words read accurately on grade level text). we argue that struggling readers can become successful when instruction is designed around principles of research-based teaching and learning. Pikulski. What a Focus on Fluency Can Do 139 all about. 2006). Advances in our understanding of the most effective ways to teach reading were consolidated in the work of the National Reading Panel (NICHD. When readers are fluent. 2006). prereading clinic Andy was from the smiling boy who five weeks later performed poetry. according to his parents.

Rasinski & Hoffman.. Pinnell. the links between fluency and comprehension were established. & Oranje.140 BELINDA ZIMMERMAN ET AL. 2007). Gough. The construct implies that as readers gain fluency. Pikulski. letter patterns in words. Simply put. suggesting that reading fluency is based on a reader’s ability to master foundational subskills (e. 2007). students who read orally with poor expression tend to manifest poor comprehension in their silent reading. Grigg. once they have gained automaticity. In this way. LaBerge and Samuels (1974) developed a theoretical framework to explain automaticity in reading. 2003. Recent research reports concerning fluency have shown that fluency is a contributor to reading comprehension and achievement in reading (Miller & Schwanenflugel. they are more able to attend to the meaning a passage imparts due to the availability of additional attentional resources. Wixson. letter–sound relationships. 2005.. and the meaning of connected text). 1987. In order to read with expression. Campbell. Additional large-scale studies have demonstrated that fluency serves as a powerful predictor of comprehension and that a large percentage of students have not achieved minimally acceptable levels of fluency (Daane et al. Prosody or expression in reading is the other component of fluency (Schreiber. 1995). and Hilden (2004) suggest that difficulties in acquiring reading fluency are a major cause of reading comprehension problems for struggling readers. 2002). readers have to monitor the intended meaning of the author and then embed expression into the voice to reflect that meaning. Large-scale studies have found that elementary readers who read orally with good expression tend to have good comprehension when reading silently (Daane. & Beatty. Wolf and Katzir-Cohen (2001) suggest that fluent readers were more likely than their nonfluent peers to gain meaning from the printed word. they would be unable to advance to more complex levels of text processing (comprehension) or benefit fully from comprehension instruction (Willingham. attention is focused on what the text means rather than decoding the words on the page (Samuels. Conversely..g. 1991). Fluency in oral reading is marked by expressive reading. concerning itself with a reader’s ability to internalize word learning so well that it occurs almost spontaneously (Cattell. Because of fluency’s importance in reading acquisition and because many elementary . the reader’s cognitive resources are free to access the meaning a written text holds. Duke. 2005. They argued that until readers were able to master these foundational skills to a point of automaticity. Early research into fluency focused primarily on automaticity. Goodman. 1886). 1995). Walczyk & GriffithRoss. Campbell. Similarly. Pinnell et al. Pressley. 2006.

magazines. . The intervention offered to the students follows an apprenticeship model emphasizing guided oral fluency routines through participation and practice in structured literacy activities (Dorn. and comprehension (Zimmerman & Rasinski. 2012). A student may be referred to the clinic for a variety of reasons. or by their parents. Research confirms that self-efficacy and motivation are instrumental factors in becoming a successful reader (Marinak & Gambrell. The clinic is designed to utilize research-based assessments to inform the instruction of each student and to provide appropriate intervention. Students are surrounded by anchor charts. the clinic strives to create a safe. 2010). intervention specialist. allowing students to achieve success with such materials. Typically. Not surprising. At the clinic. books. students who attend the clinic perform well below grade level expectations in all three areas of reading proficiency – word recognition accuracy. Also. A visitor to the reading clinic would observe students reading in a variety of situations. selfefficacy and motivation are enhanced by immersing students in a wide range of reading materials based on interest and choice. this includes students who perform poorly on local and state mandated tests of reading achievement. and other materials designed to be at students’ instructional and interest levels.When Kids Can’t Read. On average. students typically exhibit low levels of word recognition accuracy. THE READING CLINIC The clinic embraces the notion that reading is an important. many struggling readers believe they lack the ability to succeed resulting in reading avoidance and a tendency to give up quickly when challenges emerge. French. and lack fluency (automaticity and prosody) when reading. Secondary goals of the clinic are to enhance the self-efficacy of each student and increase motivation to read. & Jones. have poor comprehension. Additionally. and meaningful skill. we have made fluency development a primary goal in our reading clinic. The clinic is held in public school classrooms that have been transformed into print rich. attainable. Students are recommended to the clinic by their classroom teacher. child-centered environments by the clinicians. What a Focus on Fluency Can Do 141 students who struggle in reading manifest difficulties in reading fluency. 1998). Teachers work together to design lessons that challenge students to read. fluency. trusting learning environment in which academic risk taking is encouraged and positive support and feedback are provided to the students.

strengths. Students eventually have opportunities to . As a result. students make choices based on their interests. 1). Students participate in reading the text silently and orally in a group..142 BELINDA ZIMMERMAN ET AL. prosody) contribute to the development and conveyance of meaning. Therrien & Kubina. with a partner. Therrien. They contribute to discussions concerning meaning of the passage as well as how aspects of fluent reading (i. magazine articles. & Sturtevant. and on their own. However. 2004. a guided oral reading routine (Rasinski. Text is fluently read by the teacher and students on a daily basis. in ways that encourage fluency and comprehension. The FDL is a daily lesson using different and relatively brief (50–250 words) text each day. and interact with the text in a variety of purposeful instructional contexts (Kuhn & Stahl. With guidance from the teachers. 1994) serves as the core lesson for the reading clinic. Padak. appropriate for the developmental level and interest of the students. Utilizing a wide range of reading resources allows teachers to differentiate instruction since all students have the opportunity to engage with texts that are of interest to them and at an appropriate level of difficulty. Fluency is enhanced as students continually read. The Fluency Development Lesson (FDL). and needs. The primary goal of the lesson is for students to achieve fluency with the daily text by the end of each instructional period. Since fluency is a major concern for nearly all of the students enrolled in the reading program. The clinic employs a pedagogical approach that focuses on repeated and assisted readings of engaging texts. the FDL is appropriate for students in the primary grades. and student-authored poems and stories.e. either individually or with a partner. fluency building is at the heart of the instruction that occurs at the clinic. Linek. The focus of the FDL is iterative practice (see Fig. Since fluency is considered a foundational reading skill. they fail to develop in fluency and comprehension in a timely way that further exacerbates the widening gap between the struggling and successful readers (Stanovich. We believe that many struggling readers rarely achieve fluency with the assigned texts they encounter in a typical reading curriculum. it may also be appropriate for students beyond the primary grades who still struggle with fluency. 2003. Students may be observed in active exploration of a topic where they are provided with multiple opportunities for reading diverse texts including picture and chapter books. song lyrics. Further. they have limited opportunities to experience the success in reading a text fluently that their more advanced classmates experience regularly. poetry. The selfefficacy that is key to reading progress often fails to develop when students do not achieve demonstrable success in their reading. hear. 2006). 1986).

segment from a basal passage. In this way. 4. . The Fluency Development Lesson (FDL): An Overview. or literature book. perform or present their readings in order to feel the sense of success and achievement that comes from practice. The teacher introduces a new short text and reads it to the students two or three times while the students follow along or listen to the teacher’s reading. The format for the lesson is: 1. 5. 8. defining words. and word games) 9. 1. Teacher and students read the passage chorally several times. The students and their teacher choose 3 or 4 words from the text to add to the word bank and/or word wall.g. students engage in repeated readings of a designated text for an authentic purpose – performance. Although engaging in the FDL process often results in an improved reading rate for struggling readers. 10. Each student practices the passage three times while his or her partner listens and provides support and encouragement. 2. etc. Antiphonal reading and other variations are used to create variety and maintain engagement. story segments. flash card practice. The teacher organizes student pairs.When Kids Can’t Read. Individuals and groups of students perform their reading for the class or other audience. Text can be a poem. Students engage in word study activities (e.. reading fast or increasing the speed of reading is not a focus of the FDL. The teacher and students discuss the nature and content of the passage. The students take a copy of the passage home to practice with parents and other family members. Students read a familiar passage from the previous lesson to the teacher or a fellow student for accuracy and fluency. 7. 6. or other texts) that students read and reread over a short period of time. The FDL employs short reading passages (poems. What a Focus on Fluency Can Do 143 Fig. word sorts with word bank words. 3. Students return to school and read the passage to the teacher or a partner who checks for fluency and accuracy. word walls.

and story segment) aloud to the students. The selected passage and any written work are sent home for additional practice each day to provide a linkage between the clinical program experiences and home practice.. make predictions and/or inferences. Particular attention is given to expression. scared. Modeling. create visualizations. nursery rhyme. The students work in pairs or trios. This phrased. The next day the passage is reread and reviewed before a new passage is presented.’’ 5. It also serves as an entertaining and nonthreatening way to introduce new text and hone students’ listening skills while encouraging visualization of text meaning. Choral reading. further reinforcing comprehension. Antiphonal reading (members read different selected or assigned parts) and other variations are used to create variety and maintain engagement (e. fluent oral reading provides a strong model of what quality reading sounds like. 6. The teacher may wonder aloud to make a teaching point such as. The teacher and students discuss the nature and content of the passage (e.g. and fluency. ‘‘Did you notice how I used plenty of expression when I read to show excitement since this poem has several exclamation points?’’ or ‘‘Did you notice how I slowed down and deepened my voice on this part? I was trying to use my voice to create a feeling of suspense here. The passage is read chorally several times. Paired reading.g.g.. Discussion. 2. loud or whisper voices. poem. Share text. identify relevant text-to-self. draw conclusions. Students may also respond to the text in written form. students may read in their deepest or highest voices. The text is distributed to the students and a second round of multiple prosodic readings led by the teacher follows.144 BELINDA ZIMMERMAN ET AL. The teacher expressively reads a short text (e. Students may also perform by recording their readings and sharing the recorded renderings at home with their families and friends. usually creating a response that connects what they have read with their own experiences. Perform. text-to-text. A full FDL lesson includes the following: 1. happy. song.. 3. . and textto-world connections) as well as the quality of the teacher’s oral reading. Individuals or groups of students perform their reading for the class or other audiences. Students may follow along silently or chime in using a soft voice. 4. Each student practices the passage two or three times while his or her partner listens and provides support and encouragement. or surprised voices). word accuracy. The students learn from the modeling of the teachers how to offer positive feedback when partners improve.

When Kids Can’t Read. arranging the word cards in alphabetical order. Several of these factors such as the importance of time. Allington (2002) identified several research-based. What a Focus on Fluency Can Do 145 7. The clinic seeks to situate the FDL and. teaching. Allington’s research and principles are foundational to the framework employed at the reading clinic. SCHMOKER’S UNFORTUNATE REALITIES (2006. 2006). Key principles that guide our clinical model are drawn from several of Schmoker’s (2006) ‘‘unfortunate realities’’ (p. Depending on age or stage of reading development. vocabulary understanding. fun to say. and other forms of written expression. mysterious. 17–18) Kids Are Not Reading and Writing Enough Lower achieving students are reading far less than their high-achieving peers (Allington. In this way. 740) as a framework for thinking about how the clinic instructors work with students throughout the program. Additionally. 2006). students build word recognition. automaticity. all literacy learning within a model for high quality principled instruction. journals. students’ needs do not determine the curriculum.17) of instruction today and Allington’s (2002) principles of ‘‘effective reading instruction’’ (p. text. or have a particular orthographic structure that can be used for further analyses and instruction. Using data from a long-term study of first. and/or the classroom word wall. PP. common sense factors that matter most in teaching students to read in classroom and intervention settings. word wall practice. These ‘‘unfortunate realities’’ include kids are not reading and writing enough. in effect. sentence building. The teachers will also create game-like activities such as word searches. the students and the teacher then choose 2–5 interesting words from the text to add to individual student word banks. word puzzles. challenging. and a better sense of how words work in the English language while having fun at the same time. and teachers do not have opportunities to work in teams (Schmoker. In fact. Teachers encourage students to select words that are interesting. Students then engage in 5–10 minutes of word study activities using the selected word bank words. students are reading only a fraction of what they . Word work and word study. or word ladders for their students as a pleasurable way to extend student practice with the words.and fourth-grade teachers in six states. Examples include word sorts. and talk are also considered key to the successful implementation of the FDL and the clinic program experience.

p. 176). 2010). 2006. and refine lessons as they . we strive for a similar ratio. and grow intellectually (Allington. & Solic. our students are immersed in reading and writing from the start to the finish time of each daily session. As we described earlier. need to become literate. 2003. The reading time-on-task of the FDL is representative of this precept. Teachers Do Not Have Opportunities to Work in Teams Generally. 1999. A defining principle of any exemplary reading intervention effort is the inclusion of ‘‘enormous quantities of actual reading and writing’’ (Allington & Baker. It is our standard and goal for the teachers to structure the learning to ensure that the bulk of the instructional time is spent on authentic reading and writing experiences. plan themed instruction. Thus. Allington. observations. think critically. Student Needs Do Not Determine the Curriculum Assessment results are used to determine the children’s literacy needs and to inform instruction in the clinic. Rasinski. Allington (2002) observed that the highest achieving classrooms devote about 70% of the school day to reading or writing. It makes everyone work harder. The clinic’s mission embraces Surowiecki’s (2004) assertion that ‘‘A successful face-to-face team is more than just collectively intelligent. They meet regularly to prepare lessons. We believe that this emphasis on fluency instruction is crucial since effective fluency instructional methods have great potential to positively impact all aspects of a student’s reading development (Mathison. 307). 1988). As a result of previous and current coursework and their own teaching experiences. 2002. As such. We strive to create an ongoing awareness that becoming a skilled reader and writer necessitates a great deal of practice. think smarter. the teachers develop a repertoire of strategies to meet the needs of the learners.146 BELINDA ZIMMERMAN ET AL. Although the clinic does not occur in a typical classroom setting. and discuss and interpret assessments. Gallagher. and reflections. follow up. teachers work in teams of four adults and eight to twelve students. Having the teachers work in teams allows them a safe space to explore. and reach better conclusions than what they would have on their own’’ (p. he recommends that classrooms should spend 60 minutes on reading and 40 minutes per day on writing. the FDL is the curriculum cornerstone of the reading instruction provided at the clinic. Gaskins.

740–747) Time Time refers to the actual amount of minutes the children are meaningfully engaged in reading and writing. word study activities. 109). Through this collaborative process. teachers have the opportunity to share their own plans and implementations of the FDL with their colleagues. At the clinic. Allington (2002) has found that teachers tend to credit other exemplary colleagues for providing the support and guidance needed for them to make improvements in their teaching. PP. the students must be given opportunities to read extensively. 2006. the 30–45 minute FDL requires that the students are meaningfully and actively engaged in reading and writing virtually every minute of the lesson process. The lesson is not intended to be implemented in a prescriptive manner. The development of internal expertise that occurs as a result of the meetings and team teaching may be the most influential form of professional development available since learning from one another has been found to be how teachers learn best (Rosenholtz. and so on. Texts Rather than utilizing traditional basal series and other packaged curriculum materials. Hence. In the collaborative environment of our reading clinic. What a Focus on Fluency Can Do 147 ‘‘pool their practical knowledge’’ and ‘‘share the best of what they already know’’ along with their new learnings (Schmoker. instructional focus. Similarly. FDL implementation becomes more nuanced and more effective in meeting the needs of students. When followed with fidelity. The FDL is the core lesson in our reading clinic. teachers are aware that to achieve reading proficiency. close attention is paid to time-on-task and teachers are assisted in adjusting their plans to achieve a healthy balance of reading and writing throughout each lesson. 1991). exemplary teachers are aware that the highest achieving students . Teachers need to make decisions about text choice. ALLINGTON’S PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE READING INSTRUCTION (2002. p. Allington (2002) observed that children spent only about 10–15 minutes of a 90-minute literacy block on reading and writing. Teachers are expected to implement it daily.When Kids Can’t Read. In too many instances.

Talk Each step in the FDL process is laced with talk between the teachers and students. and memorable demonstration I could show the students that they could apply right away and would give them a way into this particular text or task?’’ The teachers are observed purposefully shifting away from the less effective practice of ‘‘assign and assess’’ in favor of the ‘‘watch me demonstrate’’ (Allington. When the teachers are planning for their modeling in each lesson. 743) stance utilized by exemplary teachers. conversations between teachers and . Teach The emphasis here is on active teaching. the teachers make sure they have a vast supply of books on hand that the children can truly read. and they also return to their own classrooms to borrow books to use at the clinic. The use of high-quality children’s literature. p. 2002. 743). and interests of the students. In the clinic. For the implementation of the FDL. It is crucial that the teachers employ reflective practice during the modeling to give the students ‘‘insider access’’ to the invisible thinking and the cognitive language structures needed to successfully engage in the assignment.148 BELINDA ZIMMERMAN ET AL. This type of modeling is at the forefront of all FDL lessons and is integral to the process. talk refers to the highly personalized. p. concise. There are many tubs of books that the teachers may sign out. and informational texts is encouraged and teachers are asked to refrain from the use of decodable texts since too often the meaning and story structure of these books are sacrificed in order to overemphasize targeted phonetic elements. which is characterized by routinely modeling and demonstrating the effective strategies used by good readers. text difficulty. have access to plenty of ‘‘easy texts’’ that they are able to read ‘‘accurately. reading materials are carefully selected by the teachers who take into account type of text. Here. ‘‘What is the most clear. it is instructive for the teachers to ask themselves this question. purposeful. 2002. poetry. the teachers make good use of their local libraries. instructional conversations that exemplary teachers use to guide and problem solve with their students. With this in mind. fluently. and with strong comprehension’’ when engaged in independent reading tasks (Allington.

and work alongside them with research-based approaches to position them for success. Success lies in good teaching. A concerted effort is made to involve parents. Additionally. Thus. the clinic emphasizes instruction that is focused on the individual needs of the students. To the aforementioned lists of factors associated with the success of the clinic. Communication with families is integral. teachers are given the message that all students can learn to read. 1992). struggling learners are more likely to thrive if teachers believe that all students can learn. as engaged parents or caregivers can support student learning. It is through this dialogue that teachers are able to realize students’ interests and ideas while also ascertaining their current levels of understanding (Wells & Chang-Wells. Moreover. the teachers try to pose open-ended questions that have more than one right answer and afford the students with opportunities to explore and analyze their thinking whenever possible. hold high expectations for their achievement. When students believe they can be successful in reading they are much more likely to find success. Moreover. This is a departure from the more interrogational kinds of questioning practices that are often associated with less effective teaching (Cazden. three other focal areas have been added that are integral to the clinical program for struggling readers. Cambourne (1988) contends that students achieve what they are expected to achieve and fail if they are expected to fail. and places a high priority on holding high expectations for the students. What a Focus on Fluency Can Do 149 students occur on a regular basis and are considered integral to providing quality instruction.When Kids Can’t Read. Padak. In an early orientation. The program begins with an informational presentation to parents and caregivers who are informed that their children will be bringing materials home every night to . 2012). 1988). Focus on High Expectations for Students It is crucial that all educators understand that the expectations of teachers and other role models are powerful shapers of student learning and achievement. & Stevenson. students need authentic and challenging materials and tasks in which they find success. Focus on Family Involvement Students’ progress in reading is dependent to a large extent on the support that they get from their family members (Rasinski.

NICHD. Kuhn & Stahl. this study sought to answer the following research question: To what extent do students exhibit gains in fluency and overall reading proficiency as a result of core instruction utilizing the FDL? . Blair. Rather than the traditional craft-based projects used as literature extensions in many classrooms. The clinic places a high degree of emphasis on developing students’ love of reading. 2000. and creative. With student reading growth as a primary focus. 2000. and other texts that they have been rehearsing during the FDL throughout the program. Gaskins. They respond to their readings in ways that are enjoyable. 2002. students are repeatedly exposed to reading texts that highlight fluency and comprehension. Students read authentic and engaging materials. an instructional intervention based on key principles of reading and reading instruction. Teachers are required to provide parents with a brief text from the day’s FDL activities that they give to parents to provide a positive home-school connection. Worthy. In the FDL process. the emphasis for all the materials employed at the clinic is to provide intensive literature rich reading experiences. Teachers update parents daily as to their children’s progress when they pick them up at the end of each session. songs. 2006). What is less well understood is how gains in reading can be linked to authentic fluency instruction and how fluency development can be assured as a result of classroom reading instruction. 2000). RESEARCH QUESTION Indeed. 2005. poems. The remainder of this chapter highlights one such study that focused on the usefulness of the FDL. In this way.150 BELINDA ZIMMERMAN ET AL. Pressley. the affective aspects of the clinic experience are braided to the academic expectations. Pikulski & Chard. often game-like. research has suggested that as students gain fluency they become better readers (Heilman. 2002. be read together. & Fingeret. & Rupley. The final day at the clinic is a Reading Festival in which the students perform for parents and other family members scripts. as a method to enhance student growth in reading. Focus on the Affective Dimensions of Reading Children who struggle in reading often dislike reading as well (Pressley.

DATA ANALYSIS Means for student performance by grade level for word recognition. Next. 90-minute sessions over five weeks. In word recognition we found that students at every grade level made substantial gains in their ability to read words in context (Table 1). a reading inventory (Rasinski & Padak. Students’ . However. and comprehension. fluency. Retellings are assessed by the teacher using a sixpoint retelling rubric (Fig. Thirty-six students were enrolled in the program including 5 first graders. Each teacher worked with two to four students during each clinic session that began at 9:30 AM and ended at 11:00 AM. The teachers were responsible for daily lessons including the FDL for a period of 19. ASSESSMENT/DATA COLLECTION The data we collected and our analyses reflect the diagnostic data and analyses that usually occur in a reading clinic setting. respectively. Monday through Thursday. 1985) was employed to quickly determine the literacy strengths and needs of each student and to establish baseline performance for students in word recognition. As is typical in a reading clinic. Eleven graduate students (already certified. 2005). 10 second graders. Students were asked to orally read grade level passages (grade level defined as their most recent grade level completed). 15 third graders and 6 fourth graders. What a Focus on Fluency Can Do 151 METHOD Instructional activities at the program are underscored by an initial assessment of each student’s readiness and reading level. an insufficient number of fifth and sixth grade students completed the program assessments during the time of the study. 2). T-Tests indicate that students made significant progress (p o . The program also serves fifth and sixth graders. practicing classroom teachers) working on their master’s degree in reading served as teachers during the program. based on curriculum-based measurement principles (Deno. Teaching procedures were monitored for fidelity to the FDL format. and comprehension are reported in Tables 1–3. students provided a retelling of what they had read in order to assess their comprehension of text.When Kids Can’t Read. fluency.001) from pretest to post-test in each of these dimensions.

2. 5. Recall of the main idea of the passage with a few supporting details. Grade Level 1 2 3 4 Mean Student Performance in Word Recognition (Percentage of Words Read Correctly) on Grade Level Passages. Fig. Comprehension Rubric (Rasinski & Padak. presented in a logical order and/or with a robust set of details and that includes a statement of main idea. presented in a logical order and/or with a robust set of details and that includes a statement of main idea.4 2. Pretest 35 61 69 77 Posttest 49 73 82 108 Gain +14 +12 +13 +31 Weekly Average Gain in Reading Rate 2. Recall of the main idea along with a fairly robust set of supporting details. 2. No recall or minimal recall of only a fact of two from the passage.152 BELINDA ZIMMERMAN ET AL. 2005).8 2. Pretest 77 95 87 92 Posttest 92 97 93 97 Gain +15 +2 +6 +4 Table 2. 1. 4. Recall is a comprehensive summary of the passage. Recall of a number of unrelated facts of varied importance.6 6. although not necessarily organized logically or sequentially as presented in the passage. 6. Student also makes reasonable connections beyond the text such as to his/her own personal life or another text. Table 1. Recall is a comprehensive summary of the passage. Grade Level 1 2 3 4 Mean Student Performance in Reading Fluency (Words Correct Per Minute) on Grade Level Passages. 3.2 .

0 0. We measured fluency (word recognition automaticity) by examining each student’s reading rate (Rasinski & Padak. Grade Level 1 2 3 4 Pretest 3. 2).0 2.8 +0. near or above instructional grade level (95% accuracy) for word recognition on grade level passages. students showed similar significant gains in reading fluency. Hamlett.3 3. Fuchs.6 3. 2006). Relatedly.7 4.5 1. Grade Level 1 2 3 4 Weekly Reading Rate Improvement Goals for Struggling Readers.0 Posttest 5.7 4. On average.4 4.0 0.0 1.When Kids Can’t Read. . 2005). 2005). students at every grade level began the clinic reading at or below the spring norm for fluency (Hasbrouck & Tindal. students demonstrated substantial gains (Table 4). three.9 3. What a Focus on Fluency Can Do 153 Table 3. Realistic 2. Based on their study of student growth using CurriculumBased Measurement.4 +1. on average. Comprehension was measured by having the teacher rate each student’s oral retelling of their reading and then rating the retelling using a retelling rubric (Rasinski & Padak. Mean Student Performance in Reading Comprehension (Retelling) on Grade Level Passages.5 Ambitious 3.8 performance at every grade level was.8 +1. with 1 being a lowest score (minimal recall) and 6 being the highest (comprehensive and elaborated recall) (see Fig. and Germann (1993) developed a set of realistic and ambitious gains in reading rate for students experiencing difficulty in reading (see Table 4).2 Gain +1. It is important to note that not once during the entire clinic experience were students asked or even encouraged to read fast.2 Table 4. Nevertheless. Fuchs.0 2. Weekly reading rate gains made by students in our reading clinic exceeded the realistic goals in grade one and the ambitious goals in grades two. Walz. and four.

Instruction at the reading clinic capitalizes on this finding. The principled reading clinic framework in general. is the fact that the study took place in an actual clinical situation where the primary purpose is not research but solid instruction to improve the reading outcomes of students. significant gains in the literacy achievement of students. short engaging text. and that in fact the essential components of quality practices are widely known by the research community. or reading programs are ‘‘the best. pedagogical approaches. the intervention period was limited. We recognize that this study is small in scale. In the clinic we have the opportunity to work exclusively with students who struggle in reading. Not only do we work to improve the achievement of students who attend the reading clinic.154 BELINDA ZIMMERMAN ET AL. Schmoker.’’ In spite of the debates and lingering questions. Students’ performance demonstrated substantial gains across all grade levels in their ability to retell information from grade level passages. 2002. 2003. there is strong agreement from the research community that we now have enough knowledge to make dramatic improvements in literacy achievement (Allington & Johnston. may be characterized as examples of these successful practices since they effectively apply the research-based principles regarding the importance of modeling. however. and that the reported results may have been influenced by factors outside of our control. Pressley. and more specifically the FDL. specific feedback. Allington. and the development of motivation and self efficacy as paths toward reading success. 2006). time on task. DISCUSSION Admittedly in literacy education there remain unresolved issues and points of conflict concerning what curriculum materials. The reading clinic setting provides us with an ideal setting to continue our research into the FDL. our goal is for our teachers to apply what they have gained through their work in the reading clinic to their own classrooms. 2002. Moreover. This information affords the teachers with an immense opportunity to make positive. NICHD. the . The reading clinic framework is congruent with Glickman’s (2002) assertion that the key to effective instruction need not be a mystery. repeated readings. Marzano. Balanced against these limitations. 2001. Our reading clinic is committed to understanding and implementing those practices most critical to the attainment of higher levels of literacy and the critical thinking that ultimately mark reading success. 2000.

IMPLICATIONS FOR CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION The principles underlying the clinic and the use of a focused instructional method for FDL offer important implications for literacy learning in the regular classroom as well as intervention programs such as Title I. exposure to text in an iterative manner matters (Kuhn. and the role of technology and impact of digital texts on the student performance. This disadvantage is exacerbated when fluency and comprehension are compromised. & Stahl. manageable passages of text. In other words. writing about the text or performing readings of the text. identification of the ideal group size for instruction. types of texts used for the FDL. Future research into the FDL may include its impact on older students. Rasinski. Often classroom instruction fails to provide students adequate initial exposure to text.When Kids Can’t Read. What a Focus on Fluency Can Do 155 opportunities for intense observation of students and teachers allow us to study the more nuanced instructional variables that may not be possible in larger scale studies. they can be placed at a disadvantage. The research suggests several areas where teachers might employ these ideas in classroom settings. Comprehension is also enhanced as fluency grows. students can began to see that reading matters because it is part of who they are and what they do. This close reading facilitates learning as students become more familiar and proficient with words in context. students can inhabit language in ways previously unknown to them. . and growth in one improves growth in the other. After strong initial experiences. when students read aloud texts that are provided by the teacher as well as texts of their own writing in response to those texts. Fluency and comprehension are developed in concert with one other. 1979. students must be offered opportunities to make sense of the text in ways that are authentic to them. By identifying new and interesting words. Teachers can assure that this occurs in their classrooms by regularly engaging in authentic and direct instruction in fluency using methods such as the FDL and including student performances of short. When students are not provided deep experiences with the text prior to employing the words or ideas within the text in new ways. 2010. By providing students multiple experiences with the text before they are asked to work with it independently. Topping. First. 2000. they begin to develop a familiarly with text as an extension of their own experiences. Furthermore. success can be fostered as learning is scaffolded. 2006). Samuels.

enhances their progress and confidence. Additionally. they are provided practice that increases their comfort with language and in turn. 342). As such. as educators . to meet the fluency. As students ‘‘rehearse’’ by saying the words aloud with a focus on prosody and expression. informational. The FDL model provides teachers with a relatively brief and focused protocol for introducing new ideas and terms as well as improving fluency. and comprehension needs of students. When new ideas or vocabulary are introduced outside of the context of formal reading instruction. 2002. The FDL’s predictable and consistent structure allows teaching time to be maximized. it is an instructional routine that includes steps any teacher can employ and modify. rather than speed. When activities stress fluency in context rather than in isolation and reading for meaning rather than reading for speed. The intervention provided by the FDL enhances other guided reading strategies in ways that reinforce student learning. The importance of using texts as a tool for performance fosters fluency.156 BELINDA ZIMMERMAN ET AL. word recognition. Repeated readings work best when students have an authentic reason for reading a text multiple times. in any reading context. The FDL also provides formative feedback to teachers and students in terms of growth and areas of need. This means using texts that lend themselves to meaningful performance. In this way. students’ comprehension and vocabulary growth will follow. becomes the teaching objective and fluency serves as one instrument (along with vocabulary. Teachers may successfully employ the FDL routine with narrative. teachers may find ways for students to share their newly developed fluency abilities with interested and enthusiastic audiences. understanding. CHILDREN’S SUCCESS IS OUR SUCCESS At the clinic. It is important to note that the FDL is not just a clinical practice. it is acknowledged that ‘‘the great progress [on effective literacy instruction] to date gives good reason to believe that even greater progress can be made by researchers who are informed by what has been discovered so far’’ (Pressley. word recognition and the like) for successfully accessing text. p. That said. or poetic texts during the language arts block or as part of subject-specific reading in the content areas. Fluency is an important part of reading success. students are able to employ fluency as a tool to increase comprehension. Rather. the FDL stresses group and individual repeated readings for the purpose of performance.

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Practice and Evaluation. Practical implications – Teacher educators can use the practices presented in this chapter as a springboard to create their own schoolbased writing practicum. Advanced Literacy Practices: From the Clinic to the Classroom Literacy Research. 161–179 Copyright r 2013 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited All rights of reproduction in any form reserved ISSN: 2048-0458/doi:10. and families. and families. students.BUILDING WRITING COMMUNITIES AND PARTNERING WITH FAMILIES: MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVES FROM A WRITING PRACTICUM Cheryl Dozier and Julie Smit ABSTRACT Purpose – This chapter outlines a six-week graduate level writing practicum that fosters collaboration among teachers. Volume 2.1108/S2048-0458(2013)0000002011 161 . Design – Through the voices of teachers. elementary school writers. the authors describe a newly developed writing practicum where teachers engage in the writing process to build communities of writers and develop partnerships with families.

’’ Instructors in a master’s degree program for literacy specialists routinely heard comments similar to this during the capstone practicum course. . walked upstairs to meet his writing teachers. Daniel’s teachers learned how important this new baby was to him. Laila looks just like you described her in your writing. 95). I just kept faking it. p. graduate students routinely responded they wanted to learn how to confer with children. From the first night of the practicum. They were surprised. Daniel’s mom brought Laila to the practicum site. 2010.’’ When the teachers met Laila. program faculty at the University at Albany created a new writing practicum as part of a larger redesign of our master’s degree programs. we outline the design of this practicum experience. Daniel wanted me to introduce her to his tutors.162 CHERYL DOZIER AND JULIE SMIT Originality/value – This approach to teacher education values communities of writers and family partnerships to build on student writers’ strengths and interests. we sought to create writing experiences that were ‘‘carefully coordinated with coursework and carefully mentored’’ to prepare responsive teachers who ‘‘successfully enact complex teaching practices’’ (Zeichner. and how to support children’s writing development. When asked what they would like to focus on during final course seminars. he could not wait to tell them about the arrival of his new baby sister. Among graduate students. when five days after giving birth. we remained mindful that many graduate students enroll in the writing course early in their master’s program. In this chapter. Laila. ‘‘Daniel. As a result. a second grader. INTRODUCTION ‘‘I never really understood how to teach writing. how to inspire children to write. Throughout the redesign process. they exclaimed. In this newly created practicum. with little teaching experience. writing communities. ‘‘Of course I had to bring her in to visit. hoping my cooperating teachers [during student teaching] didn’t notice. family partnerships As Daniel.’’ That afternoon Daniel shared his writing with his mom and baby Laila. Keywords: Teacher preparation. there was widespread reluctance and nervousness to teach writing.

Routman. We then considered: How do we structure and scaffold these practicum experiences for novice teachers to become responsive writing teachers? With these considerations in mind. and the range of ways graduate students/teachers engaged with families as part of writer’s workshop. 2003. A 90-minute seminar followed the planning and debriefing time. 2000. which met once a week for a full semester (4:15 – 7:05 p.). Half way through the semester. teachers engaged in a 45-minute writer’s workshop with children. Calkins. time for sustained writing. Instructors observed each writing group weekly. 2005). purposeful writing events for children. we seek to understand and optimize the consequences of our practices (Dozier. A 30-minute debriefing and planning session followed the writer’s workshop. Fletcher. For the writer’s workshop. 1994. focused on the theory and practice of teaching writing from birth to grade six. we wanted teachers to transfer practices to their six-credit . we. student. uncertainties that arose. Johnston. Initial course sessions were held at the university. Instructors held conferences with graduate students focusing on the productive interactions during the lesson. Writer’s workshop included a mini-lesson. meaningful. believing if we created engaging. During the seminar.m. Atwell. we drew from experts and practitioners in the field (Anderson. we moved the class to the six-week practicum location in a local elementary school. To design this new practicum. 2010. too. Ultimately. Just as we wanted writing teachers to be clear with their goals and purposes. & Rogers. as teacher educators. In creating these goals. The writing course. and share time. 1998. teachers engaged in and reflected on the following: teaching. and purposeful writing experiences can we organize for children to engage in during a six-night workshop practicum? We put children’s experiences first. we first asked: What kinds of relevant. and family celebrations from each evening’s work. writing conferences. we created two primary goals for the newly designed six-week practicum: to create communities of writers and to partner with families.Building Writing Communities and Partnering with Families 163 DESIGNING THE WRITING PRACTICUM The six-week practicum was embedded in a required master’s level writing course for students enrolled in the university’s literacy specialist and childhood degree master’s programs. Graves. needed to be clear about our goals and purposes for responsive literacy teaching (see Table 1). As part of the practicum. 2006). conversations around research. 1996. Bomer. the teaching experience would be productive and powerful for graduate students. and goals for future teaching. collaborative problem solving of teaching dilemmas.

completed their homework. PLANNING WITH THE SCHOOL DISTRICT We met with the principal and teachers of the school where we held our capstone practicum course to discover if they were interested in extending our current university–school partnership with an additional after-school writing practicum. There were no fees for participating. The small city school. Approximately 73% of students are eligible for free or reduced price meals. five African Americans. The opportunity for extra support for their students excited the principal and teachers. located in upstate New York.164 CHERYL DOZIER AND JULIE SMIT Table 1. or played outside until the small group lessons started. Teacher Goals Student Goals Family Goals  Engage as writers  Meet with  Engage as writers  Experience a range teacher and across a range of of interesting and student after genres  Grow as responsive engaging writing each writing opportunities across session writing teachers  Share insights. Teacher Preparation Goals  Build and engage in communities of writers  Provide supervised practicum experience where teachers engage in responsive literacy teaching with children and families  Support transfer of responsive teaching Parallel Goals for the Writing Practicum. one Latina. Thirty-one first through fifth-grade children. . 1999). We coordinated the practicum with the school district calendar. has 398 pre-K through fifth-grade students. and twenty-five Caucasians participated. We emphasized to parents that the afterschool practicum was an opportunity for students who loved to write and for those who wanted additional writing support. Students stayed after school with a district aide (paid for by the school district) and were given a snack.  Partner with families genres  Share writing with  Transfer responsive feel welcomed families as part of the teaching to other writing contexts community  Engage as writers master’s degree capstone practicum course and to school contexts (Bransford & Schwartz.

wrote a short piece revealing something their colleagues did not know about them. as teacher educators. As teacher educators. 2006). We applied Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development (ZPD) not only to support young learners but novice teachers as well. we wanted our responsiveness to foster responsive teaching (Dozier et al. As part of this writing process. wrote about a school memory that changed them. took to heart the investment of graduate students. elementary students. 2011) just as the teacher’s job was to find the ZPD for writers. Graduate students noticed and named beautiful language in each other’s writing pieces (Bomer. GRADUATE STUDENTS AS WRITERS From the first night of class. 2006.Building Writing Communities and Partnering with Families 165 BUILDING COMMUNITIES OF WRITERS In this new writing practicum.. The collaborative lesson planning created a . graduate students shared their writing pieces with one another. As teacher educators. graduate students brainstormed with partners and small groups. what did not. Dozier & Rutten. children. during. After writing. PREPARING TO WRITE WITH CHILDREN AND FAMILIES Teachers worked collaboratively in groups of three to plan lessons for three to four elementary students. and reflected on their teaching. our graduate students experienced ‘‘families. we invited families to write and to respond to their children’s work. we created this intentional structure to scaffold writing events for graduate students in the same manner we wanted them to scaffold for their young writers. and their families in building writing communities in which all members’ position themselves as meaning makers and inquirers. 1996). Graduate students also reflected on the processes involved – what worked for them as writers. listed their needs as writers before. graduate students wrote in their writer’s notebook (Fletcher. Our job was to find the ZPD for teachers (Warford. we. 269). 2005/2006). As teacher educators. and teachers as makers of collaborative meaning’’ (Kroeger & Lash. Graduate students constructed writing time lines that reflected their writing histories. To build our community of writers. and after writing. 2010). As writers. we all experienced celebrations and frustrations. p. 2011. we wrote side by side in our writer’s notebooks. Through this multilayered approach. and which genres they preferred (Dozier.

Preparing Lessons As teacher educators. and perspective taking with colleagues and course instructors (Samaras. The three-person team structure allowed teachers to rely on each other and draw from each other’s expertise. After the mini-lesson. students returned to share their writing with their small group. During this .. Lesson plans included specific language/prompts for brainstorming. 2006). teachers noticed and named their practices (Dozier et al. Teachers and students wrote side by side. we analyzed instructional language and discussed ways to engage writers. We insisted teachers write side by side with the children so the children could see writers in action. During the mini-lesson. 2000). they conferred with one another and talked about craft features and ways to extend their writing (Anderson. and craft features. we asked. teachers and students gathered their materials and began to write. Lesson Structure During each session.166 CHERYL DOZIER AND JULIE SMIT reason for dialogue. We then gave time in class for teachers to plan and tailor their mini-lesson for their group of young writers. We offered specific prompts to guide teachers. After the lesson. mentor texts. negotiation. the second teacher recorded the teacher’s instructional language and the third teacher recorded children’s responses to the lesson. ‘‘What do you imagine your learners will say when you ask [this question]? How are you focusing on/building on what you know about your writers?’’ This scaffolding led to a further focus on language choices related to learners’ needs. ‘‘What will your opening line be? What will you say next? How will you explain this craft feature?’’ To help teachers imagine the logic of the learners and develop lesson plans from this lens. Children leaned in intently as the teacher shared mentor texts and giggled while they brainstormed. one teacher taught a mini-lesson. Following the sustained writing time and individual writing conferences. we structured writing events each week to carefully scaffold lessons. Through these conversations. As the teachers and children wrote. The teacher introduced the writing with a mentor text and gave children time to brainstorm. We first modeled a mini-lesson with possible mentor texts. 2000).

teachers. colors. as a mentor text. they listened to their young writers. The young writers and teachers photographed and wrote about their best features. fonts. ‘‘I am from family dinners on Friday nights and special foods and plates on holidays.’’ On the third night. and family moments. Children carefully chose photos. created an About the Author page. I am from a family that has green grass in their back yard and takes me to the George Street Park. veterinarians. special places. I am from a house with one dog and thirteen finches. When family members came to pick up their children. and the fireplace that smokes on a summer night. The Best Part of Me. They then rehearsed the writing piece they chose to present to their families.’’ Angelica wrote. karate professionals. Families often added details and shared their insights. Daniel’s photo choice was a view from the top of his head. families joined us to celebrate their writers in the cafeteria (see Table 2). Students wrote of eating ice cream. students wrote a Dedication. During the second session. On the fifth night. On the sixth night. 2005). ‘‘I am from the soft and soothing sound of my backyard.Building Writing Communities and Partnering with Families 167 time. CHILDREN’S WRITING On the first night of the practicum.’’ Eric wrote. To write their poems students drew from their family foods. tutors used Wendy Ewald’s book (2002). doctors. Teachers took several photos so children and their families could choose which one they preferred for their final bound book. Writing and sharing together built writing communities. My eyes are brown. . and animal activists. storm chasers. ‘‘I love my hair because it is my third favorite color. My eyes are beautiful.’’ Students wrote Someday pieces on the fourth night based on Eileen Spinelli’s book Someday (2007) to consider how they would contribute to their communities and the world. rock stars. This writing event helped teachers learn about their students. teachers and students identified specific features of the writing they enjoyed. throwing baseballs. ‘‘The best of part of me is my eyes. ‘‘I am from a baby cousin who is so cute and screams with excitement when she sees me. students wrote What stories do your hands tell? (Graves & Kittle.’’ Manayah chose to include her eyes only in her photograph and wrote. Anthony wrote. family stories. and text layouts for their final bound books. and pinky promises. finger painting. and revised earlier writing pieces. students wrote Where I’m From poems using George Ella Lyon’s poem (2001) as a mentor text. digging for worms. Students wrote about their plans to become police officers.

tutor. (examples of children’s The Best Part of Me writing.com Downloaded materials from Internet Scaffolds for writers (i. photo essay 3 Where I Am From by George Ella Lyon To celebrate families and family traditions To encourage families to write and extend student’s writing through conversations Child. Six-Week Writing Practicum. family foods) Copy of mentor text Someday by Eileen Spinelli Scaffolds for writers (now/In the Future template) To envision possibilities for future: How will I contribute to the world? Child.168 Table 2. tutor. family. family . family sayings.. family names. tutor. Purpose To come to know writer’s interests. other students Child. interactive photo essays) www. and family Audience Night Writing Event Materials/Mentor Texts 1 These are the Hands by Donald Graves and Penny Kittle 2 The Best Part of Me by Wendy Ewald. traditions. extended family members CHERYL DOZIER AND JULIE SMIT 4 Someday by Eileen Spinelli Resource notes for These are the Hands Paper Writing materials Copy of mentor text.e. The Best Part of Me Cameras Photo paper Writing materials Internet resources. generate possible writing topics. items from home. tutor. family. build relationships with writers To celebrate and write about each learner’s unique qualities To select a photograph that represents ‘‘the best part of me’’ Child.georgeellalyon.

Tutors sit with families and children and share their final bound books with family members. About the Author pages suited their bound books extended family to learners’ interests). the presentation generally lasts 1 hour. For 30 children. everyone shares food brought in by the tutors. Camera-photograph children and their tutors families Family Presentation Night: Each child chooses one piece of writing to share during the celebration. Tutors introduce each child. teachers. After the presentations. Students rehearse during Week 5 and right before the presentation (with a microphone). principals.5 Dedication Page About the Author Page Building Writing Communities and Partnering with Families 6 Mentor texts (texts with examples To create a Dedication and Classmates. members. of dedication pages and About the Author Page for family members. 169 .

Sasha wrote. They have a lot of great input and were able to give us insight into our student’s lives. writing in class ‘‘rekindled my love of writing and words. [He writes more when he] connects his writing to families and his favorite things. and celebrated each other’s writing. ‘‘As a reader.’’ Similarly. Jessie noted. ‘‘The child has to see relevance. learned from one another. Diana wrote about the importance of partnering with . Beth echoed the comments of many. In doing so. ‘‘It was great to learn so much from the families. I can tell how much you love your grandmother. teachers became more responsive to students and their families. Jane noted the importance of the time spent engaging with families to build community. ‘‘Certain prompts are more effective than others. Prompts help generate ideas. ‘‘When we talk about seeing the beauty and brilliance in our students’ writing.’’ Kristine noted that teaching elementary students allowed her to grow as a writer and a writing teacher. influenced future teaching. I used the child’s writing as a lead into the conversation [with her mother]ybecause it enabled the conversation to get more in depth as the weeks went on. ‘‘I now feel confident to use thoughtful and motivating language and recognize the doors that open with one tweak of a word.’’ Laurie ‘‘remembered my love for writing and rediscovered the writer in me. ‘‘I have come to understand that writers are going to have good days and bad days and to honor this. They also noticed writers engaged more willingly when prompts were specific.’’ Teachers found that naming their students as writers (Johnston. For Elizabeth. Maria commented.’’ Teachers noticed that children engaged more intensively when they were interested or saw relevance in their writing. they noted the importance of their language choices. in turn.’’ While students shared their nervousness on the first night of class that they would be writing each evening and then writing side by side with children. as well as more detail. they listened carefully. ‘‘I am part of a writing community. in the end. he writes a lot more. I have a new level of understanding and confidence.’’ This.’’ When teachers and students wrote together. In her final reflective essay.’’ As graduate students reflected on their teaching. When he’s interested and feels his writing has meaning and purpose. In writing with her young students.’’ In her reflection. Chelsea learned. Mike wrote. 2004) was especially helpful.170 CHERYL DOZIER AND JULIE SMIT GRADUATE STUDENTS REFLECT ON BUILDING COMMUNITIES OF WRITERS Graduate students found that writing in class each night changed them as writers and as teachers. I begin to see it in my own.

’’ ‘‘writing about what I want to be and meeting new people. ‘‘I loved sharing my life and writing about it’’ and ‘‘Working with friends.’’ Another highlighted the child’s increased ‘‘creativity and willingness to expand. One family noted the ‘‘confidence he gained and self expression.’’ Growing as Writers Family members identified a range of ways their children grew within the writing communities.’’ Students also appreciated the one-on-one attention of the writing conferences. 96% of the families found the experience valuable.’’ Another commented.’’ Tina commented on the impact collaboration had on families. One family said they discussed everything over dinner afterwards. ‘‘The families shared how much they enjoyed hearing about their students work afterwards. ‘‘My child is able to read and write very well. They also mentioned that they appreciated the fact that we asked for their additional input. One student. ‘‘I don’t do this much work in school because she [teacher] doesn’t ask me what I want to be when I grow up. ‘‘writing stories. while 91% of the children found the experience valuable.’’ and ‘‘writing my own book. Another family mentioned their child is excited every Tuesday morning to come to school so she can write with us afterwards. ‘‘The families shared that they really appreciated the fact that we shared their children’s work with them after each workshop session. He has had a great improvement. dedicated his book to ‘‘The best tutors in the world.’’ CHILDREN AND FAMILIES SHARE THEIR IMPRESSIONS After the final presentation.’’ Several families said .’’ Brandon noted the difference in the writing he engaged in as part of the practicum. Several highlighted ‘‘the tutors’’ as their favorite aspect of the experience. as well as their child’s experiences with the writer’s workshop practicum. Pete. several students talked about the collaborative aspects of the practicum.Building Writing Communities and Partnering with Families 171 families.’’ When asked what they enjoyed most about the writing practicum. I am going to ask her to do this because this was fun. Families rated their own experience.’’ One family mentioned their child ‘‘learned how to express his ideas in writing. In the survey responses. Elementary students said they enjoyed. families participated in a family survey.

2012. Families listened and often added ideas for the writing pieces. 270). hobbies. Jethro.’’ PARTNERING WITH FAMILIES Family involvement supports children’s engagement and achievement in educational settings (Daniel. McIntyre. 2012. In this way. teachers and parents become a team with the common goal of supporting students’ achievement and helping them feel known and valued.. sharing that her daughter was often tentative in school. 2002. This led to learning more from families as they shared children’s interests. teachers and children shared the students’ writing from that evening. We did not want teachers to orient conversations around discipline matters. & Moore. Teachers . We emphasized positive communication and learning from families. Miller. p. Elish-Piper et al. ‘‘She really enjoyed the help she was given with putting her thoughts to words.172 CHERYL DOZIER AND JULIE SMIT their children now ‘‘wrote more’’ at home and in school. and traditions. 23) As teacher educators.’’ Another mom. 2011). Communicating While partnering with families was our goal as teacher educators. & Aina. we wanted graduate students to view parents as having ‘‘knowledge and power with experiences and perspectives to offer rather than [as] an individual to be coached or changed’’ (Kroeger & Lash. Establishing positive communication between the school and the home provides an important foundation for sharing knowledge and insights about individual students. Our emphasis on positive communication and careful representations fostered trust with families. we also asked teachers to be mindful of how they represented learners during their interactions with families. One dad remarked that the practicum ‘‘challenged my son to use his mind. 2011. this was a tentative space for teachers initially. In this newly designed writing practicum. We instructed teachers to only share positives from the writing sessions when they met with families. Grace. Teachers communicated with families each evening when family members picked up the children. noted. (Kyle. Hornby & Lafaele. p. 2011. To start the conversations. Teachers worried they would not know what to say to families or families would react to them negatively.

