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Ingles Whyamericaneedswar

Ingles Whyamericaneedswar

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I - Prova de Proficiência de Inglês Texto A WHY AMERICA NEEDS WAR Jacques R. Pauwels ( www.irak.be/ned/Pawelsjacques.

htm) 01 Wars are a terrible waste of lives and resources, and for that reason most people are in 02 principle opposed to wars. 03 This system - America’s brand of capitalism - functions first and foremost to make extremely 04 rich Americans even richer. Without warm or cold wars, however, this system can no longer 05 produce the expected result in the form of the ever-higher profits the moneyed and powerful 06 of America consider as their birthright. 07 The great strength of American capitalism is also its great weakness, namely, its extremely 08 high productivity. In the historical development of the international economic system that 09 we call capitalism, a number of factors have produced enormous increases in productivity, 10 for example, the mechanization of the production process introduced by Henry Ford. 11 The productivity of the great American enterprises rose spectacularly; for example, 12 already in the twenties countless vehicles rolled off the assembly lines of the automobile 13 factories of Michigan every single day. But who was supposed to buy all those cars? 14 Most Americans at the time did not have sufficiently robust pocket books for such 15 a purchase. Other industrial products similarly flooded the market, and the result 16 was the emergence of a chronic disharmony between the ever-increasing economic 17 supply and the lagging demand. Thus arose the economic crisis generally known as 18 the Great Depression. It was essentially a crisis of overproduction. Unemployment 19 exploded, and so the purchasing power of the American people shrunk even more, making 20 the crisis even worse. 21 It cannot be denied that in America the Great Depression only ended during, and because 22 of, the Second World War. Economic demand rose spectacularly when the war which had 23 started in Europe, and in which the USA itself was not an active participant before 1942, 24 allowed American industry to produce unlimited amounts of war equipment. Between 1940 25 and 1945, the American state would spend no less than 185 billion dollar on such equipment, 26 and the military expenditures’ share of the GNP (gross national product) thus rose between 27 1939 and 1945 from an insignificant 1,5 per cent to approximately 40 per cent. The key problem 28 of the Great Depression -- the disequilibrium between supply and demand -- was thus resolved. 29 However, America -- corporate America, the America of the super-rich -- urgently needed 30 a new enemy in order to justify the titanic expenditures for “defense” which were needed 31 to keep the wheels of the nation’s economy spinning at full speed. It is for this reason that 32 the Cold War was unleashed in 1945, not by the Soviets but by the American “military33 -industrial” complex, as was called that elite of wealthy individuals and corporations that 34 knew how to profit from the “warfare economy.” 35 In this respect, the Cold War exceeded their fondest expectations. More and more martial 36 equipment had to be cranked out, because the allies within the so-called “free world”, 37 which actually included plenty of nasty dictatorships, had to be armed to the teeth with 38 US equipment. 39 Later, America, or rather, corporate America, was orphaned of its useful Soviet enemy, 40 and urgently needed to conjure up new enemies and new threats in order to justify a high level 41 of military spending. It is in this context that in 1990 Saddam Hussein appeared on the scene like

