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VACUUM SEWER DESIGN SEMINAR

Design Seminar
ƒ Review of Design Fundamentals
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System schematic Explanation of flow path Explanation of “Q-Mean” Sample profile Summary of fundamentals

ƒ General Project Guidelines
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Design Seminar
ƒ Sample Problem
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Plan and Profile Design Design Software Station Calculations

ƒ Standard Details ƒ Factory F t Collection C ll ti Stations St ti ƒ Questions and Answers

Schematic of Typical Vacuum System .

General Guidelines for Vacuum System y Design g .

Determine the geographical limits of th service the i area ƒ The vacuum system is a mechanical system ¾ ¾ Component sizing based on total system flow This is a most critical step in the analysis .

Analyze topography of site to select id l site ideal it f for central t l vacuum station t ti ƒ Locate point that utilizes as much natural ground slope as possible ¾ ¾ Start with the lowest elevation in the complex Optimum point is the lowest point nearest the geographical center of the site ƒ Review available property (other municipal works or public properties) ¾ Use lowest centrally located property as guide Minimize forcemain length if possible ƒ Review final sewage outfall ¾ .

Route sewer lines along public rightright i ht-ofof f-way ƒ Take advantage of as much natural ground p as p possible slope ƒ Analyze approximate lift for each flow path ¾ Compare ground elevation difference between the end of line and the vacuum station Note the highest elevation this flow path must *Note ascend .

. the following are approximate grade elevation pipe p sizes using g differences for various p normal lifts: 4” = 15 Ft.Route sewer lines along public rightright i ht-ofof f-way ƒ Using 13 Ft.5’ Lifts) Additional grade elevation differences can be overcome using i slightly li htl deeper d trenches t h and/or d/ lower lift heights.0‘ Lifts) ) 6” = 17 Ft. (Based on 1. ( (Based on 1. (Based on 1. as maximum static loss.5’ Lifts) 8” = 19 Ft.

Determine input flow for each vacuum main i or b branch h ƒ Account for the total number of: ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ Homes Schools Apartments Commercial Businesses Etc Etc. See Chapter 2 of 2005 Design Manual for recommended d d flows fl .

dual or other buffer tanks at appropriate high flow locations ¾ Additional buffer tank limitations in Chapter p 6 of 2005 Design g Manual Add this thi flow fl to t existing i ti flow fl ƒ Analyze each vacuum line for future growth potential ¾ ƒ Ideally. total peak flow for each main line entering the vacuum station should be as close to equal as possible .ƒ Place Pl i interface t f valve l pits it at t property t corners ¾ ¾ Indicate gravity connections to various lots To minimize gravity sewer depth ƒ Use two (2) homes per valve pit as a general guideline and a maximum of four (4) homes per valve pit ƒ Place single single.

Determine peak design flow to vacuum collection ll ti station t ti and d calculate major station components ƒ Use criteria found in Chapters 2 and 3 of g Manual 2005 Design .

existing utilities. etc. streets. A scale of 1” 1 = 50’ 50 horizontal and 1 1” = 5 5’ vertical is typical ƒ Select the vacuum collection tank connection point as main line station 0+00 0 00 ¾ Continue outward toward main line extremities . selection line routing should be field surveyed for exact length and ground contours ƒ Prepare plan and profile sheets on a split or combined plan ¾ ¾ Profile page using aerial photography or other techniques to locate homes. right-of-ways.After final line routing and vacuum station site selection.

ƒ Where branch lines connect to main lines or each other. their connection point becomes 0+00 for that line ƒ Preferred direction of profile design in in the flow direction ¾ It is recommended that profile design start at the end of each main line Frost cover (as dictated by local conditions) Plus the diameter of a 3 3” cross-over Plus the invert to invert dimension of a 3” cross-over to mainline wye fitting as shown on Figure F4-8 (normally 1’-0” minimum). ƒ Starting St ti elevation l ti should h ld include i l d ¾ ¾ ¾ .

0 Ft. or 750 Ft. without consulting AIRVAC .5 foot lift at 750’ centers will result i an elevation in l ti equall t to elevation l ti at t starting t ti point i t (500 Ft.ƒ Lifts are placed as required ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ To minimize trench depth To ascend uphill grades Generally speaking if ground is flat. x 0.) All lifts f will result in a designed vacuum loss equal to the lift height minus the pipe diameter Th sum of The f all ll vacuum llosses f from th the end d of f a “fl “flow path” to the vacuum collection station should not exceed 13 13.2% = 1.0 0 Ft Ft.0 foot lift at 500’ centers or a 1.5 Ft.2% = 1. a 1. x 0.

