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Service Delivery 161 Success Secrets - 161 Most Asked Questions On Service Delivery - What You Need To Know

Service Delivery 161 Success Secrets - 161 Most Asked Questions On Service Delivery - What You Need To Know

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Published by Emereo Publishing
There has never been a Service Delivery manual like this. Service Delivery 161 Success Secrets is not about the ins and outs of Service Delivery. Instead, it answers the top 161 questions that we are asked and those we come across in forums, our consultancy and education programs.

It tells you exactly how to deal with those questions, with tips that have never before been offered in print. This guidebook is also not about Service Delivery best practice and standards details. Instead it introduces everything you want to know to be successful with Service Delivery.

A quick look inside of the subjects covered: Process: Service Catalog Management - Functional Specification, Do My IT People Need to Be ITIL Certified?, ITIL and IT Service Management, IT Services Service-Based SLA Template Process: Service Level Management, Important Facts About IT Governance, ITIL PPT File The Best Way to Creating ITIL Presentations, Service Level Management, ITIL Application Integration, ITIL Management Release, ITIL Made Easy, Sample Questions of ITIL Foundation, IT Service Management-An Introduction based on ITIL, How ITIL software asset management can benefit you, The ITIL Prince2 Combination: Integration means Improved Organizational Performance, The Scope of ITIL Best Practices, All About ITIL Foundation Certificate in IT Service Management, How does ITIL help?, The Service Management of ITIL, Features of Any Standard ITIL Service Delivery Case, Specialist Training, The ITIL Capacity Process, ISO 20000 Uptake Gaining momentum, ISO 20000, ITIL Book, A Short Description of ITIL History- The Best Way to Define ITIL, Understanding the ITIL Concepts and Terminologies, Learning ITIL through Poster, IT Services Catalog Maintenance and Improvement, ITIL Capacity Management Towards Provision of Consistent Levels of Service, ITIL Overview, IT Service Management Service Catalog, Vision of Responsive Leadership, What Good it is to Practice IT ITIL Management Service?, IT Services Service Agreements Processes: Service Level Management Supplier Management, IT Governance And Management: Finding The Right Strategy, What is Best Practice?, What is ITIL methodology, ITIL Model, Is ITIL for IT Organisations Only?, ITIL compliance supports goals, Understanding the Business Role of IT Management, What is ISO 20000?, ITIL Service Delivery Free Download, ITIL Standard, IT Infrastructure Library ITIL, ITIL Jobs : What Employees And Jobseekers Should Know, ITIL Guide, ITIL Courses, ITIL CD Training, ITIL Environment, How to Employ ITIL Principles to Improve your IT Organization, ITIL : ITIL Service Management Processes can be broken down into 2…., and much more...

There has never been a Service Delivery manual like this. Service Delivery 161 Success Secrets is not about the ins and outs of Service Delivery. Instead, it answers the top 161 questions that we are asked and those we come across in forums, our consultancy and education programs.

It tells you exactly how to deal with those questions, with tips that have never before been offered in print. This guidebook is also not about Service Delivery best practice and standards details. Instead it introduces everything you want to know to be successful with Service Delivery.

A quick look inside of the subjects covered: Process: Service Catalog Management - Functional Specification, Do My IT People Need to Be ITIL Certified?, ITIL and IT Service Management, IT Services Service-Based SLA Template Process: Service Level Management, Important Facts About IT Governance, ITIL PPT File The Best Way to Creating ITIL Presentations, Service Level Management, ITIL Application Integration, ITIL Management Release, ITIL Made Easy, Sample Questions of ITIL Foundation, IT Service Management-An Introduction based on ITIL, How ITIL software asset management can benefit you, The ITIL Prince2 Combination: Integration means Improved Organizational Performance, The Scope of ITIL Best Practices, All About ITIL Foundation Certificate in IT Service Management, How does ITIL help?, The Service Management of ITIL, Features of Any Standard ITIL Service Delivery Case, Specialist Training, The ITIL Capacity Process, ISO 20000 Uptake Gaining momentum, ISO 20000, ITIL Book, A Short Description of ITIL History- The Best Way to Define ITIL, Understanding the ITIL Concepts and Terminologies, Learning ITIL through Poster, IT Services Catalog Maintenance and Improvement, ITIL Capacity Management Towards Provision of Consistent Levels of Service, ITIL Overview, IT Service Management Service Catalog, Vision of Responsive Leadership, What Good it is to Practice IT ITIL Management Service?, IT Services Service Agreements Processes: Service Level Management Supplier Management, IT Governance And Management: Finding The Right Strategy, What is Best Practice?, What is ITIL methodology, ITIL Model, Is ITIL for IT Organisations Only?, ITIL compliance supports goals, Understanding the Business Role of IT Management, What is ISO 20000?, ITIL Service Delivery Free Download, ITIL Standard, IT Infrastructure Library ITIL, ITIL Jobs : What Employees And Jobseekers Should Know, ITIL Guide, ITIL Courses, ITIL CD Training, ITIL Environment, How to Employ ITIL Principles to Improve your IT Organization, ITIL : ITIL Service Management Processes can be broken down into 2…., and much more...

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Added to Scribd: Jul 13, 2013
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1

Service Delivery 161 Success Secrets
Copyright © by Rita Larsen
Notice of rights
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
Notice of Liability
The information in this book is distributed on an “As Is” basis without warranty. While every precaution has been
taken in the preparation of he book, neither the author nor the publisher shall have any liability to any person or
entity with respect to any loss or damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by the instructions
contained in this book or by the products described in it.
Trademarks
Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks.
Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations
appear as requested by the owner of the trademark. All other product names and services identifed throughout this
book are used in editorial fashion only and for the beneft of such companies with no intention of infringement of the
trademark. No such use, or the use of any trade name, is intended to convey endorsement or other affliation with
this book.
2
Contents
Process: Service Catalog Management - Functional Specifcation 6
Do My IT People Need to Be ITIL Certifed? 13
ITIL and IT Service Management 14
IT Services Service-Based SLA Template Process: Service Level Management 14
Important Facts About IT Governance 17
ITIL PPT File The Best Way to Creating ITIL Presentations 18
Service Level Management 19
ITIL Application Integration 20
ITIL Management Release 20
ITIL Made Easy 22
Sample Questions of ITIL Foundation 22
IT Service Management-An Introduction based on ITIL 23
How ITIL software asset management can beneft you 24
The ITIL Prince2 Combination: Integration means Improved Organizational
Performance 24
The Scope of ITIL Best Practices 25
All About ITIL Foundation Certifcate in IT Service Management 27
How does ITIL help? 28
The Service Management of ITIL 29
Features of Any Standard ITIL Service Delivery Case 29
Specialist Training 30
The ITIL Capacity Process 85
ISO 20000 Uptake Gaining momentum 85
ISO 20000 86
ITIL Book 87
A Short Description of ITIL History- The Best Way to Defne ITIL 87
Understanding the ITIL Concepts and Terminologies 88
Learning ITIL through Poster 88
IT Services Catalog Maintenance and Improvement 89
ITIL Capacity Management Towards Provision of Consistent Levels of Service 92
ITIL Overview 93
IT Service Management Service Catalog 94
Vision of Responsive Leadership 101
What Good it is to Practice IT ITIL Management Service? 105
IT Services Service Agreements Processes: Service Level Management Supplier
Management 106
IT Governance And Management: Finding The Right Strategy 111
What is Best Practice? 112
What is ITIL methodology 112
ITIL Model 113
Is ITIL for IT Organisations Only? 113
ITIL compliance supports goals 114
Understanding the Business Role of IT Management 115
What is ISO 20000? 116
3
ITIL Service Delivery Free Download 119
ITIL Standard 119
IT Infrastructure Library ITIL 120
ITIL Jobs : What Employees And Jobseekers Should Know 120
ITIL Guide 122
ITIL Courses 123
ITIL CD Training 123
ITIL Environment 124
How to Employ ITIL Principles to Improve your IT Organization 124
ITIL : ITIL Service Management Processes can be broken down into 2…. 125
The Four Perspectives (Attributes) of ITSM 127
Reasons Why You Should Take ITIL Foundation Course 127
Understanding Leadership 128
ITIL Assessment 132
ITIL UK 132
Good practices 133
Service Operation Summary 135
ITIL In Action: Service Delivery 135
Reasons Why You Need ITIL Capacity Management 136
What makes ITIL ITSM different? 136
How IT Management Service Training Can Help You Manage Your Business 137
ISO 20000 BS 15000 138
Service Catalog : Service Level Management Service Catalog Demand Management
Financial Management…. 139
Financial Coaching 145
IT Services Implementation Plan/Project Plan Skeleton Outline Process: Service Catalog
Management 148
IT Governance Municipalizzate: The Regulating Body in IT 153
Why Outsource: 4 Compelling Reasons Why Companies Should Outsource 155
ITIL Application Management 156
ITIL Roadmap 157
Microsoft ITIL 157
Service Operation Summary 158
Viewpoints to Creating a Service Catalog 159
Enterprise Risk Management In IT 168
What Should I do To Earn an ITIL Certifcate? 168
Management Jobs ITIL 169
The Methodology of ITIL 169
IT Services Multi-Level-Based SLA Template Process: Service Level Management 170
Recognizing the Need for ITIL services 173
Roles and Responsibilities of Process Owner for Service Level Management 174
The True Meaning of ITIL 176
ECM Insurance Services: Ensuring Compliance, Effciency, and Productivity 177
ITIL power management 1 O 178
IT Services Implementation Plan/Project Plan Skeleton Outline Process: Service Level
Management 179
IT Services Business Justifcation Process: Service Level Management 184
4
ITIL Books 187
What is so special about ITIL Service Management? 188
IT Services Service Enablers Processes: Service Level Management Service Asset and
Confguration Management 190
Learning from Successful Example of Prince2 197
IT Services Process: Service Level Management Service Options 198
ITIL Role 201
Confguration Management ITIL 202
ITIL Pins 205
What is it to get an ITIL Job? 206
IT Governance Problems: Technological Setbacks 206
IT Service Management and ITIL Working Together Towards Total Customer Satisfaction
208
Service Management ITIL 209
Solutions ITIL 209
The Benefts of Having an Agreement Level Service: A Strategy Worth Keeping 210
Service Operation Functions 210
ITIL Capacity Management 211
ITIL and Data Center 211
The Capabilities and Challenges of Distributed Information Systems 212
IT Services Business and IT Service Mapping Process: Service Level Management 213
A Short Defnition of ITIL Best Practice 226
ITIL Provides 227
ITIL Process Review 228
Customer Reviews 228
IT Services Costs of Service and Pricing Processes: Financial Management for IT and
Service Catalog Management 230
ITIL Categories 236
Find WiMax Equipment Availability 236
Know More About ITIL Procedures 237
The ITIL Certifcation Course 238
IT Services Service Catalog Perspectives Process: Service Catalog Management 239
ITIL Defnition 243
Capacity Management of ITIL 243
ITIL Framework The Backbone of ITIL Functions and Processes 244
ISO 20000 Audit 245
ITIL course 245
IT Services Technical Specifcation Process: Service Level Management 246
ITIL Community 252
Service Delivery: Capacity Management In ITIL 252
Benefts of Cloud Computing 253
ITIL Service Manager 255
IT Services Publishing a Service Catalog Process: Service Catalog Management 255
ITSM ITIL 260
The Growing Trend in Saas Delivery 261
Defne ITIL 261
How to Effectively Use an ITIL Interactive Process Map 261
5
ITIL V3 Service Operation Book 262
ISO9000 ITIL 262
The Importance of ITIL certifcations 263
IT Asset Management Service 264
Your ITIL Foundation Coverage 264
Peep Into An ITIL Managers Certifcate Exam Blog 265
ITIL, Quality Manager 266
ITIL Methodology 266
Prince2 and ITIL - Making a Difference in the IT Industry 266
What covers the ITIL Framework? 267
What Is IT Governance? 268
IT Services Price List Process: Service Level Management 269
Service Operation Functions 270
ITIL Demo Process: The Jigsaw Diagram 271
Will ITIL V5 still have Capacity Management as a process? Or is it replaced by Cloud
Management? 271
The Signifcant Role of ITIL Management 284
ITIL Based 284
How Do You Defne Change Management ITIL? 285
ITIL Questions 286
ITIL Foundation: The First Step To ITIL Success 287
Service Management Processes 288
Anatomy of an IT Service 290
COBIT ITIL 292
cisa cissp 295
Service Catalog : These options are published and distributed in some form of…. 296
Implementing ITIL 304
How You Can Get Truly Accredited IT Service Management Training 304
IT Services Customer-Based SLA Template Process: Service Level Management 305
The Qualities of an Effective Call Center Financial Services Representative 307
ITIL Management 308
ITIL Service Delivery 309
6
Process: Service Catalog Management - Functional
Specifcation
IT Services
Functional Specifcation
Process: Service Catalog Management
Service Level Management
Service: <service name>
Status: In draft
Under Review
Sent for Approval
Approved
Rejected

Version: <<your version>>

Release Date:

Document Control
Author
Prepared by <<name and / or department>>
Document Source
This document is located on the LAN under the path:
I:/IT Services/Service Delivery/Functional Specifcations/
Document Approval
This document has been approved for use by the following:
• <<frst name, last name>>, IT Services Manager
• <<frst name, last name>>, IT Service Delivery Manager
• <<frst name, last name>>, National IT Help Desk Manager
Amendment History
Issue Date Amendments Completed By



Distribution List
7
When this procedure is updated, the following copyholders must be advised through email that an up-
dated copy is available on the intranet site:
<<Organization name>> Business Unit Stakeholders
IT
Table of Contents
DOCUMENT CONTROL 2
AUTHOR 2
DOCUMENT SOURCE 2
DOCUMENT APPROVAL 2
AMENDMENT HISTORY 2
DISTRIBUTION LIST 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS 3
INTRODUCTION 5
PURPOSE 5
SCOPE 5
AUDIENCE 5
OWNERSHIP 5
RELATED DOCUMENTATION 5
1.
EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW 6
2.
SERVICE OVERVIEW 6
2.1.
SERVICE DESCRIPTION 6
2.2.
SERVICE FUNCTIONAL CAPABILITIES 6
2.3.
USER CHARACTERISTICS 6
2.4.
USER OPERATIONS AND PRACTICES 6
2.5.
GENERAL CONSTRAINTS 7
2.6.
ASSUMPTIONS 7
2.7.
OTHER SERVICES 7
3.
SPECIFIC FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS 7
3.1.
DESCRIPTION 7
8
3.2.
INPUTS 7
3.3.
PROCESSING 7
3.4.
OUTPUTS 7
4.
EXTERNAL INTERFACES 8
4.1.
USER INTERFACES 8
4.2.
HARDWARE INTERFACES 8
4.3.
SOFTWARE INTERFACES 8
4.4.comMUNICATION INTERFACES 9
5.
PERFORMANCE 9
6.
SERVICE DESIGN CONSTRAINTS 9
7.
ATTRIBUTES 9
7.1.
SECURITY 9
7.2.
RELIABILITY, AVAILABILITY, MAINTAINABILITY 9
7.3.
INSTALLATION AND DISTRIBUTION 9
7.4.
USABILITY 10
8.
ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS 10
8.1.
ADMINISTRATION 10
9.
APPENDICES 11
9
10.
TERMINOLOGY 12
Introduction
Purpose
The purpose of this document is to provide relevant Business Units with the functional specifcations of
the range of services provided by IT Services to the <<Organization name>> community.
Scope
This document describes the following:
➢ Details of each service provided by IT Services including:
➢ Description of service
➢ Functional capabilities of the service
➢ User characteristics
➢ User operations and practices
➢ Software and hardware interfaces
➢ Service contacts
➢ Details of procedures for the service
Note: It is assumed for each service described in this document that the supporting back-end technology
is already in place and operational.
Audience
This document is relevant to all staff in <<Organization name>>
Ownership
IT Services has ownership of this document.
Related Documentation
Include in this section any related Service Level Agreement reference numbers and other associated
documentation:
➢ Relevant SLA and procedural documents
➢ Relevant IT Services Catalog
➢ Relevant Technical Specifcation documentation
➢ Relevant User Guides and Procedures

1.
Executive Overview
Describe the purpose, scope, and organization of the Functional Specifcation document.
2.
Service Overview
2.1.
Service Description
Describe briefy the reason for the service, and list the most important features and capabilities.
Also include the service’s relationship to the business processes.
2.2.
Service functional capabilities
This section presents a list of the functions that the service will be required to perform.
Where the service comprises several functional capabilities, a table may be developed to illustrate these
relationships.
10
The list of functional capabilities may be an updated version of the capabilities listed in the original “Ser-
vice Level Requirements” for this service.
(Refer to Service Level Requirements)
2.3.
User characteristics
This section describes the intended users of the service in terms of job function, specialized knowledge,
or skill levels required.
This section should consider various user classes or profles such as managers, engineers, equipment
operators, IT support staff, and network or database administrators.
2.4.
User operations and practices
Describe how persons will normally use the service and the tasks they will most frequently perform.
Also cover how users might use the service on an occasional basis.
Consider using a formal “Use Case” to specify the end users’ expected use of the service.
This may also be derived from the Service Level Requirements.
2.5.
General constraints
This section will list the limitations, user interface limitations, and data limitations of the service.
Include items such as minimum availability, capacity, and security needed by the service to function.
It should also include maintenance requirements; more specifcally the amount of time and frequency the
service will be unavailable due to maintenance and service.
Also, state if training is required for use of the system.
2.6.
Assumptions
This section lists any assumptions that were made in specifying the functional requirements of this ser-
vice.
2.7.
Other services
How does the service interact with other services?
3.
Specifc Function Descriptions
This section is repeated for each function of the service.
Some examples of functions are: email sending or receiving, sorting or archiving email, virus checking
and scanning of email, and recovery of email services.
3.1.
Description
The description describes the function and its role in the service.
3.2.
Inputs
Describe the inputs to the function.
11
Input validation strategy, allowed email types, and values are specifed for each input.
3.3.
Processing
Describes what is done by the function.
Cited here would be database defnitions where relevant, transaction algorithms or functions, fow of
information, etc.
3.4.
Outputs
This section describes the outputs of the function.
Where a user interface description is relevant, it is included.
Reports generated are also defned.
4.
External Interfaces
The interfaces in this section are specifed by documenting: the name and description of each item,
source or input, destination or output, ranges, accuracy and tolerances, units of measure, timing, display
formats and organization, availability and capacity requirements, and any relevant agreements that may
impact the service.
4.1.
User Interfaces
Use as necessary.
This section describes all major forms, screens, or web pages, including any complex dialog boxes.
This is usually best done via simulated, non-functioning screen shots (such as PowerPoint slides), and
may take the form of a separate document.
The navigation fow of the windows, menus, and options is described, along with the expected content of
each window.
Examples of items that could be included are screen resolutions, color scheme, primary font type and
size.
Discussion also includes how input validation will be done, and how the service will be protected from
security issues.
This section can be generic enough to describe simply the User Interfaces to the functions of the service.
Examples of items here would be client interface available, web interface available, email interface avail-
able, etc.
4.2.
Hardware Interfaces
Describe the components needed to provide the service and also other output or input devices such as
printers or handheld devices.
4.3.
Software Interfaces
This section describes any software that will be required in order for the service to operate fully.
12
Include any developed software or commercial applications that customers will be utilizing together with
the planned service.
Also, describe any software that the service will interact with such as operating system platforms sup-
ported, fle import and export, networking, automation, or scripting.
This section will also specify whether the users must provide the interface software and any special
licensing requirements.
4.4.communication Interfaces
Describe how the service will communicate with itself (for multi-platform applications) or other software
applications or hardware, including items such as networking, email, intranet, and Internet communica-
tions, PABX, IP telephony, etc.
5.
Functional Design Constraints
Any examples of constraints that will prevent or infuence the ability of the system to deliver the expected
functionality will be listed here.
6.
Attributes
6.1.
Security
Describe, where necessary, the technical security requirements for the service.
For example, any password-protected access levels such as operator, engineer/modeller, manager,
database administrator and which functionality will be accessible to each access level, frewall require-
ments, and virus software.
This section should also describe all physical, organizational, and procedural security requirements for
the service.
6.2.
Reliability, Availability, Maintainability
This section describes requirement items such as days or weeks of continuous operation, strategy for
data recovery, structuring of service for ease of future modifcation.
6.3.
Installation and Distribution
This section describes the planned method for installation and distribution of releases for the service:
done by the user independently, done by customer company internal IT services, done by an external
contractor.
The section should specify the handling of such items as data transfer from prior releases, the physical
storage of hardware and software in conjunction with releases, and the presence of software or hard-
ware elements from prior releases.
6.4.
Usability
It is important to describe items that will ensure the user-friendliness of the service.
Examples include error messages that direct the user to a solution, user documentation, online help, etc.
7.
13
Additional Requirements
Describe other characteristics that the service must have that were not covered in the prior sections.
7.1.
Administration
Include any periodic updating or data management needed for the service.
• User documentation: Describes the user documentation to be delivered in conjunction with the service,
including both hard copy and online requirements.
• Other requirements: Describes any other requirements not yet covered above that need to be consid-
ered during the design of the service.
Do My IT People Need to Be ITIL Certifed?
The ITIL (or Information Technology Infrastructure Library) is now being accepted globally, catering to
different organizations based on their IT needs.
It is composed of a series of documents, originally created and owned by the Offce of the Government
of Commerce of United Kingdom.
It was created to support the implementation of an effcient framework for IT Service Management.
IT professionals are nowadays required to be equipped with the global standard in knowledge of IT tech-
nology which usually means being ITIL certifed.
The growing need to be updated about developments in IT technology has encouraged career IT profes-
sionals to get more in-depth knowledge about the world of IT.
However, standardization of the technology was needed so that professionals desiring to enter the feld
would be adequately informed, tested and then certifed.
A 40-question multiple-choice exam must be hurdled by these IT people before any of them can be is-
sued with an ITIL Foundation Certifcate.
A holder of this Certifcate is certifed to be equipped with the foundational knowledge in ITIL Service
Support, Service Delivery and the various terminologies of ITIL.
With a Foundation Certifcate safe in hand, the ITIL career ladder may then lead to two other branches of
ITIL which are the Practitioner Certifcate (involved in the application of IT Service Management) and of
course the Manager’s Certifcate.
When you are ITIL Certifed, that means that you have suffcient skills that would support IT-dependent
organizations in their quest to present a comprehensive set of management procedures that can help
them (and their client organizations) in the management of their IT operation.
ITIL supports IT service providers in the planning of consistent, documented and frequently used pro-
cesses.
These improve the quality and promptness of service delivery.
14
It is essential for the IT professional who is aspiring for ITIL certifcation to be fully knowledgeable about
his craft as IT is synonymous to swift, standard and accurate quality service.
ITIL and IT Service Management
ITIL and IT Service Management ITIL and IT service management can’t go separate in the present day
scenario.
ITIL or Information Technology Infrastructure Library is a set of standards for IT service management.
ITIL and IT Service management are divided into two broad categories, which are further divided into 10
components in all.
The frst category of ITIL and IT Service Management is Service Delivery which includes service level
management, capacity management, continuity management, availability management and IT fnancial
management.
The second category of ITIL and IT service management is Service Support and it includes confgura-
tion management, incident management, problem management, change management, service desk and
release management.
ITIL framework is completely customizable and thus can be applied within any type of business or or-
ganization that functions in alignment with IT.
IT Services Service-Based SLA Template Process:
Service Level Management
Status: In draft
Under Review
Sent for Approval
Approved
Rejected

Version: <<your version>>

Release Date:

Service-Based Service Level Agreement (SLA)
The document is not to be considered an extensive statement as its topics have to be generic enough to
suit any reader for any organization.
However, the reader will certainly be reminded of the key topics that have to be considered.
This document serves as a GUIDE FOR THE CREATION OF AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE SER-
VICE LEVEL MANAGEMENT PROCESS OWNER AND THE CUSTOMER OF IT SERVICES, FOR A
SINGLE SERVICE.
This document provides a basis for completion within your own organization.
The service-based SLA is usually preferred by IT as it allows a single document to cover a single service
for all end users of that service.
15
It means less administration time spent in negotiating different documents with different customers and
less time spent on worrying about accommodating different requirements amongst users.
Service-based SLA Advantage Just one SLA document could be agreed for all customers/end users of a
single service.
Disadvantage Inability to satisfy the customers that have differing requirements of the service being ad-
dressed.


The following form can be used as the Service-Based SLA document.
The SLA does not have to be in a lengthy written format and in fact it is more likely to be adopted if it is
kept concise, with only salient details.
With regard to Service-Based SLA the following points should be addressed:
Specifc Service Information
(Duplicate the following table for as many services to be covered in this SLA).

Areas to address Comments/Examples Time Frame/Notes/Who
Description of the “agreement” Brief description of the contents of this SLA
Note: The SLA will cover only ONE IT Service, but end users from many areas.
Use this section simply as an executive summary.
Reference number Unique identifying number for the SLA (for inclusion in the Confguration Manage-
ment Data Base – CMDB)
Owner Functional role description of who is responsible for this SLA (Who would participate in a review
of this document?)
Representatives from customer and IT
(Special tip: Avoid using names as it dates the document quickly.)
Service Name Preferably use a name that is common language in the organization (not a technical
name).

Service Description (Business)
(refer to Technical Considerations later in this table) Briefy describe the primary function of the service.
Use language that is business user friendly.
(eg.
Instead of “NT Server, with 2GB RAM and 500GB of disk storage” – we would say “large central server
designed for all customers to use and share information”)
Service Expectation Level This is a unique concept to this SLA design template.
Far too often, we write descriptions of IT Services in a clinical fashion.
These clinical descriptions set an expectation for the customer/end user about the IT Service.
Quite often, the description is interpreted by the reader in a way not intended by the writer.
Use this section to set the expectations of the reader.
If you feel that there could be some interruptions to service delivery because the service is relatively
new, then document that here.
16
However, remember that using the reason “new service” has only a limited life-span.

Service Security Considerations Briefy list any considerations regarding security for this service.
Are there any differences in the level of accessibility for different people/roles for this service? (Try to use
role descriptions, instead of names.)
Service Target Response priorities If the SLA accommodates different priorities, they must be listed here
with a description on the type of service that each priority level should receive.
Service Target Response time Here, we document the agreed response time for the different priority
levels set.
Service Support Hours
(Availability) Consider marginally longer support hours (if less than 24).
Maximum number of accepted outages
Minimum percentage availability
Maximum number of errors or reruns
Service Out of Hours support procedure Are the in-hours support staff the same as out of hours?
Phone numbers and what information will be required when support is called
What does the user do if the nominated person is not available?
Service Charging policy Do we require external staff to only act if they have a validated cost code for
work?
Are there any special aspects of the work that has to be recorded for later charging?

Service Metrics for performance What will be the performance numbers for the work performed under
this UC?
Will the expected performance be higher than negotiated in the SLA to allow a safety margin?
Service Breach Clause Perhaps your organizational culture is built upon imposing penalties for poor
performance.
If this is the case, then the penalties for failing to meet the stated metrics must be listed here.
If the SLA is not to have a penalty focus, then simply remove this line.
Continuity Considerations
(should be linked to the IT Service Continuity Plan) If the agreed support hours cannot be met, then it is
necessary to invoke a continuity option for this service.
The defnition of when this invocation should occur will be listed here.
Cross-referencing to the IT Service Continuity Plan is also required.
SLA Validity period Duration that this SLA is expected to remain in place before it is reviewed
SLA Review Procedure The process for reviewing the SLA and who is involved
Special Tip: Avoid using people’s names and use role descriptions to avoid dating the document.
Version Control Information SLA Creation Date
SLA Last Modifed Date

UC Cross references Reference number to related and closely coupled UCs
OLA Cross references Reference number to any closely coupled agreements with internal IT department
Technical considerations In this section, you can describe any technical considerations that are essential
to document.
It is more likely, however, that you will include here a link to the Service Catalog or Technical Specifca-
tion.
Notes & Comments
Customer Information
17
(Duplicate the following table for each customer to be covered in this SLA).
Areas to address Comments/Examples Time Frame/Notes/Who
Customer defnition List and/or describe the customers that are included in this SLA.
It is most likely that the customers will be all end users of IT services in the organization.
However, the SLA for this service may be only for particular function holders that are spread throughout
the organization).