Using these three points. Several had experienced difficult exchanges with families during their student teaching placements and were especially uncomfortable. we spent more time focusing on how to represent learners and move beyond judging them. teachers included Jaquan’s interest in Power Rangers.’’ . Given our intensive focus on how we represent learners. We asked teachers to include three points to introduce their students. and intentionality of language choices. teachers named the writing piece each child would read that evening. He’s so intelligent. Representing Learners When teachers planned lessons and interacted with families. had talked with families each evening. we were surprised and disappointed when teachers wrote initial introductions of the children for family presentation night. The families are extremely interested in what their students can do and want to hear the best. ‘‘She’s sweet. Teachers had worked with the writers for several sessions. ‘‘I learned that engaging with families isn’t as scary as I thought it was. and had numerous writing samples in front of them. initial introductions were general and tended to be judgmental. Brandon’s love of snakes. Graduate Students Reflect on Partnering with Families In their reflective writing and during class seminars. At the end of the six weeks.Building Writing Communities and Partnering with Families 173 incorporated these insights into future lessons. Maria’s love of descriptive words. we asked them to consider how they were representing learners and to consider whether their representations invited trust or pushed families away. Emily’s fascination with Justin Bieber. Second. She’s nice. When we learned this. First. teachers identified student interests. we asked teachers to focus on thoughtfulness. graduate students articulated how uncomfortable they were to engage with families initially. and their children as writers. and Brian’s intriguing leads. In doing so. their children’s interests. Ariana shared. She’s shy. We expected their introductions would be specific and focused on the children as writers. These new introductions assured families we knew their children. He’s a talker. teachers specifically named a feature students used as writers. However.’’ Our intensive work noticing and naming had not transferred. teachers built trust with families. specificity. Third. Kayla’s attention to details. For all interactions.

Jessica commented. We need to make these bridges with parents – it will benefit our teaching and influence our lessons and interactions with the child. I like that we make a face-to-face connection with parents – it’s a lot different than just a letter home or a phone call. This. They both told me they appreciated the fact that we cared enough to follow through with such detail. they had to rush to sports practices or rush home to make dinner.’’ Family Impressions At the conclusion of each session when the teachers walked down with the children to the school entrance. Elisa captured the perspectives of her colleagues regarding the importance of partnering with families. ‘‘Ethan’s mother and Pete’s father thanked me specifically for double-checking on how to correctly spell family members names for the dedication pages in the final bound books. I also like that we accepted all family members – grandparents. given our insistence that they communicate with families. we included them and welcomed them into their child’s school life. teachers invited children to read their . Other family members listened to the teachers. ‘‘It is our responsibility to listen and learn from families. too. etc. This was unnerving for some of the teachers. and how honored families were to participate in the program. ‘‘It is just as important to reach out to families that are quiet because they need to know that we care. teachers came to realize how much trust families placed in them. stepparents. how much the families wanted to talk about their children.’’ As Lisa noted. we helped teachers find ways families preferred to communicate (i. Marta saw the impact of her specific celebrations with families. I think it is important to reach out to all children’s support systems. ‘‘We need to connect with families and be accessible. was daunting for some teachers.’’ Over the course of the practicum experience.174 CHERYL DOZIER AND JULIE SMIT When some families came to pick up their children. Rather than blame families for their busy lives.’’ Graduate students came to see the importance of careful representation of learners.e. yet were quiet.. I think because we made ourselves available to interact with them after each session. ‘‘Families LOVE to hear the positive and strong points about their child. I think parents want to know that we care and it is part of our job to show them that we do. emails and phone calls). I have come a long way to reach out to families that are not so comfortable talking with me. It really makes all the difference!’’ Laura commented on how attention to detail mattered for families.

’’ Our emphasis in the course on transfer promoted internalization and deeper integration of learning experiences into future professional identities (Samaras. 2000. I have learned not to be as shy and to speak up because some families may feel intimidated. conferring one on one with students. ‘‘I will walk out with students and talk to parents as they pick their children up. Melissa’s mom noted.’’ Families valued our efforts to communicate with them. Warford.’’ Nell reflected.’’ When asked for recommendations. 2011). hugs. family members often smiled.’’ TRANSFER We wanted teachers to imagine possibilities for creating writing communities and partnering with families. As a long-term substitute teacher. gave positive feedback. As families listened to their children’s writing pieces. and input for future writing. and excitement. ‘‘I enjoyed that the teachers were very nice and went out of their way to meet me.’’ One mom remarked that each week. . and providing more time to write. 2005/2006). ‘‘Keep on doing them [writing sessions]. with 31 children and teachers clustered around their family members. Each night we asked specifically what would transfer from their coursework and practicum experience to current or future educational contexts (Dozier & Rutten. One mom said. one family commented. Mark shared instructional practices he tried in his sixth-grade classroom including offering choice for writers. She created a PowerPoint of children’s writing based on Eileen Spinelli’s Someday (2007) for a family presentation night at the end of the year. ‘‘This practicum experience has helped me to think about engaging with families in a more powerful way. You and this workshop are creating blossoming writers. and suggested new ideas. Karina incorporated several mentor texts and lessons into her classroom.Building Writing Communities and Partnering with Families 175 writing to their families. At the celebration. The focus on sharing and celebrations transferred for Stacy who noted. Graduate students currently in school settings shared several ways they transferred their understandings from the course. Claire wrote. This process. facilitated conversations. ‘‘She [her daughter] came home excited to share what she did in class. sharing.’’ Teachers who did not yet have classrooms envisioned possibilities to partner with families. ‘‘Special moments or awesome triumphs should be shared. Family presentation night was filled with ‘‘Thank yous’’. ‘‘I enjoyed her [daughter’s] excitement each week when showing me what they had worked on.

we identified several challenges we navigated to meet the needs of all participants. 2005).. we guided teachers to see interesting language and the beauty in the children’s writing. some teachers became frustrated and had a hard time seeing anything positive in the student’s writing. For some elementary students. took too long to become engaged. In this way. consistent attendance was an issue. even if the interaction was difficult. we recruited additional elementary students to ensure that each group had multiple participants. When new children joined the already established small groups.e. they initially found it difficult to receive writing . We started by asking about audience and purpose. They constantly asked. to children. As teacher educators. finished quickly. We emphasized that during practicum they needed to focus primarily on the learners they were teaching. ‘‘How did I do?’’ and focused exclusively on their grades. to families. and to after-school program coordinators. When students in one group wanted to write on topics the teachers found unacceptable. we intervened and joined lessons or writing conferences. to administrators. we provided models for responsive teaching.176 CHERYL DOZIER AND JULIE SMIT CONSIDERATIONS FOR TEACHER EDUCATORS The time intensive nature of practicum experiences in a teacher preparation program cannot be ignored. After this inaugural practicum course. 2000. Therefore. to their teaching. we helped graduate students see their dual roles – graduate student and teacher – dual roles they would once again experience in the capstone practicum course. Routman. teachers had to be flexible and quickly learn about the new students. we needed to intervene as well. When teachers experienced difficult teaching moments during the practicum experience. Some teachers handled these changes with more ease than others. In this way. Some graduate students found it overwhelming and unnerving to be observed each week. we joined the session and modeled ways they could adapt and readjust their plans to welcome new members. When this happened. and did not want to revise). While graduate students read extensively about conferring (Anderson. to school contexts (whose room can you tutor in? whose room is off limits?). we responded to graduate students’ written work. For those who found inviting new children into the tutorial difficult. ‘‘Who are you writing this piece for? How will your [mom] feel when she reads this? Do you think your baby brother will understand your writing?’’ In situations when students did not ‘‘do’’ what the teachers wanted (i. did not participate in brainstorming.

we ensured that everyone engaged in writing events. grandpas.Building Writing Communities and Partnering with Families 177 pieces and then talk with writers in honest. Therefore. In this way. ‘‘Writing matters. To fulfill our goal to partner with and gain the trust of families. the cafeteria filled with the happy conversations of grandmas. cousins. The relationships formed around writing matter – to us. genuine. After the final applause. and continuing to research our partnerships with families.’’ We agree. and purposeful ways. Structures in this new practicum provided numerous opportunities for teachers to teach responsively. 2010). ‘‘Read what you’ve written and I’ll read what I’ve written. engaging. CONCLUDING THOUGHTS In the redesign of our master’s literacy programs. As we further refine the course. we guided graduate students to ‘‘develop a vision of what it means to be a professional’’ (Bransford. As families streamed into the cafeteria for our inaugural writing workshop family presentation night. To fulfill our goal to build communities of writers. 2005. we asked teachers to look through writing pieces and rehearse possible language for conferences with one another. Given that our graduate students had little teaching experience we carefully supervised and structured our practicum to support authentic. Instructors noticed our graduate students had more confidence during writing events and when they engaged with families. Berliner. we responded to graduate students expressed need for improving their teaching of writing by developing a writing practicum. p. Families clapped. in future seminars. to the students. conferences remained harder. Initial conferences involved more sharing. Derry. apprenticing new instructors. we ensured that teachers communicated with families and represented learners in positive and productive ways. This rehearsal space gave teachers additional practice and helped teachers become more fluent as they conferred with young writers. and laughed as each child read a writing selection. While most tutors could analyze writing pieces and find the hidden gems in the writing (Bomer. As teachers and families ate together. and intentional teaching and learning. we will focus on adding additional schools. Finding ways to help teachers gain confidence and competence as they confer remains a work in progress for us. and neighbors. we were delighted when instructors shared that our graduate students transferred understandings from the writing practicum to their capstone practicum course. the . purposeful. As Sarah said. we all moved to two large tables filled with food to celebrate the children’s work.’’ Therefore. cheered. 76). to their families. & Hammerness.

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Nari Carter and JoAnn Munk ABSTRACT Purpose – To share a model of preparing special educators to teach reading to students with mild-to-moderate disabilities. 181–196 Copyright r 2013 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited All rights of reproduction in any form reserved ISSN: 2048-0458/doi:10. Design/methodology/approach – The authors describe a specific model for preparing special educators to teach reading. Volume 2. Practical implications – Other institutions of higher education may gain insight on how a similar preservice teacher preparation program could be developed and implemented at their institution.PREPARING SPECIAL EDUCATORS TO TEACH READING: A PRE-STUDENT TEACHING PRACTICUM Mary Anne Prater.1108/S2048-0458(2013)0000002012 181 . Advanced Literacy Practices: From the Clinic to the Classroom Literacy Research. Findings – Data are provided regarding the effectiveness of this model of special education teacher preparation based on performance of students with disabilities who participated in the program. Research limitations/implications – This research was done as a program evaluation and may have validity and generalizability limitations. Practice and Evaluation.

Even larger percentages of students with disabilities have difficulty in this area. reading Martha. In 2011. Individuals choose to become special educators for a variety of reasons. and a large percentage of these students have difficulty with reading. has autism. & Baker. Sammy. 2011). Improving reading outcomes among students. in 2011. Suzanne.182 MARY ANNE PRATER ET AL.and eighth-grade students with disabilities’ scored statistically significantly lower on the National Reading Assessment than students who were classified as not having disabilities (NCES. also have pronounced problems in reading (McDaniel. students with other disabilities. He was a peer-tutor in high school. and particularly those with disabilities. requires teacher preparation in scientifically based reading research (Smart & Reschly. Suzanne and her family saw Sammy grow as he learned skills at school that he practiced at home. has chosen to be a special educator because she struggled to learn to read as a child. Given that students with learning disabilities are identified as such because of their difficulties academically. 2007). knows he has a knack for working with special needs students. Duchaine. fourth. Ivan. Williams. 2001). 2010). A third teacher candidate. An exceptional teacher recognized her difficulties and got Martha the help she needed. special education. Martha always wanted to give back by becoming a teacher who helped other children. Her younger brother. Fuchs. teacher preparation. 33% of all students in grades four and 24% in grade eight. & Joviette. a teacher-in-training attending the local university. was also motivated to become a special educator because of previous experience. Suzanne wanted to have this influence on others in similar circumstances by becoming a special educator. The overarching motivation is to help children and adolescents who struggle to learn. it is not surprising that 80% of students with learning disabilities struggle with reading (Gersten. A considerable amount of research . however. scored below the basic level in reading (NCES. also a teacher candidate who is preparing to become a special educator. tutoring students with intellectual disabilities who needed extra one-on-one practice with their reading and writing skills. According to the National Center for Educational Statistics. Originality/value – The school/university partnership described is extremely unique and effective in preparing future special educators to teach reading to students with disabilities. Keywords: Students with disabilities. 2011). He loved the experience and decided to make it his career. such as behavior disorders.

sound-letter correspondence. systematic method for teaching academic skills that focuses on critical content and sequences skills in a logical order.Preparing Special Educators to Teach Reading 183 indicates that explicit. Reading Mastery was more effective than other curriculum. Marchand-Martella... regardless of the children’s ethnic background. 2001.. & Ciullo. Explicit instruction is a structured. Preparing special education teachers to use research-validated approaches to improve reading outcomes for students with disabilities requires a focus on elements of effective reading instruction. decoding. 2010). Jitendra et al. 2012). and distributed and cumulative practice (Archer & Hughes. or grade. & Murphy. 2001. Gunn. special education teachers need to acquire content-specific knowledge (e.g. Sindelar. review of prerequisite skills. Reading Mastery has been studied extensively. and Ary (2000) explored the impact of this curriculum as supplemental instruction for low readers in the early elementary grades. which is designed to teach phonological awareness. Several published curriculum feature explicit instruction. Wexler. 2002). gender. as well as higher level reading skills (e. 2004. 2001. including Reading Mastery (Englemann & Bruner. Gersten. knowledge of reading skills and processes) (Salinger. explicit instruction to address the specific problems that students with disabilities experience learning to read . 2004). 2000. Explicit lessons include clear statements of lesson objectives. Like general educators. 2008). and preparation for addressing students’ with disabilities instructional needs... 2001.. affirmative and corrective feedback. Vaughn. and obtain skills necessary for applying knowledge in classroom settings (Leko. Wanzek. Vaughn. special education teachers must also be prepared to apply discipline-specific knowledge while teaching reading.g. As one example. & WaldronSoler. Biglan. Smolkowski. struggling readers (Foorman & Torgeson. Martella. Brownell. Torgeson et al. Vaughn & Linan-Thompson. Simonsen.g. Gersten et al. 2000. step-by-step demonstrations of new skills. That is. They found that the students’ reading skills improved as compared to those who did not receive such instruction. Other reading programs were favored in three investigations (14%) with no statistically significant difference discovered in four studies (19%) (Schieffer. & Chard. Swanson. 2011. phonemic awareness and phonics). improves reading achievement among students with disabilities and at-risk. fluency and comprehension). A meta-analysis examining the effectiveness of earlier versions of the curriculum found that in 14 of the 21 studies (67%). However. guided and supported practice. 2010). systematic instruction in foundational skills (e. and fluency. they must apply knowledge of evidence-based intervention strategies such as intense. high rates of student response.

2005). 2004). For example. The two parties worked collaboratively to construct a controlled and rich (a) mentoring environment in which licensed teachers were unencumbered with noninstructional duties (to the degree possible) so they could shape teacher candidates’ teaching skills. however. Brownell.. content knowledge. High-quality teacher preparation programs blend theory with disciplinespecific knowledge. uncontrolled aspects of a typical school day (e. Sindelar. 2007. take place in already existing classrooms.g. whereas. Special educators. When candidates enter schools to practice teaching. Colon. Special education faculty at Brigham Young University (BYU) and the local school district administers desired to create a pre-student teaching practicum experience that fulfilled the needs of teacher candidates. The best time of year for providing this experience was during the summer months. they are provided an opportunity to learn in a ‘‘real-world’’ setting. and students with disabilities. the university and school district may sign legal documents supporting the student teaching experience. In a review of school/university special education partnerships across the country. the trend was to enter into formal partnerships when dealing with student teaching and much less formal procedures for pre-student teaching practicum. (Brownell. Prater and Sileo (2002) discovered that although the collaborative nature of partnerships varied. and practice by integrating supervised field experiences with coursework (Boe & Shin. need a well-integrated knowledge base that spans content-area knowledge and disciplinary preparation. but at the same time. interruptions and other teacher responsibilities) interfere with the candidate’s opportunity to solely practice teaching. 2010). Research has shown that well-designed coursework coupled with structured practicum experiences enables teacher candidates to increase content knowledge regarding how to teach reading. & McCallum. Teacher candidates in both the severe and the mild-to-moderate disabilities . Kiely. Ross. mentor teachers. as well as their ability to promote student reading achievement (SpeakSwerling.184 MARY ANNE PRATER ET AL. Arguably the best way for teacher candidates to prepare for the profession is to practice teaching in an environment that is designed to meet both the needs of the candidate and the needs of the students. (b) teaching environment providing candidates the opportunity to maximize their time practice teaching. 2009. & Danielson. therefore. pre-student practicum more likely involve university faculty contacting individual teachers to make such arrangements. Both experiences. and (c) learning environment for students with disabilities who need additional academic support. Spear-Swerling & Brucker.

.Preparing Special Educators to Teach Reading 185 preparation programs participate. District students attend for three hours a day. The school districts identify students for participation. math. . READING PRACTICUM EXPERIENCE The summer practicum collaboration between the school districts and the BYU special education program has existed for decades. The practicum lasts six weeks and is held five days a week. although in this chapter we focus only on the mild-to-moderate preparation. and social skill instruction. the districts send invitations to the students’ parents well in advance of the school year ending. Over time the demand for the summer program has increased and currently the districts keep waiting lists. But in 1999 the summer program was restructured to provide teacher candidates the opportunity to explicitly teach reading. Family members take responsibility for driving the children to and from school each day. July 4th). Using guidelines agreed to by both parties. (c) be recommended by their special education teacher.e. School District Responsibilities Given the collaborative nature of the summer practicum. except for holidays (i. writing. (b) be between grades 1 and 5. The district believes that the small financial requirement ensures that the parents are serious about their child’s enrollment. Students who are invited to participate must (a) have an individualized education program (IEP) which guarantees that he or she has an identified disability. Although participating students attend many different schools throughout the district during the school year. The last criterion was included to ensure that the teacher candidates would have sufficient opportunities to teach reading and not be encumbered with dealing with major behavior problems. pizza and other ‘‘treats’’ provided to students throughout the practicum. with the teacher candidates in attendance four and one-half hours each day. the summer program is held in only one elementary school in each of the districts. The districts require parents pay a nominal fee ($10 per child) that is spent on ice cream. both the school districts and the BYU faculty share responsibility for carrying out the necessary steps. This is not a special education extended school year (ESY) requirement for students so the schools are not responsible for providing transportation. and (d) have no major behavior difficulties.

while the university or the teacher candidates pay for supplies consumed by the teacher candidates (e. and for handling any student problems typical of their responsibilities during the school year. The school districts also take responsibility for communicating to parents when and where the accepted students will be assessed prior to enrolling in the summer program. training materials).. University faculty organizes this event. as well as to practice what is considered exemplary practice in special education instruction. one afternoon/evening is designated for each district.g. Teacher candidates complete 37 credit hours of coursework that is directly related to the summer practicum prior to the summer term. Prior to implementation of the summer practicum. Curriculum materials (e. six credits of that are literacy courses and two credits of summer practicum preparation (see Tables 1 and 2). . This may include district and/or building-level administrators. Unfortunately. 2002) is administered in order to determine the students’ current levels for grouping. A Utah State Office of Education grant has provided the financial resources to pay the mentor teachers for this summer work.. teacher candidates assess the district students for grouping purposes. paper and pencils). the district pays for all supplies used by the district students (e. The teacher candidates assess each student in reading and math skills. University Responsibilities One of the major responsibilities of the BYU faculty is to ensure that the teacher candidates are prepared for the summer practicum experience. Except for the curriculum materials. The districts also take responsibility for hiring administrative staff to be on-site during the course of the summer practicum. two site coordinators (one for each school).186 MARY ANNE PRATER ET AL. They are responsible for the physical building. Typically. the number of district students served is constrained by the number of teacher candidates enrolled in the university’s program. and a university supervisor who assists with teacher candidate evaluation. for providing needed supplies. For reading. teacher manuals and student books) are provided by the university to ensure continuity across the districts and consistency with what has been taught in the reading courses. The university also identifies and trains eight or nine special education licensed teachers who supervise and mentor the teacher candidates.. The BYU special education program provides one faculty member to oversee the practicum.g. the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) Benchmark and Program Monitoring Materials (Good & Kaminski.g.

BYU faculty review content that candidates have been taught. . During training. Faculty and mentor teachers also review the results of the previous year’s teacher candidate and parent survey results and discuss how to respond to any programmatic concerns. and so forth. and the foundation skills for reading and writing. namely Reading Mastery. Prepares teacher candidates to teach beginning and remedial reading by using explicit instructional methods. language and learning. roles and responsibilities of all personnel. language and thought. classroom management techniques. any procedural changes since last year.Preparing Special Educators to Teach Reading 187 Table 1. Number 425 Coursework That Directly Supports the Reading Portion of Summer Practicum. Much less training is now possible due to the mentor teachers’ previous summer practicum experience either as a mentor teacher or as a teacher candidate. language and culture. and assessment procedures. 430 Teaching Reading 452 Effective Teaching Strategies 466 Summer Practicum Preparation a Other supporting coursework for the summer practicum includes: 403: Introduction to Special Education 410: Applied Behavior Analysis 420: Assessment 440: Secondary Curriculum 442: Behavioral Strategies 460: Collaboration 462: Teaching Math 480: Multicultural Issues 397/487: Integrating Technology Before the practicum commences. Focuses on designing and implementing teaching strategies and instructional planning to meet the educational needs of students with mild-to-moderate disabilities. Also addresses formative evaluation procedures. The training helps ensure continuity between coursework and the summer practicum experience and consistency across sites and classrooms. Abbreviated Name Foundations in Language Arts Description Provides a comprehensive overview of oral language development. such as DIBELS. This has been pared down from the original 30 hours offered in 1999. language disorders. mentor teachers participate in six hours of training over the course of two or three days. Introduces the requirements for the summer practicum by reviewing effective teaching strategies. listening comprehension.

Note: Semesters = 16 weeks. . Terms = 8 weeks. Year Fall Semester Sophomore Junior 410: Applied Behavior Analysis (3) 420: Assessment (3) 452: Effective Teaching Strategies (3) 460: Collaboration (3) 397: Integrating Technology (1) 446: Secondary Practicum (1) 480: Multicultural Issues (3) 497: Integrating Technology (1) 466: Summer Practicum (6) 470: Legal Issues (3) Senior 486: Student Teaching (12) 490: Capstone Seminar (1) OR 496: Internship (6) 496: Internship (6) 490: Capstone Seminar (1) MARY ANNE PRATER ET AL.188 Table 2. Winter Semester 403: Introduction to Special Education (3) 425: Foundations in Language Arts (3) 430: Teaching Reading (3) 440: Secondary Curriculum (2) 442: Behavioral Strategies (3) 466: Summer Practicum Preparation (2) 462: Teaching Math (3) Spring Term Summer Term All Courses and Practicum Completed by Special Education Teacher Candidates. Credit hours are in parentheses.

In recent years. For example. teacher candidates complete 37 semester credit hours of coursework in special education across three semesters and one term (which is equivalent to one-half semester). and comprehension). Art/music/physical education is also held in larger groups with the candidates rotating instructional responsibility. writing 35 minutes. fluency. and assigned to each classroom are one mentor teacher. The teacher candidates are responsible for their small group of students’ instruction with the exception of social skills and art/ music/physical education. Also in each school is one site coordinator and one or more district representatives (see Fig. Teacher candidates demonstrate their ability to teach these reading skills. as well as the foundation skills for reading and writing. social skills 15 minutes. Social skill instruction takes place in larger groups allowing one or two of the other teacher candidates in the same classroom to engage in DIBELS progress monitoring assessments with individual students. Those not teaching provide instructional support to those who are.Preparing Special Educators to Teach Reading 189 Teacher Candidates’ Preparation Before enrolling in the summer practicum. spelling/penmanship alternating days 10 minutes. as well as writing skills. and the use of progress monitoring data to make instructional decisions (see Table 1). math 45 minutes.. phonics. and art/music/physical education rotations 25 minutes each day. Curriculum. 1). Structure. Two three-credit courses devoted to literacy instruction are required.e. Although only one of the 37 credits is an actual practicum experience (in a secondary school). The second course focuses on teacher candidates learning explicit methods for teaching basic reading skills (i. the introduction to special education course requires teacher candidates work with students with disabilities in preselected schools for a minimum of 12 hours during the semester. . phonemic awareness. On a typical day. and Assessment at the Practicum Sites Each practicum site uses four classrooms. almost all of the courses require some type of fieldwork usually in the form of course assignments. The first course provides an overview of language development and disorders. Teacher candidates are introduced to DIBELS in the first course. students are instructed in reading for 45 minutes. and 15–24 students with mild-to-moderate disabilities. the number of teacher candidates has equaled 24–26. Each teacher candidate is responsible for teaching one-third of the students (5–8 students). three teacher candidates. vocabulary.

When the mentor teacher believes . candidates collect weekly progress monitoring data on each student using DIBELS progress monitoring materials.5 Mentor Teachers 12 . Although this is a scripted curriculum. They are also required to collect data daily on each student’s performance on achieving the lesson objective. University Department Chair Special Education Program Coordinator Summer Practicum Coordinator School District Representative(s) Site Coordinator University Supervisor Site Coordinator School District Representative(s) 4 . each mentor teacher is responsible for modeling instruction and shaping their three teacher candidates’ teaching. the summer practicum personnel selected the Reading Mastery curriculum.13 Teacher Candidates 60 . primarily because it adheres to the explicit instruction model needed by students with disabilities.13 Teacher Candidates 12 . 1. OUTCOMES Teacher Candidates Outcomes Although the teacher candidates teach from the very first day of practicum. candidates are responsible for writing daily lesson rationales and objectives that they submit to their mentor teachers.5 Mentor Teachers 4 .90 Students Fig.90 Students 60 . Summer Practicum Organizational Chart. In addition.190 MARY ANNE PRATER ET AL. For reading instruction.

Not every element is appropriate for each grade level. Each of the 20 items is evaluated on a scale from one to three. (c) lesson elements (e. Approximately 300 teacher candidates have participated in summer practicum since 1999 and over 97% have passed at the mastery level. adapted from Project Targeting Instructional Effectiveness in Reading project in Washington State (copies are available from the authors). these scores provided a general idea of . Only 2 of the total 26 were male and 4 were nonwhite.Preparing Special Educators to Teach Reading 191 the candidate is close to reaching mastery of 80% as measured by the observation form. specific immediate. The observation form used is the Language Arts Rating Scale. university supervisor.g. teacher candidates represented both postbaccalaureate students who were completing licensure in special education without obtaining a degree (n=9) and undergraduate students (n= 17)..g.. This scale was selected given the connection to the Reading Mastery curriculum. When students were assessed before practicum for grouping purposes. the candidate is formally observed by the site coordinator.g. materials are organized and distributed and managed well throughout the lesson).. The scale lists 20 different observation factors broken into five elements: (a) lesson preparation (e. One of those improvements has been consistency in the collection of student outcome data. (d) corrections (e. Students with Disabilities Outcomes The BYU summer practicum. During the 2011 summer practicum. (b) overall lesson delivery (e.g. proper correction procedures and accurate modeling occur before moving forward in lesson). or summer practicum coordinator. They must reach mastery in each content area and are given a total opportunity of six observations across the three areas to do so. When the Reading Mastery curriculum was adopted. has improved over time. positive academic feedback is dispersed throughout the lesson). vocabulary procedures are implemented accurately).g. Candidates are also formally assessed teaching writing and math.. Thus. the 80% mastery level is determined by the candidates’ performance score divided by the total number of points possible. the placement tests were used as pre-post measures of the effectiveness of the six-week experience. like most teacher preparation programs. collect and record appropriate data on student mastery of instructional objective). and (e) progress and assessment (e.. All but one completed the practicum at the mastery level (96%). The student who did not pass successfully repeated the practicum the following year.

1 Words Correct per Minute Fig. only the fluency portion of the placement test was administered. The ANOVA test indicated a significant difference (F[3.0001) in students’ pre.24. At the beginning of the practicum. The difference was significant when accounting for factors such as teacher candidates and the students. at the end of the summer practicum students averaged 119 correct words per minute. 2.192 MARY ANNE PRATER ET AL. students’ reading fluency improved by 60. to assign the appropriate reading level and curriculum to each student.and posttest scores. p-value o . They seemed to particularly like the oral comprehension . To simplify the data collection procedures. Although systematic data have not been collected on student satisfaction. Students had completed first through fifth grades. the students were again assessed using the Reading Mastery placement test. to provide pretest data. The placement test was then administered the last day of the practicum that provided the posttest data. Average Reading Fluency Score 140 119 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Pre-test Post-test 58. Summer Practicum Pre. and second. six weeks later. on the first day of practicum.56. This served two functions: first.and posttest scores are presented in Fig. 2. 145 students with disabilities were enrolled in the summer practicum. anecdotal comments indicate they generally enjoyed working with the teacher candidates and having a place to go during the summer to associate with other children. their skills and level. The results of the pre.1] = 1.9 correct words per minutes.and Posttest Reading Scores 2011.1 correct words per minute. On average. Then. During 2011. students read on average 58.

For example. . When I ask my son what he has done I typically get very short answers so for me weekly or biweekly communication with the teacher would be nice so that I can help reinforce what he is learning at home. level of reading and what math so I could continue at home. The other concern raised was lack of communication between the teacher candidates and the parents. the major concern being transportation. I think this is a wonderful program that I wish was available to more students. Wish next time it will be closer. This program has been amazing for my child. She speaks adoringly of them! Both my child and I will be sorry to see it end. Based on this feedback. I do wish there was more communication home so I would know what she was working on i. I had several friends who said they wished their child could have attended. Not only has she been able to maintain skills through the summer. A few parents also indicated concerns. The teachers created strong connections with my child in a short period of time. Representative positive comments follow: My daughter has benefited so much from this program. a communication system with the parents has been developed for future implementation. I have seen her improve this summer compared to last year when she declined so much it took all year to recover. but she has made exciting progress as well. Parent Satisfaction Outcomes Parents were surveyed regarding their satisfaction with the program. The school districts cover a large suburban area and parents sometimes felt frustrated with having to transport their children daily. I don’t like that it is so far away. Written responses indicated that they were highly satisfied.Preparing Special Educators to Teach Reading 193 portion of the lessons where they verbalized what they read and linked it to daily life. recently one group read a story about forest fires at the same time that fires were burning in the local mountains. The fact that it is essentially free is a huge bonus.e. The students linked what was occurring close to their home to the printed text. We live in y and it was quite the trip every day. Driving to and from became very difficult for me. I was hoping that the carpool list would have worked out for me. Your activities are awesome and really helped my child to like school better and have a much better attitude in general. Thank you.

How well teacher .. 2009. 2007).g. Although data support the efficacy of this program. no control group was used as a comparison. the teacher candidates assessed the students they were teaching that may have biased the results. Data collected thus far demonstrate that the BYU summer program was effective in improving reading abilities of elementary-aged students with mild-to-moderate disabilities in a relatively short amount of time (six weeks). student satisfaction could be collected more directly. Currently only one year of data has been collected and analyzed limiting the generalizability of the results. Thus. Spear-Swerling & Brucker. First. In addition. In addition. additional research should examine the impact of the program on both the students’ and candidates’ future performance. the measures used were not standardized. LIMITATIONS Several limitations can be reported. Anecdotal and survey data indicate that students generally enjoyed and parents valued this experience. Also. The summer practicum program also goes beyond what is typically accomplished in university/school partnerships (Prater & Sileo. It also meets the criteria of teaching about and providing experience with scientifically based reading methods (Smart & Reschley. The practicum meets the criteria of embedding well-designed coursework alongside structured practicum experiences to increase teacher candidates’ knowledge about how to teach reading.194 MARY ANNE PRATER ET AL. and learning environment during a pre-student teaching practicum. additional preposttest data could be collected (e. Importantly. teaching. as well as promote student reading achievement (Spearl-Swerling. but rich mentoring. and only fluency or number of words read per minute was measured. reading comprehension and reading errors). Mentor teachers also benefitted from the practicum by providing opportunities to hone their own teaching and mentoring skills. Also. teacher candidates completed the practicum at high rates of success. CONCLUSION Within this chapter we provided a description of a summer practicum experience required of teacher candidates preparing to become mild-tomoderate disabilities special educators. 2002) by providing a controlled. these data were collected to evaluate the efficacy of the summer practicum program. 2004).

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Volume 2. 197–218 Copyright r 2013 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited All rights of reproduction in any form reserved ISSN: 2048-0458/doi:10. self-extending systems. professors. and social cultural that helps to explain how children. Msengi ABSTRACT Purpose – This chapter describes the structure and environment of the Cougar Literacy Clinic. The data were categorized into four types of practices from the clinical experience that have transferred to and Advanced Literacy Practices: From the Clinic to the Classroom Literacy Research. social constructivism. social learning. Theoretical perspective/methodology – Our research embraces theories of transfer and transformation. McAndrews and Shadrack G.1108/S2048-0458(2013)0000002013 197 . Practice and Evaluation. as they find ways to help each other become better thinkers and decision makers. and the transferred and transformed knowledge and practices that support the constituents as a community of learners. the theoretical framework. and community members learn and benefit through mutual interactions. administrators. teachers.TRANSFER AND TRANSFORMATION OF KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICES FROM LITERACY CLINIC TO COMMUNITY Stephanie L. intersubjectivity. families. other educators.

coaching. The data collected from surveys. built on beliefs of shared understanding. observations. transfer. and professors indicated that these practices have been transferred from the clinic to transform the school . and family–school– community literacy connections. professors. and provide constructive feedback. Our literacy clinic includes multiple innovative practices for assessment. MCANDREWS AND SHADRACK G. The data analysis and interpretation demonstrate the importance of having a shared understanding regarding literacy development. interviews. collaborative learning INTRODUCTION What does it mean to develop a community of learners within the context of a literacy clinic? The Cougar Literacy Clinic at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville was established to meet the literacy learning. Keywords: Literacy assessment. each of the constituents will learn to make informed decisions on the selection of assessments and analysis of assessment data. teachers. coaching and consultation. During assessment practices. These categories of practices include assessment. other educators. teaching.198 STEPHANIE L. reciprocal coaching. and family. and pose and respond to questions. and family– school–community literacy connections. and community members. administrators. learning. MSENGI transformed the school and community. and research needs of constituents namely children. family members. instruction. coaching and consultation. each of the constituents will learn to focus on strengths and prior knowledge. The clinic consists of three courses that are part of the graduate literacy program leading to K-12 Reading Specialist Certification and approved by the International Reading Association (IRA). scaffold learning. and community literacy connections. instruction. In the areas of instruction. and teaching that enhances each member’s intellectual and academic growth. conferences and discussions from the children. Practical implications – Our Cougar Literacy Clinic innovations. families. school. can be a model for both existing and newly established clinics that are striving to transform the thinking of each member involved. transformation. teachers. and debriefing analyses. confidently identify their own and others strengths and needs. instructional literacy practices.

teachers plan 13 lessons. the term literacy is defined as the ability to competently read. linguistic. they take four literacy research and leadership courses. They write an . One clinic course is for elementary aged children and the other is for the middle and high school children. and apply ideas in life’s experiences. speak. social. and after participation in the clinic from spring 2009 to spring 2012. during. The children are selected by the literacy program director on a first come first serve basis. under professors’ supervision. teachers. provide literacy assessment and tutoring services to children in grades K-12 who have reading and writing difficulties. Families and school personnel from the surrounding communities refer them to the clinic and complete the application forms. cultural. administer. After reviewing the selected child’s background information. psychological and academic development of children. teachers learn to select. view. These data were collected before. and the transferred and transformed knowledge and practices that support the constituents as a community of learners. Our clinic emphasizes cognitive. and participate in weekly hour and a half peer coaching in consultation with the literacy professor. In our program. listen. two-hour sessions. write. teachers earn their master’s or post masters degree in literacy and their reading specialist certification. the theoretical framework. During each of the subsequent two semesters. THE STRUCTURE OF THE COUGAR LITERACY CLINIC Teachers in the graduate literacy program take four foundational literacy courses prior to the three-semester clinical practicum. After the clinical courses. and analyze a variety of literacy assessments. Upon completion of the on-campus program. and visually represent. The teachers in the literacy clinic. This chapter describes the structure and environment of the Cougar Literacy Clinic. In collaboration with their peers and support from the professor. hold weekly conferences with the families.Transfer and Transformation of Knowledge and Practices 199 and community. and other constituents. the teacher selects and administers individualized assessments during three. This report of the student’s strengths and needs along with examples from the assessments are shared with the family and child during the first hour-long family conference. tutor children an hour and a half once a week. the teacher analyzes the qualitative and quantitative data and writes an initial literacy development report. During the first semester.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Shared understanding. and collaboration among children.000 children’s fiction and nonfiction books and media. It includes a library with diverse. they participate in the celebration of the children’s literacy learning and share the literacy development reports with the family and the child at the end of each semester. & DeFord. assessments. and community members have been identified by our clinical data as crucial with respect to each member’s intellectual and academic growth. Based on this knowledge. The social environment in the clinic encourages collaboration among constituents to support learning. and pose and respond to questions. Dalton. teachers. 2000). intellectual. There are 13 state of the art individual clinic rooms. other educators. class. Lyons. Within the library. family. Two rooms have a one-way mirror for peer.200 STEPHANIE L. intersubjectivity (Tharp. Estrada. social interaction. Pinnell. administrators. MSENGI additional literacy development report containing assessment data and an evaluation of objectives and strategies taught. families. 1991. MCANDREWS AND SHADRACK G. THE COUGAR LITERACY CLINIC ENVIRONMENT The Cougar Literacy Clinic provides a nurturing physical. professors. Finally. Even though the child may have tutoring more than one semester. Dozier. The focus for collaboration is to build on each other’s strengths and provide specific constructive feedback for intellectual growth. each teacher works with an elementary aged child during a one-semester class and a middle/high school aged child during the other semester class. instructional materials. 1993). eight of which have in-ceiling video cameras connected to an observation room. professional books. theories regarding transfer and transformation (Mezirow. . and professor observation and there is an additional classroom space with an interactive white board and wireless Internet connection. This nurturing environment enhances the transfer of learning to new settings. 2006. The clinic is located on the university campus and on the first floor of one building. and historical collection of over 13. and family resources. self-extending systems (Clay. current. & Yamauchi. share ideas. and social environment that greatly supports and increases bidirectional learning among the constituents. there is a reception and family area for people to use resources and interact with others.

learning. assessing. and community members. This transfer of learning also occurs between the other constituents such as children. social learning (Bandura. The data collected from the clinic indicate that each of the constituents has transformed their ways of thinking and learning as a result of participating in the clinic. families. The clinic supports individuals. social constructivist (Vygotsky. 1995. 2005. 2000. and meanings rather than those we have uncritically assimilated from others’’ (Mezirow.. adults learn to make informed decisions through reflection by identifying. and social cultural (Brofenbrenner. and evaluating alternative sources of information. 8). The teachers and professors have transformed the knowledge and practices in the school and community in making critical decisions for assessment and instruction to help children become better thinkers. p.. values. The constituents apply this knowledge as change agents in multiple communities. 1977). Transformative theory is ‘‘the process by which we transform our understanding and how we learn to negotiate and act on our own purposes. 68). Transfer theory is envisioned as the structuring of learning on a ‘‘trajectory’’ toward ‘‘expertise’’ and ‘‘preparation of future learning’’ (Bransford & Schwartz. 2011. 1999. Teachers transfer instructional practices and theoretical foundations from clinic context to classrooms (Applegate et al. in collaboration with others. 1978). and writers.. and research through in-depth discussions and innovative practices within the Cougar Literacy Clinic. Lyons & Beaver. teaching. and community members) to transfer and transform learning from the clinical experience to the schools and communities. Deeney et al. educators. professors. According to transformative theory. family members. 1979) help to explain how the constituents learn and benefit through mutual interactions. Roskos & Freppon. Transformation represents a new way of thinking as well as a new way of acting. p. Roskos & Rosemary. Children and family members have learned new strategies and skills for enhancing children’s literacy development so . children. The transfer of learning is using the knowledge and practices acquired from the literacy clinic and applying it to new contexts such as in the schools and community. as they find ways to help each other become better thinkers and decision makers. 1997. Deeney et al. 2001). 2010. educators. to construct their own knowledge about literacy. feelings. TRANSFER AND TRANSFORMATION OF LEARNING The goal of our literacy clinic is to enable the constituents (teachers.Transfer and Transformation of Knowledge and Practices 201 2000). professors. readers.

which enables the child to monitor. MSENGI that children can become independent thinkers. to construct shared meaning. children use their theories of the world and of oral and written language to solve problems during reading and writing and develop a self-extending system of literacy expertise. and problem solve during their own reading (and writing) and extend the potential of the child engaging in more difficult activities (Clay. During clinic. family. According to Dozier (2006). This transformation of knowledge occurs when the constituents learn from each other and value having mutual decision making and a shared understanding of the literacy process. 1991). learning. coaching and consultation.. Lyons. these self-extending systems are generative whereby ‘‘coaches and teachers collaboratively engage in problem-posing and problem-solving and seek ways to promote sustained learning for teachers and students’’ (p. Originally coined by Clay (1991). and writers. teachers encourage and support this metacognitive processing in the children they teach. thereby providing opportunities for the constituents to inquire collaboratively. INTERSUBJECTIVITY THEORY Intersubjectivity is a shared interpretation and understanding between and among people (Tharp et al. readers. SELF-EXTENDING SYSTEMS One of the ways in which learning is transformed from the clinic to the schools and community is through developing a self-extending system. 2006. Just as we support children in constructing their own learning. Joint productive activities with shared word . and to make decisions regarding literacy practices (assessment. teachers can support others to ‘‘acquire reasoning skills that enable them to construct a self-generating system for making powerful decisions’’ (DeFord. 67). ‘‘coaches and teachers will notice shifts over time as teachers transfer their understandings flexibly and competently into new contexts’’ (Dozier. p. during the Reading Recovery program. through a shared theoretical perspective and instructional dialogue. and teaching. instruction. As a result. p. within a learning community.202 STEPHANIE L. and school and community literacy connections). MCANDREWS AND SHADRACK G. cross-check. Pinnell. One of the purposes of our literacy clinic is to build a learning community that is a self-extending system. 2000). 67). 1991. 170). These theories become an interactive system of strategies.

after viewing a child who had difficulties reading and comprehending a passage. 59). writing. Another key idea is scaffolding that refers to the assistance that adult and more competent peers provide during learning episodes. and the level of potential development. Research has revealed a deep tie among language. as determined by independent problem solving. which include culture. as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers (Vygotsky. thinking. In our clinic.Transfer and Transformation of Knowledge and Practices 203 meanings.. p. 2000. 384). beliefs. we analyze issues presented by professors and literacy specialist candidates in developing communities of learners in the schools and at home. language. and expectations between people help create common context of literacy experience (Tharp et al. which are best fostered through meaningful use and through purposeful conversation (Tharp et al. teachers use data from assessments and previous lessons to help children make connections to background knowledge and scaffold their new learning. . concepts. SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVIST THEORY Vygotsky’s theory of social constructivism espouses the belief that children learn as a result of social interaction with others. 86). value. 2012). participants use language to establish the purposes and meanings of the activity by using common cognitive strategies and problem solving. and development depends on sign systems. ‘‘These common meanings. The Cougar Literacy Clinic data supports the social constructivist theory that individuals have learned more efficiently through the collaboration with others. and culture.. and counting systems.. and discourse become the binding structure of life and culture of every community including schools’’ (Tharp et al. Vygotsky’s theory suggests cognitive development occurs when people experience the use of higher mental functioning in social situations before they can internalize such functioning and independently use it (Tracey & Morrow. During this joint productive activity. 1978. Also. An influential concept within social constructivism is the Zone of Proximal Development. 2000). 2000). which is the distance between the actual development level. For example. values. For example. motivations. p. teachers discuss the child’s strengths and needs and arrive at a shared understanding of how to support the child’s literacy development. Matusov (2001) posits that intersubjectivity is ‘‘useful for analyzing problems emerging when the instructor and the students with traditional educational backgrounds try to develop a teaching design of a classroom functioning as a community of learners’’ (p.

each learner would have to experience everything him/ herself in order to learn. SOCIOAL CULTURAL THEORY Social cultural theory emphasizes the role of social. people learn more from observing others than they do from the consequences of experiencing things themselves (Bandura. 1977). MCANDREWS AND SHADRACK G. as a community of learners. the child. without it. which contribute to learning. According to Bandura (1977). during paired lessons. Since the social constructivist. The third level of influence on a child is the parents’ work situations. in the clinic teachers observe other teachers lessons either directly or through video recording. three spheres of influence affect human development. work. peers vicariously experience the teaching and learning interactions between teachers and children with diverse learning needs. By understanding and applying these theories. rather than just their own teaching. social learning. and style. in .204 STEPHANIE L. The innermost level of influence is the child’s immediate environment such as their home or school. in the clinic we asked the families and child to share information about their home environment. educators and professors. cultural and linguistic factors. humans are capable of observational learning. MSENGI SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY In social learning theory. language. and socioal cultural theories are embedded within the transfer and transformation theories. According to Brofenbrenner (1979). failures. and lesson design to align with the children’s interests and needs. peers discuss the teacher’s actions and children’s responses. In this manner. Instead learners observe others – their success. The teachers use this information to make decisions about language use. The teacher researched similarities and differences between the German and English languages. culture. efforts. we had one child who was from Germany and spoke German at home and English at school. and give specific suggestions. For example. In addition. and interests. material selection. The child wrote stories about his cultural experiences living in Germany. The second level of influence is the interaction between the child’s home and school life. These influences are important factors in the child’s development. provide feedback. For example. During and after the viewing of the lesson. children interactively learn as they collaboratively work to accomplish literacy activities. family members. teachers. this chapter focuses on the latter theories. For example.

select. Each assessment session is video recorded to facilitate the subsequent analysis as they revisit the students’ responses. 2006. were able to transfer the learning from the clinic and use this learning to transform the thinking and current practices at home. interview. 2008b). word identification. the teachers learn to evaluate a variety of formal and informal assessments. After identifying the purpose of assessments. narrative and expository text comprehension. and assessment of learning (summative) (Cooper. teachers analyze the qualitative and quantitative data to identify children’s strengths . the teachers select appropriate assessments based on the case history derived from information provided by the families and children’s schools and the tutor’s knowledge of children’s literacy development. emergent text concepts. Teachers also learn affective assessments such as attitude and interest surveys. These categories include assessment. phonological and phonemic awareness. understand their purposes. and writing composition. and literacy process interviews. observation. Additional assessments are shared or developed by teachers from their teaching experience or research. we have identified four categories of practices from the clinical experience that have transferred to and transformed the school and community.Transfer and Transformation of Knowledge and Practices 205 collaboration with others. teachers are able to evaluate. phonics. select and administer appropriate assessments. TRANSFERRED AND TRANSFORMED PRACTICES After analyzing survey. and then analyze and report data. Many of the assessments were developed by McAndrews (2008a) and Leslie and Caldwell (2010). In collaboration with their peers and support from professors. and family–school–community literacy connections. coaching and consultation. school. ASSESSMENT During the clinical experience. oral reading and fluency. and discussion data from our graduates and families. For individual children. instruction. and administer a variety of formal and informal assessments for language development. McAndrews. assessment as learning (self-assessment). these are described in subsequent sections. There are three purposes for using assessments: assessment for learning (diagnostic and formative). vocabulary development. and in the community.

and comprehension. levels of formality. MSENGI and needs through patterns of responses within and between assessments from multiple sources. and spelling. pose. These reports are written. content (semantics. The teachers hold the conference with the child. The other people listen. and then point out specific examples of strengths and needs from each of the assessments administered. Teachers then examine children’s writing compositions and revising for ideas and details. and teacher conferences with their peers for feedback. and writing development. and invite school personnel to explain and share the report and review the assessments. They examine their ability to use metacognitive strategies (predicting. organization. monitoring. reading. capitalization. This report contains the following sections: demographics and background information of the child. and pose and respond to questions. summary of strengths and needs for language. narrative and persuasive) and evaluate the child’s ability to retell texts. summarizing. At the end of each semester. The analysis includes the children’s language development in terms of the form (phonology. and word choice. These in-depth analyses lead to the writing of a literacy development report. goals for learning. and edited by the teachers in consultation with peers and professors. analyzing. comparing. and use (pragmatics. and derivational relations) in spelling inventories developed by Bear. and contrasting. morphology and syntax). Teachers analyze data from multiple sources to gain a better understanding of the child’s language. within word pattern. teachers meet to conduct mock family. Templeton. provide constructive feedback. They examine the child’s ability to use oral reading strategies and integrate the cueing systems (graphophonic. voice. During the mock conference. revised. and respond to implicit and explicit questions. evaluating) for comprehension. syntactic. the teacher describes each assessment and data analysis. vocabulary. Teachers identify the children’s ability to spell specific phonetic elements in context and identified their spelling stages (alphabetic. making inferences. family members. They also determine their ability to use and edit for conventions such as grammar. share what they learned. and use of content and function words). and semantic) and the ability to read fluently with phrasing. MCANDREWS AND SHADRACK G. punctuation. child. The child shares their own identified strengths and needs. syllables and affixes. They analyze the child’s ability to identify elements of text structure (expository. assessment results and analysis. and recommendations for families and schools. description of assessments administered. sentence fluency. conversational pace. Invernizzi. . and register). connecting background knowledge. synthesizing. and Johnston (2012). expression.206 STEPHANIE L. reading and writing.

materials. which is supported by constructivist theory (Walker. and community. 2009). each participant is transformed and empowered as they learn the purpose of each assessment. and debrief individual and paired lessons that integrate the literacy processes (reading. social. assessment with conditions. strategies and evaluation for oral reading and fluency. closure with student’s reflection. viewing. INSTRUCTION In planning literacy lessons. and how these data are and can be used to assist the child’s literacy development in the clinic. and visually representing) and content area disciplines (science. comprehension. and teacher’s self-reflection of teaching and learning. The conference participants are encouraged to share additional information and ask questions. it is necessary for teachers to understand diagnostic teaching. speaking. and physical education). cultural. In diagnostic teaching. The lesson plans contain the following sections: objectives with Common Core Standards (Common Core State Standard Initiative. Teachers collaboratively enhance their critical decision making when analyzing assessment data and planning instruction (McAndrews. 2012. adaptations. The objectives are written in behavioral terms and included four components: rationale for learning.Transfer and Transformation of Knowledge and Practices 207 and interests. home. which is defined as ‘‘the process of using instruction and assessment at the same time to identify the instructional adjustments that facilitate all readers (and writers) to become independent learners’’ (Walker. and evaluation criteria. Teachers then explain recommendations of strategies and activities for families and school personnel to support the child’s literacy growth. social science. These lesson plans take into consideration the child’s cognitive. technology. listening. family communication. writing composition. Teachers first identify and sequence the objectives to align with the assessment data or previous instruction. 2012). modifications. student behavior. They plan. Teachers select instructional strategies from course materials and school and . phonics and spelling. implement. writing. 5). the patterns of the data that demonstrate the child’s literacy growth and specific strengths and needs. and linguistic development. visual arts. 2012). psychological. teachers focus on the active process of children constructing their own knowledge. school. Through this conference and reciprocal exchange of information. performing arts. language and vocabulary. math. p. evidence of student work. procedures. literature. and extensions.

based on children’s individual strengths and needs. MCANDREWS AND SHADRACK G. MacKeracher (2004) as cited in McKenna & Walpole . During literacy coaching. and supported children in developing a self-extending system in their schools. and leading school reading programs. MSENGI peer resources that align with the initial objectives. and the need for reflection and inquiry (McKenna & Walpole. share. provide professional developmenty. selected appropriate strategies and materials from a variety of resources. p. 34). implement. and work collaboratively as they engage in ‘‘joint productive activities.’’ which extends their thinking and learning (p. According to Dozier (2006). teachers explain and model strategies. After each tutoring session. they gain trust and improve their ongoing relationships between and among themselves. and evaluate lessons. teachers and the community. reading. work collaboratively with other professionals. teachers transferred this knowledge of instruction when they identified specific objectives. The teacher and child select materials that aligned with objectives. 2010. 2008). teachers and coaches inquire. As per the Standards for Reading Professionals (International Reading Association. 49). The teacher and the child evaluate the child’s learning and the teaching based on the objective criteria. and communities. Children learn how to monitor their reading and writing through metacognitive processes.208 STEPHANIE L. the child shares their learning with the family members and the teacher reinforces the learning and literacy strategies with the family. administrators. districts. Reciprocal coaching and consultation between educators focuses on the strengths and needs of each adult as they learn from each other to arrive at a shared understanding. COACHING AND CONSULTATION In our clinic. then apply strategies to enhance reading comprehension and writing composition. and serve as advocates for studentsy’’ (International Reading Association. 2010) reading specialists/literacy coaches responsibilities may include teaching. They ‘‘may also serve as a resource in reading and writing for educational support personnel. or writing levels and the child’s interest. In this process. coaching. During instruction. According to the observational and interview data of our graduates. we prepare teachers to be literacy coaches and leaders who are reflective practitioners in their schools. They transformed other teachers’ and educators’ instructional practices when they collaborated to plan. it is important to understand the influence of past experience. input and choice. and provide guided and independent practice.