While accelerating.Eventually friction and gravity bring the sewage to rest below several lifts .The magnitude of the propulsive forces start to decline noticeably when the AIRVAC valve closes .ƒ Vacuum process begins at the vacuum valve and collection sump assembly ¾ When the volume of sewage in sump reaches approximately 10 gallons ƒ ƒ The AIRVAC valve opens Differential pressure between the vacuum sewer and the atmosphere forces the 10 gallons of sewage into the vacuum main .It remains important as the admitted air continues to expand . sewage is rapidly transformed into foam . ƒ momentum transfer from air to water takes place largely through the action of shear stresses .Soon occupies only part of the sewer pipe cross section.

20% flows in the opposite direction ƒ When the backsurge slows. . flow moves toward the collection station t ti ( (schematics h ti f follow) ll ) ƒ Sewage scouring velocities of 15 to 18 feet per second are attained using the standard air/liquid ratio .80% flows toward the collection station .¾ As the process continues ƒ ƒ Liquid will be transported downstream by in-rushing air Sewage admitted to a sewer through an AIRVAC valve initially moves in two directions.

Interface Valve in Standby Position 4-A A .

Interface Valve in Open Position 4-B B THRUST .

Vacuum Line Thrust MAIN FLOW AIR SPACE D OPEN FROM EN OF LINE TO N VACUUM STATIO LIQUID HIGH VELOCITY UID AT REST CONTACTS LIQ MASS & PROPELS THE DOWNSTREAM 0.2% FALL A BACKSURGE CAN TRAVEL SEVERAL MAIN FLOW FEET BEFORE SLOWING AND REVERSING TOWARDS THE COLLECTION STATION SEWAGE AT REST S FR EW O AG M E VA IN LV LE E T PI T BACKSURGE .

MAIN #1 8+13 MAIN #2 2+00 0+00 VACUUM COLLECTION STATION MAIN #3 AIRVAC Valves 0+00 21+40 B BRANCH B 6+00 26+50 0+00 30+15 C BRANCH C 12+95 BUFFER TANK (10GPM) Example p of Flow Path 34+15 36+00 16+50 18+10 38+95 0+00 D 44+40 22+50 BRANCH D B TYPICAL HOMES 48+00 2+80 E 8+30 F 53+95 G 30+30 .

Explanation of Q (MEAN) .

Vacuum Main Profile Design Example

VACUUM MAIN PROFILE DESIGN EXAMPLES
AIRVAC - STANDARD
1/04/99 3/16" = 1'-0"

44B

Summary of Vacuum Piping Design F d Fundamentals t l
ƒ SLOPES
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Use natural ground slope if greater than 0.2% Use 0 0.2% %s slope ope for o flat at te terrain a Use saw tooth profile for uphill transport Use 0 0.2% 2% slope at 50’ 50 minimum prior to first lift in any series

Summary of Vacuum Piping Design F d Fundamentals t l
ƒ FALL BETWEEN LIFTS
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Use larger of two values 0.2% x Length 0 20 Ft. 0.20 Ft fall for 3” 3 service laterals if lifts are closer than 100 Ft. apart 0.25 Ft. minimum fall for ALL vacuum mains and branches 4” and larger if lifts are closer than 125 Ft. apart

centers First lift on a branch minimum 20 Ft. Ft from connection to main . Ft Friction Loss) Maximum series of lifts = 5 at 20 Ft.Summary of Vacuum Piping Design F d Fundamentals t l ƒ LIFTS ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ Use 1’-0” for 3” or 4” pipe Use 1’-6” for 6” or larger pipe Static loss = Lift height – Pipe diameter Maximum vacuum loss due to lifts from any AIRVAC valve to the collection station = (13 Ft. Static Loss + 5 Ft.

6 x 4 = .18 Ft.80 Ft. 8 x 4 = 1.73 Ft.08 Ft. 10 x 3 = 1.71 Ft.78 Ft.05 Ft. 10 x 4 = 1. 6 x 3 = .Summary of Vacuum Piping Design F d Fundamentals t l ƒ CONNECTIONS ¾ Use wye connectors for all branch and lateral connectors ƒ Wye may be vertical or at 45° angle ¾ ¾ ¾ Use long sweep 90° ell for 3” service connectors ONLY Use 45° ells for 4” and larger connectors and any directional change Recommended minimum Invert to Invert elevation difference for connections: 4 x 3 = . .99 Ft. 8 x 3 = . 4 x 4 = .

Summary of Vacuum Piping Design F d Fundamentals t l ƒ FLOW LIMITS Maximum Friction Loss not to exceed 5 feet 3” = 4 homes or equivalent 4” = 38 GPM 4 6” = 106 GPM 8” = 210 GPM 8 10”= 375 GPM ¾ .

6” & Larger determined by static limits or friction .Summary of Vacuum Piping Design F d Fundamentals t l ƒ MAXIMUM LINE LENGTHS 3 = 300 Ft. 3” 4” = 2.000 Ft.

Minimum Slopes .

2% % Rule ELEV = NUMBER LIFTS X LIFT HT .(NUMBER LIFTS -1)(FALL BETWEEN LIFTS) FLOW SERIES OF LIFTS ELEV 50 FT MIN @ 0.2% SLOPE DOWNHILL SLOPE GREATER THAN 0.2% .50’ @ 0.