NOTE: There can be no single correct defnition of an SLA that will cover all situations for all organiza-
tions.
This template, however, does prompt the reader to consider the most critical areas of an SLA and it pro-
vokes thought about other areas that could be included based on individual needs.
Important Facts About IT Governance
In IT Governance framework, any decision made by an individual in the team can give you a positive or a
negative effect especially on the objectives that are established in an organization.
Whatever the effects may be, decision making is inevitably part of business functions.
What you need to do is analyze the different situations and assess the different decisions taken and cor-
rect the methods.
IT governance also helps businesses in determining the processes in deciding money matters.
Prioritization and justifcation of the investments is very important in an organization.
That is why application of IT governance will assist businesses to manage IT investments, service deliv-
eries and projects in change management.
IT governance is an effective tool that eliminates the reoccurring diffculties in IT.
It is a useful method that controls and coordinates in various areas of work.
This tool is used to meet and achieve the internal policies, goal and regulation of the company.
With IT Governance you can track your expenses and justify the spending of investments.
Not only that, this technique can align the roles and responsibilities of specifc individuals who are as-
signed to create the necessary decisions in IT.
In this way, decisions depend on not just one person but various individuals from departments like f-
nance, IT, operations, administration, etc.
Are accountable to the decisions made in IT.
IT Governance accomplishes the management form for IT investment, service delivery and change man-
agement.
18
This can help businesses in improving IT and at the same time achieving their business goals.
ITIL PPT File The Best Way to Creating ITIL
Presentations
oing over the core volumes of the ITIL v3 may be tedious for those who are not so much into reading
other than it is also heavy.
Others prefer handy materials when studying and make things simple if summarized.ITIL poster has
been developed to aid in understanding the IT service management without necessarily having to stuck
one’s head on reading volumes of book.
ITIL poster presents a clear overview of the ITIL structure and the processes.
It provides the individual process areas, structure, maturity levels and capability levels of ITIL.
It should provide a graphical map showing the practical linkage Service Delivery and Service Support
processes.
The normal size of an ITIL poster is A3 in size and is double sided laminated map.
ITIL poster is not only an aid for those learning or understanding ITIL, but it also allows others in the
organization to become aware of the types of management in the IT service.
It provides readers the chance to see how IT service management works in an organization and serve as
point of reference too for those who fails to trace back or recall some of the ITIL concepts.ITIL poster can
be customized based on the organization’s objective.
An ITIL Process map maybe use showing the IT service management fow.
This process map serves as an awareness campaign to employees as well as to customers.
ITIL poster, most of all reminds the organization of the framework that it should apply in the keeping the
IT service excellent.
The Microsoft PowerPoint software application is a popular choice for presentations as it comes with
graphical slides of different templates that one can choose from.
The slides itself can be printed out, or displayed on-screen with the use of a projector.
Microsoft PowerPoint provides three types of movements: (1) entrance; (2) emphasis; and (3) exit.
The fle can then be saved in a ppt format.
The latest version of the software is Microsoft PowerPoint 2007.There are a lot of companies that use
Microsoft PowerPoint when creating tutorials to introduce a product or to better understand the compo-
nents and functions of a certain process, such as the sets of best practices that represent the Informa-
tion Technology Infrastructure Library or ITIL.
19
ITIL presentations are made to give the viewer a detailed perspective about the terms and conditions of
ITIL, as well as its contribution to the success of an IT-based company.
ITIL presentations are also being transferred from one company to another as a means of communica-
tion.
It can also act as a persuasive approach in letting other companies know about the benefts of ITIL.
With the use of colorful texts, pictures, charts, tables and other graphics, an ITIL presentation will indeed
amaze the audience and it will surely make it easy for them to understand ITIL.
There are currently some web sites that offer downloadable ppt fles about ITIL for free, while some offer
it in a reasonable cost depending on the quality of the presentation.
This also serves as a foundation in which one can start learning ITIL and pursue certifcation courses in
the future.
Service Level Management
The object of IT Service Level Management is to maintain and gradually improve business aligned IT
service quality, through a constant cycle of agreeing, monitoring, reporting and reviewing IT service
achievements and through instigating actions to eradicate unacceptable levels of service. IT Service
Level Management is responsible for ensuring that the service targets are documented and agreed in IT
Service Level Management and monitors and reviews the actual service levels achieved against their IT
Service Level Management targets. SLM should also be trying to proactively improve all service levels
within the imposed cost constraints. SLM is the process that manages and improves agreed level of
service between two parties, the provider and the receiver of a service. IT Service Level Management
is responsible for negotiating and agreeing service requirements and expected service characteristics
with the Customer, measuring and reporting of Service Levels actually being achieved against target,
resources required, cost of service provision. IT Service Level Management is also responsible for
continuously improving service levels in line with business processes, with a SIP, co-coordinating other
Service Management and support functions, including third party suppliers, reviewing IT Service Level
Management to meet changed business needs or resolving major service issues and producing, review-
ing and maintaining the service catalog. IT Service Level Management addresses the entire life cycle
of a service, from the implementation of the service to the retirement or sun setting of the service. The
review processes inherent to IT Service Level Management are designed to address not only service
delivery itself, but evaluates the ongoing viability of the current service; whether or not it is still provid-
ing value to the organization. If valuable, the review process addresses the adequacy of the services
as provided. If no longer required, the IT Service Level Management process creates a new agreement
with the customer as to how the service will be retired, what services will replace the retired service and
how the IT Service Level Management process initiates and addresses the new replacement services as
provided. The results of the IT Service Level Management process are codifed in service level agree-
ments (SLAs). Service level agreements also provide specifc targets against which the performance of
the IT Department can be evaluated. The successful IT Service Level Management process results in
an improvement in service quality, higher levels of customer productivity, and a subsequent reduction in
the overall cost of services provided. IT Service Level Management also establishes and maintains the
channels of communication between IT and its customers. Specifc benefts from SLM include: * Ser-
vices provided by IT are those truly required by the business All parties agree and have a clearer view
of roles and responsibilities Specifc targets against which service quality can be measured, monitored,
and reported are in place Focuses IT effort on those areas that the business considers important IT staff
and customers having a clear and consistent expectation of the level of service required and delivered
20
The customer is engaged into the service delivery chain The relationship between IT organizations
is formalized The relationship between IT and suppliers is formalized Positions IT, to more accurately
account for and possibly recover the cost of services provided to customers The scope of IT Service
Level Management is to maintain and gradually improve IT Service quality, through a constant cycle of
agreeing, monitoring, and reporting upon IT service achievements and instigation of actions to eradicate
poor service - in line with business or cost justifcation. IT Service Level Management is the name given
to the processes of envisioning, planning, developing, and deploying IT service delivery to customers.
Service level agreements provide the basis for managing the relationship between the provider and the
customer. The IT Service Level Management Process is designed to establish, maintain, measure, and
adjust to service requirement changes. It does so through agreements with all parties involved in the
service delivery process. In order to ensure proper service delivery, IT establishes formal agreements
with: Customers in the form of service level agreements (SLAs) Internal IT organizations in the form
of operating level agreements (OLAs) Suppliers through underpinning contracts (UCs) Relationship to
Other Processes: The successful implementation of the IT Service Level Management process involves
a coordinated effort of all service management functions (SMFs). The creation of SLAs and OLAs re-
quires input from all SMFs. The service level manager must have an open line of communication to the
business process owners and each SMF manager and must provide the managers with guidelines for
the reporting of OLA information. The service level management process is not effective unless all SMF
managers are willing to cooperate. Recording and maintaining a Service Catalog is one of the most
critical aspects of a Service Level Managment process. A key success factor of a Service Catalog is be-
ing able to capture the availabilty requirements for that service, the resolution time for that service, and
which departments in the business use that service.
ITIL Application Integration
ITIL Application Integration ITIL application integration is about bringing the various ITIL processes to-
gether and ensuring their effectiveness and application.
Application management is one of the branches of Service Management that deals with both the techni-
cal and non-technical areas.
An element of ITIL application integration is the connection in the IT service management disciplines that
include both the service delivery and service support.
In the department of infrastructure management, application management has a vital role to play as all
the process and policies pass through this department.
ITIL application integration put a lot of emphasis on ensuring that all the strategies and policies are
aligned with the business throughout the application lifecycle.
It also establishes a roadmap that all the IT professionals can follow for better functioning at individual
and organizational level.
ITIL Management Release
ITIL Made Easy ITIL is not a very diffcult concept to understand but a great challenge to apply in your
own company.
Before you go ahead and fnd the best practices available, it is necessary to know completely about ITIL.
21
ITIL made easy guides and e-books are available at affordable costs.
Another excellent source are ITIL institutes and learning centers.
The Art of Service can help you to get a complete overview, knowledge of ITIL and its proper applications
through its ITIL made easy courses.
The majority of ITIL made easy processes are incorporated in two main categories and sub-categories:
Service Delivery Availability Management Service Level Management Financial Management Capacity
Management IT Service Continuity Management Service Support The Service Desk Incident Manage-
ment Problem Management Confguration Management Change Management Release Management
ITIL Management OGC (Offce of Government of Commerce) has designed a comprehensive model
regarding ITIL management and its application.
This is a complete overview of the ITIL management structure that is divided into fve major sections.
1.Business perspective ITIL management in this section functions at the strategic level for any organiza-
tion.
This helps in overall understanding of the needs of the company.
Business continuity management determines the functioning of business perspective 2.Service delivery
In this tactical level the customers are provided adequate attention.
It include fnancial, availability, continuity, service level and capacity management. 3.Service support This
is concerned with business support function that includes service desk, incident, problem, confgura-
tion, change and release management. 4.ICT Infrastructure Management This is built on the core of the
service support and delivery.
System management, network service and operations management are some of the elements. 5.Ap-
plication Management This is completely dedicated to the software development life cycle and in solving
issues regarding IT services.
ITIL Management Release Management is all about discipline and proper planning.
ITIL management release is one such department that is responsible for the transition of policies, plans
and confguration to actual practice and implementation.
This is very signifcant because no plan is successful without proper execution and a proper execution
always demands accurate plans.
ITIL management release has to serve the dual purpose of checking the authenticity of confguration and
forecasting the effects of change.
This is closely related to Confguration Management and Change Management.
It is almost the intermediary stage between them.
Another function of release management is designing and testing of hardware and software.
This is done to create a set of release components or elements for a hassle-free environment.
ITIL management release takes care of both technical and non-technical departments.
22
ITIL Made Easy
ITIL Made Easy ITIL is not a very diffcult concept to understand but a great challenge to apply in your
own company.
Before you go ahead and fnd the best practices available, it is necessary to know completely about ITIL.
ITIL made easy guides and e-books are available at affordable costs.
Another excellent source are ITIL institutes and learning centers.
The Art of Service can help you to get a complete overview, knowledge of ITIL and its proper applications
through its ITIL made easy courses.
The majority of ITIL made easy processes are incorporated in two main categories and sub-categories:
Service Delivery Availability Management Service Level Management Financial Management Capacity
Management IT Service Continuity Management Service Support The Service Desk Incident Manage-
ment Problem Management Confguration Management Change Management Release Management
Sample Questions of ITIL Foundation
Information Technology Infrastructure Library or ITIL is a framework designed in the 1980’s and over the
years, it has been number one in setting the standards for the delivery of top-of-the-line IT services from
companies around the globe.
If you want to be ITIL certifed to advance your knowledge and career in the information technology
industry, there are several paths that you can choose from.
You can either take the ITIL Foundation Certifcation exam, the ITIL Version 2 or the ITIL Version 3 ex-
ams.
Under the ITIL Version 2 category, you can either have an ITIL foundation certifcate, an ITIL practition-
er’s certifcate, or an ITIL manager’s certifcate.
If you decide to advance your knowledge and take on the ITIL Version 2 certifcation challenge, then you
need to learn about two things: service support and service delivery.
These are two terms that you will often stumble upon if you want to obtain an ITIL Foundation Certifca-
tion in IT Service Management.
With service support, you will know how management affects a company s service desk and how to
effciently manage or handle your company’s IT confguration, and how to proceed when facing a given
situation.
On the other hand, service delivery will teach you what service delivery is all about, and how to manage
your company’ IT capacity as well as you fnances, service continuity and availability management.
All in all, an ITIL Foundation Certifcation in IT Service Management will give you a clear understanding
of how your business, the customers, the management processes and the industry standards all come
23
together to form a coherent whole.
The sample questions provided in any ITIL exam helps in identifying the strengths and weaknesses of
the examinee before taking the actual examination.
Sample questions can also aid in improving the knowledge regarding the main concepts of the exam.
A preparatory kit containing sample questions is made by some well known ITIL professionals.
The kit is usually concise and comprehensive at the same time to assist the examinee to pass the actual
ITIL exam.
The kit contains a brief introduction about ITIL, some sample questions and their corresponding answers
for every set.
Sample questions are basically what the examinee will encounter during the exam itself.
They are multiple choice questions and require picking the best answer to the specifc question.
Sample questions are quality guides for the ITIL foundation exam besides the advice and tips that the
examinee can get from the training center together with all the information they need to support their
studies.
Before taking an ITIL foundation exam, the examinee must set in his mind his main purpose in taking the
ITIL Foundation exam.
He must also know how to effectively study the ITIL exam, and must take into consideration his perfor-
mance during the sample questioning so he will have an idea on how he will perform in the actual exam.
He must also think of his next plan after passing the exam or if he fails the exam.
The success in taking the ITIL exam depends on how the examinee performed during his practice exams
and the way he answered the sample questions of the ITIL foundation.
IT Service Management-An Introduction based on
ITIL
IT Service Management-An Introduction based on ITIL IT Service Management can be divided into two
core groups namely service support and service delivery.
ITIL security management is another section but it functions independently.
Service support includes: Confguration Management that covers all the elements that are signifcant in
IT Infrastructure.
Change Management is responsible for the all kind of changes (planning and implementation) in the IT
Industry.
Release Management can be regarded as the mid-stage between confguration and Change Manage-
ment.
24
Incident Management, Problem Management are linked with the precautions and recovery from prob-
lems Service desk is mainly customer support Service Delivery includes Service Level Management,
Financial Management for IT Services, Capacity Management, IT Services Continuity Management,
Availability and Security Management.
The section of Service Delivery is more precise in its functioning and sometimes includes more techni-
calities than concepts.
How ITIL software asset management can beneft you
The challenge in Asset Management and Confguration lies with the delivery of quality IT services that
both client and service provider can agree upon, particularly with regards to the service levels.
At the same time, Asset Management and Confguration efforts should help the client organization be
able to adapt to changes within the operating environment of its business.
Software asset management requires that the client organization be able to implement ways to secure
the maximum value out of IT production and services so that in the end the business can ensure the
highest possible return of investment in the infrastructure.
To balance these priorities, there is a need for effective asset management and confguration manage-
ment software that is founded on a solid base.
This helps the client to be sure that it is getting the best service from its outsourced IT service support
and delivery.
Having a best-practices base for the Asset Management and Confguration Management software will
allow successful implementation of the said functions.
Asset management software provides real-time insight that will help you to take control of tracking capa-
bility such as calculating the knowing the assets you currently have, the worth of all assets, where they
are located, how effective they are in supporting your business and how well they are presently working.
Many organizations are willing to invest a lot in software whether these for internal or external usage.
Some of the benefts brought about by asset management are: the supply of accurate information for all
IT confguration items which can support the service delivery and the support process; provision of trend
and impact analysis information in change management and problem management; improvement in IT
security featuring an advantageous confguration in item control; an increase in customer satisfaction;
improvement in fnancial planning through clear identifcation of all the assets and all related associa-
tions; improved software license management; and increased confdence in IT service management and
the IT system being used.
The ITIL Prince2 Combination: Integration means
Improved Organizational Performance
ITIL or IT Infrastructure Library is a set of principles and practices designed to provide systematic man-
agement and approaches to IT environments or services.
25
It can be integrated into the Prince2 methodology so that major changes in company organization will not
disrupt management of IT service delivery.
For example, when a company decides to implement major changes in its operation, this now becomes
a full pledged project which needs the Prince2 model to ensure success.
Implementation of change will encompass every organization within the company and naturally it in-
cludes the IT service.
However, to ensure that the IT services provided to customers will not be hampered by the ongoing pro-
ject, managers and project consultants should install ITIL best practices for its IT sector.
This may sound complicated but the scenario only describes the integration of company wide project
management to existing systems of service deliveries.
The result is optimization of current operations because the company will continue its business while
implementing a major overhaul of its organization.ITIL and Prince2 came from the same source which is
the Offce of Government Commerce (OGC) of United Kingdom.
These management systems have been applied to numerous organizations and its implementation has
resulted to successful project and systems management.
Literatures and guidance for the integration of ITIL and Prince2 have been provided by the OGC in its
books and manuals.
Managers and project consultants can study the intricacies of integrating the two systems so that change
management and effcient IT service delivery can go hand in hand in improving the performance of any
organization.
The Scope of ITIL Best Practices
If we rely on the regular meaning of the words Best Practice, it may lead us to thinking that Best Practice
refers to a job performance rating.
However, ITIL Best Practice actually pertains to areas intended for application of the service manage-
ment concepts.
These areas are listed in a series of informative books which provide guidance on how IT services
should be implemented properly.
Below is a list of Best Practice functions and a brief description of each function.
Service Support relates to 5 areas of discipline such as Confguration Management; Problem Manage-
ment; Change Management; Help Desk; and Software Control and Distribution.
These 5 areas all enable IT Services to be provided.
Service Delivery is the management of IT services itself.
Under Service Delivery would be Service Level Management; Capacity Management; Contingency Man-
agement; Availability Management; and Cost Management for IT Services.
26
These areas mentioned allow us a snapshot of the role of Service Delivery management which is to
ensure that the overall effciency of delivery of services to customers can be sustained.
The area of Planning to Implement Service Management is an important ITIL framework.
Its work is to align the business needs with IT resources.
It therefore includes the following necessary elements in analysis: creates a vision; helps in analysis of
the organization; supports setting of goals, facilitates implementation of IT services; and allows for meas-
urement of goals.
ICT Infrastructure Support and Management provides the necessary support in line with Best Practice
guidance on any requirements needed, planning, design, testing, deployment, operations necessitating
technical support, and management.
ITIL Application Management identifes the service level requirements of the business.
Through it, ITIL can then be used to standardize the business procedures in accordance with ITIL Best
Practice.
Lastly, The Business Perspective involves looking at how IT resources can be incorporated into the busi-
ness from the perspective of how the business normally operates.
It should effectively merge the preferred technology with the needs of the people being served if the
business needs are truly understood.The Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) was devel-
oped to provide assistance and guidance to IT professionals and their respective employers as far as the
scope of IT infrastructure, development and operations is concerned.It is a framework of best practices
designed to facilitate the delivery of Information Technology (IT) services by companies who work in the
IT feld for a living.
Its high-quality and extensive management procedures help clients (such as businesses) and end us-
ers get the best value they can from their internal and external IT operations ITIL best practices are
concerned with the services rendered by IT service providers in the areas of Service Support; Service
Delivery; Planning to Implement Service Management; ICT Infrastructure Management; Application Man-
agement and The Business Perspective.
The two most frequently utilized services are the Service Support and the Service Delivery.
Service Support enables the IT Services to be effectively utilized.
It covers fve basic areas.
The frst is Confguration Management, which offers the implementation database that contains the
necessary information needed by the business to effectively use IT services in the areas of maintenance,
movement and problems with confguration items.
The basic function of Problem Management is to provide resolution and prevention of problems that may
cause delays in the smooth fow of operation of an organization using IT services.
The third basic area is Change Management which was designed to assist the frst area of Confguration
Management.
27
Here, changes in the IT system should be planned and authorized before being implemented.
Next is the Help Desk Management which is known as the most frequently used service.
This is where front liners serve customer via help desks.
The ffth is the area of Software Control and Distribution, which is simply management of software devel-
opment, installation and support.
Service Delivery covers the management of IT services.
These include Service Level Management; Capacity Management; Contingency Planning, Availability
Management and Cost Management for IT Services.
All these areas of discipline in IT were designed to provide best service in the area of the total manage-
ment of IT services to guarantee smooth operations for client companies and end users.
All About ITIL Foundation Certifcate in IT Service
Management
Information Technology Infrastructure Library or ITIL is a framework designed in the 1980’s and over the
years, it has been number one in setting the standards for the delivery of top-of-the-line IT services from
companies around the globe.
If you want to be ITIL certifed to advance your knowledge and career in the information technology
industry, there are several paths that you can choose from.
You can either take the ITIL Foundation Certifcation exam, the ITIL Version 2 or the ITIL Version 3 ex-
ams.
Under the ITIL Version 2 category, you can either have an ITIL foundation certifcate, an ITIL practition-
er’s certifcate, or an ITIL manager’s certifcate.
If you decide to advance your knowledge and take on the ITIL Version 2 certifcation challenge, then you
need to learn about two things: service support and service delivery.
These are two terms that you will often stumble upon if you want to obtain an ITIL Foundation Certifca-
tion in IT Service Management.
With service support, you will know how management affects a company s service desk and how to
effciently manage or handle your company’s IT confguration, and how to proceed when facing a given
situation.
On the other hand, service delivery will teach you what service delivery is all about, and how to manage
your company’ IT capacity as well as you fnances, service continuity and availability management.
All in all, an ITIL Foundation Certifcation in IT Service Management will give you a clear understanding
of how your business, the customers, the management processes and the industry standards all come
together to form a coherent whole.
28
How does ITIL help?
;For any IT organization to be successful, it must align itself to the industry it supports by offering optimal
service at a minimal cost.
ITIL offers the exact framework required by our clients, regardless of their industry, outlining the common
optimum processes for all IT processes and emphasizing on regular monitoring in the face of a changing
business environment.
This observation is in line with the fast growing needs of any industry that needs a basic methodology or
framework for consistent business ethics, processes and service, globally.
And this is where ITIL, the IT Infrastructure Library comes into prominence.
Not only does ITIL determine and guide the IT best practices, it also offers a structure and method for
processes and goals at the management level, allowing it to be termed as a Framework’.
Any business that employs IT globally today, fnds it advantageous to adopt and align itself to the ITIL
frame.
The ITIL framework is available on a public domain and is essentially available in a series of books and
information that provide guidance on the IT services and their quality provisions.
The ITIL Framework was developed in the late 1980’s and since then has become the worldwide de
facto standard in Service Management.
Today, it forms the basis for any consultancy, education and training software tools.
ITIL addresses eight principal business topics for the industry.
These include: Service Support; Service Delivery; Security Management; Planning to Implement Service
Management; ICT Infrastructure Management; Applications Management; Software Asset Management;
The Business Perspective.
Despite providing a general methodology, ITIL does not mandatorily guide day-to-day activities.
This makes it fexible so that any industry can individualize and customize it to their context and corpo-
rate needs.
At the same time, it promotes the use of best practices that can be uniformly adhered to by different busi-
nesses in line with their key objectives.
The convenience and ease of this framework of proven best practice allows organizations to use ITIL
with existing methods and activities in Service Management.
Using ITIL does not insist upon a radically changed way of action and thought.
It only provides a framework as a structured content Since the late 1990’s ITIL has become a world de
facto standard for Service Management.
29
Since its inception, the ITIL framework has been available on the public domain, but is copy write pro-
tected.
ITIL guidelines have been used across industries including government bodies, central agencies, public
utilities, infrastructure, retail, fnance etc, making it easily accessible to both small and large units.
The Service Management of ITIL
The Information Technology Infrastructure Library is composed of six sets of best standard books.
One of the sets is the IT Service Management which is divided into two areas, the Service Support and
the Service Delivery.
Even if ITIL is consist of many areas, it certainly focuses on the area of IT service management.
The two areas that are mentioned are consist of different disciplines that are responsible for the effec-
tiveness of the management of the IT services.
There are some questions that can be used as guide to manage the services properly.
Is the measurement of the IT results based on the outcome of the business? Can problems be identi-
fed and solved even before it threatens the goal of the business? Can the manager control the risks in
the business due to the changes that may either be planned or unplanned? Does the manager have the
right control of the processes regarding service management and can he comply with the requirements?
It must be remembered that businesses today must have a strong foundation to respond to the growing
demand for growth, competitive threats, mergers, changes in the market and regulatory compliance.
Due to these different demands, IT departments are looking and developing more ways to meet with all
the demands and implement it in a cost-effective and sustainable way.
IT departments turn to the IT service management framework of ITIL for this kinds of processes.
However, it must also be remembered that the service management of ITIL is not a solution but a frame-
work.
It only tells the things that should be done but not the solution on how to do it.
ITIL are sets of standard and best practices.
Features of Any Standard ITIL Service Delivery Case
ITIL service delivery is an IT management fundamental.
Service delivery is concerned specifcally with the ability of the service provider to supply the services
offered to the client organization.
Particularly, it deals with the required elements in providing the service like continuity, security, availabil-
ity, and fnancial capacity as well as the necessity of IT transportation capacity.
Here is a brief summary of the main aspects of the methods for service delivery defned by ITIL stand-
30
ards: The frst part is grouped into three classifcations: The Customers who are the party responsible for
contracting IT services and listing down the IT projects given to the right service provider account; The
Users the people who are responsible for using the IT services in question so they can function in their
assigned tasks within their employer organization; and The Organization this is the IT group which is
said to be the client for the IT services provided by the service provider.
The second part in service delivery involves service level management.
This means defning the IT services given as formally stated in the service level agreements, and identi-
fying operations dealing with what the customers need, and computing the costs.
The people tasked with service level management are also responsible for making reports based on the
quality of service.
The third part is called CMDB (or confguration management database) which deals with the detailed
information about system confguration of systems like hardware and software.
It also tackles the interrelationship between the different confgurations of these items.
Fourth part is devoted to availability management, which is basically about making sure that the IT ser-
vice provider can always be available and reliable with IT services properly maintained to ensure good
service.
The ffth part, which is based on capacity management, will require staff to draw up capacity plans, moni-
tor IT performance, and even simulate capacity requirements.
It is responsible for computing supply since the staff have to predict what is needed.
The sixth part lists the area of fnancial management, where its people are responsible for measuring the
fnancial cost of the service and tagging the preferred service provider who can offer a reasonable price.
The last part gives information about IT Service Continuity Management that evaluates, and draws up
contingency plans, so that the service provider can assure the rapid recovery of the service when disas-
trous and severe faults in the IT infrastructure rear their ugly head.
Specialist Training
IT Service Management
Implementing effective IT Service Management within the organization will support the Help Desk and
provide staff with the tools they need to achieve high quality customer service.
The term IT Service Management is used in many ways by different management frameworks and the
organizations that seek to use them.
While there are variations across these different sources of guidance, common elements for defning
ITSM include:
• Description of the processes required to deliver and support IT Services for customers
• A focus on delivering and supporting the technology or products needed by the business to meet key
organizational objectives or goals
• Defnition of roles and responsibilities for the people involved, including IT staff, customers and other
31
stakeholders
• The management of external suppliers (partners) involved in the delivery and support of the technology
and products being delivered and supported by IT
The combination of these elements provide the capabilities required for an IT organization to deliver and
support quality IT Services that meet specifc business needs and requirements.
Formal defnitions of ITSM defne it as:
“a set of specialized organizational capabilities for providing value to customers in the form of services”.
These organizational capabilities are infuenced by the needs and requirements of customers, the culture
that exists within the service organization, and the intangible nature of the output and intermediate prod-
ucts of IT services.
However, IT Service Management comprises of more than just these capabilities alone; it is comple-
mented by an industry of professional practice and wealth of knowledge, experience and skills.
The ITIL® framework has been developed as a major source of good practice in Service Management
and is used by organizations worldwide to establish and improve their ITSM practices.
5.1.1 The Four Perspectives (Attributes) of ITSM
There are four perspectives (the 4Ps) or attributes that are important to consider in order for IT Service
Management to be successful.
Partners/Suppliers Perspective: Takes into account the importance of Partner and External Supplier rela-
tionships and how they contribute to Service Delivery.
It will help to ensure that suppliers deliver value for money and provide services that are clearly aligned
to business requirements.
People Perspective: Concerned with the “soft” side of ITSM.
This requires IT staff, customers, and other stakeholders to understand the purpose of ITSM and how it
should be used within the organization.
Training and education should be provided to ensure staff members have the correct skills, knowledge,
and motivation to perform their roles.
Products/Technology Perspective: Takes into account the quality of IT services themselves and all tech-
nology architectures (hardware & software) required to provision them.
Technology should be leveraged to both support and drive strategic opportunities for the business.
Process Perspective: Relates to the end-to-end delivery of services based on process fows.
By having clearly established processes (with documentation, guidelines, and other supporting tools), it
will enable a more consistent, repeatable, and measurable approach to the management of services.
Quality IT Service Management ensures that all of these four perspectives are taken into account as part
of the continual improvement of the IT organization.
32
It is the same when designing new or modifed Services in that these four perspectives need to be con-
sidered and catered for in order to enable success in its design, transition and eventual use by custom-
ers.
5.1.2 Benefts of ITSM
While the benefts of applying IT Service Management practices vary depending on the organization’s
needs, some typical benefts include:
• Improved quality service provision
• Cost-justifable service quality
• Design of services that meet business, customer, and user demands
• Integrated and centralized processes
• Transparency of the roles and responsibilities for service provision
• Continual improvement, incorporating ‘lessons learned’ into future endeavors
• Measurable quality, performance, and effciency attributes
It is also important to consider the range of stakeholders who can beneft from improved ITSM practices.
As perspectives will differ for each stakeholder, the benefts provided by enhanced ITSM practices may
apply to one or more of the following parties:
• Senior management
• Business unit managers
• Customers
• End users
• IT staff
• Suppliers
• Shareholders
5.1.3 Business and IT Alignment
A common theme in any IT Service Management framework is to enable and demonstrate business and
IT alignment.
When staff members of an IT organization have only an internal focus on the technology being delivered
and supported, they lose sight of the actual purpose and beneft that their efforts deliver to the business
and customers.
One way in which to communicate how IT supports the business is to use Figure 3.B (on the next page),
which demonstrates business and IT alignment.
Figure 3.B divides an organization into a number of supporting layers that work towards meeting a num-
ber of organizational goals.
These layers are communicated by the following:
Organization: What are the key strategic goals and objectives for the organization? These objectives
defne who we are as an organization and where we want to be in the future.
CORE Business Processes: These are represented by the repeatable business activities that produce
desirable results for the business.
Without these results, the organizational objectives defned above would not be supported or achieved.
33
IT Service Organization: Defnes the IT Services and supporting infrastructure that is required to enable
the effective and effcient execution of the business processes above.
IT Services are used by the business to facilitate and enhance outcomes, including improved effciency
of operations or ensuring accuracy in the records and information being managed.
IT Service Management: Made up by the repeatable, managed and controlled processes used by the IT
department that enable quality and effciency in the delivery and support of the IT Services above.
IT Technical Activities: The actual technical activities required as part of the execution of the ITSM pro-
cesses above.
ITSM is utilized to ensure that any resources and effort spent performing the technical activities are opti-
mized according to the greatest business need or reward.
As these activities are technology specifc (EG confguring application server), they will not be a focus of
this book’s content.
Each layer within this structure is utilized to support the layer(s) above.
At the same time, each layer will in some way infuence the layer below them.
For example, a business process that is required to be executed at all times without disruptions (EG
emergency health services) would result in highly resilient IT services being implemented, supported by
ITSM processes that reduce the risk and impact of disruptions occurring.
Our Business: A fashion store

• We want to increase profts by 15% each year
• We want to have a good image and reputation with a loyal customer base
What Business Processes aid in achieving those objectives?
• Retail/sales
• Marketing
• Manufacturing
• Procurement, HR, fnance etc
What IT Services do these business processes dependent on?
• Websites (internal and external)
• Communication services (email, video conferencing)
• Automatic procurement system for buying products
• Point of Sale Services
We have ITSM in order to make sure the IT Services are:
• What we need (Service Level Management, Capacity Management etc)
• Available when we need it (Availability Management, Incident Management etc)
• Provisioned cost-effectively (Financial Management, Service Level Management)
If we don’t manage the IT Services appropriately, we cannot rely on these services to be available when
we need them.
If too many disruptions occur, we cannot adequately support our business processes effectively and ef-
34
fciently.
If the business processes are not operating as they should, we will ultimately fail to support and achieve
our overall organization’s objectives.
Also note the relationship between IT Service Management processes and the technical activities below.
Used properly, ITSM processes can optimize the time, effort, and other resources spent performing tech-
nical activities, ensuring that all staff actions are working in accordance to agreed business priorities and
objectives.
This is just a simple example used to illustrate the relationship between ITSM and the organization.
Any approach used to improve ITSM practices should always be carefully considered to ensure that the
plans suit the organization, in terms of:
• Size (number of staff, customers, IT devices etc)
• Geographical dispersion
• Culture and ethos
• Current maturity and capability levels
5.1.4 Good Practices
Ignoring public frameworks and standards can needlessly place an organization at a disadvantage.
organizations should seek to cultivate their own proprietary knowledge on top of a body of knowledge
developed from using public frameworks and standards.
Public frameworks (ITIL, COBIT, CMMI etc): Frameworks are scaled and adapted by the organization
when implemented, rather than following a prescriptive set of practices (standards).
Examples of public frameworks for ITSM include:
• ITIL ®
• COBIT—The Control Objectives for Information and related Technology
• Capability Maturity Model Integrated (CMMI) for IT Services
Standards: Usually a formal document that establishes uniform engineering or technical criteria, meth-
ods, processes, and practices.
Unlike frameworks, they are prescriptive in declaring mandatory elements that must be demonstrated.
Examples of standards relating to ITSM are:
• ISO/IEC 20000—International Standard for IT Service Management
• ISO/IEC 27001—International Standard for Information Security Management Systems
Proprietary knowledge of organizations and individuals: Specifc expertise developed for internal pur-
poses or developed in order to sell to other organizations (EG Gartner)
Generally good practices are defned as those formalized as a result of being successful in wide-industry
use.
ITIL® stands for the Information Technology Infrastructure Library.
ITIL® is the international de facto management framework describing “good practices” for IT Service
35
Management.
The ITIL® framework evolved from the UK government’s efforts during the 1980s to document how suc-
cessful organizations approached service management.
By the early 1990s they had produced a large collection of books documenting the “best practices” for IT
Service Management.
This library was eventually entitled the IT Infrastructure Library.
The Offce of Government Commerce in the UK continues to operate as the trademark owner of ITIL®.
ITIL® has gone through several evolutions and was most recently refreshed with the release of version 3
in 2007.
Through these evolutions, the scope of practices documented has increased in order to stay current with
the continued maturity of the IT industry and meet the needs and requirements of the ITSM professional
community.
ITIL® is only one of many sources for ITSM good practices and should be used to complement any other
set of practices being used by an organization.
Five volumes make up the IT Infrastructure Library (Version 3).
• Service Strategy
• Service Design
• Service Transition
• Service Operation
• Continual Service Improvement
Each volume provides the guidance necessary for an integrated approach and addresses the direct
impact of capabilities on a service provider’s performance.
The structure of the ITIL framework is that of the service lifecycle.
It ensures organizations are able to leverage capabilities in one area for learning and improvements in
others.
The framework is used to provide structure, stability, and strength to service management capabilities
with durable principles, methods, and tools.
This enables service providers to protect investments and provide the necessary basis for measurement,
learning, and improvement.
In addition to the core publications, there is also ITIL Complimentary Guidance.
This consists of a complimentary set of publications with guidance specifc to industry sectors, organiza-
tion types, operating models, and technology architectures.
At present, this complimentary guidance is available by subscription from http://www.bestpracticelive.
com.
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5.2 Common Terminology
The need to speak a common language with other IT staff, customers, end-users, and other involved
stakeholders is critical to a Help Desk Analyst’s ability to deliver and support IT services in a consistent
fashion.
This chapter documents the important common terminology that is used throughout the majority of IT
organizations world-wide.
Terminology Explanations
IT Service Management A set of specialized organizational capabilities for providing value to customers
in the form of services
Capabilities An organization, person, process, application, CI or IT service’s abilitiy to carry out an activ-
ity.
Capabilities can be described as the functions and processes utilized to manage services.
These are intangible assets of an organization that cannot be purchased, but must be developed and
matured over time.
The ITSM set of organizational capabilities aims to enable the effective and effcient delivery of services
to customers.
Resources A generic term that encompasses anything that may help to deliver an IT service.
It can include things like IT Infrastructure, people, and money.
Unlike capabilities, resources are considered to be tangible assets of an organization.
Process A set of coordinated activities combining and implementing resources and capabilities in order
to produce an outcome and provide value to customers or stakeholders.
Processes are strategic assets when they create competitive advantage and market differentiation.
They may defne roles, responsibilities, tools, management controls, policies, standards, guidelines,
activities, and work instructions if they are needed.
Service Used as a way of delivering value to customers.
Services facilitate the outcomes that customers want to achieve, and they do this without the ownership
of specifc costs or risks.
The role of the Service Provider is to manage these costs and risks appropriately, spreading them over
multiple customers if possible.
Functions Are made up of people and tools.
These people (usually a team or group) use the tools to carry out processes and activities.
Functions provide units of organization responsible for specifc outcomes.
ITIL® Functions covered include:
Help desk
Technical Management
Application Management
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IT Operations Management
Process Owner The person or role that is responsible for ensuring processes are ft for their desired
purpose and is accountable for the outputs of that process.
Example: The owner for the Availability Management Process
Service Owner The person or role accountable for the delivery of a specifc IT Service.
They are responsible for continual improvement and management of change affecting services under
their care.
Example: The owner of the Payroll Service
Process Manager The person or role that is responsible for the operational management of a process.
It is possible to have several managers who are responsible for the one process.
This role reports to the Process Owner.
Internal Service Providers An internal service provider that is embedded within a business unit, EG one
IT organization within each of the business units.
The key factor is that the IT Services provide a source of competitive advantage in the market space in
which the business exists.
Shared Service Providers An internal service provider that provides shared IT service to more than one
business unit, EG one IT organization to service all businesses in an umbrella organization.
IT Services for this provider do not normally provide a source of competitive advantage, but instead sup-
port effective and effcient business processes across an organization.
External Service Providers Service provider that provides IT services to external customers, EG provid-
ing internet hosting solutions for multiple customers.
Business Case A decision support and planning tool that projects the likely consequences of a business
action.
Signifcant items of expenditure can be justifed using this tool, which includes information about costs,
benefts, options, issues, risks, and possible problems.
5.2.1 What are Services?
The concept of IT Services as opposed to IT components is central to understanding the Service Lifecy-
cle and IT Service Management principles in general.
It requires not just a learned set of skills but also a way of thinking that often challenges the traditional in-
stincts of IT workers to focus on the individual components (typically the applications or hardware under
their care) that make up the IT infrastructure.
Instead, the mindset requires an alternative outlook to be maintained, incorporating the ‘end-to-end ser-
vice’ perspective for what the organization actually provides to its customers.
A service is “a means of delivering value to customers by facilitating outcomes customers want to
achieve without the ownership of specifc costs or risks”.
But what does this actually mean? The following analogy explains some of the key concepts in a way
that most (food lovers) will understand.
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While most people do enjoy cooking, there are often times when they wish to enjoy quality food without
the time and effort required to prepare a meal.
If they were to cook, they would need to go to a grocery store, buy the ingredients, take these ingredi-
ents home, prepare and cook the meal, set the table, and, of course, clean up the kitchen afterwards.
The alternative is that they can go to a restaurant that delivers a service that provides them with the
same outcome (a nice meal) without the time, effort and general fuss required if they were to cook it
themselves.
Now consider how that person would identify the quality and value of that service being provided.
It is not just the quality of the food itself that will infuence their perceptions, but also:
• The cleanliness of the restaurant
• The friendliness and customer service skills of the waiters and other staff
• The ambience of the restaurant (lighting, music, decorations etc)
• The time taken to receive the meal (and was it what they asked for?)
• Did they offer a choice of beverages?
If any one of these factors does not meet the person’s expectations, then ultimately the perceived quality
and value delivered to them as a customer is negatively impacted.
Now, relate this to an IT staff member’s role in provisioning an IT Service.
If they focus only on the application or hardware elements provided and forget or ignore the importance
of the surrounding elements that make up the end-to-end service, just like in the example of the restau-
rant, the customer experience and perceived quality and value will be negatively impacted.
But if they take a service-oriented perspective, they also ensure that:
• Communication with customers and end users is effectively maintained
• Appropriate resolution times are maintained for end user and customer enquiries
• Transparency and visibility of the IT organization and where money is being spent is maintained
• The IT organization works proactively to identify potential problems that should be rectifed or improve-
ment actions that could be made
When using these principles, every phone call to the Help Desk or email request for a password reset
presents an opportunity to demonstrate service excellence and a commitment to our customers.
5.2.2 Processes and Functions
Defning Processes
Processes can be defned as a structured set of coordinated activities designed to produce an outcome
and provide value to customers or stakeholders.
A process takes one or more inputs and, through the activities performed, turns them into defned out-
puts.
Some principles:
• All processes should be measurable and performance-driven (not just in regards to time taken, but
39
measuring overall effciency, including cost, effort and other resources used)
• All processes produce specifc results that create value
• Processes are strategic assets when they create competitive advantage and market differentiation
• Processes may defne roles, responsibilities, tools, management controls, policies, standards, guide-
lines, activities and work instructions, if they are needed
A process owner is the person responsible for ensuring that the process is ft for the desired purpose and
is accountable for the outputs of that process.
A process manager is the person responsible for the operational management of a process.
There may be several managers for the one process, or the same person may be both the process
owner and process manager (typically in smaller organizations).
In addition to the tangible components of processes (documentation, tools etc), there are behavio-
ral components that are, for the most part, intangible and are part of an underlying pattern so deeply
embedded and recurrent that it is displayed by most members of the organization and includes decision
making, communication and learning processes.
Behavioral components have no independent existence apart from the work processes in which they
appear, but, at the same time, they greatly affect and impact the form, substance, and character of activi-
ties and subsequent outputs by shaping how they are carried out.
So when defning and designing processes, it is important to consider the physical and behavioral as-
pects that exist.
This may be addressed by ensuring that all required stakeholders (EG staff members, customers, and
users etc) are appropriately involved in the design of processes so that:
• They can communicate their own ideas, concerns, and opinions that might infuence the way in which
processes are designed, implemented and improved—of particular importance may be current behaviors
that have not been previously identifed, which may affect the process design and implementation.
• Stakeholder groups are provided adequate training and education regarding how to perform their role
within the process and what value the process provides for
• Stakeholders generally feel empowered in the change being developed and, therefore, are more likely
to respond positively, rather than actively or passively resisting the organizational changes occurring
Defning Functions
Functions refer to the logical grouping of roles and automated measures that execute a defned process,
an activity, or combination of both.
The functions that will be discussed within the Service Operation phase are needed to manage the
‘steady state’ operation IT environment.
Just like in many sporting activities where each player will have a specifc role to play in the overall team
strategy, IT functions defne the different roles and responsibilities required for the overall design, deliv-
ery, and management of IT Services.
RACI Model
It is said that processes are perfect…until people get involved.
This saying comes from the perceived failure of processes in many organizations, which can frequently
40
be attributed to misunderstanding between the people involved and a lack of clarity regarding the roles
and responsibilities that exist.
The RACI Model is a useful tool that can assist with the defnition of the roles and responsibilities when
designing processes.
RACI stands for:
R—Responsibility (does the work for that activity but reports to the function or position that has an “A”
against it)
A—Accountability (is made accountable for ensuring that the action takes place, even if they might not
do it themselves.
This role implies ownership.)
C—Consult (advice/guidance/information can be gained from this function or position prior to the action
taking place)
I—Inform (the function or position that is told about the event after it has happened)
A RACI Model is used to defne the roles and responsibilities of various functions in relation to the activi-
ties of Incident Management.
General rules that exist:
• Only 1 “A” per row can be defned (ensures accountability, more than one “A” would confuse this)
• At least 1 “R” per row must be defned (shows that actions are taking place) with more than one being
appropriate where there is shared responsibility
In the example RACI model given, the Help Desk is both responsible and accountable for ensuring that
incidents are logged and classifed but not responsible for the subsequent investigation, which in this
case will be performed by other functional teams.

5.3 Service Delivery Principles
5.3.1 IT Service Catalogue
The IT Service Catalogue is developed as part of Service Level Management process.
Imagine walking into a restaurant for lunch, only to fnd there is no menu available for you to peruse.
How will the staff provide you with information about what options are available to you? How will you
know what ingredients and items are included with each meal? What will the price be of those meals?
What about drinks or other items? Even if you manage to be served by a very effcient waiter who can
recite everything to you fawlessly, how will you manage the large infux of information in such a small
time and be able to choose what you want?
41
While this example may be far removed from the running of an IT organization, the principles remain the
same.
A restaurant is in business to provide dining services to customers, and, through the use of their menu
and the knowledge and skills of staff, customers can understand what is available to them and make ef-
fective choices in a simple manner.
As an IT service provider, we are in the business of providing IT services to our customers, but what
mechanisms do we use to make these transactions simple yet effective for all parties?
For most IT organizations, the Service Catalogue provides this mechanism, and, in many ways, it serves
as the foundation for much of the work involved within the scope of Service Offerings and Agreements.
Without some agreed defnition of what services we offer, what those services provide, and which
customers we provide them to, the development and management of Service Portfolios, Service Level
Agreements, IT budgets, and other related items become all the more diffcult, and things only get worse
as time progresses.

