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Pneumatic ElectroPnuematic Jan2008

Pneumatic ElectroPnuematic Jan2008

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PNEUMATICS AND ELECTRO-PNEUMATICS TECHNOLOGY

UNIVERSITY KUALA LUMPUR MALAYSIA FRANCE INSTITUTE

2008

1

Principles of pneumatics
Pnuematics defined
• Pnuema

– Air (wind or breath in ancient Greek) • Matic – movement
• It

means control movement of air • In industries, it is referred as the used of compressed air to transmit power or/and motion

2008

2

Principles of pneumatics
MOST ENERGY SOURCE
• • • •

Electricity Hydraulics Pneumatic Etc

2008

3

Principles of pneumatics
Why Pnuematic? The advantages: • Cheap – Air is available in unlimited supply • Air is non-explosive and non-toxic • Compressed air can be transmitted over long distance • Compressed air can be stored • Fast • Easily control the speed and movement • Clean • Overload proof

2008

4

Principles of pneumatics
Disadvantages: • Air absorbs moisture and drying may have to be considered • The exhaust air causes noise. Sound absorbers may be required • Pressure limit which can be used in a compressed air system • Smooth and even movement not possible

2008

5

Principles of pneumatics
Pneumatics is used in carrying out machining and working operations. For example: • Drilling • Turning • Milling • Sawing • Finishing • Forming • Quality control

2008

6

Principles of pneumatics
Application example: Conveyor line diverter

2008

7

Principles of pneumatics
Application example: Pneumatic cutter

2008

8

Principles of pneumatics
Unit for pressure • PSI • Pa • Bar (normally used in industries) • N/m2 (SI unit)
-

2008

Gauge pressure vs absolute pressure Vacum
9

Principles of pneumatics
ELEMENTS OF PNUEMATICS SYSTEM • Energy supply, source • Input elements, input signal • Processing elements, processor signal • Final control element, control signal • Actuating devices, output

2008

10

Principles of pneumatics

2008

11

Principles of pneumatics

2008

12

Electro-pneumatic System

Combination of electrical control and pneumatic technologies

2008

13

Electro-pneumatic System

2008

14

Electro-pneumatic System
Advantages of electro-pneumatic: • Higher reliability (fewer moving parts subject to wear) • Lower planning and commissioning effort particularly for complex controls • Lower installation effort, particularly when modern components such as valve terminal are used • Simpler exchange of information between several controllers

2008

15

Pnuematic System and Air Generation
ENERGY SUPPLY UNIT (AIR GENERATION)
• • • • •

Air compressor Air receiver/reservoir Air cooler Air dryer Service unit – Filter, Regulator & Lubricator (FRL unit)

2008

16

Pnuematic System and Air Generation
Compressed air distribution system:

2008

17

SYMBOL FOR ENERGY SUPPLY UNIT

2008

18

SYMBOL FOR ENERGY SUPPLY UNIT

2008

19

Energy Supply Unit
TYPE OF COMPRESSOR • Reciprocating - piston - diaphragm • Rotary - vane - screw • Flow compressor - axial flow - radial flow

2008

20

Energy Supply Unit
Type of compressor

2008

21

ENERGY SUPPLY UNIT
Type of compressor

2008

22

Type Of Compressor

2008

23

Type Of Compressor

2008

24

Air Drying
Refrigeration Drying

2008

25

Refrigeration Drying

2008

26

AIR DRYING
Absorption and Adsorption drying

2008

27

ABSORPTION DRYING

2008

28

ADSORPTION DRYING

2008

29

ENERGY SUPPLY UNIT
SURVICE UNIT • Compressed air filter

2008

30

COMPRESSED AIR FILTER

2008

31

SERVICE UNIT
Pressure regulating valve

2008

32

PRESSURE REGULATING VALVE

2008

33

SERVICE UNIT
Compressed air lubricator

2008

34

COMPRESSED AIR LUBRICATOR

2008

35

Pneumatic Symbols and Standard
Directional Control Valves Switching position

Flow path Flow path blocked

Connection ports

2008

36

Pneumatic Symbols and Standard
2 2 - Way valve

Number of switching positions Number of ports

3

2 - Way valve

2008

37

Pneumatic Symbols and Standard
Directional control valves

2008

38

Pneumatic Symbols and Standard
Port designation

2008

39

Port designation

2008

40

Input Elements Valve
Types of actuation

2008

41

Input Elements Valve
Types of actuation

2008

42

Pneumatic Symbols and Standard
Non-return, flow control and pressure control valves

2008

43

Pneumatic Symbols and Standard
Non-return, flow control and pressure control valves

2008

44

Pneumatic Working Elements
Linear: • Single acting cylinder • Double acting cylinder • Rodless cylinder Rotary: • Rotary actuator • Swivel drive/cylinder