Slope to Tolerance .

Static Loss Diagram .

Service Connections .

04' 0.52' 1.59" 18.48" 13. SOCKET x SOCKET B C D 20' MINIMUM FROM A LIFT Branch Connections (1) WYE SIZE 4x4x4 4x4x3 6x6x6 6x6x4 6x6x3 8x8x8 8x8x6 8x8x4 8x8x3 10 x 10 x 10 10 x 10 x 8 10 x 10 x 6 10 x 10 x 4 10 x 10 x 3 A 8 3/4" 9 1/4" 12 1/8" 10" 10 1/2" 18 3/4" 16 1/4" 14 1/4" 13" 22 3/8" 3/8 20 1/4" 17 3/4" 15 3/4" 14 3/4" B 3 5/16" 3 1/16" 5 9/16" 3 5/16" 3 1/16" 6 13/16" 6 3/8" 3 5/16" 3 1/16" 8 19/32" 6 13/16" 5 9/16" 3 5/16" 3 1/16" C 8.48" 12.80' 1.90 19.53" 8.70" 12.42' 1.73' 1.08' .33" D .13" 16. SOCKET x SOCKET x SOCKET A (2) 45° ELL.6' MINIMUM FROM TOP OF LIFT SCHEDULE 40 WYE FITTING FLOW 45° ELBOW FLOW 45° ELBOW VACUUM SEWER MAIN 2' MINIMUM VACUUM SEWER BRANCH 45º ELBOW VACUUM BRANCH TO MAIN CONNECTION FLOW (2) BASED ON SPEARS MFG.42" 11.5" 9.05' 0.61' 1.INVERT 0. (1) 45° WYE.36" 21 90" 21.89 1.42" 12.41" 9.07" 15.71' 0.78' 0.18' 1.99' 1 89' 1.30' 1.

Alternate Connections .

HEIGHT TO BE ABOVE WATER. GRADE AIRVAC VALVE PIT LOCATED IN RIGHT-OF-WAY APPROX. USE BACK FLOW DEVICE AS REQUIRED. 2%) AND BEDDING TO PREVENT POCKETS OR BELLIES. PIPE TO BE INSTALLED WITH PROPER SLOPE (MIN. DO NOT INSTALL VACUUM VALVE UNTIL 4" AIR INTAKE IS IN PLACE FIGURE 3-3 VALVE PIT WITH HOME CONNNECTED . BUT BELOW BUILDING FLOOR CAST IRON COVER WITH NO SEALING RINGCONTACT AIRVAC FOR OPTIONAL SEALING METHODS OPTIONAL SCREEN PORTION OF 3" SUCTION PIPE REMOVED FOR CLARITY VALVE AND ASSOCIATED INSTALLATIONS BY MUNICIPALITY TO VACUUM SEWER AND VACUUM STATION 4" GRAVITY LINE ROUTED TO VACUUM VALVE PIT AND CONNECTED TO EXISTING STUB STUB-OUT. OUT USE SCH 40 OR SDR-21 PVC PIPE. USE 45° ELLS TO ADJUST DEPTH IF REQUIRED. 4'-6" (CAN BE AS MUCH AS 6'-6" WITH DEEP SUMP) 14-3/8" 2'-0" 3" CAP 3" VACUUM LINE PREVIOUSLY INSTALLED AND CONNECTED TO VACUUM STATION EXISTING GRAVITY LINE FROM RESIDENCE 4" GRAVITY LINE STUBBED OUT AND CAPPED OFF (MAY BE AS MANY AS FOUR CONNECTIONS) FIGURE 3 3-2 2 VALVE PIT PRIOR TO HOME CONNNECTION Gravity y Connections 20' MINIMUM IN NORTHERN CLIMATES HOUSE 4" AIR INTAKE PIPE USING DWV 90° PVC ELLS. CONNECTION TO RISER NEED NOT BE GLUED.2 X 4 OR SIMILAR DEVICE NEAR GRADE INDICATING END OF GRAVITY STUB HOUSE C L 7'-6" APPROX.

3” Service Line Lifts .

MAIN #1 8+13 MAIN #2 2+00 0+00 VACUUM COLLECTION STATION MAIN #3 AIRVAC Valves 0+00 21+40 B BRANCH B 6+00 26+50 0+00 30+15 C BRANCH C 12+95 BUFFER TANK (10GPM) Design Example Layout 34+15 36+00 16+50 18+10 38+95 0+00 D 44+40 22+50 BRANCH D TYPICAL HOMES 48+00 2+80 E 8+30 F 53+95 G 30+30 .

Design g Example p ƒ Consider vacuum sewer layout ¾ Locations of collection station.Equalize flows on each sewer (where possible) ¾ Locate AIRVAC valves to serve two or more homes per valve ƒ See Chapter 5 .Minimize lift . sewers and AIRVAC valves selected in accordance with requirements of AIRVAC 2005 Design Manual ƒ Locate sewers to .Minimize length .