Another example was when a teacher’s school literacy committee identified a need for improving instruction in writing. and other cognitive processes to develop plans. comprehension. Peers and groups work together to share practices.Transfer and Transformation of Knowledge and Practices 209 (2008) describes adult learning as a cycle: (1) the learner participates in experiences and activities that result in the intake of information. family . 2008a) strategy to identify word meanings on the basis of categories. web resources. (3) the learner uses meanings in problem solving. teach. which help to develop coaching abilities in our teachers. study skills. oral reading. phonics and word identification. which include the purpose. and technologies for each of the literacy processes such as language development. (4) the learner acts on plans and tests choices. Teachers share their resources in the notebooks in several ways. materials. For example. other professionals. Afterward the faculty met to discuss their effectiveness and adaptations. teachers coach each other in using a variety of literacy practices. professional journals. plan. assessments. properties. (2) the learner makes sense of the experience by giving it meaning and value. we provide collaborative activities. specific children’s examples. and then learner begins the cycle again. and self-created resources. and illustrations that aligned with the teacher’s instructional objective and children’s needs. the teacher researched and selected appropriate assessments and resources from the resource notebook and other sources. and debrief lessons. SHARED LITERACY PRACTICES During the literacy program. teachers and professors present and share these practices. decision making. In our clinic. libraries. and adaptations. Teachers also shared strategies from their resource notebook with families and other educators during phone and face-to-face conferences. During each course. procedures. and explained and modeled several of them for their school faculty. These resources come from professional books. and writing composition. vocabulary. the pair discussed several strategies and selected the ‘‘Concept of Definition’’ (Schwartz & Raphael. The faculty then selected and applied the practices. They each develop a resource notebook containing strategies. when a colleague wanted support on vocabulary instruction. (5) responses from others and observations by the learners provide feedback as new information for learners. 1985 as cited in McAndrews. previous teaching and learning experiences. and engage in and facilitate professional development and leadership activities to enhance their own and other’s thinking and instruction.

PLAN. 1988. and debriefing.210 STEPHANIE L. assessments. and professors to make informed decisions regarding using these practices in their schools and communities. for two children. took notes. teaching. and materials. teachers planned. 1978). wrote a reflection. anecdotal records. whereby learning becomes the biproduct of that interaction (King. served as a beneficial tool for teachers as well as children. and debriefed individual and paired lessons. child. the teacher and peers debriefed the tutoring session to share ideas. From presentations and lessons shared. This process of sharing practices transformed and empowered teachers. After the lesson. develop and refine the next lesson plan. resolve cognitive conflicts. TEACH. The discussion and debriefing of the lesson and teaching materials with another person actually transforms how each individual thinks (Cobb. reports. develop new skills. teachers clarify ideas. families. negotiate meaning. During tutoring. MSENGI nights. and through paper and online newsletters and handouts. and technologies. Using the lesson plan format. children’s work samples. and vice-versa. observations and debriefing. Vygotsky. materials. discourse analysis from video. the child shared what they learned from the lesson and explained the homework to their family members. make connections to prior learning. and peer reflections. MCANDREWS AND SHADRACK G. . teachers coached each other by examining data from multiple sources including the assessments. As they discuss with peers. professor’s feedback and family communication. strategies. taught. Teachers also discussed the use of specific language to scaffold children’s learning and metacognitive strategies. Each lesson plan with reflection was also submitted to the professor for feedback. one of the teachers taught one lesson. and construct new knowledge. The lessons were not only designed to meet the needs of the children being tutored and their families but also to expand the teachers’ understanding of instruction and repertoire of strategies and materials. Paired planned lessons. At the end of each lesson. while the other observed. 1997). During planning. Families and teachers supported their children in using these practices at home and at school. This allowed them to expand their repertoire of strategies. to collaborate and learn from each other. AND DEBRIEF LESSONS During clinic. The teacher then reinforced what the child shred and supplemented any additional information. the teachers collaboratively brainstormed the selection of appropriate objectives. lesson plans. professors also gained knowledge of additional instructional practices and their effectiveness. self.

Llama. 2010). notice and name specific teacher and child behaviors using academic vocabulary. 2004. in turn. p. Based on Guskey’s (2000) definition. & Savenye. pose questions. PROFESSIONAL LEARNING AND LEADERSHIP The role of the reading specialist/literacy coach is not only to enhance the literacy development of children but also to demonstrate and facilitate professional learning and leadership in schools and communities (International Reading Association. p. 2004). Video serves as a ‘‘catalyst for reflection and critical dialogue’’ (Hartford & MacRuairc. professional development includes those processes and activities designed to enhance the professional knowledge. and debriefing lessons occur in the clinic. The knowledge about reading improves when teachers and professionals participate in . analyze. Video based instruction can capture the ‘‘complexities’’ of classrooms (Kurz. 2008. this reflective process serves as a model to support and coach colleagues and transform the professional development and instruction of teachers and other professionals in the schools and community. problem solve. the child and their families used the video or observation information to identify the child’s strengths and needs. & Brown. According to the teacher surveys. which may provide a window for examining the many subtleness of classroom teaching (Brophy. 1890). With permission from families. model instruction. and provide specific feedback to enhance instruction. skills. Initially the process of collaborative planning. In addition. videos are also used as instructional tools at professional conferences and teacher in-services to identify and model effective instructional practices. and problem solve alternatives. so that they might. 2007). teaching. provide constructive feedback. Lane. and discuss the videos to identify effective and ineffective instructional practices. and debrief the lessons.Transfer and Transformation of Knowledge and Practices 211 During instruction.In the clinic. and attitudes of educators. however. 68) and represent a versatile medium for deconstructing practice (Newhouse. and learn about strategies to use at home or at school. Professors also use archived videos to provide teachers with examples of instruction. the video reflection and debriefing was beneficial in not only identifying areas for improvement but also reaffirming teachers’ ability to make informed decisions regarding their knowledge of literacy practices and development. During the debriefing they analyze discourse. the teachers and professors use the video as a device to observe teaching. Teachers view. lessons are also observed and/or video recorded. improve the learning of students.

1996. Our teachers engaged in reflective inquiry. Marvelous Minilessons for Teaching Intermediate Writing. For example. teachers are constantly engaged in and facilitate their own and others professional development through activities such as professional reading. MSENGI intensive. literacy leadership teams. ask questions. We have five graduates who hold offices in local and state literacy organizations. action research. each teacher in our literacy clinic identifies their own concerns in their school environment and designs a year-long action research project to address the identified concern. plan the methodology. discuss and reflect on the results and their learning. For example. 2011). conferences. and summarize and synthesize. 1997). They conclude and provide recommendations for future implementation and study. Our teachers also participate in and facilitate literacy leadership teams in their schools and develop yearly goals. while another researched strategies to support reading comprehension at the high school level. 2009). and designed. infer meaning.212 STEPHANIE L. and organizations. She read articles and books on writing and started a book club with teachers at her school using. Another teacher. determine importance. One teacher developed a school needs survey and then worked with her colleagues to develop a school-wide writing curriculum with assessments. . and evaluated their action research. presented at the Illinois Reading Council Annual Conference on how to conduct writing conferences with primary grade children. one teacher researched teaching kindergarten literacy skills in the science content. considered theories. Schumuck. implemented. they determine a concern. Grades 4–6 (Rog. Another teacher worked with her grade 3–5 school to implement reading comprehension strategies. extended programs of professional development in reading and writing (Brady et al. For example. activate and connect. MCANDREWS AND SHADRACK G. one teacher was concerned about her ability to conduct writing lessons. conduct a literature review. one teacher demonstrated how to use smart boards to teach phonics and word recognition in context. As they prepare to become literacy leaders. Our teachers participate in book clubs and study groups. Our teachers participate in and facilitate presentations at their schools and at professional organizations. Her school piloted and adopted The Comprehension Toolkit (Harvey & Goudvis. collect and analyze data. In our clinic. 2005) that included instruction to monitor comprehension.. In the process. Teachers use action research to study a real concern in a real school or classroom to reflect and improve the quality of action and instruction (Hensen. knowledge and beliefs.

and community literacy connections are vital for supporting children’s literacy development that reflects children’s background and interests. conferences. newsletters. and home visits) helps parents feel more selfconfident. Frequent and positive school-to-home communication (in the form of phone calls. progress reports. school. literacy workshops and community literacy programs. school-wide family literacy programs. children and extended family members use literacy at school and in their community’’ (p. and community. Epstein (1994) also explains that parents are more likely to participate in schools if they receive information from teachers about classroom activities. and more likely to become involved (Epstein. the child. it ‘‘encompasses the ways families. 2007). classroom literacy activities. the progress of their children. it involves family literacy activities that reflect the ethnic. 1994). Family literacy is a complex concept. Epstein (1994) points out that the involvement of families in schools leads to overlapping spheres of influence between the home. personal notes. 1994). racial. family literacy may be initiated by a family member. or community member. conferences. and it involves families participating in home and school communication. or cultural heritage of the families involved. and how to work with their children at home. 418). and the child’s teacher regarding their respective expectations and goals concerning the child’s reading effort and achievement’’ (Msengi. Data from Msengi’s (2007) study indicates educators should consider multiple sources of information in order to assist the child’s reading efforts. . family–teacher conferences.Transfer and Transformation of Knowledge and Practices 213 Our graduates became change agents who advocated for organizational and instructional changes that promoted effective literacy instruction at the school. Drawing from Morrow’s (2012) descriptions of family literacy. and respect for student and family diversity. According to Morrow (2012). teachers and families collaborate to support home and school literacy connections through regular communication. more comfortable with the school. AND COMMUNITY LITERACY CONNECTIONS Family. In our clinic. increase their understanding. FAMILY. creating a more caring school climate (Epstein. school. district and state level. SCHOOL. school personnel. Thinking of the school as an extended family can help to create a positive school climate. ‘‘A better level of sharing needs to be encouraged between family members.

if needed. MCANDREWS AND SHADRACK G. pre. the child orally reads his/her writing published in the newspaper. evaluation of objectives and strategies taught. The child and family share learning goals and interests. children. In addition. and language development. Finally. The teachers contact the family to introduce themselves and to gain clarification and additional information in the application forms. child. the teacher. academic. child and teacher meet to celebrate the child’s literacy development and review the literacy development report. the child shares the reading and writing strategies used and learned during tutoring while the teacher supplemented success stories about the child’s learning and areas of need with suggested strategies. or the university website. First. as well as culture.and post-literacy assessment results and analysis. At the end of each semester. The teacher and child share the literacy development report with the families and school personnel. These forms provide background information regarding the child’s physical. MSENGI and providing resources. Then. the family and teachers from the child’s school learn about the Cougar Literacy Clinic from references. family members. and suggestions of strategies for family and teachers to enhance the child’s literacy development. cognitive. Ongoing family conferences are vital tools used for regular communication between teachers. professors. the teachers meet with their peers and professors to analyze data and write the literacy development report. First. After each tutoring session. Following the initial assessment. the tutor.214 STEPHANIE L. During the celebration of learning. and after every tutoring session. This baseline data provides the information for selection of the initial assessments. Next. the child and teacher explain the homework related to the lesson’s objectives. child. and in the clinic. the family share the child’s successes and concerns at home and school. and other educators. the teachers provide information about the structure of the tutoring sessions and respond to any questions that the child or family had. at school. which helps the teacher to plan lessons. They meet before and after assessment. The family. they complete the literacy clinic application forms. Professors meet with teachers to discuss the family forms and how to conduct family conferences such as being sure to include the child’s strengths prior to the child’s needs and providing specific suggestions and strategies. The literacy report contains background knowledge. and family hold a conference to help make connections between what the child did at home. Then if interested. the . fliers. social/behavioral. and family hold a conference to discuss the initial assessment results and potential instructional objectives based on the child’s strengths and needs. interests and attitude.

families and educators to better support the child in their literacy growth. school. and family. They regularly ask and respond to questions. and books of suggestions and strategies to use when encouraging and supporting reading at home and at school. social constructivist. reflectively transformed each other’s thinking and learning as they strived to achieve shared goals. each participant gains knowledge about ways of communicating especially as related to instruction. teacher. areas of the child’s strengths and needs. and community members can also check out books and materials from the clinic library. each of the constituents have learned to confidently identify their own and others strengths and needs. each of the constituents have learned to focus on strengths. and professors. While. other educators. First. literacy development. in the area of instruction. Each of the constituents became transformed individuals when they changed their thinking and perspectives as a result of collaborating with others. Our clinical practices are based not only on theories of self-extending systems. educators. family. Children learned to monitor their learning and use reading and writing strategies for authentic purposes. and provide constructive feedback. articles. intersubjectivity. During this bidirectional communication. coaching and consultation. CONCLUDING THOUGHTS The major focus of this chapter was to explain how our literacy clinic supported the transfer and transformation of knowledge and practice from the clinical experiences to schools and communities. The professors and teachers provide the families with demonstrations. Children. handouts. and professors learned to make informed decisions on the section of assessments and analysis of assessment data. and community connections. The data from our research has unveiled several elements of transformation with implications for newly or already established clinics. social learning. family. Teachers. websites. and socioal cultural but also on theories of transfer and transformation. We explained how the synergy between the child. other . Families often share information about their child. instruction. Teachers. pose and respond to thoughtful implicit and explicit questions. and select appropriate materials and literacy activities. This shared understanding of the child’s development enables teachers.Transfer and Transformation of Knowledge and Practices 215 family share orally and complete a survey about the overall observation of the benefits and suggestions regarding the future development of the clinic. family. and interests. in the area of assessment. and school. They transformed their thinking about the areas of assessment.

and teaching.. and an archive of coaching videos to support teachers’ self-study. family member. (1977). Bandura. M. J. F. Families were regularly invited to share their child’s achievements and concerns.. Deeney. Gillis.. C..). all constituents engaged in bidirectional communication. (2010.216 STEPHANIE L. educators. and resources. (1999).... values. D.. & Schwartz. Review of Research in . Englewood Cliffs. L. December). D. 425–455. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal. vocabulary. Brady. et al. our work and thinking continues to evolve as we interact with others to discover new ideas and practices to further enhance the experience in the Cougar Literacy Clinic. Templeton. we are planning to create a website for the reading clinic providing information and resources to families.. J. D. cultural beliefs. MSENGI professionals. Bransford. They modeled effective instructional practices and provided and received resources. Ft. Based on these collaborative clinical practices and experiences. (2012).. S. Paper presented at Literacy Research Association/National Reading Conference.. MA: Pearson. develop an archive of teaching videos of effective literacy practices. A.. Boston. 22. L. Next.. MCANDREWS AND SHADRACK G. Laster. Dubert. They supported their own and other’s learning by participating and conducting professional development. Cobb. Pearson (Eds. Social learning theory. M. In A. Lavalette. Lastly. M. school and community connections. learning. M. Bear. T.. As a community of learners. S. y Swanson. in the area of coaching and consultation. and spelling instruction. To further transform our clinic. TX. Invernizzi.. Dozier. and shared their ideas. & Johnston. and to participate in ongoing conferences. T. Low. E. and professor has been changed and transformed as they gained a shared understanding regarding literacy development. Rethinking transfer: A simple proposal with multipleimplications. Firstgrade teachers’ knowledge of phonological awareness and code concepts: Examining gains from an intensive form of professional development and corresponding teacher attitudes. NJ: Prentice Hall. supported each other’s learning. reflection. M. B. teachers. and professors learned to develop a community of learners.. and professional development. Words their way: Word study for phonics. and professors became experienced in making informed decisions about instruction and design lessons that reflected the diverse strengths and needs of children and adults. educator. Worth. D. REFERENCES Applegate. Liss-Bronstein. Transfer and transformation: What reading clinic/literacy lab graduates’ current practices and contexts mean for clinic/lab instruction. for developing family. the thinking of each child. (2009). L. Smith. Iran-Nejad & P. Through these experiences they reflected on and adapted their current thinking and instructional practices. teacher.

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engage students. 219–241 Copyright r 2013 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited All rights of reproduction in any form reserved ISSN: 2048-0458/doi:10. sociolinguistic. Advanced Literacy Practices: From the Clinic to the Classroom Literacy Research. and cognitive literature that informs differentiated instruction for linguistic diversity. It then offers a case study example of a preservice student teaching seminar where this knowledge was put into practice. Practice and Evaluation.1108/S2048-0458(2013)0000002014 219 . Design/methodology/approach – The chapter reviews sociocultural.PREPARING PRESERVICE TEACHERS TO DIFFERENTIATE INSTRUCTION FOR LINGUISTICALLY DIVERSE STUDENTS IN URBAN CLASSROOMS Patricia Paugh and Mary Brady ABSTRACT Purpose – To provide educators with an overview of issues and strategies important for preparing preservice teachers to plan instruction. Volume 2. and assess learning in culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms.

This is important to those who seek to expand this attention to diversity within general teacher education practices. culturally responsive teaching. This chapter responds to the call for specific attention to cultural and linguistic diversity as a priority. preservice performance assessment. Practical implications – This chapter serves as a resource for all clinical instructors. rather than an ‘‘add on’’ for preservice preparation. in literacy and special education respectively. two university teacher education faculty members. Research limitations/implications – The chapter highlights literature that is specifically useful for preservice teachers and their instructors who are seeking to address the specific needs of English Language Learners and the culturally diverse population of students found in U. It explores the question. providing ideas for incorporation into their clinics and classrooms. differentiated instruction Preservice teacher education programs are challenged to prepare candidates to support an increasingly diverse population of students within today’s literacy classrooms. offer theoretical and practical insights about preparing preservice candidates to teach English Language Arts in these classrooms. 2004).S. . This is especially urgent in high-poverty communities where a lack of such preparation contributes to low teacher retention (Moore Johnson.220 PATRICIA PAUGH AND MARY BRADY Findings – Content provides detailed information about the design of a preservice seminar that included the role of a nationally piloted performance assessment. They frame the discussion using the experience of working with six preservice teachers in the practicum seminar. It demonstrates how preparing the assessment portfolio provided a vehicle for a structured and useful focus on diversity within the seminar. ‘‘In what ways can US teacher educators prepare preservice candidates to teach diverse learners in the complex political and social settings that make up urban literacy classrooms?’’ The authors. classrooms. Originality/value of paper – Culturally responsive teaching and a specific focus on teaching English Language Arts for linguistically diverse students are infused in clinical teacher education practices rather than as ‘‘add-on’’ practices. Keywords: English Language Learners.

At the national level. 2010. & Freedson-Gonzalez. students in poorer districts such as this are not being well served (Artiles. 2008). All of these reform efforts and realities affect the role of classroom teachers. As evidenced by intractable achievement gaps between dominant and nondominant cultural groups. quality preservice education necessitates that candidates are able to focus on the local context as they . 2008). 2009). It is now necessary that mainstream teachers differentiate instruction for all students.. values. Therefore.. 2009).e. the 2004 reorganization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) changed the identification process for students with learning disabilities from a ‘‘discrepancy’’ model (i. Trent. National and state educational reforms continue to reshape teachers’ work especially in high-need schools. The teacher education programs at this public university place a majority of student teaching candidates in local public schools in a nearby high-need urban district. and cultures. Teachers need focused scaffolds during their preservice preparation specifically intended to develop confident and successful literacy educators who remain teaching in urban classrooms where they are most needed (Darling-Hammond. it is important that preservice teachers have tools they need to understand their students’ abilities (e. This was a critical expectation for these six candidates due to state-level legislation passed in 2002 eliminating bilingual education. The ‘‘urban mission’’ of their university nurtures a goal of academic success embedded in respect for differences across perspectives.Preparing Preservice Teachers to Differentiate Instruction 221 RATIONALE FOR REFOCUSING ATTENTION TO DIVERSITY WITHIN CLASSROOM TEACHING For these preservice candidates. RTI refocuses attention on meeting the instructional needs of struggling students quickly and within the mainstream classroom through ongoing assessment and differentiation of instruction. Heyman & Vigil. & Ortiz. Osher. Villegas. defining learning disability by gaps between tested intelligence and achievement) to a model known as Response to Intervention (RTI). Wei. Kozleski. As cultural and linguistic difference is often conflated with learning disabilities. & Johnson. the cultural and linguistic resources they bring to the classroom) while also knowing how to respond instructionally to those who struggle. The result has been placement of large numbers of ELLs in classrooms where teachers have not been prepared to address their content and language learning needs (Nieto.g. the social and political context of their teacher education experience requires learning to adapt instruction to a range of learners. This is especially needed to serve those who are currently English Language Learners (ELLs) (Lucas.

The NRP analyzed experimental and quasi-experimental research on learning to read and consolidated knowledge for teaching reading into five ‘‘pillars’’: phonemic awareness.and second-grade urban students. recognize and fully utilize the resources within the local and school community including families and specialist supports.  and. 2005). distorted applications of this research have ‘‘unbalanced’’ reading instruction in several ways: (1) through narrow use of prescriptive curriculum programs (McGillFranzen. and comprehension that have been extensively adopted as guidelines for the teaching of reading (National Institute of Child Health and Development. these findings have ‘‘solved the reading wars’’ (Snow. For many. 2006). 2000). Many of the critiques above are especially relevant in high-poverty urban school districts where prescriptive curriculum is . and (3) by the misuse of assessments that have not been validated on special populations such as ELLs (Klingner & Edwards. Involvement in a national pilot of a preservice performance assessment focused on teaching English Language Arts provided an opportunity to better understand and respond to the needs of these candidates as they transferred their learning from courses and the seminar itself to teaching of first.222 PATRICIA PAUGH AND MARY BRADY  differentiate instruction in classrooms that simultaneously supports their students’ linguistic and content development. & Griffin. For others.  engage in dynamic assessment to determine instructional practices for all students within a learning environment. 1998) by offering solid guidance for understanding effective reading and linking this process to clear instruction. inclusion of culturally relevant instruction. Burns. 2007). fluency. phonics. especially those who are struggling. and development of students’ metacognition about ‘‘how language works’’ (Cummins. ‘‘CONTEXT COUNTS’’: MAINSTREAM LITERACY CLASSROOMS IN URBAN SCHOOLS The federally mandated meta-analysis of research on the teaching of reading conducted by the National Reading Panel (NRP) and published in 2000 ushered in the age of No Child Left Behind in the United States. This definition of ‘‘what counts as reading’’ has been both welcomed and highly critiqued within the educational establishment. (2) through the erasure of practices complementary to basic reading skill instruction such as attention to student engagement. vocabulary.

assessment. 108). a multiple measure assessment of preservice teaching focused on student learning (edTPA. both authors utilized the opportunity to participate. the focus is to connect their teaching to students’ learning. Candidates are asked to plan and reflect on their teaching of a set of lessons differentiated to meet needs of all learners in the classroom.Preparing Preservice Teachers to Differentiate Instruction 223 more prevalent and the student population is more culturally. by whom. and in what context?’’ (p. The PACT was developed by a consortium of California universities and adopted as a valid and reliable instrument for use in that state (Pecheone & Chung. document learning in a 3–5 lesson ‘‘learning segment’’ in a single subject area. and classrooms. with whom. studentdriven instruction. finding instruction that ‘‘works’’ needs to include ‘‘what works. The tasks. 2012). along with the candidates. intended to represent a capstone practicum experience. and ethnically diverse. A component of the planning task is a ‘‘Context for Learning’’ form that requires gathering information such as language background. interests. Throughout. To meet the challenge of preparing candidates for context-based. ROLE OF THE TPA PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT IN UNDERSTANDING AND SUPPORTING THE PRACTICUM SEMINAR AS A TRANSITION POINT The TPA is a multiple measure assessment currently undergoing a national pilot for preservice teacher credentialing purposes. linguistically. in a national pilot of the Elementary English Language Arts portion of the Teacher Performance Assessment (TPA). instruction. Its development evolved from the Performance Assessment for California Teachers (PACT). the paradigm of ‘‘best practices’’ or ‘‘what works’’ must be tempered to include a focus on the students within the context of their community. schools. and/or identified special education needs for all . In an age where student learning is the central focus for analyzing the success or failure of instruction. 2006). As Klingner and Edwards argue. The TPA requires teacher candidates to assemble a structured portfolio around four performance tasks that reflect the teaching process: planning. TPA provided an opportunity to explore how candidates made meaning of their emergent instructional practices at an important transition point between their course completion and their first experiences as licensure candidates taking responsibility for teaching in early elementary classrooms. and academic language.

2009). The literature illuminates unique features of the PACT/TPA that differ from traditional forms of preservice assessment. however.224 PATRICIA PAUGH AND MARY BRADY students in the class. and apprentice-based learning (Chung. 2008). & Tellez. 2011). was its theoretical framing of teacher learning that centered the practicum as a learning site where local. situated learning theories. 2012) based on social learning theories such as reflection in action. state. and other unit or lesson specific assessment instruments. The assessment is designed to be scored by outside evaluators. it was scored by two readers at the university in partial fulfillment of the portfolio requirement for graduation from the university master’s degree program. Aguirre.. Another feature is the focus on the complex language demands needed for teaching the content. 2008. although in the case framed here. The political implications of the TPA as a nationally adopted. 2010). Heneman. The lesson planning process requires both content and language objectives with specific attention to academic language. PACT/TPA is described in the literature as providing a reflective view of the complex act of teaching that is not adequately measured by incidental classroom observational visits or standardized tests of teacher knowledge (Chung. SUPPORTIVE FRAMEWORKS FOR DIFFERENTIATING ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS INSTRUCTION A supportive framework for preservice teachers to effectively differentiate instruction for the specific configuration of students within their local classrooms requires addressing the problem of ‘‘complexity’’ at both macro and micro levels (Artiles et al. Piazza. student work samples. Candidates are asked to assemble and reflect upon evidence of students’ learning including a video segment of their teaching. and information on school conditions that might impact teaching of the lessons. & Kimball. in press). What this means is attending to the . Milanowski. The following section explores how two major theoretical frameworks can inform candidates in developing and enacting English Language Arts pedagogy directly focused on the students taught in their practicum classrooms. and national issues pertinent to an urban context were integrally related to each candidate’s practice. The first is an ‘‘educative’’ design focus (Pecheone. Useful to this program. standardized assessment system for preservice teachers remain controversial (see Cochran-Smith. & Power. an issue especially necessary for the teaching of ELLs (Bunch. Written responses are integrated into all tasks and scored using a series of rubrics.

As result. Villegas. The current iteration of this legislation. Differentiated instruction as described by Tomlinson (2003 as cited in Santamaria. 2008).Preparing Preservice Teachers to Differentiate Instruction 225 differentiation focus suggested by federal and state policies but understanding how to render them productive for all students in the local contexts of practice.. Santamaria (2009) offers a unique opportunity to consider the overlapping intentions of both Differentiated Instruction and Culturally Responsive Teaching (CRT). there is a more accurate and finely tuned process for assigning intensive small group and individual interventions at Tiers 2 and 3 to those who truly need this attention (Gersten & Dimino. The affordances of RTI’s three-tiered model for struggling students is the immediate attention given to their academic achievement within their current classroom (Tier 1). . RTI provides universal screening. two theoretical frames that are rarely included as complementary within the educational discourse.e. and ongoing progress monitoring that aligns closely with regular classroom instruction. Thus. 2009). 2009) can be envisioned across the following areas:  Content: All students should have access to the content. For example. immediate interventions with research-based instructional practices. and adjustments to instruction must be made to account for student diversity. Here the goal is to shift the orientation from the student’s individual capacity as a learner to a focus on the interactions between the student and the learning environment. Teachers who are familiar with such practices are able to adjust the classroom instruction to meet a greater range of students’ needs. all key concepts and generalizations must be clear. ‘‘waiting to fail’’). Preparing classroom teachers in an ‘‘English-only’’ state prompts closer attention to the specific learning needs of ELLs as a case for differentiation (Lucas. & Freedson-Gonzales. Artiles et al. RTI holds as its central tenet the focus on differentiated instruction in mainstream classrooms. 2008). (2010) question whether these goals are being realized for the range of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students in local classrooms. as opposed to the formerly lengthy process of identification and ‘‘diagnosis’’ that often leaves learners’ unaccommodated for too long (i. it is the main thrust of the RTI model. Differentiated Instruction Differentiated instruction is a philosophical orientation that recognizes that student differences and the educational responses to them are socially constructed phenomenon (Santamaria. the founding goal of the IDEA legislation is to protect the civil rights of students with special educational needs.

This expanded perspective (Ballantyne. 2008. or students who are unfamiliar with US conceptions of race or ethnicity and may be confused with how nondominant groups may be positioned within society. specifically sociocultural and sociolinguistic theories focused on cultural and linguistic diversity. 2003). & Levy. or students whose expectations about interacting do not match US classroom cultures that expect competition or collaboration. 2005. 2006) addresses current problems within institutional schooling that lead to the achievement gaps described earlier including:  Issues of cultural differences within classroom participation structures: This includes understanding students who are not acculturated to public participation in classroom routines. DeJong & Harper. and attitudes (Ladson-Billings. Sanderman. that is.226 PATRICIA PAUGH AND MARY BRADY  Process: Critical and creative thinking must be emphasized and managed. CRT is socioculturally centered. Critiques that address the affordances and constraints of differentiating instruction within RTI point out that cultural and linguistic diversity are not adequately addressed in this model. Pedagogical models that look to the integration of the academic with attention to culture and language require theoretical models that expand outside the cognitive domains. can productively inform this process. Santamaria and others suggest that theoretical models. Klingner & Edwards. Mismatches such as these between teachers’ and students’ cultural expectations often produce attitudes that further marginalize the latter. it is a way of teaching that uses cultural references to impart knowledge.  Issues of cultural difference related to student background: This includes families who associate literacy practices with school success and as a result misunderstand messages sent home from school to work with their children. Culturally Responsive Teaching While differentiated instruction addresses student diversity. Esparza-Brown & Doolittle. 1995). skills.  Product: Expectations and requirements must be adjusted appropriately. and flexible opportunities for student interactions and engagement must be provided. 2008. its central focus is on academic differences in the cognitive domain (Tomlinson. .

Richards. These include acknowledging cultural and linguistic differences as well as similarities. On a personal level. Linguistically Responsive Pedagogy for English Language Arts Preservice teachers can expect that they will be responsible for teaching ELLs (Lucas & Villegas. The latter two dimensions provide guidelines especially useful in the clinical preparation of preservice teachers. 2008).. and community. 2008). personal. fostering positive relationships among school. and Forde (2007) summarize this literature across three dimensions: institutional. promoting equity and respect among students of diverse cultures and languages within the classroom.Preparing Preservice Teachers to Differentiate Instruction 227 The rich literature on CRT offers guidelines for addressing cultural diversity in the classroom. Yet. Brown. beliefs and cultural assumptions held by teachers may interfere with cross-cultural communication. when differentiating instruction in linguistically diverse classrooms. . assessing students’ ability and achievement using instruments validated on students like them. Thus. In addition. Exploring personal history with students to welcome a greater range of perspectives within the classroom is recommended. motivating students to actively participate in their learning. This expectation is certain for the candidates who are placed in urban schools. culturally responsive curriculum requires guidelines that are specifically related to language. holding high expectations for all students to strive for excellence. and assisting students in becoming socially and politically conscious. only one in six preservice teacher education programs required ELL-oriented content (Ballantyne et al. validating students’ cultural identities in classroom practices and materials. families. the preservice experience must begin to build specific knowledge about ELLs and provide specific guidelines attending to their needs within the mainstream classroom. This knowledge spans both attitudes and beliefs about ELLs as well as knowledge about the roles of both first and second language and academic success. and instructional. educating students about the world around them. 2008). as of 2008. On the instructional dimension several techniques are suggested to engage students. Such practices reshape curriculum across an additive rather than a subtractive or deficit view of difference. This is a priority for ELLs who are learning academic content (Esparza-Brown & Doolittle.

The use of assessments that are valid for the population represented ensures that resulting interventions are not overly narrow in focus or result in misdirection of ELLs into inappropriate special educational programs (Artiles et al. it is important that teachers know the primary languages and literacy levels in those languages for all their students. 2010. DeJong and Harper (2005)1 provide a concise summary of key differences important to reading and writing development for ELLs.228 PATRICIA PAUGH AND MARY BRADY ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS ABOUT ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS In accordance with tenets of CRT. KNOWLEDGE ABOUT LANGUAGE IS VITAL FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS CONTENT INSTRUCTION Prioritized in guidelines for ‘‘how’’ to teach English Language Arts as a content area in linguistically diverse classrooms is explicit attention to the structures and functions of English in relationship to those of students’ primary languages. It is helpful for teachers to recognize bilingual strategies such as code-switching are beneficial and helpful in promoting L2 English development. Thus. 2008. For example. including a student’s life and language history as part of the formative assessment and instructional planning is fundamental. Linguistically responsive teachers understand that L1 skills benefit English learning and that use of L1 does not indicate language delay or language confusion. it is important to avoid stereotypes that consider ELLs to be a homogeneous group. The consequences of such expectations are instruction that is unnecessarily narrow in focus or at lower levels of cognitive complexity (DeJong & Harper. Esparza-Brown. Teachers who do not understand how a student’s first language (L1) relates to English (L2) can fall into a ‘‘deficit’’ thinking trap where limited English is equated with limited cognition. 2005. 2006). depending upon ‘‘research-based’’ instructional practices is only beneficial if the validity of those practices for ELLs is examined. Klingner & Edwards.. 2005. & Doolittle. 2005). Therefore. 2009). Santamaria. ‘‘best practices’’ often assume that all students in a classroom possess a strong foundation in oral English and/or an intrinsic understanding of its grammar and discourse practices that is not the case for ELLs (DeJong & Harper. Meskill. These understandings are helpful . In the classroom.

word order in sentences and phrases. (2) willing to value and connect L1 and English as a central part of the classroom instructional process. early 40s (2). Linguistically responsive teaching is (1) explicit in these areas for both reading and writing. finding details for describing characters and events. Briefly. many classroom reading programs assume a depth and breadth of vocabulary and structural understandings about English that ELLs do not possess. plural forms. distinguishing fantasy and reality. one as African American. and mid to late 20s (3).Preparing Preservice Teachers to Differentiate Instruction 229 for responding to linguistic difference when considering the ‘‘five pillars’’ practices offered by the NRP. This affects the underlying cuing systems that these readers rely on. REVIEWING A PRESERVICE SEMINAR WITH A FOCUS ON DIFFERENTIATING LITERACY INSTRUCTION IN URBAN ELEMENTARY CLASSROOMS Six preservice teachers who participated in a practicum seminar during the spring of 2012 offer a mini-case study of ‘‘how’’ candidates can be best supported as they differentiate English Language Arts instruction in urban classrooms. Second. Topics included author’s purpose. writing a persuasive letter. The candidates were required to complete the TPA performance assessment by analyzing a ‘‘learning segment’’ in the English Language Arts in either a first.2 All identified English as their primary language. Four identified ethnically as non-Hispanic White. ELLs may need more time developing background and content understandings. Scaffolding reading discussions helps these students develop both oral and literacy skills in English. and writing ‘‘how to’’ . typical English paragraphs lead with a topic sentence followed by supportive details). or larger topic-centered text organizational structures (e. Thus. and (3) aware that ELLs whose oral English proficiency may appear well developed still need explicit teaching of academic forms of English necessary in school. biography as a genre. differentiating fact from opinion.. The age range of the candidates spanned mid-50s (1). The essential literacy goals for each of the segments spanned both reading and writing.g. Issues affecting ELLs’ academic English development may include differences between L1 and L2 in use of tense. as noted above. as well as full-text organization structures. ELLs’ native languages may differ substantially in grammatical structures affecting word structure.or second-grade classroom placement in an urban school. and one as Iranian American.

the cautions expressed by Santamaria (2009) were fore grounded. Pat Paugh will share highlights from a workshop on academic language where she extended notions of academic language begun with SIOP to help candidates analyze the language demands of the content. by collecting learning profiles for all students in their classrooms. ‘‘What differentiation academicians fail to do. While their coursework had included study of practical and philosophical aspects of the frameworks for differentiating instruction described above.’’ First. Mary Brady will share her lesson planning strategies that incorporated both Principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol model (SIOP). In the following section. EMBEDDING UDL AND SIOP AS ‘‘HOW’’ TO DIFFERENTIATE INSTRUCTION In creating the seminar. This process necessitated conferencing with the classroom teacher and other specialists in the school. Before planning their lessons. required that they take on positions of responsibility for their students’ learning.230 PATRICIA PAUGH AND MARY BRADY (procedural texts). assessed through the TPA. 222). a recommendation prominent in the literature on differentiation for ELLs. teaching and later reflecting on this differentiation during their ELA ‘‘learning segments. The TPA served to mediate the structure of the semester-long seminar. candidates completed the Context for Learning Form. the authors will outline two specific seminar activities designed to then scaffold candidates in preparing. One important purpose of the practicum seminar and . it was in the seminar that they were expected to act on that learning. Next. is provide practitioners with specific guidelines and strategies on how to differentiate instruction for ELL and CLD learners to support their academic success’’ (p. WORKING ‘‘BACKWARDS’’ FROM TEACHER PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT (TPA) ‘‘TOWARD’’ ORGANIZING CLASSROOMS THAT IDENTIFY AND MEET NEEDS OF DIVERSE LEARNERS Their performances. The TPA framework anchored their focus on differentiation.

The SIOP and UDL provided scaffolds for acting on the theoretical understandings shared above. and assessment (Short. The flexible set of techniques allow for different teaching styles while always keeping the lesson focus on academic literacy. 2009). Second.. mathematical expressions and symbols. to present specific frameworks to guide planning in instruction.. and writing). UDL design invites the use of technology tools and other instructional strategies that expand access to a lesson’s content. then. and for comprehension. for language. reading. Strangman.g. Developed by Center for Applied Special Technologies (CAST) to reduce barriers to learning for students with disabilities. It combines pedagogical strategies such as cooperative learning and reading comprehension instruction with features specifically designed for ELLs.3 UDL provided candidates with the above principles and accompanying guidelines that invite multiple ways to create more inclusive lessons. application (explicit instructional strategies). SIOP techniques span: preparation that includes language and content objectives. and for self-regulation (e. integration of processes. it offers specific techniques for teachers to make content learning accessible to ELLs while simultaneously developing their second language skills. lesson delivery. UDL offers a lens through which the candidates revisited the SIOP differentiation planned for ELLs to ensure that the needs of students with identified special education needs are also addressed. Developed from a valid observation tool. Its goal is to make the content comprehensible across all language domains (speaking. listening. and for executive functions (e. planning and goal setting). . high self-expectations and reflectivity) (Hall. scaffolding (building background. for sustaining efforts and persistence.g. Principle #1: Providing multiple means of representation includes options for perception. Echevarria. & RichardsTutor. for expression and communication. UDL is a set of principles for curriculum development and lesson planning that gives all individuals equal opportunities to learn. appropriate feedback for review. SIOP model provides an intervention designed to teach subject area curriculum to students learning English as an additional language. continual opportunities for interactions in flexible groupings. comprehensible input).Preparing Preservice Teachers to Differentiate Instruction 231 observations of teaching was. multiple opportunities for practice and application. Principle #2: Providing multiple means of action and expression includes options for physical action. & Meyer. Principle #3: Providing multiple means of engagement includes options for recruiting interest. 2011). First.

They also obtained assessment data identifying the performance of the group as a whole and of each child and were asked to analyze class trends and individual needs of learners who are identified as ELLs and/or with Special Needs. required curriculum materials. the lesson plan template required consideration of both SIOP features and the principles of UDL. With Fig. and connections to the community. 1. ASSESSING AND REVISING WITHIN THE PRACTICUM In the seminar. TEACHING. Practicum Lesson Planning Process. 1. Through the Context for Learning and the Planning Commentary TPA tasks. . analyzed. The candidates described. special programs. the staffing. Candidates began the practicum seminar by learning about the students they would be teaching. candidates gathered information about the context of their school and classroom. and reflected using these two frameworks and their perceived impact upon student learning throughout their TPA assessment process described and illustrated in Fig.232 PATRICIA PAUGH AND MARY BRADY GUIDING LESSON PLANNING.

she noticed that some candidates . and assessments.’’ The initial assessment provided access to a depth of understanding about what individual and groups of students knew and could perform. Milli. applying the SIOP features to the lessons planned was the initial stage of the seminar. functions. feedback. and vocabulary students would need to learn to access the essential content of the planned lesson sequence. ‘‘I got back on track because I had someone else looking at it [my lesson]’’ and Clare reflected. objectives.it was so important to get feedback and stay focusedywhile you are in the middle of it [student teaching] you forget because you are trying so hard. Given that the SIOP contained the most explicit framework. Students submitted their planned SIOP features in advance of teaching the lesson and received detailed feedback. the instructor observed that the frameworks provided through the UDL principles and SIOP features also structured her own continuing feedback. ‘‘. revision cycle continued until the candidate was able to clearly articulate how each SIOP feature was used to scaffold potential barriers in the lesson that might occur due to the student’s level of English language proficiency.’’ In retrospect candidates commented that the UDL and SIOP frameworks along with the feedback cycle in the middle of their student teaching experience pushed their understandings. Scaffolding. they were able to prepare to ‘‘teach students rather than teach lessons. Roberta noted.. with the expectation that revisions would be resubmitted. Integration of Processes.’’ The practicum instructor replied. Mary Brady. and Assessment. they submitted explicit ways they would embed language supports into each of the 24 specific features of a lesson. ‘‘Students prior knowledge is activated so they are a part of the discussion and comprehend what is being discussed. preparing her lesson on fact and opinion.. and the unique ways in which they best learned. They were then asked to differentiate their lesson plans drawing on the overlapping but also unique guidelines and suggestions provided by the SIOP techniques and UDL principles. Grouping Options. For example.Preparing Preservice Teachers to Differentiate Instruction 233 quantitative and qualitative data. when addressing the SIOP feature of promoting engagement. most often in the form of clarifying questions from the practicum instructor. After candidates had identified and aligned the curriculum standards. After the later workshop on Academic Language they also were asked to include the forms. wrote. clustered under the SIOP headings of Preparation. This submit.’’ In reviewing the lesson plans. It prevented defaulting to the type of comment exemplified by Milli who simply reiterated a requirement rather than specifically thinking through the intended plan. ‘‘Add a specific example so that this statement relates to a particular lesson. Applications. For example.

To ensure that the candidates could recall and monitor what they intended to teach throughout the lesson. [My cooperating teacher] doesn’t have that so I made up my own chart and took bits and pieces that she gave me just to show where the kids were. 2005. Both SIOP and UDL consider assessment as a major component of differentiation. For ELLs. after revising. the seminar provided a workshop overview to help candidates revisit their personal awareness about academic language and . but instead. who may operate within multiple cultural and linguistic contexts. But neither model offers differentiated formative assessments throughout the lesson that gather data on learning of content and language objectives. UNPACKING ACADEMIC LANGUAGE IN THE CONTENT AREAS In his arguments for expanding what counts as literacy instruction in the post-NCLB era of school reforms. Candidates frequently used these checklists during small group or independent practice observing students while they worked. especially since the cooperating teacher in her placement did not have a system for tracking the learning of each child: I made my own graphyI have a big chart for each child and what their scores are. Paula found this helped her focus on each student’s learning. using written or oral modes of expression. ‘‘making language visible’’ provides cues about the power codes connected to language use and expands their repertoires of linguistic choices (DeJong & Harper. Two tasks of the TPA prompted candidates to (1) reflect on evidence of academic language in their teaching video or by analyzing student work samples and (2) describe how they scaffolded their students’ awareness of academic language. Schleppegrell. Often this took the form of checklists listing what the candidate intended for students to learn throughout a unit of study. 2004). In response. Cummins (2007) stresses the need to prioritize metacognition or an awareness of how people learn and how language works.234 PATRICIA PAUGH AND MARY BRADY initially suggested the use of small groups. could elaborate ‘‘how’’ they were using grouping strategies to support the ELLs’ understanding of the lesson’s language requirements. the practicum instructor built in an expectation for collecting formative data to determine the level of support needed for students to demonstrate what they knew and could perform. UDL instructs candidates to design multiple ways to show student learning. and SIOP guides candidates to ensure fair assessment of ELLs individually or within a group.

g. 2. The workshop was designed to connect candidates with the focus of the TPA that paralleled many of the recommendations found in the literature on linguistic diversity. ‘‘conflict’’ has both an everyday meaning of ‘‘struggle’’ but a specific connotation in narrative structure). It asked candidates to attend to the language of instruction that is the language teachers use to engage students in learning the content and the language of the discipline that includes vocabulary as well as the forms and functions associated with learning concepts in the disciplines of particular subject areas (see Fig. was more familiar from candidates’ reading methods courses. The SIOP lesson planning process had already addressed how to shelter the language of instruction. description. selection-critical (technical) terminology. the first dimension. recount. explanation.Preparing Preservice Teachers to Differentiate Instruction 235 identify areas where they needed further support. and multi-meaning words (those whose everyday meanings differ from more content specific uses – e. Vocabulary instruction. Fig. procedure. . the workshop quickly reviewed three areas important to vocabulary instruction: high frequency words. The bulk of the workshop then introduced the general forms and functions of language commonly used in schooling such as narrative.. 2). therefore. Therefore. this later workshop extended the analysis directly to the disciplinary language found in classroom texts. Structure of Academic Language Workshop.

and the language of mathematics that emphasizes articulation of precise relationships and procedures involving numbers (DeJong & Harper. language of science that emphasizes objectivity and procedures.236 PATRICIA PAUGH AND MARY BRADY and argument (Derewianka. 2005 citing Schleppegrell. Ms. language of history that emphasizes past events and the temporal relationships between them. glossaries. noun groups. Moran’s work was chosen as it represents integration of purposeful thematic study with language awareness where meaning is first then followed by explicit study of grammar and its functions (DeJong & Harper. Moran follows Derewianka and others.g. Pat Paugh utilized artifacts from routine ‘‘On the Rug’’ book discussions. what cohesive devices are used (e. who had little experience with metalinguistic teaching.. Ms. 2004). and graphs).g. imperatives in a procedure that position author as an ‘‘expert’’).. indexes. The workshop shared two concrete examples of reading and writing instruction from the third-grade classroom of a frequent cooperating teacher. adjectives work within clauses to create meaning (e. 2005). verbs. past tense verbs used for recounting an experience while present tense ‘‘timeless’’ verbs are used in a science explanation). captions. Moran and her students look in depth at how grammar and text organization features create language demands. charts. The workshop began with a review of the six commonly used academic genres summarized by Derewianka (mentioned above) and discussion of the purposes for which they might be used... rather than grammar study that is disconnected from language in use. how the language creates specific relationships between author and reader (e.g. Both Roberta and Clare noticed that the concept of general forms connected closely with their grade level reading curriculum focus on procedural and persuasive texts. 2004)). During these discussions. Moran’s consent. This only taps the surface of more intricate linguistic theory that connects the grammatical and structural features of texts with the contexts in which they are used (see Schleppegrell. Mary Moran. She analyzes the functions of grammar and structure with her students as they read as a class. However. introduction.. and how parts of speech such as nouns. Candidates later noted that a classroom video and several writing charts created by Moran and her students for a plant and garden unit were . conclusion. for the elementary level candidates. 1990) as well as a brief overview of the specific grammatical features of these in relation to content disciplines (e. Ms. this entry point for connecting language and content fit within their zones of proximal development. With Ms. connectives that show time or location). Students look at features of how texts are structured (e.g. sequence of events.g.

Clare reflected in a focus group. IMPLICATIONS AND DISCUSSION In creating productive integration of theory and practice within the preservice practicum. . [The teacher education program] needs to do a lot more with [academic language] because I had not an idea about what it meantyso the day you came in and did the charts I remember I wrote down notes and copied the chartsy[I said to myself] I didn’t know any of this and I was an English major! The two vignettes shared by the authors in this section provide a quick view of how the TPA mediated and the practicum seminars responded to the complex demands placed on urban student teachers. Differentiation Candidates’ lesson sequences varied in consistency in fulfilling the intended process of planning for both content and language goals and using formative assessment for ‘‘next steps. The environmental print charting the language structures and grammar for each genre or purpose evolved from useful learning tools for Moran’s students to an extended set of scaffolds for the preservice candidates in the seminar workshop. When asked to use information from garden journals to create a writing project. and cultural connections. Sandra’s experience was echoed by three others.Preparing Preservice Teachers to Differentiate Instruction 237 especially helpful. candidates noted a tension between formative teaching and preset paced curriculum expected at their schools. assessment. Limited space allows just a few of the many insights gained in the three vital areas listed earlier: differentiation.’’ When asked. a performance assessment that focused the candidates directly on the success of all students in their mainstream classes and asked them to monitor their own learning along with that of their students was productive. candidates’ feedback is reviewed to reflect on the theoretical and practical frameworks shared above and connect these to the candidates’ ability to enact responsive academically effective ELA instruction. It provided feedback that was not previously available to either the candidates or the teacher education faculty. In this chapter’s final section. some of Moran’s students chose either to ‘‘recount’’ their experience for second-grade friends while others chose to write ‘‘procedures’’ for teaching friends how to plant seeds or create compost.