2008

45

Pneumatic Working Element
Single acting cylinder

2008

46

Single Acting Cylinder

2008

47

Single Acting Cylinder
Bellow / membrane cylinder

2008

48

Pneumatic Working Element
Double acting cylinder

2008

49

Double Acting Cylinder

With out cushioning

• With cushion

2008

50

Cylinder Construction

2008

51

Type Of Mounting

2008

52

Type Of Mounting

2008

53

Type Of Mounting

2008

54

Type Of Mounting
Rod end mountings

F

UF
2008 55

Rodless Cylinder

2008

56

Rodless Cylinder

2008

57

Rotary Cylinder & Swivel Drive
Swivel Drive

2008

58

Rotary Cylinder & Swivel Drive
Rotary cylinder

2008

59

Force Calculation
Pascal’s Law: pressure exists when a force F is imposed on an enclosed fluid with a surface A, The pressure exerts an equal effect on all points of the surfaces. F P= A
N/m2

F

P

A

2008

60

Force Calculation
Theoretical Force: Fth Fth is the calculated force based on Pascal’s Law without consideration of all the resistance forces. Frictional Resistance: Ff To be considered during extend and retract strokes. Estimated at about 10 to 12% of Fth. Spring Resistance: Fsp To be considered when using spring loaded single acting cylinders. Estimated at about 15% of Fth.
2008 61

Force Calculation
Example 1: A double acting cylinder is used to transfer work-pieces in a production machine. Determine the extend and retract forces if the piston diameter of the cylinder is 80mm, rod diameter 15mm and the pressure used is 6bar. Assume frictional force is 10% of theoretical force.

2008

62

Force Calculation
Example 2: A clamping vice uses a single acting cylinder to clamp the work-pieces. Determine the extend force if the piston diameter of the cylinder is 80mm, rod diameter 15mm and the pressure used is 6bar. Assume frictional and spring forces are 10% and 15% of theoretical force respectively.

2008

63

Design and construction of pneumatic control circuits

Exercise 1.

2008

64

Design and construction of pneumatic control circuits

Exercise 2.

2008

65

Design and construction of pneumatic control circuits

Components designation

2008

66

Design and construction of pneumatic control circuits

Components designation: Example

2008

67

Design and construction of pneumatic control circuits

Direct and indirect actuation

2008

68

DIRECT ACTUATION

2008

69

INDIRECT ACTUATION

2008

70

Pneumatic Control Devices
Directional Control Valves

2008

71

Directional Control Valves

2008

72

Directional Control Valves

2008

73

Directional Control Valves

2008

74

Directional Control Valves

2008

75

Directional Control Valves

2008

76

Directional Control Valves

2008

77

Directional Control Valves

2008

78

Directional Control Valves

2008

79

Pneumatic Control Devices
Shuttle Valve (OR)

2008

80

Shuttle Valve (OR)

2008

81

Pneumatic Control Devices
Dual Pressure Valve (AND)

2008

82

Dual Pressure Valve (AND)

2008

83

Design and construction of pneumatic control circuits EXERCISE 3.

2008

84

SHUTTLE VALVE (OR FUNCTION)

2008

85

Design and construction of pneumatic control circuits EXERCISE 4.

2008

86

DUAL PRESSURE VALVE (AND FUNCTION)

2008

87

Pneumatic Control Devices
One-way Flow Control Valve

2008

88

One-way Flow Control Valve

2008

89

One-way Flow Control Valve

2008

90

Design and construction of pneumatic control circuits

EXERCISE 5.

2008

91

5/2 WAY DOUBLE PILOT VALVE (SPEED CONTROL)

2008

92

Design and construction of pneumatic control circuits

Exercise 6.
A container of washers is to be dipped in and out of the cleaning bath by using a double acting cylinder. The start and stop for this continuous movement is to be achieved by actuating the ‘START’ and ‘STOP’ pushbuttons each. On actuating the ‘STOP’ pushbutton, the container should stop at the top. The speed for forward and retract strokes are controllable.

2008

93

ELECTRO PNEUMATIC
    

Pneumatic Vs electro-pneumatic Electro-pneumatic component Electrical component Electro-pneumatic controller Design and construction of electropneumatic control circuits

2008

94

Electro-pneumatic components
Function of solenoid  A magnetic field is induced when a current passed through an electrical conductor  A soft iron core (amature) is drawn into a coil through which the current is flowing

2008

95

Electro-pneumatic components
Solenoid Valves

2008

96

Solenoid Valves

2008

97

Solenoid Valves

2008

98

Solenoid Valves

2008

99

Solenoid Valves

2008

100

Solenoid Valves

2008

101

Solenoid Valves

2008

102

Electrical components

2008

103

Electrical components

2008

104

Electrical components

2008

105

Electrical components

2008

106

Design and construction of elctro-pneumatic control circuits
Exercise 7:
Using a sorting device, parts are to be transferred from conveyor belt. By pressing the pushbutton switch, the piston rod of a single-acting cylinder pushes the part off the conveyor belt. When the pushbutton is released, the piston rod returns to the retracted end position.