28 GPM / AIRVAC valve installation ƒ To efficiently serve the areas in the design example layout ¾ ¾ ¾ Three (3) main sewers required Each main connected directly to vacuum tank at collection station Sewers are not joined together into bus main outside the station .Design g Example p ƒ Assumptions p ¾ ¾ Each AIRVAC valve to serve two (2) homes Peak flow p per home .64 GPM or 1.

Design g Example p ƒ Division Di i i valves l l located t dt to i isolate l t areas of f sewer network for troubleshooting purposes ƒ Profiles prepared for Main #2 ¾ Profiles for Branches. Main #1 and Main #3 would be similar .

Design g Example p ƒ Location of AIRVAC valves al es and branch se sewer er connection points follow principles in Chapters 4 and 5 ƒ Buffer tank valve installation on Branch C ¾ ¾ Represents high flow user (ex: laundromat or school) Ten (10) GPM used as inflow rate for this location Allows up to four (4) homes to be connected to each AIRVAC valve installation ƒ Main #3 represents sewer main laid in alley way ¾ .

38+95 16+50 18+10 0+00 D 44+40 22+50 BRANCH D TYPICAL HOMES 48+00 2+80 830 lf 4” v. E 8+30 1500 lf 6” v.s.s. 4” 600 lf 0+00 21+40 B BRANCH B 6+00 Design Example Layout 26+50 8” 6” 1030 lf 6” v. F 53+95 G 30+30 .s.s. 0+00 BRANCH C 6” 4” 30+15 C 12+95 BUFFER TANK (10GPM) 10 + 30 34+15 36+00 880 lf 6” v.MAIN #1 8+13 MAIN #2 2+00 0+00 VACUUM COLLECTION STATION MAIN #3 AIRVAC Valves 3051 lf 8” v.s.

64 gpm 10” PIPE PEAK # SVCE LATERALS # AIRVAC VALVES HOMES (or EDUS) 1 2 3 TOTALS 2400 3700 1400 2200 79.4 49.9 Average Service Lateral Length Total 3” Pipe 62 10 62 32 124 78 VOLUME OF PIPEWORK (BASED ON SDR-21 PVC PIPE) Vp = (.1959 x Length 6”) + (.5095 x QTY 10”) FT3 Vp = ( + + + + ) FT3 Vp = 7.0547 x Length 3”) + (.0904 x Length 4”) + (.5 ( ) GALLONS Vp = GALLONS 2/ Vp = GALLONS 3 .3321 x Length 8”) = (.Figure F4F4-17 – Piping Calculation Sheet PROJECT: Design PROJECT D i Example E l DATE: 6/25/03 LINE 4” PIPE 6” PIPE 8” PIPE STATION NUMBER: NUMBER 1 Peak Flow Rate per Home = .

Figure F4F4-17 – Piping Calculation Sheet PROJECT: Design PROJECT D i Example E l DATE: 6/25/03 LINE 4” PIPE 6” PIPE 8” PIPE STATION NUMBER: NUMBER 1 Peak Flow Rate per Home = .9 275.5 ( ) GALLONS Vp = GALLONS 2/ Vp = GALLONS 3 .0547 x Length 3”) + (.1959 x Length 6”) + (.64 gpm 10” PIPE PEAK # SVCE LATERALS # AIRVAC VALVES HOMES (or EDUS) 1 2 3 TOTALS 2400 3430 3700 9530 1400 3410 2200 7010 3015 3015 79.9 49.0904 x Length 4”) + (.5095 x QTY 10”) FT3 Vp = ( + + + + ) FT3 Vp = 7.2 Average Service Lateral Length Total 3” Pipe 62 114 10 186 20’ 20 3720 62 114 32 208 124 228 78 430 VOLUME OF PIPEWORK (BASED ON SDR-21 PVC PIPE) Vp = (.4 145.3321 x Length 8”) = (.

5 ( 3438 ) GALLONS ( 7.9 275.64 gpm 10” PIPE PEAK # SVCE LATERALS # AIRVAC VALVES HOMES (or EDUS) 1 2 3 TOTALS 2400 3430 3700 9530 1400 3410 2200 7010 3015 3015 79.1959 x Length 6”) + (.785 GALLONS TOTAL PIPE VOLUME (Sewage & Vacuum) 2/ Vp = 17.9 49.018 GALLONS VACUUM ONLY 3 .5095 x QTY 10”) FT3 Vp = ( 203 + 861 + 1373 + 1001 + -.2 Average Service Lateral Length Total 3” Pipe 62 114 10 186 20’ 3720 62 114 32 208 124 228 78 430 VOLUME OF PIPEWORK (BASED ON SDR-21 PVC PIPE) Vp = (.0904 x Length 4”) + (.3321 x Length 8”) = (.) FT3 = 3438 FT3 Vp = 7.0547 x Length 3”) + (.5 gal / FT3 ) Vp = 25.4 145.Figure F4F4-17 – Piping Calculation Sheet PROJECT: O C Design Example DATE: 6/25/03 LINE 4” PIPE 6” PIPE 8” PIPE STATION S O NUMBER: 1 Peak Flow Rate per Home = .