I have a student with a behavior plan andyliterally instructions were to keep him in the class so that’s what I expected him to doyjust stay in the classyI didn’t even expect him to write to be honestybut he responded to the [lesson plans]yso much of his behavior was because the IEP says to keep him in the classroomyyou’re realizing yes but I have a job [to teach him]yso I had to combine the IEP goal with my teaching goal. Deeper understandings led to raised expectations for Sandra who realized: . They will also need to be confident enough in their grasp of ELA content to fit curriculum to the students and not vice versa. Roberta. Jenni’s assessment indicated that after teaching a carefully planned lesson ‘‘ALL the students had difficultiesythey all needed more exposure which is what I reflected on and why the lesson was tweaked at the beginning [for] the next time. next steps for the practicum and for the ELA methods courses are to provide more guided experiences for aligning curriculum to specific contexts and negotiating its use. We followed the [commercial curriculum] but there was flexibilityywe knew they were going to have an assessment on ‘‘how to’’ and it came at the end of unit twoy . Not only do preservice teachers need to negotiate their teaching at the practicum site but also they will need this skill as novices in many urban schools. offered a solution. Realizing this. found competencies beyond what was reported on one of her students’ Individual Educational Plans (IEP). Cultural Connections Candidates reflected on expanded understandings about linguistically diverse students.’’ Clare’s assessment on the other hand. Assessment Engaging in focused and formative assessment resulted in ‘‘surprises’’ and improved teaching for two candidates.238 PATRICIA PAUGH AND MARY BRADY I did a fantasy and reality lesson because that’s what fell in the [commercial] curriculum and then the grammar skill which isn’t necessarily [part of] the full lesson but that you were supposed to doy It was a little bit of a conflict because the way she [cooperating teacher] teaches is just kind of [what] she has to follow in the book. I was allowed to take what they needed to be assessed on and I had an idea of how I wanted to break it up and teach ityit was a clear goalyand I was able to change it [to fit]. however.

However.. S. Trent. we’ve begun a ‘‘backwards design’’ process that includes collaborative attention by all faculty to the preservice syllabi using the TPA as the first step for extension and reform. despite asking candidates to investigate family/ community/cultural assets in planning. & Ortiz. Kozleski.org/aboutudl/udlguide lines REFERENCES Artiles. the authors argue that their practicum and the performance assessment could provide greater visibility for CRT in the lesson planning as well as an additional structured guidance in helping candidates draw on their knowledge of ELA content and feel confident in using their own knowledge to adjust the school-based curriculum when needed. NOTES 1. A. culturally. Content faculty.. Beginning with our 2012–2013 academic year. 3. the addition of further guidelines and cycle of feedback on CRT is warranted.. Pseudonyms have been used to protect confidentiality. 279–299. 1968–2008: A critique of underlying views of culture. 76(3).udlcenter. Osher. A. This includes revisions to the entire program. 2. . special education faculty. not [focusing] on how you are teaching. and linguistically responsive led to deeper and more attentive professional growth during the practicum. ESL experienced faculty.. Justifying and explaining disproportionality. the TPA prompts and the practicum activities did not elicit the depth of cultural attention recommended within the CRT frameworks we explored. and elementary supervisors will be instrumental in this process. E. (2010). Candidates’ consents were obtained through an approved IRB process. On the other hand. In conclusion. if you see what I mean. Examples and Resources to guide UDL implementation as well as a listing of the Research Evidence are offered at http://www. Exceptional Children. expectations that candidates demonstrate effective teaching for diverse learners that is academically. Therefore. D.Preparing Preservice Teachers to Differentiate Instruction 239 You are setting up so that they [ELLs] can learn without you standing next to them translating everythingyyou are [focusing on] setting it up for your students to learn. See for a helpful and concise summary of specific knowledge about language important for reading and writing development of ELLs.

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July 9. San Francisco. Pecheone. S. 64–68.. C.Preparing Preservice Teachers to Differentiate Instruction 241 Milanowski. J. J. Tomlinson.). (2011). (Eds. University of Wisconsin Madison. Washington. Santamaria. 15(3). L. A. Nieto. J. M. Research on academic literacy development in sheltered instruction classrooms. 61(1). Heneman. 214–247. 57(1). Journal of Teacher Education. (2011)..php Moore Johnson. Government Printing Office. 363–380. R.. Culturally responsive differentiated instruction: Narrowing the gaps between best pedagogical practices benefitting all learners. Echevarria. Addressing diversity in schools: Culturally responsive pedagogy. & Kimball. S. DC: National Academies Press. (1998). DC: U. M. & Richards-Tutor. S. 00-4769). Evidence in teacher education: The performance assessment for California teachers. Teaching assessment for teacher human capital management: Learning from the current state of the art. MA. Burns. T. (2012).. H. 22–36. The language of schooling: A functional linguistics perspective. H. Short. A. (2004). Washington. A brief history of bilingual education in the United States. (2003). Fulfilling the promise of the differentiated classroom: Strategies and tools for responsive teaching. (2009). 111(1).. VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Malden. CA: Jossey-Bass. Teachers College Record. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2004). (2000). Schleppegrell. R. Language Teaching Research... Finders and Keepers: Helping new teachers survive and thrive in our schools. . & Griffin. D. & Forde. 61–72..wisc. 39(3). P.S. C. Retrieved from http://www. & Chung. Report of the National Reading Panel. Alexandria. (2009). (2006). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction (NIH Publication No. A. Presentation to Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. Teaching Exceptional Children. 2011 -2. 2012. Teacher performance assessment consortium (TPAC). Brown.edu/publications/ workingPapers/papers. R. NJ: Erlbaum. Pecheone. D. (2007). Working Paper No. Mahwah.. Richards. Snow. Perspectives in Urban Education. Preventing reading difficulties in young children.




1108/S2048-0458(2013)0000002015 245 . Practical implications – Specific ideas for instruction that addresses student literacy development while integrating 21st-century technology are included. and writing. Laster ABSTRACT Purpose – This chapter explores how teachers and learners can use technology in powerful and agentive ways for literacy development. vocabulary. fluency. Practice and Evaluation. Teachers and teacher educators will find immediately Advanced Literacy Practices: From the Clinic to the Classroom Literacy Research. It also addresses how assistive technologies fit within a literacy development program. It presents information about communication technologies (ICTs) that can be used to develop student literacy skills in each of the major areas of literacy learning: emergent to beginning literacy. P. comprehension. 245–264 Copyright r 2013 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited All rights of reproduction in any form reserved ISSN: 2048-0458/doi:10.TAKING TECHNOLOGY FROM CLINIC TO CLASSROOM Lee Ann Tysseling and B. websites for professional reviews of software are included to help readers learn about emerging technologies and software applications as they become available. Volume 2. Design/methodology/approach – A brief overview of the breadth of technologies available for instructional uses and the pedagogical perspective used is followed with specific ideas for free or inexpensive technologies that can be used to address literacy development. Additionally.

P. and independence in reading and writing in the classroom.246 LEE ANN TYSSELING AND B. practical ideas for boosting literacy learning with technologies matched to specific literacy needs such as sight words. tablets (e. rather merging or replacing familiar strategies and instructional routines with technologies that offer increased efficiency. 2009. writing. whether in the traditional classroom. targeted specifically at the learning needs and developmental stage of the literacy learner. A brief overview of how technologies are changing teaching and learning of literacy skills and strategies will help anchor the technology-based practices that we recommend following the overview. struggling readers and writers need exposure to the academic possibilities of technology.. ebooks. already covered in other chapters of this book. New technologies offer the promise of innovative ways to help learners develop skills. fluency.. LASTER useful. The Internet. smartphones. and comprehension. we explore the possibilities of how technology can be used to support and transform literacy development. or their neighborhoods. iPads). computers. fluency. while making connections to the new literacies in which students engage outside of . Keywords: New literacies. Social implications – Struggling readers and writers deserve and need experiences that help them acquire technology skills. Leu et al. A wide range of information and communication technologies (ICTs) are changing the literacy lives of readers and writers (Greenleaf & Hinchman. Most importantly. Too often these students are excluded from technology activities because they are participating in intervention instruction or do not finish seatwork and have no available ‘‘free’’ or ‘‘choice’’ time.g. The theoretical basis of literacy development. strategies. phonics. We do not suggest ‘‘adding on’’ technologies. comprehension In this chapter. the reading clinic. vocabulary. Technology can be a powerfully motivating tool for literacy instruction. It can also provide engaging practice. and text-to-speech programs are just a few examples of the ICTs that can support students with a range of aptitudes and attitudes to participate actively in learning communities. and a basis for effective work in the 21st century. improved motivation or attention. 2009). is infused here with technologies that can support or motivate learners.

We should consider how teachers perceive and use instructional technology. PEDAGOGICAL CHOICES The technology challenges of 21st century have changed ‘‘the focus of the conversation about the digital divide from questions of technological access to those of opportunities to participate and to develop the cultural competencies and social skills needed for full involvement’’ in a participatory culture (Jenkins. There is great variation in how teachers of reading and writing permeate their teaching with technology. labs. While more students in the United States have access to computers and the Internet than ever before. Liu. we encourage student-directed. Lankshear & Knobel. according to the self-reports of teachers who graduated from reading clinics/literacy labs from across the United States (Dubert & Laster. Laster. The second digital divide refers to whether a person uses technology in active or transformative ways (Lohnes Watulak. Other teachers do not always have the skills to integrate technology into their teaching (Fullan. and affordable ways that learning with technology can enhance the . 2006. accessible. We describe how teachers use technology in a continuum of teacher-centered to student-centered ways. and schools have an opportunity to play a central role in ameliorating this second digital divide.. agentive uses of technology in clinics and classrooms. In this chapter. The digital universe is also creating literacies that readers and writers must master to be fully functioning in the 21st century (NCTE. 4). 2011).Taking Technology from Clinic to Classroom 247 school (Alvermann. Some use technology regularly with careful selection to match the learner needs and curricular goals with an aim to support students in mastering the complexities of the literacy process. we all must take a deictic stance toward its instructional uses (Leu. Many reading clinics/literacy labs have assimilated technology to enhance instruction for struggling readers as technologies have evolved. 2008. we share specific. 2000). Clinics. 2011). with the hope that the emerging wave is one of students as agents of their own learning. p. In the recommendations that we make below. 2011). & LERN. 2001) or to integrate it in ways that powerfully impact student literacy learning (Lohnes Watulak et al. the primary concern of the second digital divide revolves around unequal access to the kinds of cultural and social capital that are increasingly needed. 2008). 2011). Because of the rapidity of change.

and Assistive Technologies. knowing that new uses will be discovered an hour or a day after we finalize this chapter.wikispaces. We are excited about the possibilities that ICTs offer. and the Technology in Literacy Education wiki (www. Comprehension. and http://tilesig. Writing. We assume that in-depth assessment of students’ individual needs will be a guide for the selection of appropriate instruction. we discuss digital resources in a variety of literacy areas. Throughout this chapter. all these .248 LEE ANN TYSSELING AND B. however. Literacy teachers should demand appointments to district technology committees that make purchasing decisions. Selecting Software and Technology for Reading Development Selecting Software and Technology for Reading Development There is a dazzling array of software (or ‘‘apps. Consequently. We have grouped the resources into these areas: Emergent to Beginning.org.com). The first author of this chapter also keeps a running list of recommended sites in her delicious account (www. delicious.com/BSULee). All resources should be reviewed with a critical eye.com. Vocabulary. Word of mouth or district purchasing decisions (frequently guided by sales representatives) often steer teachers in selection of software. but are wary of their limitations. Finding Appropriate Technology for Specific Students In the rest of this chapter. As explained in the introduction.commonsensemedia. http://a4cwsn. There is. overlap among most categories. LASTER development of struggling literacy learners. Apps for Children with Special Needs. teachers complain about being required to use digital programs that do not fit their students’ needs. Three such sites are Common Sense Media. Too often purchasing decisions about publishers’ digital series are made at the district level without input from literacy specialists. Fluency. Our emphasis is on suggesting general practices rather than specific ICTs.’’ compressed forms of software for use on a tablet) available claiming to be the answer to every teacher’s need. but it is helpful to also check the reviews of software available that are unbiased and completed by experts. we include websites that will provide regular updates about emerging ICTs. P.

However. and extended practice with decodable text (Reading A–Z extends beyond beginning reading levels).readinga-z. Many teachers and schools find this an easy way to match readers with appropriate text supported by lesson plans and worksheets for student practice.com).starfall.com/). Because it is relatively easy to build software and apps for this literacy need. many are constructed without a robust understanding of instructional principles for beginning literacy. it is our suggestion that Reading A–Z be used as a supplement rather than a core reading program. Instead. we cannot offer a comprehensive review of available software. sight vocabulary development. Also. As with all materials. Wild Word . Drill and Practice – Phonics and Sight Words Most teachers are aware of Starfall (www. phonics skills. Sight Word Hangman (http://www. Starfall is a free site that includes instruction in basic graphophonic relationships and provides decodable ebooks and games to reinforce these early skills. There are also numerous apps available for drill and practice of phonics and sight words (a few that have been well reviewed include Word Wall (http://itunes. Reading A–Z is a comprehensive ‘‘core reading’’ website with a subscription fee.Taking Technology from Clinic to Classroom 249 technologies are congruent with existing theories and research in each of the literacy development areas.sightwordshangman. Both provide many opportunities for work on phonics. using these resources requires careful teacher selection and planning. In fact. Phonemic awareness. We will begin with a general warning: The quality and educational value of software for beginning literacy skills is very uneven and sometimes limited. and an initial stock of sight words (words instantaneously recognized) are presented in a wide array of software.com) and Reading A–Z (www.com/us/app/word-wall-hd/id430272237?mt=8).apple. we will highlight examples of software that can serve as models for evaluation of future software releases. careful matching to student needs is essential. This resource can be used for student independent work after specific instruction and/or guiding reading practice within the context of many other texts and genre. EMERGENT TO BEGINNING LITERACY SKILLS Children who are in the process of acquiring decoding skills can benefit from practice using technology.

and articles about spelling and vocabulary. Many teachers are finding Spelling City (www.250 LEE ANN TYSSELING AND B. In most cases.spellingcity. For example. One concern is that the publisher devised new categories of words. We also have concerns about the overuse of such skill-and-drill software. 2006). too often struggling readers are assigned to such rote activities. Students can access the lists. games. The game and video format can entice students who are resistant to reading or have a fear of failure. It includes a deep reserve of word lists..com/us/app/bob-books-1-reading-magic-hd/ id405995002?mt=8). and their families. Many struggling readers will miss the central skill practice intended without guidance and instruction (Olson & Wise. Computer-based practice (skill and drill) can be useful for independent practice or as recommendations for parents to use at home. saving the purchaser considerable money. and games in the classroom or at home. . Teachers will be wise to have a ready list of games with educational value for children. It is also advisable to carefully introduce the game/activity to students so that they get the most value from their engaged time. However. P. mercury and Mercury). creative. We have found YouTube a great way to preview software/apps. Self-Publishing and Digital Language Experience Approach The Language Experience Approach (LEA) has been a reliable teaching method for many years (Allen. 1968. teachers also need to be aware that the time will be best used if they carefully match software to individual students.yahoo. We do not think that complicating vocabulary learning in this way is helpful. the YouTube samples show actual ‘‘play’’ with the software. Teachers can set up their own spelling or vocabulary lists or use existing lists and games. 2000). they created ‘‘Capitonyms. practice activities.apple.com/brain-games/wild-word-garden/). and agentive opportunities that their more able classmates have afforded which can lead to powerful mastery of literacy (and of technology). Games can also be motivating within the classroom for an individual or a small group. As Henry (2007) found. they can also add a link to their classroom website or blog. Access to digital cameras and a wide range of word processing/bookmaking software has made the LEA easier to implement and more engaging for learners (Labbo & Ryan.g.com) to be a very useful site. and Bob Books (http://itunes. Freire.’’ that seem to be multiple meanings of words that change because of a capital letter (e. LASTER Garden (http://games. missing the exciting.

A Vignette Here is an illustration of how LEA has come into the digital age. Martin reviewed them and dictated appropriate revisions.marvelcomics. Teachers have quickly learned to use technologies such as interactive whiteboards or word processing programs displayed via projectors routed through computers to take some of the labor out of traditional approaches to LEA lessons. He was sometimes willing to read nonfiction books at that level. Recently. This became Martin’s reading material for several sessions. is ideal for more fluent readers and is more fully described below under Writing. We also found it somewhat limited in characters and settings. Marvel Comics (www. a six-year-old in one of our reading clinics. 2010). This young man. The teacher then carefully printed the text into the comic strip. the teacher used a collection of Spiderman images collected from a variety of websites. He dictated the content of the speech bubbles to his teacher who recorded Martin’s text on sticky notes. overcame significant resistance to reading through LEA based on his favorite action hero: Spiderman. yet LEA is aimed at beginning readers of any age (adolescent or adults learning to read) and requires a teacher or scribe to write down what the student is saying. Although LEA has been an important component of literacy education for decades. Both forms are student-generated. its cousin ‘‘Digital Storytelling’’ has only recently gained steady acceptance as a powerful instructional activity (Labbo & Ryan. we created the comic. Digital storytelling. mature beyond the typical 1st grader in interests. The teacher did not arrange them in a story sequence. rather just printed a large number of images with Spiderman . so for our second lesson. but much preferred spelling and writing activities to ‘‘eyes on the page. morning message. frequently refused to read the guided reading level A–D books that were in his instructional reading level. It is possible to allow students to work within the Marvel Comics website itself to create their own comics. on the other hand. Once all the speech bubbles were drafted. but to save time. or LEA stories that can subsequently serve as the basis of reading lessons or practice. We used this to create a comic with blank speech bubbles for which Martin was to ‘‘write’’ text.’’ We began attempting to use his passion for Spiderman to increase the amount of time he was willing to read connected text. Digital photos taken on a class field trip or photos uploaded from a parent’s digital camera or cell phone can be quickly incorporated into shared writing. Martin (a pseudonym).Taking Technology from Clinic to Classroom 251 2010).com) has a create-your-own comic page in the website.

also hopes to begin offering translation services so that stories can be translated into languages and shared around the world. 2012). Unite for Literacy. The rapid spread of cell phones. LEA Goes Global ICTs are rapidly making it possible for emergent readers/writers to publish their work to an international audience. makes this a particularly promising approach to getting reading materials into the hands of emergent readers around the world (Zickuhr & Smith. but with the approval of the parents. the modification can make a huge difference in their motivation and reading development. LASTER and Martin’s favorite villain.realewriter. StoryBird has the advantage of being able to share the stories online with other family members. Books can be shared internationally through inexpensive technologies. An alternative to photos of real places and events is to use building blocks. Like other storybook creation software. An additional advantage . Many of the elementary school-aged boys in our classrooms have frightening familiarity with and passionate interests in video games (including games that are rated well above their age). television. RealeWriter (www. 2012). allowing them to use these images and plots in a LEA lesson may feel unfamiliar and even somewhat inappropriate to teachers. Like language experience stories these can become the ‘‘textbook’’ for literacy lessons. it provides graphics that writers select and organize to support their composition of narratives. The company. For our emergent readers. Martin then composed a story. The RealeWriter is free software that allows children/families to compose and print a book based on their own life experiences. P. including cell phones.com/photos/ st3f4n/sets/72157616350171741/for ideas to start such a project). movie. Storybook Weaver.252 LEE ANN TYSSELING AND B. whatever their age.com).flickr. toys.com) is part of a nonprofit effort ‘‘dedicated to creating world-wide book abundance through leveraging technology’’ (Unite for Literacy. as well as a generally wider selection of graphics including work by artists from around the world. and combined all into his own original Spiderman reader. The software allows beginning readers to compose their own digital language experience books and upload them to the RealeLibrary. for example. and comic book/graphic novel characters and plots. A free website that provides illustrations and allows children to compose their own stories is StoryBird (www. especially smartphones. or claymation to create a narrative based on students’ playtime interests (see Stormtroopers365 project http://www. selected images he wanted to use to illustrate the text.storybird.

An additional desirable feature is the ability to record the reader’s speech. the option to have single words pronounced. We will also discuss the uses of audio books for comprehension development later in this chapter. There are also books available in Spanish. However. Ebooks can be used effectively for fluency development. and Russian.Taking Technology from Clinic to Classroom 253 is that authors get feedback from readers. These can be used effectively but have two weak points: they rarely take into account student choice of reading material and they offer limited opportunities for agency or engagement. . French. The basic subscription for an entire school is quite reasonable and many public libraries have subscribed to the service. a feature available in Scholastic’s Wiggle Works series. We have been surprised by how quickly reviews are made and with the kindness of the comments by the reviewers. and convenient opportunities to reread the book with or without the audio available. We suggest other digital resources that can be used the address issues of fluency. younger readers would need to have some guidance in how to utilize the word analysis support. Learning Ally (www. the option to turn off the oral reading. In selecting an ebook. This assistance takes the form of pronunciation and a little word analysis work. TumbleBooks includes professional readings of a wide variety of books as well as activities to accompany them. This site allows teachers to create classroom accounts so that students do not need email addresses to create and share their own stories. we look for the following characteristics: Professional quality of oral reading of the text. Readers do have the option to turn off the narration and read the book on their own. Some TumbleBooks also have a ‘‘word helper. Chinese. Most libraries offer a wide selection of audio books in audio tape. TumbleBooks also offers a dual language format in which the reader can see/hear both the English and an alternative language edition of the book.org) a subscription service ($99 per year for parents and students) provides opportunities for readers to hear professionally narrated text that models fluent reading. Most are based on repeated reading of short texts. Authors return to the StoryBird site regularly to see the most recent reviews.’’ that offers online help with highlighted words. learningally. A site that we have found to be particularly welldesigned is TumbleBooks. and digital formats. CD. FLUENCY There have been many commercial software programs released that are designed to improve reading fluency.

These also provide opportunities for learning skills that connect to digital venues that students may see as motivating and offering connections to their lives as digital citizens. One of the disadvantages of some of the current published oral reading fluency programs is that students can become discouraged. and even by phoning in a response. Adding these digital approaches also helps address some of the 21st century skills our students need (NCTE. The Extreme Reading website Tarasiuck (2010) contains wonderful examples of student interpretations of original poetry and video book reports (http://newlits. Teachers can post a piece of leveled text on VoiceThread for a small group of readers.voicethread. Each student in the group adds an oral reading of the passage on the VoiceThread page. Another option to traverse distances is the use of Skype (or similar options) to have students practice reading poems for fluency in real time. Tablet computers and digital audio recorders make it easy to create a video-recording of a student’s reading and play it back immediately for review.com/Extreme+Reading+in+the+ Middle+Grades). using Skype for a group of people across distances to do some collaborative oral reading with Readers’ Theatre would be another way to advance fluency. recorded voice. Most readers are motivated by listening to themselves read aloud or watching a video production. bored. VoiceThread (www. Comments may be added to VoiceThread pages in text. We hope that the examples above demonstrate how fluency practice can be revitalized. A second option is to have a student post a text and their reading of it on the page and then have classmates. Teachers may choose relatively simple approaches to having students practice a text selection and record it or become as elaborate as YouTube videos or videos posted on a class website. and resistant. an engaging activity for fluency practice. 2008). VoiceThread offers many examples of ways to use their service on their home page. LASTER Beyond listening to models of fluent reading. P. Teachers can keep the oral readings hidden or students may listen to each other’s reading of the passage. VoiceThread also extends the opportunity for the Great Poetry Race (Pitcher. Similarly. .com) provides an opportunity to share fluency practice with classmates and family members.wikispaces. Grandparents a continent away can listen and respond to their grandchild using the VoiceThread platform. and family members add their responses to the oral reading on the VoiceThread page. there are several technologies that can be used to provide contexts for fluency practice.254 LEE ANN TYSSELING AND B. 2009). to go digital. recorded video. teachers. Using digital audio or video recorders offers unlimited opportunities for fluency practice.

all readers.info/. Learners quickly develop an important set of vocabulary words for subjects such as road transportation (e. Snow. Stahl & Nagy.merriam-webster. bridges. The drawings are a bit less elaborate and engaging and more ‘‘explicit’’ than those in the Visual Merriam Webster. increasingly.com/).infovisual. but especially readers and writers who struggle.. and engines). tunnels. 2009.visualthesaurus. there are embedded pronunciations and definitions in ebooks and other digital texts too. buses. This is in contrast to instructional time that requests students to only record and memorize definitions of words. This dictionary helps beginning readers by basing vocabulary development on attractive illustrations with simple definitions linked to labels becoming in essence an illustrated word wall built for a specific topic. Although www. Students can look up individual words or complete categories and explore each subject in more detail using hotlinks. cars. & White. The resources that we highlight are of particular value because each in its own way encourages learners to explore word meanings in selfdirective.Taking Technology from Clinic to Classroom 255 VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT In addition to needing to master a large set of sight words. must build their vocabulary knowledge (Graves. Thinkmap’s Visual Thesaurus (www. It places words in a dynamic semantic network and provides easy links to other reference sources . 2008. There is a wide array of online reference resources to assist them. http://www. Online Reference Resources Almost all online references provide adequate definitions and audio pronunciations. agentive ways. Additionally. 2006). which is essential to increased retention and future usage of words. Each has features that serve the purpose of individual learners. Lawrence.com is the most frequently used online reference. is slightly more efficient but is designed for older learners.com) is a subscription service but worth the small annual fee. the Visual Merriam Webster dictionary is particularly helpful (http://visual. each of these helps provide additional contexts through images or rich examples of vocabulary words used in a variety of contexts.dictionary. Of particular importance for students is grasping the meaning of words necessary for understanding content area materials and abstract ideas.g. A similar resource. For very beginning readers and English language learners. there are many better choices. Technology is a blessing for those students who have to accelerate their vocabulary knowledge. road signs.

increasing their understanding of the fit of a target vocabulary word in their semantic network of known vocabulary words as well as exploring new connections. typically the feed will include photos of parks that include the name pinnacle and images shot with a pinnacle lens on a camera. Dutch. Ebook readers typically include a ‘‘look up’’ function through which readers can quickly get a dictionary definition for words as they appear in text. Teachers should model quick look-up options that are available while reading text online regularly so that students are reminded of their availability. elaborate lists of related words. However. For example. P.256 LEE ANN TYSSELING AND B. target younger readers and . and sound effects. none of the others move and grow the way that Visual Thesaurus does. Embedded Dictionaries Dictionaries that are embedded are proving to be particularly attractive to readers. tweets. as they are pulled into the Wordnik site by the tags that photographers have added to the images they post on Flicker. A second advantage to Visual Thesaurus is that users may add Spanish. and Italian words to the word map. Many of the news websites. if you are looking up the word pinnacle in Wordnik. These include definitions from a number of online dictionaries. Students often explore an individual word for 10–15 minutes. The images are a particularly interesting resource. Scholastic News or The New York Times Learning Network. Older students appreciate seeing the examples of words being used in contemporary media.com) offers a smorgasbord of information to help learners understand words in many ways. Wordnik (www. German. Flicker images (an online photography sharing site). including synonyms. such as Time for Kids. Teachers should warn families and students that the Twitter feed sometimes contains offensive words or references. the other resources provided make the site one that is most valuable to learners. School firewalls may block the Twitter feed.wordnik. not all the tags actually result in words that help elaborate the meaning of a word. This amount of focused attention on the meaning of a word is hard to replicate with other reference resources. Larson (2010) found that young readers use this feature frequently. An excellent activity is to have students sort the images by those that help them understand the meaning of the word that they are looking up and those that are nonexamples. French. equivalents. text examples from contemporary media. However. Although there are other free websites that place words in semantic networks. antonyms. etymologies. Students will click on words and links for long periods of time. and words typically used in the same context. LASTER including encyclopedias and images.

We recommend that you select games with the following characteristics: help features that scaffold struggling readers. Comprehension development for struggling readers requires more than quizzes and points. teachers can use these for reinforcement and motivation. teachers need to play an active role in instruction and scaffolding their use. and ePals (www. Even though there are many intriguing opportunities provided by the Internet that typically motivate and engage struggling readers. Rootonym (www. a wide range of games at www. There are also games that promote word consciousness. www.mission-us. Teachers are advised to evaluate the games for the support they offer learners and use them in conjunction with deeper instruction in vocabulary.wordswithfriends.merriam-webster. and automatic spaced repetition so that missed words are reviewed. Too often they end up assigned to drill and practice activities in brief. ePals is a free site that allows . Teachers may also choose to use these features in combination with Vocabulary SelfCollection Strategy (Ruddell & Shearer.vocabulary. Freerice (www. 2002) or other word study routines.org). struggling readers are the least likely to be provided with opportunities for interesting online work.vocabulary.co. With all online reading it is easy to right-click on a word to access definitions. A few that contain the features described above include MissionUS (a vocabulary emphasis game based on the Revolutionary War.com). COMPREHENSION DEVELOPMENT It is important to provide engaging opportunities with digital texts for struggling readers.com/game/uclick/rootonym.org). uninteresting texts.com/). Games There are numerous games that provide extended practice with vocabulary words. WebQuests. Our recommendations are that teachers look to digital resources to support the instruction they provide for comprehension development and find materials that will advance their curricular objectives and motivate students.freerice.Taking Technology from Clinic to Classroom 257 adolescents and include easy access to online dictionaries. Internet Research Projects.epals. Vocabulary.com (www. feedback on errors that provide instruction. As Leu et al. and Words with Friends (www.com) provide opportunities for struggling readers to practice the real life skills they need currently and in their futures. (2009) have noted.htm).il.

and other resources/guides/questions to help scaffold the reading of books. but are more carefully structured by teachers. Many of these are of very high quality and have a promising track record but at a price that many schools cannot afford. such as myON Reader (Capstone Press) or ThinkingReader by Tom Snyder Productions. teachers cannot use audio books in place of ‘‘eyes on’’ for struggling readers. vocabulary support. but more expensive.html. graphics.googlelittrips. Google LitTrips (http://www.com/default. When working with struggling readers.. P. (3) critically evaluating information. Teachers should use their professional judgment to match these resources with struggling readers. it is also possible to use either text-to-speech functions within your computer system or pay for the Kurzweil text-to-speech program. Internet research projects. and ePals. It is also possible for teachers to design their own WebQuests focused on the reading comprehension skills they know their students are ready to develop such as visualization. and other aspects of literary appreciation. or sequencing events. 2009). Devised by Jerome Bruner.kurzweiledu. However. LASTER teachers to find Internet projects involving collaboration with students in other classrooms around the world. LitTrips combine Google Earth with teacher or student-created background information. recorded books can be used to help focus attention on comprehension. Within the frameworks of WebQuests. (4) synthesizing information.org) provides wonderful support for readers as they move through popular classic literary titles and the opportunity for teachers and children to create their own LitTrip. In a category of its own. teachers have the opportunities to teach lessons on the essential Internet comprehension skills of (1) identifying important questions. are digitally supported books designed for reading interventions. . By combining a LitTrip with guided small group reading. literary analysis. and (5) communicating information (Leu et al.com/strategies/webquests (WebQuests designed by Tom March).258 LEE ANN TYSSELING AND B. http://www. text structure. Teachers may adjust the prepackaged WebQuests to fit their students. Struggling readers will find the international collaboration very motivating both from the standpoint of giving them a purpose for reading and writing and for having an authentic audience for their work. In addition to audio books that have been read by professionals. A step further. comparing points of view on a topic. There are many sites available with prepared WebQuestions including http://webquest. Teachers may initiate projects that fit their curriculum or they may join an existing project. (2) locating information. They offer struggling readers opportunities to participate in activities with their same age peers. org and http://ozline. WebQuests are similar to the ePals activities or Internet inquiry.

Finally. and Internet skills that will be useful for other tasks in their future. the National Geographic website section for children (http:// kids. The links between comprehension and writing become glaringly obvious when looking at students doing video remixing or mash-up. We have found that there are many digital resources that provide motivating and engaging opportunities for struggling readers. Teachers can provide students with suggested online reading sites at the end of the school year.org/ includes Summer ReadsTM for third.Taking Technology from Clinic to Classroom 259 teachers are extending the student’s understanding of the book as well as map reading.nationalgeographic. sikids. Hartman. This portion of the site includes short reading passages supported with comprehension and vocabulary activities designed for students to use over the summer to counteract the summer slump. synthesize readings (intertextual comprehension.com).com/kids/) are examples of Internet sites where teachers.bookadventure. The idea of taping existing published materials and putting them together in novel ways is a fruitful platform for students’ close reading of texts and creative writing. 1995). BookAdventure (www. navigation. children. and their families can find reading materials appropriate for many struggling readers. a political commentary. Elfrieda Hiebert’s Text Project. http:// textproject. WRITING We now turn to the use of writing to support the development of literacy skills. and fifth grade readers. Sports Illustrated for Kids (http://www. Although the texts are not provided.timeforkids. Some teachers even set up blogs or wikis to encourage students to ‘‘discuss’’ their summer readings. or creative expression (Lankshear & Knobel. as well as motivation and engagement. . Some of these resources also lighten the teachers’ burden when it comes to responding to student writing. is using a set of established characters and put them together in new ways to create a new plot line.com/). com) is a reading motivation resource designed to encourage students to read outside of school. The opportunities to take their learning public motivates them to read carefully. 2011). and connect their learning to real world venues. we like to remind teachers that there are many free resources of accessible or leveled reading materials available online. Machinima. Time for Kids (http://www. an example of remix. the site does include quizzes and prizes for reading popular children’s books. fourth.

LASTER Creative Writing Fanfiction websites offer multiple opportunities for literary analysis. And emphasis is placed on positive yet constructive feedback to authors.g. It is designed to be child friendly and is carefully monitored. www. and includes writing for all levels of maturity and interests. although we do have hesitations about how a preset group graphics and scenery may confine writing. Teachers who used Storybook Weaver recognize the concept immediately.fanfic. The advantage is that it provides an opportunity for your students who are fans of particular television shows or video games to use these interests to generate writing. reading development. There are many fan fiction sites including several focused on popular series or authors such as. Prezi.net. The largest fan fiction site is http:// www. and fourth graders effectively use Animoto as a platform for reporting the results of research projects. or Animoto presentation. teachers find that it is important to teach research skills and require students to complete note-taking and organization before they begin building their PowerPoint.fanfiction. and peer feedback. we have seen struggling readers use the scaffolds to produce much more extensive and welldeveloped writing than they ever could without such support. Students can get distracted by selecting fonts and illustrations if teachers do not require that they build the content first. Another attractive feature of several of these sites is that students receive feedback from other readers about their work. Mugglenet. P. . The daughter of one of our friends actually put together a PowerPoint presentation to convince her mother that she should be able to go to Venezuela for the summer with the family of a friend. Prezi.com). third. analyze characters.. and play with plot. In our own practice. and Cornelia Funke. Diary Of A Wimpy Kid. For example StoryBird (see above) is a free web site designed for writers of all ages and includes beautiful artwork by a variety of emerging artists. and Animoto are motivating for struggling readers and writers and provide experience with presentation software that many adults use for a variety of purposes. Harry Potter (e. Doing so offers valuable opportunities to teach main idea. The disadvantage of this site is that it is relatively open. requires an e-mail address. In using any of these. Report Writing For reporting the results of research projects digital platforms like PowerPoint.mugglenet. We also have seen first.260 LEE ANN TYSSELING AND B. comprehension. Authors receive quick feedback on their posted books.

The Center for Digital Storytelling (www. Here are a few suggestions: (1) Provide lots of room for creativity but at the beginning ask students to write a one paragraph description of their project along with a schedule for completing the project. audio. Assistive technologies have .edu/storytelling/examples ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGIES Assistive technologies.uh. have been used effectively in clinics and classrooms. Teachers should hold students accountable by having them submit segments every week or two weeks. Both approaches encourage divergent thinking and are highly motivating.storycenter. teachers just have to step back and guide students.Taking Technology from Clinic to Classroom 261 supported details. We use the term Digital storytelling to mean student-generated stories from many different digital components. Some students will need more supervision than others. (4) Have students think of what makes a movie so effective (or so poorly done). For example. and multiple texts.maricopa. Digital storytelling also exemplifies the strong connection between reading and writing with student-created texts. (5) When they get stuck.coe. those for students with severe reading difficulties. well crafted conclusions. students with limited speech ability benefit from augmentative communication: electronic and nonelectronic devices – such as special keyboards that they can point to or use – that provide a means for expressive and receptive communication. including video. Examples of digital storytelling can be found also at these sites: http://digitalstorytelling. explain that their finished projects will be shown to the class (or to the entire school or even the whole community). Students with vision limitations use magnifiers. (2) As a motivator. and the strong links between comprehension. Braille and speech output devices. It is ideal for older students who can independently navigate many sites and multiple ICTs.edu/places.html http://mcli.org) is a helpful site. (3) Encourage collaboration among students so that they can be leaders or improve their weaker skills in technology or in storytelling. thinking. help them focus on the story that they are telling. Digital Storytelling Like digital LEA. or large print monitors. Use of iMovie or Windows Movie Maker are intuitive for many students. and writing.

such as Accelerated Reader and hardware/software for assessment purposes. It is likely that we will observe more and more use of technology for assessment. We were surprised to learn that many teachers also relied on reading incentive software. 2007. In 2008. 2008) is very promising. 1581). Teachers also report that they frequently access websites for lesson ideas or materials. is a necessary skill for success in our society. . CONCLUSION The use of technology for enhancing student literacy proficiencies (Coiro & Dobler. Teachers of the 21st century rely heavily on such modalities as word processing. which is ‘‘based increasingly on the effective use of information and communication’’ (Leu. LASTER been used in reading clinics (McKenna & Walpole. 2011) indicated that teachers of reading also use technology for administrative and assessment purposes. Coiro. teachers relied heavily on PalmPilots to record the results of DIBELS assessments with software developed by The Wireless Generation. 2004. Kinzer. p. The ability to move among different texts. Dalton & Strangman. digital literacies can be instrumental in advancing literacy learners who have been less-than-successful. and other assessments. and/or text readability estimates.262 LEE ANN TYSSELING AND B. We agree with the National Council of Teachers of English’s (NCTE) definition of 21st century literacies (2008) which states that students must develop competence with the tools of technology and create. In the reconfigured landscape of struggling readers. spreadsheets for analyzing student data. 2006. analyze. It is likely that these same teachers are now using the new platforms supported by this software for administration of AIMS web. & Cammack. and evaluate multimedia texts in order to be successful readers and writers in the 21st century. 2007) so that reading teachers learn the potential of these technologies. 2011). particularly the perspective of students’ identities related to literacy (Kucan & Palincsar. the Texas Primary Reading Inventory (TPRI). software for matching books to readers. P. Squire. BEYOND INSTRUCTION Results of interviews with graduates of reading clinics in 2008 (Dubert & Laster. contexts and technologies.

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This project created and implemented read-aloud enhanced podcasts into a University Reading Clinic. Ann Tarantine and Melissa Base ABSTRACT Purpose – The purpose of the chapter is to provide the reader with an overview of the ‘‘Pocket Tutor’’ project. Originality/value of paper – As many struggling readers need motivation to read independently outside of school. These are inexpensive to create and host on free websites for families to access. The chapter then makes recommendations for future projects. The authors provide suggestions for creating. Practical implications – The chapter demonstrates how a University Reading Clinic implemented read-aloud enhanced podcasts. Methodology/approach – The chapter is organized from rationale to creation to implementation.PROVIDING A ‘‘POCKET TUTOR’’: ENHANCING METACOGNITION THROUGH PODCASTED COMPREHENSION PROMPTS Erica Bowers. implementing. Volume 2. 265–281 Copyright r 2013 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited All rights of reproduction in any form reserved ISSN: 2048-0458/doi:10. Practice and Evaluation. the Pocket Tutor project provides Advanced Literacy Practices: From the Clinic to the Classroom Literacy Research. and modifying the project. Ula Manzo.1108/S2048-0458(2013)0000002016 265 .

& Frey. and a book. Fourth-grader Mary is sitting at the family’s kitchen table. Lapp. & Herrmann. in think-aloud style. a viable resource for engaging these readers. while her mom is getting dinner ready. Manzo & Casale. in which a tutor models. 1990. and reads along with a recording of the chapter. they are also being provided with metacognitive comprehension prompts. 1995). Research has shown that students’ comprehension is vastly improved if the process of metacognition is made transparent (Duffy. The books and iPods were loaned to the children by the University Reading Clinic. Manzo & Manzo. He turns on the iPod. during. flips open the book. This active . 1985.266 ERICA BOWERS ET AL. the read-alouds that they are listening to are not simply read-alouds. technology. These read-alouds are embedded with prompts to construct and respond to the meaning of the text. 2011.’’ A Pocket Tutor is an iPod ‘‘loaded’’ with podcasts of tutorial read-alouds. navigates to the right section. by taking advantage of new technologies we have been able to bridge this gap through the creation of a ‘‘Pocket Tutor. 1988). earphones. Pressley & Afflerbach. However. struggling reader INTRODUCTION Fifth-grader Casey’s mom has just picked him up from school. think aloud. Importantly. The books that Casey and Mary are reading were selected for them based on their particular interests. The teachers in our University Reading Clinic have often lamented that the one and a half hours they have with their struggling readers each week is just not enough. metacognition. Roehler. essential comprehension prompts: strategies for constructing the meaning of instructional-level text. Not only are they listening to text at their instructional level. following along as she listens to a recording of the chapter on an iPod. where they both attend tutorial sessions once a week. read aloud. His mom hands him an iPod. They comment that between meetings their struggling readers have sometimes forgotten what they worked on the session before and that they have to spend valuable time revisiting the previous week’s intervention lesson. and are estimated to be at their instructional level – third-grade level for both Casey and Mary. and after reading (Fisher. Unlike reading independent-level text. reading at the instructional level requires the reader to actively engage with the text before. Mary is reading a book. Keywords: Podcasts.

1). At kindergarten through third-grade level. or paraphrasing a larger block of text. For example. However. 1997. and comprehension fix-up (i. fix-up strategies. in read-alouds. Our goal with the Pocket Tutor project was to provide struggling readers with an engaging form of technology that models how a skilled reader navigates instructional-level text through the use of comprehension prompts. in a narrative description of two children observing movement within a cocoon. stopping to go back. The teacher then uses those generic comprehension prompts frequently.Providing a ‘‘Pocket Tutor’’ 267 engagement is driven by intentional and flexible use of strategies such as schema activation. Van Keer & Verhaeghe. The Pocket Tutor Comprehension Prompts are somewhere in between think-aloud prompts that are specific to the contents of the text at-hand and more general prompts that ask for application of a particular type of strategy. in the hope that struggling readers eventually would internalize these strategies and use these when reading other difficult materials. teachers can add prompts for visualization. and synthesizing. and schema reconstruction (Dole. Kucan & Beck. for most students. these strategies are not learned independently. ‘‘What can we predict will happen next?’’A Pocket Tutor Comprehension Prompt might be. 2005). For older students in grades 4– 12. Manzo. and Thomas (2009) proposed that teachers develop a few general phrases to use when modeling comprehension processes (or thinking aloud) with students. the prompts included schema activation. Manzo. comprehension monitoring. ‘‘So now I knowy’’ is a Prompt for synthesizing and paraphrasing. at which time they employed metacognitive skills to resolve the challenge. summarizing.’’ The phrase. and asking questions). 2002. Duffy. ‘‘What do you think the children will see next?’’ A general prompt might be. When the . 1991. Research findings from Garner & Krause’s (1982) landmark study comparing metacognitive knowledge of good and poor readers confirmed that stronger readers demonstrated more knowledge and control of reading than poor readers. The stronger readers proceeded automatically with the comprehension process until they encountered a challenge. it is essential that teachers model a range of strategies to help students become strategic readers. Therefore. using pictures and context clues.. rereading. Roehler. & Pearson. with the goal of having the student internalize and use them independently.e. metacognition. a specific prompt might be. Pressley. ‘‘So now I know there’s something inside the cocoon. Gambrell (2007) stated that ‘‘teachers who are effective reading mentors support students in developing strategic reading behaviors that help them become proficient and independent readers who read for pleasure’’ (p.

getting them to read at home is an even greater challenge as technology competes for their time and attention (Levy & Marsh. the Pocket Tutor Comprehension Prompts are specific enough to be text-connected. it is specific to the material just read – whether a paragraph. 473). students also benefit from participating in stimulating tasks. coaxing struggling readers to engage with text in the classroom is challenging enough. but allowed them to interact with print as part of the social semiotic structure of multi-modal text use’’ (p. educators are increasingly calling for the incorporation of media literacy practices into the literacy education curricula (Considine et al. teachers must tap into their students’ digital ‘‘funds of knowledge’’ to enrich literacy instruction. (1996) concluded that when students are motivated to read they are more likely to employ active strategies while reading. In addition. ii). and when they acquire effective strategies for reading they are more likely to be motivated to read. 2009). The children who participate in the clinic are generally one or more years below grade level in reading and writing. In addition to strategy instruction. or a chapter. but general enough to be applicable to most text encountered (at a particular difficulty level). THE PROJECT The Pocket Tutor project provided children participating in a University Reading Clinic. which is located in a large and diverse urban area of Southern California. . Lenhart. 89). Guthrie et al.. and the ‘‘Pocket Tutor’’ project was born. Our hope was that the iPod technology would be a significant motivator for the children to willingly engage with the read-alouds at home. Horton. phrase is completed. we hypothesized that the best way to motivate struggling students to practice reading comprehension at home was through a marriage of audio recordings with an embedded think-aloud model and ‘‘cool’’ technology using iPods. and Moorman (2009) who stated that ‘‘today’s ‘millennial generation’ youngsters seem to have boundless interest and curiosity about emerging technologies’’ (p. This is supported by Considine. 2011). and Hitlin (2005) surveyed 1. Madden. Levy (2009) found that digital media allowed children to ‘‘develop not only general understandings about how texts work.268 ERICA BOWERS ET AL. a page. For these reasons. which is determined based on a battery of assessments that include an informal reading inventory and parent and teacher interviews. with iPods to use for nine weeks during the semester.100 teens and found that today’s children are ‘‘technology rich and enveloped by a wired world’’ (p. Thus. Thus. However. Therefore.

Constructing the Comprehension Prompts At each developmental level. general interests. & Chissom. and end of the books were found and averaged. middle. At the end of the semester. For example.Providing a ‘‘Pocket Tutor’’ 269 The project was implemented for three semesters from spring 2011 to spring 2012. a new ‘‘episode’’ read-aloud of the book was added. the University Reading Clinic tutors conducted an interest inventory and an informal reading inventory in order to match students to high interest texts at their instructional level. Each week the graduate students who were providing the clinic intervention asked the children to respond to journal prompts regarding their previous podcast episode. Fishburne. the Flesch–Kincaid Grade Level readability test (Kincaid. The children were encouraged to use the iPod to listen to the read-aloud several times throughout the week. students whose instructional reading level was at least at the second-grade level and who were found to be below grade level in comprehension were selected to participate in the project. To verify the readability of the books. and the readability level of the text. When children first received their iPod. All books were fictional chapter books. at earlier levels it is important to prompt oneself to attend to . some children participated more than one semester (see Table 1). there are certain strategies that are important. Rogers. the children were postassessed on their reading level and think-aloud ability. The readability levels of passages from the beginning. For the purpose of the Pocket Tutor project. Selecting the Books Books were selected based on topic. During the first sessions with the students. Participants A total of 13 children (8 males and 5 females) ranging in grade from 3rd to 10th and varied instructional levels (2nd–6th) participated. When the children returned to the clinic for their next session. 1975) and the Fry (1990) Readability formula were used (see Table 2). readability level and the instructional reading levels of the students. it was preloaded with a comprehension prompt enhanced read-aloud of the first chapter or short section of a book that was selected for them based on their instructional reading level.

Note. Student Information.270 Table 1. . Grade/ Instructional Reading Level Spring 2011 3rd/2nd 4th/3rd 5th/2nd 4th/3rd 5th/3rd 5th/3rd ———— ———— ———— ———— ———— ———— ———— N N N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N ————— ————— ————— 5th/4th 6th/4th 6th/4th 7th/5th 5th/3rd 5th/4th 3rd/3rd ———— ———— ———— N N Y N N N N N N N Y Y Y Fall 2011 Grade/ Instructional Reading Level Fall 2011 Spring 2012 Grade/ Instructional Reading Level Spring 2012 ———— ———— 6th/2nd ———— ———— ———— ———— ———— ———— ———— 4th/4th 10th/6th 5th/3rd Student Male or Female Spring 2011 Albert Sophia Ryan Erick Maria Emanuel Kerri Billy Casey Mary Rita Ronald Doug M F M M F M F M M F F M M Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N N N N ERICA BOWERS ET AL. Students have been given pseudonyms.

Roald Dahl Basketball (or Something Like It).0 12/96 5th 271 .6 2nd 9/96 8 102 4.Table 2. Geronimo Stilton They Came from Centerfield. Author Chapters Per Book/Pages 8/64 8 228 8 57 16/166 27/112 8 112 2.6 2nd/3rd 4th Podcast Information and Readability of Books Used. Nora Raleigh Baskin The Phantom of the Subway. Fry Readability Average Providing a ‘‘Pocket Tutor’’ Book Title. Patrick Catling 12 104 4. Number of Episodes Per Book Total Minutes of Recording Flesch–Kincaid Grade Level Average 3. Dan Gutman The Chocolate Touch.2 4.5 3rd The Magic Finger.