But it is not enough to simply have some form of Service Catalogue.
We must also seek to ensure that the Service Catalogue is continually maintained and updated to con-
tain correct, appropriate, and relevant information to assist communication and transactions with custom-
ers.
Scope of a Service Catalogue
The scope of the Service Catalogue is to provide and maintain accurate information on all services that
are being transitioned or have been transitioned to the live environment.
This requires the service provider to perform such tasks as:
• Defnition of the service (what is being provided?)
• Production and maintenance of accurate Service Catalogue information
• Development and maintenance of the interfaces and dependencies between the Service Catalogue
and Service Portfolio, ensuring consistency between the two items
• Identifcation and documentation of the interfaces and dependencies between all services (and support-
ing services) within the Service Catalogue and Confguration Management System (CMS)
• Identifcation and documentation of the interfaces and dependencies between all services, supporting
components, and Confguration Items (CIs) within the Service Catalogue and the CMS
Depending on the number and complexity of services offered, the size of the customer and end user
population, and what objectives have been defned for the process, these activities and items may have
a little or great deal of reliance on technology to be effective.
Benefts
By ensuring the development and constant upkeep of an accurate Service Catalogue, many benefts will
be delivered to both customers and the IT organization, including:
• An accepted, widely accessible, and consistent central source of information
• All areas of the business can view an accurate, well communicated picture of all IT services, their de-
tails, and status
• Contains a customer-facing view of IT services in use, how they are intended to be used, business
processes they enable, and the quality of service to be expected
42
• Resources required for Service Level Management and other associated processes or staff in manag-
ing communication with customers in relation to information already captured by the Service Catalogue
is reduced
What should the Service Catalogue Represent?
The starting point for any Service Catalogue journey is to begin identifying what services are being pro-
vided and who are the customers of these services.
While it sounds simple enough, for an organization with a long history and a large amount of customers,
there will often be a lack of clarity in this regard, resulting in confusion and debate about what constitutes
a service.
From an IT perspective, many staff will typically identify IT systems, such as software or applications, as
being the service offered to customers.
In other cases, the service will be seen to be composed of multiple services (which in turn are formed by
one or more IT systems).
Looking at services from only an IT perspective leads to a dangerous path and is likely to cause more
problems in the process.
Instead, the recommended starting point is to look at things from the customer perspective.
This is normally performed by asking customers what they perceive to be the IT services they are utiliz-
ing and how they map onto and support their business processes.
Just like the design of services should be coordinated in a top-down approach, so should the associated
defnition for inclusion in the Service Catalogue.
Regardless of exactly how this occurs, each organization needs to develop a policy defning what consti-
tutes a service and how it is defned and agreed within their own organization.
The top-down approach may lead to the creation of a service hierarchy, qualifying types of services such
as:
• Business services—that which is actually used and seen by the customer
• Supporting services, including further defnition as:
o Infrastructure services
o Application services
o Network services
o Data Management services
• Shared and commodity services
• Externally provided services—those provided/managed by a third party organization.
As the defnition of services begins to occur, consideration should be made as to who the customers of
these services are.
Eventually, through a cycle of discussions with customers, a clearer picture will emerge, providing the
beginnings of a Business Service Catalogue.
Customers
Services Accounts Sales Marketing Legal Production Retail
EG Accounts System ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢
EG Email ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢
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EG Intranet ➢ ➢ ➢
EG Internet ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢
Service x
Service x
Service x
Figure 6.C—Identifying customers of defned services
In the earlier stages of process implementation, the Service Catalogue will normally be recorded by
means of a matrix, table, or spreadsheet.
However, as time progresses and the maturity of Service Management develops, many organizations will
begin to integrate and maintain their Service Catalogues (and Service Portfolios) as part of the Confgu-
ration Management Systems.
When this occurs and services are represented as a Confguration Item (CI), it provides the capability for
identifying and relating the effect of incidents and problems on services offered.
As this becomes more widely adopted throughout more Service Management activities, the need to
ensure that modifcations to the Service Portfolio and Service Catalogue are controlled by Change Man-
agement signifcantly increases.
After the investigation and defnition of services occur and discussions are held with customers, IT staff,
and external suppliers, the information and knowledge gathered will be structured to produce a meaning-
ful Service Catalogue.
In effect, the knowledge and information of the Service Catalogue is logically divided into two aspects:
• A Business Service Catalogue: Which contains details of all the IT services defned in the context of
customers, together with relationships to the business units and the business process they support.
This information is utilized to form the customer view of the Service Catalogue using appropriate commu-
nication (language, use of business terminology, not overly technical) to ensure its effectiveness.
In cases where the customer is an IT organization themselves, the technical level of detail provided
should be appropriately expanded.
• A Technical Service Catalogue: Also contains details of all the IT services delivered to the customer,
but, by comparison, the Technical Service Catalogue includes records of the relationships that exist with
other supporting services, shared services, components, and Confguration Items necessary for the
delivery of the service to the business.
The Technical Service Catalogue should underpin the Business Service Catalogue and is not always vis-
ible to customers and users unless specifcally requested.
In many cases, the Technical Service Catalogue is formed largely by the information contained within the
Confguration Management System.
While more extravagant implementations of the Service Catalogue delivered via extensive internet/
intranet solutions will maintain both aspects in an integrated fashion, less mature organizations may
choose to maintain these separately.
Regardless of the implementation method, the key requirement is that the desired information is easily
44
accessible by the authorized parties and communicated in a form that is appropriate for the audience.
5.3.2 Service Level Agreements
Once an IT Service Catalogue has been developed, it can be used to help with the development of any
Service Level Agreements (SLAs), which are also developed during the Service Design Phase.
Although SLAs are implemented in a wide variety of fashions, the guiding principle is that they are a writ-
ten agreement between an IT service provider and the IT customer(s), defning the key service targets
and responsibilities of both parties.
The key word here is agreement, in that SLAs should not be used as a way of holding one side or the
other to ransom.
When SLAs are viewed positively as a way of continually improving the relationship between provider
and customers, mutually benefcial agreements will be developed, rather than the development of con-
tracts as part of a ‘blame culture’ by both parties.
The typical contents for an SLA include:
• An introduction to the SLA
• Service description
• Mutual responsibilities
• Scope of SLA
• Applicable service hours (EG Monday to Saturday, 6am to 6pm)
• Service availability (EG 99% during agreed service hours)
• Reliability (EG no more than 2 disruptions totalling 30 mins in a working week)
• Customer support arrangements
• Contact points and escalation
• Service performance
• Batch turnaround times
• Security
• Costs and charging method used
The key criteria for any information contained within an SLA is that it must be measureable with clear
and concise language in order to aid understanding.
As already discussed, SLAs are not used as legal documents for imposing penalties, otherwise it con-
ficts with the goal of improving relationships between customers and the IT service provider.
Another mistake made by organizations in implementing SLAs is that they become too long and techni-
cally focused.
When this occurs, there is potential for misunderstanding or even for the SLA to go unread.
To assist in ensuring these guidelines are followed, it is useful to have an independent party who has not
been involved with the SLA negotiation and development to do a fnal read-through.
By doing so, it might highlight potential ambiguities and diffculties that can be addressed and clarifed.
45
Service Level Agreement Structures
Due to the wide range of services, customers, and business to be addressed by Service Level Manage-
ment, consideration should be made as to which SLA structure will most appropriately meet the organi-
zation’s needs.
The three common approaches include Service-based, Customer-based and Multi-level SLAs.
Service-based SLA
This structure involves the documentation of an SLA for each service with the SLA covering all the cus-
tomers of that service.
For example, a Point of Sale (POS) service will have an SLA created that covers all the customers who
use the POS as part of the retail business processes.
The service-based SLA is usually preferred by IT as it allows a single document to cover a single service
for all customers of that service.
It means less administration time spent in negotiating different documents with different customers and
less time spent on worrying about accommodating different requirements amongst users.
However, there are potential disadvantages that may arise as a result of a service-based structure.
These include:
• Diffculties faced when there are varying requirements across the customers involved for a service
• Deciding which customers will sign such an agreement as it may not be appropriate or feasible for all to
sign
In cases where there is a fairly consistent level of service required across all customers (such as e-mail),
then service-based SLAs may be an effcient structure to use.
The defnition of multiple classes of service (EG Gold, Silver and Bronze offerings) may also be used
within a service-based SLA to enable some fexibility in offerings.
Customer-based SLAs
For this structure, an SLA is documented for a specifc customer covering all of the services that the IT
organization provides to them.
In effect, this means that, if the IT organization is providing services to ten different customers (EG Hu-
man Resources, Sales and Marketing, Finance etc), then there would be a requirement for the creation
of ten SLAs.
In most cases, this is the preferred option for customers as it details all their specifc requirements in a
single document.
The potential disadvantage in using customer-based SLAs may occur when there are common require-
ments for services across most customers.
This could result in the duplication of effort in defning and documenting SLAs for each customer.
If this is the case, a combination of both of these structures may be appropriate, providing all services
and customers are covered with no overall duplication.
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Multi-level SLAs
Some organizations have chosen to adopt a multi-level SLA structure where each layer has a different
level of focus.
While the layers chosen should be appropriate to most effectively meet the organization’s needs, a com-
mon approach to multi-level SLAs is as follows:
• Corporate Level: Covers all generic SLA issues to every customer throughout the organization.
These targets should be set at a suffciently high level to serve as a benchmark for all new services
introduced.
• Customer Level: Covers all SLA issues relevant to a particular customer group or business unit, regard-
less of the service being used
• Service Level: Covers all SLA issues relevant to the specifc service, in relation to a specifc customer
group
Other feasible options that could be used for multi-level SLAs include:
• Geographic region: Covering all customers in that region.
This is useful for international organizations where there are varying requirements between the regions
that are served.
• Organization: Covering all customers that exist within an organization that is being provided with ser-
vices.
More specifc details can then be provided at the customer level
• User group: Covering all services being provided to a particular user group
• Premium, Enhanced, and Standard: Where customers are defned, instead, in terms of the level of
service being offered
This kind of structure allows SLAs to be kept to a manageable size, avoids unnecessary duplication, and
reduces the need for frequent updates.

5.4 Service Operation Principles

The Service Operation stage will be the primary focus for a Help Desk Analyst with the majority of their
role being performed within the live environment.
Successful Service Operation requires coordination and execution of the activities and processes re-
quired to deliver and manage services at agreed levels to business users and customers.
Service Operation is also responsible for ongoing management of the technology that is used to deliver
and support services.
One of Service Operation’s key roles is dealing with the confict between maintaining the status quo,
adapting to the changing business and technological environments, and achieving a balance between
conficting sets of priorities.
5.4.1 Objectives
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The primary objective of Service Operation is to enable effectiveness and effciency in delivery and sup-
port of IT services.
Strategic objectives are ultimately realized through Service Operations, therefore, making it a critical
capability.
This lifecycle phase provides guidance on:
• How to provide stability in Service Operations, allowing for changes in design, scale, scope, and ser-
vice levels
• Service Operation process guidelines, methods, and tools for use in two major control perspectives:
reactive and proactive.
• Supporting operations through new models and architectures, such as shared services, utility comput-
ing, web services, and mobile commerce.
5.4.2 Service Operation Functions
“Know your role, do your job”
Team motto describing the goal for every player, coach, and general staff member of the Kansas City
Chiefs.
Functions refer to the people (or roles) and automated measures that execute a defned process, activity,
or combination of both.
The functions within Service Operation are needed to manage the ‘steady state’ operation IT environ-
ment.
Just like in sports, where each player will have a specifc role to play in the overall team strategy, IT func-
tions defne the different roles and responsibilities required for the overall Service Delivery and Support
of IT Services.
Note: These are logical functions, which are not necessarily performed by equivalent organizational
structure.
Due to this, any combination and any number of departments can include aspects of Technical and Ap-
plication Management.
Technical Management includes activities that are performed by the lower groupings (EG Mainframe,
Server), which are not suggested organizational structures.
5.4.3 The Help Desk
Goal and objectives
The primary goal of the Help Desk (also referred to as a Service Desk) is to support the agreed IT ser-
vice provision by ensuring the accessibility and availability of the IT organization by performing various
supporting activities.
Other objectives include:
• To act as a single point of contact for all user incidents, requests and general communication
• To restore normal service operation as quickly as possible in the case of disruption
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• To improve user awareness of IT issues and to promote appropriate use of IT services and resources
• To assist the other IT functions by managing user communication and escalating incidents and requests
using defned procedures
The Help Desk typically manages its requests via help desk software, such as an incident tracking sys-
tem that allows them to track user requests with a unique ticket number.
Help desk organizational structures
Many factors will infuence the way in which a help desk function will be physically structured, such as
the location, languages and cultures of end users, diversity in services and technology supported, and
the objectives governing the implementation of the Help Desk, such as improved satisfaction or reduced
operating costs.
The following are some of the main options chosen when implementing a help desk function.

Local Help Desk
A local Help Desk structure is where the Help Desk is located within the user community.
It also includes Help Desks that may not be located in but are physically close to the user community.
The close proximity to users aids communication and allows users to physically see and interact with the
Help Desk, which is a beneft for many Help Desk users.
A downside to this structure is that it can be ineffcient and expensive to have multiple help desks operat-
ing.

Figure 7.C—The local help desk structure
Benefts of a local help desk structure Disadvantages of a local help desk structure
Local and specifc user knowledge
Ability to effectively communicate with multiple languages
Appropriate cultural knowledge
Visible (and physical) presence of the Help Desk Higher costs for replicated infrastructure and more staff
involved
Less knowledge transfer, each Help Desk may spend time rediscovering knowledge
Inconsistency in service levels and reporting
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Help Desks may be focused on local issues.
Centralized Help Desk
A centralized structure uses a Help Desk in a single location (or smaller number of locations).
If necessary, a local presence can be maintained by controlling those staff through the centralized Help
Desk.
This structure can be more effcient as it enables a higher amount of calls to be managed by fewer staff
while also enabling greater visibility of repeat incidents and requests.

Figure 7.D—The centralized help desk structure
Benefts of a centralized help desk structure Disadvantages of a centralized help desk structure
Reduced operational costs
Improved usage of available resources
Consistency of call handling
Improved ability for knowledge sharing
Simplicity for users (call one number) to contact the Help Desk Potentially higher costs and challenges in
handling a 24x7 environment or different timezones
Lack of local knowledge
Possible gaps in language and culture
Higher risk (single point of failure) in case of power loss or other physical threat

Virtual Help Desk
A Virtual Help Desk gives the appearance of a centralized Help Desk; however, in this structure, staff can
be spread throughout multiple locations.
Technology like the Internet provides the capability for this type of structure.

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Figure 7.E—A virtual help desk structure
Benefts of a virtual help desk structure Disadvantages of a virtual help desk structure
• Support for global organizations
• 24x7 support in multiple timezones
• Reduced operational costs
• Improved usage of available resources
• Effective matching of appropriate staff for different types of calls • Initial cost of implementation, requir-
ing diverse and effective voice technology
• Lack in the consistency of service and reporting
• Less effective for monitoring actions of staff
• Staff may feel disconnected from other Help Desk staff.

Follow the sun
A Follow the Sun Help Desk is a combination of Help Desks that are located in a number of geographical
locations (usually done in global or international organizations).
The purpose of this is to provide service 24 hours a day in all locations around the world, IE the Help
Desk in each location will provide service to all users, regardless of location, during their usuall operating
hours.

Figure 7.F—A ‘follow the sun’ help desk structure
Benefts of a ‘follow the sun’ help desk structure Disadvantages of a ‘follow the sun’
help desk structure
• Support for global organizations
• 24x7 support in multiple timezones
• Improved quality of service
• Improved customer/user satisfaction
• Effective knowledge sharing and high level visibility of distributed infrastructure • Typically higher oper-
ating costs
• Cost of required technology
• Challenges in using single language for multiple regions when recording knowledge, workarounds,
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known errors etc.


Skills
Due to the role played by the Help Desk, staff members need to have (or have the ability to develop):
• Communication Skills
• Technical Skills
• Business Understanding
The most important of these three is communication skills, as the primary role of the Help Desk is to
provide a Single Point of Contact between the end-users and the IT organization.
Because of this, they will need to be able to deal effectively with a wide range of people and situations.
Staff Retention
To ensure a balanced mix of experienced and newer staff, Help Desk Managers should use a number of
methods and incentives to retain quality staff and to avoid disruption and inconsistency in the quality of
support offered.
Some ways in which this can be done include:
• Recognition of staff achievements contributing to service quality
• Rotation of staff onto other activities (projects, second-line support etc)
• Team building exercises and celebrations
• Promote the Help Desk as a potential stepping stone for staff to move into other more technical or su-
pervisory roles (after defned time periods and skills achieved)
Self help
Many organizations fnd it benefcial to offer self-help capabilities to their users.
The technology should, therefore, support this capability with the web front-end allowing web pages
to offer a menu-driven range of self help and service requests with a direct interface into the back-end
process-handling software.
This reduces the amount of calls into the Help Desk and is often used as a source for improvements to
effciency.
An example of this is the ability for a customer to track the status of their parcels online when shipped
through a major courier company.
Aside from this, the Help Desk will use many different tools, systems, and other technology components
in order to provide effective and effcient support to end-user calls and requests.
To enable this, typical technology components utilized include:
• Computerized help desk systems
• Voice services (advanced menu systems, voicemail, SMS)
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• Web and email (access, notifcation, updates)
• Systems that contain linkages to SLAs, CMDB
• Access to availability monitoring tools
• Self help for customers using technology
Help desk metrics
To evaluate the true performance of the Help Desk, a balanced range of metrics should be established
and reviewed at regular intervals.
Especially dangerous is the tendency to focus on “average call time” or “number of calls answered” met-
rics, which can mask underlying issues with the quality of support provided.
Some of the typical metrics reviewed when monitoring the performance of the Help Desk include:
• The number of calls to the Help Desk (broken down by type and work period)
• First-line resolution rate
• Average Help Desk cost of handling any incident or request
• Number of knowledgebased articles created
• Number or percentage of SLA breaches
• Call resolution time
• Customer satisfaction (surveys)
• Use of self help (where exists)
Outsourcing the Help Desk
Although fairly common, there are potential risks that can be introduced when outsourcing an organiza-
tion’s Help Desk.
When reviewing the potential for this to occur, Service Managers will consider the following items when
developing contracts to reduce these risks:
• Use of your own Service Management tool, not theirs
• Retain ownership of data
• Ability to maintain required staffng levels
• Agreements on reporting and monitoring needs
• Proven up-to-date procedures
• Agreed and understood support needs
• Engage contract specialists for assistance
5.4.4 Technical Management
Goal and objectives
The primary goal of the Technical Management function is to create and maintain a set of management
disciplines that allow an organization to manage its business processes.
The end result of this is the creation of competitive advantage.
This is achieved through creating cost effective technical architectures, maintaining this architecture
using appropriate technical skills, and ensuring that these skills are implemented and used effectively to
diagnose and resolve technical failures.
Technical support teams or departments provide Technical Management for the IT infrastructure.
A single team or department may be suffcient within small organizations; however, in larger organiza-
tions, each type of infrastructure will require a separate team or department.
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Quite often, these same departments will be given responsibility for the daily operation of a subset of the
IT Infrastructure.
Figure 7.G—Technical Management

Roles and Responsibilities
The role of the Technical Management function is to understand the value of technology within the or-
ganization and manage that technology appropriately.
Technical Management should review current technology and decide when to invest in updates and new
technology for the organization.
Through their technical knowledge, Technical support teams or departments should provide appropriate
technical skills and resources that enable the organization to manage IT infrastructure effectively.
Appropriate, up-to-date training should be provided for those working in technical support teams to en-
sure that they possess current knowledge of and are able to manage all technology within the organiza-
tion.

Figure 7H—Staff making up the Technical Management Function
To enable quality knowledge sharing and continual improvement of services, technology, processes, and
other capabilities, Technical Management staff should develop effective communication channels and
meet regularly to discuss issues or potential ideas.
History demonstrates that quality design requires involvement from those who will be supporting the
product/service, as does quality support require involvement from the designers in turn.
5.4.5 IT Operations Management
Goal and objectives
The primary goal of IT Operations Management is to manage and maintain the IT infrastructure.
To achieve this, the IT Operations Management team carry out operational activities on a day-to-day
basis.
Unlike large projects where activities are often completed once and are seen as long-term, IT Operations
Management involves short-term activities that are usually completed within a day.
54
Each day, these same activities will be repeated in an identical manner.
However, IT Operations Management teams should aim to review these daily activities so that they are
constantly revised and updated to be as effcient and effective as possible.
During reviews, the priority should be to maintain stability.
In some organizations, this is a single, centralized department, while in others some activities and staff
are centralized and some are provided by distributed and specialized departments.
In many cases, the role of IT Operations Management is actually performed by the Technical and Appli-
cation Management functions where required.
Figure 7.I—IT Operations Management
IT Operations Control
One role played by IT Operations Management is that of Operations Control.
Operations Control is often performed from a Network Operations Centre or Bridge, which is a central
location for the management of operational activities.
Operations Control’s primary goal is to monitor and manage activities that support the IT Infrastructure.
In addition to this, Operations Control is responsible for the following:
• Monitoring and Control
• Console Management
• Job Scheduling
• Backup and restores
• Print and Output Management
5.4.6 Facilities Management
Facilities Management involves managing the physical components used within IT.
These normally include buildings such as information processing facilities and server and computer
rooms.
Facilities Management teams should possess knowledge about physical infrastructure and be able to
provide advice about suitable premises.
Some organizations will use the facilities of external parties, and Facilities Management teams will man-
age the contracts between these parties and the organization.
Facilities Management should maintain all physical components to ensure working environments are
safe.

5.4.7 Application Management
Goal and objectives
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Application Management’s primary goal is to develop, maintain, and support quality applications that
enhance the organization’s business processes.
This goal is achieved through ensuring all applications are cost-effective and able to meet the needs of
the business.
Availability of applications is paramount, and technical skills should be used to this end.
Applications should be implemented in a timely manner to ensure disruptions are handled effciently.
Application Management is usually divided into departments based on the application portfolio of the
organization allowing easier specialization and more focused support.
Figure 7.J—Application Management
Roles and Responsibilities
• Managing Applications throughout their lifecycle
• Supports and maintains operational applications and plays an important role in design, testing, and
improvement of applications that form part of IT Services
• Support the organization’s business processes by helping to identify functional and manageability re-
quirements for application software
• Assisting in the decision whether to build or buy an application
• Assist in the design and/or deployment of those applications
• Provide ongoing support and improvement of those applications
• Identify skills required to support the applications
Application Management Lifecycle
Application Development processes should be implemented as part of a coordinated approach to IT
Service Management, although in many cases this fails to happen.
When the development of applications is not integrated with the rest of ITSM, it often leads to a break-
down in communication channels between developers and support staff and, ultimately, the release of
applications that are not optimal in supporting business processes.

5.5 Service Operation Processes
The goal of Service Operation is to enable effectiveness and effciency in delivery and support of IT
services.
The processes that support this goal are:
• Event Management
• Incident Management
• Problem Management
• Request Fulfllment
• Access Management
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Figure 7.K—Where the Service Operation Processes get carried out
The fgure above demonstrates how much responsibility the Help Desk and the Technical Support
Groups (Technical, IT Operations and Application Management functions) have in the Service Operation
Processes.
Incident Management, Request Fulfllment, and Access Management are primarily carried out by the
Help Desk, with Event Management and Problem Management as primarily ‘back-of-house’ processes.

5.5.1 Event Management
Goal and objectives
The goal of Event Management is to provide the capability to detect system events, understand those
events, and choose suitable control actions.
Event Management is the process that triggers many of the activities that are performed by staff working
on the IT Help Desk.
Event Management should be utilized to detect and communicate operational information, warnings
and exceptions, so that input can be provided for reporting the service achievements and quality levels
provided.
It may be used for automating routine activities, such as backups and batch processing or dynamic roles
for balancing demand for services across multiple infrastructure items/sources to improve performance.
There are many different types of events, for example:
• Informational events that signify regular operation (EG a scheduled backup occurred successfully)
• Exception events (EG a scheduled backup failed)
• Warning events that signify unusual but not exceptional operation.
These are an indication that the situation may require closer monitoring (EG no backup initiated within
last 72 hours)
Note: In most organizations’ IT infrastructure, there would be a signifcant amount of events occurring
everyday, which may impact the way in which events are correlated and provide triggers indicating if or
when a response is needed.
Scope
Event Management can be applied to any aspect of Service Management that needs to be controlled
and that can be automated.
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These include:
• CIs—to provide visibility of functioning and failing components or to understand when other changes
have occurred in the infrastructure
• Environmental conditions—such as increases in the temperature of servers and facilities
• Software license monitoring—used to maintain optimum licensing utilization
• Security—to perform security checks and to detect exceptions or intrusions
• Normal activity—such as tracking the activity and performance of an IT service
It is important to note the difference between monitoring and Event Management.
While the two areas are related, Event Management focuses on the generation and detection of notifca-
tions about the status of the IT infrastructure and services.
Monitoring, on the other hand, has a broader scope, which will include monitoring CIs that do not gener-
ate events or alerts.
So when implementing Event Management, consider what monitoring activities and techniques should
be interfaced to generate alerts and notifcations that will provide value to the IT groups and wider or-
ganization.
Event Correlation
Event Correlation is the process that categorizes each event.
It uses specifc rules and criteria to determine what level of impact an event will have on the business.
The rules may have either a technical or business focus, but the underlying reason for correlation is to
separate high impact events from low impact events.
A Correlation Engine is utilized to perform this task, and it does this by looking for relationships between
different events and using the information within the events to gain a better understanding and knowl-
edge of each event.
The Correlation Engine then uses this knowledge to identify unusual situations or events, the root-cause
of any problems, and to predict future trends.
During the Service Design and Service Operation phases, specifc performance standards and guide-
lines are created, and these should be used when programming the Correlation Engine.
Correlation Engines will use a number of factors to make decisions, including:
• Event categorization
• Frequency of similar events
• Number of CIs generating similar events
• Indications of an exception
• A comparison against defned threshold levels (EG utilization levels)
• Whether further information is required to investigate further
These factors should also be used to set a priority level for the event, in order to defne the appropriate
level of response from the operations group.
Event Management Interfaces
Event Management should be developed over time to any service management process that requires
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monitoring and control.
While, initially, the focus will be on providing the foundation for service operation with input to Incident
and Problem Management, other possible interfaces that are appropriate include:
• Confguration Management with events providing information on the current (real-time) and historical
status of CIs
• Service Design processes, such as Information Security, Capacity, and Availability Management.
Where thresholds have been set in the design of a service and associated components, Event Manage-
ment should be utilized to generate events and response actions
• Service Level Management, where Event Management can enhance the capabilities to safeguard SLAs
and reduce the business impact of any failures as soon as possible
5.5.2 Incident Management
Incident Management has developed over time to become one of the most visible and mature ITSM
processes for any organization, largely driven by the need to reduce the business impact of disruptions
to IT services.
While any effective implementation does balance the efforts towards the various phases of the Service
Lifecycle, as Incident Management can be easily demonstrated to have a business beneft, it typically
receives more attention and funding than other areas of service management.
This section will explain the activities and techniques that represent best practices for Incident Manage-
ment.
Goal and objectives
The goal of Incident Management is to effectively deal with incidents so that normal service can resume
as soon as possible.
This ensures that business impact is reduced as much as possible, allowing the business to maintain
service quality and availability.
Incident Management (along with Request Fulflment) provides a defned process that governs the activi-
ties in which Help Desk staff will likely spend the majority of their time performing.

What is the difference between Incident Management and Problem Management?
If our garden had weeds, how would we address the situation?
Incident Management: Use techniques that address the symptoms but still allow the weeds to grow back
(EG pull them out, mow over them, use a hedge-trimmer, and buy a goat)
Problem Management: Use techniques that address the root-cause of the symptoms so that weeds will
no longer grow (EG use poison, dig roots out, re-lawn, concrete over etc)
Incident Management is not concerned with the root cause; it is, instead, focused on addressing the
symptoms as quickly as possible.
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Scope
Incident Management can be utilized to manage any event that disrupts or may disrupt an IT service and
associated business processes.
Careful distinction needs to be made between the role of Event Management and Incident Management
as only events that indicate exception to normal service operation and are determined by the Event Cor-
relation Engine to be signifcant are escalated to Incident Management.
This means that incident records may be generated as a result of:
• End users calling the Help Desk to notify of a disruption to their normal use of IT services
• Events representing an exception that are resolved using automated means, with an associated inci-
dent record also being generated for informational purposes
• An IT staff member noticing that a component of the IT infrastructure is behaving abnormally, despite
no current impact on the end user community
• An end user logging an incident using self help means, which is then resolved by IT operations staff
• An external supplier observes that a portion of the IT infrastructure under their control is experiencing
issues and logs an incident ticket via email
While the process of Request Fulfllment does typically operate in a similar fashion to Incident Manage-
ment, a service request does not involve any (potential) disruption to an IT service.
Incident Models
Incident Models manage previously seen and documented incidents using a pre-defned set of steps and
procedures.
They are used to help provide effcient resolution to the most frequently occurring (80/20 rule) or special-
ized incidents.
Incident Models should defne the necessary steps for dealing with an incident, as well as the required
order of these steps.
They should also specify who is responsible for each step and when these steps should be completed.
In the event that an incident needs to be escalated, Incident Models should provide the contact details
and criteria for escalation.
It is also paramount that Incident Models detail procedures for preserving evidence.
Any service management tools that are used for Event and Incident Management should be utilized with
the defned incident models that can automate the process.
Specialized incidents include those that need routing to particular groups or other ITSM processes.
An example of this is for capacity related incidents in which the model would defne what impact reduc-
tion measures could be performed before routing the incident to Capacity Management.
Major Incidents
For those incidents that result in signifcant or organization-wide business impact, planning needs to con-
sider how separate procedures should be used to provide appropriate response and resolution.
When dealing with a major incident, time should be managed effectively to ensure the incident is re-
solved as soon as possible, and it should be given priority over other less signifcant incidents.
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The frst requirement is to defne what constitutes a major incident for the organization and customers
with reference to the incident prioritization mechanisms that are used.
The key role of separate major incident procedures is to establish a fast and coordinated response that
can manage and resolve the issues at hand.
This may require the establishment of a team with the immediate focus of resolving the incident and
reducing the associated business impact.
The Help Desk maintains responsibility throughout the process so that users are kept fully informed of
the incident status and progress for resolution.
Problem Management will typically be involved when major incidents occur, though the focus is not the
resolution of the incident.
Instead Problem Management seeks to identify the root cause of the incident, how this can be removed,
and if there are any other areas of the infrastructure where this could occur (EG replicated infrastructure
across multiple locations).
Incident logging
All incidents, regardless of source, must be recorded with a unique reference number and the date and
time of occurrence.
While this can be easily managed for automated mechanisms, positive behaviors need to be developed
for IT staff and end users to ensure the consistent recording of identifed incidents.
It may also be necessary to record more than one incident for any given call/discussion so that a histori-
cal record is kept and that time/work tracking can be performed.
Incident categorization
During the logging procedure, a category is assigned.
This will enable surveys to be conducted on the various types of incidents that have occurred in a given
time and also the frequency with with they have occurred.
This information is important to allow effective escalation, trend analysis of incidents, and future infra-
structure improvements.
Multi-level categorization is typically used for Incident Management, where the service management tool
is populated with up to three of four levels of category details.
For example, hardware incident, server, memory board, card failure.
Incident prioritization
An agreed prioritization matrix should be used to determine the appropriate timescales and effort applied
for response and resolution to identifed incidents.
The general formula to calculate incident priority is:
IMPACT + URGENCY = PRIORITY
• Impact: Degree to which the user/business is affected by the incident(s)
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• Urgency: Degree to which the resolution of the incident can be delayed
The following factors are usually taken into account for determining the impact of an incident:
• The number of users being affected
(EG single user, multiple users, entire business unit, organization wide)
• Possible risk of injury or death
• The number of services affected
• The level of fnancial loss
• Effect on credibility and reputation of business
• Regulatory or legislative breaches
Urgency is calculated by assessing when the potential impact of the incident will be felt.
In some cases, the incident resolution can be delayed when the disruption to an IT service (EG payroll)
has not yet affected business operations (but will if the service is not available in three days time).
In other cases, the business impact is felt immediately, in which case the urgency may be high.

Figure 7.L—Example incident prioritization matrix
The prioritization matrix above would be accompanied by agreed timelines for resolution.
EG Priority 1 = Critical = 1 hour target resolution time
Priority 2 = High = 8 hours
Priority 3 = Medium = 24 hours
Priority 4 = Low = 48 hours
Initial diagnosis
For calls forwarded to the Help Desk, the staff member will use pre-defned questioning techniques to
assist in the collection of useful information for the incident record.
At this point, the Help Desk analyst can begin to provide some initial support by referencing known errors
and simple diagnostic tools.
Where possible the incident will be resolved using these sources of information, closing the incident after
verifying the resolution was successful.
For incidents that cannot be resolved at this stage and the user is still on the phone, the Help Desk ana-
lyst should inform the user of the next steps that will be taken, give the unique incident reference num-
ber, and confrm user contact details for follow-ups.

Incident escalation
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If the Help Desk analyst requires assistance from other groups due to an inability to resolve the incident
or because of specialized circumstances (EG VIP user), escalation will be utilized to transfer the incident
to the appropriate party or group.
Rules for escalation should be defned when implementing Incident Management and agreed upon by all
involved groups and stakeholders.
The two forms of escalation that are typically used are functional (horizontal) and hierarchical (vertical)
escalation.
Escalations can also be combined.

Figure 7.M—Escalation diagram
Functional:
• Based on knowledge or expertise
• Also known as “Horizontal Escalation”, through level 1, 2, and 3 support.
Hierarchical:
• For corrective actions by authorized line management
• Also known as “Vertical Escalation”
• When resolution of an incident will not be in time or satisfactory

Investigation and diagnosis
The incident investigation is likely to include such actions as:
• Finding the problem
• Determining the order in which events occurred
• Determining the level of impact
• Identifying triggers
• Searching for past occurrences of the incident using problems records and known error databases
• Employing the help of system developers to fnd a resolution
Resolution and recovery
All potential resolutions should be applied and tested in a controlled manner.
The nature of the incident will determine which actions are required, but actions could involve:
• Guiding the user to perform specifc actions on their own equipment
• Specialist support groups performing specifc actions on the infrastructure (such as rebooting a server)
• External suppliers performing updates on their infrastructure
• The Help Desk or other specialist staff controlling a user’s desktop remotely
Incident closure
Depending on the nature of the incident (level of impact, users affected etc), the Help Desk may be re-
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quired to call the affected users and confrm that the users are satisfed that the resolution was success-
ful and that the incident can be closed.
For other incidents, closure mechanisms may be automated and communicated via email.
Closure mechanisms, whether automated or manual, should also check for the following:
• The closure categorization matches the initial categorization (IE the initial categorization was correct).
Update if necessary.
• User satisfaction levels.
Data can be obtained using email or web-based surveys.
• Incident documentation, ensuring all required felds are completed satisfactorily
• Potential problem identifcation, assisting Problem Management in the decision of whether any preven-
tative action is necessary to avoid this in the future
When the requirements for incident documentation are complete, the incident should be closed via
agreed methods.
Roles and Responsibilities
Incident Manager:
• Drive effectiveness and effciency of process
• Manage incident management team
• Ensure SLA targets for incident resolution are met
Skills: Analytical, technical, business understanding, communication, calm under pressure
Help Desk:
• Log/record incidents
• Incident classifcation and categorization
• Provide initial support
• Match to existing incident or problem records
• Manage communication with end users
1st, 2nd, 3rd line support groups (including Technical and Application Management):
• Incident classifcation
• Investigation and resolution of incidents
Incident Management Metrics
Just like any process or service, a balanced range of metrics must be used to demonstrate that the Inci-
dent Management process is effective and effcient.
Some metrics include:
• Total number of incidents
• Percentage of incidents handled within agreed response time (incident response-time targets may be
specifed in SLAs, for example, by impact code)
• Cost-per-incident average
• Total perentage of incidents that were closed without being escalated to other support levels.
• Total percentage of incidents that were resolved remotely
Challenges affecting Incident Management
• Are all calls registered? Are they assigned a unique number?
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• Which priority codes do we use and how is the priority determined?
• Organization of the 1st line support group (Help Desk)
• Organization of the 2nd line, which may be from disparate support groups
• What percentage of “closed on frst call” is possible through Incident Management?