f.5 2 x c.E x a m p l e P r o b l e m PROJECT: Example Problem 1 Project No. 0 Peak Factor Total Volume Collection Tank (Vct) *INCLUDE 400 G Gallons ll f for R Reserve T Tank* k* Vacuum Reservoir/Moi sture Removal Tank (Vrt) (If separate vessel is desired) (Rec ommended Volum e Vrt-= 400 gal) Vo Qmax Vo = = gpm gal = ____Vo = 3 Vo Vct = gal g gal (include in Vct) Vrt = System Pump Down Time for Operating Range of 16" to 20" Hg Vacuum (t) "t" should be 1 to 3 mins.045 ( )+( )+( ) cfm t = mins. increase Qvp / if under 1.5 gal/ft Qmax Qa Qmin Qvp = = = = gpm gpm gpm a. 3 7.64 Qmax for 4. 3 7. cycle at Qmin) =1.c. increase Vrt = = (0. .000' 5001' 7001' 10.045 cfm min) (2/3 Vp+ (Vct-Vo)+Vrt) gal gal Qvp cfm (0.84 Qmax for 3.f.m.000' 15. if over 3.000' 12.) Di scharge Pump Capacity (Qdp) Collection Tank Operating Volume (Vo) (for 15 min.001' 7 000' 7.5 gal/ft = = = 3.001' 12.m. 5 Peak Factor =1.m (use 300 c.000' (A) 6 7 8 9 11 = = Qmax 15 Qmin (Qdp-Qmin) Qdp = = = Qmax Peak Factor Qa 2 A* x Qmax c.m.000' 10.: Date: 951075 6/25/03 Station Number: Peak Flow (Qmax) Average Flow (Qa) Minimum Flow (Qmin) Vacuum Pump Capacity Required (Qvp) *Longest Line Length 0' 5.f.f.

m.f.) 1 7 x 275.6 gpm = 39.5 gal/ft3 = = = PROJECT #: 951075 DATE: 6/25/03 Qmax = 275.f.5 gal/ft3 *Longest Line Length (A) 0’ 5. (use 300 cfm) c.c.000’ 5.000’ 10.001’ 10.6 2 Qa Qmin = 78.2 c.001’ 15.E x a m p l e P r o b l e m PROJECT: Example Problem STATION #: Peak Flow Average Flow (Qa) Minimum Flow (Qmin) Vacuum Pump Capacity Required (Qvp) = = = Qmax Peak Factor Qa 2 A* x Qmax c.001’ 12.8 a.m.3 gpm = 256.000’ 12.m 7.000’ 6 7 ( 6045 ) 8 9 11 .m.f.000’ 7.f. Qvp 7.5 78.001’ 7.2 gpm Qmax 3.

cycle at Qmin) PROJECT #: 951075 DATE: 6/25/03 1 = Qmax Qmax = 275.0 Peak Factor .5 Peak Factor = 1.2 gpm Vo = 506.64 Qmax for 4.E x a m p l e P r o b l e m PROJECT: Example Problem STATION #: Discharge Pump Capacity p y( (Qdp) p) Collection Tank Operating Volume (Vo*) (for 15 min.84 Qmax for 3.3 gal = 15 Qmin (Qdp-Qmin) Qdp Vo = 3 Vo Total Volume = Collection Tank ( (Vct) ) -INCLUDE 400 gallons for Reserve Tank Vct = 1519 gal Vacuum Reservoir / M i t Moisture R Removal l Tank (Vrt) (if separate vessel is desired) -Recommended Volume Vrt = 400 gal Vrt = 0 gal (include in Vct) 1519 + 400 = 1919 use 2000 gal * Vo = 1.

) + (2. increase Vrt (0.045 cfm min) ( ) gal (2/3 ( Vp p +(Vct-Vo) ( ) +Vrt) ) gal g Qvp cfm t = 1.018) ( ( .if over 3.045 (17.506) ) +(0) 455 cfm . increase Qvp -If under 1.E x a m p l e P r o b l e m PROJECT: Example Problem STATION #: 1 PROJECT #: 951075 DATE: 6/25/03 System y Pump p Down Time for Operating Range of 16” to 20” Hg Vacuum (t) -(t) should be 1 to 3 mins . .000 ( .83 mins (0.