At all levels with struggling readers. (content set) [NOTE: Each podcast begins with the previous 3 prompts] On the very first page there’s an introduction.272 ERICA BOWERS ET AL. Manzo continues to read the text aloud) (Stops and prompts) Wait (Dr. Maybey the boy in this story goes to this high school. Manzo repeats a line from the text) ‘‘state top seed Colby High and the sixteenth seeded Panthers’’ y so. Manzo continues to read the text aloud) (Stops and prompts) Wait. (clarifying vocabulary) (Dr.’’ That must mean y something good! (comprehension monitoring) Maybe y something about basketball is perfect? (comprehension monitoring) Let’s Read! (engagement/motivation) (Dr. so that students may remember and internalize them. ‘‘Perfect. it is important to prompt oneself to attend to the more complex language structures. visualization. The tutor repeatedly models the prompts using the same phrases. ‘‘The North Bridge Forum. Manzo repeats a line from the text) ‘‘surprised all of the basketball pundits by making it to the semifinals’’ yso pundits must be people who know about this stuff. and it sounds like he’s pretty good at it. Sports page B1. (clarifying vocabulary) (Dr. seed must mean how good they are? (clarifying vocabulary) (Dr. and sometimes reread when the written language is different from typical spoken language. Manzo continues to read the text aloud) . Manzo repeats a line from the text) ‘‘they felt confident that they would prevail’’ yso that must mean win. Basketball (or Something Like It): (0 min to 2:30 min) This is Dr. it is also important to use prompts that sustain engagement and motivation to read. Basketball (or Something Like it) (content set/purpose setting). in a positive tone of voice and add. and summarization. ‘‘I think you’ll like it!’’ and after each pause to synthesize. Manzo continues to read the text aloud) (Stops and prompts) Wait. (engagement/motivation) (Dr. A useful prompt to include at the beginning of an episode is. The next part is called. I think you might like this! (engagement/motivation) We’ll read to page 8. clarifying vocabulary. prevail (Dr. Manzo reads the text aloud) (Stops and prompts) So I know y this may be about a boy who likes basketball – it makes him feel good. Here is a sample from the story. Manzo reading with you. ‘‘Going on!’’ The strategies targeted with the Pocket Tutor Comprehension Prompts are schema activation. Later. and the book is. paraphrasing. that word seed (Dr. (comprehension monitoring/synthesis/prediction) Let’s Read. and also to attend to vocabulary that might be unfamiliar. the pictures. North Bridge Basketball Team Makes it to Semifinals. This part is called. comprehension monitoring.’’ That must mean that this is from the sports page of a newspaper. comprehension fix-up. and use these to aid in the construction of meaning. synthesis. and to visualize while reading.

during. Manzo repeats a line from the text). you can do so online at http:// ebowers. That must mean the story is starting way before that high school quarter finals game AND maybe that really good player is Hank. it was divided into sections according to the number of weeks the students would be attending the University Reading Clinic. this part is called.com/ Recording the Podcasts Once a book was selected.AND. (comprehension monitoring/paraphrasing/synthesis) Going on! (engagement/motivation) (Dr. maybe y that really good player is Hank. which in most cases resulted in sections of one to two chapters. The pocket tutor strategically modeled the Pocket Tutor Comprehension Prompts by thinking aloud before. The Pocket Tutor project was allotted nine weeks of the twelve-week regular semester intervention sessions. Each section of each book was recorded using GarageBandt (only available on Apple Macintosh computers. ‘‘these kids have been working toward this moment since long before they ever got to high school.mp3) file on the researchers personal computer. Audacityt could be used as an alternate program) and saved as an MP3 (. and.’’ So I know y If North Bridge wins the semifinals they will play for the state championship. the story we’re going to read may not be about what happens next it may be about how the North Bridge team GOT to this point. what’s that (Dr. ‘‘The Clinics’’ and ‘‘Hank. (comprehension monitoring/paraphrasing/synthesis) Going on! (engagement/motivation) (Dr.podomatic.Providing a ‘‘Pocket Tutor’’ 273 (2:31-4:10 omitted.’’ That must mean y The story is starting way before that high school game. 4:11 min – 5:03 min) (Stops and prompts) Wait. who are downstairs. talking about him. and after the reading (see Table 3 for prompt language) when creating the podcasts. Manzo reads the text aloud) (Stops and prompts) I can picture that y The kid in pj’s standing at the sink listening to his parents. If you would like to listen to this entire podcast. and on the next page. Four of the five books used in the project have 8 podcasts (The Chocolate Touch has 12) and they range in playing length from an average of 7 minutes to 28 minutes. The recorded read-alouds with incorporated comprehension prompts were intended to heighten the reader’s engagement and demonstrate intentional and flexible use of level-appropriate strategies for actively constructing meaning from print (Manzo et al. Manzo reads the text aloud) (Stops and prompts) This part is called y Sixth Grade.. 2009). . (visualization) The podcast continues from 5:04 minutes to 18:00 minutes.

what I don’t know is [short prediction. phrased as a question]’’ ERICA BOWERS ET AL. Comprehension Prompt O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O 2–3Ã O O O O O O O O O O O 4–5Ã 6Ã Pocket Tutor Comprehension Prompts. Note.274 Table 3.]’’ ‘‘So now I know [between the lines inferences]’’ ‘‘So now I know [short summary].]’’ ‘‘So now I know [what has happened/might happen/etc. and we’re reading _____’’ ‘‘I think you’ll like it!’’ ‘‘There’s a picture here [describe]’’ ‘‘What was that? [re-read] That must be _________’’ Continuous comprehension monitoring Focus on translation Focus on characters by name Focus on plot essentials Focus on basic inference End of section comprehension review and prediction ‘‘What was that? [re-read. . emphasizing enunciation to clarify meaning]’’ [at logical sections – each ½ page to 1 ½ page] ‘‘So now I knowy [clarifying information based on new knowledge]’’ ‘‘So now I know [translation – put in own words]’’ ‘‘So now I know [character wants/thinks/feels/is going to/etc. Purpose Content set Engagement Attention to pictures Attention to difficult vocabulary Attention to difficult syntax ‘‘This is _____ reading with you. Asterisk indicates readability level of text.

where.Providing a ‘‘Pocket Tutor’’ 275 Uploading the Podcasts The MP3 files were then submitted to iTunes by a graduate student who used her personal iTunes account. is that in Sustained Silent Reading students are intended to be reading independent-level materials. the journal included basic questions about the use of the iPod and podcast – how many times. Initially. Role of the Podcasts in the Tutorial Sessions We intentionally did not encourage the University Reading Clinic tutors to incorporate the contents of the read-aloud books into their instruction. and the informational content of instructional-level materials – making the act of reading more comfortable and enjoyable. As the project developed. In addition podcasts may be published as an iTunes RSS feed. The difference. we revised the journals to include information about the embedded comprehension prompts and to produce more substantial feedback. at the beginning of each of the following semesters. However. Monitoring Students’ Progress and Attaining Feedback during the Project We did. Because the participants were in the University Reading Clinic weekly. the language patterns. The revised questions encouraged the students to develop metacognition about the comprehension prompts. the podcasts were loaded onto the iPods by the graduate student to avoid placing this task on the parents. to which parents and/or students may subscribe through their own iTunes account using their personal iPod. For . The journal questions were revised two times. of course. The role of the read-aloud was meant to be similar to that of Sustained Silent Reading – increasing the amount of time a student spends in engaged reading. and when they listened to the podcast. what they liked/disliked. however. ask the University Reading Clinic tutors to write down the responses their students gave each week to the Pocket Tutor journal prompts to monitor the participants’ progress and to generate feedback. thereby increasing the student’s familiarity with the vocabulary. and what problems they encountered. the podcasts could also be made available online and updated weekly or the entire podcast could be made available at once and the students could read at their own pace.

there were many technological roadblocks that we overcame while implementing the Pocket Tutor project. example. how the tutor’s thoughts helped them understand the story. and text selection. As the iPods for the project were loaned to different students each semester. however. However. Copyright/Fair Use Issues In addition to the challenge of syncing the loaned iPods. copyright rules.276 ERICA BOWERS ET AL. Technology. another path we navigated was the policy on copyright and fair use. Apple has ensured that each iPod can only sync with a set number of computers. the Potential. WHAT WE LEARNED Implementing the Pocket Tutor project has been both challenging and rewarding. and if they started using the phrases that were repeatedly mentioned by the tutor (see appendix for a sample journal). who listened to different recordings. To protect recording artists. we have gained substantial knowledge about creating a podcast. but many of the obstacles we encountered were due to Apple’s proprietary software. Below. Over the past three semesters. We had purposely selected the Apple iPod to use for our audio recordings due to what we felt was its ‘‘coolness’’ factor. we chose to upload the podcasts for our participants each week when they returned to the University Reading Clinic. they were asked why they thought the tutor stopped to think-aloud during the story. As the project involved reading popular trade books out loud and making the recordings available online. Therefore. we highlight a few of the hurdles we overcame while developing our project. it is possible to provide the MP3 recordings to the families so that they can manually upload them to the borrowed iPod. and the Challenge Advances in technology have created enormous opportunity for creating literacy interventions. we wanted to ensure that only those students who were also provided . it became difficult to figure out how to allow the families to easily upload the podcasts themselves.

we had matched two boys with a text we had perceived to be high interest. knowing that the recording length would be longer as we were also embedding comprehension prompts. and that (3) students’ repeated experiences with teacher modeling of strategy phrases leads to their . we noticed that around the third session of use they were losing interest as they were responding to the weekly journal with ‘‘I forgot to read’’ or ‘‘the iPod didn’t work. that (2) these strategy phrases can be taught by demonstration in ‘‘readalouds’’ accompanied by ‘‘thinking aloud’’. This was a second reason for uploading the podcasts ourselves each week. we were experimenting with different types of books and lengths of podcasts. during the first semester of project implementation. However.Providing a ‘‘Pocket Tutor’’ 277 with a copy of the book were able to listen to the podcasts. In addition. We considered the age of the student and the length of each chapter. We were essentially creating podcasts to equal the number of sessions that our students would be able to participate.’’ After reviewing the length of time of each podcast (average 28 minutes). By the third semester. It ensured that the recording was only shared with a child that had a text. the successful reader uses strategy phrases (often questions) and fix-up strategies intentionally and flexibly in order to reconstruct the author’s meanings. Matching Readers to Text The first semester we implemented the Pocket Tutor project. Another way to maintain copyright would be to only provide those students who are provided a book with a link to the MP3 recording. we more proficiently matched students to text and length of podcast. struggling readers need the comprehension process to be made apparent to them if they are to increase their capacity for constructing meaning from text. For example. The theory of mental modeling (Manzo & Manzo. CONCLUSION Teachers have often lamented that the neediest students do the least amount of reading at home. 2002) proposes that (1) in instructional-level reading. we realized that when read-aloud prompts were coupled with a lengthy chapter it affected the engagement of these reluctant readers and that we needed to factor in length of podcast to maintain interest.

(c) engaged reading and its constituents (motivation and cognitive strategies) can be increased by instructional practices directed toward them. Even the most reluctant readers did. Also not directly investigated .1988). Guthrie and Wigfield (2000) established the theory of reading engagement which states that (a) Engagement in reading refers to interaction with text that is simultaneously motivated and strategic. The prompted read-alouds were simple to create and. when working with struggling readers it can be challenging to find materials at their independent level that will not be perceived by them as ‘‘babyish. and returned each week (again.. though the process of making these available to students involved a steep learning curve. Children in the Pocket Tutor project went home each week with an ‘‘outside reading’’ book that was at their instructional level.’’ This can be as true of a third-grade student given a kindergarten or first-grade level book as it is of an eighth-grade student given a fifth or sixth-grade book. mental modeling and reading engagement through the use of new technology in the hopes of motivating students to practice their reading comprehension skills at home between intervention sessions at the University Reading Clinic. Our experiences in creating and providing the prompted read-alouds. The goal of the Pocket Tutor project was to marry these two concepts. An additional point in favor of the Pocket Tutor approach is that while it is generally understood that ‘‘outside reading’’ should be at a student’s independent level. at least at a basic level. All children completed their books by the end of the semester. The extent to which the children in the project would successfully make inferences and applications based on their basic understanding of the book sections was not investigated in this project. with few weekly exceptions. However. with a few weekly exceptions) having read/listened to the weekly section and having understood it. internalization of the strategies for use when attempting to read instructional-level materials on their own (Duffy et al. just sending students home with a read-aloud of a book may not be motivating enough. and (d) an instructional framework that merges motivational and cognitive strategy support in reading will increase engaged reading and reading comprehension. read/listen to the weekly book selections. (b) engaged reading correlates with achievement in reading comprehension.278 ERICA BOWERS ET AL. along with our weekly observations and the simple weekly ‘‘journals’’ collected by the tutors confirmed that we realized this goal. we were able to begin the project with a basic knowledge and by the third semester had streamlined production and created easily accessible iTunes podcasts.

P. L. C. These questions could be incorporated into next levels of investigation. Fry. ‘‘Is it better. Pearson & R. NJ: Erlbaum... 471–481. Jr. A. 762–767. Journal of Reading. Van Meter. Comprehension: The cooperation of many forces. Roehler. Educational Research Quarterly. & Krauss. M. S. Bennett. Good and poor comprehender differences in knowing and regulating reading behaviors. Mosenthal. In D. D. T. D. ‘‘I think it is better because it stops and makes me understand what I’m reading.. 11/3/2011) said. TN: Naval Technical Training. J. & Pearson. G. B. Millington. R. (1975). For now. Kucan. Additionally. pp. Reading Research Quarterly. Kincaid. Mahwah.). 271–299.. Review of Educational Research. T. 239–264. Guthrie. Dole. (2011). Modeling mental processes helps poor readers become strategic readers. Handbook of research on teaching the English language arts (3rd ed. Naval Air Station. (2000).. The Reading Teacher. & Frey. . E. R. L. A. the children who participated in the clinic for the past three semesters spent more time outside the ‘‘classroom’’ engaged in successful instructional-level reading.S.. Rogers. McCann. D. Fisher. Growth of literacy engagement: Changesin motivations and strategies during concept-oriented reading instruction. (1991). P. Duffy.. 52(6). L. B.. As one student said in response to the journal question. Lapp. Kamil.. (2007). 6. J. (1988). K.. & Herrmann. 61(2). NY: Taylor & Francis. Horton.. In M. G. R. L. G. it would be important to learn the effectiveness of prompted read-alouds of nonfiction material. Engagement and motivation in reading. 306–332. Roehler. 67(3). (2009).). Lapp & D. or not as good as reading a book by yourself?’’ Casey (grade 5. J. Garner.. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy. & Chissom.. Gambrell. A readability formula for short passages. Barr (Eds. G. & Wigfield. 5–12. the same.. P. C. D. P. TN. J. Duffy. and motivators. Moving from the old to the new: Research on reading comprehension instruction. D..’’ REFERENCES Considine. Wigfield. 33(8). mentors. P. J. 258–263). III. R. Thinking aloud and reading comprehension research: Inquiry. (1996). G. L. and social interaction. Fog Count and Flesch Reading Ease Formula) for Navy enlisted personnel. (1982). Promoting pleasure reading: The role of models. D.. 25(1). 31(3). B. New York. Teaching and reading the millennial generation through media literacy. I... instruction... U. 41(8). A. L. 16.. A. P.. 403–422). Derivation of new readability formulas (Automated Readability Index. Research Branch Report 8-75.. Memphis. L. N. Handbook of reading research (Vol. (1997). & Moorman. Review of Educational Research. Reading Today. (1990). y Mitchell. Poundstone.Providing a ‘‘Pocket Tutor’’ 279 was the extent to which the children may have begun to internalize the comprehension prompts and to use these when reading other materials. Fisher (Eds. A. L. pp. & Beck. Fishburne. R. Guthrie. 594–597. A.

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too? If you are. Do you remember anything. How have the reader’s pauses and thoughts helped you understand the story? 3. 1. How many times did you listen to the story? Why did you read the story (Did you want to read it yourself or were you asked to by your parents or other adults)? 2. What are some things you like about using it and what are some problems (if any) you have with using it? . give an example (or examples). besides certain phrases.Providing a ‘‘Pocket Tutor’’ 281 APPENDIX: POCKET TUTOR PROJECT JOURNAL 1. Where and when did you listen to it? 3. why have you decided to use it? 4. Does the reader say something that you have begun to say. that the reader pointed out to you (such as descriptions or pictures)? If you do. Why do you think the reader is stopping and thinking out loud during the story? 2.


INNOVATIVE PRACTICES IN THE READING CLINIC: HELPING ‘‘DIGITAL NATIVES’’ INCORPORATE 21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES Joan A. Rhodes ABSTRACT Purpose – The chapter provides the reader with an overview of the impact technology has on literacy education and makes a case for utilizing the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) framework for incorporating instructional technology in the reading clinic. The focus then shifts to how instructional technologies can be utilized to enhance literacy learning during a one-on-one tutoring program. Advanced Literacy Practices: From the Clinic to the Classroom Literacy Research. Volume 2. Methodology/approach – The author describes the changing nature of literacy instruction and the need for 21st century skills for teacher candidates and the students they serve.1108/S2048-0458(2013)0000002017 283 . 283–301 Copyright r 2013 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited All rights of reproduction in any form reserved ISSN: 2048-0458/doi:10. Pedagogical possibilities and instructional expectations are shared through discussion of the technology activities used by teaching candidates participating in school-based reading clinics. Practice and Evaluation.

feel uncomfortable using it (22%). Rosen (2010) reports that preteens. do not use the Internet (17%). smartphones. and those born before this time period. digital literacy. Adults. Instructional uses of eReaders. Today’s students are engaged in multiple forms of literacy learning in both formal and informal environments. practice field. and iPads for literacy learning are noted in the chapter for possible replication in other reading clinic programs. Social implications – The chapter suggests how the university reading clinic can provide opportunities for teacher candidates to work collaboratively with students to incorporate technology into literacy learning activities. tutoring. presents a challenging situation for educators (Prensky. the digital immigrants. eReaders. The reported gap between the levels of technology expertise of persons born after 1980. RHODES Practical implications – In addition to descriptions of how teacher candidates utilized technology within their reading clinic instruction. have also experienced changes in the ways they gather and process information in both their work and personal lives. and young adults are consuming media upward of a nearly impossible. Keywords: Reading clinic.284 JOAN A. or shopping mall and you will find evidence of the profound impact information communication technologies have on modern society. iPads. teens. In fact. the author notes affordances and challenges of integrating technology in oneon-one instructional settings. 2001). digital natives. or feel only somewhat comfortable working online (21%). and the other myriad of technology tools available to students are changing the nature of reading and study. 20 hours a day. Further. teacher candidates INTRODUCTION Look around any classroom. instructional technology. Working with technology in a tutoring environment serves as a foundation for incorporating digital literacy instruction in teacher candidates’ future classrooms and ensuring that students have the 21st century skills necessary for college and employment. Future directions for additional research are included. including faculty. technological pedagogical content knowledge framework. Recent AARP survey results (2010) indicate that 60% of persons over the age of 50 either. only 4% of the over 50 population reported owning a smartphone and only . Clearly. laptops.

One way of assisting public schools in meeting the changing demand for tech savvy educators is to ensure that new college graduates have the technology and pedagogical skills necessary to infuse technology in the literacy classroom. its use recognizes the interrelationships between pedagogy. & Thompson. teachers. and administrators need . 2010). and become familiar with the strengths and limitations of technology tools. and content experienced in authentic learning environments. The Common Core State Standards adopted within the United States in 2010 indicate that students should be able to use technology and digital media to enhance their reading and writing. the standards indicate that students should be able to select and use the appropriate medium for their communication goals (National Governors Association Center for Best Practices. 2011). Council of Chief State School Officers. courses designed using TPACK situate technology instruction within pedagogical and content knowledge (Baran. Further. Faculty working toward this goal can utilize the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) framework as a means of organizing instruction to provide teacher candidates with the skills necessary for successful technology integration (Graham. Zickhur and Madden (2012) reported similar results where the contrast in Internet adoption between adults ages 50–64 (77%) and adults ages 18–29 (97%) was significant. 2011). The International Society for Technology in Education developed the National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) to help define the skills and knowledge students. 2011). use online searching to acquire information.Innovative Practices in the Reading Clinic 285 2% owned an iPad (Koppen. 2010. and technology knowledge and is useful for providing candidates with an interconnected approach for integrating technology in the literacy classroom. National and state standards focused on the development of 21st century workplace skills and technology use have formalized instructional objectives related to information communication technology for those working in public school classrooms. these statistics suggest that many educators in the public schools may need support in incorporating technology into their classroom instruction. 2011). Faculty who provide experiences utilizing technology should ensure that their instruction addresses the TPACK domains as well as curriculum standards. Graham 2011) suggest that the framework needs further clarification to define each of the relevant domains. Chuang. The TPACK framework represents the relationship between and among the domains of pedagogy. technology. Although some researchers (Archambault & Barnett. Unlike traditional technology training. With the proportion of teachers ages 50 and older in the K-12 teaching workforce standing at 31% (Feistritzer. content.

One challenge presented by embedding technology into this changing instructional environment is that research shows preservice educators are not consistently utilizing digital media within their university preparation programs (Carter. and create media information (Hobbs. speaking. students. Reading clinics provide faculty members with an environment to embed technology into a practical field-based experience. Twenty-first century educators need preparation to help students transfer the technology skills they use in daily life to new educational purposes. 2011. and use information (Henderson & Scheffler. Smith. practice reading. analyze. Fortunately. Walkosz. The clinic setting also allows opportunities to observe teaching candidates as they develop integrated technology lessons using the TPACK conceptual framework. 2004) and media literate – able to access. more technologically experienced student population at their own level. evaluate. 2011b) and the International Reading Association’s Standards for Reading Professionals: A Reference for the Preparation of Educators in the United States (2010) both indicate that teachers need to use a wide range of digital and online resources and provide activities that encourage reading. 2010). and creating products in digital environments. Jolls. writing. & Rhodes. RHODES for effective learning in a digital society (ISTE. standards for educators (ISTE. and teacher candidates must be both information literate – able to find. & Sund. 2011a). 2008) DEFINING INFORMATION AND MEDIA LITERACIES As teacher candidates prepare for instruction with students in the K-12 language arts classroom. For these reasons. The NETS-T. The use of digital media can support educators in the reading clinic by providing opportunities for students to develop information and media literacy expertise. No longer does literacy’s general definition as the ‘‘minimal ability to . many university education programs are incorporating instructional technology learning activities into their courses. 2010. they must consider the expanding definition of literacy. Roscorla. locate. and writing skills and collaborate on projects with others from around the world. Faculty in teacher preparation programs must ensure that teacher candidates are prepared to meet a younger. There is clear recognition that to be successful in college and life in a technological society. the momentum at both the national and state levels to include technology and media literacy skills in curriculum standards provides an impetus for university educators to refocus instruction to meet the demands of 21st century literacy skills.286 JOAN A.

and information-rich society. Information literate students need to be able to locate and evaluate information to enhance personal learning and expand investigations. 2011). n. 142) fit the broadening manner in which technology has influenced communication. pp. moving away from viewing themselves of consumers of information to one of creators who share information. and point of view. a group that .d. vi–vii). These types of activities require students to be cognizant of how media affects their lives. making use of language.org. One view of modern literacy includes consideration of the overwhelming amount of information encountered on a daily basis. and new digital tools and technologies  Reflect on one’s own conduct and communication behavior by applying social responsibility and ethical principles  Take social action by working individually and collaboratively to share knowledge and solve problems in the family. Domine (2011) suggested that educators widen their focus and increase their technological proficiency. Many teachers will need to move out of their comfort zones to tackle these five components. Literate citizens must possess the ability to  Make responsible choices and access information by locating and sharing materials and comprehending information and ideas  Analyze messages in a variety of forms by identifying the author. workplace and community. THE ‘‘DIGITAL NATIVE’’ TEACHER CANDIDATE Leading authorities in technology education have suggested that current teacher candidates belong to the generation of digital natives. images.). 2010. 1995. However. Hobbs (2010) describes five media literacy components necessary to participate in a media. as well as a mindset or way of thinking about the use of reading and writing in everyday life’’ (Venezky. information literacy is not enough when we consider the need to capture the variety of ways students use digital environments for creative self-expression and entertainment. purpose. Instruction in media literacy begins in early grades with awareness activities and later moves to the more complex activities of media analysis and production (Media Literacy Clearinghouse. Students must use information to accomplish specific goals while demonstrating awareness of the social and ethical issues that surround information use (Association of College and Research Libraries. p. Media literacy instruction encourages students to reflect critically on the media messages they encounter in popular culture (ReadWriteThink. and evaluating the quality and credibility of the content  Create content in a variety of forms. and by participating as a member of a community (Hobbs. 2000).Innovative Practices in the Reading Clinic 287 read and write in a designated language. sound.

’s study who favored passive. 2005). teacher candidates participate in semester-long reading clinic practicum experiences where they design remediation lessons focused on the needs of individual learners in order to improve reading and writing performance. recent research and first-hand experience in university classrooms suggest that digital ‘‘nativeness’’ may not apply in all situations nor with all technologies. Prensky (2010) proposes that the educator’s role shift toward acting as a facilitator of knowledge acquisition using a guide-on-the-side partnering model versus a more traditional sage-ona-stage model. When utilizing technology with students. Margaryan. Pugach. These future educators should have the technological proficiency to integrate informational and media literacy into their classroom instruction. 2001). INCORPORATING TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITIES IN THE CLINIC Every academic year. and Vogt (2011) found that students use a limited range of mostly well-established technologies. conventional. However. & Himes. lessons have primarily focused on using paper-based curriculum materials and methods. Faculty anticipate that incorporating digital technologies in the reading clinic will provide a structured and supportive environment where teacher candidates are able to experiment . RHODES because of growing up in a technology-infused world is hard-wired for multitasking and adapting to all things digital (Prensky. In an exploratory study of 160 university students’ use of digital technologies. The reading clinic. is a perfect setting for experimentation with this type of facilitated instructional model. but increasingly university faculty are asking candidates to integrate technology into their lessons (Staples. If all contemporary teacher candidates are like the students in Margaryan et al. In the past.288 JOAN A. Littlejohn. They also found no evidence to support claims that university students were adopting radically different learning styles. how will they develop the skills necessary for teaching with technology as well as the pedagogical knowledge needed for incorporating technology into their lessons? Vavra and Spencer (2011) suggest that teachers need to take advantage of opportunities for exploring text sources and multimedia resources in digital environments as well as use the production tools available in their schools. and linear teaching and learning styles. where candidates are able to work one-on-one with students. Educators would should supply overarching guiding questions and then coach students using the available resources.

One of the most important aspects of a reading clinic tutoring experience is being able to tailor instruction to meet individual learners’ needs in an environment where relative strengths are recognized and research-proven teaching strategies are utilized (Ortlieb. which tend to work more easily in clinics where candidates utilize instructional materials specifically selected or designed for individual students’ needs rather than those who require prescribed curriculum activities. & Cheek. tablet computer. journals. This type of clinic environment offers unique opportunities for students to test Prensky’s facilitation model for technology integration within a realistic teaching context. 2009). 2011). all candidates should be expected to provide instruction that meets the learning standards outlined by the relevant policymaking bodies and that supports the classroom teachers’ expectations. In a Pew Internet & the American Life Project report. or cell phone (Rainie. Purcel. The ease of use and inexpensive access to literary works make eReaders a viable option for reading clinic classrooms. Madden. 2012). The .Innovative Practices in the Reading Clinic 289 with technology tools and pedagogy while enhancing their tutees’ 21st century literacy skills. Although lessons can vary significantly among course participants. 2012). regular computer. Even politicians have suggested that the use of digital textbooks available on eReaders or laptops is an affordable means of providing open source instructional materials (Lewin. The rise of eBook use in America is an indication of a shift in reading trends from paper-based texts to digital materials. Using eReaders (Kindles) Pilot programs incorporating the use of Kindles with students in grades K12 are becoming commonplace (Barack. Grandstaff-Beckers. Zickuhr. One schoolbased reading clinic had 5 Kindle eReaders available for use during the semester to rotate between 15 candidate–student pairs as needed. The activities are a sampling of ways technology can support instruction in tutorial settings. The remainder of this chapter focuses on instructional activities used by teaching candidates participating in school-based reading clinics. & Brenne. 43% of Americans age 16 and older say they have either read an eBook in the past year or have read other content such as magazines. The use of Kindles and other eReading devices support clinicians as they differentiate instruction and improve student learning. and news articles in digital format on an eBook reader. The flexibility afforded in this model allows and encourages candidates to test different types of materials and instructional methods.

students increased and decreased font size to improve the ease of reading. From an instructor’s point of view. the majority of candidates reported that they could not afford an eReader and wished they had more time for ‘‘playing’’ with the device to increase their own comfort level before using it with their tutees. introducing the Kindles to the teacher candidates offered some challenge. The Kindle provided a text-tospeech feature that allowed students to hear a story read orally while tracking print. The small class size made sharing devices relatively simple with students collaboratively determining a schedule for use among their partner groups. all digital natives according to Prensky’s definition. students are often intimidated by reading materials printed in smaller font sizes. RHODES candidates and instructor determined that they would use the eReaders to assist students who were having difficulty comprehending text or showed evidence of weak vocabulary knowledge. Some students had experience with more advanced devices and were frustrated by the lack of a touch screen on the available Kindles. Candidates found that some students would willingly tackle texts that were more challenging when they simply increased the font size of the reading material. This feature allowed readers to compare what they believed were important aspects of a story with the ideas of members from the broader community. The candidates. As practical experience shows. students also referred to the Kindle’s Popular Highlights feature to determine what other readers selected as interesting passages within a text (Amazon. One candidate working with a fifth-grade English language learner (ELL) was quite surprised when her tutee started using the pronunciation key in the dictionary to support her oral reading performance. This comparison resulted in interesting conversation between tutors and students focusing on higher-level comprehension skills required when reading deeply to analyze texts. Students highlighted information and took notes while reading. This slight uncertainty allowed for the natural movement of teacher candidates into a . offering additional support to those whose comprehension was impacted by nonfluent reading. The Kindle also had a number of components related to studying in digital text environments.290 JOAN A. were unfamiliar with using the Kindle tool. Another feature that was extremely helpful for increasing student comprehension was using the device dictionary to immediately identify and study word meanings. However. The Kindle eReaders offered a number of features to aid students with comprehending and retaining information. Additionally. 2004–2011). Through the school’s WIFI connection. This unplanned discovery became a favorite strategy in this candidate–student pair.

2008). Additionally. Teacher candidates participating in a reading clinic housed in an elementary school with a large ELL population developed lessons to capitalize on the positive results of previous studies in the areas of composing. The use of laptops increased students’ opportunities for composing. revision. Tutors actively provided scaffolding and coaching for their tutees as they worked together. candidates became more familiar with using an eReader in their instruction.and eighth-grade students participating in a laptop immersion program exceeded district and school mean scores on the school district’s writing performance assessment when they worked with laptops. 2005) showed that sixth. Anytime Anywhere Learning Project. teachers reported that students created more rough drafts and focused on content rather than mechanics when using laptops for writing (Rockman et al. 1997). the candidates primarily utilized reading material selected by the course instructor rather than asking for content that related to their tutees’ interests. but continued to prefer using mobile devices and laptops. Across the course of the semester. Candidates were encouraged to consider developing an eBook retelling using Rhodes and Milby’s (2007) model as a foundation for their work. any who wished to borrow a laptop from the university technology office for the clinical experience were allowed to do so. revising. A more recent investigation (Gulek & Demirtas.. using word processing allowed for efficient feedback from teachers as well as an increase in writing for authentic purposes in a variety of formats and genres. However. and publication using their personal laptops during reading clinic lessons. Students were energized by the introduction of the eReaders to the tutoring sessions and in general were motivated to read from the devices. Using Laptops As early as 1997. studies noted the positive effect of laptop use on student writing performance. The candidates had freedom to select software programs to encourage writing during their tutoring sessions or utilize those introduced by the instructor during the lecture portion of the course. a process rooted in sociocultural theory in which all participants learn from and alongside one another (Martin. Although all teacher candidates were required to purchase laptops as part of enrollment in the university. In an independent analysis of the Microsoft–Toshiba partnership.Innovative Practices in the Reading Clinic 291 position of mutual learner. and publishing written work in Grimes and Warschauer’s (2008) study of elementary and middle school students. .

use of the laptops for enhancing the writing portion of the clinic experience was viewed as successful even though some candidates were somewhat anxious about allowing children to use their highly valued computer hardware. the school was willing to allow the teacher candidates to use their Internet connection for students to conduct searches for information for writing projects. The use of images for planning was particularly helpful for the ELLs who needed to review English vocabulary items. lending them readily to youngsters as the need arose. Fortunately. Some students were not accustomed to writing for real audiences so publishing and printing for their classmates and teachers became a prized opportunity. text. This web-based program allowed students to review story sequence while discussing the role of speech bubbles in cartoon strips. teaching candidates were not as protective of their mobile smartphones as their laptops. Composing on laptops appeared to be one of the most beneficial uses of technology during tutoring sessions. Candidates could take advantage of these activities and offer instruction on the information/media literacy skills of accessing and evaluating.292 JOAN A. RHODES One popular use of the laptop during writing was related to brainstorming prior to composition. and hyperlinks to prepare their maps. representing an 11% gain in users within a period of nine months (Smith. Students were expected to develop a piece of writing at each tutoring session. students created between one sentence and several paragraphs during the writing portion of the clinical session. 2012). Furthermore. Following drafting. The one-on-one instructional environment of reading clinics are highly suitable for observing student Internet search behaviors and ensuring students can express how they determine the credibility of an Internet site. 2012). the ages of most college students who participate in preservice reading . Overall.org (IRA/NCTE. More advanced students used images. Teacher candidates asked their students to create mind maps using the Inspiration software program to serve as a basis of their daily writing projects. Using Mobile Technologies Surprisingly. The Pew Internet & American Life Project reported that 46% of adults owned a smartphone in February 2012. Depending on their developmental level and writing expertise. candidates focused on teaching students to use the spelling and grammar check features of the word processing program. 70% of adults ages 18–29. Students found the ability to create and retell short stories using images and dialogue particularly motivating. A favorite writing project to share with others was made using Comic Creator from ReadWriteThink.

and in the case of one student as a reward for working hard during the tutoring session. further blurring the division between personal and work life. very few candidates had access to iPads or tablet devices. . (2010) conducted an international study of 2600 people in 13 countries to gauge employee expectations regarding access to work information. the teaching candidates began to bring in their own devices for use with their students. Findings indicate that 66% of the workforce expects anywhere. However. the faculty supervisor of the school-based reading clinic was unaware of the level of access candidates had to mobile phones and therefore intended to incorporate only laptops and eReaders into the reading clinic activities. owned a smartphone. types of feedback provided. stating that schools are now rethinking bans on mobile devices in favor of BYOD programs (New Media Consortium. Williams. This trend.Innovative Practices in the Reading Clinic 293 clinics. McClanahan. Susan Tancock (2012). authenticity. This formalized approach provided practice in looking at applications with a critical eye while developing a listing for classmates to use with their tutees. almost all were able to utilize mobile phones. The reading clinic environment was an ideal setting for exploring BYOD instructional approaches. 2012) and is now beginning to be seen in educational settings as well. Kennedy. Inc. and differentiation capabilities among several others. Discussion around new phone applications (apps) for instruction became a regular topic during informal conversations prior to class. Candidates primarily used smartphones for finding information needed during their discussions and reading with students. for game play. The 2012 Horizon Report lists BYOD as one of its trends for adoption within a year. Josh’s tutor planned to use the iPad as a reward for maintaining focus during tutoring sessions. Bring Your Own Device (BYOD). a remedial reader participating in reading clinic sessions. and Tate (2012) found tutorial instruction using an iPad very beneficial to Josh. provided an excellent model for evaluating applications for use in the reading clinic. She described her process as one where reading clinic participants evaluated a specific number of apps and then all shared their scoring with the total group of teacher candidates. anytime access to workplace information and those with remote access spent up to an additional three hours a day working. has been evident in business settings for some time (Thomson. The flexibility offered in an individual tutoring model allowed candidates to use their mobile devices to enhance lessons based on student need. Cisco Systems. who presented at a recent IRA Technology in Literacy Education-Special Interest Group (TILE-SIG). 2012). Initially. Although. These informal discussions will become a permanent feature of future reading clinic courses. She suggested that students evaluate apps using a format that includes reviewing the curriculum connection. Initially.

iPads are particularly useful for assisting students in developing multimedia projects in tutoring sessions. the researchers noted that several iPad features seemed to influence his significant literacy improvement. compared to 26% of those from families with incomes above the poverty line. Teaching candidates in reading clinics can assist students in taking digital images related to stories they have read or as brainstorming for writing.’’ Initially. This type of multimedia exploration allows students to meet the requirements of media literacy standards as they engage in activities that ask them to think critically about how and why they use particular images. The inclusion of mobile devices owned either by the university or teacher candidates improved students’ written compositions and reading fluency and encouraged the partnering methods suggested by Prensky (2010) as students and tutors collaboratively created. individualized format might also be beneficial for Josh. Becker (2006) in a study of digital equity across 40 states found that African-American students and those living in rural areas . The integration of multimodalities (visual. Attewell (2001) indicated two types of digital divides separate the ‘‘haves’’ from the ‘‘have nots. and shared multimedia presentations. Furthermore. in terms of student use of technology for educational purposes. music. educators need to consider digital equity in terms of student access to technology and secondly. RHODES School officials hoped that the self-paced. embedding a variety of technology into the reading clinic has both challenges and benefits. and text to represent their learning. Upon completion of the program. Issues surrounding access to technology and the digital divide are prevalent and must be addressed in planning sessions between the school system and the university instructor. reread. kinesthetic) when working on the touch screen. DeBell and Chapman (2003) noted several inequities in access to technology for students ages 5–17. 52% of youngsters from families living in poverty access the Internet only at school. Candidates then email the pictures to themselves for use in developing eBooks and Power Point presentations. and the use of a stylus for maintaining control were factors that contributed to his growth. the ability to record and listen to his own voice during reading.294 JOAN A. those living outside urban areas and those residing in two-parent households were more likely to use the Internet and computers. CHALLENGES AND BENEFITS OF INCORPORATING TECHNOLOGY IN READING CLINICS As with all instructional adaptations. They found that students without disabilities.

The challenges found by Balajthy et al. The value of incorporating technology into one-on-one instructional settings is evident. but may have inadvertently limited its benefits because of less than optimal planning. The clinicians spent little time evaluating software programs so their selections for instruction were random and less purposeful. images. From a practical standpoint. directors should also consider the level of Internet access prior to establishing a partnering relationship if they intend to fully integrate technology activities within the reading clinic. Providing practice time with technologies require universities to purchase hardware in a sufficient quantity so that all candidates have an opportunity to learn how to use a device prior to providing instruction with the tool. . and Robinson (2001) found that student clinicians were willing to use technology and recognized its potential for learning.Innovative Practices in the Reading Clinic 295 had less access to educational technology. Instead. appear to be typical as teaching candidates begin to develop skill in using technology with students. Two final challenges related to the integration of technology in the reading clinic are time and money. Appropriate educational videos. Faculty leaders need to understand which websites and types of software programs are acceptable to the school system. However. Balajthy. In a study of graduate students pursuing reading specialists’ degrees. Faculty need to consider which technology applications are critical for the students they are serving. and social networking sites that have instructional value can be blocked by the school system’s Internet security system. Reuber. reading clinic directors may want to provide opportunities outside of the tutoring sessions so candidates familiarize themselves with technology tools and software and feel confident in their ability to use technology to meet real literacy objectives. Reading clinic directors who plan to incorporate technology must be aware of these issues to ensure that teacher candidates understand the need to review basic computing skills with their tutees. Another challenge faced by faculty leading reading clinics can be the technological inexperience of their own teaching candidates. The ‘‘play’’ observed in this study may be an essential part of learning. By collaboratively preplanning for technology integration in the reading clinic. Funding for additional devices and flexibility in allowing candidates to use tools outside of the normal classroom sessions are essential for students to have enough time to implement pedagogical changes within their tutoring. faculty can mitigate many potential problems prior to providing instructional sessions. they frequently used their time with computers for exploration and play. The number of competencies to be covered in the typical reading clinic course is extensive. The clinicians frequently did not provide clear literacy objectives or target their instruction directly to students’ needs when using computers.

Students in reading clinics reported being excited about using technology and felt ‘‘special’’ because they were able to work with a device they perceived as fun during a pull-out remediation program. While students’ and candidates’ enthusiasm . candidates in reading clinics found gains in student performance when incorporating technology into their instructional activities. Candidates felt some relief at being able to support their students without having to be ‘‘the master of all knowledge’’ in the tutorial setting. FUTURE DIRECTIONS Technology integration using digital text in the university reading clinic is in the early stages of development. Although somewhat nervous about using some of the technology tools. In some cases. One of the most apparent advantages is the ability of candidates to experiment with the idea of working as a guide-onthe side. Most importantly. the candidates began to develop essential skills for learning collaboratively with their tutee. they were willing to write more if they were able to practice on the keyboard. students were motivated to participate in skill development activities because of the use of technology tools in their reading clinic experiences. Other candidates used mobile devices and eReaders as a reward for attentive behavior during lessons. This allowed the candidate to work on another literacy objective while the student felt successful. (2001) reported that their clinicians found the use of a computer to be motivational. Because the students had limited experience with working on a laptop. The use of iPads offered opportunities for increasing student awareness of essential media literacy skills as they created products for real audiences. Balajthy et al. Several of the candidates working with ELLs in the clinic described above were surprised by their tutees’ interest in using the keyboards on the laptop.296 JOAN A. The use of technology as a motivator was also very apparent in the candidate–student interactions in the reading clinic setting. The candidates were able to increase students’ comprehension of text and enhance their digital study skills by utilizing features of the Kindle eReader. Overall. the candidates were learning how to use a technology device a few days before they introduced an activity to their tutee. RHODES The need for teaching candidates to develop technological and pedagogical skills for working in learning environments focused on increasing 21st century literacy skills outweighs each of the potential challenges. The ability of teacher candidates to gear lessons to one individual student offers many benefits when attempting to incorporate technology. Writing performance was enhanced through the use of laptops and students learned to locate information on mobile phones.

one-on-one environment of a reading clinic. Department of Education. REFERENCES Amazon.’’ the U. further research is needed to determine how this motivation and learning can be extended beyond clinic activities.com/KindleUser%27sGuide.Innovative Practices in the Reading Clinic 297 for using digital technologies within their sessions was encouraging. particularly for programs with limited contact hours.s3. Inc. Additionally. Teacher candidates must have classroom experiences that provide opportunities to develop the technological skills necessary for meeting these objectives as well as the pedogogical expertise to offer instruction in information and media literacies. and working collaboratively are applicable for developing expert learners in all fields (U.S. Retrieved from http://kindle. (2004-2011).S. Seeking ways to maximize learning through technology integration is essential. CONCLUSION In ‘‘Transforming American Education: Learning Powered by Technology. While some attempts at sharing student products from the clinic within classrooms were successful.pdf . Candidates’ attitudes toward the use of digital technologies and their understanding of TPACK itself offer opportunities for further exploration as university educators continue to provide learning environments where the use of instructional technology is expected.amazo naws. By integrating technology activities into the supervised. Department of Education’s technology plan. software. teacher candidates can explore the affordances of a variety of devices. Faculty who provide opportunities and time for teaching candidates to explore the use of technology tools and create instructional settings that encourage candidates to take on the role of a coach and guide make a significant contribution to the profession. 2010).Kindle user’s guide. educators are reminded that 21st century competencies of critical thinking. multimedia communication. further study is needed to determine in which portions of the tutoring session students gain the most from utilizing instructional technologies. com. and instructional strategies under the capable supervision of an expert literacy instructor. problem-solving. organizing for the systematic sharing of student work and furthering collaborative planning with classroom educators around digital literacy instruction would be beneficial.

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The reflective video pedagogy is not only used by the clinicians who work Advanced Literacy Practices: From the Clinic to the Classroom Literacy Research. Practice and Evaluation. McVee. Shanahan. Flury-Kashmanian. Elizabeth A. The conceptual overview is followed by two-case examples that reveal how literacy centers can serve as rich.SUPPORTING STRUGGLING READERS AND LITERACY CLINICIANS THROUGH REFLECTIVE VIDEO PEDAGOGY Lynn E. Tyler W. Emily Hayden ABSTRACT Purpose – This chapter provides the reader with an overview of a reflective video pedagogy for use within a literacy center or within professional development contexts. Volume 2.1108/S2048-0458(2013)0000002018 303 . Schiller. Mary B. Rosa L. Ebert and H. productive research sites for the use and study of reflective video pedagogy. Rinker. 303–323 Copyright r 2013 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited All rights of reproduction in any form reserved ISSN: 2048-0458/doi:10. D’Abate. Jennifer A. Caroline M. Ashlee A. Tynan. Methodology/approach – The authors describe their ongoing work to develop and integrate a reflective video pedagogy within a literacy center during a 15-week practicum for literacy-specialists-in-training.

with struggling readers twice a week. ‘‘Reflective thought’’ is an ‘‘active. the stance learners must take up is one articulated long ago by John Dewey (1910). the 21st-century literacy center or literacy clinic can offer important opportunities for children.1999). literacy scholars must maximize the affordances of literacy centers as rich. we elaborate upon a framework for a reflective video pedagogy for use within a reading clinic or within professional development contexts when working with teachers in the field. teachers. we also posit that literacy centers have a unique role to play. pre/in-service teachers. families. However. 1999). Research implications – In recent years ‘‘scaling up’’ and ‘‘scientific research’’ have come to dominate much of the literacy research landscape.e. reflection. teacher development ´ . We posit that rapid changes in technologies such as digital video and new software afford opportunities for literacy teacher educators to maximize these tools to further facilitate teacher reflection on situated practices within learning communities. Given that resources are scarce. productive research sites for the use and study of a reflective video pedagogy. Labbo. Keywords: Video pedagogy. and researchers.e. SHANAHAN ET AL. middle. and teacher educators work together around literacy development. Practical implications – Literacy centers are dynamic sites where children. and high school) and also for parents who want their children to find success with literacy. clinicians) and for youth (i. particularly when we make use of effective digital tools for instruction and research (McKenna. While we see the value and necessity of large-scale experimental studies. Reflective video pedagogies can be used to closely examine learning and teaching for adult students (i. persistent. For Dewey. & Kieffer. children in elementary.. but it is also used by the researchers at the literacy center who study the reflective video pedagogy through the same video the clinicians use. literacy center. and careful .1 While digital technologies are relatively recent. reflection is more than simply the recall or revisiting of past events..304 LYNN E. In this chapter. video analysis. indeed Some might argue that in a digital age the reading clinic is passe some debate about the role of clinics has surfaced before (Evensen & Mosenthal. Reinking. struggling readers.

or acknowledge complexity of situations. In our work with clinicians we have developed the following definition of reflection: a goal-directed process that moves teachers to identify a situation. Therefore. While a full review of the scholarship related to learning and reflection is not possible within this chapter. and the further conclusions to which it tends’’ (Dewey. 2004). or otherwise intriguing and view it through multiple lenses. 1910. Reflective teachers strive to gain strategic knowledge of a situation in order to develop and explore questions. processes or experiences. p. we acknowledge that our definition of reflection is also influenced by other scholars (e. but a particular set of skills or dispositions is not sufficient to become a reflective practitioner. recognize. 2004). (c) consider . Prior to developing the video pedagogy presented in this chapter. and questioning that drive an active investigation of genuine questions or problems. and conclusions are drawn that corroborate or refute particular beliefs or avenues of action. and these clinicians seldom reflected at critical levels until they discussed their reflections with their mentor. (b) develop different perspectives of literacies practices. 1983. and (c) independent video self-analysis did not create a shared discussion context. positions. Shulman & Shulman. This process of exploration is not based on the certainty of one’s knowledge or beliefs. (b) clinicians did not see enough concrete examples of practice. Boling. process. or experience that is puzzling. Scho ¨ n. hesitation. reflection is now multifaceted. facts are gathered.. Developing particular skill sets or dispositions is necessary for reflection. 9). but is grounded in processes of doubt. As with any scientific endeavor.g. Reflection is self-directed and collaborative in nature. we introduced video study group (VSG) reflection into the reflective process so that clinicians’ could: (a) analyze a teaching event from multiple points of view (e. Reflecting in this manner was problematic for several reasons: (a) many of the individual reflections were written on a descriptive level. celebratory.Supporting Struggling Readers and Literacy Clinicians 305 consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds that support it. Graduate students referred to as ‘‘clinicians’’ who are working toward certification and a master’s degree as literacy specialists use reflective thought to assist their diagnostic assessment and teaching of children. the reflective process was facilitated through group discussions of journal articles related to literacy practices and clinicians’ engaged in independent video self-analysis. interesting. In our literacy clinic. Reflection is interpretive in that individuals bring their knowledge and experiences to the situation. 2002.g. and classroom and pedagogical practices.. evidence is weighed. Jay & Johnson. and make adaptations to their actions. beliefs.

and materials that will advance the reader. CENTER FOR LITERACY AND READING INSTRUCTION: DIAGNOSTIC TEACHING MODEL In the Center for Literacy and Reading Instruction (CLaRI). Clinicians do not follow this model in a step-bystep process. The diagnostic decision-making model provides an organizational scheme for (a) gathering information. (e) evaluating appropriateness of instructional materials and conditions. (b) assessing. She checks the instructional decisions she makes with her personal assumptions about reading and cross-checks her plans with the student’s learning. Researchers. and (f) determining instructional goals. and instructional needs through accurate observations for the purposes of modifying instruction’’ (Kibby. Kibby conceptualizes diagnosis as an interpretive problem-solving process and as a continuous means to improvement. (d) engage in a collaborative video discussion around concrete examples. As she is teaching. and interpreting information. . and after the reading event. SHANAHAN ET AL. pedagogical skills. reading diagnosis is ‘‘a process of gaining a thorough knowledge of a person’s reading performance. not an end-product. and (e) learn a framework for reflection that leads to critical levels of reflection. 1996). (c) identifying strengths and areas of development. see Appendix. skills. Clinicians’ instructional adjustments are an integral part of the diagnostic decision-making process and are supported by clinicians’ reflections. For questions to consider around reflection and video study groups. and reflection to adjust their decisions based on student performance. instead they use their diagnostic knowledge. who do not have an instructional role in the clinic. 2). evaluating. advantages and disadvantages of various practices in different contexts with different students (Copeland & Decker. (34). during. In particular. instructional decisions regarding struggling readers are situated in Kibby’s (1995) description of diagnostic decision making. use reflective video pedagogy to examine the teaching and learning in the clinic and in professional development opportunities with teachers in area school districts. p. (d) determining influencing factors. Walker (2000) describes the importance of reflection to diagnostic teaching as: Central to effective diagnostic teaching is the teacher who reflects on teaching before. 1995. she analyzes how she modifies instruction and the language she uses to mediate learning. strategies.306 LYNN E. Reflective practice serves as an overarching goal and activity within our community of practice as teacher educators and clinicians use digital video in teaching or learning to engage in a reflective video pedagogy. techniques.

clinicians’ reflections emanate from an interactive view of reading where they consider reading to be an interaction between what the reader brings to the text. VIDEO PEDAGOGY Clinicians use video as a pedagogical tool for reflection in two different contexts. 2003). 2000). and the situational context. Engaging in VSG analysis. The Purpose of Video Study Group In recent decades. Within our video pedagogy. skills. Viewing from multiple perspectives affords clinicians the chance to contemplate both the advantages and disadvantages of practices in varied contexts with learners of different abilities.. Knowing that diagnostic teaching requires teachers to engage in complex interpretive problem-solving and reflection. provides clinicians with an opportunity to develop an inquiry community where they create supportive professional . In one context. Using video in both contexts weekly provides a rich experience to facilitate clinicians’ learning.Supporting Struggling Readers and Literacy Clinicians 307 In CLaRI. 2008). we use VSG as a context to develop clinician’s knowledge. The individual self-analysis is shared with the instructor through writing or at other times the written reflection and video streaming may be used in a debriefing context. the use of VSG has become an integral part of professional development and teacher education. the clinicians view video clips from previous semesters’ clinic sessions in group seminars where they have the opportunity to collectively discuss and reflect on the teaching and learning situations of others not in the seminar. we suppose that reflective discussions occurring around video provide a context to build one’s knowledge base (Pea & Lindgren. Teale. discussion is collaborative with peers as the instructor facilitates the conversation. The 50-minute group meeting time is referred to as their VSG. & Person. facilitate one’s understanding of teaching practices (Baker & Wedman. 2008). Reflecting on instructional practices in different contexts facilitates clinicians’ understandings of the complexities in teaching (Sanny. and instructional strategies so they can extend their understanding of diagnostic teaching. In VSG. The second context for video reflection occurs as clinicians engage in individual self-analysis using the video streaming of their lessons outside of the seminar time. the text itself. and provide an opportunity to hear and view from multiple perspectives (Schrader et al.

group interaction.308 LYNN E. retention. 2010. Video self-analysis is also part of the clinicians’ knowledge-building activity . p. It is important to note that the video clips being viewed whole class do not include the current clinicians. relationships. Topics typically change based on the clinicians’ needs. the video clip is shown a second time during that the clinicians respond to several analysis questions on the viewing guide. The use of video cases creates a safer environment for a group critique. a first question might ask the clinicians to focus on the pedagogical steps demonstrated in the lesson. and the materials and appropriateness of text. Finally. For example. is a critical component of the VSG. clinicians review the lesson plan prior to watching the video clip and read the prompts from the Video Viewing Guide. the clinicians view an instructor-selected five to eight minute video clip from a previous semester. 4) that is critical to diagnostic decision making. if clinic instructors noticed that a review of procedural steps would be helpful. Clinicians use this time to bring their own authentic questions to the table. SHANAHAN ET AL. The questions on the Video Viewing Guide change as the purpose for viewing changes. the instructor provides clinicians with a lesson plan of the instructional clip and a Video Viewing Guide. non-routine. Hence. and engagement levels (Daly. Collegial relationships are critical to developing strong professional relationships that ‘‘support the transfer of tacit. all discussions end with the clinicians determining what pedagogical adjustments they recommend for an upcoming lesson. Then. Before the first video viewing. the clinicians could be asked to identify procedural steps taken by the teacher. and complex knowledgey’’ (Daly. Video Study Group Pedagogy During VSG. 2010). to prepare for the subsequent VSG discussion. increased professionalism. Self-Analysis in the Video Study Group The second context used for video analysis is an independent self-analysis. Clinicians are also encouraged to consider an interactive view of reading where they reflect upon a reader’s performance during the lesson. To contextualize the lesson. One benefit of maintaining a large database of instructional practices is the availability of multiple cases on varied topics. Relationships and collegial support are often the main determinants of change. After this. particularly discussion. the teacher’s instruction.