5.5.3 Problem Management
Goal and objectives
Problem Management is responsible for the management of problems from when they frst occur to
when they are resolved.
Problem Management aims to:
• Prevent problems
• Eliminate recurring incidents
• Manage incidents that do occur and ensure impact is minimal
Scope
Clear distinction should be made between the purpose, scope, and activities of Problem Management
and those of Incident Management.
In many cases, staff may not clearly understand the distinction and, as a result, not utilize their efforts in
the most effective and effcient manner.
For most implementations of Problem Management, the scope includes:
• Any activities that will diagnose the root cause
• Any activities that assist in fnding a resolution
• Any activities that ensure appropriate control procedures are used when implementing resolutions, usu-
ally through interfaces with Change Management and Release and Deployment Management
• Proactive activities that eliminate errors in the infrastructure before they result in incidents and impact
on the business and end users
Remember the weeding analogy used for Incident Management? Problem Management seeks to identify
and remove the root-cause of Incidents in the IT Infrastructure.
Terminology Explanations
Problem Unknown underlying cause of an incident.
The same problem can sometimes be the cause of multiple incidents.
Known Error Known underlying cause. Successful diagnosis of the root cause of a problem and
workaround or permanent solution has been identifed
KEDB Known Error Database, where Known Errors and their documented workarounds are maintained.
This database is owned by Problem Management.
Workaround The pre-defned and documented technique used to restore normal service operation for the
user.
A workaround is NOT a permanent (structural) solution and only addresses the symptoms of errors.
These workarounds are stored in the KEDB (or Service Knowledge Management System).
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Figure 7.N—Relationships between incidents, problems, and known errors
As shown above, problems are identifed and corrected in multiple ways.
For most organizations, the primary beneft of Problem Management is demonstrated in the “many-to-
one” relationship between incidents and problems.
This enables an IT Service Provider to resolve many incidents in an effcient manner by correcting the
underlying root-cause.
Change Management is still required so that the actions being performed to correct and remove the error
are done so in a controlled and effcient manner.
Why do some Problems not get diagnosed?
• Because the root cause is not always found
Why do some Known Errors not get fxed?
• Because we may decide that the costs exceed the benefts of fxing the error
• Because it may be fxed in an upcoming patch from development teams or suppliers
Two Sub-Processes of Problem Management

Figure 7.O—The two sub-processes of Problem Management
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The following are defned as two major processes within Problem Management:
• Reactive Problem Management
• Proactive Problem Management **
** Initiated in Service Operation but generally driven as part of Continual Service Improvement
The activities of Problem Management are carried out within Proactive and Reactive Problem Manage-
ment.
The main goal of Proactive Problem Management is to identify errors that might otherwise be missed.
Proactive Problem Management analyzes incident records and uses data collected by other IT Service
Management processes and external sources to identify trends or signifcant problems.
Reactive Problem Management
The activities of Reactive Problem Management are similar to those of Incident Management for the log-
ging, categorization, and classifcation of problems.
The subsequent activities are different as this is where the actual root-cause analysis is performed and
the Known Error corrected.
5.5.4 Request Fulfllment
Goal
Request Fulfllment is concerned with fulflling service requests from the end user community using con-
sistent and repeatable methods.
Similar to Incident Management, this process is utilized to manage all interactions with users that are not
related to a disruption to service or degradation in service quality.
The objectives include:
• To provide a channel where users can request and received pre-approved standard services
• To inform users about service availability
• To fulfl requests for standard services by sourcing and delivering the appropriate components
• To assist with general information, complaints, or comments
Scope
The scope of Request Fulfllment is infuenced heavily by the success of Change Management and
what types of pre-approved changes can be effectively managed, controlled, and implemented by the IT
department.
As part of continual improvement, the scope of Request Fulfllment should grow over time as maturity
develops for Service Requests, including:
• Users and customers asking questions, providing comments, and making complaints
• Users seeking changes to their access levels (utilizes Access Management)
• Users wishing to have common services and applications installed for their use (including Standard
Changes)
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Many elements of Request Fulfllment may be automated through the use of self help, such as websites
and user applications, with manual activities used where necessary to fulfll the request.
Request Models
As many service requests frequently recur, pre-approved and predefned request models should be de-
fned in order to fulfl these requests.
The models should:
• Document the required activities
• Defne roles and responsibilities
• Document target timescales and escalation paths
• Document other policies or requirements that apply
Similar to Change Models, this will enable the IT department (and the Help Desk in particular) to have
a clear defnition of the appropriate types of service requests and repeatable actions describing how
requests should be fulflled.
Menu selection
Where practical, some mechanism of self help should be utilized so that users can generate service
requests using technology that interfaces with existing Service Management tools.
This might be via a website where they can select common services and provide details.
In some instances the fulfllment of the service request can be entirely automated using workfow, ERP,
software deployment, and other tools.
For others, manual activities will be required to fulfll the request using resources from the IT department,
suppliers, or other parties involved in the provision of IT services.
Financial Approval
While the service request may already have approval from Change Management, there may be some
form of fnancial approval that is required when there are fnancial implications (usually those above a
defned dollar amount).
The prices for some standard requests may be fxed and pre-approved, but the cost for other requests
must be estimated and supplied to the user for fnancial approval (who may in turn require their own line
management/fnancial approval).

‘Other’ Approval
Where there may be compliance and regulatory implications for the service request, wider business ap-
proval may be needed.
These approval mechanisms should be built into the request models as appropriate.
Change Management should establish that there are mechanisms in place to check for and safeguard
these conditions in order for the standard change to be qualifed for preapproval.
Fulfllment
The tasks required for fulfllment will vary depending on the characteristics of the service request at
hand.
Some requests can be fulflled using only automated mechanisms, others may be fulflled by the Help
Desk at the frst-line, and others may be escalated to internal or external specialist groups.
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To ensure compatibility, Request Fulfllment should be interfaced with existing procurement and supplier
processes; however, the Help Desk should maintain control and visibility of all requests regardless of
where they are fulflled.
Closure
Regardless of where service requests have been fulflled, the Help Desk is required to initiate closure.
This should include some verifcation that the request has been satisfed using either confrmation with
the end user or other automated means.

5.5.5 Access Management
Goal and objectives
Access Management’s primary objective is to manage access to services.
It should provide access to those users who have authorization and should prevent access to users who
do not.
In doing so, it helps to protect the confdentiality, integrity, and availability (CIA) of the organization’s ser-
vices, assets, facilities, and information.
In practice, Access Management is the operational enforcement of the policies defned by Information
Security Management.

Relationship with other processes
Access Management specifcally grants users the right to access a service but is not responsible for
ensuring availability of that service—Availability Management is the process that is responsible for the
availability of services.
The process is often centrally coordinated by the Help Desk (being the single point of contact with the
end user community) but can involve the Technical and Application Management functions.
Where access is controlled by external suppliers, interfaces need to be developed to coordinate requests
for modifcations to access levels.

Requesting access
Requests for access can be generated from many sources within an organization as well as from any
external suppliers and customers that require controlled access to services, systems, and information.
Typical interfaces that generate requests include:
• Human Resources (HR) in the management of new and current staff, EG during the hiring process
• A Request for Change (which requires modifcations to access rights)
• A service request submitted to the Service Desk or those submitted via automated and self-help
mechanisms
• Management requests for special circumstances (Technical specialist needs access to a specifc ser-
vice or system)
Verifcation
When a request for access is received, defned procedures should control how the request is verifed to
check:
1.
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The identity of the user—an identifcation check is typically performed, requiring the user to confrm such
details as username, enquiry password, date of birth, full name etc.
For systems with high security level requirements, mechanisms such as RSA keys, security certifcates,
swipe cards, or biometric scans (EG fnger print) may be used.
2.
They have a legitimate business reason for accessing the service, system, or information—depending on
the access being requested, this may involve parties other than the user for verifcation.
This can include:
• HR Notifcation of changed employment status, IE new or recently promoted employee
• Authorization from an appropriate line manager
• Approved Request for Change
• Policies stating that the user may have access to an optional service if required
To improve effciency, interfaces with systems and tools used by any Human Resource department or
business process should be developed to allow independent and automated verifcation of access re-
quests.
Providing rights
If the access request has been appropriately verifed, Access Management then uses defned proce-
dures and mechanisms to provide, modify, or remove the access rights stipulated.
Where possible, these mechanisms should be automated, particularly in large organizations with dynam-
ic and specialized HR requirements.
As discussed in Basic Concepts of Access Management, the use of roles and groups are an effective
way of providing users with multiple access levels appropriate to a type of need (EG teachers, students,
administrators, contractors etc).
These groups should be defned in such a way that they are neither too narrow nor too broad in their
scope.
A potential issue that occurs when providing group and user access rights is that of Role Confict.
This is caused by conficting rights that have been provided to a user or group of users.
When users are allocated to multiple groups (each with different levels of rights), care needs to be taken
that these permissions are applied in the correct order.
For example, if a user is a member of both the USER and ADMINISTRATOR groups, the procedures and
mechanisms utilized should ensure that the rights associated with the USER group do not override those
of the ADMINISTRATOR group.
Most directory services safeguard against Role Confict; however, there is still potential for these conficts
to be otherwise missed by the tool.
Over time, reviews should be performed to ensure that roles and groups are still appropriate for the end
user and staff population with any obsolete or unwanted groups/roles being removed.
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Monitoring identity status
To ensure that the confdentiality and integrity of systems and information is continually protected, con-
stant monitoring needs to be deployed to ensure consistency between user roles/status and the access
levels being provided.
In any organization there will be frequent changes in staffng that need to be identifed, including:
• Transfers
• Acting and temporary roles
• Job changes
• Promotions or demotions
• Retirement
• Resignation or death
• Disciplinary action
• Dismissals
When implementing Access Management, interfaces with existing HR processes should be developed
so that audits for consistency of access levels can be automated.
Logging and tracking access
So that Access Management can ensure responsible use of the provided access levels is occurring, ac-
cess monitoring and control should be deployed and included in normal monitoring activities performed
by Service Operation teams.
Interfaces with Event Management can also be developed for any access events that are considered
signifcant to the IT organization.
In some cases, records for access events may need to be kept for a defned period of time for compli-
ance, security, or safety reasons.
Any exceptions that are detected should be raised as incidents, using Incident Models designed specif-
cally with security and access rights.
Removing or restricting rights
Like the work performed for ‘Providing rights’ above, when needs arise for access rights to be removed
or restricted, procedures and guidelines provided by Information Security Management should be fol-
lowed.
Confrmation that the modifcation/removal has occurred should also be communicated to HR for report-
ing purposes.
Restriction of rights can often occur in the case or demotion and prolonged absence from the organiza-
tion.
Also, access can be restricted when an employee is under investigation.
Removal of rights normally occurs in the case of death, resignation, dismissal, and role transfer.
Triggers and Interfaces
The execution of Access Management activities is normally triggered by:
• Service Requests, taken by the Help Desk or submitted using automated and self help mechanisms
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• Requests from Human Resources personnel
• Direct requests from department managers
• Request for Changes (RFCs) involving modifcation of access rights
• Requests for enabling restricted access to contractors and external suppliers
Some of the key interfaces that need to be maintained within the Service Lifecycle are:
• Service Design
o Information Security Management, in the development and renewal of security policies, guidelines,
and procedures, which are then executed by Access Management
o Availability Management, in the design of security systems and infrastructure
• Service Transition
o Change Management, which should coordinate changes to processes and any groups and roles
defned for Access Management
o Confguration Management, which can be used to record relationships between users and systems
they can access
Basic concepts of Access Management
Access Management should be utilized for providing/modifying and removing access rights to agreed
services documented within the Service Catalog.
The following defnitions describe the major concepts involved with the process:
• Access: Refers to the level and extent of a service’s functionality or data that a user is entitled to use
• Identity: Refers to the information about them that distinguishes them as an individual and verifes their
status within the organization.
By defnition, the identity of the user is unique to that user.
• Rights: (Also called privileges) refer to the actual settings whereby a user is provided access to a ser-
vice or group of services.
Typical rights, or levels of access, include read, write, execute, change, delete.
• Services or service groups: Instead of providing access to each service for each user separately, it is
more effcient to be able to grant each user access to a whole set of services that they are entitled to use
at the same time
• Directory of services: Refers to a specifc type of tool that is used to manage access and rights

5.5.6 Summary
From a user viewpoint, Service Operation is where actual value is seen.
This is because it is the execution of strategies, designs and plans, and improvements from the Service
Lifecycle phases.
Key benefts delivered as a result of services in live operation are:
• Effectiveness and effciency in IT Service delivery and support
• Increased return on investment
• More productive and positive users of IT services
Other benefts can be defned as:
1.
Long term: Over a period of time, the Service Operation processes, functions, performance, and output
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are evaluated.
These reports will be analyzed and decisions made about whether the improvement is needed and how
best to implement it through Service Design and Transition, EG deployment of new tools, changes to
process designs, reconfguration of the infrastructure.
2.
Short term: Improvement of working practices within the Service Operations processes, functions, and
technology itself.
Generally they involve smaller improvements that do not mean changes to the fundamental nature of a
process or technology, EG tuning, training, personnel redeployment etc

Figure 7.P—Some outputs to other lifecycle phases

5.6 Required Technical Knowledge
The following section aims to provide a high-level overview of the technical knowledge that is normally
required by a Help Desk Analyst in order to perform their role.
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Please note, this is not meant to be an extensive nor overly detailed source of guidance, as all staff will
still need to ensure that they have the appropriate skills to manage the specifc operating systems, soft-
ware, hardware, and other vendor specifc items used throughout the infrastructure.
5.6.1 Desktop Environments
In graphical computing, a desktop environment commonly refers to a style of graphical user interface
(GUI) that is based on the desktop metaphor that can be seen on most modern personal computers
today.
Almost universally adopted in modern computers, these graphical interfaces are designed to assist the
user in easily accessing and confguring (or modifying) the most important or frequently accessed spe-
cifc Operating System (OS) features.
A desktop environment typically consists of icons, windows, toolbars, folders, wallpapers, and desktop
widgets.
Software that provides a desktop environment might also provide drag and drop functionality and other
features that make the desktop metaphor more complete.
On the whole, a desktop environment is to be an intuitive way for the user to interact with the computer
using concepts that are similar to those used when interacting with the physical world, such as buttons
and windows.
The most common desktop environment on personal computers is built upon the Microsoft Windows
operating system.
Also common is the one included with the Apple Mac OS X.
Other mainstream desktop environments exist for Unix-like operating systems using the X Window Sys-
tem, including Ubuntu, GNOME, SUSE and CDE.
5.6.2 Standard Operating Environments (SOEs)
A Standard Operating Environment (SOE) is an IT industry term used to describe a standard implemen-
tation of an operating system and its associated software (and often hardware).
Other common names used are:
• MOE—Managed Operating Environment
• MDE—Managed Desktop Environment
• DMS—Desktop Managed Services
• SDE—Standard Desktop Environment
• “Standard Image” (Operating System and Applications only)
A SOE is typically implemented as a standard disk image that can be mass deployed to more than one
computer in an organization.
It can include the base operating system, a custom confguration, standard applications used within an
organization, software updates, and service packs.
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In the modern era, the SOE will extend to apply to servers, desktops, laptops, thin clients, and mobile
devices.
The major advantage of having an SOE in a business environment is the reduction in the cost and time
to deploy, confgure, maintain, support, and manage computers.
By standardizing the hardware and software platforms used within an organization, the IT department or
service provider can deploy new computers and correct problems with existing computers quickly.
A standardized, repeatable and automated solution creates a known, expected, and supportable environ-
ment.
A standardized solution ensures known outcomes are maintained with automation providing the key to
speed, repeatability, and standardization.
For the Help Desk Analyst, it greatly reduces complexity when responding to calls from users and im-
proves effciency when carrying out daily operational tasks.
While there are many Windows deployment guides and tools available from Microsoft and other vendors,
larger organizations will endeavor to build their own SOE solutions using the Microsoft Business Desktop
Deployment (BDD) solution accelerator or Microsoft Deployment Toolkit (MDT).
However, some do not have the capability to build all features in one single SOE and their processes
often include documented manual confguration steps.
SOEs on Mac OS X, Linux, and other Unix/Unix-like systems can typically be made simply by creating
and deploying disk images.
Whereas deploying a disk image originating from a system with non-identical hardware will often result in
boot failure with Windows, the process is generally achievable on Unix systems with the caveat that the
systems must be of the same computer architecture and drivers will need to be installed on the image for
all the possible hardware confgurations.
Since Apple does not have third party computer manufacturers, usually only hardware add-ons are a
concern with respect to drivers.
On Linux many hardware devices with kernel support can be auto-detected.
Boot scripts can also be used for automated post-deployment confguration.
Skills needed to manage SOEs
While each desktop environment will often require specifc knowledge in order to effectively manage a
large user population, the following is an overview of the tasks that a Help Desk Analyst will need to be
skilled in:
• Perform and troubleshoot an attended installation of the operating system
• Perform post installation confguration (user confguration, apply service packs, etc)
• Answer end user questions related to upgrading from a previous version of the operating system
• Troubleshoot system start-up and user logon problems
• Monitor and analyze system performance
• Monitor, manage, and troubleshoot access to fles and folders
• Troubleshoot connecting to local and network print devices
• Confgure and troubleshoot hardware devices and drivers
• Confgure and troubleshoot storage devices
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• Confgure and troubleshoot display devices
• Troubleshoot network protocols and services
• Confgure and troubleshoot Advanced Confguration and Power Interface (ACPI)
• Confgure and troubleshoot input and output (I/O) devices
• Confgure support for multiple languages or multiple locations
• Troubleshoot security settings and local security policy
• Confgure and troubleshoot local user and group accounts
• Troubleshoot the TCP/IP protocol
• Confgure and troubleshoot Internet Connection Firewall (ICF) settings
• Troubleshoot name resolution issues
• Confgure and troubleshoot remote connections
• Confgure and troubleshoot end user systems using remote Desktop and Remote Assistance
• Confgure and troubleshoot applications
• Set application compatibility settings
• Troubleshoot application installation problems
• Confgure and troubleshoot e-mail account confgurations
• Confgure the operating system to support applications
• Confgure and troubleshoot fle system access and fle permission
• Resolve issues related to usability of applications
• Resolve issues related to customizing the operating system
• Confgure and troubleshooting connectivity for applications
• Confgure application security
Installing the Operating System(s)
Network-based Installations
Network-based installations can be performed if a distribution server is available.
A distribution server is a computer on the network that hosts the installation fles required.
It must be connected to the network and have suffcient disk space.
The creation of a distribution server is possible by creating a shared folder and copying the contents of
the installation fles folder into it.
The type of installation will determine how the distribution server will be accessed.
A network boot disk allows a computer to connect to the distribution server or be confgured to boot from
a network device.
Unattended Installations
When the installations of most Windows operating systems are automated, it is not considered an unat-
tended installation.
Several options are available to perform unattended installations, including:
• Creating an image of the operating system using Sysprep and deploying the image using a third party
imaging tool
• Specify an answer fle that can be used by an installation script
An answer fle is a text fle that contains desired answers to various prompts received during the installa-
tion process, eliminating the need for user input.
Post-Installation Confguration
After installing the operating system, the latest service pack (updates) should be installed as quickly as
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possible.
Service packs provide updates to improve the security of the OS, make enhancements to applications,
and provide new features.
Service pack installation is a signifcant process as some of the fles for the operating system will be
replaced.
This can cause additional problems resulting from incompatibilities with applications or hardware.
Where possible, the administrator should seek to include the installation of service packs during the
automated distribution of the operating system to user machines.
Active Directory
Active Directory is a technology created by Microsoft that provides a variety of network services that will
be utilised by a Help Desk Analyst, including:
• Directory services
• Authentication control
• DNS-based naming and other network information
• Central location for network administration and delegation of authority
• Information security and single sign-on for user access to networked based resources
• Central storage location for application data
• Synchronization of directory updates among several servers
Using the same database, for use primarily in Windows environments, Active Directory also allows ad-
ministrators to assign policies, deploy software, and apply critical updates to an organization (see group
policies).
Active Directory stores information and settings in a central database.
Active Directory networks can vary from a small installation with a few computers, users, and printers to
tens of thousands of users, many different domains, and large server farms spanning many geographical
locations.
Active Directory was previewed in 1999, released frst with Windows 2000 Server edition, and revised to
extend functionality and improve administration in Windows Server 2003.
Additional improvements were made in Windows Server 2003 R2.
Active Directory was refned further in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 and was
renamed Active Directory Domain Services.
Active Directory was called NTDS (NT Directory Service) in older Microsoft documents.
This name can still be seen in some Active Directory binaries.
Using Group Policies to manage users
Group Policy is a feature of the Microsoft Windows NT family of operating systems (EG Microsoft Server
2003).
Group Policy is a set of rules that control the working environment of user accounts and computer ac-
counts.
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Group Policy provides the centralized management and confguration of operating systems, applications,
and user settings in an Active Directory environment.
In other words, Group Policy, in part, controls what users can and cannot do on a individual or networked
computer environment.
Although Group Policy is more often seen in use for enterprise environments, it is also common in
schools, smaller businesses, and other kinds of smaller organizations.
Group Policy is often used to restrict certain actions that may pose potential security risks, for exam-
ple, to block access to the Task Manager, restrict access to certain folders, disable the downloading of
executable fles, and so on.
Other common activities that can be automated using group policies include software installation, system
updates, and numerous logon and logoff actions.
As part of Microsoft’s IntelliMirror technologies, Group Policy aims to reduce the cost of supporting users.
IntelliMirror technologies relate to the management of disconnected machines or roaming users and
include roaming user profles, folder redirection, and offine fles.
User and Group Accounts
A local user account is specifc to a single computer and allows a user to log onto a local computer and
access local resources only.
Once an account is created, it is stored in the local security database only.
When a user logs into a computer using a local account, the authentication is verifed by the local com-
puter accessing the local security database.
A domain user account is stored as objects within the Active Directory and provides a user the ability to
log onto a domain and access resources where the account has been given access.
By having a domain user account, the user has a single sign-on ability to access the resources.
This is enabled by the Active Directory being replicated between domain controllers in the same domain.
When logging onto a domain, the user provides a valid username and password.
A domain controlled within the domain uses the information already provided through replication to au-
thenticate the user and generate an access token.
An access token is a temporary form of identifcation that is presented by the user to allow computers to
recognize the user when they attempt to access resources.
Some user accounts are built-in.
For example, when Windows XP is installed, several user accounts are automatically created, including:
• Administrator—to provide rights to administer the computer
• Guest—for users who need occasional, but not permanent, access to the computer
• HelpAssistant—provided to enable a Remote Assistance session
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In many SOEs, the Guest and HelpAssistant account are disabled by default.
5.6.3 Virtualization
Virtualization, in its broadest sense, is the emulation of one of more workstations/servers within a single
physical computer.
Put simply, virtualization is the emulation of hardware within a software platform.
This allows a single computer to take on the role of multiple computers.
This type of virtualization is often referred to as full virtualization, allowing one physical computer to
share its resources across a multitude of environments.
However, virtualization is not limited to the simulation of entire machines.
There are many different types of virtualization, each for varying purposes.
Some of the more prevalent types of virtualization that are used include:
• Virtual machines (EG servers)
• Platform virtualization
• Application virtualization
• Storage virtualization
• Desktop virtualization
In the case of virtual machines, the virtual servers do not have to be running the same operating sys-
tems, making it possible to run different systems on the same computer (EG Microsoft Windows and
Linux or older versions of an OS in order to support software that has not yet been ported to the latest
version).
The use of virtual machines to support different guest operating systems is also becoming popular in
desktop and laptop systems, especially in Intel-based Apple platforms.
5.6.4 Backup Routines
In information technology, a backup or the process of backing up refers to making copies of data and
confgurations so that these may be restored after a data loss or system corruption event.
These additional copies are typically called backups.
Backups are useful primarily for two purposes.
The frst is to restore a state following a disaster (called disaster recovery).
The second is to restore small numbers of fles after they have been accidentally deleted or corrupted.
Since a backup system contains at least one copy of all data worth saving, the data storage require-
ments can be considerable.organizing this storage space and managing the backup process is a compli-
cated undertaking, so effective planning is extremely important.
In the modern era of computing, there are many different types of data storage devices that are useful
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for making backups (EG tapes, Network Attached Storage, removable media disc etc) There are also
many different ways in which these devices can be arranged to provide geographic redundancy, data
security, and portability.
Before data is sent to its storage location, it is selected, extracted, and manipulated.
Many different techniques have been developed to optimize the backup procedure.
These include optimizations for dealing with open fles and live data sources (EG databases) as well as
compression, encryption, and de-duplication, among others.
It is also important to recognize the limitations and human factors involved in any backup scheme, such
as the need for specialist staff in the case of a disaster.
Full Backups
Full backup is the starting point for all other backups and contains all the required data in the folders and
fles that are selected to be backed up.
Because the full backup stores all fles and folders, frequent full backups result simpler (but longer)
restore operations.
Remember that when you choose other backup types, restore jobs may take longer.
It would be ideal to make full backups regularly because they are the most comprehensive and are self-
contained.
However, the amount of time it takes to run full backups often prevents us from using this backup type.
Full backups are often restricted to a weekly or monthly schedule, although the increasing speed and
capacity of backup media is making overnight full backups a more realistic proposition.
Full backups, if you have the time to perform them, offer the best solution in data protection.
In effect, a single backup can provide the ability to completely restore all backed-up fles.
However, you should be aware of a signifcant security issue.
Each full backup contains an entire copy of the data.
If the backup media were to be illegally accessed or stolen, the hacker or thief would then have access
to an entire copy of your data.
Differential Backups
Differential backup contains all fles that have changed since the last FULL backup.
The advantage of a differential backup is that it shortens restore time compared to a full backup or an
incremental backup.
However, if you perform the differential backup too many times, the size of the differential backup might
grow to be larger than the baseline full backup.
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Restoring a differential backup is a faster process than restoring an incremental backup because only
two backup container fles are needed: the latest full backup and the latest differential.
Use differential backup if you have a reasonable amount of time to perform backups.
The upside is that only two backup container fles are needed to perform a complete restore.
The downside is, if you run multiple differential backups after your full backup, you’re probably including
duplication of some fles that were already included in earlier differential backups.
Incremental Backups
Incremental backup stores all fles changed since the last Full, Differential or Incremental backup.
The advantage of an incremental backup is that it takes the least time to complete partial restore.
During a full restore operation, each incremental backup is processed, which could result in a lengthy
restore job.
Incremental backup provides a faster method of backing up data than repeatedly running full backups.
5.6.5 TCP/IP Networks
The Internet Protocol Suite (commonly known as TCP/IP) is the set of communications protocols used
for the Internet and other similar networks.
It is named from two of the most important protocols within it: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
and the Internet Protocol (IP), which were the frst two networking protocols defned in this standard.
A long history precedes the current state of TCP/IP networks, starting from developments that began
to evolve in the 1960s and 1970s, creation of the the Internet and LANs (Local Area Networks), which
emerged in the mid- to late-1980s, together with the advent of the World Wide Web in the early 1990s.
The Internet Protocol Suite, like most protocol suites, should be viewed as a set of layers.
Each layer solves a set of problems involving the transmission of data and provides a well-defned ser-
vice to the upper layer protocols based on using services from some lower layers.
Upper layers are logically closer to the user and deal with more abstract data, relying on lower layer
protocols to translate data into forms that can eventually be physically transmitted.
The TCP/IP model consists of four layers.
From lowest to highest, these are the Link Layer, the Internet Layer, the Transport Layer, and the Appli-
cation Layer.
These layers enable encapsulation of different functionality required to transmit data or information from
one destination to another.
In general, an application (the highest level of the model) uses a set of protocols to send its data down
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the layers, being further encapsulated at each level.
This may be illustrated by an example network scenario in which two Internet host computers communi-
cate across local network boundaries constituted by their internetworking gateways (routers).

Application Layer Application Layer Protocols: DHCP, DNS, FTP, HTTP, POP3, SMTP, IMAP, SSL etc.
Transport Layer Transport Layer Protocols: TCP, UDP, SCTP, DCCP.
Internet Layer Network Layer Protocols: IP (IPv4, IPv6), ICMP, IGMP, IPSec etc.
Link Layer Link Layer Protocols: ARP, InARP, NDP, L2TP, PPP, MAC, LCP etc.
Network Addressing
Computers and devices that are participating in a network, such as the Internet, each have a logical ad-
dress so that it can be discovered.
Usually this address is unique to each device and can either be dynamically (from a network server) or
statically (by an administrator) confgured.
An address fulflls the functions of identifying the host and locating it on the network.
It allows a device to communicate with other devices connected to the network.
The most common network addressing scheme is Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4), but its successor,
IPv6, is in early deployment stages.
An IPv4 address consists of 32 bits, for human readability written in a form consisting of four octets
separated by full stops (dots), called dot-decimal notation.
An IPv6 address consists of 128 bits. (example private IPv4 address = 192.168.1.1)
Subnetting is the process of designating bits from the host portion and grouping them with the network
portion.
This divides a network into smaller subnets.
The primary reason for subnetting in IPv4 is to improve effciency in the utilization of the relatively small
address space available, particularly to enterprises.
No such limitations exist in IPv6 as the address space available even to end-users is large.
As a rough approximation, there is the same number of IPv6 addresses per person as the number of
atoms in a metric ton of carbon (or more addresses than there are grains of sand on earth).
DHCP
The Dynamic Host Confguration Protocol (DHCP) is a computer networking protocol used by hosts
(DHCP clients) to retrieve IP address assignments and other confguration information.
DHCP uses a client-server architecture.
The client sends a broadcast request for confguration information.
The DHCP server receives the request and responds with confguration information from its confguration
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database.
In the absence of DHCP, all hosts on a network must be manually confgured individually—a time-con-
suming and error-prone undertaking.
Depending on implementation, the DHCP server may have three methods of allocating IP-addresses:
• Dynamic allocation: A network administrator assigns a range of IP addresses to DHCP and each client
computer on the LAN has its IP software confgured to request an IP address from the DHCP server dur-
ing network initialization.
The request-and-grant process uses a lease concept with a controllable time period, allowing the DHCP
server to reclaim (and then reallocate) IP addresses that are not renewed (dynamic re-use of IP ad-
dresses).
• Automatic allocation: The DHCP server permanently assigns a free IP address to a requesting client
from the range defned by the administrator.
This is like dynamic allocation, but the DHCP server keeps a table of past IP address assignments so
that it can preferentially assign to a client the same IP address that the client previously had.
• Static allocation: The DHCP server allocates an IP address based on a table with MAC address/IP ad-
dress pairs, which are manually flled in (perhaps by a network administrator).
Only requesting clients with a MAC address listed in this table will be allocated an IP address.
DNS
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical naming system for computers, services, or any re-
source connected to the Internet or a private network.
It associates relevant information with domain names assigned to each of the participants.
Most importantly, it translates domain names meaningful to humans into the numerical (binary) identifers
associated with networking equipment for the purpose of locating and addressing these devices world-
wide.
An often used analogy to explain the Domain Name System is that it serves as the “phone book” for the
Internet by translating human-friendly computer hostnames into IP addresses.
For example, www.example.com could translate to 192.0.32.10.
The Domain Name System is maintained by a distributed database system, which uses the client-server
model.
The nodes of this database are the name servers.
Each domain has at least one authoritative DNS server that publishes information about that domain and
the name servers of any domains subordinate to it.
The top of the hierarchy is served by the root nameservers, the servers to query when looking up (re-
solving) a top-level domain name (TLD).
Most server environments that a Help Desk Analyst will assist in managing will have capabilities for as-
sisting the resolution of domain names in an effcient manner.
For example, rather than any client (EG desktop computer) needing to resolve www.google.com inde-
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pendently, the IP address for the site can be stored on a local server.
This improves the performance (speed) experienced by users when accessing internet and intranet
based sites.
System administrators can also block various domains (EG pornographic sites) in accordance with the
security policy.
Virtual Private Networks
A virtual private network (VPN) is a computer network that is layered on top of an underlying computer
network.
The private nature of a VPN means that the data travelling over the VPN is not generally visible to or
encapsulated from the underlying network traffc.
Similarly, the traffc within the VPN appears to the underlying network as just another traffc stream to be
passed.
In more technical terms, the link layer protocols of the virtual network are said to be tunneled through the
underlying transport network.
The term VPN can be used to describe many different network confgurations and protocols.
As such, it can become complex when trying to generalize about the characteristics of a VPN.
Common variants of VPNs used today include:
• PPTP: This is a software based VPN system that uses any existing Internet connection.
By using the existing Internet connection, a secure “tunnel” is created between two points allowing a
remote user to connect to a remote network.
You can setup this type of connection with various types of software or hardware.
It is sometimes referred to as “dial-up VPN” because of the software’s interface that prompts for the
user’s credentials.
• L2TP: The Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) was developed in cooperation between Cisco and Micro-
soft, combining features of PPTP with those of Cisco’s proprietary Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) protocol.
L2TP has several advantages over PPTP: PPTP gives you data confdentiality but L2TP goes further
and also provides data integrity (protection against modifcation of the data between the time it left the
sender and the time it reached the recipient), authentication of origin (confrmation that the user who
claims to have sent the data really did), and replay protection (which keeps a hacker from being able to
capture data that is sent, such as the sending of credentials, and then “replay” it to “trick” the server).
On the other hand, the overhead involved in providing this extra security can result in slightly slower
performance than PPTP.
• IPSec: Most administrators know IPSec as the protocol used for encryption in conjunction with the
L2TP tunneling protocol.
However, IPSec can itself be used as a tunneling protocol and is in fact considered by many to be the
standard VPN solution, especially for gateway-to-gateway (site-to-site) VPNs that connect two LANs.
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IPSec operates at a higher level of the OSI model: the network layer (Layer 3).
Many hardware VPN appliances use an implementation of IPSec.
For example, Cisco’s VPN Concentrators and PIX frewalls support IPSec, as do NetScreen, SonicWall,
and WatchGuard appliances.
Enterprise level software frewalls, such as ISA Server, CheckPoint, and Symantec Enterprise Firewall
also support IPSec VPNs.
• Secure Sockets Layer (SSL): A major advantage of this connection is that you do not need special VPN
client software on the VPN clients because the SSL VPN uses the Web browser as the client application.
Thus, SSL VPNs are known as clientless solutions.
This also means the protocols that can be handled by an SSL VPN are more limited.
However, this can be a security advantage.
With SSL VPNs, instead of giving VPN clients access to the whole network or subnet, as with IPSec, you
can restrict them to specifc applications.
Email Protocols
In order to send email, your chosen email client needs to access a mail server via an application layer
protocol.common protocols used for email include:
• IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol): IMAP is a client/server protocol in which e-mail is received
and held for you by your Internet server.
As this requires only a small data transfer, this can also work well even over a slow connection, such as
a mobile data connection.
Only if you request to read a specifc email message will it be downloaded from the server.
You can also create and manipulate folders or mailboxes on the server (EG delete messages).
IMAP is suitable for users that use email on multiple machines as it allows all mail to be synchronized
across different devices and machines.
• POP3 (Post Offce Protocol 3): POP3 is a mail protocol that provides a simple, standardized way for
users to access mailboxes and download messages to their computers.
Unlike IMAP, the POP3 protocol will direct all your email messages to be downloaded from the mail
server to your local computer.
You can choose to leave copies of your emails on the server as well.
One advantage of POP3 is that, once your messages are downloaded, you can cut the internet connec-
tion and read your email at your leisure without incurring further communication costs.
• SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol): SMTP is a protocol used by the Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) to
deliver your email to the recipient’s mail server.
The SMTP protocol can only be used to send emails, not to receive them.
Depending on the network/ISP settings, you may only be able to use the SMTP protocol under certain
85
conditions (EG secure connections only).
• HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol): HTTP is not a protocol typically used for web-browsing, but it can
be used for accessing your mailbox.
Often called web-based email, this protocol can be used to compose or retrieve emails from an your ac-
count.
Hotmail is a good example of using HTTP as an email protocol.
The ITIL Capacity Process
The Capacity Management of ITIL is only one of the fve components of the Service Delivery area of
ITIL.
The nature of the work is not reactive but rather it is proactive.
It is responsible for ensuring that the needs of the business and the defnition of the services are fulflled
using the minimum measurement of the resources.
The process of Capacity Management involves monitoring, tuning, analyzing and implementing the
changes necessary in the utilization of the resources.
It also involves managing the demand for the measurement of resources which requires the understand-
ing of the priorities of the business.
Modeling is a process of Capacity Management used for the simulation of the performance of the infra-
structure and to know the future needs of the resources.
The measurement of applications should be understood to make sure that the service levels required are
met by the company, this is also a process involved in the ITIL management of capacity for any organiza-
tion.
The company is required to produce a capacity plan documented with all the current utilization and future
requirements as well as the cost of the new releases and new applications.
There is also a need for the organization as a part of their capacity process to make an annual growth
plan for its infrastructure with all the inputs coming from other teams within the organization.
The need for the implementation of Capacity Management in an organization is very important since ITIL
capacity management gives a fast and early wins that generated cost savings that can eventually be
used for future ITIL projects of the particular company.
The benefts of Capacity Management make it a good candidate as the frst implementation in the Ser-
vice Delivery area of ITIL.
ISO 20000 Uptake Gaining momentum
The intention for IT Service Management (ITSM) processes is to deliver the best possible service to
meet a customer’s business needs within agreed resource levels.
86
That is, service delivery that is professional, cost-effective and with risks that are understood, accepted
and managed.
It is necessary to have some mechanism to measure service delivery and quality.
Working towards standards compliance is a strategy to enable measurement of quality that many organi-
zations around the world have freely adopted.
Since the 90s with ISO 9001 and other international standards, organizations have used standards as a
way to demonstrate the quality and effectiveness of their process.
More recently the ITSM standard has been BS 15000 (and AS8018 in Australia).
In 05, ISO 20000 has superseded BS15000 and represents an industry consensus on quality standards
for ITSM.
With the introduction of the international standard we have seen considerable activity in organizations
seeking to achieve certifcation.
Currently there are 84 Certifed under ISO 20000 (and BS 15000).
This number is certainly on the increase given the interest around the world for training in ISO 20000
consulting courses being offered by The Art Of Service, one of the few internationally accredited ISO
20000 training organizations.
ISO 20000
ISO/IEC 20000, the frst international standard for IT Service Management, is based on the pre-existing
British Standard, BS 15000, and intends to surpass it.
Like BS 15000, ISO 20000 was initially developed to highlight the best practices guidance included
within the Information Technology Infrastructure Library Framework.
Apart from this, it also supports other IT Service Management frameworks and approaches, such as
Microsoft Operations Framework.
The ISO 20000 standard was published for the frst time in 05) This international standard consists of two
parts, namely ISO/IEC 20000-1 and ISO/IEC 20000-2) ISO 20000-1 stands for IT Service Management
against which the practices of an organization can be certifed.
It helps in the promotion of an integrated approach, which works towards the delivery of managed ser-
vices, in order to meet business and customer needs.
It comprises of ten categories: - Scope - Terms and conditions - Planning and Implementing Service
Management - Requirements for a Management System - Service Delivery Process - Relationship Pro-
cesses - Control Processes - Resolution Processes - Release Process ISO 20000-2 refers to the code
of practice’ that explains the best practices and requirements of ISO 20000-1) It consists of the same
sections as in ISO 20000-1) However, it does not include Requirements for a Management System’ as
no requirements are imposed by ISO 20000 part-2) With the publication of ISO 20000, BS 15000 was
withdrawn and individual standards and certifcation bodies are formulating their formal transition pro-
87
grams in order to adapt to the new standard.
ITIL Book
ITIL Book ITIL Book is actually a set of two volumes, one of service delivery and one of service support.
ITIL books have comprehensive information about the two service management domains of ITIL.
ITIL book is just one of the way of getting information about ITIL and knowing more about its framework
and practices for better IT service management.
You can either get the published version or simply download the e-book version of ITIL book, as is con-
venient and preferable.
You can have the e-book version of ITIL Book in pdf, word doc or ppt formats.
ITIL Toolkit and BS15000 service management standards support the ITIL Book information.
Both the toolkit and the BS15000 standards are important to understand and effectively implement the
information gathered from the ITIL book.
A Short Description of ITIL History- The Best Way to
Defne ITIL
Information Technology (IT) is now considered a way of life.
Through the years, IT has established its importance not only in the feld of education and other indus-
tries, but more signifcantly in the world of business, that it has made things easier for companies to
accomplish business needs and goals and carry out operational tasks.
Because of the rapidly growing dependency of many business frms to Information Technology, the
United Kingdom s Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency (CCTA) has sought the essence
of developing a set of standards in achieving quality service and at the same time, overcoming diffculties
linked to the growth of IT systems.
Hence, the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) was introduced to the world and has
become the de facto standard in IT service management.Now currently maintained and developed by
the Offce of Government Commerce, ITIL has been adopted and adapted by almost every type of IT
environment.
ITIL is a set of best practices and guidelines that defne a systematic and specialized approach to the
management of IT service provision.
These guiding principles are intended to promote value in IT operations by delivering high quality ser-
vices.
Implementing this extensive set of management procedures will lead to benefts such as the following:
(a) get more out of existing resources resulting to reduced costs; (b) improved customer satisfaction
through a more profcient approach to IT service delivery; (c) improved productivity by eliminating redun-
dant work; (d) improved service quality though the use of established best practice processes; and (e)
88
improved use of skills and experience, defning a consistent level of service.
Understanding the ITIL Concepts and Terminologies
The proliferation of the use of computers in businesses gave rise for the IT industry to realize the need
to standardize the management of IT services due to the increasingly global competitive and regulated
environment.
It is through this realization that the IT Infrastructure Library was created and published and has been
internationally accepted approached in the management of IT service.
ITIL has been popularly used by almost all businesses nowadays for its proven information as to best
recommended practices it offers in IT service management.
In as much as many use ITIL, the set of volumes of the ITIL provides for the concepts and terminology of
IT Service Management.
The concepts and terminology were provided in such a way that these are clearly understood by all read-
ers.The IT service concepts allow a holistic view for managers to look into the IT Infrastructure.
The focus to operation has been shifted to performance based.
Some of the common ITIL terminologies and descriptions in service delivery and service support areas
are as follows:1) Incident- an occurrence that is not within the standard service operation, which may
have cause interruption or reduction as to the quality of service. 2.Problem - incident that is not easily
determined as to cause. 3.Known Error - an error that is recognizable. 4.Major incident- an incident that
yields a high impact and required response immediately as it is beyond normal incidents. 5.Service Re-
quest- a request needing new or altered service. 6.Solution- a resolution formed that resolve an incident
or problem. 7) Workaround is a temporary fx that allows continuance of normal service until resolved.
With the ITIL concepts and terminologies available, even those with basic literacy in IT will understand
what ITIL is all about.
Learning ITIL through Poster
oing over the core volumes of the ITIL v3 may be tedious for those who are not so much into reading
other than it is also heavy.
Others prefer handy materials when studying and make things simple if summarized.ITIL poster has
been developed to aid in understanding the IT service management without necessarily having to stuck
one’s head on reading volumes of book.
ITIL poster presents a clear overview of the ITIL structure and the processes.
It provides the individual process areas, structure, maturity levels and capability levels of ITIL.
It should provide a graphical map showing the practical linkage Service Delivery and Service Support
processes.
The normal size of an ITIL poster is A3 in size and is double sided laminated map.
89
ITIL poster is not only an aid for those learning or understanding ITIL, but it also allows others in the
organization to become aware of the types of management in the IT service.
It provides readers the chance to see how IT service management works in an organization and serve as
point of reference too for those who fails to trace back or recall some of the ITIL concepts.ITIL poster can
be customized based on the organization’s objective.
An ITIL Process map maybe use showing the IT service management fow.
This process map serves as an awareness campaign to employees as well as to customers.
ITIL poster, most of all reminds the organization of the framework that it should apply in the keeping the
IT service excellent.
IT Services Catalog Maintenance and Improvement
Process: Service Catalog Management
Status: In draft
Under Review
Sent for Approval
Approved
Rejected