5 gal/ft = = = 3. increase Qvp / if under 1.m. cycle at Qmin) =1.m (use 300 c.000' 10.5 gal/ft Qmax Qa Qmin Qvp = = = = gpm gpm gpm a. 3 7.000' 5001' 7001' 10.c.E x a m p l e P r o b l e m PROJECT: Example Problem 1 Project No.001' 12.: Date: 951075 6/25/03 Station Number: Peak Flow (Qmax) Average Flow (Qa) Minimum Flow (Qmin) Vacuum Pump Capacity Required (Qvp) *Longest Line Length 0' 5. 5 Peak Factor =1.f.m. . 0 Peak Factor Total Volume Collection Tank (Vct) *INCLUDE 400 G Gallons ll f for R Reserve T Tank* k* Vacuum Reservoir/Moi sture Removal Tank (Vrt) (If separate vessel is desired) (Rec ommended Volum e Vrt-= 400 gal) Vo Qmax Vo = = gpm gal = ____Vo = 3 Vo Vct = gal g gal (include in Vct) Vrt = System Pump Down Time for Operating Range of 16" to 20" Hg Vacuum (t) "t" should be 1 to 3 mins.001' 7 000' 7.64 Qmax for 4.) Di scharge Pump Capacity (Qdp) Collection Tank Operating Volume (Vo) (for 15 min.000' (A) 6 7 8 9 11 = = Qmax 15 Qmin (Qdp-Qmin) Qdp = = = Qmax Peak Factor Qa 2 A* x Qmax c. if over 3.m. increase Vrt = = (0.f.84 Qmax for 3.f.000' 12. 3 7.5 2 x c.045 cfm min) (2/3 Vp+ (Vct-Vo)+Vrt) gal gal Qvp cfm (0.045 ( )+( )+( ) cfm t = mins.000' 15.f.

84 Qmax for 3.6 gpm 39 3 gpm 39.m.6 2 7 x 275.3 256.: Date: 951075 6/25/03 Station Number: Peak Flow (Qmax) Average Flow (Qa) Minimum Flow (Qmin) Vacuum Pump Capacity Required (Qvp) *Longest Line Length (A) 0' 5. 3 7.045 ( 17.m.64 Qmax for 4.E x a m p l e P r o b l e m PROJECT: Example Problem 1 Project No.5 gal/ft = = = Qmax 3.f.2 gpm 78.001' 15. 3 7.) 6 7 8 9 11 = = ----.5 Peak Factor =1.8 a. = System Pump Down Time for Operating Range of 16" to 20" Hg Vacuum (t) "t" should be 1 to 3 mins.000' 5001' 7 000' 7.018 ) + ( 2000 .045 cfm min) (2/3 Vp+(Vct-Vo)+Vrt) gal gal Qvp cfm (0.5 78.f.000' 7001' 10.000' 12.2 c.83 mins.f. cycle at Qmin) Vo =1.f.m (use 300 c. increase Vrt = = (0.001' 12.6045 Qmax 15 Qmin (Qdp-Qmin) Qdp Qmax = Vo = 275.2 gpm 506.0 Peak Factor Total Volume Collection Tank (Vct) *INCLUDE 400 Gallons for Reserve Tank* Vacuum Reservoir/Moisture Removal Tank (Vrt) (If separate vessel is desired) (Recommended Volume Vrt-= 400 gal) = = = Qmax Peak Factor Qa 2 A* x Qmax c. increase Qvp / if under 1.5 gal/ft Qmax = Qa Qmin Qvp = = = 275.c.m.000' 10.000' Discharge Pump Capacity (Qdp) Collection Tank Operating Volume (Vo) (for 15 min. .3 gal = ____Vo Vo = 3 Vo Vct = 1519 gal 0 gal (include in Vct) Vrt 1519 + 400 = 1919 use 2000 gal. if over 3.506 ) + ( 0 ) 455 cfm t = 1.

6045 Qmax 15 Qmin (Qdp-Qmin) Qdp Qmax = Vo = 275.f.8 a.83 mins. 3 7.506 ) + ( 0 ) 455 cfm t = 1.001' 15.6 gpm 39 3 gpm 39. increase Vrt = = (0. cycle at Qmin) Vo =1.3 gal = ____Vo Vo = 3 Vo Vct = 1519 gal 0 gal (include in Vct) Vrt 1519 + 400 = 1919 use 2000 gal.E x a m p l e P r o b l e m PROJECT: Example Problem 1 Project No.000' 5001' 7 000' 7.6 2 7 x 275.: Date: 951075 6/25/03 Station Number: Peak Flow (Qmax) Average Flow (Qa) Minimum Flow (Qmin) Vacuum Pump Capacity Required (Qvp) *Longest Line Length (A) 0' 5.5 gal/ft Qmax = Qa Qmin Qvp = = = 275. .2 c.000' Discharge Pump Capacity (Qdp) Collection Tank Operating Volume (Vo) (for 15 min.2 gpm 506.84 Qmax for 3.000' 12.f.f.000' 10.000' 7001' 10.m. increase Qvp / if under 1.0 Peak Factor Total Volume Collection Tank (Vct) *INCLUDE 400 Gallons for Reserve Tank* Vacuum Reservoir/Moisture Removal Tank (Vrt) (If separate vessel is desired) (Recommended Volume Vrt-= 400 gal) = = = Qmax Peak Factor Qa 2 A* x Qmax c.c.5 Peak Factor =1.5 78.045 ( 17.) 6 7 8 9 11 = = ----.018 ) + ( 2000 .045 cfm min) (2/3 Vp+(Vct-Vo)+Vrt) gal gal Qvp cfm (0.3 256.m (use 300 c.f. = System Pump Down Time for Operating Range of 16" to 20" Hg Vacuum (t) "t" should be 1 to 3 mins.m.001' 12.64 Qmax for 4. if over 3. 3 7.m.2 gpm 78.5 gal/ft = = = Qmax 3.