Labbo. the clinicians briefly describe the part of their lesson associated with their reflective goal. comparative. Specifically. . and critical). When we introduced the definition and the typology of reflection. Clinicians ask: ‘‘What are alternative views of what is happening? How can I improve what is not working? If there is a goal. leads the clinicians to create a plan of action by establishing new instructional ideas and recognizing sound instructional ideas. what are some other ways of accomplishing it?’’ (Jay & Johnson. we observed that before the implementation of a clear definition and typology of reflective practice. Our typology of reflection is rooted in Jay and Johnson’s (2002) three dimensions of reflection (i. descriptive. Teale. A benefit of video self-analysis is that the clinicians have the ability to pause. & Sanny. Two times a week for 75 minutes the clinicians work in clinical pairs. The second reflection level. the clinicians developed a deeper understanding of the reflective process related to diagnostic decision making. the third reflection level. the comparative dimension. the clinicians’ reflections rarely provided detail beyond the descriptive level. in part. 2006) and then share their reflections in writing with their instructor. 2002). Through the typology for the written reflection.e. At the descriptive dimension. with the goal of providing highquality instruction. it is essential to develop a typology of reflective practice to facilitate the reflective process. and replay video as they reflect on their practice (Kinzer. Whether reflecting through video in a group discussion or individually in writing. clinicians are expected to determine the focus of their reflection.. clinicians consider: (1) What you would do differently if you were to teach this lesson again and why? (2) What would you keep the same if you were to teach this lesson again and why? The goal is for the clinicians to become facile in their reflective abilities by internalizing and applying these three reflection dimensions to teaching situations in and outside of the clinic. Together. takes into account alternative perspectives and research. because they needed us as teacher educators to clarify the construct of reflection. they reflect in writing on all three dimensions (Jay & Johnson. analyze. our definition and the typology of reflective practice assist the teacher educators and clinicians by setting clear expectations of pedagogical practices program wide. Within the clinic. p. Lastly. critical dimension.Supporting Struggling Readers and Literacy Clinicians 309 (Pea & Lindgren. 77). Each week the clinicians reflect on their own practices related to the struggling reader. two clinicians teaching one struggling reader. 2002. what Scho ¨ n (1983) calls ‘‘setting the problem. 2008) serving as a tool to mediate their learning.’’ Clinicians collaboratively set their goals with their instructors. Cammack. Next.

Andrew stated that. For example. Reflecting on Video Use: A View from Teacher Educators As instructors we found using the video pedagogy to be an excellent tool to support clinicians in meeting the needs of struggling readers. through video self-analysis. The . the definition. They also valued having the opportunity to analyze a lesson for aspects they thought were effective and discuss areas they thought needed adaptation. 1978). This practice enriched the discussions and allowed clinicians the chance to express concerns. During self-analysis. if proficiency was demonstrated in the area of improvement.310 LYNN E. Our clinic instructors valued having the ability to watch lessons in real time so they could debrief with the clinicians directly after they taught. Through these high-quality reflections. ‘‘Using the video study group we were able to get a complete feel for the lesson and the effectiveness of that particular lesson. pacing. facial expressions. and clinicians’ pedagogical moves in response to the student understanding. The discussion portions of the seminars developed a stronger community of practice than the previous pedagogic practice of discussing articles in seminars. and typology of reflection for self-analysis provided more in-depth and higher quality reflections. SHANAHAN ET AL. Video cases allowed clinicians the opportunity to ask their own authentic questions and to coconstruct knowledge through their interactions with others (Vygotsky. clinicians chose a new goal with which to work. because they could see student engagement and participation. Further. Reflecting on Video Use: A View from the Clinicians The clinicians described the use of digital video for reflection as one that provided them with a more authentic experience. Ultimately. Clinicians’ use of video. bringing video segments in as a tool to mediate clinicians’ understanding and provide concrete examples to support instructors’ comments during post lesson debriefing. the clinicians were privy to observational information that they may not have been aware of in their own teaching.’’ Other clinicians claimed that reflective VSG discussions were beneficial because it was helpful to view peers in similar situations to the one they were in and video showed them various teaching methods in action. clinicians adjusted elements of their instruction and in turn delivered more effective instruction to assist struggling readers. clinicians focused on their goal for self-improvement. the video helped us as instructors to gauge clinicians’ rate of improvement.

we present case examples derived from the interaction of two university clinicians. First. we sought to enact some of the reflective stances articulated by Dewey (1910) and revisited at the opening of this chapter through the analysis of teaching sessions captured on digital video. reading transcripts of classroom practice fell short of providing them with the practical ideas gleaned from video. with an opportunity to inform. Andy was also representative of the children attending the clinic. Our video pedagogy also informed the research conducted through CLaRI both in the clinic. As such. Baxter and Ms. VIDEO PEDAGOGY AND REFLECTION THROUGH EXAMINATION OF PRACTICE: WHAT LITERACY EDUCATORS CAN LEARN THROUGH VIDEO-BASED RESEARCH In this section. reflect upon. Green were representative of the majority of clinicians at the university. that is. Video analysis provides researchers with an opportunity to use the same video used by the clinicians and instructors to engage in a microanalysis of teaching and learning from multiple perspectives. They suggested that video and journal articles be used in tandem where the readings supplement the video. Ms. had limited experience in teaching. Ms. which also led to state certification as a literacy teacher. Green. Baxter and Ms. clinicians asked that we be mindful of balancing the time used for collaborative reflection with their lesson preparation. As Dewey observed. serving students in kindergarten through grade 12 and in schools serving students in entering grades 1 through 6. Baxter and Ms. we chose to look at the commonplace. and Andy. one of the challenges we face as educators is that we often separate everyday activity . This type of fine-grained analysis is beyond the scope of what the instructor in the clinic seminar can engage in while teaching. Green were both certified teachers in their early 20s. as teacher educators. and adjust our own pedagogical practices. In addition. However.Supporting Struggling Readers and Literacy Clinicians 311 clinicians also indicated that although they valued reading journal articles. a first-grade student. at activities and patterns of behavior that are part of the everyday interactions of clinicians and children. findings from this research provide us. We have limited our examples here to one child and one clinical pair for several reasons. Rather than looking at something unusual. and were pursuing master’s degrees as literacy specialists. Ms.

Andy was asked a critical-response question. ‘‘Was Mom . demonstrating his ability to recall information stated explicitly in the text. we look at the interactions between Andy. Andy. but less frequently than their active peers.’’ These readers have learned that if they refuse to respond. As teacher educators and researchers. Walker describes the behavior of readers who struggle as follows: Even when teachers ask some struggling readers a direct question. His correct responses were from text-based questions. Similar to other students who attend the clinic.0 (19%) comprehension questions. 2010. we wondered. and clinicians. One of our goals is to keep the examples grounded in the everyday activity. 2005). they do not respond. Without thinking the students read words and don’t construct meaning. after providing a more detailed portrait of Andy. Walker. ‘‘I don’t know.312 LYNN E. As noted by the clinicians: Andy correctly answered 1. Struggling readers often rely on their predictions and ignore contradictory information. Green were identified as a clinical pair who worked well together and engaged in many effective practices of literacy instruction. Ms. guide. while identified as a struggling reader. and encourage children (and often parents). p. we wondered what we might learn by delving more deeply into a study of our video archives – a luxury that does not exist during a regular 15-week session when faculty instructors must balance many tasks to support. someone else will answer.5 out of 8. Andy’s Diagnostic Profile Andy was a first-grade student who came to the center with his mother who had been told by the school that Andy had achieved unsatisfactory progress in reading in Kindergarten. Baxter and Ms. Often these readers are referred to as struggling learners (Brown. or rewards would we encounter? Below. by looking at a clinical pair and struggling reader that are typical for our population? What additional insights. (Walker. 688) During his diagnostic assessment for admission to the literacy center. from abstract thought to such a degree that abstract thought is ‘‘aloof’’ and ‘‘remote’’ and thus compartmentalized (p. Or. if these struggling readers must respond to a question about text. Other students do revise their understanding. Baxter. they say. SHANAHAN ET AL. Green. Andy displayed many of the attributes that Walker (2005) identifies. and Ms. What might we learn. Andy had not fully appropriated the skills of a reader. did not have unusual or extraordinary characteristics that defined his case. when considering his age and developmental level. 51). 2005. Ms. challenges.

to the point of telling them what he thinks they want to hear rather than risking disappointing them. particularly in moving beyond identifying the initial and final consonant sound of one-syllable words toward recognition of the medial vowel sound. nevertheless he scored as an emergent reader. Wells.’’ PATTERNS OF ACQUISITION AND PARTICIPATION IN TALK BETWEEN NOVICE LITERACY SPECIALISTS AND A STRUGGLING READER This case study examines talk in tutoring sessions with Andy using an interactional discourse framework. Andy was almost two standard deviations above his peers in verbal ability. (CLaRI diagnostic report. 2009) The diagnostic report also described how decoding both sight words and phonetic reading of unknown words were noted to be an area of development for Andy as was his ability to demonstrate comprehension for what he read or was read to him. Additionally.) and Critical Reading Inventory. Andy’s responses to inferential and criticalresponse questions demonstrate that correctly answering these types of questions are areas which would accelerate his development. 2003). His teachers did their best to . Results from Directed Reading Activity and informal phonological assessments indicated that Andy would benefit from further instruction in word recognition. we asked: How did Andy and his teachers interact during sessions? What did this interaction suggest each wanted to accomplish? What underlying metaphors of learning were enacted by Andy and his teachers? Examination of the talk between Andy and his teachers showed that Andy’s teachers relied heavily on verbal scaffolds to support and direct Andy’s interactions with text.Supporting Struggling Readers and Literacy Clinicians 313 being fair to Sue?’’ to which he responded. Person. Many scholars have shown that teachers often follow a typical Initiate–Respond–Evaluate sequence (Cazden. 1988/ 2001. Graesser.’’ Andy was subsequently asked an inference-based questiony. and Magliano (1995) have indicated that one-to-one instruction is often comprised of a five-step script or dialogue frame. Another important observation. These frameworks suggest that the teachers play a critical role in scaffolding talk and assisting learners – although the process of scaffolding is often more complex than described (McVee & Pearson. noted by clinicians in his diagnostic report was: ‘‘Andy wants very badly to please his teachers. Based on data from the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (4th ed. ‘‘I don’t know. Given these considerations. 1993) in classroom settings.

Green’s voice is very lyrical during this last statement]. Prior to reading the book. acknowledging agreement with Ms. carry out a task or achieve a goal that would be beyond his unassisted efforts’’ (Wood. and guide his learning. Andy participated in word sort using CVC words in the book. Ms.314 LYNN E. Michael. reach out to Andy. & Evens. 1996. Green gives Andy a hint by picking up the book and then asking her question. This was intended as a strategy to scaffold his learning. and you didn’t even know. Andy probably does not really need a hint at this . In this segment Ms. Hinting is described as ‘‘the prompting of a student to recollect information presumed to be known to him or her. 1996). in this handy-dandy little book [shakes book to emphasize ‘‘handydandy’’]. In the analysis of this case study data. p. the clinicians’ intent was to have Andy read the book.. Bruner & Ross. and the teachers’ demonstrated behaviors as well as the student’s provide evidence that confusion exists between scaffolding and hinting behavior. So. Green. Scaffolding or Hinting Two ways the clinicians’ prompt is through scaffolding or hinting. p. Andy was typically eager to please. a text that presents many opportunities for Andy to practice the CVC pattern. while I was making you work really hard. Where as scaffolding allows the student the ability to decrease his cognitive load in order to complete a task. Descriptive behaviors are indicated in brackets. SHANAHAN ET AL. Rovick. OK. Green: All these wordsy[sweeps her hand across word sort as Andy continues to glue] do you want to take a guess where we are going to find them? [picks up book as she speaks] Andy: There [referring to the book she is holding] Ms. responding where prompted. The excerpt below picks up as the word sort is wrapping up. Baxter is heard in the background. what you were actually doing was practicing. hinting conveys to the student the information he needs to connect with knowledge he already possesses (Hume et al. or the prompting of a student to make an inference needed to solve a problem or answer a question. 23). Green: Yeah. demonstrate what Noddings (2003) calls ‘‘an ethic of care’’ (p. As a co-interlocutor. [Andy continues to glue. 90). or both’’ (Hume. Ms. Scaffolding is defined as a ‘‘process that enables a child novice to solve a problem. xiv) attempting to. 1976. In one tutoring interaction. the distinction is very important. Pop. Ms.

& Gavelek. By contrast. While participation is essential to learning. However. Baxter have planned a lesson that they felt would ensure that Andy read successfully. which is important. In their enthusiasm to help Andy. 1949) in which ‘‘knowledge is situated in the transaction between the world and individual’’ (McVee. It is the clinicians’ place to ask questions. it was Andy’s duty to respond and participates to much so that he appears to respond in certain ways just to please his teachers. Green is indicating. pp. and offer feedback. 555–556). The participation metaphor indicates that one values and can follow the norms and patterns of language in a particular community (Sfard. A close analysis of this and other episodes reveal that this scaffolding actually overrelies on a particular strategy – that of hinting – even in cases where Andy clearly knew the answer. In weekly reflections written after reviewing video of their teaching. duties. and his responses coupled with the clinicians’ responses convey a second predominant metaphor toward reading/learning as participation. In contrast.g. Ms. and Andy each take up particular ‘‘rights. that of acquisition and participation. created tensions around Andy’s potential learning and reading growth.Supporting Struggling Readers and Literacy Clinicians 315 point as it is obvious by the props and close proximity what Ms. and flows from teacher to student. the word sort that Andy just completed was a scaffolding activity for reading the book. close scrutiny of the interactions between Ms. This contrasts with a view or metaphor of learning that is transactional (Dewey & Bentley. p. and obligations’’ (McVee. helping with short CVC words Andy could already read independently). although it probably was not necessary given the repetitive nature of the book Pop and its limited words per page. 2005. 2011. 1998). the clinicians were often aware of their mismatch in planning and instruction . Dunsmore. but in what the teacher and student bring to their interactions and in the transactions occurring between teacher-student in particular contexts. knowledge does not reside in the teacher alone.. Green and Ms. Acquisition Metaphors for Reading/Learning Part of the challenge faced by the clinicians was that they adopted a metaphor toward reading/learning that focused on acquisition. it is clear that Ms. For his part. 5) that position them in set ways. Baxter. particularly affirmation. the clinicians also overscaffolded Andy’s reading (e. In other words. Andy aims to please. The acquisition metaphor presumes that knowledge originates with the teacher. direct activities. Green. But at the same time these two metaphors.

in part. due to the tension created around knowledge as acquisition and knowledge as participation. and how does feedback support Andy’s literacy learning? What behaviors indicated that Andy was engaged/ disengaged in the literacy learning process? How did the instructor’s use of feedback relate to the student’s level of engagement? .316 LYNN E. but struggled to shift talk and activities away from an acquisition based model. As noted. To be sure this is a provocative statement. and Andy wanted to participate and please his teachers. a struggle for many novice teachers. This is indicative of their heartfelt desire to help Andy and create a positive environment and learning experience related to reading. but at the same time emphasized their concerns about getting through all the material they had planned. These findings remind us that we must support and encourage clinicians’ consideration of their own metaphors of teaching and learning. clearly emphasizing that the quality of the learning is more important than staying to the script or covering all aspects of a planned lesson. we wondered: What types of oral feedback did Andy’s teachers provide. We wondered about the type and frequency of this feedback in the tutoring process as presented in the next section. They expressed their desire to help Andy. we must balance the objective of completing tasks with an emphasis that learning is a process. Baxter and Ms. As teacher educators and mentors. we noticed a proliferation of feedback from Ms. particularly in light of the stances toward reflection fostered by a pedagogy of video reflection and of the diagnostic model of decision making. The clinicians wanted Andy to participate. 9). FEEDBACK AND ENGAGEMENT IN A CLINICAL LITERACY INTERVENTION Hattie (1992) has observed that ‘‘[t]he most powerful single modification that enhances achievement is feedback. it goes quickly when you have a lot to cover in a tutoring session! I found that it was interesting to watch myself make subtle instructional changes to the lesson plan meanwhile knowing all of the things swirling through my head – time always being one of them. however. but as we considered Andy’s interactions with his teachers and specifically their feedback to him. Green to Andy across all lessons. SHANAHAN ET AL.’’ Their struggle with pacing and timing of lessons was. but the clinicians also wanted to cover material and give Andy the information he needed. The simplest prescription for improving education must be ‘dollops of feedback’’’ (p. ‘‘Seventy-five minutes sounds like a lot of time in theory.

If we think of our own experience as literacy learners. Such analysis can. 2012). 2012). 2006. have categorized feedback as more or less negative and positive. some feedback may be either clearly positive or negative. 1988). but most feedback ranges along a continuum.. be used to assist the practitioner in instituting informed changes geared to improve feedback to students. and ending lessons in tutoring. we identified four segments of talk (approximately 53 . approving. in turn. & Roof. 2003). and construction. specifying attainment. leading to overall growth and progress in literacy development. we recognize that many reading scholars have argued for a view of literacy as embodied practice (McVee et al. and voice tone gave even greater weight to a teacher’s words. Their framework for describing feedback particular to their field has also been applied to literacy intervention (Knight. 5). 2005) and as multimodal practice (Miller & McVee. leaving us disengaged or even confused. not all feedback is equally beneficial as ‘‘[i]n fact. Concomitantly. disapproving. specifying improvement. Flury-Kashmanian. Tunstall and Gipps’s (1996) typologies provide educators with a categorization system that can be used to provide formative measurements to the practitioner on feedback practices around rewarding. This is a particular concern for struggling readers who are more likely to display increased emotional sensitivity to the feedback they receive than their peers (Phinney. It can scaffold and guide a child’s literacy development. Tunstall and Gipps (1996).Supporting Struggling Readers and Literacy Clinicians 317 Because of its power. and more or less general or explicit around improvement and achievement. we can likely find evidence of this where a teacher’s careful praise both supported our learning. When we consider ourselves as learners. for example. Improving feedback has the potential to increase student understanding. At the same time. scholars are beginning to attend to embodied interactions around literacy and reading strategies (Shanahan. p. In particular. but at the same time challenged us to keep learning. more or less teacher and student driven. Due to space constraints we will limit the scope of our examples in this chapter to verbal feedback. facial expression. some forms of feedback might be working against learning’’ (Marzano. middle. but also potentially damage or hinder growth. Over-Reliance on Nonspecific Approval or Praise After initial analysis across beginning. While feedback is very much a part of everyday life both inside and outside the classroom. we may recall how a dismissive wave of the hand. feedback is a double-edged sword.

and such feedback was used more frequently than in any other session. . This is. Ms.g. In this video. by beginning to read before the teacher had finished the comment).. SHANAHAN ET AL. Andy demonstrated a proclivity to disrupt or break into this kind of feedback and move back to the activity (e.. Initially. and persistence markers. The episode was coded for positive and negative engagement indicators using kinesthetic.318 LYNN E.76 seconds. this did not strike us as unusual. ‘‘good job’’). Green devoted 81% of her feedback to approving. Additional evidence to support feedback that is higher level (e. in fact. Such feedback takes little time to deliver. there appeared to be a relationship between these types of feedback and Andy’s level of engagement in activities. In session 22 we saw the opposite picture.325 minutes. In looking at the types of feedback that came before a break in engagement. Andy was observably disengaged from the lesson nearly 5% of the time.g.g. specifying improvement) resulted in increased engagement could also be seen in how frequently Andy disrupted the teacher’s feedback with his attempt to restart the learning activity. However. In video from session three. a result we found surprising. for example. We found that 62% of the feedback given by the clinicians was that of approving – feedback typically characterized as very short. particularly for readers who are struggling and may have emotional responses to reading. Twenty-six percent of the feedback was devoted to approving. mean delivery time was 1. total minutes) as a representative sample. We cannot say whether the level of engagement was significant overall to Andy’s growth and progress.375 minutes whereas approving feedback required a total of 6. Specifying improvement required a total of 7. More importantly. we saw that praise quite frequently preceded the break. It became clear that the overall total of approving feedback (n=141) also became interruptive within the lessons.3% of the time. verbal. but there was clearly a contrast between sessions involving many interruptions from approving feedback and sessions where praise was less frequent but more targeted. Given the length of time it takes to deliver other types of feedback such as specifying improvement. low level forms of non-specific encouragement (e.8 seconds for approving feedback whereas specifying improvement had a mean of 7. what was striking to us was that these totals differed only by one minute.. but there was also an increased level of engagement with Andy engaged 98. we anticipated that more complex feedback forms would dominate the total time taken for feedback delivery while other concise forms of feedback might be more frequent. approving feedback was used only 10 times as compared with 81 times in session three. was the case.

defining what Andy did that was helpful without using a vague term such as ‘‘good. Baxter: At first you said ‘‘in my’’ and then you said ‘‘oh. Andy’s facial expression and posture indicated he appeared very happy during and after the incident. Though Ms.’’ The praise was worthy because Andy had just employed a strategy that was also a learning objective. luck. or task difficulty they will likely to be motivated to complete a task. Ok. Baxter did not directly praise him. Sincere Praise A specific incident in video 22 showed the power of less frequent. Across the video we examined. Go ahead. specifying attainment. Ms. Baxter: Can you give me a high-five? I’m sorry to interrupt your reading. more sincere praise for accomplishing a difficult task beyond the learner’s current level of development: Ms.Supporting Struggling Readers and Literacy Clinicians 319 The Power of Less Frequent. um. Andy used a strategy and accelerated beyond his current level of development and make a small stretch forward. Baxter’s praise was specific. Baxter allowed Andy to struggle and she resisted providing immediate support. Ms. Blue as well as having accomplished a task that was difficult for him. but you know why I’m so excited? Andy: I read. Ms. . regardless of ability. Andy was noticeably pleased and appeared to be highly engaged. Baxter: How’d you figure that word [ever] out? Andy: I sounded it out.g. Ms. Baxter: Oh. you sounded it out? What do you think that means? ‘‘Was I ever mad!?’’ What do you think that means? In this instance. having pleased Ms. there was a tendency for higher levels of feedback (e. sorry to interrupt. Weiner (1972) states that if students feel that hard work will yield a payout. specifying improvement. no’’ and you went back to the beginning of the sentence. This notion of constructing meaning as a means of motivating and increasing engagement was seen again in the same video selection: Andy: Was I my[16 seconds elapse as Andy attempts to determine the word ever]yever mad! Ms. and constructing achievement) to consistently precede periods of engagement. So excited. the word and went back to the beginning..

Given that resources are scarce. For more on how we developed our digital technologies to support a reflective video pedagogy see http://www. streaming. targeted. in particular video data that exists in many clinical settings. Ms. and archival. sincere praise that was specific to the task at hand. literacy scholars must maximize the affordances of literacy clinics and centers as rich. . this could hold forth the potential of more dramatically impacting student achievement. Here we see that teachers. Green were very concerned about Andy and wanted him to achieve success. they continually praised Andy’s work. teachers seeking literacy knowledge or coaching experience) and for youth (children in elementary. While recording clinic sessions is a long-standing tradition at CLaRI. and high school) and also for parents who want their children to find success with literacy. middle. As noted in the previous section. In contrast. While we see the value and necessity of large-scale experimental studies. we also posit that literacy centers have a unique role to play. these studies are concentrated around talk as interaction. SHANAHAN ET AL. Baxter and Ms. must carefully consider not only the type of feedback given and how targeted it is. while less frequent in occurrence. ‘‘scaling up’’ and ‘‘scientific research’’ have come to dominate much of the literacy research landscape.buffalo. In addition. seemed more powerful in application.clari. Ultimately. Additionally. NOTE 1. Literacy centers have a long-standing history and plurality of strengths that should be capitalized upon. Video pedagogies can be used to closely examine learning and teaching for adult students (i. Literacy centers are dynamic sites where children. Andy responded with higher levels of engagement. and teacher educators work together around literacy development (see questions to consider in Appendix). new advances in digital technologies have greatly increased possibilities for video capture. pre/in-service teachers. Andy did not always respond favorably to the constant barrage of positive comments. However. We believe the cases above indicate the vast richness of data. and analysis. families. CONCLUSION In recent years. and the educators or coaches who guide them. productive research sites for the use and study of reflective video pedagogy..edu.e. at times this praise actually appeared to hinder the lesson by continually interrupting the flow of reading or other interactions. Toward this end.320 LYNN E.

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what do you think should define such a model? 3. teachers. Extension: If your school or educational community is considering how to implement models of video reflection. Do you have a model of reflective practice in place in your educational context? If so. what is it? If not. Consider the case studies of clinicians interacting with a struggling reader. how might a reflective video pedagogy help counter this argument? In what ways might reading clinics or literacy centers contribute to the overall issues or concerns facing struggling readers. What affordances does a reflective video pedagogy potentially contribute to teacher educators? To clinicians or teachers? To researchers? 6. What components of the CLaRI model of video pedagogy and reflection seem compatible with your goals and educational context? Why? Which do not seem a good fit? Why? How might you adapt these for a better fit with your educational context? 5. center. or program? 2. . Reading clinics or literacy centers are sometimes viewed as antiquated or even irrelevant. What purpose does video serve in your educational context or should it serve? What goals do you hope to accomplish through the use of video? 4.Supporting Struggling Readers and Literacy Clinicians 323 APPENDIX: DISCUSSION OR FURTHER EXPLORATION 1. Given that clinics and centers are often viewed this way. and teacher educators? 8. What purpose does reflection serve in your school. What lessons might these case studies offer to clinicians or teachers? To teacher educators? To researchers? 7. read and discuss Video Study Groups by Francois Tochon (1999). clinic.




questioning.THE GRADUAL INCREASE OF RESPONSIBILITY MODEL: MENTORING FOR IMPROVED INTERVENTION Vicki Collet ABSTRACT Purpose – To provide a model for mentoring teachers through the process of improving instruction and intervention. GIR requires that coaches have instructional expertise.1108/S2048-0458(2013)0000002019 327 . Practice and Evaluation. recommending. Design/methodology/approach – The chapter describes the Gradual Increase of Responsibility model for coaching. Volume 2. Advanced Literacy Practices: From the Clinic to the Classroom Literacy Research. affirming. 327–351 Copyright r 2013 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited All rights of reproduction in any form reserved ISSN: 2048-0458/doi:10. Findings – Content describes stages of the coaching model that provide less scaffolding as teachers gain confidence and competence. These stages include modeling. an adaptation of Pearson and Gallagher’s (1983) Gradual Release of Responsibility model that can be used by coaches as they support teachers in a clinic or school setting. it provides them with a guide for their work with teachers to incorporate effective practices. Research limitations/implications – The Gradual Increase of Responsibility (GIR) model provides a process that coaches can follow to support instructional improvement. and praising.

Graduate students are the teachers who provide this instruction. In an effort to provide support to both teachers and students. 1999. Kibby & Barr. mentoring. Learners benefit when they are supported in the process of changing their practices. 2007. reading. Roskos. intervention. Originality/value of paper – This chapter provides examples for each stage of the GIR process. Keywords: Coaching. & Walker. Typically. many universities in the United States provide a clinical experience as part of graduate literacy programs. scaffolding in the context of use is necessary for effective learning to take place. Clinical settings offer teachers the opportunity for targeted guidance and encourage nuanced instructional judgments by situating teacher learning within the real work of teaching (Dunston. instruction INTRODUCTION: THE ROLE OF READING CLINICS AS A SUPPORT FOR STRUGGLING READERS For both teachers and students. with teachers who instruct students at both elementary and secondary levels. and the . Teachers and their coaches reflect on and dialogue together about instruction that they have participated in or observed. clearing indicating how coaches can guide teachers to take on increased responsibility for strong. coaches provide feedback as teachers appropriate a repertoire of strategies and deepen their understanding of literacy acquisition. clinic. University reading clinics support struggling readers by assessing and addressing each student’s unique needs as a reader. mentored by more experienced coaches. In clinics. 2000). who may be advanced graduate students or university faculty. Boehlen.328 VICKI COLLET Practical implications – The GIR model can be applied by coaches in both clinical and school settings. Clinics serve as a vehicle for developing teachers’ dispositions toward instruction while concurrently offering support to struggling readers. the thought processes behind the decisions. an intensive diagnostic process is followed by one-on-one or small group instruction providing targeted intervention in the context of authentic opportunities to read and write. intentional instruction and intervention. This mediational dialogue encourages teachers to analyze their instructional decisions.

opportunities for growth emerge. SUCCESS FROM THE START: COACHES IN THE CLINIC An important part of the mission of a reading clinic is to provide support to struggling readers. This chapter describes a model for mentoring teachers through this instructional change process. 2011). How. and praise in order to provide decreasing scaffolding which moves teachers toward independent use of effective instructional practices. they cannot afford to fail again. Coaching can guide teachers through the metacognitive processes they must access to flexibly and appropriately adapt what they are learning to differing contexts. The Gradual Increase of Responsibility (GIR) model (Collet. allows for dialogue about questions and concerns as they arise and encourages teachers to think about their own practice. These factors emphasize the need for lessons to be successful from the start. as teachers implement new practices. coaches model. clinical teachers are often novices in providing intervention. reading clinics not only provide direct support to struggling readers but also prepare educators to effectively provide such support in other settings. Support provided in situ. with coaches making up the difference between what the teacher can do on her own and what is needed for . ask probing questions. Coaches provide the necessary support so that teachers and students can tackle the tutoring task holistically. affirm teachers’ appropriate decisions. Whether the clinic is fee-based or provides pro bono services. The GIR model grew from analysis of the support provided in a clinic that successfully guided teachers in improving their literacy instruction (Collet. make recommendations. However. is the exemplary instruction that students need to be achieved? Therein lies the role of the clinical supervisor or coach. Thus. 2008) is an adaptation of Pearson and Gallagher’s (1983) Gradual Release of Responsibility (GRR) model that can be used in both the clinic and the school setting. they are preservice or in-service teachers seeking additional knowledge and further certification. Children often come to the clinic with a history of failure. In GIR. As teachers become more cognizant of the thinking behind their own actions and those of other teachers. then.The Gradual Increase of Responsibility Model 329 epistemology behind those thought processes. parents bring their children to the clinic with the hope and expectation that their child’s needs will be met – that they will be receiving superior instruction on the university campus.

. creating opportunities for the construction of beliefs and practices to be grounded in teaching experiences. and guiding reflection. and coaches are there to support application of these practices in a way that meets the unique needs of the learner. By grounding questions and goals in authentic events. coaches provide direction regarding which assessments will be used and then support interpretation of assessment results.5-year period indicated that following this model led to sustained improvement in literacy instruction (Collet. p. 2000. which results not only in enhanced instruction but also in increased teacher learning. Once areas of focus have been determined. 1983).330 VICKI COLLET successful intervention. Literacy coaches work with teachers where and when they are teaching. 31). In the beginning of the clinical experience. coaches ensure the student’s learning and growth as a reader. addressing problems of practice with immediacy not possible in many teacher education settings. Instructional coaches can support this process and encourage a consistent reflective stance. 2008) described in this chapter is an adaptation of Pearson and Gallagher’s GRR model (Pearson & Gallagher. instructional improvements can occur as teachers practice. observe results. in the clinic coaches provide sufficient scaffolding so instruction will be successful. Coaches also support the reflection process. when teachers provide a rich introduction that allows students to successfully read that text. Just as in guided reading. These results support use of the GIR model as a guide for scaffolding interactions between teachers and coaches. GIR emphasizes the meditational role of coaching. Coaching provides contextualized professional development. supporting planning. and evaluate the effects on student outcomes. they are putting them into play. Qualitative analysis of data collected in teachers’ classrooms over a 1. 2011). No longer are teachers simply reading about best practices for intervention. coaches can draw attention to ‘‘the rub between theory and practice’’ (Mills & Satterthwait. Individually. THE GIR: A MODEL FOR SUCCESSFUL COACHING IN THE CLINIC The GIR model for Coaching (Collet. the coach assists during planning. often making recommendations about research-based practices that might be used during tutoring. it includes coaching practices that provide decreasing levels of scaffolding as teachers become more proficient in providing support to struggling readers. By directing diagnoses.

The model. support for teachers is created by the coach and by the practices and routines utilized. By modeling. thus. 2004. This assistance provides scaffolding. Bruner..The Gradual Increase of Responsibility Model 331 Sociocultural theories have been used to emphasize the role of social interaction in learning (Bodrova & Leong. p. which has been applied to students’ literacy learning for over 30 years. coaches can provide scaffolding that moves teachers toward interdependence and collaboration. Duffy et al. likewise. and praising. Rather than beginning at ‘‘0-0. Vygotsky. 1996. The GIR model describes the journey across that bridge. through which learners become independent with the task (Pearson & Gallagher. The GIR model describes changes in coaching over time (see Fig. with coaches providing varying but decreasing support. 112). 1986) has potential for adult learning as well. Collet. The GRR model portrays a sequence of explanation. The GIR model shows teachers’ gradually increasing interdependence and collaboration as they rely less on the coach and engage more in collaborative practices. In a university clinic. it shows the assumption that teachers will . 2007. this change is shown as sinuous and flowing. asking probing questions. Effective instruction is organized so that learners ‘‘are encouraged to take over more and more of the regulative responsibilities’’ (Wertsch. the ‘‘bridge necessary to support a learner’s performance’’ (Wood. & Trathen. According to Pearson and Gallagher (1983). Dole. The GIR model for coaching described in this chapter is an adaptation of the GRR model. interactions with the coach support teachers’ increasing expertise and experience. & Ross. 1. affirming teachers’ appropriate decisions. Whereas Pearson and Gallagher’s GRR model emphasizes the teacher’s role in releasing responsibility to the learner. the GIR model emphasizes the role of the learner in gradually taking on increased responsibility. The coach continually adjusts scaffolding to meet the needs of the individual teacher. 2008). corrective feedback. Rather than a linear course. 1983). any academic task can be conceptualized as requiring differing proportions of teacher and learner responsibility for successful completion. This meditational role is described in the GRR model which portrays changing instructional interactions as learners increase in proficiency. 1991. (Clark & Graves. depicting the varying amounts of scaffolding needed as learners move toward independence. Brown.’’ the path (shown by the curving line) acknowledges the teachers’ previous knowledge and experience by starting at a point further up the axis. 1976). specifically teacher education. guided practice. and independent practice and application. This model considers the responses provided by coaching in terms of what types of feedback are best at what times in the teacher education process. 1978). making recommendations.

As teachers gain more confidence in working with their students. There is a decrease in the amount of support provided as teachers increase in competence and confidence. the support that coaches provide changes in both quantity and quality. coaches scaffold them by asking probing questions. coaching may take the role of affirming teachers’ instructional decisions. coaches offer praise. however. Concurrently. Of course. The GIR model provides a guide for the coaching process as teachers’ ability to support struggling readers increases.332 VICKI COLLET Fig. Such questions push teachers to consider implications of their instruction and how they might move forward. Elaboration and description of the . continue to learn and grow in their profession by having the line end below the upper corner. Gradual Increase of Responsibility – A Model for Coaching and Collaboration. coaches often make recommendations early in the semester as teachers determine goals for their students and decide what approaches to take. this progression is not perfectly linear and there is interplay among these coaching practices. modeling occurs most frequently at the beginning of the clinical experience as teachers are learning and trying new assessments and methodologies. When teachers feel confident about what they are doing. Providing slightly less support. 1. Later in the semester. the type of scaffolding changes as coaches use practices that provide less support. In general. overall there is a tendency toward decreased support and increased teacher responsibility. As the clinical experience progresses.

Modeling during a Lesson When teachers are learning new intervention practices. Modeling during a lesson may also help build a relationship of trust between the coach and teacher. instructional practices may be modeled during planning or post-lesson discussions. and coaches may also model instructional decision-making by thinking aloud when conferencing with teachers. 1996). Modeling Modeling has long been encouraged as a scaffold for learning (Anderson & Roit. however. coaches may determine that modeling the practice with the student during a lesson would be helpful. modeling may take other useful forms. models may be provided through digital recordings. Block & Israel. Modeling during Planning or Debriefing Conversations If modeling during a lesson is not needed or is determined to be inappropriate. In addition to the typical practice of modeling during a lesson. For example. Since the approach is being used with the same student that the teacher is tutoring. Modeling during a lesson may not always be the best strategy. Modeling during tutoring allows the teacher to see the practice in action in an authentic situation that illustrates the nuances of the practice. 2004. For example.The Gradual Increase of Responsibility Model 333 practices delineated in the GIR model are provided in the sections that follow. modeling provides the most supportive scaffolds for teachers in the clinic. watching a modeled lesson allows the teacher to envision how the student will respond later. when several students in the clinic needed to work on improved comprehension. The teacher sees both the competence of the coach and her willingness to take a risk and learn and think alongside the teacher.. 1993. As part of GIR. when she is the one guiding the learning. Teachers can observe during the tutoring session either side-by-side or behind the glass. Similarly. modeling is valuable as a practice in the coaching cycle. These several forms of modeling are discussed below. coaches may model instructional practices when meeting with teachers during a seminar or when coaching one-on-one. Dole et al. The coach and teacher should consider together whether such modeling would be an intrusion on the relationship that is developing between the teacher and student. a . or teachers may request such modeling.

which have the added benefit of being easily shared by providing a link during an online coaching conversation. 2011).334 VICKI COLLET coach modeled a lesson on using comprehension fix-up strategies during the weekly seminar meeting with all teachers (Collet. and teachers have the opportunity to dialogue immediately afterward about what they have seen.org] or Choice Literacy [choiceliteracy. 2001.. In many clinics. or recordings can be viewed by the teacher on her own time. and these recordings can be valuable in providing models for other teachers. her coach. Similar to modeling during a lesson. modeled the steps of Teacher Modeling-Guided Repeated Readings (Kibby. Debra. weigh possible learning experiences (considering the affordances of each). a coach may review assessment information. a strategy to increase reading fluency (Collet. 2012). Coach and teacher can view and discuss recordings together during a planning or debriefing session. Clips from video recordings purchased from publishers or professional organizations may also be useful. and determine a plan of action. consider a student’s strengths and weaknesses as a reader. p. using video recordings allows the teacher to see the practice in action with a student. when a teacher was working with a student who needed to improve fluency. 24) that can include sharing the decision-making strategies used to design instruction. Recordings can be obtained through online resources (e. Providing Models through Video Recordings Video recordings are another way to provide an instructional model. modeling in teacher-learning contexts also has benefits: the coach can isolate a specific skill to model. Recordings need not be perfect examples.g. since they show the practices in action in contexts similar to those where the teacher will be using them. learning occurs through reflecting on both successes and less-successful aspects of lessons. the Teaching Channel [teachingchannel. determine where the student lies on a developmental continuum.com]). tutoring sessions are recorded. As coaches think aloud about approaches that might be taken during a tutoring session. they illuminate the many factors under consideration. Although modeling in the actual learning environment has the advantage of allowing teachers to observe interactions with their own students. Modeling Instructional Decision-Making Modeling provides ‘‘living examples’’ (Feiman-Nemser. When modeling expert decision-making. models of the coach’s own thinking can be included as think-alouds. Similarly. 1995). . for example.

coaches need to consider the knowledge and abilities of the teacher in order for recommendations to be effective. coaches take an expert stance based on a wider teaching repertoire. p. In addition to taking into consideration the needs of the student. written by a coach on an early lesson plan. coaches shift to the practice of making recommendations as the coaching cycle moves forward. the developmental processes of reading and writing. 2007). The coach might also . or resources being used. they may no longer need modeling. modeling may be especially useful early in the clinical experience. content or skills being taught. This stage of the coaching cycle requires credibility and trust. coaches encourage teachers to use appropriate intervention practices and attend to instructional goals that target the unique needs of the learner. The coach may provide information about instructional strategies. 2006. Whether recorded or live. he will benefit from time with connected text’’ (Collet. Recommending As teachers increase the tools in their instructional toolbox and their comfort with using them. with students or without. advocating for particular choices and actions. ‘‘Teachers who (have) as reference only their own experience y require something more than reflection to analyze and question their own practice’’ (Halai. curriculum. makes an instructional recommendation: ‘‘I feel like 30 minutes is too long to spend on word work. Making Recommendations about Instructional Strategies The coach may recommend a teaching strategy to address students’ needs. In this consulting role. 2011. Coaches often make recommendations early in the clinical experience as teachers are determining goals for their students and deciding what approaches to take. or the standards. p. 92). When using the GIR model. which coaches have been working to build. In doing so. 704). modeling can be that ‘‘something more’’ and should play an important role early in the coaching process. This recommendation encourages the teacher to move from isolated skills instruction to contextualized practice. The following comment.The Gradual Increase of Responsibility Model 335 Modeling is an effective coaching practice that predicts changes in student achievement (Elish-Piper & L’Allier. Such observed experiences open doors for communication and support teachers as they then use the strategies in their own instruction. They draw on research and experience.

rather. even for novice readers. Making Recommendations about the Developmental Processes of Reading and Writing Reading and writing are complex processes that require searching for and using many sources of information. We do see evidence that vocabulary instruction would be helpful to Caleb. The development of these processes is not linear. In addition to making recommendations about instructional design that align with the student’s development. . Before too long. vocabulary knowledge. For example. Making Recommendations about Content or Skills Making recommendation about skills or content for upcoming lessons supports teachers in the instructional design process. how it emerges over time to become proficient reading. is essential in order to plan effective intervention that accelerates a student’s growth along the reading continuum. the coach may recommend professional reading to increase the teacher’s understanding of these processes. and fluency work together in the reading process. She then nudges the teacher to consider additional needs of the student. 39) The coach first acknowledges relevant insights the teacher has shared.336 VICKI COLLET recommend collection or review of formative assessment data to guide instructional decision-making. comprehension. p. building the teacher’s confidence and strengthening feelings of trust in their relationship. Because of the complexity of the processes of becoming literate. For example. so it is appropriate to include it. would you please include your thinking about this need? (Collet. Having an understanding of reading development. In your next reflection. both reading and writing are interactive processes (Rodgers. 2012. the recommendation in this e-mail correspondence from a coach reminds the teacher of a need that has been thus far neglected: Your insights about Caleb’s comprehension will be helpful as you plan instruction. A learner does not focus on one discrete skill at a time. early readers do not focus their attention simply on decoding. you’ll also want to address his word recognition needs. teachers in the clinic may benefit from specific recommendations about how instruction should change over time to support students’ movement through the developmental processes of learning to read and write. word analysis. 2012).

The Gradual Increase of Responsibility Model


Making Recommendations about the Standards, Curriculum, or Resources Being Used Having clear learning objectives enhances instructional design. Objectives may be crafted from a knowledge of developmental reading processes, or they may be lifted from standards teachers are required to use, such as the Common Core State Standards. In either case, coaches might make recommendations about specific objectives that would enhance the student’s learning. The coach might also make recommendations about specific texts that align with the abilities and interests of the learner. The following recommendation, a comment made by a coach on a lesson plans near the beginning of the coaching cycle, suggests a specific text:
Give him an opportunity to transfer the skill of reading with expression to real text – otherwise, it’s not serving a real purpose. Perhaps he could preview the sample paper, ‘‘Put Ups Are Important’’ by reading it out loud attending to punctuation. (Collet, 2011, p. 92)

Because the coach may have greater familiarity with texts that are available, such a recommendation could be helpful. Note that the coach’s recommendation of a text is also combined with suggestions about authentic application of a discrete skill (fluency) on which the teacher has been focusing during tutoring sessions. By making recommendations about instructional strategies, content or skills being taught, the developmental processes of becoming literate, or the standards or resources being used, coaches can encourage teachers to attend to important instructional goals. Although some coaching models do not encourage coaches to take a consulting role (Costa & Garmston, 2002), studies indicate that taking an expert stance and offering suggestions to improve instruction can be an effective coaching practice (Bean, 2004; Carrier, 1980; Darby, 2008; Gibson, 2006; Glazer & Hannafin, 2006; Symonds, 2003). Making recommendations can appropriately scaffold teachers as they develop strategies for intensive intervention. In the GIR model, making recommendations is most prevalent near the beginning of the coaching cycle and then decreases sharply as the clinical experience progresses. By making recommendations, coaches encourage teachers to attend to important instructional goals. This focus continues as coaches shift from making recommendations to asking questions, scaffolding teachers to form habits of focused reflection.



Questioning As teachers gain more confidence in working with their students, coaches increase teachers’ responsibility by moving from a consulting stance of making recommendations to a coaching stance of asking questions. Coaches should be careful that the questions they ask support reflection and instructional decision-making rather than being disguised recommendations. Consider the following coaching language:
Recommendation: ‘‘You could have students use the rubric to assess their own papers.’’ Recommendation disguised as a question: ‘‘What would happen if students used their rubric to assess their own work?’’ Question: ‘‘What would have to change for students to work more for themselves and less for you?’’