Version: <<your version>>

Release Date:

Document Control
Author
Prepared by <name and / or department>
Document Source
This document is located on the LAN under the path:
I:/IT Services/Service Delivery/Business and IT Service Mapping/
Document Approval
This document has been approved for use by the following:
• <frst name, last name>, IT Services Manager
• <frst name, last name>, IT Service Delivery Manager
• <frst name, last name>, National IT Help Desk Manager
Amendment History
Issue Date Amendments Completed By



Distribution List
When this procedure is updated, the following copyholders must be advised through email that an up-
dated copy is available on the intranet site:
<<organization name>> Business Unit Stakeholders
90
IT
Table of Contents
DOCUMENT CONTROL 1
AUTHOR 2
DOCUMENT SOURCE 2
DOCUMENT APPROVAL 2
AMENDMENT HISTORY 2
DISTRIBUTION LIST 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS 3
INTRODUCTION 4
PURPOSE 4
SCOPE 4
AUDIENCE 4
OWNERSHIP 4
RELATED DOCUMENTATION 4
1.
OVERVIEW 5
2.
ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES 5
3.
CATALOG MAINTENANCE 5
4.
IMPROVING THE SERVICE CATALOG 5
5.
APPENDICES 6
6.
TERMINOLOGY 6
Introduction
Purpose
The purpose of this document is to provide IT departments with an understanding of best practices in
maintaining and improving the service catalog.
Scope
This document describes the following:
➢ PDCA cycle
Audience
This document is relevant to all staff in <<organization name>>
Ownership
IT Services has ownership of this document in conjunction with nominated Business Representatives.
Related Documentation
The following documents may help you complete or understand the purpose of this document:
➢ Eight Steps to Creating an Effective Service Catalog and relevant documentation
➢ ITIL® Service Design (Service Catalog Management)
91

1.
Overview
The iteration of the service catalog will probably not meet every potential need of the customer or the
service provider.
Ensuring the service catalog provides value will be a constant endeavor and will require both minor and
major changes over time.
Proper planning from the start will ensure many years of satisfaction, but there are always opportunities
for improvement.
In addition, maintaining a service catalog, whether by itself or with several distinct versions, requires
constant attention to the details, including ensuring the stability of links to referenced materials and avail-
ability to key roles within the customer and service organization.
2.
Roles and Responsibilities
See the Roles and Responsibilities of Service Catalog Management document in the Toolkit.
More detailed worksheets for generating appropriate roles are available with:
• SCM Process Owner Role Description Worksheet
• SLM Process Owner Role Description Worksheet

3.
Catalog Maintenance
The maintenance of the service catalog should follow any policies and procedures the organization has
related to document, database, or application management.
The catalog should be reviewed regularly to ensure it still meets the needs of the customer and the ser-
vice provider.
The information contained within the service catalog should be audited to ensure accuracy and quality.
Since much information is from or referenced from other information sources, any results of auditing from
those sources should be documented and used in consideration when planning an audit of the catalog.
Especially for online catalogs, the maintenance of links between information sources must be performed
diligently and regularly.
A missing or incomplete link can be the source of major dissatisfaction in some circumstances.
<<Describe what maintenance activities should be implemented as part of your service catalog solu-
tion.>>
4.
92
Improving the Service Catalog
Because of the critical nature of the service catalog, any change or improvement to the catalog must be
controlled through the change management process.
Improvements should be performed consistent to the Continual Service Improvement program imple-
mented in your organization.
Since the catalog also references documentation and information from other sources, changes to those
sources should also be controlled through the change management process, and the impact to the ser-
vice catalog, as a result of those changes, must be assessed.
A basic framework for continual improvement is the PDCA cycle (Plan-Do-Check-Act), or Deming cycle.
This simple process can be adapted to any size or type of improvement to the service catalog; however,
your organization may have a more formal process for continual improvement.
Some catalog-related improvements will be the result of new customers, new services, or process im-
provements in other areas which require a change in how the service catalog operates or what it pre-
sents.
<<Describe how the service catalog will be covered in the existing continual improvement program for
your organization: who is responsible and what criteria will be used to determine appropriate improve-
ments related to the service catalog.>>
5.
Appendices
List any appendices needed in conjunction with this document.
6.
Terminology
7.
Using Referenced Documents
The supporting documentation for this step focuses on defning the roles and responsibilities related to
the service catalog throughout the service lifecycle and, specifcally, the process owner for Service Cata-
log Management and Service Level Management.
The descriptions are based on ITIL and can be used to develop or validate the roles for the organization
with respect to maintaining a service catalog.
ITIL Capacity Management Towards Provision of
Consistent Levels of Service
93
One of the processes involved in managing information technology is Capacity Management, most spe-
cially in the ITIL Service Delivery area.
Capacity Management aims to understand the future requirements of the business (the required delivery
of service), the IT infrastructure (the means of service delivery), and the operation of the organization
(the current service delivery) while ensuring that all current and future capacity and performance aspects
of the business requirements are provided at the right time in the most effcient and cost-effective man-
ner.
Capacity Management has three main areas of responsibility.
These are the following: Business Capacity Management (BCM) ensures that careful planning and
implementation of future business requirements for IT services are delivered in a timely fashion; Service
Capacity Management (SCM) focuses on monitoring the performance of IT services provided to con-
sumers; and Resource Capacity Management (RCM) focuses on the management of IT infrastructure
while making sure that all fnite resources are being measured and monitored.There are a lot of reasons
why Capacity Management should be implemented within an organization.
Benefts, either long term or immediate, include reduced costs, improved service quality and more con-
sistent levels of service.
Some of the processes involved in Capacity Management also allow businesses to eliminate redundant
work and ensure consistent reporting, tweak IT applications and infrastructure components to improve
performance and reduce consumption, and more importantly, get more out of existing IT resources.
In addition, more systematic service level and associated fnancial information are available to the busi-
ness through the use of Capacity Management processes.
Because of this, Capacity Management teams have close ties to ITIL Service Level Management and
Financial Management departments.
ITIL Overview
ITIL Overview ITIL or Information Technology Infrastructure Library is a framework and set of standards
for IT service management.
The ITIL overview for IT service management can be divided into two broad categories: Service Delivery
and Service Support.
These two categories are further divided into several components, which together are part of the ITIL
overview.
There are in all ten components of ITIL and each has its distinct prominence in ITIL implementation and
execution.
ITIL Overview - Service Delivery Service Level ManagementCapacity ManagementIt Service Continuity
ManagementAvalability ManagementIT Financial Management - Service Support Confguration Man-
agementIncident ManagementProblem ManagementChange ManagementService/ Help Desk Release
Management
94
IT Service Management Service Catalog
<<YOUR LOGO HERE>>
Prepared by: <<PREPARATION NAME>>
Prepared for: <<RECEIPIENT NAME, GROUP, COMPANY>>
Date: <<DATE OF VALIDITY>>
Special notes:
EG Does the Service Catalog have a limited life span? If so, indicate that here.
Search for any instance of << or >> as your input will be required.
Version number Owner Location Date


<<Any industry associated logos or ISO stamp or other Quality system related indicators (EG ISO Ac-
creditation>>

Table of Contents
(SPECIAL NOTE – DON’T FORGET TO UPDATE THE TABLE OF CONTENTS WHEN YOU ARE FIN-
ISHED)
Through the document, look for text surrounded by << and >> as these are indicators for you to create
some specifc text.
Watch also for highlighted text which provides further guidance and instructions.
1 Executive Overview 3
2 Scope 3
3 Service Summary Sheet 5
4 Service A 6
4.1 Description 6
4.2 Customers 6
4.3 Options 6
4.4 Price List 6
95
4.5 Dependencies & Contributors 6
4.6 Functional Specifcation 7
4.7 Technical Specifcation 7
4.8 Support Activities 8
4.9 Customizations or Variants 8
4.10 Existing SLAs 9
4.11 Restrictions 9
5 Appendices 10
6 Terminology 11

1 Executive Overview
In the past, organization’s IT Services have generally grown and developed into large complex environ-
ments.
Unfortunately this growth has not always been as structured and pre-planned as it needs to be.
This has resulted in the IT department not having a very clear picture of all the services they currently
provide with no accurate profle of the actual customers for each of these services.
Therefore, it has become imperative for the IT department to establish an accurate picture of the ser-
vices it provides.
This can be done through a comprehensive IT Service Catalog.
The Service Catalog must be developed in conjunction with customers, who are better able to describe
what they see as “services” than an IT person.
If there is an asset register or confguration management database (a concept from the ITIL® Confgura-
tion Management process), these are good sources of information.
<<The specifc reason for you to develop this document should be written in this section.
Was it a result of a customer enquiry? Is it because Service Level Agreements are to be developed
based on the service catalog? Is it seen as a competitive advantage?>>
The Executive Overview should establish the reason for this document’s existence and its beneft back
to the business.
The above words are generic and can be tailored to suit your organization.
2 Scope
It is imperative to determine the scope of the document.
What will be included in the document and why, and what will not be included in the document and why.
It is also advisable to establish a common understanding of some of the terminology used throughout the
document.
For example, the scope section should determine the defnition of a service.
96
The Service Catalog will list all of the IT services currently being provided to our organization.
The Service Catalog will provide a summary of the service characteristics and details of the users, and
those responsible for ongoing maintenance of each service.
<<Restrictions & Assumption – You may only be documenting services for a specifc business unit or
group of users.
Perhaps you have been advised to write a service catalog on all services except those in a mainframe
environment.
Any restrictions and assumptions you make in developing the document should be listed here.
Don’t think that everyone will be able to clearly understand what you see as the scope of the document.
List these sort of things in bullet points for easier readability>>
➢ Restriction 1
Text description
➢ Restriction 2
Text description
➢ Restriction x
Text description
➢ Assumption 1
Text description
➢ Assumption 2
Text description
➢ Assumption x
Text description
For the purpose of this document, a service will be defned as the following:
One or more IT Systems which enable a business process
<<To learn more about Business Processes SLM1400 - Business and IT Service Mapping>>
<<Important note: This is a crucial document and information and should be held in the company Con-
fguration Management database.
Confguration Management is an ITIL process – refer to the Product set CONMGT @ www.itilsurvival.
com>>
3 Service Summary Sheet
In this section, list all the services and the customers that they apply to.
This section of the Service Catalog indicates the names of the services that will be expanded in later
sections and the end users of these services.
97
This page/s is a useful check list to take to negotiations regarding service delivery, to determine if there
are new services or others that should be renamed to more accurately refect their purpose.
<<Description of Customers - The “customers” are generally described as functional groups, but you
may have alternative names for the user groups.
Don’t expand on the description of the services here, as that comes in the following sections.>>
Remember, for each service listed here, you need to duplicate the following section (section 5) that num-
ber of times.
Customers
Service Accounts Sales Marketing Legal Production Retail
SERVICE A • • •
EG Accounts System • • • • • •
EG Email • • • • •
EG Intranet • • •
EG Internet • • • •
Service x
Service x
Service x

4 Service A
4.1 Description
In this section, provide a detailed description of the service being provided.
This description should be easy to read and written in a non-technical manner.
4.2 Customers
In this section, provide a list of customers that currently use this service.
4.3 Options
Option Type Availability Response Capacity Recovery Options Service Times
Gold
Silver
Bronze
4.4 Price List
In this section, list all charging and cost information that makes up this service.
<<Important note: Pricing is an area that most organizations try to avoid when it comes to provision of IT
Services.
However, pricing can have some very powerful behavioral change benefts.
Have a look at the Financial Management for IT Services (FINMGT) at www.itilsurvival.com.>>
98
4.5 Dependencies & Contributors
List all other services that may depend on this particular service.
PLEASE NOTE THAT THE FOLLOWING TABLE CAN BE MODIFIED BY YOU OR PUT ONTO A SEPA-
RATE PAGE/SECTION AND PUT INTO A LANDSCAPE VIEW FOR EASIER READABILITY.
<<List the dependencies for this service.
A dependency can be either another service that is reliant on this service OR it can be the fact that THIS
service is reliant on another service.
In whole or in part, the different dependencies should be listed in this section.>>
<<For example, if you are describing the accounts payable system/service, then it may be likely that the
customer relationship database is used to provide billing details for invoices.
In this case, the accounts payable service is dependent on the customer relationship database; it is de-
pendent on it for billing address details).>>
<<In the table below, you can describe the dependencies (note that there should always be a corre-
sponding dependency relationship described in another service description (in our example – the cus-
tomer relationship database would describe how it is a contributor to the accounts payable system).
It is a contributor.
The fnal three columns of this table allow you to cross reference to any other agreements that support
the dependency or contributor relationship.
Using our customer relationship database to accounts payable system, it may be that the customer rela-
tionship database is supported by a specialized group of IT staff.
In such a case, we may create an Operational level Agreement (OLA) with them so that they can under-
stand the importance of the relationship).
(Note: The SLA, OLA and Underpinning Contracts are all elements of the Service Level Management
ITIL process – refer to products SLM1901/2/3, SLM2000, and SLM2100 at www.itilsurvival.com>>
Dependent Service Description Impact on Service A Service Level Agreement # Operational Level
Agreement # Underpinning Contracts
Dependent or contributor



4.6 Functional Specifcation
Include in this section any references to additional Functional Specifcations for this service.
This should be simple to read and understandable by non-IT literate people.
<<For relatively simple processes, you can describe how different services connect and work together.
99
For more complicated relationships, you can use the Functional Specifcation template (ref: SLM2201 @
www.itilsurvival.com)>>
<<For instance, you may have a system that holds information about employees.
It may have names, addresses, payroll numbers, tax codes, and other information.
It may also be used as a source of names for the local blood bank to contact for support.
With this example, it is easy to see what the primary and secondary functions of the service are.>>
4.7 Technical Specifcation
Include in this section any technical information that is pertinent to the service.
This section may point to additional documentation.
<<Be cautious about the level of detail you include on the technical details of the service.
Think of describing the technical specifcation of the service to a person who does not have a very good
understanding of IT.
For example:
Instead of You might use
WAN Computers connected together over long distances
Server Central computer that holds information that can be accessed by many people
RAM The ability of the computer to perform many different functions at the same time
MHZ The speed at which the computer should be expected to perform different tasks

4.8 Support Activities
Included in this section any supporting activities that need to occur to maintain the service.
This would include scheduled maintenance time, etc.
Perhaps the service will be unavailable at certain times of the day or of the week.
If there are major scheduled outages for this service, then they should also be referenced in the Forward
Schedule of Changes (FSC).
The FSC is a concept described under the ITIL Change Management process (see product CHG7700
Forward Schedule of Changes Template).
<<You can simply list known times of outage or insert a table.>>
<<You also need to list how the end user receives support for this service.
Can they e-mail and call? Is there a set Service Desk or Call Center phone number? Be cautious about
putting an actual phone number in this document.
This is because if the number changes, this document becomes outdated.
100
You are best at simply describing the number to call (EG Call the IT Service Desk) and then rely on wall
posters, other marketing, etc.
To promote what that actual number is).
4.9 Customizations or Variants
Within any organization, there MAY BE scenarios where a particular service will be delivered at different
levels for different customers.
For instance, there maybe an extension of functionality that other customers do not require or use.
In these instances, it is best to capture all variants for all customers under the original service.
PLEASE NOTE THAT THE FOLLOWING TABLE CAN BE MODIFIED OR PUT TO A SEPARATE PAGE/
SECTION AND PUT INTO A LANDSCAPE VIEW FOR EASIER READABILITY.
REMEMBER, HOWEVER, THAT THIS SECTION CAN BE OPTIONAL.
This service has some variants from what could be considered as the baseline.
Service Version Customer Description Availability Response Capacity Recovery Options Service Times




4.10 Existing SLAs
Cross reference to any existing Service Level Agreements (SLAs) and contracts associated with this
particular service.
Contract SLA # SLA Type Customer
Corporate Based
Customer Based
Service Based
<<The type of SLA can be generally categorized into one of these three types.
Descriptions are provided below.
Whether you leave these descriptions in the document is optional.>>
Corporate Based: Covering all the generic Service Level Management (SLM) issues appropriate to every
customer throughout the organization
Customer Based: Covering all SLM issues relevant to the particular customer group, regardless of the
service being used
Service Based: Covering all SLM issues relevant to the specifc service, in relation to this specifc cus-
tomer group (one for each service covered by the SLA)
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4.11 Restrictions
If this service is restricted to a certain group or for use at certain periods of time, week, month, etc., then
you would detail those restrictions here.
Remember to keep the description brief.

5 Appendices
Include any applicable appendices that are needed.

6 Terminology
Make sure that all terms is captured and documented correctly.
Vision of Responsive Leadership
Effective leadership is a process that includes a shared vision of hope and an objective understanding of
reality.
Other important elements of leadership include the ability to empower and infuence others to embrace
the vision of hope and planned actions to realize the vision.
In addition to encompassing these qualities, organizational leaders are called to be responsive to the
needs of children and families.organizational staff, Policy Council members and board members will
learn about the leader’s role in managing quality organizational programs and the ten commitments of
leadership.
The theme of the 2005 Directors’ Institute is Responsive Leadership That Builds Quality organizational
Programs.
What does responsive leadership mean in organizational? Responsive leadership means taking respon-
sibility for quality outcomes and being responsive to the needs of children and families.
A responsive leader understands the enormous challenge in providing quality services to all organiza-
tional and Early organizational children and families.
The organizational director is a leader and manager: as a leader the director inspires and defnes the
program vision and culture of quality and excellence; as a manager the director ensures that quality and
excellence is delivered to children and families every program day.
Leadership is a process that includes a shared vision of hope and an objective understanding of reality.
Other critical elements are trust in relationships, empowerment of people, inclusive and honest commu-
nications, and the ability to infuence others to embrace the vision of hope and planned actions to realize
the vision.
102
The Ten Commitments of Leadership ...
Provides a graphic overview of effective leadership practices.
To ensure delivery of consistent quality outcomes and focused services, organizational takes a systems
approach.
Underlying this approach is the principle that service delivery quality, in large part, depends upon the
quality and features of the organization’s systems.
The beauty of a fabric does not come from separate threads but from the linking and interweaving of all
threads to make a pattern.
Program quality does not come from individual parts of its systems and services—it comes from an inte-
grated whole.
Therefore, the leader needs to understand the interplay between and among systems and services.
Effective and responsible leadership is critical for a quality organizational program to survive and thrive.
Management systems and procedures are part of each program’s ongoing approaches to organize and
operate organizational services.
All management systems are connected and interrelated.
Each system is affected by the others, and all are infuencing and infuenced by program services.
The quality of program services in the Child Development and Health, Family Community Partnerships,
and Program Development and Management service areas are directly linked to the quality of a pro-
gram’s management systems.
The PRISM framework lists nine organizational systems and three service and partnership areas.
During the 2005 Directors’ Institute, you will get in-depth workshops on three of these: Financial Manage-
ment, Program Governance, and Management Systems.
The servant leader understands that nothing positive can be accomplished by an organization without
the support of those who are to do the hard work.
—James A.
Autry The Servant Leader
Ten Commitments of Leadership
Leadership practices are essential to managing a quality organizational and Early organizational pro-
gram.
This Ten Commitments of Leadership identifes the practical aspects of leadership skills and the underly-
ing commitments needed to support a strong, positive culture.
PRACTICES COMMITMENTS
103
Challenging the Process 1.
Search out challenging opportunities to change, grow, innovate, and improve.
2.
Experiment, take risks, and learn from the accompanying mistakes.
Inspiring a Shared Vision 3.
Envision an uplifting and ennobling future.
4.
Enlist others in a common vision by appealing to their values, interests, hopes, and dreams.
Enabling Others to Act 5.
Foster collaboration by promoting cooperative goals and building trust.
6.
Strengthen people by giving power away, providing choice, developing competence, assigning critical
tasks, and offering visible support.
Modeling the Way 7.
Set the example by behaving in ways that are consistent with shared values.
8.
Achieve small wins that promote consistent progress and build commitment.
Encouraging the Heart 9.
Recognize individual contributions to the success of every project.
Leadership Challenge 10.
Celebrate team accomplishments regularly.
The Leadership Challenge.
James M.
Kouzes, Barry Z.
Posner.
Jossey-Bass Inc., Pubs. (3rd Edition) (Paperback).
New York. 2003.
ISBN – 0787968331
The Leader’s Role in Managing Quality organizational Programs
Management encompasses the full range of functions that must be coordinated to create a quality or-
ganizational program with well integrated systems.
Leadership is required for effective management.
104
Listed below are refective questions that leadership teams, governing bodies, and parents in the com-
munity should be discussing and implementing.
Planning
How does our strategic planning system operate, and what processes are used to integrate strategic
goals in our annual planning?
How can our agency improve the planning process to ensure continuous program improvement and
positive child outcomes?
How do we involve the governing body, Policy Council, and management team in the planning process?
How do we use internal and external data for program planning?
Communication
How effective are our current efforts to communicate on issues of program quality and desired outcomes
with staff, parents, policy groups, and community partners?
How can we improve our internal system of communication for smooth program operations, to ensure
the consistent delivery of high quality services to children and their parents?
How do parents and staff communicate their ideas, expectations, and concerns about the program goals,
vision, and services to management team?
Record-Keeping and Reporting
How does our leadership team analyze internal information to make programmatic and service delivery-
related decisions?
What reports will be provided to the parent committee, Policy Councils, and governing bodies?
How do we ensure the accuracy and timeliness of our record-keeping and reporting systems?
How is our information technology system organized to ensure the safety of our confdential records?
Ongoing Monitoring
How does our program monitor the quality of program services in all service areas and in all program
options?
What is the frequency and scope of our ongoing monitoring efforts?
What changes could improve our ongoing monitoring effort, and how does information from monitoring
help to guide program improvement efforts?
How does our monitoring system ensure appropriate internal controls, risk management, and account-
ability of all program systems and services?
Self-Assessment
What is our self-assessment process?
How do we plan an outcome-based system of self-assessment?
Have we included all appropriate people on the self-assessment team—staff, parents, policy group mem-
bers, governing body members, and community partners?
From what sources should we gather data to conduct a valid and accurate assessment of our systems
and program performance?
What is our process for program improvement based on the results of our self-assessment?
Human Resources
What skills and knowledge is required of our program staff? What does staff have currently, and what do
we need to do to close any gaps?
How do we attract and retain high quality staff? What is the rate of staff turnover in our agency?
In what ways do we, as leaders, ensure effective staff development—training, mentoring, and supervi-
sion?
Financial Management
How are resources currently allocated to support quality services?
How could resources be re-allocated to better support staff, curriculum, assessment, and child out-
comes?
What additional resources can be enlisted to support improved quality?
What internal controls do we have to ensure fscal accountability? How do we monitor consistent imple-
105
mentation of internal controls?
What risks are inherent in our fnancial system?
How do we assess risks in our decision-making process?
Program Governance
How does the shared decision-making process work in our agency? How can we enhance the quality of
the shared decision-making process?
How will we involve parent committees, Policy Councils, and governing bodies in the decision making
process necessary to achieve positive outcomes for children?
How is the governing body involved in carrying out its fduciary responsibilities?
What information does everyone need to fulfll their responsibilities effectively?
Eligibility, Recruitment, Selection, Enrollment and Attendance (ERSEA)
How does our program determine community needs and recruitment areas?
What criteria do we use to select children for organizational and Early organizational services? How is
the selection criteria developed? How do we involve the Policy Council in this process?
When does recruitment and enrollment take place? Is it in the spring, summer or is it ongoing? What are
our marketing practices for recruiting and enrolling organizational and Early organizational children?
How does our program maintain its funded enrollment level? How do we ensure that a vacancy is flled
within 30 days? Is there a waiting list?
How does our program ensure accurate and timely information on all applications for program services?
Does our program have a system to provide accurate reports on enrollment, attendance, and waiting
list? How do we monitor accuracy of these reports?
What Good it is to Practice IT ITIL Management
Service?
The ITIL version 3 was focused on value based and business focused.
The ITIL management service includes service strategy, service design, service transition, service opera-
tion and continual service improvement.
The ITIL management services uses the word continual as it denotes continues service without paused.
And this is specifcally why the new version of ITIL management is on service management as provision
of services requires availability all the time.The ITIL contains the best practices in IT and has been used
worldwide.
The IT ITIL management service includes network service management, operations management, man-
agement of local processors, computer installation and acceptance and systems management.
It focuses on addressing the service support and service delivery for IT telecoms and networks.
IT ITIL service management is also responsible in seeing to it that customers needs and expectations as
well as the cost associated for the services to the organizations come into a realistic compromise.
There is a need for IT ITIL service management to document all the IT services offered.
It should be able to come up with a realistic IT services that will allow customers to make use of what
would match the services they require.
The IT service performance indicators should be defned and monitor the quality of service that is re-
106
quired and provided for to customers.
With the IT ITIL Management Service as guide, organizations provision of services to its customers
would be improved.
The continual service that it aims to provide would surely help organization attain the good reputation of
excellent service that it provides to its customers.
IT Services Service Agreements Processes: Service
Level Management Supplier Management
Status: In draft
Under Review
Sent for Approval
Approved
Rejected

Version: <<your version>>

Release Date:

Document Control
Author
Prepared by <name and / or department>
Document Source
This document is located on the LAN under the path:
I:/IT Services/Service Delivery/Business and IT Service Mapping/
Document Approval
This document has been approved for use by the following:
• <frst name, last name>, IT Services Manager
• <frst name, last name>, IT Service Delivery Manager
• <frst name, last name>, National IT Help Desk Manager
Amendment History
Issue Date Amendments Completed By



Distribution List
When this procedure is updated, the following copyholders must be advised through email that an up-
dated copy is available on the intranet site:
<<organization name>> Business Unit Stakeholders
IT
Table of Contents
DOCUMENT CONTROL 1
AUTHOR 2
DOCUMENT SOURCE 2
DOCUMENT APPROVAL 2
AMENDMENT HISTORY 2
DISTRIBUTION LIST 2
107
TABLE OF CONTENTS 3
INTRODUCTION 4
PURPOSE 4
SCOPE 4
AUDIENCE 4
OWNERSHIP 4
RELATED DOCUMENTATION 4
1.
EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW 5
2.
STRUCTURES OF SERVICE LEVEL AGREEMENTS 5
3.
SERVICE CATALOG 7
4.
CREATING A SERVICE LEVEL AGREEMENT 7
5.
APPENDICES 7
6.
TERMINOLOGY 8
Introduction
Purpose
The purpose of this document is to provide IT departments with an understanding of agreements related
to the operation and maintenance of a service.
Scope
This document describes the following:
➢ Service requirements
➢ Dependencies
➢ Agreements
Audience
This document is relevant to all staff in <<organization name>>
Ownership
IT Services has ownership of this document in conjunction with nominated Business Representatives.
Related Documentation
The following documents may help you complete or understand the purpose of this document:
➢ Eight Steps to Creating an Effective Service Catalog and relevant documentation
➢ ITIL® Service Design (Service Level Management, Service Catalog Management)
➢ Service Based SLA Template Example
➢ Customer Based SLA Template Example
➢ Corporate Based SLA Template Example
➢ Operational Level Agreement Template Example
➢ Underpinning Contracts Template Example

1.
108
Executive Overview
The service agreement, whether with the customer, internal party, or a supplier, is a crucial junction be-
tween the practical and the conceptual.
In the process of defning a service, the service provider seeks to understand the customer’s needs and
plan the means by which those needs can be met.
An agreement between customer and service provider is necessary to move forward.
The service agreement serves four purposes:
• Obtains agreement on relevant service requirements
• Defnes measureable targets for service performance
• Defnes responsibilities of participating parties
• Provides the basis for managing the relationship between participating parties
In IT Service Management, agreements come in three forms:
• Service Level Agreement – an agreement between customer and service provider designed to defne
how the delivered service will meet the desired business outcomes
• Operational Level Agreement – an agreement between two departments within the same organization,
usually the IT department and another non-IT department (like service team and facilities department or
IT security and corporate security), designed to ensure the effectiveness and effciency of the delivered
service.
Typically, the non-IT department will provide services necessary to comply with any pertinent SLA, such
as heating and cooling services or security guards.
• Underpinning Contract – an agreement between the service provider and another external supplier.
The supplier may provide all or part of a service defned within an SLA or OLA.
This document will focus on the creation of Service Level Agreements; however, the concepts and meth-
ods can be adoptable to the creation of any agreement.
2.
Structures of Service Level Agreements
Service Level Agreements can be:
• Service-based – The agreement covers a single service for multiple customers without any allowable
customization.
Generally, the service targets are the same, though sometimes different service levels can be obtained if
customer requirements or solution constraints warrant the difference.
Some service providers may provide different classes of the same service, that is, the same service with
increasing service targets (such as premium, gold, extended, or basic).
• Customer-based – The agreement covers all the services for a single customer.
Services can be customized.
• Multi-Level – Combines the concepts of service- and customer-based agreements to provide a compre-
hensive approach suitable to enterprise customers.
109
Multiple-level SLAs will usually address all services common to all departments within the enterprise,
while defning the criteria and approach to handle specifc department requirements.
Then the agreement will address the needs of specifc departments (customers).
Some services will span multiple departments, but not all of them, and further delineation of require-
ments and responsibilities may be necessary.
For each service level agreement, the following considerations must be negotiated and agreed:
• Service description
• Scope (inclusions and exclusions)
• Service hours (not necessarily business or operating hours)
• Functionality (utility)
• Service availability
• Service reliability
• Service performance
• Service continuity
• Security
• Customer support
• Contact points and escalation
• Change management
• Responsibilities
• Charging (if applicable)
• Service reporting
• Service reviews
For OLAs and underpinning contracts, specifc process interfaces may also be added to the above con-
siderations, such as how confguration management will work between the two parties or compliance to
the Information Security Policy.
Use the following table to identify and organize the customers and services where agreements currently
or should exist:
Customers Services Existing Service Agreements