increase Qvp / if under 1.3 256. 3 7. 3 7.84 Qmax for 3.001' 15.6 2 7 x 275.5 gal/ft = = = Qmax 3.: Date: 951075 6/25/03 Station Number: Peak Flow (Qmax) Average Flow (Qa) Minimum Flow (Qmin) Vacuum Pump Capacity Required (Qvp) *Longest Line Length (A) 0' 5.2 gpm 506.5 Peak Factor =1. .000' 10.m.000' 12.3 gal = ____Vo Vo = 3 Vo Vct = 1519 gal 0 gal (include in Vct) Vrt 1519 + 400 = 1919 use 2000 gal.2 gpm 78.018 ) + ( 2000 . if over 3.64 Qmax for 4. increase Vrt = = (0.8 a.f.f. cycle at Qmin) Vo =1.E x a m p l e P r o b l e m PROJECT: Example Problem 1 Project No.000' Discharge Pump Capacity (Qdp) Collection Tank Operating Volume (Vo) (for 15 min.m.6 gpm 39 3 gpm 39.2 c.045 ( 17.5 78. = System Pump Down Time for Operating Range of 16" to 20" Hg Vacuum (t) "t" should be 1 to 3 mins.0 Peak Factor Total Volume Collection Tank (Vct) *INCLUDE 400 Gallons for Reserve Tank* Vacuum Reservoir/Moisture Removal Tank (Vrt) (If separate vessel is desired) (Recommended Volume Vrt-= 400 gal) = = = Qmax Peak Factor Qa 2 A* x Qmax c.6045 Qmax 15 Qmin (Qdp-Qmin) Qdp Qmax = Vo = 275.f.001' 12.m.000' 7001' 10.c.f.83 mins.000' 5001' 7 000' 7.m (use 300 c.045 cfm min) (2/3 Vp+(Vct-Vo)+Vrt) gal gal Qvp cfm (0.506 ) + ( 0 ) 455 cfm t = 1.) 6 7 8 9 11 = = ----.5 gal/ft Qmax = Qa Qmin Qvp = = = 275.

Design g Example: p Hydloss y Sp Spreadsheet The AIRVAC Hydloss spreadsheet shown is one example of a hydraulic analysis of Main #2 in the Design Seminar Example. .

.Design g Example: p Hydloss y Sp Spreadsheet Microsoft Excel Worksheet The AIRVAC Hydloss spreadsheet shown is one example of a hydraulic analysis of Main #2 in the Design Seminar Example.

60 EL 501 70 EL=501.51 EL=501.20 @6+00 0+00 LEGEND: 2+00 4+00 6+00 8+00 10+00 12+00 14+00 16+00 18+00 DIVISION VALVE CONNECTION OF BRANCH SCALE: HORIZ: 1" = 200' VERT: 1" = 5' .10 @3+00 500 EL=500.70 EL=503.Figure F6F6-3 Sample Profile 520 520 515 VACUUM MAIN #2 FLOW 515 510 510 505 EL=502.00 @10+00 505 500 EL=502.00 CONNECT TO VACUUM STATION @0 00 @0+00 EL=501.

41 EL=502.71 EL=504.21 @33+50 EL=503.41 @32+00 EL=503.Figure F6F6-4 Sample Profile 520 520 515 VACUUM MAIN #2 FLOW 515 510 CONNECT LINE "C" @30 1 @30+15 CONNECT LINE "B" @21+40 EL=505.91 EL=504.51 EL=503.41 @34+50 510 505 505 500 500 18+00 LEGEND: 20+00 22+00 24+00 26+00 28+00 30+00 32+00 34+00 36+00 DIVISION VALVE CONNECTION OF BRANCH SCALE: HORIZ: 1" = 200' VERT: 1" = 5' .

71 EL=502 71 @36+00 EL=502.60 @40+45 EL=502.20 @38+45 EL=501.60 EL=502.08 @44+40 505 EL=503.20 EL=502.91 @53+95 510 EL=507.00 @42+45 POINT "F" 505 500 500 POINT "D" 36+00 LEGEND: 38+00 40+00 42+00 44+00 46+00 48+00 50+00 52+00 54+00 DIVISION VALVE CONNECTION OF BRANCH SCALE: HORIZ: 1" = 200' VERT: 1" = 5' .Figure F6F6-5 Sample Profile 520 520 515 515 510 CONNECT LINE "D" @38+95 CHANGE TO 4" END OF LINE EL=513.