When the coach asks ‘‘What would have to change y.,’’ she opens the teacher’s thinking to new possibilities, rather than funneling her thinking to a single, pre-determined choice. Principles for Asking Questions Costa and Garmston (2002) have suggested general principles that make questioning more effective during a coaching conversation. Using an approachable voice (one with lilt and melody) brings authenticity to the conversation. Couching questions in the language of plurals (What are some of the things you might try?) steers teachers away from thinking there is one right answer toward considering multiple possibilities. Using plurals also builds trust in the relationship and increases feelings of teacher responsibility; the teacher does not feel she is playing ‘‘guess-what-is-in-my-head’’ when responding to the coach’s questions. Another questioning technique that builds trust and supports risk-taking is using tentative language (What are some of the things you might try?). Using invitational stems (As you think about your goal, what are some of the things you might try?) is another good way to open up a conversation. Finally, phrasing questions in language that expresses positive assumptions builds trust and encourages teachers to explore their own intentions. Questions such as ‘‘What is your

The Gradual Increase of Responsibility Model


long-term plan?’’ and ‘‘Considering what you know about learning styles y.’’ assume capability and empowerment. Questions that grow from positive assumptions enhance understanding and support a trusting, respectful relationship between teacher and coach. By monitoring voice quality; using plurals, tentative language, and invitational stems; and expressing positive assumptions, coaches encourage teachers to consider students’ responses to instructional practices. It is difficult, however, to keep all of these principles in mind during the flow of a coaching conversation. If a coach wants to improve the effectiveness of her questioning, she might choose one of these principles to focus on at a time when she anticipates a conversation where asking questions will be a dominant coaching practice. Purposes for Asking Questions Coaches ask questions that enhance reflection and support teachers’ theoretical understandings. Depending on need and where the conversation is in the coaching process, coaches may ask questions that inquire (to broaden thinking) or probe (to deepen thinking). For example, the question, ‘‘How much pictorial support are students in this group needing?’’ inquires about an important cueing system for early readers; the question supports teachers’ thinking about the continuum of literacy learning. The probing question, ‘‘Is Jason reading at his instructional level, based on results of his diagnostic testing?’’ sends the teacher to specific assessment data and may implicate intervention strategies. Different types of questions serve different purposes. Broadening the Scope of Ideas. At times the coach may want to ask questions that broaden the scope of ideas under consideration. These inquiring questions tend to be open-ended. The following question stems can be used to craft questions that support inquiry:     How are __ and __ similar/different? How does __ affect ___? What might the benefits be? What are some other ways that might be done? (Adapted from Killion & Harrison, 2006)

Considering such questions requires higher-order thinking that moves the teacher toward broader views. Generating alternatives and considering multiple perspectives can result in important ‘‘ah-ha!’’ moments. The



thinking path is not predetermined by the coach, but is a course of inquiry that coach and teacher are pursuing together. Making Thinking More Precise. Using information that has been shared by the teacher, the coach may choose to ask questions that take thinking to a deeper, more precise level. These probing questions are specific to the content of the conversation and express genuine curiosity. For example, when a coach asks, ‘‘What might you hear students saying if they understood that concept?’’ she invites consideration of the measurement of learning targets. When a coach follows up on a teacher’s comment, ‘‘They just don’t get it!’’ with the probing question of, ‘‘What are some examples of students’ confusion?’’ she is moving the conversation in a productive direction. Questioning by asking for concreteness and requesting clarification can provide opportunities to engage in collaborative problem solving that lead to improved instruction (Crasborn, Hennissen, Brouwer, Korthagen, & Bergen, 2008; Gibson, 2006). Challenging Assumptions. As a coaching practice, questioning provides an opportunity to mediate teacher cognition. Questioning can encourage teachers to challenge the assumptions in their own practice, a practice that Halai calls ‘‘critical questioning’’ (Halai, 2006). If teachers have conceptions that misdirect instruction, coaches can ask questions that draw attention to inconsistencies. In the following example, the coach pushes Betsy’s thinking about her definition of comprehension:
What level of detail would you expect or hope for Caleb to remember? What level of detail will he need to be able to retain to be successful in school and, most importantly, life experiences? (Collet, 2011, p. 86)

The coach asked these questions when Betsy was concerned about her student’s ability to retain the information that Betsy was expecting. The questions encouraged Betsy to reevaluate her expectations and possibly her concept of comprehension; her revised lesson plan for the following session included opportunities for deeper thinking versus recall of details. When a coach hypothesizes that a teacher’s underlying assumptions are negatively impacting instruction, she asks questions that lead to an examination of theory and broad concepts. Questions that bring theories, principles, and concepts of instruction into focus can have a far-reaching effect on instructional practices.

The Gradual Increase of Responsibility Model


Encouraging Reflection. Asking questions that inquire, probe, and challenge assumptions encourages reflection, a practice that, with practice, can become automatic. Reflection increases awareness of self, others, and the context in which instruction is occurring. When reflection focuses on monitoring one’s decisions and the resulting effects, instructional decision-making is enhanced. Asking questions such as, ‘‘How do you think it went?’’ and ‘‘What did you notice y.?’’ encourage the teacher to revisit instruction. Questions such as, ‘‘What stands out in students’ work?’’ and ‘‘What are your hunches about what may have caused y.?’’ lead to analysis. To solidify discoveries and build bridges to future practice, the coach might ask, ‘‘What insights can you take from this?’’ or ‘‘So what do you want to stay mindful of as you’re planning?’’ These questions push teachers to consider implications of their instruction and how they might move forward. Coaches may find it useful to keep a list of reflective questions available during a coaching session until questioning practices become comfortable and instinctive (see Fig. 2). Rather than asking questions that are thinly masked recommendations, at this stage coaches’ questions should encourage teachers to reflect on students’ needs and how their practice is supporting those needs, to analyze their own assumptions about learning, and to consider options for how to move forward. Reflective questioning can lead to deeper, richer, and more thoughtful coaching conversations. Questioning is the climax of a good story – the coaching story. Once questioning has been internalized as a reflective practice, coaches move into the denouement of the GIR model. Affirming and praising are an appropriate ‘‘falling action’’ for the coaching plot as teachers’ ability and responsibility increase.

Affirming Through questioning, teachers become ‘‘more autonomous in analyzing situations arising in practice, and also in thinking of alternative ways of dealing with them’’ (Harrison, in Crasborn et al., 2008, p. 502). Increased autonomy means teachers are less dependent on coaches and are making instructional decisions on their own. However, at this stage, they may still look to their coaches for confirmation that they are doing the right thing. During this phase of the GIR model, coaches offer support by providing affirmations. To affirm means to assert as valid; to agree, verify, or concur. Coaches may make comments that affirm or praise throughout the clinical experience; however, coaching practices trend toward increasing use of affirmation as teachers’ experience and competence increase.



Fig. 2.

Conference Plan for Gradual Increase of Responsibility.

The Gradual Increase of Responsibility Model


Coaches provide affirmation by confirming that practices are appropriate, by agreeing with teachers’ plans for instruction, and by using work samples or student data to validate the effectiveness of instruction. For example, Cindy’s coach affirmed her decision to display strategy posters in the tutoring cubby: ‘‘Having these resources visually available seems very effective for Brian’’ (Collet, 2012, p. 40). The coach also provided affirming comments when Cindy included in her lesson plan a review of the six traits of writing she had been teaching Brian: ‘‘Yes y you’ve introduced these traits very quickly, so pausing to review would be a good idea (Collet, 2011, p. 97).’’ When Betsy’s student, a reluctant adolescent reader, participated more actively during his tutoring session, the coach affirmed the effectiveness of the practices Betsy had been using by drawing attention to student work: ‘‘Betsy, Caleb seemed more engaged in the lesson today! He was able to use more expression when reading the ABC activity!’’ (Collet, 2011, p. 97). These examples highlight forms that affirming may take during clinical practice. As coaches confirm teachers’ instructional decisions, teachers’ self-efficacy increases. Development of this affective characteristic is important, since teachers’ self-efficacy correlates highly with increased student achievement (Cantrell & Callaway, 2008). Teachers with a feeling of efficacy believe that if they work hard, students will learn. They believe they have the necessary knowledge and skills to provide effective instruction. Teachers with self-efficacy are more resourceful and perseverant and exhibit cause and effect thinking. Efficacy positively influences the effort that teachers expend while working with students and their willingness to modify instruction in response to students’ needs (Cantrell, Madden, Carter, Rintamaa, & Almasi, 2011; Costa & Garmston, 2002; Guskey & Passaro, 1993). Affirmation from coaches supports an attitude of efficacy and is especially pertinent for teachers when they are acquiring new skills, as is the case with teachers during their clinical experience. Affirmations denote a context in which teachers are making sound instructional decisions but are still looking to their coaches for confirmation. With the accumulation of successful teaching experiences, affirming plays a less important role in determining efficacy (Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2007) and plays a less important role in the GIR model for coaching.

Praising Affirming is a helpful coaching practice when teachers are making sound instructional decisions but are looking for confirmation that they are doing the right thing. Later, as the GIR coaching cycle draws to a close, affirming shifts



to praising. Although teachers may no longer be looking for confirmation from the coach, they do appreciate a good word! To praise is: to express favorable judgment; to commend or admire; to acclaim, extol, or laud. When coaches see something worth lauding, they shouldn’t hold their tongues – they should pass the words of praise along. Mark Twain (n.d.) exclaimed, ‘‘I can live for two months on a good compliment.’’ When Sandi’s coach said, ‘‘Sandi, watching you work with Jason is such a joy! Your rapport with him allows you to accomplish so much and have both of you enjoy the experience,’’ (Collet, 2012, p. 40) her compliment built potential for future successes. The coach applauded the effort Sandi had made to develop a relationship with her student and emphasized the positive effects of that effort. Offered near the end of the clinical experience, the coach’s praise was both precise and warranted. Providing specific, justified praise is a collegial action that should be a genuine response at this phase of the coaching cycle. Although coaches should not be in a formally evaluative role and should exercise care in making evaluative statements, appropriate praise is a beneficial finale to the coaching cycle. Specific, personalized praise is an authentic coaching response when teachers are making sound instructional decisions. Unjustified praise is ineffective, however, so coaches should move to this phase of the cycle only when there is genuine justification for praise. Coaches can provide praise that applauds knowledge, commends practice, and acknowledges teachers’ effective instructional decision-making. Praising teachers confirms the non-threatening role of a coach. Cross (1995) suggests that this acknowledgment bolsters confidence and contributes to the teacher’s future development. By offering praise, coaches utilize a strengths-based approach. At the end of their clinical experience, teachers will have the credentials to be looked to as literacy experts in their schools. When a coach feels confident that a teacher is equipped with the tools needed in this expert role, she enhances feelings of efficacy by providing warranted praise. Offering warranted praise helps teachers see themselves as competent interventionists, ready to take the skills they have learned in the clinic and apply them in other settings. When coaches offer praise to their teaching colleagues, they acknowledge that the teachers have successfully taken on the responsibility of providing intervention tailored to meet the unique needs of struggling readers.

Collaboration and Interdependence Although Pearson and Gallagher’s (1983) GRR model shows students taking on increased responsibility and moving toward independence, a

For example. Whereas the coaching practices near the beginning of the GIR cycle (modeling and recommending) involve a consulting stance. the GIR model can be used to strengthen teachers as they move toward interdependence. These collegial conversations support teachers’ development of a collaborative stance. Effective collaborators not only accept ideas from others. coaches help teachers apply new learning and move them toward collaborative interdependence. 41). and opportunities for teachers to interact one-on-one may be built into the clinical experience or may occur informally. later stages of the model call for a more collaborative stance. p. 1990. p. This notion of constructing meaning as a shared enterprise is central to a sociocultural stance for learning (Vygotsky. a teacher in the clinic. the group of teacher clinicians may meet together for weekly seminar. 1978). providing affirmations. Teachers’ collaboration and interdependence increase as they rely less on the coach and engage more in collaborative discourse with both the coach and other teachers. encouraging teachers to develop collaborative relationships with one another. Rather than moving toward independence. asking questions. coaches regard teachers as colleagues and partners in the intervention experience. 2011. however. By following the pattern of modeling. making recommendations. 2012). Gandhi.The Gradual Increase of Responsibility Model 345 significant feature of the GIR coaching model is that it moves teachers toward increased collaboration and constructive interdependence (Collet. and praising. 100). Coaching embodies the role of social interaction in teacher change and facilitates ongoing teacher interdependence and collaboration with the coach and other colleagues. Collaboration plays a role throughout the clinical experience. A collaborative stance is reflected in this teacher’s comment: ‘‘It was good to think at it from another perspective. I think having two perspectives is definitely important’’ (Collet. . the nature of coaching interactions shifts as teachers gain experience in the reading clinic. Sandi. they also bring insight to their interactions with colleagues. Activities with other teachers can be included as an ongoing part of the clinical experience. 2012. commented. 1922) and inherent in collaboration. When questioning. This comment reflects the teacher’s feeling at the end of the semester that she and her coach were collaborators in defining her student’s needs and held equally valuable perspectives. a personality trait characteristic of mature individuals (Covey. teachers may meet in small groups with their coach. affirming. ‘‘I liked when our small group got together sometimes because then you’d have more people’s opinions’’ (Collet. and giving praise. The collaborative social space of the clinic can foster an ongoing approach to co-construction of knowledge and teacher practice.

An additional feature of the GIR coaching model is the acknowledgment that teachers bring funds of knowledge (Moll. Amanti. The model clarifies the varying roles that coaches or supervisors can play as they support teachers in improving their practice. The coaching path (shown in the model by the curving line) acknowledges teachers’ previous knowledge and experience by starting above the ‘‘0-0’’ position on the axis. administrators and coaches work with teachers who have a wide variety of experience and needs. In school settings. GIR IN SCHOOLS AND DISTRICTS Although the GIR coaching model was developed in a university reading clinic and is helpful for the coaches or supervisors there. Coaches leverage teachers’ abilities by providing progressive scaffolding – support that changes to match teachers’ escalating zones of proximal development (Collet. 2011). Coaches can respond to the dynamic nature of a teacher’s zone of proximal development (ZPD) by assessing and staying within that zone. coaching support moves from being instructional and very supportive to affirming and providing praise. Research currently underway indicates that the GIR model can be effectively used by school and district coaches and leadership to support teachers’ growth. with the coach providing varying but decreasing support.346 VICKI COLLET Additional Facets of the GIR Model Using the GIR model. this flexible support is represented as an indirect course. & Gonzalez. Understanding the practices coaches can use to guide teachers to increased competence and confidence helps us to approach the coaching experience in more efficacious ways. which describes the recursive and iterative but progressive use of the coaching moves. The model also illustrates the belief that teachers will continue to learn and grow in their profession by having the line end below the upper corner. The model describes changes in coaching over time and shows teachers’ growth as they rely less on the coach and engage more in collaboration. The GIR model can be used as . The model can be used to guide the mediation provided by coaches as teachers’ competencies are emerging. In the GIR model. This changing support reflects teachers’ increase in responsibility. the same coaching model has value beyond the clinic. 2001) to any learning situation and that they will continue to learn and grow in their profession. coaches should adapt the scaffolding they provide based on the experiences and needs of the teachers. However.

This may encourage teachers who are participating to develop such relationships outside of the clinic. 2004. By following the pattern of modeling. job-embedded professional development and strengthen the work of PLCs within their schools. asking questions. 2001. where collaboration is emphasized and the organization. the GIR model serves as a guide to the shared work that teachers are encouraged to undertake in today’s schools. DuFour. There is a decrease in the amount of support provided as teachers increase in competence and confidence. making recommendations.The Gradual Increase of Responsibility Model 347 they consider these variabilities. Interactions with a coach support teachers’ increasing expertise and experience. is viewed as the unit of change (City. leaders can ‘‘place’’ teachers on the GIR model as a way to begin considering the type of coaching support they might provide (keeping in mind GIR’s circuitous path. Fullan. because teachers see the value . & Teitel. By modeling. and praising. The collaborative features of the GIR model have pertinence in today’s educational climate. Fiarman. collaborative relationships are developed within the clinic. coaches can provide scaffolding that stays within teachers’ ZPD and moves them toward interdependence and collaboration. making recommendations. The coaching process instantiated in the GIR model prepares teachers for participation in these communities of learners. asking probing questions. providing affirmations. CONCLUSION The GIR model adapts Pearson and Gallagher’s (1983) GRR to provide a model for coaching that reflects teachers’ growing increase in responsibility. 1990). affirming teachers’ appropriate decisions. rather than the individual. The GIR model is useful as coaches and other school leaders seek to provide meaningful. Collaboration is a necessary facet of professional learning communities (PLCs). 2001. interdependent. 2009). coaches help teachers apply new learning and move them toward the final stage of the GIR model: Interdependence and Collaboration. which acknowledges the need for varying support rather than a linear progression through phases of the model). and giving praise. When used in university reading clinics. Using the GIR model fosters collaboration. Developing relationships of trust in the clinic with colleagues and the coach may encourage teachers to seek out similar benefits in their schools. Additionally. Elmore. Senge. which are being encouraged throughout the country as a means for improving education (Cox.

Preservice teachers’ reflectivity on the sequence and consequences of teaching actions in a microteaching experience. The model clarifies the varying roles that coaches or supervisors can play. 115–126. the GIR model enables coaches to thoughtfully enact change and enhances their effectiveness. indicating ability for more autonomous performance. Dunston.. schools. 32(1). Research suggests that teachers can then flexibly and appropriately apply their new learning both as tutors in the reading clinics and in their own classrooms (Collet. leading teachers to deeper understanding of strategies for literacy instruction.348 VICKI COLLET gained from collaboration. and districts) take on the job of improving teachers’ instruction. The GIR model aids application and transformation of learning about literacy instruction. events that have been shown to improve teachers’ instructional decision-making (Amobi. The GIR model can provide a framework to help teacher educators and coaches tailor their support to meet teachers’ needs for feedback and evaluation. new instructional practices are within their zone of actual development (Vygotsky. GIR coaching practices support discussion. . they also model this sociocultural concept as a theoretical consideration for learners of all ages. 2011). 2009). When the model is used in school settings. coaching practices can lead directly to ongoing collaboration with the coach and others. (2005). rather than falling within a teacher’s zone of proximal development. and observed and enacted experiences. 2005. Risko et al. 2007. providing training in the GIR model could increase their success. By embodying the stance that good teaching is dependent upon knowledge of where the learner is and an understanding of where the learner is ready to move next. reflection. F. A. As coaches (in clinics. 1978). Teacher Education Quarterly. coaches must find and follow a sinuous path to mediate teachers’ learning while increasing teachers’ responsibility for making instructional decisions. By the end of the GIR model. REFERENCES Amobi. Interactions with a coach support teachers’ increasing expertise. coaches not only facilitate the learning of teachers. By providing a description of how coaching changes over time. Coaching for GIR facilitates instructional change by situating the teacher as an active constructor of knowledge. Just as teachers in classrooms need to consider the varying needs of their students.

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PEER CONFERENCING: ADDING A COLLABORATIVE COMPONENT TO GRADUATE AND UNDERGRADUATE UNIVERSITY READING CLINICS Sherrye Dee Garrett and Lucinda Marie Juarez ABSTRACT Purpose – This chapter provides the reader with a discussion of a peerconferencing component. and materials. strategies. called ‘‘cadre conferencing. Design – Graduate and undergraduate students were asked to provide feedback about the cadre conferencing model. The feedback was used as a way for the faculty member to evaluate an instructional change in existing courses.1108/S2048-0458(2013)0000002020 353 .’’ which was incorporated into undergraduate and graduate reading clinics. Practice and Evaluation. 353–365 Copyright r 2013 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited All rights of reproduction in any form reserved ISSN: 2048-0458/doi:10. University students were placed into cadres based on the grades of the children they were tutoring. Cadres met during scheduled class time to discuss assessments. Volume 2. Advanced Literacy Practices: From the Clinic to the Classroom Literacy Research. They identified what they liked about the peer conferencing and what changes they would make.

Undergraduate students reported that they benefited from sharing ideas. Graduate students were in-service teachers who reported that they benefited most from sharing ideas about strategies and materials. reading clinics. Practical and social implications – Observations of the cadres in their meetings and feedback from a course survey indicate that peer conferencing can be a powerful tool for groups of educators. Keywords: Peer conferencing. This chapter discusses a strategy that complements individual faculty mentoring and provides multiple sources of support for clinic students. In previous years. have long been an essential element of college reading programs. Both groups recommended that cadre conferencing continue to be included in the two courses. . but also from the personal support they experienced from members of their cadre. Schools that adopt a professional learning communities model or team-teaching approach could integrate the cadre conferencing into their existing group structures. and (2) they provide services to the community by offering specialized assessment and instruction for children experiencing difficulties learning to read. The model would transfer best into programs that are designed to include shared decision-making and peer collaboration. Most have dual purposes: (1) they provide a vehicle for future reading professionals to sharpen their knowledge of assessment and instruction under the direct supervision of university faculty.354 SHERRYE DEE GARRETT AND LUCINDA MARIE JUAREZ Implications – Both graduate and undergraduate students reported benefits to the cadre conferencing component. A revision in the doctoral coursework reduced the clinical supervision hours and doctoral students were no long available to support masters students. both graduate and undergraduate. assessment. the masters level graduate reading clinic at our university was integrated with a doctoral level clinical supervision course. In that structure. doctoral students supervised and mentored the masters students. The mentoring required in such a clinical experience can be a challenge when one university faculty member supervises 12–25 college students. response to literature INTRODUCTION University reading clinics.

The cadres in the undergraduate program were created by grouping tutors who were teaching children in the same grade.Peer Conferencing 355 The situation called for creative problem-solving. The BEST Program is a 12week. skills. attitude surveys. Each tutoring session consists of four 30minute components: reading. students are grouped by grade level and one tutor conducts a read aloud and follow-up activities. in the graduate course. Positive results were reported from each group. The conferencing was introduced into both graduate and undergraduate settings. The undergraduate reading clinic is called a ‘‘reading camp. Because the response-to-literature groups have students in a one-year to two-year grade range. informal reading inventories. informal reading inventories. two-hour Saturday clinic associated with a six-credit graduate course in a reading masters program. The strategy was dubbed ‘‘cadre conferencing. In the response to literature segments. but tutors are required to include reading. The tutors are in-service teachers. with ‘‘BEST’’ being an acronym for Basic Educational Skills and Teaching. the tutors face similar instructional situations. the BEST Program has been implemented successfully for more than 20 years at two different universities. and writing inventories. Initially conceived by Dr. The tutors are pre-service teachers. and a new strategy was implemented – peer conferencing. student self-selection book activities. The cadre conferencing sessions were conducted before tutoring in the graduate course and after tutoring in the undergraduate course. and read aloud activities in their lessons. The tutors use information learned from the diagnostic activities to develop oneon-one tutoring lessons for the students. Tutors then use the results of the diagnostic activities to develop an individual plan of instruction for their students.’’ The camp consists of eight 75-minute tutoring sessions. Cadre conferencing has proven to be effective in both graduate and undergraduate clinical reading experiences. writing. The first three components are taught one-on-one. Thus. Jack Cassidy at Millersville University in Pennsylvania. and writing inventories. The tutors first determine students’ levels and needs through a variety of diagnostic tools: parent interviews. student interviews.’’ a term that defined the verbal interactions of a small professional group. albeit with slightly different formats. skills. each response-toliterature group became a grade-specific cadre. The graduate reading clinic at the university is called the BEST Program. attitude surveys. The tutoring sessions are not divided into specific segments. The undergraduates use diagnostic tools similar to those in the graduate program: student interviews. . writing. and response to literature. teacher interviews.

2001. their findings indicated that the overwhelming amount of clinic tutoring involved individualized instruction. Research on reading clinics increased in the 2000s. Pearce et al. few. But of the existing reading clinic literature. Bader and Wiesendanger (1986). grouping. Two definitions for cadre apply to the peer-conferencing model. Pearce. if any. and visual and auditory perception and discrimination. and teacher interviews. reflecting researcher efforts to determine again how reading clinics were organized and how they delivered services (Bevans. Gone were tests of intelligence. Grote-Garcia. and Irvin and LynchBrown (1988) were among those who conducted surveys about assessments. were philosophically incompatible with the holistic methods of that decade. affiliation. a standardized test. the BEST clinic allocated less time for diagnosis and more time for individualized tutoring. & Pilonieta.. There appears. to be a gap in the literature with regard to peer conferencing. 2008).356 SHERRYE DEE GARRETT AND LUCINDA MARIE JUAREZ HISTORICAL AND THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS For a time. followed by small group instruction or a combination of the two. The first stems from military history. roles. Pearce. Garrett. 2007. 2001. 43). and student. Cassidy and Hanes (1992) noted that many reading clinic programs. an attitude test. The focus of the clinic involved general goals with an emphasis on a child’s strengths. & Pate. Many clinics closed because of the influence of the whole language movement (Jones & Joshi. approaches to mediation. because of their predominantly diagnosticprescriptive approach. materials. 1992). 1991). Garrett. 2007. and strengths and challenges of the clinics. The BEST diagnostic battery included informal reading and writing inventories. Elish-Piper. Carr. and Schaum (2007) reported that studies in the 1980s related to ‘‘organization. Jensen & Tuten. 2003. (2007) focused on the topic of instructional delivery. Garrett et al. Cuevas. and practices’’ (p. 2007. Bates (1984). The term ‘‘cadre’’ was selected intentionally. and operation of masters or undergraduate students in the reading clinic. The support for peer learning and conferencing are sound. it appeared that there was little research related to university reading clinics.’’ The second refers to ‘‘a group of trained or otherwise qualified . parent. Schumm. then. In the early 1990s. as in ‘‘a key group of officers and enlisted personnel necessary to establish and train a new unit. Salazar. Hoffman & Topping. Mits-Cash. Tuten & Jensen. 2004. The BEST Program began operating in 1980 at Millersville University in Pennsylvania as an alternative to the prescription-remediation model (Cassidy & Hanes. studies have explored the function. Unlike previous clinics that emphasized an extensive diagnosis component. 2006.

(13) increasing self-esteem and confidence. The term also emphasizes the professionalism that the tutors demonstrated in their tutoring and contributions to their common cause. The social constructivist theoretical framework played a role in establishing the value of peer collaboration. like those adopted in the BEST clinic model emerged: reflection. (12) alleviating/diffusing conflict. (11) giving direction for actions. (14) developing listening and facilitation skills. cohort groups. (16) creating group power. 2003). others evolved. collaborative learning. and (17) spreading enthusiasm. (7) taking pressure off individuals. 2008). (4) providing reassurance. Social Constructivist Model Even as some reading clinics closed in the whole language era of the 1990s. helping one another in their service to students. (10) helping organize information. and action research (Dangel & Guyton. training. sharing of information. (3) allowing feedback on individual contributions. These practices highlighted meaning making and learning from social interaction. whose combined works identify 17 benefits of peer group learning: (1) recognizing group members as resources and acknowledging their professional expertise. (8) providing different perspectives. problem-solving.Peer Conferencing 357 personnel capable of forming. The cadre model is reflected in publications from Lincoln and McAllister (1993) and Hart (1990). and learning became common components in the reading clinic. While constructivist theory in reading clinics involved teacher–tutor interactions. The social constructivist practices of peer questioning. Shulman and Carey (1984) describe social constructivism as representative of a paradigmatic shift toward the construction of meaning through the reciprocal influences of individuals and context. Forman and . learner-centered instruction. The prior emphasis on intervention and remediation was diminished and the new focus included more social interaction between peers in reading clinics (Ortlieb. The term reflects the reading clinic peerconferencing in that tutors collaborated in a close-knit unit. (6) making it okay to admit problems. (15) improving small group skills. 2012). Social constructivist theory espoused by whole language advocates changed practices in the surviving reading clinics. (2) encouraging information sharing. (9) encouraging a professional approach to problems. several other practices. or leading an expanded organization’’ (Gale Group. (5) creating a feeling of equality.

in one response to literature group planning session. The structure of the questions the teachers had selected scaffolded from simple knowledge-based ingredients in the book to critical conclusions about . IMPLEMENTATION The authors.’’ The cadre format allowed the tutors to support each other with suggestions about appropriate materials and methodology. p. Graduate cadres were provided with 45-minute meeting times before each tutoring session. they were encouraged to self-select discussion topics. 330). For example. and a commitment to a social constructivist view of learning led to the decision to implement ‘‘cadre conferencing’’ at our university. the cadre’s students were able to answer inferential and synthesis questions that centered on what would happen if certain ingredients were left out of the ice cream making process and the implications that this type of learning would have for environmental climatic issues. 1994.358 SHERRYE DEE GARRETT AND LUCINDA MARIE JUAREZ Cazden (1985) state that peer collaboration involves an individual acquiring ‘‘a deeper understanding of the knowledge being shared as he or she tries out alternative forms of explanation. a university faculty member and a doctoral assistant. There was differentiation in the implementation of the peer conferencing with graduate and undergraduate cadres. Peer conferencing was called ‘‘cadre conferencing’’ in the two programs because tutors are placed into grade-specific ‘‘cadres. On other days. The cadre members worked together to prepare the response to literature session for their second-grade and third-grade students using the book We All Scream for Ice Cream! The Scoop on America’s Favorite Dessert by Lee Wardlaw. On some days. many with several years of experience. modeling and solution testing’’ (as cited in Mallory & New. she had difficulty preparing higher order thinking skill questions. the cadres discussed assessments. The knowledge of the evolution of reading clinics. In the end. developed the collaborative cadre model to establish and support an environment of reciprocal teaching and scaffolding between equal learners – the tutors. teachers in cadre conferencing began brainstorming how to formulate higher thinking skills questions after one member shared that her student was having struggles answering comprehension questions. The graduate cadres were made up of in-service teachers. they used the time to plan their response to literature lessons. The tutor expressed her concerns about the questions she should ask about a book: her questions tended to be knowledge based.

Undergraduates. they were provided with specific prompts. Questions addressed issues student may have encountered in the reading inventories or writing attitude surveys and how they should score certain aspects of the assessments. determine main idea from the selections.’’ and ‘‘Ask a question about the Cassidy Writing Inventory.’’ and ‘‘Share a comprehension activity you’ve used with your student. met for 30 minutes after each tutoring session. and strategies they were finding to be particularly useful. and strategies designed to move the learners forward. assessments. engage in making inferences from the texts.’’ The third generalized cadre prompt asked the tutors to write down an important idea they received during cadre conferencing time. Typical comprehension issues involved how to best get students to ask their own questions as they read. ‘‘Share a good nonfiction book you’ve used with your student. The assessmentfocused prompts included. The first set of undergraduate prompts required students to pose questions about assessments. ‘‘Ask a question about the Bader Informal Reading Inventory. Other questions in this second group of prompts guided the tutors in discussing and reflecting upon reading comprehension activities. activities connected to the book. tutors was engaging in self-reflection concerning ways to improve their teaching and increase their own efficacy. The prompts addressed a range of topics from the scoring of word lists and analysis of miscues to identifying comprehension strengths. Providing time for the tutors to write out the ideas or information they acquired from the sessions regarding strategies. The last session prompted students to ‘‘Share how the reading camp experience has changed your knowledge/attitude toward teaching.Peer Conferencing 359 what happens to land forms when water sources such as river flowing or snowing do not occur in a region. The cadre conferencing time for this prompt involved sharing books of interest.’’ . and decision-making helped them to integrate new ideas. and synthesize material. information and learning into their own repertoire of teaching practices. In this way.’’ The second set of cadre prompts related to the activities. write concise summaries. The activity-focused questions included. such as what clusters of answers might mean regarding an individual’s actual attitude or even how to determine with accuracy a student’s reading level. The targeted assessment prompt was used because undergraduates were unfamiliar with diagnosis and were often hesitant about asking for help in interpreting assessments. on the other hand. plans and strategies that the tutors were implementing with their assigned students. lessons.

0 3.5 2. asked students to indicate the extent to which the cadre meetings helped them ‘‘interpret results of your IRI?’’ Students responded on a five-point Likerttype scale.7 4. The first question. 3. however. Students (N=30) Undergraduates (n=22) Graduates (n=8) 2.0 3.3 2. 7. The graduate tutors in the BEST Program were in-service teachers who had taken a previous course in diagnosis.0 3.6 4.’’ Other questions addressed interpretation of assessments and ideas for instructional support.’’ was used to collect opinions from graduate and undergraduate groups. Benefit Undergraduate and Graduate Perceptions of Specific Benefits of Cadre Conferencing.’’ which meant ‘‘a great deal. The survey results indicated that both groups valued the sessions. The results of the feedback on the questions are shown in Table 1.0 4. Both groups reported that cadre meetings allowed them to take advantage of suggestions and recommendations they previously had not considered on their own. 6. on which ‘‘1’’ meant ‘‘not at all.360 SHERRYE DEE GARRETT AND LUCINDA MARIE JUAREZ RESULTS OF THE CADRE CONFERENCING EXPERIENCE Graduate and undergraduate students were asked to discuss the value they saw in the cadre conferencing. A feedback questionnaire.6 1.7 4.6 3.’’ to ‘‘5. The feedback survey included several open-ended questions that asked students what they liked best about the conferencing and what they would change. there were differences in the type of support the two groups valued. feedback was very positive.7 3.1 3. with undergraduate students perceiving more benefit from the sessions than graduate students.2 . 5. with the averages for each group on each question.0 3. They did not feel that the cadre Table 1. Generally. for example. ‘‘Cadre Conferencing Opinion Survey. 8.8 3. 4. Interpret results of an IRI Interpret results of Cassidy Writing Inventory Identify word recognition Identify comprehension strategies Identify writing strategies Identify materials to use in tutoring Identify ideas for using trade books Increase feeling of personal competence 3. 2.

Comments from undergraduate addressed both functional and personal issues. Ertmer et al. (2) modeling what follow . who were preservice teachers.Peer Conferencing 361 sessions helped them with interpreting assessments. Some graduate tutors wanted biweekly meetings. They liked learning new ideas for activities and books they could use in their own tutoring. they included.’’ ‘‘I would allow more time to meet. found great value in the cadre meetings. Possibly meet before and after working with the student.’’ ‘‘More time and directly AFTER tutoring. they felt better when they heard that other tutors shared the same insecurities and anxieties. Several tutors felt that occasional whole group sessions would be helpful so they could learn about other grade levels. They reported that the sessions helped them interpret assessments and plan tutoring. in my mind. ‘‘Maybe instead of small groups.’’ The undergraduate tutors. have some conference as a whole class to get more opinions. The undergraduate tutors generally wanted more time for cadre meetings. My confidence level went up and I feel that I can now assess and instruct a student one-on-one.’’ IMPLICATIONS The value of including a cadre conferencing model in reading clinic classes lies in the many benefits received by both the tutors and the students receiving the planned and targeted interventions. others wanted longer weekly sessions. ‘‘The whole experience was very helpful.’’ ‘‘Talking about things out loud to one another helped me work through. It is necessary for us who are doing this for the first time. Comments from graduate students addressed function issues. Perhaps the most frequent comment was that undergraduates found the sessions reassuring. practice and feedback). how to tackle a particular issue. (2010) offer key suggestions for successful peer conferencing time: (1) training (discussions of theory.’’ ‘‘Cadre meetings should never be taken out of this course. It made them feel better that they were ‘‘not alone’’ in needing advice and support. they included. They did find the meetings useful for sharing tutoring ideas and learning about new materials and trade books.

362 SHERRYE DEE GARRETT AND LUCINDA MARIE JUAREZ up conferencing should look like. . peer tutoring. Cognitive Coaching: A Foundation for Renaissance Schools. (4) allotting sufficient time for the behaviors to take hold. ‘‘I feel supported because I am not being judged for my questions or comments from a teacher or professor. (2012) also report that these types of groupings result in sharing of plans. are noted in the literature to have many useful benefits from collaboration (Sampaio. 2010– 2011). 2012). & deFreitas Govuviea. and helping each other to overcome obstacles or resolve issues of previously difficulty. Costa and Garmston (2002) in their book. cooperative learning. The trusting environment results in peers helping each other engage in self-directed and mutual goal-directed behaviors.’’ In providing parameters for creating a safe environment. such as teachers asking questions of themselves and learning how to analyze and prescribe their own remedies to problems. and reciprocal teaching. The graduate cadre members worked together on reader response read alouds and collaborated on questioning strategies and follow-up activities. These benefits include peers being more comfortable in seeking advice and revealing that they do not have a sufficient knowledge base in an area of practice to solve perplexing issues. The writers observed a number of successful conferencing experiences during the cadre meetings. They shared information about their students’ responses in the interest surveys. But the environment created is just one of several factors that play a role in trusting. The tutors initiated open dialogues about book sharing and talked about book selections from clinic library carts. discuss key components of a trusting environment as a significant cognitive coaching goal. Camacho. and (6) including a public forum for celebrations of success. I get very real answers from teachers like me who were experiencing similar issues. but also include processes in the trust environment that occur as well. (5) holding review and refine sessions. are important factors that help form a trusting environment (McDermott. Sampaio et al. (3) providing key information about memory research and facts that affect thinking and behavior and how this affects conferring practice. Teixeira. progressing with one another.’’ Another teacher commented. effective collaborative peer relationships. setting reasonable goals for the group and following up with the group to see that follow through is occurring. ‘‘For me this is an empowering collaboration. Peer Assisted Learning (PAL). The cadre conferencing assignment of pairing up peers working on the same assignment with the same goals provided a safe environment for the inservice teachers to readily seek advice from each other. Conversations about whether trust played a factor in the conferencing resulted in comments from the teachers such as.

(1986). In the undergraduate courses. a part of regular class time. CONCLUSION An important challenge for reading clinic directors who want to use cadre conferencing is to determine how to meet the needs of both graduate and undergraduate students. Peer learning is best supported by school systems in which there is a shared model or shared decision-making. tutors valued opportunities for sharing concerns about interpreting assessments as well as ideas for strategies and materials. Lack of time is often a deterrent to many instructors. as well as response to questions and reflection.. peer tutoring. Pozzi. REFERENCES Bader. The cadre conferencing model allowed reading clinic instructors to provide multiple resources for tutors in the form of faculty mentoring and peer support. overall tutor and student satisfaction were reported. In graduate courses. The observations of undergraduate and graduate tutors in cadre conferencing activities reflected reading professionals striving to improve their instructional practices and their knowledge of assessments and materials. The transferability of a cadre conferencing model then is best supported by an environment where learnercentered communities are valued and discussion and reflective practice are implemented as effective learning strategies. Persico. and reciprocal teaching best result in the development of group problem-solving abilities. L. 39. A required time commitment to cadre conferencing is also very important.Peer Conferencing 363 The guidelines for successful cadre conferencing involve making reflection a part of implementation time. Because the model supported the exchange of ideas. & Wiesendanger. This is significant because it counters the tendency to delay changing the status quo and then not using the enhanced or preferred strategies into their teaching practices. and multiple perspectives. problem-solving strategies. University based reading clinics: Practices and procedures. particularly those who teach large undergraduate courses. tutors were concerned with implementing strategies and learning more about trade books. For this reason. K. and Sarti (2010) posit that models of PAL. we recommend that instructors make cadre conferencing time. . The Reading Teacher. This involves asking the teacher tutors how they might implement the ideas and strategies they acquired from the session in their very next teaching/tutoring session. 698–702.

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the authors highlight clinical practices effective in helping teachers focus on learners including building relationships. Volume 2.1108/S2048-0458(2013)0000002021 367 . and understanding the power of language choices. learning from students. 367–385 Copyright r 2013 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited All rights of reproduction in any form reserved ISSN: 2048-0458/doi:10. their teachers can transfer these clinical practices and foundations to school settings. structuring opportunities for student success. Practical implications – Teacher educators can use practices presented in this chapter in their clinical instruction. Keywords: Responsive teaching. struggling readers. literacy lab/ reading clinic teacher preparation Advanced Literacy Practices: From the Clinic to the Classroom Literacy Research.KEEPING LEARNERS AT THE CENTER OF TEACHING Cheryl Dozier and Theresa Deeney ABSTRACT Purpose – This chapter shares a model of responsive teacher preparation in literacy labs/reading clinics that emphasizes student-centered instruction. Approach – Through vignettes and the voices of teachers enrolled in literacy lab/reading clinics. Originality/value – This approach to teacher education creates a culture of collaboration and responsive teaching that moves beyond clinical settings to classrooms and schools. Practice and Evaluation. In turn.

2012). strengths-based stance. Clay. and helping teachers persevere in the face of it. it is easy to lose sight of learners and their strengths when deficit language abounds. focusing on learners is key to reaching the very goal at the heart of accountability and curriculum mandates: Improved student achievement. improving test scores. . 2009. we create a climate of resiliency. 1995). In this chapter. By building relationships with both learners. 1978. through vignettes and voices of teachers and students. 2001). In working through this dissonance. of teachers as learners. from an evaluative lens to a learner focused lens. We also learn zones of proximal development (Vygotsky. & Bean. Educational discussions focus on filling in gaps. Elish-Piper. learning from students. so we can tailor our instruction to capitalize on strengths and meet their needs. we highlight the ways we structure clinical experiences to support teachers as they learn to focus on students. and adhering to teacher-proof materials. We learn what matters. BUILDING RELATIONSHIPS In clinics/labs. 2005. Warford. We emphasize building relationships with students. what engages or frustrates. and what they need to learn (Delpit. and understanding the power of our language choices (Table 1). Building relationships and developing trust enable teachers and students to take risks and work outside of their comfort zones (L’Allier. and of teachers who focus on learners. intentional experiences for teachers to adopt a learner-centered. This often challenges teachers’ assumptions about teaching and learning and leads to intellectual unrest (Cambourne. what learners are good at. providing opportunities for student success. we better understand them personally and academically. we teach adults and children. Yet. designing intervention programs. Throughout the chapter.368 CHERYL DOZIER AND THERESA DEENEY INTRODUCTION In the current educational climate. 1998. In clinics and labs we understand the centrality of tailoring instruction to meet the needs of learners (Allington. 2010). 2011). we reframe conversations about teaching and learning from deficit driven to strengths focused. and from teachers as strict implementers of curriculum to teachers who analyze and engage in responsive instructional practices. We provide purposeful.

and artifacts. 2006). Introductions Introductions are a powerful vehicle for learning about our teachers and helping them become invested in each other. Even though she has not . At the end of each semester. in clinics/labs and in classrooms (Dozier. First. This includes modeling for them and building relationships with them. They share celebrations of teaching and learning – moments when writers have engaged for the first time. shared family photos. We expect that. we ask teachers to bring in a decorated manila folder filled with photos. & Rogers. 2006). we model how we want teachers to teach children. The celebrations teachers choose become entry points for conversations and connections about teaching and learning (Dozier et al. Artifacts serve as another tool for building relationships. setting up their classrooms. Johnston. Second. of what they bring to teaching and learning. Teachers’ artifact choices help us learn about what matters to them as teachers. find commonalities. as clinic/lab instructors. favorite sayings. and held countdowns to long awaited vacations. recounted tales of moving and purchasing new homes. teachers use them as anchors to introduce themselves to the group. accepting new jobs. For example. and begin the process of creating a community of learners. we learn that Amy values her family connection when she shares letters she and Nazeer write weekly to his family. they will come to value them and recognize the importance of building relationships with students. As teachers listen to one another. and meeting with administrators. teachers use the folders when they submit their assigned work.. the folders remind us of who our teachers are beyond the clinic/lab walls. We also ask teachers to bring artifacts to seminar that reflect their teaching. teachers celebrate going to interviews. great lines from student writing. they learn about their colleagues. Teachers have shared celebrations from their personal lives – they have announced engagements and pregnancies. Celebrations and Artifacts Every seminar begins with teachers sharing celebrations. do not take the time to build relationships with our teachers. In our clinics/labs.Keeping Learners at the Center of Teaching 369 Building Relationships with Teachers Talking to teachers about building relationships with students becomes empty advice if we. On the first night of class. when teachers experience these relationships. or books that have engaged their students. As we read teachers’ course assignments. The folders serve two purposes.

However. Kyle. and crayons in his version of Yuccky Soup. Tutors give students a disposable camera. our teachers are faced with many challenges and uncertainties as they work with their learners. spiders. & Gonzalez. family pets. which they can transfer (Bransford & Schwartz. Gardiner. 2012). By building a community from the first night. grandparents. Knowing our teachers well gives us an inroad in how best to support them as they engage in the difficult work ahead. Students are thrilled with their cameras.370 CHERYL DOZIER AND THERESA DEENEY heard from Nazeer’s family. it is more difficult. For some. it would be easy for clinic/lab instructors to view time for teacher sharing as wasted time. We learn from Chrissie that Jacquari has finally engaged as a writer when she reads aloud his writing from the afternoon. and invite them to. 2001). McIntyre. Halloween costumes. they better understand how to design lessons and plan for each child’s progress (Kroeger & Lash. In our lab. in clinics/labs. for others. 2002. we use photographs as a way to learn about our students. building relationships with students and families is an easy process. and sporting events. & Moore. The process of developing the photos and . weddings. 1999) beyond the clinic lab experience into classrooms. Building Relationships with Children and Families When teachers learn from children and their families. McIntyre. Johnson. with her first ever self-correction. They must be open to accepting advice and learning from others. Miller. and take photos of a wide variety of people and activities in their lives – new babies. teachers come to trust each other and their instructors. We learn that Lisa notices Julianna’s breakthrough as a reader when she shares Julianna’s running record. & Hobbs. family celebrations. With the pressure of meeting the needs of teachers and students. he assures her they read each and every letter. 2011. even though we groan when hear he has included earwax. Family Photographs In the lab. This trust is important as we help teachers become responsive and focus on the learners they tutor (Dever. ‘‘Take photographs that matter to you. 2000. and provide opportunities and support for teacher to learn about their students.’’ Teachers talk with family members about the cameras and explain how they will serve as writing prompts for future writing pieces during the tutorials. Rosebery. We expect this. sharing artifacts provides teachers a way to build relationships.

2006.Keeping Learners at the Center of Teaching 371 then using the photographs for writing is one of discovery for the teachers. I see it as a priceless entity that should gear our instruction. To pick up their children. families go to the classrooms to talk with the children and their teachers. She told me about his interests and about their family y I always had that in mind as we read together. This not only engages everyone in the conversation. were helpful. I have not always been able to see the true benefit of talking with parents. This time together gives families an opportunity to see the tutorials in action. Rosebery et al. teachers draw from what they learn from children’s lives to design meaningful and authentic instruction (Ladson-Billings. Teachers begin to value families as partners in their child’s education. 2009. we expect teachers to see the value of building relationships with learners. In the past. As we observe and listen carefully to teachers’ celebrations and artifacts. deliberate. and what the children have read and written during the session. through these experiences. However. and use these conversations to engage students in purposeful writing (Dozier. 2001). Tyshawn’s mother. it is not always easy. In turn. 2001). our teachers meet with families at the end of each tutoring session. Spielman. Weekly Conversations with Families In another effort to build relationships with families. Teachers and students collaboratively share with families what they learned that day. 1999. and can better understand each student’s interests and strengths beyond school boundaries (Orellana & Hernandez. What photos did the student take? What are the stories behind the photos? By inviting children to share photographs. we gain information to guide our instruction in the lab. Likewise.. Now. it helps to eliminate some of the awkwardness around initial meetings with families. and can become a source of frustration or anxiety for . as Laura discusses about her conversations with Tyshawn’s mom: My conversations and connections with Tylene. Spielman. 2001). That influenced the books I chose and the conversations we had around reading. Photographs also help us connect with students’ families as we engage in thoughtful. Learning from Challenging Relationships The importance of building relationships cannot be understated. and intentional conversations. we invite them to bridge their home lives with their schooling lives.

As teacher educators. After all. gathered materials to work with her. Dana made judgments about them. From our observations. We use the story of Dana. Dana had not connected with Tara. holiday traditions. Dana learned Tara’s mom was blind and had trouble getting to lab. but was not yet responsive to Tara’s needs. a family member rushed in to pick up Tara 30 minutes late. As this pattern continued. Dana continued to plan detailed lessons. However. engagement. leaving no opportunity for Dana to talk or introduce herself. Dana wrote that ‘‘building a trusting relationship with Tara’s mother and sister’’ helped her respect students and become a more caring teacher. Dana was hurt and defensive – she had never had trouble establishing a relationship with a student. the books Tara chose. Dana was well-prepared for her first session with her second grader. Tara. Dana’s preconceived notions of Tara’s family were challenged. we need to help teachers think through their relationships with students. purposeful instruction by following Tara’s lead when she asked to write a birthday card for her sister. ever. to illustrate the complexities of developing relationships with students and families. Dana became increasingly frustrated. She wrote a letter to introduce herself to her Tara’s family. This was a defining moment for Dana. Dana learned about their family trips to the library. and Tara’s interests. . and planned introductory reading and writing events. She doesn’t want to y She didn’t y She won’t write. Rather than being an uninvolved parent. Dana met with course instructors to ask why she was having so much trouble during the tutorials. Dana often described Tara with deficit language. a straight ‘‘A’’ student. When Tara’s mom was able to come.372 CHERYL DOZIER AND THERESA DEENEY our teachers. We also modeled responsive. In this way. All was going well on the first night. This frustration impeded Dana’s relationship with Tara. The relationship we had built with Dana allowed us to help her begin to move past her hurt to accept advice. We helped Dana choose texts and activities that related more closely to Tara’s life. When we told her this. and worried how their lack of participation would affect her course grade. She was now ready to focus on Tara as a learner. we helped Dana think and learn about Tara’s engagement and interests. Rather than adopting a problem-solving stance to working with Tara and her family. even when these conversations may be uncomfortable. she was required to communicate with the family each week. and interests. she talked with Dana at length. Dana shared this experience during celebrations and acknowledged she had judged Tara’s family. When Tara’s mother arrived at a tutoring session later in the semester. In her final reflective essay. and Dana was excited to introduce herself to Tara’s family.

we argue. When I look back at clinic it really made me more reflective on y how to work with others. are complicated. However.Keeping Learners at the Center of Teaching 373 Transferring Ideas from Clinic to Classroom In our clinic instruction. 2005a. but that they learn to value relationships and strive to cultivate them in their own classrooms and school communities (Kroeger & Lash. to choose the most appropriate assessments. and colleagues through carefully crafted opportunities. We use Carissa’s story as a way of highlighting the kinds of instruction we provide our teachers to use observation. she often did not appear to understand. But learners. I learned to value what each person brought y from this I became less judgmental and I think it made me a better leader. and find their own avenues to meet this need. 2009). In working with Carissa. require close observation. parents. particularly those who struggle. 2001. our teachers often want ready answers. we help teachers build relationships with students. Fern noticed that although Carissa liked animals. . As one research participant told us. Only then can we understand our learners. 2011. 2011) shows that our teachers do transform their own ideas about the importance of relationships. we discuss how careful observation and listening can provide more complete portraits of learners (Clay. When asked a question about shark pups. and wanted to know what further assessments she could give to answer her questions.. Carissa. develop appropriate instructional plans. and. a novice teacher. and comprehension. Ladson-Billings. engagement. ‘‘Wait. 136) LEARNING FROM STUDENTS In labs/clinics. Fern relayed that Carissa sat for several moments and then said. related that it was difficult to engage her nine-yearold. (p. 2005b). and make appropriate assessment decisions in clinical and classroom settings. what?’’ Fern wondered about Carissa’s attention. Our research (Deeney et al. However. we need to know what areas to target. third-grade student. when reading books about them. Careful Observation Fern. in discussions related to literacy tasks. our goal is not that teachers simply adopt clinic activities in their own practice. In this section.