3.
Service Catalog
Service agreements will feed the service catalog, providing various confgurations for different services
based on targets.
These agreements provide the terms and conditions for accessing and using the service.
The service catalog provides the means of marketing these services to customers and end users.
110
Whether the service agreements are service-, customer-, or corporate (hybrid)-based will infuence the
structure and organization of the service catalog.
Cloud computing provides numerous examples of each: Amazon AWS and Google Apps maintain ser-
vice-based catalogs because they have been able to calculate increasing levels of their services, while
Salesforce and NetSuite lean toward customer-based catalogs because their enterprise solutions can be
catered to meet the customer’s specifc requirements.
Despite the structure of the catalog, it is important to link the service description in the catalog to the ap-
propriate service agreement.
The primary reason for service agreements is to defne the specifc targets for the service.
In some cases, a service may be delivered to several variations of the same targets.
For instance, a service may be delivered with a 92%, 95%, or 99% availability target which will change
the service solution, the aggressiveness of the supporting services, and even the allocation of resources
resulting in high service costs as the target increases.
With Amazon AWS storage, their services are rated at micro, small, medium, large, and extra-large ca-
pacities for resources.
<<Determine what service agreement structure is most likely the best structure and justify that decision.
Be sure to describe how the service catalog can be implemented to support this structure.>>
4.
Creating a Service Level Agreement
Based on the SLA structure chosen, use one of the following templates to create an appropriate agree-
ment:
• Service-Based SLA Template Example
• Customer-Based SLA Template Example
• Corporate-Based SLA Template Example
• Operational Level Agreement Template Example
• Underpinning Contracts Template Example
5.
Appendices
List any appendices needed in conjunction with this document.
6.
Terminology
7.
Using Referenced Documents
This step has a number of templates available for creating service level agreements in multiple capaci-
111
ties and with internal groups, customers, and suppliers.
The templates are useful for organization’s that do not have a formal service level management process
or template for service level agreements, operational level agreements, or underpinning contracts.
The document, Service Options, is useful for creating different service packages which are likely to have
different confgurations and pricing for the customer.
Amazon Web Services provides an excellent example of presenting different service options for its Elas-
tic Compute Cloud (EC2) service (http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/instance-types/).
The service options show what computing, storage, and networking resources are available based on
the customer’s demand for those resources.
IT Governance And Management: Finding The Right
Strategy
Advancements in technology do not necessarily mean an easier way to do business.
Today, many IT managers are feeling the pressure because of increased productivity requirements, big-
ger demands of organizations, and tighter cost controls.
Add to that Governance in IT management is a project that will require managers to apply different strat-
egies in its framework, processes and tools.
With IT involving hefty investments in cash and manpower, its governance and management are getting
the brunt of the organization’s focus in terms of aligning the investment to business growth.
If you are looking for a strategy on IT governance and management project, you have to frst develop a
good decision-making processes so that organizations can identify where accountability lies.
This will improve your project deliverables and will assure the organization of a reliable, real-time data.
Managing your IT project as a business instead of a department is a strategy used by most organizations
today.
Tracking where your resources are going is of major importance in IT governance and management so
that you can determine the true cost of investment and manage risks that are inherent or inevitable.
Automating core processes can improve business performance and effciency.An effective IT govern-
ance and management project should not only follow a single strategy in tackling projects.
Overall, it should improve business productivity and reduce cost while at the same time provide optimal
IT service delivery.
The team should work as one in order for the project to succeed.
After all, customer satisfaction is still the ultimate goal in the organization’s governance of IT manage-
ment.
112
What is Best Practice?
What is best practice? ITIL incorporates the principles of best practice to enable IT departments optimize
business services and infrastructure management.
It sets the formal standard for all aspects of service support and delivery using proven processes in order
to meet the primary objectives of the organization.
It deals with the primary concern of any business- customer value - detailing the best ways to achieve
this, focusing on business service, application performance and network management.
So that your IT department performs consistently in its strategy and all aspects of service delivery.
What is ITIL methodology
Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) is basically a compilation of the best practices that
intends to improve and uphold a particular level of quality computing services in IT.
This process consists of skill requirements and organizational structure for IT organization through a very
broad procedure.
In ITIL, there are 7 books and each set are divided to different kinds of disciplines. 1.Service Delivery- it
discusses about the processes necessary in planning and developing high quality IT services.
This is a long term process that is connected with developing and delivery of quality IT service.
This includes the following: Capacity Management, IT Financial Management, Availability Management,
Service Level Management and IT Continuity Management 2.Service Support- this explains the different
processes that are associated in the everyday maintenance and support that is needed in IT services.
This includes Release Management, Change Management, Problem Management, Incident Manage-
ment, Confguration Management and Service Desk. 3.Implement Service Management- This analyzes
the issues and tasks that include planning, improving the service management and applying service
management. 4.Security Management- it is a detailed process in planning and supervising security level
in IT services. 5.Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Infrastructure Management- It deals
with the identifcation of business needs and other procurement procedures.
This includes Network Service Management, Systems Management, Computer Installation and accept-
ance, Operations Management, Management of local processors. 6.The Business Perspective- this
gives help and guidance in IT staff to know how they can play a role in contributing business objectives.
7.Application Management- this explains the management of applications in the initial business require-
ment.
It gives emphasis in making sure that IT techniques and projects are aligned with the business.
ITIL methodology is a comprehensive process that will enable IT operations to manage and organize
their system and applications.
This kind of procedure does not depend solely on a certain technology given by a vendor.
This process applies to every feature of IT Infrastructure.
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ITIL Model
ITIL Model ITIL model is seen as the service delivery model that ensures best practices in an IT organi-
zation.
To enable improved functioning of your organization you need to provide customer based service.
This is offered in IT service management of ITIL.
The ITIL model acts as the standard option that will help you deliver high quality IT services that serves
the customer as well as your business needs.
To form a service based IT organization you can also implement the ITIL model, which requires the as-
sessment of your organization and then create a service delivery model with the ITIL practices.
To implement the correct ITIL model you can take help from an ITIL expert who understands your organi-
zation’s needs and offers you the most suitable ITIL solutions.
We at the Art of Service provide you an expert assistance in building an effective ITIL model for your
organization.
Is ITIL for IT Organisations Only?
Well as many of you would already know ITIL is the acronym for the Information Technology Infrastruc-
ture Library, so by its name it would be safe to assume that it is purely an IT framework, or would it? Sure
ITIL will help any organisation better manage their IT resources, but can it help in the non-IT areas of the
business as well? Recently I had a discussion with one of our clients on how ITIL could beneft his new
business venture, a Night Club.
We decided that it would certainly be very easy to match many of the ITIL Service Management process-
es to his new business.
The front desk of the night club would be his Service Desk; this would become his single point of contact
for all Incidents and Requests for Service that arose though the day-today running of the club.
The front desk of the club or the Service Desk as we will now call it would also handle Incident Manage-
ment with-in the club, working to get staff and patrons back enjoying themselves as quickly as possible
no matter what the cause of their issue.
Problem Management would be used to help permanently remove the reasons for Incidents that oc-
curred with-in the club.
As part of the management of the club there would be the creation of a Confguration Management Data-
base to track the assets with-in the club and also help understand the relationships between each of the
assets.
Change and Release management would be used to have a set procedure to make changes to the
club and would cover areas such as change time frames, staff training requirements and ensuring each
change is authorised.
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We only really talked about the Service Support processes, but it’s not too much of a stretch to see how
Service Delivery could also be incorporated in the management of this or any business.
For me it was certainly an interesting exercise, and one which showed that ITIL is very versatile and can
easily be tailored to any situation where Service Management and customer satisfaction is the goal.
ITIL compliance supports goals
Commentary--With the multitude of services and applications at work throughout an organizations IT
infrastructure, businesses require tools to help them maintain high system availability and performance.
Today, IT infrastructure is the defnitive backbone supporting every mission critical business function.
This one fact is the hinge of some of the industry’s most electric shifts: business service management
(BSM), utility computing and the all encompassing on-demand businesses. Now, CIOs and IT managers
are in a position to constantly prove IT’s worth and contribution to their businesses--delivering ROI, and
ultimately, supporting corporate business goals. The business services that generate revenue almost
always depend on the integrity and performance of the IT infrastructure and thus, IT Infrastructure Li-
brary (ITIL) has emerged as a defnition of best practices for a range of IT disciplines. It is the accepted
standard that enables IT managers to run their business services through a series of proven processes
and methodologies.
ITIL compliance promises to improve effectiveness, productivity and competitiveness by enabling organi-
zations to ensure business continuity and effciency. It’s not hard to understand why ITIL is gaining so
much traction in today’s ;prove it or lose it climate. IT Governance: Making IT accountable for business
results IT is a place where money can be saved, earned or lost--in record time. As a result, there are
more stringent requirements for the IT department to manage and report on the delivery of IT services
relative to standards. With IT services so vital to the company’s ability to drive proft, they are now being
viewed as corporate investments and measured accordingly. With delivery of results as the yardstick,
companies must understand their business processes and the IT services on which they depend. This
allows companies to fulfll two fundamental tenets of IT governance - measuring the value that IT brings
to the business, and holding IT accountable for business results. Three basic questions are fundamen-
tal to this goal: - What are the IT services that support the company’s key business activities? - What
metrics measure the quality of the business service that is delivered to your customers? - How can you
manage the entire IT infrastructure that supports the key business activities? Use of a standard IT gov-
ernance model, such as ITIL, gives organizations specifc information on how to improve a variety of IT
disciplines associated with service support and service delivery. IT managers should look for tools which
provide a broad set of management solutions focused on business service, application performance,
and network management that support the best practices recommended in the ITIL Service Delivery
and Service Support specifcations. ITIL technology considerations When considering implementing IT
best practices, organizations need to fnd an integrated technology solution that improves performance
across applications and business services, assisting the IT department in mapping services to business
needs, measuring the actual end-user experience and managing across all organizational systems and
networks.
CIOs and IT Managers should look for a business service management (BSM) model which supports
service delivery and service support frameworks in order to strengthen the IT organization’s role as an
equal partner to the rest of the business. By spotlighting the value of the IT infrastructure to the bottom
line of business, ITIL helps prove the business case and ROI for ongoing IT investments which can drive
the business. Tips for successful ITIL deployment: 1) Start small IT organizations know what disciplines
operate least effciently and contribute to user dissatisfaction. Addressing these areas frst provides
experience with the process, while quickly relieving pain points. Many organizations have benefted by
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simply applying best practices to the area most in need. So, if for example, you need availability man-
agement, then start there. 2) Document benchmarks Documenting benchmarks is one way to commu-
nicate IT value. The beginning benchmark lets the organization measure progress. Later benchmarks
serve as a baseline for effcient operations. As IT services become more highly scrutinized, it becomes
more important to quantify service levels. 3) Get buy-in Change can be diffcult. As with any major
initiative, management buy-in is a must. Signifcant work is required of the IT department to deploy best
practices for even a few of the IT disciplines, so top-down endorsement makes the difference. Also, if
management is committed to the process, they will be willing to support training efforts that will smooth
the deployment process. Business service-oriented organizations everywhere are requesting tools to
meet ITIL compliance. In fact, according to research, ;the next years will be when when ITIL goes main-
stream. Organizations require tools to monitor and manage the service level, application performance
and network management, helping organizations prove IT’s worth. Making IT investments manageable
and cost-effective is the primary objective when considering an organization’s ROI and implementing
best practices for IT is the most effective method for achieving solid results and increasing competitive-
ness.
Understanding the Business Role of IT Management
Management per se is a skill used in managing and control of a business or any enterprise.
The manager is the one taking control with one goal in mind - to accomplish a purpose.
IT Management has the same general meaning but is highly technical in nature.There are two areas of
concern in IT management - these areas are IT Project Management and IT Service Management.
Project management is an area where the objective is to accomplish a goal according to desired quality
and programmed time, plus within the projected costs.
That is the same principle in IT Project Management but accomplished with the aid of highly technical
tools.
These technical tools allow project managers to do multi-tasking for planning, initiating, monitoring, and
completing large-scale projects.This type of management is usually utilized in construction industries.
Here, risk management, business communication, time and cost management, and project procurement
skills are brought to fore in the IT realm so that the optimal results are attained during the management
phase.
The other area of discipline is IT Service Management.IT Service Management is part of the technology
so-called Best Services function where the main concern is the customer.
IT provides the business world with infrastructure and a service desk matrix so that the company can
achieve excellent service delivery.It is focused on service delivery, focused and detailed reporting, moni-
toring and application analysis.
It also aims to provide to the customer quality service and therefore satisfaction.
In both these types of IT Management, the goal is to bring the IT function to merge with the business
function whether it is in projects or in services.IT management gives the business the edge over their
competition.With IT management much more is accomplished than without it.
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What is ISO 20000?
It is a
daunting task to keep up with the changes taking place in technology-based
sector.
The advent of service oriented architecture and Web services makes this
keeping up’ even more important because these technologies are changing the
way the internal systems are built, especially those that support the
organization and the interaction of the internal and external system.
Web
service is a tactical implementation of SOA or service oriented architecture.
It bridges the difference between IT and businesses through a set of
business-aligned services.
This is done with the use of a special set of
patterns, design principals and techniques.
World Wide Web Consortium has
defned web services as a software system that is designed to support the
interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network.
Web service is a
set of tools that can be used in a number of ways.
REST, SOA and RPC are the
most common methods of use.
Service oriented architecture
involves the organization, discovery and description of services that enable a
company to select, bind and implement a service over the Internet.
SOA is
different from the service-based architectures that focus on protocols and
formats.
Service based architecture is a part of SOA.
The advantages of
implementing SOA include increase in the application and development enabling
you to align your business with the IT sector, more effectively.
This can be
implemented by using the CORBA, MQ series and Remote Procedure Call or RPC
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technology.
However, the web service is rapidly becoming a set standard used to
support service-oriented architecture.