Design g Example p Procedure ¾ To provide adequate space for liquid level controls within the collection tank ƒ ƒ Estimate minimum 5.D. ID .2% are ignored Calculated static losses due to profile change equal lift height minus the pipe I.5 ft elevation between incoming g vacuum sewers and building floor This places building floor at elevation 496.50 for this example ¾ See pages Chapter 4 of 2005 Design Manual for calculation of line losses in main #2 ƒ ƒ Friction losses for slopes greater than 0.

455 CFM @ 25 HP .305 CFM @ 15HP .Design g Example p Procedure ¾ Select suitable standard size pumps and tanks ƒ ƒ ƒ Consult manufacturers literature Recalculate vacuum stations calculations using g selected equipment sizes Size vacuum and sewage pumps .170 CFM @ 10HP .Allow for additional house connections without overloading ƒ ƒ For large vacuum stations three (3) vacuum pumps may be used to prevent use of extremely large pumps Typically 25hp sliding vane pumps are largest model used by AIRVAC – standard models are: .

Figure F5F5-2 Calculation of NPSHA in AIRVAC System y with Typical Values .

1 ft Havt = Head available due to atmospheric pressure at liquid level less vacuum in collection tank (feet of water) .3 ft 1000 ft 32.9 ft 500 ft 33.7 ft 1500 ft 32.Nomenclature NPSHA = Net positive suction head available (feet of water) NPSHA = havt h t + hs h – hf – hvpa h Ha = Head available due to atmospheric pressure (see below) Height above sea level ha 0 ft 33.

78’) Hf = Friction loss in suction pipes (approximately 2 feet for vertical pumps. hvpa = 0.1 ft Hs = Depth of sewage above pump centerline – typically 1’ minimum Hvpa = Absolute vapor pressure of sewage at its pumping temperature (@ 68 degrees.9 9 ft – 22.6 ft 16” mercury = 18. 1 foot for horizontal pumps) NPSHR = NPSH required by pump selected NPSHA must be greater than NPSHR .3 3 ft Vmax = Maximum collection tank vacuum in feet of head 20” mercury y = 22.6 22 6 ft = 11 11.Nomenclature Havt = ha – Vmax (for maximum collection tank vacuum of 20” Hg at sea level havt = 33 33.

TDH Diagram Total Dynamic Head on Discharge Pump (TDH) = = = NPSH Calculation NPSHA *(havt = ha + Vmax) = 33.24 FPS 1.hf .1’) 1’) 18.75’ Havt* + hs .02’ Existing Manhole Vacuum Station 12.46 FT.9 + (-) 22.0 Ft (L) ( ) Equiv q for station fittings = 10.50 .hvpa + heq 11.78 + 0 TDH = 44.0.3 = = Head Due to Vacuum + Static Head + Friction Loss ( t 16” Hg (at H vacuum h head dd due t to vacuum = 18 18.3 + 1.85’ TDH -= 49.6’) 22.0.75’ (at 20” Hg vacuum head due to vacuum = 22.0 .0’ VEL HL / 100’ HL = = = 4. 1010 100 (1.46) = 14.4’ NPSHA = 11.1’ + 12’ + 14.6’ + 12’ + 14.6 = 11.75 .

Tank Volume .

Standard Valve Pit / Connection Details Standard Detail 1-S MAT STANDARD VALVE PIT/ CONNECTION DETAILS ROB 11/11/96 1/4" = 1'-0" 1-S .

Standard Valve Pit – Breather Details Standard Detail 2-S STANDARD DETAILS VALVE PIT .BREATHER DETAILS 2-S .

Standard Detail 3 STANDARD LINE DETAILS 1/2" = 1'-0" 3 . USE 0. WHEN NOT BETWEEN TWO LIFTS.2% SLOPE. THE 0. ANYTHING SHORTER THAN THIS DISTANCE SHOULD USE MINIMUM FALL INDICATED.2% SLOPE IS GREATER. ABOVE THIS LENGTH IN DISTANCE.Standard Line Details USE WHICHEVER SLOPE IS GREATER BETWEEN LIFTS.

Standard Line Connection Details Standard Detail 4 ROB LINE CONNECTION DETAILS AIRVAC STANDARD 1/25/99 1" = 1'-0" 4 .

Standard Skid (2) 300 CFM Vacuum Pumps & 1500 Gal. Collection Tank Standard Skid P20A .

Two-Skid Package Station – (2) 430 CFM TwoVacuum Pumps 2400 Gal. Tank Standard Skid P23 .

Typical Building for PrePre-assembled Station Standard Skid P7B2 .

Typical Pre Pre-assembled Skid for Vacuum Collection Station Standard Skid P6B .

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