A fabricação de equipamento bélico durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial. na linha 14.5 ponto) A diminuição do número de automóveis fabricados. This dictator. A mecanização do processo de produção introduzida por Henry Ford. de acordo com o texto acima. O desempenho da bolsa de valores entre anos 40 e 45. . it was the USA . A participação do exército americano na Segunda Guerra Mundial. O fim da Segunda Guerra Mundial. 4a) b) c) d) e) 5a) b) c) d) e) 6a) b) c) Segundo o autor.Qual a palavra que poderia substituir pocket books.5 ponto) a) A desarmonia entre a grande oferta e pequena demanda no mercado americano. A nova ameaça que justificaria novos gastos militares.Qual a explicação dada pelo autor do texto para a ocorrência da Grande Depressão? (0. d) A falta de mão-de-obra especializada.5 ponto) a) little books b) check book c) income d) employment e) checking account 3. sem modificar o sentido da mesma. o que contribuiu para o fim da Grande Depressão? (0. Marque a resposta correta.5 ponto) A eleição de Henry Ford para a presidência dos EUA. Os lucros cada vez mais altos dos americanos.and allies such as Germany . O desenvolvimento de um sistema econômico internacional.who originally supplied him with his infamous weapons of mass destruction. previously perceived and treated by the Americans as a good friend. A quantidade de veículos fabricados. 2.5 ponto) A derrubada do poder soviético. no contexto onde se encontra? (0.42 43 44 45 a kind of deus ex machina. had been armed to the teeth so that he could wage a nasty war against Iran. b) O alto preço dos automóveis nos EUA. O pronome their (linha 06) refere-se a: (0. c) O desemprego. Uma ameaça à paz mundial. 1a) b) c) d) e) O grande impulso inicial dado à indústria americana foi: (0. e) O desequilíbrio da bolsa de valores.5 ponto) This system (linha 03) the ever-higher profits (linhas 05) warm and cold wars (linha 04) the moneyed and powerful of America (linhas 05-06) Americans (linha 04) O que Saddam Hussein representou para os EUA nos anos 90? (0.

................................... e) Um novo aliado dos Irã contra os EUA. as was called that elite of wealthy individuals and corporations that knew how to profit from the “warfare economy....................................................................................................................................................................................................... .......................................... ............................................................................................................................................................................... while a 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Collapsing Colonies Gunter Latsch – March 28th.................................. (linhas 03-06) (1 ponto) ............................................ not by the Soviets but by the American “military-industrial” complex..” (linhas 31 a 34) (1 ponto) .................................................... this system can no longer produce the expected result in the form of the ever-higher profits the moneyed and powerful of America consider as their birthright.d) A oportunidade de o governo americano aliar-se à Alemanha.... ............. Without cold and warm wars........................................................................................................ .................................................................. Texto B: 01 beekeepers.................................................. according to Haefeker............................................................. .......... is the controversial and growing use of genetic engineering in agriculture.......... ................................................................Traduza em bom português as frases que seguem.............................................................................................................. Another possible cause...................... 7............................................................................................................................................................................. ......................... The consequences for agriculture and the economy could be enormous......................................................................................................... 2007 A mysterious decimation of bee populations has worried German 1 similar phenomenon in the United States is gradually assuming catastrophic proportions............................................................................................................. ................................... ....................................... b) It is for this reason that the Cold War was unleashed in 1945................................ ............................................... ............................................................... a) This system – America’s brand of capitalism – functions first and foremost to make extremely rich Americans even richer............................... however.... Is the mysterious decimation of bee populations in the US and Germany a result of GM crops? Walter Haefeker director of the German Beekeepers Association says one cause of the problem may be the widespread practice in agriculture of spraying wildflowers with herbicides and practicing monoculture...........................