A
new benchmark for worldwide IT services industry
Every
industry adheres to a certain set of standards that defne the quality of
products and services and are referred to as quality standards’.
They can be
country specifc or region specifc.
Previously,
there was no standard for the management of quality in IT services.
ISO 20000
came to existence in 05) It is the frst international standard for
IT service management.
It is based on the British standard called BS 15000.The
main purpose behind ISO 20000 is to create a quality framework and introduction
of the best quality practices for IT services.
The
ISO 20000 defnes a unique service culture for the IT services industry.
The
ISO/IEC 20000 focuses on two areas:
Part
1 - Promoting an integrated approach towards processes
Part
2 - Code of Practice or Conduct
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Part
1 is also known as ISO 20000; it tries to promote an integrated approach
towards processes in the IT service business.
This effectively results in
adding value to all services provided.
It is important to adhere to a
systematic approach that comprises of ten unique sections:
-
Terms and Defnitions
-
Scope
-
Service Management Planning
-
Requirements for a management system
-
Planning , implementation of new services
-
Relationship Process
-
Control Process
-
Service Delivery Process
-
Release
The
ISO 20000 Part- 2 includes the best industry practices and code of conduct.
It
implements the best service management practices in a simple and concise
manner.
These standards are especially useful for managing large scale IT
service operations.
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ISO
2000O standards can be effectively used to maintain consistency throughout the
supply chain.
This results in the overall improvement of the service
organization.
ITIL Service Delivery Free Download
ITIL Service Delivery Free Download ITIL is a set of standards that defne the quality standards for IT
service management deliverables.
It has two categories: Service delivery and Service support.
These standards have been compiled in form of books.
You can download them for free from the Internet.
If you are specifcally looking for information on service delivery, you must try ITIL service delivery free
download.
You can get ITIL service delivery fles, framework, books, tutorials, quizzes and best practices in form of
ITIL service delivery free download.
These downloads are available in pdf as well as ppt formats.
They are comprehensive and give an in-depth view of the ITIL service delivery.
ITIL Standard
ITIL Standard When we talk about ITIL standard, the frst name that appears is BS15000 standard.
It is more popularly known as ISO 20000) This is the world’s frst standard for service management.
The standard indicates and specifes a set of codes of best practices on ITIL framework.
The practices are comprehensive, consistent, coherent and fexible enough to be adopted by various
organizations.
This ITIL standard consist of 7 sets namely; manager’s set, service support, service delivery, software
support, network, computer operations and environment.
The BS15000 ITIL standard consist of 109 sections and they are scope, terms and defnitions, require-
ments for a management system, planning and implementing service management, changed services,
service delivery process, relationship process, resolution, control and release process.
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This standard is widely accepted across the continents but the accreditation of ITIL is completely with the
OGC (Offce of Government Commerce).
IT Infrastructure Library ITIL
ISO9000 ITIL ITIL is a framework that standardizes the IT service management.
Quality management of IT services describes the ISO9000 ITIL relationship.
This means the conjugation of the two will guide the organizations in planning and implementing a qual-
ity IT management system.
The ISO9000 ITIL conjugation, besides defning the procedures involved, dependencies and the partici-
pating people, also, establishes methods for post-implementation activities and audits in order to attain a
continuous level of quality.
The ISO9000 ITIL implemented to the service support processes involve aspects like confguration man-
agement, service desk/incident management, problem management, change management and release
management.
Besides it also oversees the service delivery processes such as service level management, availabil-
ity management, capacity management, fnancial management of IT services and IT service continuity
management.
Implementation of ITIL can speed up the process of attaining ISO9000 certifcation.
The ISO9000 ITIL conjugation helps you reach the desired and mandatory levels of quality.
IT Infrastructure Library ITIL IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) comprises a series of documents that set
standard framework for implementing the best practices of IT based service management.
It has helped IT break away from the tag of merely being technical support.
Today, IT professional services are engaged in total service management processes.
IT infrastructure Library, ITIL includes 7 sets namely: Service support, Service delivery, planning and im-
plementation, service management, ICT infrastructure management, application management, security
management and the business perspective.
ITSM or IT service management employs only two of these 7 sets of IT infrastructure Library or ITIL:
Service support and service delivery.
The IT infrastructure library (ITIL) implementation lowers the total cost of ownership, reduces incidents,
manages resources effciently and makes the overall functioning more productive.
ITIL Jobs : What Employees And Jobseekers Should
Know
You can not afford delays in your production.
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You need to beat the time and date you have committed to deliver the company’s product or services.
Due to unavoidable instances, a problem during production and you need to account for this incident.
One of the components of ITIL Service Support is the Incident Management.
It is in this process where management should be able to restore the service to normal operation follow-
ing an incident.
Activities involve in handling Incident management are as follows:1) To be able to detect and record in-
cident in detail 2.To be able to match incidents versus known problems 3.To be able to resolve incidents
as soon as possible 4.To be able to prioritize incidents with respect to impact and need 5.To be able to
bring to the attention to other teams the incident for appropriate timely resolution Software is made avail-
able as a tool for handling incident management problems.
The following are some of benefts that the software provides: 1.It allows management to gather informa-
tion as to the real time and historical data of what transpired. 2.It allows identifcation as to the bottle-
necks in terms of performance 3.It speeds up the restoration of the operation as causes of incidents can
be clearly identifed 4.It minimizes the recurrence of incidents by informing IT users of the impact that the
incident has caused to the system.
The use of Incident Management tools with your organization would yield great beneft in terms of main-
taining the service levels, meeting the service availability requirements, increasing the effciency and
productivity of staff and most importantly improving user’s satisfaction.
Yes, it is indeed a very challenging but at the same time rewarding to fll in the shoes of an ITIL manager.
There are a lot of things to consider, with the main goal being to coordinate and make conscious efforts
in partnership with the business to deliver high quality IT service.
The main procedure of realizing this goal is the operation of effective processes by making wise use of
resources available and the provision of appropriate value for cost effective services.
To achieve this, the correct processes need to be in place, and at the same time developed and imple-
mented by the right people.
Delegation is indeed one of the primary duties of an ITIL manager.Though there are a lot of challenges in
store for an ITIL manager, still there are a lot of people who are interested in making it to the ITIL manag-
ers circle.
With a minimum requirement of 5 years managerial position and a working knowledge of IT processes,
the Manager Certifcate Course is indeed considered the highest level of all ITIL training courses.
To pass the Manager exam with fying colors, here are some suggestions that one may consider:(1)
Treat the proctor as your client and provide logical answers as if you are in front of the client. (2) Show
that you are a consistent solution provider by revisiting some of the best practices you have followed with
your years of experience as a manager. (3) Make every question count.
Answer each question in such a way that the proctor will have a pleasure of reading. (4) Review your
answers for each question and re-read.
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Skip diffcult ones and go over them when you re done with the easy ones.
To be able to have a successful IT Service management within your company, getting the right people on
the job is very important.
Hiring staff in your management positions can make or break your business.
As they say, the key to people management is having the best people to manage.
Locating these people are not easy to fnd.
And as for jobseekers, fnding the right company seems to be tough job as well.
This includes numerous job interviews that don t meet the career path you are taking.
If you are a businessman looking for staff to complete your team in IT service management you can go
through this list of must haves in ITIL.
What the companies should look for: Most of the Information Technology Infrastructure Library jobs look
for people responsible on a certain discipline in Service Support and Service Delivery.
Here are some criteria that companies want: 1.Since most of the time the job requires dealing with
people and customers in the service industry, the job in ITIL requires having a good interpersonal and
communication skill. 2.Of course it is very important to have keen knowledge of ITIL.
Management requires applicants to have certifcations such as Practitioner, Foundation or Management
level certifcations. 3.The job also requires having staff management and leadership skills to handle staff/
team properly. 4.Knowledge in fnancial management and executing the service management discipline
is a must to all who aims to have a career in ITIL 5.Knowledge on the most recent technology in IT in line
with the discipline is vital.
Maintaining the interfaces and sustaining the effectiveness of the procedure is also crucial in this line of
job.
These are just some of the vital job requirements in ITIL.
And if you are a jobseeker interested in the ITIL business, you should prepare yourself for there are a
variety of opportunities for you in this industry.
ITIL Guide
ITIL Guide An ITIL guide is basically a complete and comprehensive introduction to the ITIL framework
and practices.
ITIL guide is completely designed to guide the fresher and work as a reference for practitioners.
This guide explains the history and the management model of the ITIL.
It also gives a complete idea about the best practices and how to implement them in your own company.
An interesting fact about this ITIL guide is that it is based on practical collections and experiences.
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Therefore it is more benefcial as an application guide.
This guide includes full presentation on both the departments of Service Management (Service Delivery
and Service Support).
If you are preparing for exams then you can make good use of ITIL guide for ITIL exams.
This guide gives you an overview of ITIL and also offers necessary information in detail.
ITIL Courses
ITIL Courses We at the Art of Service provide three levels of ITIL courses which have several sub-struc-
tures and programs under them.
All the courses include training and examination at various levels.
The ITIL courses hierarchy is as follows: Foundation level It is the entry level course among ITIL Courses
and focuses on ITIL Service Management.
It is very useful as it explains how ITIL processes are used.
Practitioner’s level This is the next step and requires foundation level qualifcation.
Practitioner’s level course comes under advanced level ITIL courses.
It gives you an exhaustive insight into ITIL elements like Service Level Management, Service Desk,
Problem Management, Change Management and Confguration Management.
Management level This is the next level in ITIL courses involving specialized training in Service Delivery
and Service Reports.
It is very useful for professionals who wish to upgrade their skills.
ITIL CD Training
ITIL CD Training Regular classes and books are not the only source of ITIL training.
ITIL CD training is a very effective way of training in ITIL information, process and the application.
ITIL CD training is very useful within the organization in running business, infusing energy, bringing en-
thusiasm and effciency in the IT department.
It depends on you which ITIL CD training package you wish to opt for.
You get complete training software in both the service support and service delivery department.
The content of the CD will include areas of management like confguration, release, change, problem
and incident.
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An advantage with the ITIL CD training is that you will get the most recent version of practices and ap-
plications that are in use in much successful organizations.
The Art of Service offers complete ITIL CD training package at a very suitable price.
You can also avail a lot of other facilities like mock exams and certifcate trainings.
ITIL Environment
ITIL Environment ITIL environment refers to the complete overview of the ITIL framework and processes.
Within the ITIL environment there are several departments and practices for the smooth functioning of
the organization.
There are ten major sections that ISO17799 covers and all of them constitute an ITIL environment.
Business Continuity Planning, System Access Control, System Development and Maintenance, Physical
and Environmental security, Compliance, Personnel, Security, Security Organization, Computer and Op-
erations Management, Asset Classifcation and Control and Security Policy are the ten major sections.
Now you can easily understand the horizon of ITIL environment.
Service Management is broadly divided in two categories: Service Support and Service Delivery BS
15000 is another standard that completes the ITIL environment with separate sections functional in any
company.
They are; Scope, Normative Reference, Defnitions, General, Service Design and Management, Rela-
tionship processes, Resolution Processes and Control Processes.
How to Employ ITIL Principles to Improve your IT
Organization
Information Technology (IT) is now considered a way of life.
Through the years, IT has established its importance not only in the feld of education and other indus-
tries, but more signifcantly in the world of business, that it has made things easier for companies to
accomplish business needs and goals and carry out operational tasks.
Because of the rapidly growing dependency of many business frms to Information Technology, the
United Kingdom s Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency (CCTA) has sought the essence
of developing a set of standards in achieving quality service and at the same time, overcoming diffculties
linked to the growth of IT systems.
Hence, the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) was introduced to the world and has
become the de facto standard in IT service management.Now currently maintained and developed by
the Offce of Government Commerce, ITIL has been adopted and adapted by almost every type of IT
environment.
ITIL is a set of best practices and guidelines that defne a systematic and specialized approach to the
management of IT service provision.
125
These guiding principles are intended to promote value in IT operations by delivering high quality ser-
vices.
Implementing this extensive set of management procedures will lead to benefts such as the following:
(a) get more out of existing resources resulting to reduced costs; (b) improved customer satisfaction
through a more profcient approach to IT service delivery; (c) improved productivity by eliminating redun-
dant work; (d) improved service quality though the use of established best practice processes; and (e)
improved use of skills and experience, defning a consistent level of service.
When it comes to the metrics and standards of business process, does your IT company have guidelines
to follow? If the answer to this question is no, then it is high time for you to think of having your managers
and IT department heads ITIL certifed.
For years now, Information Technology Infrastructure Library or ITIL has set the bar high for IT compa-
nies around the world with the ‘best practices’ guidelines and frameworks that they have.
If you want to be able to compete in the global market and offer the highest quality of IT services to your
clients, then ITIL implementation is a must.
First, take a look at the benefts of ITIL.
With this, you can save on your operational costs, and save a lot of time and effort in improving the busi-
ness processes implemented within your organization.
Another beneft is that the time-tested processes used in ITIL will defnitely boost the quality of the IT
services that your company delivers to its customers.
As a result, the higher your quality of service, the higher the customer satisfaction rate is.
Within the walls of the company itself, you will see increased productivity and you can also maximize
your manpower.
More importantly, the standards used in the implementation of ITIL business processes will put your busi-
ness up to par with the rest of the world.
With all these benefts and more, there is absolutely no reason for you to skip using ITIL in enhancing the
IT services that you offer to clients which, at the end of the day, will also improve your day-to-day opera-
tions.
ITIL : ITIL Service Management Processes can be
broken down into 2….
ITIL Service Management Processes can be broken down into 2 core groups with Security Management
as an independent process.
ITIL Service Management Processes frst group is called Service Support.
Confguration Management Confguration Management covers the identifcation of all signifcant compo-
nents within the IT Infrastructure and recording details of these components in the Confguration Man-
126
agement Database (CMDB).
Change Management Change Management covers the process of IT Change for all types of Change,
from the Request for Change, to assessment, to scheduling, to implementing, and fnally to the review.
Release Management Release Management is very closely linked with Confguration Management and
Change Management, and undertakes the planning, design, build, and testing of hardware and software
to create a set of release components for a live environment.
Incident Management The primary goal of the Incident Management process is to restore normal service
as quickly as possible following loss of service, and to minimize the adverse impact on business opera-
tions, thus ensuring that the best possible levels of service quality and availability are maintained.
Problem Management The goal of Problem Management is to minimize the adverse impact of Incidents
and Problems on the business that are caused by errors within the IT Infrastructure, and to prevent re-
currence of Incidents related to these errors.
Service Desk The Service Desk differs from the other main areas of Service Management in that it is not
a process but is the central point of contact for Customers to report diffculties, complaints or questions.
ITIL Service Management Processes second group is called Service Delivery.
Service Level Management Service Level Management is the processes of planning, coordinating, draft-
ing, agreeing, monitoring and reporting on Service Level Agreements (SLAs), and the ongoing reviewing
of service achievements to ensure that the required and cost-justifable service quality is maintained or
where necessary improved.
Financial Management for IT Services Financial Management is concerned with three main processes of
Budgeting, IT Accounting and Charging.
Capacity Management Capacity Management is the focal point for all IT performance and capacity is-
sues.
It is essential that Capacity Management has a close, two-way relationship with the business strategy
and planning processes within an organisation.
IT Service Continuity Management IT Service Continuity Management is responsible for taking risk
reduction measures to reduce the chances of major disasters occurring and for the production of an IT
recovery plan which interfaces into the overall business continuity plans.
Availability Management Availability Management is concerned with the design, implementation, meas-
urement and management of IT infrastructure availability to ensure the stated business requirements for
availability are consistently met.
ITIL Service Management Processes umbrella process is called Security Management.
Security Management Security Management falls under the umbrella of Information security and focuses
on the three main concepts of Confdentiality, Integrity and Availability.
It is also far more than just technical security although this is one of the four key areas which forms a
layered approach.
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The other three are Organizational, Procedural and Physical Security.
The Four Perspectives (Attributes) of ITSM
There are four perspectives (4Ps) or attributes that are important to consider in order for IT Service Man-
agement to be successful.
Partners/Suppliers Perspective: Takes into account the importance of partner and external supplier rela-
tionships and how they contribute to service delivery.
It will help to ensure that suppliers deliver value for money and provide services that are clearly aligned
to business requirements.
People Perspective: Concerned with the ‘soft’ side of ITSM.
This requires IT staff, customers, and other stakeholders to understand the purpose of ITSM and how it
should be used within the organization.
Training and education should be provided to ensure staff members have the correct skills, knowledge
and motivation to perform their roles.
Products/Technology Perspective: Takes into account the quality of IT services and all the technology
architectures (hardware and software) required to provision them.
Technology should be leveraged to both support and drive strategic opportunities for the business.
Process Perspective: Relates the end-to-end delivery of services based on process fows.
By having clearly established processes (with documentation, guidelines, and other supporting tools), it
will enable a more consistent, repeatable, and measurable approach to the management of services.
Quality IT Service Management ensures that all of these four perspectives are taken into account as part
of the continual improvement of the IT organization.
It is the same when designing new or modifed services, in that these four perspectives need to be con-
sidered and catered for in order to enable success in the service’s design, transition, and eventual use
by customers.
Reasons Why You Should Take ITIL Foundation Course
The Information Technology Infrastructure Library or ITIL Foundation is the frst step of any individual or
organization wishing to get an ITIL certifcation for IT service management.
The ITIL Foundation covers all the basic information and terminologies used in ITIL including its history,
growth, improvements and coverage.The ITIL Foundation covers fve core sets of IT service manage-
ment concepts which include the Service Strategy, Service Design, Service Transition, Service Operation
and Continual Service Management.
Basically focusing on service support and service delivery, ITIL Foundation also covers ITIL v3 is the lat-
est addition to the IT service management library.
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It covers the most adopted principles and concepts of ITIL and included the ITIL Service Lifecycle con-
cept to IT service management.What you will learn on ITIL Foundation: Discovering and exploring the
different ITIL principles to decrease hardware failure is one of the topics you will learn in this course.
This course will get you ready for the ITIL v3 Foundation Certifcation Exam.
You will recognize the opportunities to build IT processes by utilizing ITIL v3) Aside from that you can
work together with IT teams using ITIL terminology and ideas.
Through this , you will recognize the signifcance of IT and business integration.
It is very important that you explore and discover the components of Service Management processes.
By enrolling in this course you will learn and see the benefts of Continual Service Improvement in a
company.
Benefts in taking this course:This unique process and format in the course follows the guiding principles
and gives broad coverage of ITIL v3 Foundation Certifcation Exam subjects.
The Information Technology Infrastructure library (ITIL) v3 is the latest version that is used in best prac-
tice framework in IT.
Attaining the Foundation Certifcation signifes clearly that you can play a great part in improving the IT
system in your organization.
Understanding Leadership
Leadership is a complex task.
This excerpt provides instruction to organizational staff, Policy Council and board members on how to
become effective leaders.
This brief also addresses and discredits the fve myths about leadership.
Background Information
In recent years, organizational programs have increased in size, scope, and complexity.
To successfully address these changes, many organizational leaders have developed various strategies
and approaches such as extending half-day programs to full-day programs to meet the needs of working
parents, realigning their staffng structures to provide families with better service, and collaborating with
local school districts and public and private organizations to set up job search preparation seminars for
parents seeking work.
However, if programs are to deliver on organizational’s vision of providing excellent service for children
and families, all organizational directors, managers, and parent leaders must have the knowledge, skills,
and commitment needed to guide organizational programs effectively in a changing world.
This process begins when directors, managers, and parent leaders understand the complex task of
leadership.
This module explores answers to the following questions: What does it take to lead organizational into
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the future? What are the essential leadership skills and behaviors necessary to move your program into
the twenty-frst century? How can organizational leaders cultivate their talents as they prepare them-
selves and others to be effective leaders?
When considering great leaders, you may believe that such people have certain characteristics, traits,
backgrounds, or abilities not possessed by the general population.
Numerous studies have attempted to isolate the key factors that make a great leader or the factors
shared among leadership styles used by great leaders.
However, these studies have clearly shown that no special formula, no certain set of traits or characteris-
tics, and no predetermined style guarantees successful leadership.
Anyone, regardless of his or her appearance, cultural background, educational level, or achievements,
can become a great leader.
Sometimes our notions or fears affect our belief in ourselves.
Notions such as leaders must be charismatic or leaders exist only at the top of the organization are
myths.
These myths are simply not true.
What is true is that great leaders develop their potential by practicing leadership behaviors.
MOVER Qualities
What, then, are the qualities of effective leaders? One outstanding quality is their dedication to learning;
effective leaders ask more questions than they answer and use this technique to instruct others.
Rather than showing a person how to do something, they ask the questions that lead the person to dis-
cover the solution.
The organizational leader acts as a Mentor-guiding, coaching, supporting, and providing a safe environ-
ment in which others may grow.
Effective leaders engage in Outreach beyond the narrow confnes of the unit or organization; great lead-
ers build partnerships and collaborations.
They have a clear idea of what is important, how to achieve it, and how to communicate enthusiasm to
everyone about their vision.
Visionary leaders recognize the importance of inspiring others to be proactive.
They want to teach others to anticipate future opportunities and the challenges of change.organizational
leaders can help families move from welfare to work by providing support to the families while advocat-
ing for them and infuencing policy.
Exemplary leaders promote the organizational vision for families that are transitioning in and out of public
schools and other settings.
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The [organizational Program] performance standards call for agencies to promote communication and
initiate meetings involving organizational teachers, parents, and elementary school teachers.
Strong organizational leaders Empower others to believe in the vision and play vital roles in making it
happen.
They provide the tools and support for others to make decisions and succeed.
The organizational Program Performance Standards assist leaders as they empower others toward
individual learning, promote professional development, and support ongoing opportunities to acquire
knowledge and skills.
A structured approach to staff training and development is required, with academic credit whenever pos-
sible.
Finally, great leaders lead by example.
They are Role Models, subtly teaching others who look to them for guidance.
This module explores the fve essential actions that enable organizational leaders to act as MOVERs
and bring their organizational programs into the twenty-frst century: acting as a Mentor, engaging in Out-
reach, committing to a shared Vision, Empowering staff and parents, and being a Role Model.
Learning about Ourselves
1.
Self Refection
This module focuses on learning about ourselves.
What do effective organizational leaders need to understand about themselves? What other qualities or
behaviors and skills do effective organizational leaders use?
Leaders need to recognize that learning about themselves is an important frst step for developing per-
sonal leadership qualities.
People need to understand themselves and know who they are before they can lead others.
To reach this understanding, they need to develop insight into themselves, examine their values and
guiding principles, and have a solid notion of what is important to them and how to achieve their goals.
A willingness to learn and grow is essential for improving leadership skills.
Great leaders take time to refect.
They are continually learning.
A distinction of outstanding leaders is that they are never satisfed with what they have achieved; instead
they continue to look for ways to improve themselves and their organizations.organizational has always
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placed a high value on training and technical assistance; leaders internalize organizational’s attitude of
quality improvement.
They exhibit their willingness to expand their own circles of quality improvement and infuence by taking
in new information, new methods, and new ways to meet challenges.
They constantly ask the question: How can we do this better?
The Report of the Advisory Committee recommends that all staff members should take the initiative and
personal responsibility for their own professional growth and should be offered ample opportunities to
grow.
Great leaders show the way by taking the initiative for their own professional growth and act as mentors
and role models for the staff and parents in the program.
2.
Continuous Learning
By setting the example of being lifelong learners, organizational leaders can effectively meet the chal-
lenge of continuous learning.
They model continuous learning by expanding their knowledge and skills through advanced degree pro-
grams and intensive leadership development programs.
Conscientious organizational leaders are aware that they must be informed about new information,
trends, and issues that affect their programs.
This means having information sources, connections, and networks; using the Internet and other tech-
nology to stay informed; and attending learning events and meetings.
To look to the future, effective organizational leaders must be comfortable with technological advances to
offer the best sources of information and services to families and staff.
3.
Values and Guiding Principles that Infuence Decisions
Strong leaders make decisions based on their personal values and ethics and on their individual guiding
principles.
Effective leaders are aware of what is important; they are constantly reviewing circumstances and
emerging issues in terms of their vision, mission, and organizational goals.
The [Program] performance standards articulate a vision of service delivery to children and families.
organizational’s philosophy and core values are captured within the [Program]performance standards.
Along with organizational’s philosophy and overall goal, the [Program] performance standards provide a
foundation for program leaders.
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This foundation serves as a cornerstone for leaders to create their vision statements, clarify their values,
and guide their decisions.
Exemplary leaders internalize the organizational philosophy and goals, and they carry them a step fur-
ther.
They know what guides their personal values, and they are committed to them.
They can make choices from this strong foundation.
They review their priorities regularly in light of emerging issues and changing needs, whether these
issues surface from the community assessment, federal or state initiatives, or requests from families,
children, and staff.
In summary, strong organizational leaders meet current and future challenges by becoming lifelong
learners.
This continuous approach to knowledge, skill building, and self-development provides the tools required
for successful leadership in a changing world.
ITIL Assessment
ITIL Assessment ITIL is a framework of the best practices that are employed to enable better service
management and management of the IT solutions.
To implement this service delivery model for enabling best practices, you frst need to understand the
trouble areas in your organization that come under ITIL assessment.
ITIL assessment has two options, self-assessment or taking help of an ITIL expert.
The Art of Service helps you in ITIL assessment.
We take up ITIL assessment under the consultancy services offered by us.
In this we provide ITIL assessment at different levels, which are: - Benefts ranking - Process maturity
review questionnaire - IT strategic workshops - Business to IT alignment - Current technology to ITIL
alignment review Once the ITIL assessment is over, our company also offers you ITIL implementation
and after-care.
ITIL UK
ITIL UK ITIL training and ITIL courses are very popular in UK because of the benefts they provide at
individual and professional level.
They are designed to improve the delivery of IT services in accordance with the business.
The Art of Service has opened various centers that offer comprehensive as well as short-term ITIL UK
training courses.
The content of the ITIL UK course is divided in three sections: Foundation Level This course is a kind of
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starting point in Service Management.
If you are planning to enter the IT Service Management segment, this is the right time to apply for this
course.
Practitioner Level This is the middle level between the beginner’s and full management level certifcate.
It will make you aware of Service Level Management, Service Desk, Problem Management, Change
Management and Confguration Management.
Management Level This is a full Management Certifcate program dealing with Service Delivery and
Service Report.
Good practices
Ignoring public frameworks and standards can needlessly place an organization at a disadvantage.
organizations should seek to cultivate their own proprietary knowledge on top of a body of knowledge
developed from using public frameworks and standards.
Generally good practices are defned as those formalized as a result of being successful in wide-industry
use.
Public frameworks (ITIL, COBIT, CMMI etc.): Frameworks are scaled and adapted by the organization
when implemented, rather than following a prescriptive set of practices (standards).
Examples of public frameworks for ITSM include:
• ITIL ®
• COBIT—The Control Objectives for Information and related Technology
• Capability Maturity Model Integrated (CMMI) for IT Services
Standards: Usually a formal document that establishes uniform engineering or technical criteria, meth-
ods, processes, and practices.
Unlike frameworks, they are prescriptive in declaring mandatory elements that must be demonstrated.
Examples of standards relating to ITSM are:
• ISO/IEC 20000—International Standard for IT Service Management
• ISO/IEC 27001—International Standard for Information Security Management Systems
Proprietary knowledge of organizations and individuals: Specifc expertise developed for internal pur-
poses or developed in order to sell to other organizations (EG Gartner).
ITIL® stands for the Information Technology Infrastructure Library.
ITIL® is the international de facto management framework describing good practices for IT Service Man-
agement.
The ITIL® framework evolved from the UK government’s efforts during the 1980s to document how suc-
cessful organizations approached service management.
By the early 1990s, they had produced a large collection of books documenting the best practices for IT
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Service Management.
This library was eventually entitled the IT Infrastructure Library.
The Offce of Government Commerce in the UK continues to operate as the trademark owner of ITIL®.
ITIL® has gone through several evolutions and was most recently refreshed with the release of version 3
in 2007.
Through these evolutions, the scope of practices documented has increased in order to stay current with
the continued maturity of the IT industry and meet the needs and requirements of the ITSM professional
community.
ITIL® is only one of many sources for ITSM good practices and should be used to complement any other
set of practices being used by an organization.
Five volumes make up the IT Infrastructure Library (Version 3):
• Service Strategy
• Service Design
• Service Transition
• Service Operation
• Continual Service Improvement
Each volume provides the guidance necessary for an integrated approach and addresses capabilities’
direct impact on a service provider’s performance.
The structure of the ITIL framework is that of the service lifecycle.
It ensures organizations are able to leverage capabilities in one area for learning and improvements in
others.
The framework is used to provide structure, stability, and strength to service management capabilities
with durable principles, methods, and tools.
This enables service providers to protect investments and provide the necessary basis for measurement,
learning, and improvement.
In addition to the core publications, there is also ITIL® Complimentary Guidance.
This consists of a complimentary set of publications with guidance specifc to industry sectors, organiza-
tion types, operating models, and technology architectures.
At present, this complimentary guidance is available by subscription from http://www.bestpracticelive.
com.
11 Service Delivery Principles
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As a Help Desk Manager should already be familiar with many Service Delivery Principles (EG, Service
Level Agreements, Change Management processes etc.), the information provided here has been cho-
sen with the specifc focus on helping someone move from a Help Desk Analyst or Technician role into
the role of a Help Desk Manager.
Service Operation Summary
From a customer viewpoint, Service Operation is where actual value is seen.
This is because it is the execution of strategies, designs and plans and improvements from the Service
Lifecycle phases.
Key benefts delivered as a result of Service Operation are:
* Effectiveness and effciency in IT Service delivery and support
* Increased return on investment
* More productive and positive users of IT services.
Other benefts can be defned as:
1) Long term: Over a period of time the Service Operation processes, functions performance and output
are evaluated.
These reports will be analyzed and decisions made about whether the improvement is needed, and how
best to implement it through Service Design and Transition EG Deployment of new tools, changes to
process designs, reconfguration of the infrastructure.
2) Short term: Improvement of working practices within the Service Operations processes, functions and
technology itself.
Generally they involve smaller improvements that do not mean changes to the fundamental nature of a
process or technology EG Tuning, training, personnel redeployment etc.
ITIL In Action: Service Delivery
The ITIL v2 framework covers two IT Service Management Sets: ITIL Service Delivery and ITIL Service
Support.ITIL Service Delivery is a proactive approach to the business requirements of users through the
proper analysis of existing infrastructure in order to predict future needs.
It involves fve other sub processes as follows: Service Level Management will continually align the IT
services with the requirements of the business with the goal of creating and delivering a clear method
of services expected versus actually delivered.Capacity Management involves appropriately determin-
ing existing business IT infrastructure and predicting future needs in order to avoid bottlenecks that
may hinder business development.Financial Management for IT services will defne the cost of availing
the current and future service needs of the organization and ensures that expenditures are within the
planned budget.Availability Management assures that IT services are always online and ready when they
are needed by the users and customers.IT Service Continuity Management or contingency management
will provide a framework for recovering from IT disruptions caused by human or natural disasters.
With ITIL Service Delivery, users, customers and service providers can properly defne the content, role
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and responsibilities of each party so that they can set expectations of the speed, quality and availability
of the service.ITIL Service Delivery will work upon and improve on existing IT infrastructure for continu-
ous improvement of service.
It is custom made to specifcally meet the needs of businesses.
ITIL Service Delivery clearly illustrates a responsible corporate behaviour in the use of the IT infrastruc-
ture in order to maximize profts and reduce unnecessary expenses.
Reasons Why You Need ITIL Capacity Management
ITIL Capacity Management is actually just one of the a fve elements of ITIL Service Delivery area.
It is responsible for guaranteeing the business requirements and service defnition are accomplished by
utilizing a least amount of computing resources.
There are activities that consist in Capacity Management. 1.This process includes observing, modifying,
evaluating and implementing necessary changes in resource consumption. 2.It is imperative to man-
age the requests for computing resources, that requires knowledge and understanding the priorities of
your business. 3.To encourage infrastructure performance and know upcoming resource requirements,
modeling is an important process in capacity management. 4.This process includes collecting capac-
ity management data. 5.To guarantee that the service levels are accomplished, sizing applications are
included in capacity management. 6.Procedures such as creating a capacity plan that records present
consumption, support cost for latest application and anticipated requirements are to be done in capacity
management. 7.Brainstorming new ideas with other teams in creating an infrastructure development plan
is one of the essential activities in ITIL capacity management.
Reasons why you should apply capacity management in your business: *In implementing capacity
management, you can get a lot of existing IT resources and this could improve the cost for IT service unit
position. *By going through this process can also get rid of redundant work and guarantee reliable report-
ing. *This can give timely capacity and other connected cost information to have a more organized and
informed business decision. *The process can offer a wide range of inputs to TCO.
This could also provide major IT related programs and upgrades.
Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) Capacity Management works closely with ITIL Finan-
cial Management and Service Level Management.
By having processes like ITIL Capacity Management a systematic service level is linked to fnancial infor-
mation and allowing the leaders in your business to have accurate, organized and informed decisions.
What makes ITIL ITSM different?
For someone with no thorough understanding of ITIL would construe Service Management as synony-
mous to Service Delivery and Service Support of ITIL Management.
ITIL Service Management (ITSM) should be treated separately from the two-heart core of ITIL.
ITSM refers to the area of management of IT service provision and should include the whole of ITIL
seven modules.
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Another aspect of ITSM is the provision of quality service IT to its customers, ensuring that requirements
and expectations of customers are met.The success of an organization lies on how its products or ser-
vices are delivered to the customer’s doorsteps.
This means that one of the biggest factors that a business organization should ensure is that they cus-
tomers are smiling as they deliver their services.
Some of the activities involved in the ITSM are as follows:1) To serve as the focal person in the Service
Level Agreement.
To facilitate in the documenting, negotiating and agreeing with customer, setting of targets and the
responsibilities of both parties. 2.To make a regular assessment of the customer opinions based on
customer feedback and customer satisfaction surveys 3.To have IT personnel to take the role of a cus-
tomer and sample the customer experience. 4.To have IT personnel look into the customer and business
perspective and make customer interactions simple and enjoyable. 5.To have an understanding of the IT
infrastructure.When all the ITIL Framework is at hand, there is still the ITSM to support.
As more businesses require high demand of IT, organizations will be interested in ITIL (IT Infrastructure
Library) Service Management.
ITIL ITSM is being considered as the best practice approach towards operations and service excellence.
How IT Management Service Training Can Help You
Manage Your Business
Business industries nowadays need IT management to further improve their networks, systems and ap-
plications.
With the advancement of technology, you need to quickly adapt with the latest system in IT manage-
ment.
Continuous trainings and education is needed to provide a comprehensive IT Service Management.
This will help you address the important people and components of service management.
Aside form that, this will also equip your IT professionals and management team with the accurate
knowledge and skills in IT.IT Service Management deals with the essential processes, people and tech-
nology of IT service delivery.
It reinvents the current process; implement new tools and change people’s attitudes and skills.
To effectively implement proper changes, IT members and staff need to recognize the basic components
of ITIL.
They need to know the specifc procedures and processes that are relevant to their job.
IT Service Management trainings is crucial to develop leadership, decision making and recruiting skills in
a support environment.
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This will help you plan, measure and utilize appropriate tools that are needed to determine success of
your IT service.
With the help of IT Service Management it will help you understand how your operations affect and
greatly contribute to the organization.
IT Service Management Training is essential to implement success in your business.
As business industries progress, it demands more from IT.
And IT organizations on the other hand are looking for ITIL( IT Infrastructure Library) Service Manage-
ment approach as the best practice to provide a successful service and operation to your business.
ISO 20000 BS 15000
BS 15000 is a UK standard, adopted by many countries.
In fact, it was the world’s frst standard for IT services management.
It was based on the IT Infrastructure library framework.
However, it cannot be termed as an international standard, since it was not designed for international
users.
The BS 15000 catered to the IT services using ITIL principles, such as confguration management,
change management, contingency planning, cost and availability management and so on.
In 05, the BS 15000 was converted into ISO 20000) Since ISO 20000 is based on BS 15000, there are
many similarities.
Both comprise of sections that encompass the whole spectrum of IT Service standards.
There are 10 sections: 1.Scope. 2.Terms and Defnitions. 3.Management system requirements. 4.Plan-
ning and implementation of service management. 5.Service Delivery Process. 6.Relationship Process.
7) Control Process. 8) Resolution Process. 9) New Services - planning and implementation. 10.Release
Process.
The second part of BS 15000 covers the required code of conduct and guidance.
The main documents of BS 15000 are to be republished in ISO 20000) The ITIL or IT Infrastructure
Library fgures out the organizational structure, skill requirements and application management of IT
services companies.
The BS 15000 introduces a set of management processes to enhance the service delivery to customers.
These standards help establish the company’s credibility in the market.
They also maintain a standard of discipline within the work culture.
The ISO 20000 has been developed to meet the requirements of international markets and it offers an
understanding of the IT services management.
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The ISO 20000 boasts of a structure similar to the BS 15000) The BS 15000 registered companies can
make a transition to ISO/IEC 20000.
Service Catalog : Service Level Management
Service Catalog Demand Management Financial
Management….
The best approach is to start with aspects of IT Service Management, which are common to all deploy-
ment models and service models, and lead into topics relevant to specifc areas.
To do this successfully, a “big picture” must be referenced.
The best example of the big picture is the Private Cloud Reference Model.
The Reference Model was created by a community of experts to explore the business, technical, and
operational merits and requirements in provisioning a private cloud .
The discussion is managed by Microsoft through their TechNet wiki.
The Reference Cloud provides a good view of the various components required in provisioning and man-
aging any cloud solution, whether public and private.
In addition to supporting the various cloud service models, the reference model divides the most recog-
nized IT Service Management processes into three categories: management processes, service opera-
tions, and service delivery.
While the model was specifcally designed to show the service management requirements of a private
cloud, the same model can be adapted in various ways to illustrate the service management require-
ments of a public cloud.
This can be done by establishing a line of demarcation between the responsibilities of the enterprise and
the responsibilities of the service provider.
When using a public cloud, this line of demarcation can be viewed as a veil of transparency between
customer and provider.
Using the Private Cloud Reference Model for cloud computing in general, the line of demarcation exists
between the Service Delivery processes and the rest of the model.
This places the responsibilities of the service delivery process on the enterprise.
The service provider will be responsible for the rest of the model.
However, the service provider may also have and is recommended to have service delivery processes in
place to ensure that the cloud services are delivered to the customers.
The role of service delivery processes for the enterprise is to ensure that IT, including cloud services,
delivers value to the strategic, tactical, and operational aspects of the business.
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The service delivery processes are:
• • Service Lifecycle Management Service Level Management Service Catalog Demand Management Fi-
nancial Management Availability Management Capacity Management Information Security Management
Business Relationship Management
Service Lifecycle Management One of the major decisions facing enterprises who are looking at adopt-
ing cloud services is to determine if their existing systems will remain intact, or if a new cloud-based
system will be deployed.
Decisions to maintain the legacy system can be broken down further by deciding to maintain the entire
system, use cloud resources to partially support the system, or re-engineer the entire system to exploit
cloud resources.
Generally, adopting a new cloud-based system requires some consideration about existing data.
Several considerations can infuence the use of cloud computing to support a legacy system, including:
• Complexity of the system design Sensitivity of the data used by the system System priority to business
operations Cultural assimilation in the enterprise Past innovations in technology Each of these consid-
erations may prevent a system from being supported within the cloud, whether that cloud is public or
private.
Some systems may be identifed as candidates for being supported by a cloud, but only privately.
Even when cloud support for an entire system is deemed inappropriate, it is possible that parts of the
system can be supported from the cloud.
This approach is especially advantageous where the particular functions of the system can be isolated
and independently operated.
Supporting the system partially with cloud resources can provide an opportunity to incrementally migrate
the entire system to a cloud system over time. --
Cloud Service Lifecycle The Distributed Management Task Force with contributions from personnel from
several major companies, including Cisco, IBM, HP, Intel, Dell, and Sun Microsystems, created a service
lifecycle model for cloud services to support their Open Cloud Standards Incubator .
The Incubator is to assess and impact the interoperability, portability, and security of cloud computing
environments.
The cloud service lifecycle consists of four simple steps: • Template – The service is defned in relation to
its content and interfaces.
This defnition includes the number and type of computer, network, and storage resources assigned to a
service instance, and the expected number of instances to be supported.
It also includes the software, tools, and technologies accessed through the instance. • Offering – The
template is developed into a workable offering that can be provided and consumed by the users.
The development of a template requires that the provider applies all the costs, constraints, and policies
defning the service.
At the end of the development period, the service offering can be added to the provider’s service catalog
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and will be available for request by the consumer. • Contract – A request to use a service contract by the
consumer results in some form of contract agreement between the service provider and consumer.
This agreement can range from simple terms and conditions of use to a formal, underpinning contract
with service level agreements. • Service Provision (Instance) – Each instance is the actual provision of
the service and requires the provider to deploy, release, and monitor resources, as the user requires
them according to the service contract.
The DMTF lifecycle provides a practical adoption of traditional IT Service Management concepts by iden-
tifying the stages in developing a cloud service.
While the lifecycle was created from the perspective of the service provider, it can also prove useful to
enterprise customers of cloud services.
Here is a sense of how it can be adopted: • Template – Defnes the service to be supported and the ba-
sic requirements needed to support the business.
The best result is to drill down the requirements to per user or per instance basis, which will also pro-
vides an indication if different roles within the organization will have varied requirements on the same
service.
The efforts of this work is performed in Demand Management. • Offering – Evaluates potential service
offerings from several service providers to identify the best candidates for fulflling the requirements.
Decisions may be made to engage multiple service providers after the evaluations, or identify, if no cur-
rent offering provides the right ft.
Within this stage, the customer may determine that an internal solution is appropriate.
All other service delivery processes may provide input into the decision making performed in this stage.
• Contract – The best cloud service is chosen and an agreement is made between the customer and the
service provider to ensure the terms of service delivery.
This effort is a function of Service Level Management to negotiate and manage.
Common processes, like Supplier Management, may be involved if cloud services are obtained through
an external service provider. • Instance – The service provider will focus on providing the resources to
the customer in the form of provisioning instances.
For the customer, this stage manages the use of cloud services based on policies and demand.
In traditional IT environments and outsourced agreements, IT delivery will conform to the needs of the
business.
Particularly when speaking about services from public clouds, the business may need to conform to the
cloud service.
This can cause problems, as the business grows since the requirements change and the cloud service
remains the same.
Private clouds can provide greater alignment to business objectives.
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Service Level Management Service Level Management is dependent on the successful provision of ser-
vices that meet the requirements of the customer, to ensure they remain satisfed.
It is not about providing a cushion for customer complaints or a process for passing blame around and
avoiding responsibility.
It can be a very diffcult balancing act that requires specifc skills of the Service Level Management,
including excellent communication, negotiation, coordination, and management skills.
Successful Service Level Management depends on the nature of the relationship between the customer
and the service provider.
When mutual benefts exist within the relationship, agreements and motivation are easier to manage and
maintain.
This provides the cornerstone for a successful partnership based on a managed services environment.
Service Level Managers should aim to build partnerships with customers built on a shared vision or strat-
egy that unites them in their goal for attainable and successful managed services.
In cloud computing, the customer may be the business organization to the internal IT organization, or it
may be the IT organization to the actual service provider, whether internal or external.
This distinction is important to understand, particularly when cloud services are provided from an exter-
nal supplier.
Many public cloud services do not have more than online terms of service and only a few will offcially
commit to an availability SLA metric.
Users of the service simply commit to abide by the service terms.
These types of agreements are mostly prevalent in SaaS offerings.
As service offerings start to involve PaaS and IaaS solutions, as well as more exclusive rights to -- re-
sources, the underpinning contracts may become more detailed.
As a result, an internally supported private cloud may have the largest number of Service Level Agree-
ments, Service Level Objectives, and Objective Level Agreements in place.
The reason behind this level of diversity is simple: external service providers are attempting to provide
the best service to the greatest number of potential customers, while internal service providers tend to
focus on meeting the specifc requirements of each line of business.
As a result, Service Level Management in the context of cloud computing will need to balance econo-
mies of scale with the alignment of business goals.
The ideal situation when adopting cloud services, particularly through private clouds, is to disregard the
push to treat different services differently from the perspective of service levels, focusing holistically on
the cloud instead.
In a traditional IT environment, different systems, applications, and business processes tend to evolve
with different service level packages.
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The difference in service level packages is a contributing factor for higher IT costs.
In cloud computing, the resources originally attributed to each system are consolidated and the systems
are supported from a virtual machine.
While different packages can still exist, the best approach is to limit to a few packages and drive toward
consistency with the requirements.
This can be done by identifying scale units that meet the minimum set of requirements for multiple ser-
vices.
At worst, this approach will offer better service levels for some systems without decreasing the service
levels for any. The previous fgure illustrates the result with all systems being supported by three defned
scale units with minimum service levels.
If the required service level for a particular system is lower than the available scale unit, then the system
will simply beneft from the higher service level of the scale unit.
Service Catalog When using cloud computing, IT Service Management is used to broker services.
Imagine a situation where all business services can be supported using a cloud solution, but the cloud
solution for a particular service may come from a different service provider.
In this situation, the customer (business, business functions, business processes) provides the service
requirements to the broker (IT Service Management).
These requirements and further notations about the service will be documented within a service portfolio.
The broker will evaluate the different service providers to identify who can provide the best level of ser-
vice at the most reasonable cost.
Once a service provider is found, an agreement is made between the provider and broker, on behalf of
the customer.
The details of the agreement are documented in a portion of the service portfolio, commonly referred to
as the service catalog.
This service catalog is available to the customer.
From it, the customers can choose the services they would like to utilize.
Whenever the customer opens the connection to the service, they are invoking the service on the service
provider’s infrastructure.
It is possible for the service provider to have a service catalog of service offerings to consumers, while
the IT department maintains their own service catalog restricting the offerings available to the business
customer or expanding offerings to include those from other service providers. 1.The service provider
manages their IT infrastructure and provides a service. 2.The broker manages the service usage to en-
sure it meets the customer’s requirement. 3.The customer uses the services.
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This brokerage approach also works to identify and provide services for in-house technical teams.
The service catalog will provide the key control for using authorized cloud services within the enterprise.
The catalog will defne what cloud services are available for use, how they are to be used, and any limits
on usage.
In most cases, the conditions for using a particular cloud service will not be enforced by the service pro-
vider, but will be done through acceptance and trust of the employee.
For the enterprise, the catalog can provide a central list of all the service providers providing resources
to support the business, how those resources are used, and the prices of those services.
Service reports can be attached to identify current usage of the services, total costs of ownership, and
issues related to service provision.
The service catalog can also be the basis for determining the organization’s success or failure in adopt-
ing cloud computing.
For organizations looking to venture into cloud computing or bring existing cloud service use under con-
trol, the service catalog offers a suffcient mechanism for identifying how cloud services are truly support-
ing the business.
As the service catalog matures, the organization will have the information required to make informed
decisions about the service and cloud computing in general.
The most important information to capture are:
• Service Name Service Model Used Deployment Model Used Service Provider Information about Cloud
Provision
• Pricing Related Business Processes
Demand Management Demand Management focuses on understanding and anticipating the use of a
service, in this case, cloud services.
Understanding the demand of a service requires understanding the repeatable patterns within the work-
fow of a business process.
For instance, if a business process is initiated through a request, what interfaces allow a request to be
initiated, and how is the request fltered through the process? The possible answers can include web ap-
plications, email, instant messaging, paging, and telephony solutions, to name a few.
Each answer could be a possible service supported by the cloud.
Included in the answer are all the transparent activities associated with computing on local drives, net-
works, and servers, particularly in database management.
Additionally, each activity can be prioritized based on its importance to the core business.
The second part of demand management is translating the patterns into measurable productivity units.
These units represent the capacity and performance requirements of the activity.
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Within the cloud computing vernacular, these productivity units could be represented as specifc instanc-
es of a virtual machine.
Cloud computing depends on the implementation of virtualization, which creates an abstract representa-
tion of the physical environment.
In cloud computing, a customer uses a virtual machine, which is a virtual representation of a physical
device, instead of an actual physical device.
A single physical device can support multiple virtual machines.
The composition of the virtual machine involves defning the type of resources used, number of units of
the resources, and sometimes, the expected rate of use of those resources.
Financial Coaching
Financial coaching has been adopted by some practitioners in the asset-building feld for usewith low-
income clients and by some fnancial planners for more affuent clientele.
Coaching hasappeal because it is centered on changing fnancial behaviors over time based on an on-
goingrelationship between the coach and the client.
The coach has expertise in process and content,but changes in behavior are left for the client to practice
and incorporate into his or her dailyfnancial life.This report reviews fnancial coaching programs with an
emphasis on services for low-incomefamilies.
In addition to a review of the literature, 46 leading nonproft practitioners andprofessionals in the fnancial
coaching feld were interviewed, including representatives fromwhat is estimated to be more 60 per-
cent of the fnancial coaching programs currently beingoffered by nonproft organizations to low-income
clients.
Overall, fnancial coaching has strongpotential to facilitate asset building among low-income families,
although best practices todeliver coaching are still being developed.Defning Financial Coaching.
Discussions of coaching can become bogged down in semantics.Coaching is differentiated from coun-
seling in that it focuses on changing fnancial behaviors,rather than focusing on a specifc event or
problem.
Counseling tends to be more therapeutic innature, while coaching endeavors to help a client improve his
or her behavior in order to achieveself-defned goals.
Of course, counseling and mentoring all can involve coaching to some degree.While far from defnitive,
key elements of coaching include:(1) a focus on long-term outcomes;(2) an ongoing, systematic, col-
laborative process for assisting clients to change behaviors;(3) support to practice new behaviors; and(4)
building skills and teaching content based on the client’s unique needs and goals.Financial coaching is
part of a wider feld of personal coaching.
This feld has developed rapidlyin the last decade, including the emergence of standard-setting organiza-
tions and academicstudies on the psychology of coaching.
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Financial coaching is one of the smaller and least studiedsubsets of the personal coaching feld.Deliver-
ing Financial Coaching.
There are at least three models for nonproft programs providingcoaching services to lower-income cli-
ents: volunteer coaches, paid fnancial planners, andtrained in-house staff.
There is also a fourth category of programs that blends planners,volunteers and in-house staff.
Coaching models vary signifcantly from program to program,depending on the needs of clients and
resources available in the community.
Each hasadvantages and disadvantages depending on the context and type of clients served.
Blendedmodels are often the most cost-effective, assuming that an organization has staff capacity, ac-
cessto skilled volunteers, and the resources to hire professional planners or recruit pro bono plannersas
needed.
Volunteer models offer low-cost delivery, but do require training and support.Volunteer models generally
cannot provide coaching to individual clients for more than a year.In-house programs can offer coaching
for a longer duration, although staff still requiresignifcant training and support, especially on fnancial
content issues and the coachingapproach.
While valuable to clients, the paid planner model can be expensive to deliver.
Like thevolunteer model, the paid planner model requires training and support, in addition to paying
forthe planners’ services.
Professional planners are highly knowledgeable about personal fnance,but not necessarily skilled at
coaching or the issues of low-income clients.
Novice planners offerone source of lower-cost professional planners for fnancial coaching, if a com-
munity has a localtraining program for planners.Financial coaching for low-income households typically
requires coaches with an understandingof the needs of this population, as well as of the types of social
services and other programs thatare available.
It is important that clients be in a stable position before beginning coaching.Clients with signifcant emo-
tional needs and/or major fnancial problems may not be ideal for acoaching relationship.
Clients with such needs may require counseling in tandem with coachingservices.
All clients of coaching will take some time to develop trust and open communication.Low-income clients
may have heightened anxiety about fnancial issues, and so the initialcoaching sessions are critical.
Coaches need access to fnancial professionals for technicalquestions, as well as to mental health pro-
fessionals to manage their own feelings during thecoaching process and to help assess potential prob-
lems for which clients may need moreintensive help.
Coaches must be trained in how to make appropriate referrals for therapeutic orother services as
needed.
In general, practitioners report clients “love the coaching approach,”although the focus on self-determi-
nation and accountability can be intimidating, at least initially.Other fndings related to delivering fnancial
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counseling include:• Group training on specialized topics can help increase the fnancial knowledge of
clientsoutside the coaching process in a cost-effective manner, allowing the coach to focus ongoal set-
ting and monitoring.• One-to-one coaching with no peer-to-peer component misses out on opportunities
forcoaching clients to coach each other, learn mutually and help each other focus onattaining goals.• The
delivery of fnancial coaching can be improved by ensuring that coaches haveappropriate training and
supervision and that standardized referral systems are establishedfor clients with more complex needs.•
One-to-one coaching can be important for initial coaching sessions, but is costly toprovide.
Coaching by phone is common in the private coaching and fnancial planningcommunity.
It is more effcient for both clients and coaches.
Programs should considersubstituting face-to-face meetings with phone coaching as soon as clients are
ready.• Although most nonproft programs do not charge fees, most should consider doing so.
Itis a common practice among private planners serving low-income clients and hasimportant implications
for clients and programs beyond its resource value.• Programs might have the most success by focus-
ing on coaching clients with a baselineknowledge of personal fnance, such as recent graduates from a
matched savingsprogram.Training Coaches.
Training for coaches and establishing standards among fnancial coachingprograms will become a more
important issue as nonproft coaching programs proliferate.Financial coaching programs can learn from
failed efforts in other counseling felds, such ashousing and credit counseling, to establish minimum
quality standards and accreditation forcoaches.
All fnancial coaches need four skills: (1) an understanding of coaching fundamentals,(2) knowledge of
personal fnance, (3) counseling-like communication and facilitation skills, and(4) familiarity with the cli-
ent population being coached.
There is currently no reputable programthat can provide training in all four skill areas.
Existing training programs can provide the frstthree, although most pools of potential coaches tend to
need training in only one or two of thesethree core areas to add to the skills they already have.
Knowledge of the client population willalmost always need to be provided locally.Critiques of the Finan-
cial Coaching Model.
While fnancial coaching has promise, it is not auniversal solution for asset building.
Quality fnancial coaching requires support and training andcan take more time and resources than
fnancial education.
It typically costs more than afnancial counseling approach.
Understanding these issues is instructive for designing moresuccessful fnancial coaching programs,
including:• Coaches often lack fnancial or counseling expertise;• Counselors and planners already do
coaching;• Clients need more structure than coaching provides;• The costs of coaching are too high;
and• Coaches are not qualifed to manage the issues related to mental health they encounter.Next
Steps.
There are a number of organizations in the fnancial education, policy and foundationfeld with an interest
in fnancial coaching.
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The nascent stage of the fnancial coaching feldsuggests an opportunity for collaborative efforts to
standardize service delivery, training,accreditation and outcomes measurement.The costs and benefts
of various coaching models, from the use of volunteers to paid fnancialplanners or trained counseling
staff, have yet to be evaluated.
The optimal mix of services forvarious types of clients is also unknown.
Existing coaching programs include fragments of whatcould be included in an industry-wide outcomes
measurement system, including client surveys,credit report data and tracking of goal attainment.Finally,
there are opportunities to help fnancial coaches and coaching programs to collaborateand share lessons
learned and best practices.
Based on the interviews conducted, there is strongsupport among practitioners for the fnancial coaching
approach.
With continuing innovationsand support, coaching has great potential to help low-income clients build
assets.
IT Services Implementation Plan/Project Plan
Skeleton Outline Process: Service Catalog
Management
Status: In draft
Under Review
Sent for Approval
Approved
Rejected

Version: <<your version>>

Release Date:

Planning and implementation for Service Catalog Management
This document provides guidance for the planning and implementation of the Service Catalog Manage-
ment ITIL® process.
The document is not to be considered an extensive plan as its topics have to be generic enough to suit
any reader for any organization.
However, the reader will certainly be reminded of the key topics that have to be considered for planning
and implementation of this process.
1.
Initial Planning
When beginning the process planning, the following items must be completed:
CHECK
☺:|☹ or •➢ or date DESCRIPTION
Get agreement on the objective (use the ITIL defnition), purpose, scope, and implementation approach
(eg.
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Print, online, or interactive) for the process.
Assign a person to the key role of process manager/owner.
This person is responsible for the process and all associated systems.
Conduct a review of activities that would currently be considered as an activity associated with this
process.
Make notes and discuss the “reusability” of that activity.
Create and gain agreement on a high-level process plan and a design for any associated process sys-
tems.
NOTE: The plan needs not be detailed.
Too many initiatives get caught up in too much detail in the planning phase.
KEEP THE MOMENTUM GOING.
Review the fnances required for the process as a whole and any associated systems (expenditure
including people, software, hardware, accommodation).
Don’t forget that the initial expenditure may be higher than the ongoing costs.
Don’t forget annual allowances for systems maintenance or customizations to systems by development
staff.
Agree to the policy regarding this process.
2.
Create strategic statements.
Policy Statement
The policy establishes the “SENSE OF URGENCY” for the process.
It helps us to think clearly about and agree on the reasons WHY effort is put into this process.
An inability to answer this seemingly simple, but actually complex question is a major stepping stone
toward successful implementation
The most common mistake made is that reasons regarding IT are given as to WHY we should do this.
Reasons like to make our IT department more effcient are far too generic and don’t focus on the real is-
sue behind why this process is needed.
The statement must leave the reader in no doubt that the benefts of this process will be far reaching and
will contribute to the business in a clearly recognizable way.
Objective Statement
When you are describing the end or ultimate goal for a unit of activity that is about to be undertaken, you
are outlining the OBJECTIVE for that unit of activity.
Of course, the activity may be some actions for just you or a team of people.
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In either case, writing down the answer to WHERE will this activity lead me/us/the organization is a pow-
erful exercise.
There are many studies that indicate the simple act of putting a statement about the end result expected
onto a piece of paper, and then continually referring to it makes achieving that end result realistic.
As a tip regarding the development of an objective statement, don’t get caught up in spending hours on
this.
Do it quickly and go with your instincts or frst thoughts – BUT THEN, wait a few days and review what
you did for another short period of time and THEN commit to the outcome of the second review as your
statement.
Scope Statement
In defning the scope of this process, we are answering what activities and what “information interfaces”
does this process have.
Don’t get caught up in trying to be too detailed about the information fow into and out of this process.
What is important is that others realize that information does in fact fow.
For example, with regard to the SERVICE CATALOG MANAGEMENT process, we can create a simple
table such as:
Service Catalog Management Information fow
Process Process Information
SCMgt to ConfMgt High level service model and relationships
ConfMgt to SCMgt Managing service components and relationships

SCMgt to BusRelMgt Details on service composition
BusRelMgt to SCMgt Projected changes to customer impacting existing services

SCMgt to ServiceDesk List of request-able services
ServiceDesk to SCMgt Details on incidents and requests

3.
Steps for Implementation
There can be a variety of ways to implement this process.
For a lot of organizations, a staged implementation may be suitable.
For others, a “big bang” implementation, due to absolute equality, may be appropriate.
In reality however, we usually look at implementation according to pre-defned priorities.
Consider the following options and then apply a suitable model to your own organization or case study.
STEPS NOTES/ /RELEVANCE/DATES/WHO
Document Service Catalog Process
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Document Service Defnitions

Defne how services will address requirements of business processes (how service assets will support
customer assets)

Defne what service assets and components are needed to deliver the service and their interrelationships

Create, negotiate, and approve service level agreements (See Service Level Project Plan)

Determine costs of service and pricing

Defne the different audiences for the service catalog and their information requirements

Identify or build a service catalog tool to support requirements from previous steps