Rather than thinking Carissa was inattentive or unengaged. Fern started to tease apart some of her initial inferences about Carissa’s ‘‘Wait. Since our first impressions are not always accurate. frustrated.. or trying to ‘‘bang’’ out the answer. and what initially appeared to be a lack of engagement in discussions. muttering. We help teachers describe further what students actually say/do.’’ before she looked at Fern and responded. By scrunching up her face. by looking up to the ceiling she may have been ‘‘looking’’ for the answer or avoiding eye contact. . Fern reported that Carissa at times scrunched up her face. Fern concluded that Carissa seemed as though she were actively trying to come up with the answer and was perhaps frustrated by her difficulties.374 CHERYL DOZIER AND THERESA DEENEY As experienced clinic/lab instructors. but had trouble saying them. led us to believe that Carissa had things she wanted to say. This explained some of Carissa’s apparent difficulty with comprehension. and repeatedly banged her fist on her knee. In discussing her observations of Carissa. disengaged student versus a student who is trying to find an answer and has difficulty doing so. by banging her fist on her knee and muttering. These observations and interpretations become important sources of data to inform instructional and assessment decisions. Thinking about these behaviors and Carissa’s interests (she loved sharks). Fern generated several hypotheses of Carissa’s behaviors. These are very different pictures – an inattentive. and suggest multiple interpretations of what we see/hear to our teachers. our teachers notice student weaknesses and make general observations. we are able to focus our observations of students and teachers. we targeted language and uncovered Carissa’s significant difficulty with language retrieval and expressive language.g. Rather than assessing her reading. When probed for more details. Fern replied that Carissa sat there and seemed uncomfortable when asked questions.’’ We then help teachers make inferences about what these observations might mean. We help teachers learn these same observational skills. we now had much information to direct further assessment. she may have been angry. and following these with interpretive questions (What does that tell you?). Therefore. ‘‘oooh. We begin by asking teachers questions related directly to the observation (e. Carissa may have been annoyed or thinking. ‘‘I don’t know. we push our teachers to entertain multiple explanations. and discussions with her mom and teachers. looked up to the ceiling. what?’’ response to a question. Our continued observations of Carissa. What did you notice about y? What did the student say? What could the student do?). Initially.

they use observation as a problem-solving tool. or a different pace can find school a source of failure (Thorkildsen & Nicholls. We do this first by redefining what we mean by ‘‘success. In our clinics/labs. 2011) suggests these opportunities help teachers transfer close observation and analysis to classrooms and schools. coupled with multiple interpretations of those observations. and resilience through our story of Mark. we engage in careful planning based on each student’s strengths and needs. students can remain unengaged. our teachers can become change agents in their schools. we work to build relationships. and developing teachers’ resilience. a fifth grader with a long history of .. at best. Their past lack of success perpetuates the belief that they are. Our research (Deeney et al. Our older students in particular can seem disengaged from literacy learning or from school in general (Guthrie & Davis. As our teachers become keen observers. what does that tell you). even with our tailor-made instruction.Keeping Learners at the Center of Teaching 375 The Critical Role of Observation in Classrooms In clinics/labs. 1999) observational skills learned in clinic to their classrooms. 2002). To help our teachers transfer (Bransford & Schwartz. different materials. and to challenge others to entertain multiple interpretations. In this way. 2003). insisting that teachers entertain multiple perspectives of behavior. In clinics/labs. students who need a different approach. STRUCTURING OPPORTUNITIES FOR SUCCESS When classrooms adopt whole-group instruction. We expect our teachers to ask for alternative and additional explanations. In this section we focus on two critical areas in clinical teacher preparation: assuming a problem-solving stance in understanding learners. we structure opportunities for our teachers to follow an observation and interpretation protocol (what do you see/hear. problem-solving. We want teachers to bring these same skills into classrooms and schools. as we will see in our next section discussing successful learning opportunities. without interpretation. careful and continuous observation. Yet. yields data to better understand learners and determine next steps in assessment and instruction. unsuccessful. Teachers learn to discuss what they see/hear first. and our teachers can begin to feel discouraged. and at worst. we see many such students. and then to use those observations to begin to unravel learner complexities. unable.’’ and then contextualize success. we try to foster success.

can take a defensive stance toward learning (Paris & Newman. We know that selfregulated learners are intrinsically motivated (Zimmerman. and want to learn for the sake of learning (Ryan & Deci. They rely on external motivation. in lab/clinics. not all learners self-regulate (Clay. came each and every week well prepared and with a positive outlook toward working with Mark. when our students are not learning. we want teachers to help students accomplish tasks that matter to them. She created lessons that capitalized on Mark’s strengths in hockey (he was an exceptional hockey player) and technology. despite Maura’s considerable efforts to teach to Mark’s strengths. rigid. he would never be ‘‘as good’’ as others. Mark’s tutor. despite his best efforts. who introduced himself with. 2000). we take a step back and reevaluate. but his attitude toward reading – his lack of engagement. defensiveness. What are we doing? How is it working? What are we going to do differently? We use the power of our clinic/lab colleagues to answer . and when faced with evidence of failure.’’ Thus. ‘‘Even my first-grade sister reads better than me. and his interest in war (his uncle had been in the military). with generous encouragement and scaffolding. and these are the students we generally see in clinic. Mark was rarely engaged. especially comparisons to peers (Pintrich & Schunk. success is measured by students’ desire to read and write. difficult. whom records indicated lacked frustration tolerance and was disengaged. 2002). 1990). inattentive. She also built a strong relationship with Mark and his family.’’ He also shared that in school he was not ‘‘allowed’’ to read challenging texts that interested him because his teachers knew they were ‘‘too hard. However. Sometimes Mark complied and could. For us. This seemed to be the case with Mark. 2001). and feeling that. and explosive. rarely successful in our definition of self-regulation and engagement. and their ability to accomplish their goals. Problem-Solving Although it may be easier to see Mark as the source of his own lack of engagement. accomplish the tasks and activities. Mark’s issues involved not only reading.376 CHERYL DOZIER AND THERESA DEENEY learning difficulties. Success as Self-Regulation In our clinics/labs. Maura. 2000). Yet. understanding that motivation and engagement would be critical. therefore.

First. they commended Maura’s warmth and responsiveness and felt her instruction was within Mark’s zone of proximal development. Since Mark did not identify specific goals he had for his time in clinic. she struggled to find a way to incorporate it into instruction. but y’’ response. yet Maura was hesitant to provide these because she did not want to frustrate him. Maura carefully crafted opportunities based on his strengths and interests to help him find purposes. they noted Maura seemed to be doing much of the work for Mark. and staying in the zone of proximal development (Tharp & Gallimore. Mark and his mom knew . However. and in school. She researched many of Mark’s interests so she was prepared with materials.Keeping Learners at the Center of Teaching 377 these questions. Mark wanted challenging texts. We intentionally create opportunities for our teachers to view each others’ teaching through videotaped lessons to problem-solve difficulties and work together to generate possible solutions. the relationship we had built with Maura and the collaborative atmosphere in the clinic helped Maura persevere. as she knew Mark could not read more challenging material and worried that increased text difficulty would address Mark’s weaknesses rather than strengths. she struggled with this. our most positive tutor. However. we ask teachers to view their colleagues’ teaching through the lenses of self-regulation. With encouragement from instructors and colleagues. when Mark and his mother arrived one day. For example. became discouraged. responsiveness. When Maura’s colleagues observed her lesson with Mark. and relayed that she knew of another kind of hat trick. which constrains thinking. She praised Mark for his hat trick. Maura. 1988). Maura was reading an online article she found about Mark’s recent hockey game. Maura changed her approach to working with Mark. we ask our teachers to jot down what they notice in their colleagues’ teaching and offer possibilities for how it could have been done differently. In clinic. Yet. Second. Maura relayed that Mark felt much of their work was ‘‘babyish’’ and requested more challenging texts. This encourages teachers to entertain multiple teaching possibilities and helps guard against the ‘‘yeah. Developing Resilience to Learn from Mistakes Although Maura listened to and understood Mark’s position on his own learning. but those in authority thwarted his attempts. Maura was having difficulty scaffolding for self-regulation and had not yet helped Mark develop purposefulness and ownership. Mark was trying to engage in self-regulated learning. and questioned Marks’ engagement in his own learning. and purposely set up instances to pique Mark’s curiosity.

among them building paper airplanes and investigating crime scenes.. I transferred in a big way the notion of relevancy and working to the student y It’s not a program that I have to follow. The key was Maura’s research and extensive planning to help Mark discover his own interest in these topics. 138). 2006). we learn the importance of fostering selfregulation. He was better able to work through challenging texts without giving up. While earlier in the semester. Hockey’’ had dyslexia – one of Mark’s hockey heroes was more like him than he realized. and structuring opportunities for children to be successful.. It’s not a script. fostering motivation and engagement. and more amenable to instruction. and self-regulating. 2004). we must offer generous encouragement and support to teachers and students so neither gives up. and seeking variety in choosing instructional practices and materials. he now actively solved his own problems. 2011). There were other topics that interested Mark throughout the rest of the semester. Because of this. of working together to problem-solve. one assist. was engaged. and one fight in the same game). Mark. In considering how our clinic focus on problem-solving transfers to school contexts (Deeney et al. learning. With guidance from instructors and colleagues and ‘‘permission’’ to refocus her lessons on enhancing Mark’s self-esteem and self-regulation. finding the success and working where the child needs to go (p. in our clinics/labs we help teachers become more purposeful and intentional with their language choices and in their representation of learners (Dozier et al.378 CHERYL DOZIER AND THERESA DEENEY all about the ‘‘Gordie Howe hat trick’’ (one goal. Mark would have become discouraged and quit. Mark was proud to share that he had scored his own ‘‘Gordie Howe hat trick. As clinic/lab instructors. and of supporting teachers to develop resilience. INTENTIONAL AND PURPOSEFUL LANGUAGE: EXAMINING OUR LANGUAGE CHOICES We believe language choices matter and have consequences for student’s learning and for how they are represented (Johnston.’’ He and Maura then read an article on Howe and learned that the famous ‘‘Mr. Language choices are central to building relationships. participants discussed the importance of working to find relevance for students. . It’s meeting the child where the child is. finally. From Maura and Mark. One participant noted. learning from students. Maura focused on what Mark wanted and needed to accomplish.

quiet language Rylant used in her short story.’’ ‘‘Nice work’’ statements. she captured the beautiful. We emphasize helping children build on their strengths (Clay. They observe the way words flow on a page. 2000).’’ ‘‘Excellent. That’s what writers do. Language is often lost in the moment. I have implied it. In Sophie’s ending. ‘‘I have begun noticing and naming the strategies my students use. Students in the lab need to know how to focus their energies. Therefore. many for the first time. just as Rylant did y Sophie’s writing was beautiful. we help teachers notice and name reading and writing strategies and behaviors they observe. After Sophie extended the ending of ‘‘Stray’’ by Cynthia Rylant. ‘‘When I named Jake as a reader or writer or let him know that he was doing things that readers and writers do. yet can be difficult. They come to name when students question texts and include craft features explored during mini-lessons. too. 2005a. and compelling. They pay attention to adjectives that are used to describe things in interesting ways.’’ Carla. students take on these identities (Johnston. Examining Language through Transcription Emphasizing language during the tutorials is powerful. find monitoring their language difficult. Sophie referred to the dog as pup. he began to feel more secure and his effort and stamina grew. 2005b). That’s what writers do. Teachers. 2004). As one teacher said. and which strategies and behaviors help them accelerate as readers (Mercer. Maggie observed. I will y.Keeping Learners at the Center of Teaching 379 Examining Language during Lessons In clinic/lab. These global statements do not help students identify their processes as learners. we ask teachers to name the strategies readers and writers use and to name students as readers and writers (Johnston. and I do my best to give purpose for each task I request of them. Now. ‘‘I’ve never had to think about my language this much!’’ During our observations and subsequent conferences. but I haven’t explicitly stated it. we help teachers slow . and insightful.’’ When teachers name students as readers and writers. I saw the power of those prompts. 2004). Teachers find that the specificity of their noticing and naming helps students continue to engage productively. I have never said ‘‘That’s what writers do’’ or ‘‘That’s what readers do’’ until this semester. Hannah noted. at first. Teachers learn to name when children self-correct or re-read sections of the text. This emphasis on language helps teachers move beyond ‘‘Good job. noted the power of naming students as writers.

Initially. and discovered Jessie was more open to conversations around the books he read.’’ Mitch later gave more wait time after he asked questions. just as we expect they will do in schools. Alana noted the differences in her student Beth’s responses when Alana’s language changed: In the beginning. we ask them to identify the language teachers use. Like many other teachers in the class. I often found myself asking several ‘rapid fire’ questions directly after a question where he did not respond. ‘‘Anytime people come together and share their ideas. Collaborative Language Examination While transcripts help teachers reflect on their own language choices. Alana began to write out openended questions before the tutorials to ensure she and Beth engaged in deeper conversations. and students’ literacy engagement.’’ . teachers note the importance of observing others and engaging in this careful analysis together. they come to realize that their questions are actually framed to generate one-word or brief answers. In their final reflective essays. the overall understanding of the group increases.380 CHERYL DOZIER AND THERESA DEENEY down their teaching to better analyze their language by transcribing and analyzing three lessons (two audiotapes and one videotape). Mitch reflected. Teachers find that transcribing allows them to think deeply about their interactions and re-imagine their teaching (Dozier et al. Garnett. we engage in collective noticing and naming. and once I understood Beth’s logic. As teachers watch the videos. my questions focused on surface level comprehension. During class viewings of videotaped lessons. I found myself leaving very little time for Jessie to respond to my questioning. Sue commented. When I asked surface level questions. Schon. I began to prepare more natural spots to stop and discuss. she gave me short responses. 2006. teachers envision multiple ways to use language for teaching and learning (Mercer. After analyzing and reflecting on the transcripts of their lessons. Through these conversations. as my language changed. we also set up opportunities for teachers to collaboratively reflect and comment on colleagues’ language choices (Dozier. & Tabatabai. and how to notice and name each other’s teaching moves. 1987). 2000). teachers often believe they ask open-ended questions. 2011).. however. Beth’s answers became more thoughtful y The open ended questions helped me learn about the logic of Beth. ‘‘Initially.

We begin by building relationships with teachers and students so we can learn how best to teach them. in our clinics/labs we ask teachers to take a step back and hear what their words say. problem-solvers. teachers learn to examine both their teaching decisions and their language choices through multiple lenses and multiple interpretations. only. Families are complex. ‘‘you are creating a representation that can have serious consequences for the student’’ (p. our goal is for teachers. Would you use these words when writing about own child? Language choices matter and have consequences. and never are value laden. Our words as educators carry great weight. tutors might not see their representation as deficit-driven. as Johnston (1997) reminds us. . we impress upon teachers to be mindful of their language choices because. we must first help them come to recognize this. we want teachers to expect that teaching is complex and to be comfortable and confident in dealing with that complexity. Before teachers turn in their final reports. Therefore. just as we want children to become self-regulated. In clinics and labs. we set teachers up to transfer these sensibilities to their future educational contexts. we ask teachers. Teachers are complex. to become purposeful. teachers learn how to help students see possibilities. 296). Through the deliberateness of our instruction. Since students often come to our clinics/labs with difficult learning histories. As such. How are you representing your learner? Are you clearly representing learner’s strengths? How are you representing families? Would someone reading this report feel like you know the child well? Sometimes. and. We help teachers see that words like simple. instructors need to ask directly. and what engages each learner. Initially. Most important. we strive for teachers to transfer this emphasis on how we represent learners beyond clinic/lab walls. what challenges. we push teachers and students to persevere during times of frustration and unrest. just. We recognize these complexities and intentionally focus clinic experiences and our own instruction on the multiple layers of learning needed to enable all participants to be successful (Table 1). too. and work together to solve problems. intentional.Keeping Learners at the Center of Teaching 381 Examining the Language of Reports As teachers write student reports. We seek to help teachers realize there is a way for every child to engage successfully. we ask teachers to find what inspires. Through this process. When teachers use deficit language. Through our relationships. Therefore. even if it takes a while to discover this. CONCLUSION Learners are complex. our work in clinics/labs is complex.

prepare. Tutors give students a disposable camera and invite them to take photographs that matter to them. teachers write anecdotal notes. teachers reflect on student’s engagement and learning in light of their teaching decisions. After lessons. documenting close observations of students. Purpose/Intent Build relationships Build community Photographs Family communication Family celebration Learn about students through observation Lesson plans Anecdotal notes Reflections Teacher/instructor conferences Videotape presentation with feedback from colleagues Analyze language choices Audiotape analysis . analyze teaching interactions. Teachers confer with course instructors and. Clinic/Lab Activities Used to Help Teachers Keep Learners at the Center of Their Teaching. teachers write an initial plan to engage with families. and articulate pedagogical decisions. Activity Introductions/artifacts Celebrations Brief Explanation Teachers bring artifacts to introduce themselves to colleagues. Teachers transcribe two five-minute segments of audiotaped lessons to examine their language choices and consequences in light of their teaching decisions and evidence of student engagement. Teachers consider alternate language possibilities.382 CHERYL DOZIER AND THERESA DEENEY Table 1. or notebooks. teachers share celebrations of teaching and learning. Families. and teachers gather together to celebrate learning during a final presentation at the end of the semester. teachers plan. e-mails. Teachers communicate with families when they pick up their children and through phone conversations. For each session. and set future goals. through video presentation. and extend teaching. After reading articles about developing family partnerships. During the lesson. students. Teachers use the photographs to get to know the students and for future writing pieces during the tutorials. observe learners. with colleagues. consider multiple alternatives. Each week in seminar. Teachers also share issues for colleague feedback.

Colleagues learn to provide constructive feedback on language usage. Rethinking transfer: A simple proposal with multiple implications. Review of research in education (Vol. and generate alternatives. (2005).. DC: American Educational Research Association. NY: Allyn & Bacon. Clay. . 24. & Schwartz. share insights. ME: Stenhouse. Washington. specifically citing what worked well and what did not. NY: Allyn & Bacon. based on their observations of student learning and behavior. problem-solve. L. D. In A. Portsmouth. Allington. D. York. (1998). Teachers analyze and revise reports for parent-friendly language that focus on student strengths. (Continued ) Purpose/Intent Activity Videotape presentation Videotape analysis Brief Explanation Teachers choose a segment of one tutorial to share with colleagues. Teachers use these tools to identify and problem-solve teaching and learning issues. pp.Keeping Learners at the Center of Teaching 383 Table 1. New York. (2001). (1999). (2009). Change over time in children’s literacy development. What really matters in response to intervention. New York. Iran-Nejad & P.). Teachers write weekly reflections about their lessons. Teachers write reports that document and analyze students’ assessment and instructional data. J. M. Toward an educationally relevant theory of literacy learning. B. R. D. R. and analyze instructional language. M. M. NH: Heinemann. M. Twenty years of inquiry. (1995). What really matters for struggling readers. Bransford. they also analyze a videorecorded session of their teaching following a discussion with colleagues. 49(3). 61–100). 182–190. confer with colleagues and instructors. Teachers examine how they represent learners to colleagues. The Reading Teacher. Colleagues provide oral and written feedback. Clay. examine instructional decisions. Cambourne. By different paths to common outcomes. Initial report Written updates Final report Problem-solving Anecdotal notes Reflections Teacher–instructor conferences Audiotape analysis Videotape presentation with feedback from colleagues REFERENCES Allington. Pearson (Eds.

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Advanced Literacy Practices: From the Clinic to the Classroom Literacy Research. Volume 2. 387–406 Copyright r 2013 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited All rights of reproduction in any form reserved ISSN: 2048-0458/doi:10. Implications for teacher preparation programs seeking to develop literacy experiences for preservice and practicing educators are depicted. Practice and Evaluation.1108/S2048-0458(2013)0000002022 387 . This book chapter describes a framework for establishing and maintaining tutoring partnerships within communities. Information on how to successfully scaffold teacher candidates into becoming more reflective educators through the use of a reading clinic model is provided. Methodology/approach – The research support for utilizing tutoring programs is shared.INNOVATIVE PRACTICES: DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE COLLABORATION AND PARTNERSHIPS WITHIN SCHOOLBASED READING CLINICS Tammy Milby ABSTRACT Purpose – The chapter provides the reader with an overview of how teacher preparation programs can utilize a school-based reading/literacy clinic model within university coursework. Details for partnering with community organizations to provide tutoring support for struggling readers is illustrated.

Social implications – The key element of effective tutoring programs is to improve student achievement in literacy. the goal is much the same. community partnerships. For in-service educators.388 TAMMY MILBY Practical implications – The author provides examples of effective community partnerships with suggestions and techniques for developing new programs and/or partnerships. and think critically’’ while reflecting on how the implementation of this intervention relates to enhancing one’s own classroom. interventions. Clinics are most often held during school hours or during an after-school program. In the discipline of literacy. Clinics can also be housed within community organizations. The School-based Reading Clinic model typically involves a university faculty member serving as a coach or facilitator while university students tutor elementary or adolescent students. tutoring. The components for effectively designing and preserving a reading clinics program are shared. Reading clinics can be offered during the traditional academic school year or during the summer months. Educators must build meaningful and thought-provoking literacy practices into the tutoring setting. School-based experiences are sometimes held off-campus at a public or private school locations. A model for using a tutoring approach supportive of struggling readers is described. write. The focus of practical experiences for preservice educators is learning how to effectively teach a child to ‘‘read. . practical application of pedagogy is essential for gaining the complex understandings necessary for teaching a child to read. School-based Reading Clinics offer the opportunity for universities and schools to collaborate together to address the needs of diverse learners in the classroom. write. Keywords: Reading/literacy clinics. to learn how to effectively teach a child to ‘‘read. struggling readers INTRODUCTION Teacher preparation programs often use a variety of approaches to build relevant practical experiences into university coursework. reflection. and think critically’’ prior to attaining one’s own classroom. teacher candidates. Practical tips for establishing and maintaining tutoring programs which are composed of innovative practices are included. One successful approach is the use of School-based Reading Clinics.

Denny. 1998). Barnett. 2001. Universities provide support to the community by supplying highly trained and closely supervised tutors. a university class focused on learning how to conduct reading assessments might enter a public school setting to provide individual or small group instruction for struggling first-grade readers who require additional support with literacy strategies. 1998. 2009. the university faculty member will circulate. Wasik & Slavin. 1982. 1993).’’ Thus. observe. While university students work one-on-one with the elementary children in an after-school program. the school-based partnership is advantageous for all involved. and the public school. the university. children who are served within a School-based Reading Clinic can gain increased confidence and motivation toward reading. Much of the conversation concentrates on enhancing the success of the tutoring intervention while applying the key ideas from the university readings and coursework. & Kulik. ‘‘My tutor helps me to find books I like to read and shows me how to read hard words. This approach is described as a mutually beneficial opportunity for the children who are served. Working one-one-one with individual students is one of the most effective ways to prevent reading failure in the primary grades. Providing students with individual instruction to supplement high-quality classroom teaching provides needed instructional gains for struggling readers. Fashola. University students are provided feedback on their teaching and lesson planning skills. Ritter. Tutoring has become a popular form of instructional support for struggling readers and is often utilized as a primary intervention for those students needing more literacy support. Most school-based clinics offer a time of reflection following the teaching opportunity in which the instruction is discussed and analyzed. and provide modeling or assistance with implementation of assessments and teaching techniques. RESEARCH SUPPORT FOR TUTORING PROGRAMS Historically. The use and effectiveness of tutoring programs worldwide have been documented extensively in the educational research literature (Cohen. fostering student autonomy and . Kulik. & Albin. One second-grade student who participated in a reading clinic stated.Innovative Practices 389 For example. Teaching candidates are able to learn to apply literacy coursework in real-world settings. many cultures have used tutoring as one of the oldest forms of teaching (Shanahan. Public schools benefit by having a cadre of university volunteers to supplement the ability of school personnel to provide individual services which amplify the academic achievement of those children needing additional help. In addition to academic growth in literacy.

reached the conclusion that ‘‘college students and trained. 2001. Lauer et al. Juel. & Lewis-Wagner. 1997. Cobb..390 TAMMY MILBY self-directed learning (Clay. Ongoing monitoring of progress and careful guidance from an experienced supervisor who is trained in literacy practices will help student attain greater progress (Johnston. noting that interventions focused on comprehension tended to produce the largest instructional gains. many fiscal resources have been utilized across time to fund tutoring programs and these programs may significantly influence educational policy. 1999). Juel. Additionally. 1993). Morris. Fashola. ‘‘How effective is a supplemental tutoring program conducted by a university student?’’ The academic benefits of tutoring programs have recently been analyzed through two meta-analyses. 2003. determined that volunteer tutoring has a positive effect on achievement for students being tutored and found specific gains in the areas of word study. Yet. 616). Pullen. 2001). 2009). oral fluency. Elbaum. & Rosemary. 1982. 2004. students who were tutored by college students made the largest gains. educators and the public may wonder. Likewise. monitoring and reinforcement of instructional progress can enhance the growth of reading achievement (Meier & Invernizzi. The practice and use of tutoring as a pedagogical method is also extensively documented (Cohen et al. 1998). & Monaghan. Wasik & Slavin. 1999. Lane. As the tutoring is conducted. These authors conclude that success of participation in a volunteer program results in improved overall reading measures and offers instructional advice to educators looking to meet Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) goals on state . Invernizzi. 2001. 1993). Having trained volunteers work under the supervision of a teacher. Invernizzi. reading specialist. A second meta-analysis conducted by Ritter et al. Hughes. 2006. reliable community volunteers were able to provide significant help to struggling readers’’ (p. and Moody (2000) conducted a meta-analysis of supplemental. meaningful lesson planning including a structured approach which includes high-quality materials will also increase the value of instruction (Wasik. Vaughn. This research team also found that intensive programs had more powerful effects. Morrow & Woo. and writing when comparing tutored students to peers who were not tutored. or university faculty member qualified to teach reading may increase the quantity and quality of services provided (Dromsky & Gambrell. adultinstructed one-on-one reading interventions for students who are at-risk for reading failure.. (2009) examined the effectiveness of volunteer tutoring programs for improving the academic skills of K-8 students enrolled in public school settings. These researchers documented that interventions that used trained volunteers or college students were highly effective. According to their findings. 1985. Ritter et al. Wasik & Slavin. Elbaum et al.

20). From a preparation perspective. Transfer of knowledge from teacher preparation programs into the school context is essential for ‘‘teachers to understand deeply a wide array of things . (2) displayed a more caring attitude. Ritter et al. RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHER PREPARATION PROGRAMS Likewise. 2008). Peck (2009) found that reading clinics in authentic settings such as urban areas served as powerful encounters for graduate students because the experience ‘‘encourages them to reflect not only upon the intricacies of literacy tutoring but also upon the added complexities of designing and carrying out instruction targeted for urban youth’’ (p. tutoring programs provide developing teachers powerful insights into the process of teaching reading and learning about individual student needs. 2011). Risko et al. An additional team of researchers concluded that reading clinics are a successful practice providing both preservice and in-service teachers the ability to ‘‘transfer’’ instructional understanding and assessment practices to classroom contexts (Deeney et al. Deeney et al. explained that ‘‘It would be worthwhile to consider structured. A team of researchers on behalf of the International Reading Association examined and reviewed 82 empirical studies on teacher preparation for reading instruction (Risko et al.Innovative Practices 391 assessment measures. reading-focused volunteer tutoring programs as strategies to improve reading and language skills’’ (p. researchers have examined the influence of tutoring experiences for prospective teachers. determined that some educators moved further than ‘‘transfer’’ of knowledge. and (3) shifting their deficit views to recognition of their students’ unique capabilities. 120). Worthy and Patterson (2001) noted that working individually with one student during tutoring provided many prospective teachers with three significant skills including (1) increasing the confidence that was displayed in their ability to teach struggling readers. found that participation in tutoring programs as a part of field experiences during teacher preparation programs was positively associated with changing the belief systems and responsibility held by prospective teachers related to working with culturally and linguistically diverse students. These researchers investigated the complexities of learning to teach reading and analyzed what conditions impact teacher shifts and changes in knowledge... successfully demonstrating the ability to ‘‘transform’’ these new understandings by sharing and applying these understandings with other educators through literacy leadership practices.

Thus. and modeling crucial literacy techniques in a practical one-on-one setting. enhanced reflective thinking. ‘‘Schools that are committed to developing students’ critical thinking skills and real-world applications of knowledge as well as providing necessary services and enrichment activities need to forge new relationships with the community to improve student learning’’ (Shields. 2009). Schools are always in need of ongoing literacy support to upkeep educational excellence. 1994). Clinical instruction has shifted thinking to focus more centrally on teaching children rather than teaching skills. How can school and university partnerships best be achieved? Partnerships must begin with both parties recognizing the need for working with one another. social and cultural contexts. 302). Blank et al. this type of clinical experience allows for greater learning. and rich. A common purpose of many educational partnerships is to improve both the academic achievement as well as the social outcomes for children (Blank. guided conversations to occur. School-based Reading Clinics facilitate the purposeful ability of teacher educators to help college students apply course materials through demonstrating. it is sometimes challenging for elementary or secondary schools to build a long-term partnership with university partners that can service the needs and interests of both groups. Schools and universities have this mutual interest. Achieving results through community school partnerships: How district and community . However. Schools must also shift toward recognizing the need to become more open to community partnerships (Epstein. 2000). 2006. since they are both working towards the same global mission – the pursuit of knowledge to build lifelong literacy. Universities must recognize the shift in teacher education toward a more robust program based on a complex view of teaching (Hoffman & Pearson.392 TAMMY MILBY about learning. School and university partnerships align resources and help greater learning to occur. Jacobson. p. (2012) in the document entitled. 2012). & Melaville. 2001). PURPOSEFUL PARTNERSHIPS Partnerships occur when organizations agree to cooperate or work together to support mutual interests. Universities have the opportunity to offer the community a wide range of resources that can provide valuable support. addressing how to use assessments to guide instruction planning and address the individual needs of learners (Peck. reinforcing. and teaching and be able to enact these understandings in complex classrooms serving increasingly diverse students’’ (Darling-Hammond.

The focus throughout partnership development is developing a lasting and sustained partnership where all members of the collaboration experience success and feel the benefits of the team effort. relationships. schools or community organizations can perceive these programs as something from the outside ‘‘moving in’’ rather than a joint effort. Investing the time upfront to guide all participants in the collaboration allows the School-based Reading Program to belong to both the school and community or off-site partner. this will involve leadership to help build the program with the school division. building staff (office manager & custodians). college students. In order to sustain a program across time. (4) Engaging stakeholders in the use of data. all key stakeholders must be vested. For university faculty. Partnerships which view reading clinics solely as a university class or program are destined to encounter difficulties. Extra programs or activities rarely last in school and community settings which have limited time and space resources.Innovative Practices 393 leaders are building effective. universities operate on a semester-to-semester schedule which may differ from schools which operate on a yearly academic schedule. school-age students should also be considered when creating a partnership. (3) Encouraging open dialogue about challenges and solutions. Often. School-age students may become more motivated and engaged in the learning process when communities and schools work together. These categories are adapted below to help university faculty members or school leaders apply these foundational principles to the school-based clinical setting: 1. These strategies include: (1) Ensuring a common vision among all partners. Tyron who is a fourth-grader reading a couple of . (2) Establishing structured opportunities to engage stakeholders. school administration (principal and/or program coordinator). The first step is to help all participants develop a shared understanding of the off-site tutoring program. (5) Creating central-office capacity to sustain community schools work. and (6) Leveraging community resources and braiding funding streams. sustainable. However. Creating a common vision among all partners At the start of a School-based Reading Clinics partnership. it is crucial to help everyone involved develop a common vision of the goals and expectations for the experience. the goal is developing more than a one semester experience. For example. Although the main vision is to sustain a relationship amongst the university and school. cooperating teachers/ reading specialists. as well as tutees and their families. provide six main foundational strategies for building and continuing community partnerships. Since universities often begin or facilitate this relationship.

2. intervention time. The focus on this meeting should be the creation of a beneficial and trusting relationship. may recognize the need to read better but may not be motivated to engage in recreational reading behaviors. Encouraging open dialogue about tutoring clinic challenges and solutions Schools are complex organisms which operate with deep intricacy. Faculty members may wish to utilize a school or community partner with whom previous collaborations have been successful. once he understands the vision and is included in the partnership. Another route might be to look for graduates of your program who would be more likely to invite and collaborate with the college to hold a literacy clinic in their school setting. Adding a reading clinic may seem like the addition of just one simple program. Tyron benefits from not only academic but also social support. Establish structured opportunities to engage key stakeholders Once the clinic has been started. A school principal who is an advocate for literacy or a National Board Certified Reading Specialist is the type of leader who may value the addition of a School-based Reading or Literacy Clinic. one of the first steps will be determining which type of relationship should be established. (p. A third technique for building trusting relationships is to look for leaders within the community. They write: The structures and functions associated with building a community schools strategy are built on a deepening foundation of collective trust. access to students. A university student athlete who comes 2–3 times per week to tutor Tyron in literacy may assist Tyron in developing the value of reading for pleasure and could help him find books which contain the adventures he has been seeking. That trust is vital to achieving the collective impact that emerges when school and community partners share responsibility for the education of our children and youth. Blank et al. but it will often impact multiple individuals within the school building. . Issues such as parking. Will you need a formal written agreement or can your relationship be developed more informally through meetings and emails? Who is able to grant permission for building or facility use? Who will ensure access to the needed students and materials? Face-to-face meetings at the beginning of the partnership can be a strong step toward developing a lasting relationship. 4–5) Networking is sometimes a helpful strategy for building this trusting relationship. (2012) discuss the importance of developing trust within your collaborative partnership.394 TAMMY MILBY years below grade level. 3. sign-in procedures.

The crucial point to ponder becomes. For example.Innovative Practices 395 communication. (2) develop intervention goals. Without developing that trusting and collaborative relationship. technology. It is a visual reminder of your presence in the building and may be a place to exchange information such as school calendars and permission slips. how will you handle logistical occurrences such field trips or university breaks? A mailbox in the teacher’s lounge may be a good place to start. Many times literacy clinics are offered after school or during key instructional blocks when access to conversations and student-focused dialogue may be limited. copying) require dialogue and proactive communication. consider recruiting someone from the school or community site to serve as an ‘‘insider’’ to help facilitate dialogue and navigate the challenges and solutions as needs arise. assessments. There will be challenges. Technology (such as email) or journals can also serve as a way to facilitate conversations related to the ever changing needs of the tutoring students. and use of resources (books. These meetings will serve as a great opportunity to discuss what is working and what needs tweaking during the School-based Reading Clinic experience. 4. permission slips. Who will be your first point of contact? A few meetings along the way designated with the purpose of openly discussing concerns will lead to a stronger partnership. (3) tutor while collecting formative assessments. Collaborating with classroom teachers or reading specialists may be challenging at off-site locations. sharing spaces. how do all stakeholders within the clinical model share in the use of data? How can the collaboration support both the learner and the clinical instructor? Will the school share informal assessments? How? What will you do to determine if the program is working for all stakeholders? How often will you meet to determine if needs of everyone in the collaborations are being met? What are the outcomes of the collaboration? . Candidates (1) collect initial data to determine the type of reading difficulty. Another suggestion is to schedule a couple of meetings to be held during the semester at the beginning of the partnership. and with these challenges come creative solutions. and then (4) reassess to determine student progress and success of the program. The approach is often circular in nature. a school-based clinic can easily encounter difficulties. If possible. Engaging stakeholders in the use of data Most university teacher preparation programs have a goal of encouraging teaching candidates to analyze and use ongoing data to inform the decisionmaking process.

New assessments are likely being given as a learning opportunity for the university student and could contain small mistakes as the university student may be nervous to administer the protocol for the first time with an actual student. instructional activities. For example. The crucial factor is determining what data will be collected. Sometimes. which are built on establishing rapport and learner interactions in a face-to-face environment that promotes high-quality . Teachers and faculty retire. All lessons and family interactions cannot always be supervised or recorded. As with school children. ever forging relationships and building community connections so that change brings new opportunities. and family newsletters could all be helpful materials to share with school and community partners. Faculty need to consider how to share the work and success of the clinic model with others within and outside of their education departments. documents such as assessment reports. questions. these issues are unavoidable or it is just time to move along to a better location or learning experience. and who will have access to confidential materials. Within any school program. The wise faculty member is ever flexible and responsive. Getting more individuals vested in the School-based Reading Clinic and sharing your success will ensure that small changes don’t lead to the demise of your program. Some universities are considering offering totally online teacher preparation experiences in order to recruit students from a larger geographic population. In addition to human resources. it is important to develop the capacity of your clinic so that it can be sustained long-term. Administrators will be appointed to new schools. miscues. change will occur. One point to consider is that the clinic supervisor cannot always view everything. From chaos comes growth and development. or prompts made by university students during instruction can serve as a powerful catalyst to promote learning. This movement is impacting reading clinics specifically. The key to coping with change is to plan for it. 5.396 TAMMY MILBY Products created within the clinic can be useful artifacts for school or community partners. Consider training additional faculty or school staff to support the goals of the clinic. Creating capacity to sustain the work does not stop with off-site school and community partners. building contingencies into your clinical program. Space for an ‘‘extra’’ program or a ‘‘curricular’’ model that disconnects with the divisions approach can lead to program closure. However. other physical changes can greatly influence the feasibility of the clinical model. Reading specialists transfer or get promoted. Creating capacity to sustain the work Change is an ongoing part of everyday life. how it will be utilized and shared.

Grant funding or business initiatives may be another source of resources for the developing clinical reading program. Access to technology is a consideration when determining the resources which are available at the clinic site(s). In order to model how to embed technology into instruction. resources currently exist which can be reallocated for this type of off-site program. children’s literature. Another consideration of School-based Reading Clinics is that they are held off-site and university administrators may not have the opportunity to understand the powerful program implications of adapting the current model. The tutors also gain instructional experiences from access and use of tablets. electronic children’s books. Gunning (2006) . Recent advances with handheld devices make integrating technology into instruction at off-site locations more possible.Innovative Practices 397 literacy instruction with coaching. a portable collection of materials will need to be purchased including materials such as leveled readers. determine the best strategies for publicizing this effort. A set of small tablets (such as iPads) with wireless access can enhance instructional opportunities during tutoring. writing materials. At the start of the relationship. it is still an instructional lab requiring materials and funding. Sometimes. MODEL FOR USING A SCHOOL-BASED READING CLINIC TO SUPPORT STRUGGLING READERS Once the community partnership has been established. or laptops with educational and/or word-processing software. one approach might be to have the university student create a tutoring kit or collection of materials to use individually with the learner. faculty supervisors benefit from having internet access at the off-site location. 6. and assessments. If possible. the next step is ensuring that the tutoring that takes place will support diverse learners. In addition to materials. However. a budget should be established for the clinic to manage the ongoing and consumable needs of curricular materials. faculty and support staff time is another resource which must be investigated as the off-site School-based Reading Clinic is established. To create capacity and sustain your work. If the faculty budget is limited. Leveraging resources and funding School-based Reading Clinics tend to take fewer resources than campusbased clinical models which utilize a tremendous amount of campus space and materials (such as two-way mirrors for behind the glass or extensive video equipment).

Although the approach may vary. These students must make average progress plus extra progress including receiving both extra instructional help and putting in extra reading time. 2006). Consider limiting small group size or adopting an individual tutoring design to for instruction to really accelerate learning. tutoring can be tailored to the students’ needs in a way that no group approach can. those students who are behind need an accelerated program (Gunning. In order to close the literacy gap for struggling readers. ‘‘Because it provides one-one-one instruction. Thus. consider who will provide services to which students. Wasik (1998) evaluated tutoring programs to determine common components which foster meaningful experiences for learners in tutoring settings. enhance access to ‘‘intensive’’ style interventions.’’ Expert interventions are needed for those children who have failed to develop the expected literacy growth. Next. 157). not to bypass the problem of ineffective teaching.398 TAMMY MILBY describes the powerful nature of tailored tutoring experiences. Tutoring is one way of getting this needed extra help (Gunning. p.  A structured lesson plan format exists which is focused on high payoff activities geared to meet the needs of the individual student. He states. Next. . Allington (2005) suggests that schools consider two essential elements to alter the type of support that struggling readers receive. a highly qualified Reading Specialist or Title 1 teacher could ‘‘push into’’ the classroom to work with the lowest quartile of children while university students work with those students falling just below the benchmark on initial assessments. 2006). 2009). As the tutoring model is established. consider the topic of ‘‘expertness. These components are easily adapted to the clinics model:  Coordination and supervision of tutoring sessions is conducted by a trained literacy professional. most reading experts agree that the individual who is most qualified to teach reading should work with those students needing the most services (Gordon. The first step in designing a school-based program to meet the needs of struggling readers or lower-achieving students is to ensure that all children are receiving highquality classroom instruction. Tutoring is a supplemental or additional support service designed to accompany effective classroom teaching. 2006. These elements are ‘‘intensity and expertness.’’ First. Tutoring is potentially the most effective approach of all’’ (Gunning. Make the most of every instructional minute and meet with students with greater frequency (daily works best) to enhance the benefits or gains that are produced. the work of Wasik (1998) is a useful guide for supplying the tutoring elements which promote literacy achievement.

beneficial for the greater good of the tutoring student and teacher in training. board games.  Ongoing monitoring occurs which includes opportunities for tutor training and feedback with scaffolding and modeling as needed. Maintaining high expectations and building a caring. The instructional materials utilized should include appropriate texts on the students reading level as well as interactive elements like dry erase boards.  Tutoring should be aligned with and congruent to the classroom reading program. Thus. More recent research concurs with this finding and has demonstrated that holding sessions more often leads to more effective results. supervisors who observe less effective techniques may choose to join or engage in the tutoring session to model different techniques which could be more useful. the role and tone of the supervisor is supportive and constructive. The instructional activities included must meet the complex literacy needs of each learner. 2011). Tutors have great responsibility for a valuable block of instructional time. Additionally. This is clearly not an exhaustive list. committed environment may influence student engagement and success (Rothman & Henderson.Innovative Practices 399  Tutoring should take place for a substantial time period and must include ongoing learner scaffolding. Wasik suggests that the minimal time allocated for tutoring session should be at least 30 minutes two times per week. Schoolbased Reading Clinic supervisors need to examine the curriculum which is being utilized by the classroom teacher and explore opportunities to support tutors by aligning learning and making connections to the classroom reading program. and interesting writing papers. EXAMPLES OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS The most essential element of creating a solid partnership is recognizing those resources existing in the community which can be developed.  Appropriate and engaging instructional materials should be utilized. The chart below displays an example of brainstorming done by a university faculty member who was exploring possible community partnerships in order to begin a School-based Reading Clinic. The components outlined above demonstrate the expectation that the tutoring block is highly structured and focused. Modeling is a valuable approach. The list is the beginning of generating ideas to provide an .

Will it run during the school day or in the evenings? Will it run during the academic year or the summer? Could the reading clinic be aligned or connected with international programs such as study abroad opportunities? Programs taking place during the traditional school day can easily work into a schools existing intervention block whereas evening programs may require more creativity in order to partner with an organization providing tutors during after-school or summer hours. Cultural Groups. Jaycees Neighborhood groups Neighborhood Associations Higher education College Clubs. Alpha Delta Kappa Business groups Chamber of Commerce. Sample Chart of Partnership Organizations: (Consider organizing your own chart to include the type of partnership. Faculty could also recruit community partnerships through seeking civic engagement organizations or service learning opportunities on-campus or near the university. retired educator groups NEA. and/or available opportunities for networking. Service Learning . Another central element to consider is the program location and schedule. Lunch Buddies Community-based organizations Youth Coalition.) Nonprofit organizations Boys & Girls Clubs. program time and location. contemplate the timing of your clinic. YMCA Local government agencies Head Start. possible contacts or resources.400 TAMMY MILBY overview of active community organizations in your community. What resources are located closer to your campus? Student transportation and course schedules with other university classes are often a consideration. Faculty members who are new to a community may wish to collaborate with others who are more vested in the neighborhood to determine which resources might be advantageous to explore. Consider attending neighborhood events where community groups unite to collaborate for events such as community causes or celebrations. Lastly. Police Athletic League Faith-based organizations Wesley Foundation Civic groups United Way Teachers unions or organizations.

If necessary. This is where the literacy assessment course will be housed for the semester. The police department has established a crime prevention program to enhance the educational. and after-school students). key stakeholders meet to discuss the program and determine the next steps for sustaining the partnership. University students who are studying to be elementary . field experiences related to literacy coursework. Periodically. Progress monitoring is conducted throughout the program and reassessment is conducted at the end of the sessions to determine progress. The purpose of the program is to create trust and understanding between police officers and youth while engaging in enriching experiences. public school staff. and recreational activities that youth participate in during after-school hours. The police department was exploring ways to partner with a local university to meet the educational goals of their program. A similar School-based Reading Clinics program is conducted in the same town by a neighboring college. Virginia. The program is sustained because of two crucial factors.Innovative Practices 401 Ongoing commitment is needed to sustain the partnership growth. At the same time. Conversation and communication between community partners about the improvement of literacy outcomes for all children within the community allowed for a partnership to be created. Children are tutored during after-school hours in the school cafeteria through a program sponsored by the YMCA. the student can be discontinued from the program if the literacy of the student is now on grade level or participate in an additional round of tutoring services. University students travel to a local after-school program in a nearby public elementary school. Next. A School-based Reading Clinic was established which provides struggling readers with a one-on-one tutoring experience one to two times per week. parents. USA involves a partnership with the Police Athletic League (PAL). the community group. Another successful partnership takes place in the mornings during the scheduled language arts timeframe in a public school which is close to the university campus. 2007). A director noticed during the homework help time that many students in the program had reading difficulties. A trusting relationship has been established which is beneficial for all involved (university faculty and students. a university faculty member in the Reading Education Department was seeking a new way to provide education majors with practical. University students pursuing a degree in education begin with giving assessments and then design an intervention tailored to meet the needs of this individual student. athletic. data are collected in an ongoing manner to examine the success of the program and the effectiveness of the tutoring format (Milby. An example of one successful program currently taking place in Henrico County.

Tutoring takes place while other students are visiting literacy centers in the classroom. 1983).402 TAMMY MILBY teachers visit the school for two mornings per week to work with English Language Learners. the faculty supervisor joins the tutors in an available classroom in the public school for a university class session concentrated on reflection and application of course materials. Clinics provide endless opportunities for understanding the learning process and building the reflective practices of teaching candidates. SCAFFOLDING TEACHER CANDIDATES TO BECOME REFLECTIVE EDUCATORS Once a solid partnership is established. Providing opportunities for individual tutors to reflect on their own growth in models of instruction and assessment encourages candidates to personally apply best practices and course readings. It is essential to build both individual. The university students typically utilize the following sequence for their lessons: familiar text reading. This format is an adaptation made by the university faculty member from research on well-established tutoring programs such as Reading Recovery. uniqueness. Taking control of their . During tutoring. Book Buddies. and guided opportunities for reflection into teacher preparation programs because the exploration of how to use classroom thinking processes requires enhanced reasoning skills and deepens instructional understandings (Jennings. Following tutoring. word study/word bank. peer. the clinic format chosen by the university professor will guide the successful experience that developing teachers receive. and a read aloud experience at the end of the lesson. new text reading. instability. Tutors work individually with children for 30–45 minutes while the teacher and reading specialist provide learner support for other students in the classroom. Reflection-in-action involves a process which is central to the art by which practitioners learn to deal with a variety of situations involving uncertainty. writing. & Lerner. and the Howard Street models. and value conflict (Schon. Caldwell. 2006). The tutoring takes place after whole-class instruction is completed during an intervention time where the classroom teacher is working with small groups of first-grade students. running record. Off-site clinics usually include a tutoring session followed by guided inquiry and discussion of the learning actions that just took place. the faculty supervisor circulates to coach and observe the instruction. Reflection typically involves an educators’ ability to make informed decisions about teaching and learning.

Some prompts may be specifically related to a course reading or something the supervisor noticed during observations such as.’’ Other prompts may lead to more open-ended discussion such as ‘‘What made you proud today and what was more difficult?’’ or ‘‘Who did most of the talking during your tutoring session today?’’ ‘‘Why?’’ The primary goal of guided group inquiry conversations is to scaffold thinking supporting educators with becoming more expert or masterful teachers of literacy. 1996). The activity may be a written journal in which the tutoring session is analyzed. For instance. Listening to peer feedback can also serve as a form of informal assessment for university faculty. often in isolated settings. After the tutoring session is completed. during. or a freewrite to explore instructional decision-making. Teaching candidates may feel more comfortable asking questions and admitting confusions in a peer setting which can later lead to more open dialogue with the entire class group. . Peer reflection involves tutors collaborating with each other to provide useful feedback on tutoring session decisions. a transcript of a videotaped portion of a lesson. Prospective teachers must be prepared for the challenges of working in public schools (Zeichner & Liston. Zeichner. and after instruction. learning to give and accept feedback is an important professional disposition for educators to obtain. Engaging in dialogue related to questions such as ‘‘What did you notice during teaching?’’ and ‘‘What are you wondering about?’ can facilitate deeper levels of thinking related to the individual learner. Likewise. Much of the daily work of a classroom teacher involves making quick decisions and or judgments. taking time to guide educators through a discussion of a particular topic enables tutors to think globally and apply lessons related to working with an individual learner to a whole classroom setting. Some university students tend to be able to ‘‘hear’’ honest feedback from a peer more readily than from a professor or literacy coach.. 2010. Reflection through guided group inquiry is another way faculty members may shape the thinking of prospective teachers.Innovative Practices 403 own learning will enable developing educators to make meaningful adjustments to their own instruction and become more thoughtful teachers (Fairbanks et al. 2006). ‘‘How did you use wait time today during tutoring?’’ or ‘‘Describe how you encouraged fluency during repeated readings. many reading clinic supervisors require tutors to participate in some type of reflective activity for each tutoring session. Much of a clinical reading experience involves making decisions about assessments and using this information to inform instruction. Teacher preparation programs can support teachers learning how to carefully consider teaching actions judiciously before.

Helping a child learn to read is one of the most crucial responsibilities of society. Tutoring is a highly effective instructional approach tailored to support the literacy development of individual students. The decision-making abilities of prospective teachers are shaped as university faculty guide the inquiry process. Continuous collaboration and professional development shapes the future of learning. REFERENCES Allington.. Clinics afford educators with opportunities to think more critically about the process of learning. What really matters for struggling readers: Designing research-based programs (2nd ed.404 TAMMY MILBY CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS School-based Reading Clinics which are held at off-site locations provide the opportunity for universities and schools to collaborate together to address the needs of diverse learners in the classroom. J. Another benefit of the School-based Reading Clinics model is the opportunity for sustained partnerships with community organizations. M. and that the success not only lasts but also builds a bases for later success in school. New York. 2001). (2005). schools. L. Democratic living requires teachers to cultivate the capacity for students to engage in intelligent learning activities (Henderson. Jacobson. we have a moral obligation to do whatever it takes to see that all students do in fact receive that which is necessary for them to succeed’’ (p. Universities.). NY: Addison-Wesley Longman. R. (2012). These authors state that ‘‘If we know that large numbers of students can be successful in reading the first time they are taught. Twenty years later. R. Blank. . Faculty will always face the changing expectations and needs of society and must continually evolve the practices which occur within the reading clinic. Achieving results through community school partnerships: How district and community leaders are building effective. A. Children will always have unique learning preferences. the advice of Wasik and Slavin (1993) is still significant. Establishing a reading clinic begins a successful program that meets the needs of struggling readers in the classroom while preparing teachers to more effectively teach literacy. School-based Reading Clinics are a key part to addressing this moral obligation. and community organizations collaborate together to combine resources while supporting the academic achievement of a future generation. & Melaville.. Supplemental instructional support provided through clinics can assist public schools in providing interventions for a variety of learners. 22).

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