speculates that "besides a number of other factors. no more man. insect-resistant plants are now used in 40 percent of cornfields in the United States could be playing a role. No more bees. ." says Cox-Foster."It is particularly worrisome. Beekeepers on the east coast of the United States complain that they have lost more than 70 percent of their stock since late last year. Walter Haefeker.O tema central do texto acima é: a) Um estudo comparativo." In many cases. e) Uma experiência com a toxina bacteriana que permite a entrada de parasitas nos intestinos das abelhas. Some had five or six infections at the same time and were infested with fungi -." adding that the crisis "has the potential to devastate the US beekeeping industry. sufficiently weakening the bees to allow the parasites to gain entry -.a sign. told The Independent newspaper that researchers were "extremely alarmed. b) O ataque das abelhas sobre a plantação de frutas e verduras nos EU. but have so far come up empty-handed. no more animals. They are already referring to the problem as a potential "AIDS for the bee industry. c) O que está misteriosamente dizimando a população de abelhas nos EU e na Alemanha.9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 As far back as 2005. According to Hans-Hinrich Kaatz.at more than $14 billion." the fact that genetically modified. the German beekeeping official. Nearby bee populations or parasites would normally raid the honey and pollen stores of colonies that have died for other reasons." Diana Cox-Foster. d) A descoberta de um novo vírus que está matando os insetos responsáveis pela polinização." Marque a alternativa correta. no more pollination. We don't know. such as excessive winter cold. almond trees and animal feed like clover -. the bacterial toxin in the genetically modified corn may have "altered the surface of the bee's intestines.by pollinating fruit and vegetable plants. the New York Times calculated the damage US agriculture would suffer if bees died out. a professor at the University of Halle in eastern Germany. that the bees' death is accompanied by a set of symptoms "which does not seem to match anything in the literature. Experts at Cornell University in upstate New York have estimated the value bees generate -. a member of the Working Group. "This suggests that there is something toxic in the colony itself which is repelling them. no more plants. while the west coast has seen a decline of up to 60 percent. that the insects' immune system may have collapsed. she said. experts say. A number of universities and government agencies have formed a Working Group to search for the causes of the calamity.or perhaps it was the other way around. In an article in its business section in late February. The scientists are also surprised that bees and other insects usually leave the abandoned hives untouched. 1 . Haefeker ended an article he contributed to a journal with an Albert Einstein quote: "If the bee disappeared off the surface of the globe then man would only have four years of life left. feito sobre a população de abelhas nas costas leste e oeste dos Estados Unidos (EU)." Since last November. scientists have found evidence of almost all known bee viruses in the few surviving bees found in the hives after most have disappeared. the US has seen a decline in bee populations so dramatic that it eclipses all previous incidences of mass mortality.

... na costa leste dos EU..37) 7 .... as frases que seguem: As far back as 2005..... no more pollination.......... no more plants........................ e) foi maior do que 70% na costa oeste dos EU...... b) não teve sucesso na busca das causas da calamidade.. c) é o grupo ao qual pertence Diana Cox-Foster........................ d) se referiu ao problema como “AIDS for the bee industry”....................... the widespread practice (linha 06)? a) a prática do espargimento b) a difundida prática c) a prática contrária à monocultura d) a questão prática e) o conhecimento prático 3 .....” (linhas 09 a 12) ..................... 5 ....... c) foi menor do que 60%.................. no more animals...................................................Qual das alternativas não está correta: O Working Group (linhas 21 e 24) a) é formado por universidades e agências governamentais.....A que se referem os pronomes its (linha 17) e them (linha 37)...... respectivamente? A a) an article (linha 17) e scientists (linha 29) b) business section (linha 17) e the abandoned hives (linhas 33.......................2 ................ o declínio da população de abelhas......... d) sobrepuja todos os casos anteriores de mortandade em massa..........................Qual a alternativa que contém as traduções corretas (na mesma ordem) das expressões: growing (linha 08) – Working (linha 24) – adding (linha 25) – weakening (linha 43).......... 34) c) the New York Times (linha 17) e nearby bee populations or parasites (linha 34) d) the New York Times (linha 17) e the honey and pollen stores of colonies (linha 35) e) US agriculture (linha 18) e the colony itself (linhas 36................................... e) pertence ao jornal The Independent........... ......... No more bees.......Qual a melhor tradução para a expressão........................................ b) foi precedida por outros casos de mortandade.....Traduza em bom português.. no more man............. .. desde o último novembro a) só se assemelha à incidência de eclipses.Nos EU..... Haefeker ended an article he contributed to a journal with an Albert Einstein quote: “If the bee disappeared off the surface of the globe then man would only have four years of life left...... .... no contexto em que se encontram? a) b) c) d) e) crescente – de trabalho – acrescentando – enfraquecendo crescente – de trabalho – aumentando – dizimando crescendo – trabalhando – aumentando – repelindo crescendo – trabalhando ...... 4 ....acrescentando – exterminando aumentando – trabalhando – crescendo – por enfraquecer 6 ......

............................................................... ... .......... she said.. that the bees’ death is accompanied by a set of symptoms “which does not seem to match anything in the literature...................... 8........................................ 28) .................It is particularly worrisome............................ 27.......................................................” (linhas 26............................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................... .... ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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