2008

107

Design and construction of electro-pneumatic control circuits
Exercise 8: Using a special device, the valve in a pipe line is to be opened and closed. The valve is opened by pressing the pushbutton switch. When the pushbutton is released the valve is closed.

2008

108

Design and construction of electro-pneumatic control circuits
Exercise 9: Wooden planks are to be pushed along from a gravity feed magazine to a clamping device. By pressing a pushbutton switch one plank is pushed by the slide out of the gravity feed magazine. After the slide has reached the forward end position it is returned to its start position.

2008

109

Electrical components

2008

110

Design and construction of electro-pneumatic control circuits

Exercise 10:
Using a conveyor belt, parts are to be transported in linear timed sequence to work stations which are arranged in line after one another. When the latching pushbutton (or selector) switch is activated the main wheel is indexed by the oscillating piston rod of a cylinder via a pawl. When the pushbutton (or selector) switch is activated again the drive is switched off.

2008

111

Electrical components
Relay
Return spring Cover Armatur e
A 1 1 2 1 4 2 2 2 4

Coil

A2

1 1

21

Symbol

Contacts

Coil connection s
2008

Contact connections
112

Relay
A1 12 14 22 24

A2

11

21

Symbol

A1

A2

4

2

1

2008

113

Relay
12 A1 14 22 24

A 2

Symbol

1 1

2 1

A1

A2

4

2

1

2008

114

Design and construction of electro-pneumatic control circuits Exercise 11:

Repeat the exercise 10 but the conveyor is controlled by using ‘Start’ and ‘Stop’ pushbuttons.

2008

115

Electro-pneumatic controller

2008

116

Electro-pneumatic controller

2008

117

Electro-pneumatic controller

2008

118

Electro-pneumatic controller

2008

119

Electro-pneumatic controller

2008

120

Electro-pneumatic controller

2008

121

Electro-pneumatic controller

2008

122

Electro-pneumatic components
Pressure Switch

2008

123

Design and construction of electro-pneumatic control circuits Exercise 12:
Parts are to be stamped with a stamping device. By pressing two pushbutton switches the die is pushed down and the part is stamped. When the stamping pressure has been achieved the die is returned to its start position.

2008

124

Electrical components
Time relay (Timer)
Two types: •Pull-in (on) delay and •Drop-out (off) delay

Pull-in (on) delay
2008 125

Time relay (Timer)
Pull-in (on) delay Timer

Signal behavior:
2008 126

Time relay (Timer)
Drop-out (off) delay

2008

127

Time relay (Timer)
Drop-out (off) delay

Signal behavior:
2008 128

Design and construction of electro-pneumatic control circuits Exercise 13:
Using a hot pressing die, packing material is to be sealed by application of heat. By pressing a pushbutton switch the heating rail is advanced and the packaging material is heated along the adhesive strip. After the adhesion time of 10 seconds has reached, the heating rail is returned to its start position.

2008

129

Design and construction of electro-pneumatic control circuits
Exercise 14:
Using a transfer station blocks are to be transferred from a magazine to a processing station. The blocks are pushed out of the magazine by cylinder 1A and transferred to the processing station by cylinder 2A. The piston rod of cylinder 2A may only return when the piston rod of cylinder 1A has reached the retracted end position. The magazine is monitored by means of a limit switch. If there are no more blocks in the magazine, it is not possible to start the cycle. This is indicated by means of an audible signal. The control is to be operated in single cycle.

2008

130

Control of Multiple Cylinders
Chronological sequence is simplified by using: • Displacement step diagram (pictorial) • Vector diagram Example: 1A→ 2A→ 2A← 1A← • Abbreviation notation Example: 1A+ 2A+ 2A- 1A-

2008

131

Design and construction of electro-pneumatic control circuits
Exercise 15:
Workpieces are inserted into the clamping device by hand. Clamping cylinder 1A is to extend when the start button is pressed. When the workpiece is clamped, it is to be drilled via feed unit 2A and the drill retracted once again. Then, the clamping cylinder 1A is to release the workpiece.

2008

132

Design and construction of electro-pneumatic control circuits

2008

133

Control of Multiple Cylinders
Methods for construction a circuit diagram Two primary methods:
• •

Intuitive method - conventional or trial and error methods. Methodical design I accordance with prescribed rules and instructions.

Signal overlaps Overcome by signal cut-out through: 1) Components
• •

Idle roller limit switch Timer

2) Circuit
• •
2008

Electrical Cascading Circuit Electrical Shift register
134

THE END THANK YOU

2008

135

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