Publicize and market


4.
Costs
The cost of process implementation is something that must be considered before, during, and after the
implementation initiative.
The following points and table helps to frame these considerations.
(A variety of symbols have been provided to help you indicate required expenditure, rising or falling ex-
penditure, level of satisfaction regarding costs in a particular area, etc.)
Initial During Ongoing
Personnel
Costs of people for initial design of process, implementation, and ongoing support • ➢ ➢
Accommodation
Costs of housing new staff and any associated new equipment and space for documents or process-
related concepts :| ☺ ☹
Software
New tools required to support the process and/or the costs of migration from an existing tool or system to
the new one
Maintenance costs
Hardware
New hardware required to support the process activities; IT hardware and even new desks for staff
Education
Re-education of existing staff to learn new techniques and/or learn to operate new systems
Procedures
Development costs associated with flling in the detail of a process activity.
The step-by-step recipe guides for all involved and even indirectly involved personnel.
In most cases, costs for process implementation have to be budgeted for (or allocated) well in advance
of expenditure.
Part of this step involves deciding on a charging mechanism (if any) for the new services to be offered.
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5.
Build the team
Each process requires a process owner and, in most situations, a team of people to assist.
The Service Catalog Management process tends to be overshadowed by other service management
processes, such as Service Level Management and Service Portfolio Management, because of very
common themes.
The team size may or may not refect this.
Of course a lot will be dependent on the timing of the implementation and whether it is to be staged or
implemented as one exercise.
6.
Analyze the current situation and FLAG
Naturally, there are many organizations that have many existing procedures/processes and people in
place that feel that the activities of SLM are already being done.
It is critical to identify these systems and consider their future role as part of the new process defnition.
Examples of areas to review are:
Area Notes
Power teams
Current formal procedures
Current informal procedures
Current role descriptions
Existing organizational structure
Spreadsheets, databases and other repositories
Others
7.
Implementation Planning
After base decisions regarding the scope of the process and the overall planning activities are complete,
we need to address the actual implementation of the process.
It is unlikely that there will not be some current activity or work being performed that would ft under the
banner of this process.
However, we can provide a comprehensive checklist of points that must be reviewed and done.
Implementation activities for Service Catalog Management
Activity Notes/Comments/Time Frame/Who
Review current and existing Service Catalog Management practices in greater detail.
Make sure you also review current process connections from these practices to other areas of IT Service
Delivery.
Review the ability of existing functions and staff.
Can we “reuse” some of the skills to minimize training, education, and time required for implementa-
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tion? Consider the efforts of Service Level Management, Confguration Management, and Release and
Deployment Management.
Establish the accuracy and relevance of current processes, procedures, and meetings.
As part of this step, if any information is credible, document the transition from the current format to any
new format that is selected.
Decide how best to select any vendor that will provide assistance in this process area (including tools,
external consultancy or assistance to help with initial high workload during process implementation).
Establish a selection guideline for the evaluation and selection of tools required to support this process
area (IE Catalog Management tools).
Purchase and install tools required to support this process (IE Catalog Management tool).
Ensure adequate skills transfer and on-going support are considered if external systems are selected.
Create any required business process interfaces for this process that can be provided by the automated
tools (eg.
Reporting – frequency, content).
Document and get agreement on roles, responsibilities, and training plans.
Communicate with and provide necessary education and training for staff that covers the actual impor-
tance of the process and the intricacies of the process itself.
An important point to remember is that if this process is to be implemented at the same time as other
processes, it is crucial that both implementation plans and timing of work are complementary.
8.
Cutover to new processes
The question of when a new process actually starts is one that is not easy to answer.
Most process activity evolves without rigid starting dates and this is what we mean when we answer a
question with “that’s just the way it’s done around here”.
Ultimately, we do want the new process to become the way things are done around here, so it may even
be best not to set specifc launch dates, as this will set the expectation that from the given date, all is-
sues relating to the process will disappear (not a realistic expectation).
IT Governance Municipalizzate: The Regulating Body
in IT
In IT Governance framework, any decision made by an individual in the team can give you a positive or a
negative effect especially on the objectives that are established in an organization.
Whatever the effects may be, decision making is inevitably part of business functions.
What you need to do is analyze the different situations and assess the different decisions taken and cor-
rect the methods.
IT governance also helps businesses in determining the processes in deciding money matters.
Prioritization and justifcation of the investments is very important in an organization.
That is why application of IT governance will assist businesses to manage IT investments, service deliv-
154
eries and projects in change management.
IT governance is an effective tool that eliminates the reoccurring diffculties in IT.
It is a useful method that controls and coordinates in various areas of work.
This tool is used to meet and achieve the internal policies, goal and regulation of the company.
With IT Governance you can track your expenses and justify the spending of investments.
Not only that, this technique can align the roles and responsibilities of specifc individuals who are as-
signed to create the necessary decisions in IT.
In this way, decisions depend on not just one person but various individuals from departments like f-
nance, IT, operations, administration, etc.
Are accountable to the decisions made in IT.
IT Governance accomplishes the management form for IT investment, service delivery and change man-
agement.
This can help businesses in improving IT and at the same time achieving their business goals.
It is very vital for any organization to have different parts or levels working together for different purposes
that are work in cooperation with each other.
These levels are both interrelated and different, but their similarity lies with the fact that all of them need
to contribute for the Business’ growth.
Now in every Business there is already in-house levels like Management, Marketing, Sales, Production,
Shipping, Public Relations and etc, to name a few.
And in IT Governance this process of having different levels should begin with the organization’s or Busi-
ness’ Management, which will be the one to dictate the Business’ goals, policies and projects.
Management is the highest-level strategic planning processes, but there will always be a need to harmo-
nize Management with the rest of the levels.
It must understand and know what the different levels’ capacities are and how far they can push for
changes or new policies without straining the levels’ capacities.
Now the key assumption is that Management or organization must prioritize research because Business
with IT has clinical and educational.
IT is the newest power that must be harnessed by Business to ensure its growth.
In fact, it is a good growth-enhancing factor that can be advantageous to any Business that uses it the
proper way and disadvantageous to a Business that does otherwise.
When these are answered and delivered to the best of its advantage, a drive in IT investments will al-
ways occur.
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Therefore, the Business’ Vision and Values or policies must result to the producing of plans that will
guide all IT related or based decisions within the Business.
Once achieved to a stage of development, these high-level plans from Management should be able to
result to a stable and enduring IT Governance Model.
IT Governance is the branch of Corporate Governance that mainly deals with the way Information Tech-
nology systems does business.
These may include how IT resolves its security risks and ensures the maintenance of good and growing
performance.
While the Municipalizzate, which can also be called municipal administrative bodies, but in a sense more
on the IT side is more on the regulating bodies or committees.
These committees and regulating bodies are the ones in charge of determining how the IT is doing its
part in the world.
There is always the regulation of the current and future uses of IT.
In this regulation IT is directed and controlled by the Municipalizzate.
The Municipalizzate’s job involves the evaluating and the directing of plans for the use of IT.
This job will always bear in mind the prime reason of IT’s exixtence, which is to support the organization
or Businesses concerned.
Active monitoring on the part of the Municipalizzate is expected to help achieve and use the plans.
In fact, this monitoring includes the making and testing of different strategies and policies for the effec-
tive, effcient, cheap and of course responsible use of IT within any given organization or Business.
Well, one of the goals of Municipalizzate is to assure that the investments in IT give out and result to the
generation of wealth or other benefts with good business value.
Also they simply want to avoid, or at least mitigate the risks that are part and parcel with the use of IT.
To achieve all these, the Municipalizzate is entrusted to implement a well-defned model from which roles
responsibility of information can be derived.
Why Outsource: 4 Compelling Reasons Why
Companies Should Outsource
There are four reasons why companies should outsource their business operations, processes, and
production.First, outsourcing can bring many fnancial advantages.
It is surely a very good cost savings measure.
The cheap labor cost associated with outsourcing can increase company savings.
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The technology requirements of companies which could be provided by third party contractors can also
add to the savings.
Increasing company savings can defnitely improve company fnancials.
This improvement will therefore impact on the proftability of companies.The second compelling reason
why companies should outsource is the availability of technical expertise and competence of outsourcing
companies.
This will improve company capability in creating superior products and services.
This will also improve the development of new products and innovative services which could enhance
competitiveness.
Reduction of risk is another reason why companies should outsource.
Normally outsourcing providers are primarily responsible for delivering quality products in the most ef-
fcient manner.
It is usually stipulated in the Service Level Agreement that outsourcing companies shall make sure that
the products and services of parent companies will conform to specifed standards.
There is a penalty for non-conformance.
This therefore reduces the risk of business operations especially in the manufacturing and service deliv-
ery sector.
If risks are reduced, companies can fully focus its quality efforts on higher end business operations.Fi-
nally, companies can now perform critical research and development ventures to improve their products.
This is made possible by outsourcing research to third party research institutions.
The expense associated with research and development could be signifcantly reduced.
This is highly benefcial in introducing innovations which could make companies more competitive.
ITIL Application Management
ITIL Application Management ITIL application management is considered as the amplifcation of the pro-
cess of release management where the main focus is on the application lifecycle.
ITIL Application management is completely dedicated to the subject of managing application in any or-
ganization keeping short-term and long-term benefts in consideration.
It starts from the initial business and ends with the retirement.
Another major application of ITIL application management is the interaction with IT service management
disciplines that contains service delivery, infrastructure management and service support.
ITIL application management also deals with the technological components of the organization that
includes management of hardware, operating systems and middleware.
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It provides a comprehensive and end-to-end description of all the management processes applied in the
company.
This is also termed as value added service as it helps in refning of the framework as well.
ITIL Roadmap
ITIL Roadmap ITIL roadmap is perhaps one of the most comprehensive and effective ways to under-
stand the structure of the ITIL certifcate examinations.
It will give you a step-wise guidance to go ahead with your plans regarding Service Management.
The structure is very simple and starts with the most primary level known as ;base course.
Then it goes to the higher levels including trainings and mock exams.
The roadmap can be simplifed in the following manner: Base course - 3 days foundation degree course
Practitioner’s course - 3 days certifcate - Service Desk and Incident Management - Problem Manage-
ment - Service Level Management - Confguration Management - Change Management Manager’s/Mas-
ter’s Course - 5 days certifcate - Service Support Training - Service Delivery Training You can follow the
roadmap according to your choice and qualifcations.
All of them are benefcial in their own departments.
Microsoft ITIL
Customer satisfaction is one of the main goals, if not the top priority of a service-oriented company.
If customers are happy with the service being provided to them, then it also means continued patronage
and a key determinant in improving the quality of provisioned service within an imposed cost constraint.
In information technology, an IT service concept also focuses on what the consumer receives and this is
where Information Technology Service Management (ITSM) fts within the organization.IT Service Man-
agement focuses on managing the IT components so as to provide the best quality service to customers
in the most cost effective and effcient way.
Like Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL), ITSM involves embracing of well-defned best
practices that organization should adapt.
The concept of ITSM is at the heart of ITIL and is generally divided into two main areas: Service Delivery
and Service Support.
Service Delivery consists of all the planning, development and delivery of quality IT services and in the
long run, involves the processes on fnding out ways to improve the quality of service delivered.
The 5 disciplines under Service Delivery are: Service Level Management, Capacity Management, Con-
tingency Planning, Availability Management and IT Financial Management.
On the other hand, Service Support is a discipline that focuses on the users of the ICT services, in which
158
they get involved in the process whenever they ask for changes or updates in the service, have diffcul-
ties accessing the service, or have queries about the service.
The 6 Service Support disciplines are: Confguration Management, Problem Management, Incident Man-
agement, Change Management, Service Help Desk and Release Management.The Microsoft Company
has been involved in the community of ITIL for years now.
Both are adapting the contents of ITIL and contribute to the latest, expanded and updated documentation
of Microsoft.
ITIL offers a wide range of guidance documents that features the service delivery IT management and
support including the essential parts of the IT infrastructure.
Safety and security of the organization and the management of all its applications are the other features
of the document.
ITIL helps in promoting the application of descriptive guidance to attain improvement in the different
areas of service management with continuity.
Microsoft Company has the Microsoft Operations Framework (MOF) as a collection of best practice,
models and principles that is built under the IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL).
The approach used by MOF is prescriptive and promotes the continuous improvement of the capabilities
of IT service management using the process-driven tools.
This is in contrast to the approach of ITIL which is descriptive.
To further discuss the Microsoft Operations Framework or MOF, the framework is the one making the
necessary adjustments for the ever changing needs of any business.
It optimizes all the processes for the increase in effciency.
The principle of ITIL when applied to the Microsoft technology provides the foundation in helping differ-
ent IT organization to meet all the challenges that may be encountered and assist in their goal for the
continuous improvement of the organization.
It can give guidance to the operation and will enable the business to attain the critical missions of their
systems with the high reliability and availability of the Microsoft products and its technologies.
Service Operation Summary
From a customer viewpoint, Service Operation is where actual value is seen.
This is because it is the execution of strategies, designs and plans, and improvements from the service
phases.
Key benefts delivered as a result of Service Operation are:
• Effectiveness and effciency in IT Service delivery and support
• Increased return on investment
• More productive and positive users of IT services
Other benefts can be defned as:
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Long term: Over a period of time the Service Operation processes, functions performance, and output
are evaluated.
These reports will be analyzed and decisions made about whether the improvement is needed and how
best to implement it through Service Design and Transition, EG, deployment of new tools, changes to
process designs, reconfguration of the infrastructure.

Short term: Improvement of working practices within the Service Operations processes, functions, and
technology itself.
Generally they involve smaller improvements that do not mean changes to the fundamental nature of a
process or technology, EG, tuning, training, personnel redeployment, etc.

8 Required Technical Knowledge
The following section aims to provide a high-level overview of the technical knowledge that is normally
required by a Help Desk Technician in order to perform their role.
Please note, this is not meant to be an extensive or detailed source of guidance, as all staff will still need
to ensure that they have the appropriate skills to manage the specifc operating systems, software, hard-
ware, and other vendor specifc items used throughout the infrastructure.
Viewpoints to Creating a Service Catalog
This document is intended to focus on the unique considerations in creating a service catalog from sev-
eral distinct viewpoints.
The objective of this exploration is to facilitate the effective use of the Service Catalog Toolkit and ensure
a better result in the process.
The viewpoints to be explored currently include (more may be added in future editions):
Consultants – Often in this role, a consultant is asked to make recommendations regarding service cata-
logs which the organization will take and execute.
Often, but not always, the consultant may be retained to advice or clarify during the catalog’s develop-
ment and implementation.
The responsibilities of consultant may vary but one characteristic persists—the consultant is acting as a
third-party voice in determining the effectiveness of a service catalog.
This viewpoint provides some considerations for building and presenting service catalog recommenda-
tions.
Management – Unlike the consultant, management will have to live directly with the decisions they make
regarding the service catalog.
One of the key decisions to be made relates to the level of investment in developing the service catalog.
Some managers may not be ready to make this decision or may be hesitant in investing heavily in the
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service catalog.
This viewpoint looks at the value of investing in the service catalog as well as some guidelines in making
investment decisions.
Architect – Enterprise architecture is a hot topic for business and IT organizations alike; but where does
the service catalog play a role in supporting enterprise architecture and how can the architect use the
service catalog as a means for leveraging ideas and services? This viewpoint looks at this interaction
and provides some guidance for incorporating the service catalog into the enterprise architecture frame-
work.
For Consultants
The Service Catalog Toolkit is designed to support an organization with their initial implementation of a
service catalog.
However, the toolkit provides a broad range of considerations which will enable any organization with an
existing service catalog to evaluate and identify potential areas of improvement.
As a consultant, you have the unique privilege to support an organization in any phase of their planning,
development, and implementation.
While you must be responsible to ensure their current needs are met, you must also be knowledgeable
to forecast and advice on their future needs.
With regard to the service catalog, the world is at the brink of a new trend.
This isn’t because service catalogs are a new concept, but because technology is at a point where the
structure, context, and content of service catalogs can be radically altered and experimented on.
There are primarily three questions regarding the service catalog which must be answered in any imple-
mentation: presentation, scope of content, and organization of information.
The document, The Evolving Service Catalog, provides a study into several forms of presentation.
For most organizations though, presentation will dissolve into the actual presentation of the service cata-
log and the marketing of the service catalog and/or services it contains.
The best all-around recommendation is to create a web-based service catalog with brochures highlight-
ing the key services or service domains of the organization.
A web-based catalog provides the most fexible and adaptable solution for service catalogs available,
while the brochure provides the means of marketing services.
One thing to remember with any implementation is that the focus is the services, not the service catalog.
The service catalog is just a means of accessing consistent information about the services.
Presentation and Content
The Evolving Service Catalog also provides a good broad look at the varied requirements for content
based on several perspectives, though the documents, Service Defnition and Service Enablers, provide
a comprehensive set of guidelines regarding the details of the information required.
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The assumption is that the service catalog contains information related to all active services delivered to
the customer(s).
The scope of the content, or more precisely the level of detail required, can be radically different based
on who is accessing the service catalog.
A user may only need the name of the service, a brief description, and conditions or costs for using the
service, while a business manager, who is responsible for managing a dozen, hundreds, or thousands of
employees, may need considerably more information, including the overall cost of using the service by
the department, indicators of misuse, or the ability to manage control over access to services.
The question to ask is, “What information is necessary for the intended audience of the service catalog
to have in order to be effective in their duties?”
One misstep is to assume that once you decide on a direction regarding the service catalog it is impos-
sible to rewind when it is clear that a mistake was made.
Luckily, making too much information available is not always a bad thing, though concerns about conf-
dentiality, security, and accessibility may restrict what information is actually available.
The advantage of a web-based service catalog is that it takes advantage of technology architectures:
that is, you can gather and store information for the service catalog in the background but control what
information is presented through the web interface.
Any mistakes incurred about presentation or content details can often be easily resolved because they
can be managed as two different components of the service catalog.
The mere practice of treating the service catalog as a collection of parts, including individual services,
can provide a signifcant advantage to any service catalog solution.
If a problem exists, often the problem exists within a single component and will not impact the entire
service catalog.
That’s why it is advisable to bring a systems mindset to constructing a service catalog asking, “What
does each feature provide?” Here are some prominent features seen in web-based catalogs:
• Stanford University (https://itservices.stanford.edu/services/?) – links to different processes to obtain
information, Help Desk services, requesting service, etc.
Specifc to each service
• Commonwealth of Kentucky (http://technology.ky.gov/services/Pages/default.aspx) – contact informa-
tion or links to Service Desk
• University of New South Wales (https://www.it.unsw.edu.au/catalogue/list.html) – links to allow immedi-
ate login to applications
• State of North Carolina (http://www.its.nc.gov/serviceCatalog/default.aspx) – marketing of feature ser-
vices on home page
• Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) (http://ist.mit.edu/)– incorporating self-help aids within the
service catalog
• University of Texas (http://www.utexas.edu/its/whatweoffer/#) – identifying the service packages and
fees associated to each service based on whether the user is a student, faculty, or staff
It is important to note that while many of the same characteristics exist in each of the examples above,
how they are dealt with can have subtle variation.
Content Organization
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The organization of information must be a consideration for every organization.compare the list format of
Dublin City University (http://www4.dcu.ie/iss/a-z-services.shtml) to the service groupings of the Com-
monwealth of Kentucky to a combination of the two by Ohio State University (http://ocio.osu.edu/ser-
vices/).
Aesthetically, the Ohio State University presentation shows greater fexibility, though it’s not as appeal-
ing.
University of New South Wales uses their list format to link to additional actions by its users, including
login.
Stanford University’s and MIT’s service catalogs are highly appealing to the eye but can be confusing if
you are not technically knowledgeable.
While identifying the services is key to organizing information within the service catalog, the information
about the individual services must be consistent and reliable.
Clemson University in South Carolina (http://www.clemson.edu/ccit/atoz//viewByRole.php?role=P) has
the same structure for presenting information for each of its services, though the content may be differ-
ent.
The structure includes:
• Description of the service
• Instructions for requesting service
• Any fnancial charges for using the service
• Expected availability of the service (SLA)
• Instructions for reporting incidents and problems
• Any additional resources related to the service
Commercial service providers, such as Amazon Web Services or Google Apps, utilize their service cata-
log as marketing tools to attract new customers.
As a result, the service catalog is usually more comprehensive in its details and fashy in its presentation.
Amazon Web Services (http://aws.amazon.com/products/) provides signifcant information on its individ-
ual services including how it can be used effectively with other services to provide greater benefts.
Google Apps (http://www.google.com/intl/en/enterprise/apps/business/) focuses on key marketing points
for each of their applications.
Both companies have service catalogs which cater to the customer.
IBM presents their services (http://www-935.ibm.com/services/us/en/it-services/gts-it-service-home-
page-1.html) with a general subset on their home page but with a more extensive list available through
drop-down menus.
When making recommendations regarding the service catalog, be sure to consider presentation, level of
service details, and organization of services in the recommendation.
Provide real life examples of existing service catalogs to sell any specifc point.
Provide the toolkit as a means of creating or modifying the organization’s service catalog.
For Management
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For most management, the question regarding service catalogs revolves around its value and how much
investment should be made to implement and maintain a service catalog.
As the question gets more serious consideration, often managers may have to shift their old paradigms
to accept the service catalog requirement as important…a service catalog is really just a list.
In this regard, a service catalog does not have to be a simple list.
The importance of a service catalog is analogous to the importance of a Service Desk as a single point
of contact for users.
In fact, the service catalog can be developed as a single point of information for the organization.
A couple of decades ago, there was much opposition to the idea of a single point of contact, but now, the
concept has been integrated into IT practices with such depth that it has been expected for nearly all IT
solutions.
The conversation regarding service catalogs is still in its infancy and has not had a decade or two to be
ferment and to assimilate into modern IT services.
The level of uncertainty around the conversation poses the greatest risk to implementing a service cata-
log; but that can be easily mitigated through some key decisions.
Before going any further, here are some general benefts attributed to service catalogs:
• A common understanding and vocabulary related to IT services is established
• Leveraging the service catalog as a marketing and communication tool
• Improved alignment between IT service delivery and achievement of customer outcomes
• Leveraging information contained within the service catalog across all service management processes
and activities, thus improving effectiveness and effciency across the organization
• Improved understanding of the ‘business value’ from each IT service
Since comparing the service catalog to the single point of contact Service Desk, here are some related
benefts of a Service Desk that can be seen when implementing a service catalog:
• Improved customer satisfaction and service
• Improved access to relevant service information
• Increase quality and response of service
• Improved relationships with customers/users
• Improved positive perception from customer/user on service provider
• Better management and control of IT infrastructure and applications
• Improved use/reuse of enterprise resources
• Improved decision making at all levels of the organization
The following sections provide some practical advice on funding, developing, and implementing a man-
aged service catalog.
Plan Large, Implement Small
ISO/IEC 20000 requires a service provider to have a service catalog created for every customer; howev-
er, to certify for the ISO standard, the scope of the service management system can exclude all but one
customer. This allows the service provider to add customers at their own pace.
The same approach can be taken when working with a service catalog.
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Create a development and implementation plan that incorporates the entire customer base, but focus on
implementing each customer or customer group one at a time.
Don’t know which customer to focus on frst? There are two diverse thoughts for answering this question:
focus on the customer with the best relationship built or focus on the customer with the worst relationship
built.
The key to this decision will come down to why you want to create a service catalog and what you are
willing to measure.
The customer with a well-defned positive relationship may prove to be the easier choice to make be-
cause they will provide positive feedback, but usually the benefts of this approach are contained inside
understanding how to develop and implement the service catalog rather than any beneft to improving
the relationship.
However, creating a service catalog to improve the relationship with a diffcult or disenchanted customer
may prove to be struggle throughout development or implementation, but if effective, will typically show
great rewards and an improved relationship with the customer.
As part of the planning, different customers/customer groups should be prioritized.
Here are some infuencing factors for deciding priority:
• Number of services shared with other customers
• Number of customized/unique services
• Number of users
• Customer satisfaction
• Number of technologies used
• Business alignment
• Number of unmitigated risks
• Contract value
• Cost of service
Make Iterative Improvements
Create a service catalog on a platform which is easily adaptable, fexible, and expandable.
Web-based service catalogs, by nature, ft these criteria without the need to create a custom interface to
be used by the customer/user.
Progress in adapting Web 2.0 technologies ensures greater security, portability, and reliability in present-
ing information on the Internet.
Aligned with the previous section, the construction of a service catalog should start small with additional
complexities added as iterative improvements.
In creating a service catalog from a management perspective, there are two major areas of concern—
presentation and content.
Presentation speaks to what information is being displayed through the service catalog, while content
speaks to the availability of the information from resources on the infrastructure.
When starting small, the minimum recommendation includes:
1.
Create a list of all IT and non-IT services available to the customer.
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2.
Provide a brief but consistent description for each service, which includes:
• Service Description
• Instructions for requesting service
• Service Charges
• Committed service availability (SLA)
• Service Desk information
Once in place, invest in expanding the service catalog on both presentation and content, such as:
• Presentation
o Creating a means of organizing related services together
o Highlighting new or underused services
o Displaying qualifed services based on login
o Displaying service content based on login/role
o Interactive interfaces
• Content
o Linking with confguration management system
o Providing links to knowledge bases or training aids specifc to the service
o Providing real-time or visual reports of service performance
Consistently Profle Customer Needs
Understanding your customer needs is a hallmark principle of IT service management and a critical suc-
cess factor of an effective service catalog.
The purpose is to ensure the alignment between business processes and IT service delivery.
However, two approaches can be taken to provide the best form of service delivery: customized and
general services.
Customized services are theoretically the most aligned to the business and provide the greatest level of
competitiveness for the organization.
Unfortunately, they are usually the most expensive to provide because, in principle, customized services
should not leverage resources available to other customers.
General services are designed to provide the most common needs of all customers and provide room for
business growth in the future.
A few decades ago, IT departments focused on providing the greatest level of customization, allowing
general services to be supported by commercial solutions and software.
Over time, cost effciencies have put to question the need for complete customization, and technology
has made it possible to create solutions which are constructed using general components in such a way
to provide a custom solution.
While this development has primarily impacted application and process systems, the concepts have
been used successfully at the enterprise level.
The ability to construct services using general building blocks offers service providers an opportunity to
provide the best possible ‘customizable’ service which can provide the greatest value to group of cus-
tomer with similar needs.
To effectively take advantage of this opportunity, the service provider must improve their ability to profle
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customers, that is, to group customers based on general characteristics.
Profling is a technique where customers and individuals can be generalized using defned characteris-
tics.
Here are a few examples of profling in action for IT services:
• Providing limited services free as an entry point to the service and offering expanded services for a fee.
This enables customers to ‘test’ the service before making a monetary commitment.
Service providers can identify what percentage of customers will chose to pay for expanded services.
Some free services are funded by advertisers, who use profling to identify and distribute the ‘right’ ad-
vertisements to the most potential customers.
Examples of this model include DropBox (cloud storage) and Pandora (music streaming).
• Providing different service packages based on computing resources and performance.
Amazon Web Services utilizes this model quite effectively for both individuals and groups.
Profling is used to defne the right mixture of components which would attract the most people.
Amazon also allows the customer to access a different service package should their needs increase or
decrease over time.
This fexibility is a cornerstone of cloud-based IT services.
Since customer needs are always changing, profling must be performed continuously over time; how-
ever, it must also be done consistently, using the same standard characteristics over time.
Understand ROI Factors Clearly
Ensuring a return on investment is vital to effective management.
The development and implementation of a service catalog must provide a signifcant return on any in-
vestment.
Applying the concepts in the previous sections will minimize the iterative investments required in devel-
oping the catalog.
However, the manager should be clear on the factors impacting the ROI for a service catalog.
This may not be as simple as it sounds, since the benefts of having a service catalog may not be directly
mapped if not measured properly.
For instance, while providing more information will theoretically improve customer satisfaction, will the
information provided through the service catalog be the information that improves customer satisfaction?
To properly manage this, customer satisfaction must be measured before and after the implementation of
the service catalog, and once implemented, the paths for communication must be tightly controlled and
preferably fow through the service catalog.
This level of control may potentially create a temporary decrease in customer satisfaction if expected
paths for communication are closed unexpectedly.
Ideally, management should decide to move forward with a service catalog for the specifc purpose of
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resolving a problem, such as improving customer satisfaction, reducing costs, increasing communica-
tion, etc.
In some cases, the move to create a service catalog is driven by the need to comply with some standard
or framework, such as ISO 20000 or ITIL®.
In addition to this core reason, the organization should identify potential ‘problems’ which can be impact-
ed.
This will add credibility to the service catalog and provide a means of measuring the return on invest-
ment.
Any of the benefts mentioned above may be stated as potential problems to be impacted.
For Architects
Enterprise Architecture is a growing conversation for organizations.
Its core principle is the ability to understand and leverage existing enterprise assets for the purpose of
managing and growing the business.
As organizations grow, the need to understand and leverage assets becomes a greater concern.
Since the service catalog is one avenue for understanding these assets, the question raised is, “How
should the service catalog be designed to support enterprise architecture?”
Without going into a full explanation of enterprise architecture, the key components of concern from any
EA effort includes identifying and tracking:
• Customer and Service Assets (components)
• Standards (Management and Technology)
• Allocation of Resources
How the service catalog can infuence these concerns is simple: by making associations between these
items and the services which use them.
Enterprise Architecture frameworks will typically utilize architecture repositories (TOGAF) or reference
models (FEA), both of which identify enterprise assets for the purpose of communicating information and
encouraging reuse.
Also valuable to IT service management is the confguration management system—a means of identify-
ing, tracking, and managing IT components for the IT organization.
The service catalog can be linked to these approaches with the beneft of tracking their respective con-
tents directly to the services they support.
The recommended service defnition from the Toolkit encourages that these relationships are estab-
lished.
However, business goals and investment strategies may provide a quick resolution to creating these
relationships.
In many situations, it may be possible to leverage existing solutions and projects to create a more com-
prehensive service catalog.
As an architect, work with management to identify these opportunities and create a case for integrating
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the service catalog.
The Toolkit provides suffcient ideas for making any form of integration effective and proftable for the
organization.
Enterprise Risk Management In IT
Risks are an inherent part of any project and will always be a part of the organizations life.
There are many kinds of risks like fre, natural calamities, the economy, production and many more are
being discovered as the world goes into globalization and as technology advances.
With IT management, risk is even more pronounced because of the complexities of its advancement.
Independently handling the different risks used to be the norm of the IT department.
But today, pulling all these risks together has now become the main objective of enterprise IT manage-
ment.Traditionally, various risks had its own type of risk management.
The IT department had to handle downtime risks, service delivery, resource allocation, and many other
kinds of risk.
But as the risks got more and more complicated, organizations have now realized the importance of
identifying and more importantly, pulling similar risks together instead of treating them individually.
The management of IT risks in the enterprise level through identifying enterprise-wide risks is the current
trend of many organizations.Risk should be treated as any event or situation that can hinder the organi-
zation from attaining its goals and business objectives.
Enterprise risk management has identifed risks as strategic, operational, fnancial, and hazard and any
or a combination of these four can signifcantly deter the IT management in completing its project.
But pulling risks together and handling them from the top down, risk management can be handled eas-
ily through proper studying of all potential risks--from the ones most likely to happen to those that are
unlikely to happen--every risk should be treated as a potential.
What Should I do To Earn an ITIL Certifcate?
We know that the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) is a set of best practices for IT.
It is a registered trademark of the United Kingdom Offce of Government Commerce (or OGC).
ITIL was created by the UK government Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency (or CCTA)
back in the 1980s and which is now known as the OGC.
Its creation was meant to support the effcient use of IT services and resources which was later updated
to what we know as the different ITIL versions.
The phenomenal worldwide growth and acceptance of ITIL was indeed remarkable and gave businesses
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around the world the technology they need.
ITIL is now globally used and fully supported by different independent agencies with training courses
including exams and certifcations.
IT professionals have to undergo additional education and training in certain ITIL areas of concern to be
able to take the examination and thus be awarded with a certifcation given by either EXIN or ISEB.
Both of these providers are globally-recognized and independent ITIL examination providers.
The IT professional who has undergone the training for the frst time can be happy to know that the ITIL
Foundation Certifcate awaits him at the end.
This certifcate is a prerequisite to the ITIL Practitioner Certifcate or to the ITIL Manager’s Certifcate.
Being an ITIL Foundation Certifcate recipient means the IT professional understands the terminology
used within ITIL and is knowledgeable of the basic ITIL Service Support and Service Delivery systems as
well as the generic ITIL philosophy.
ITIL Practitioner Certifcate holder is fully competent in the applications of different processes within the
IT Service Management discipline.
And the ITIL Manager’s Certifcate is given to those who passed the appropriate exam and have profes-
sional experience in the feld of management.
This person will be entrusted in managing service management areas after certifcation.
Management Jobs ITIL
Management Jobs ITIL If you have all the qualifcation and relevant experience in ITIL, it is unlikely that
you will not achieve success.
All the ITIL management jobs are highly recognized in the organization.
Some of the major responsibilities that you will have to accomplish in any management jobs in ITIL are:
Managing one or more service management projects Providing initiative on service assurance manage-
ment technologies and processes in the organization Manage the team members and take the responsi-
bility of recruitment and training Management of relations with the client in service delivery Work towards
the satisfaction of the clients Check the policies and reset them according to the needs of the organiza-
tion.
The Methodology of ITIL
Information Technology Infrastructure Library is a compilation of the best practices that intends to make
an improvement and maintain a particular level of measuring the quality of service in the industry of
information technology.
ITIL includes the structure of an IT organization and the skills required for the organization to effciently
manage all its operations.
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The method its uses does not rely on a specifc technology and then apply to all the features of the IT
organization.
ITIL is composed of seven books divided into different disciplines and each focuses on a particular topic.
The books of ITIL are the following: Service delivery.
This book talks about the processes that are required for the delivery and setting of the IT services and
fnds for a long term process of achieving good quality services.
The second book is about service support.
This book defnes the procedures included in everyday maintenance and support for the activities and
projects involved in the condition of the IT services.
The third book is about the plan to implement service management.
The book evaluates the tasks and issues involved in the planning, implementation and modifcation of
the service management procedures within the IT organization.
The fourth book is about security management which gives the details on how to plan and correctly man-
age the information and the IT services.
The ffth is about Information and Communications Technology Infrastructure Management which covers
all areas of ICT management.
The sixth book talks about the business perspective.
The book gives guidance and advice to help an IT administrator understand their roles and responsibili-
ties in the IT industry.
The last book is the application management.
It defnes how to correctly manage the applications of all IT projects.
IT Services Multi-Level-Based SLA Template Process:
Service Level Management
Status: In draft
Under Review
Sent for Approval
Approved
Rejected

Version: <<your version>>

Release Date:
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Multi-Level-Based Service Level Agreement (SLA)
The document is not to be considered an extensive statement, as its topics have to be generic enough to
suit any reader for any organization.
However, the reader will certainly be reminded of the key topics that have to be considered.
This document serves as a GUIDE FOR THE CREATION OF AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE SER-
VICE LEVEL MANAGEMENT PROCESS OWNER AND THE CUSTOMER OF IT SERVICES, FOR
MULTIPLE SERVICES.
This document provides a basis for completion within your own organization.
The multi-level-based SLA is usually preferred by IT as it allows a single document to cover a single
service for all end users of that service.
It means less administration time spent in negotiating different documents with different customers and
less time spent on worrying about accommodating different requirements among users.
Multi-Level-based SLA Advantage This structure allows SLAs to be kept to a manageable size, avoids
unnecessary duplication, and reduces the need for frequent updates.
Disadvantage It requires more time to negotiate and obtain agreement than other structures.

(The following form can be used as the Multi-Level-Based SLA document.
The SLA does not have to be in a lengthy written format and in fact it is more likely to be adopted if it is
kept concise, with only salient details.)
SLA Information
Areas to address Comments/Examples Time Frame/Notes/Who
Description of the “agreement” Brief description of the contents of this SLA
Note: The SLA will cover only ONE IT Service, but end users from many areas.
Use this section simply as an Executive summary.
Reference number Unique identifying number for the SLA (for inclusion in the Confguration Manage-
ment Data Base – CMDB)
Owner Functional role description of who is responsible for this SLA. (Who would participate in a review
of this document?)
Representatives from customer and IT
(Special tip: Avoid using names as it dates the document quickly.)

Specifc Service Information
(Duplicate the following table for as many services to be covered).
Areas to address Comments/Examples Time Frame/Notes/Who
Service Identifcation Code
(This code can be cross-referenced in the Customer information table).
A unique reference number for this service.
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Service Name Preferably use a name that is common language in the organization (not a technical
name).
Service Description (Business)
(Refer to Technical Considerations later in this table.) Briefy describe the primary function of the service.
Use language that is business user friendly.
(eg.
Instead of “NT Server, with 2GB RAM and 500GB of disk storage” – we would say “large central server
designed for all customers to use and share information”)
Service Expectation Level This is a unique concept to this SLA design template.
Far too often, we write descriptions of IT Services in a clinical fashion.
These clinical descriptions set an expectation for the customer/end user about the IT Service.
Quite often, the description is interpreted by the reader in a way not intended by the writer.
Use this section to set the expectations of the reader.
If you feel that there could be some interruptions to service delivery because the service is relatively
new, then document that here.
However, remember that using the reason “new service” has only a limited life-span.
Service Security Considerations Briefy list any considerations regarding security considerations for this
service.
Are there any differences in the level of accessibility for different people/roles for this service? (Try to use
role descriptions, instead of names.)
Service Target Response priorities If the SLA accommodates different priorities, they must be listed here,
with a description on the type of service that each priority level should receive.
Service Target Response time Here we document the agreed response time for the different priority
levels set.
Service Support Hours
(Availability) Consider marginally longer support hours (if less than 24).
Maximum number of accepted outages
Minimum percentage availability
Maximum number of errors or reruns
Service Out of Hours support procedure Are the in-hours support staff the same as out of hours?
Phone numbers and what information will be required when support is called.
What does the user do if the nominated person is not available?
Service Charging policy Do we require external staff to only act if they have a validated cost code for
work?
Are there any special aspects of the work that has to be recorded for later charging?
Service Metrics for performance What will be the performance numbers for the work performed under
this UC?
Will the expected performance be higher than negotiated in the SLA to allow a safety margin?
Service Breach Clause Perhaps your organizational culture is built upon imposing penalties for poor
performance.
If this is the case, then the penalties for failing to meet the stated metrics must be listed here.
If the SLA is not to have a penalty focus, then simply remove this line.
Continuity Considerations
(Should be linked to the IT Service Continuity Plan) If the agreed support hours cannot be met, then it is
necessary to invoke a continuity option for this service.
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The defnition of when this invocation should occur will be listed here.
Cross-referencing to the IT Service Continuity Plan is also required.
SLA Validity period Duration that this SLA is expected to remain in place before it is reviewed.
SLA Review Procedure The process for reviewing the SLA and who is involved.
Special Tip: Avoid using people’s names and use role descriptions to avoid dating the document.
Version Control Information SLA Creation Date
SLA Last Modifed Date
UC Cross references Reference number to related and closely coupled UCs
OLA Cross references Reference number to any closely coupled agreements with internal IT department
Technical considerations In this section, you can describe any technical considerations that are essential
to document.
It is more likely, however, that you will include here a link to the Service Catalog or Technical Specifca-
tion.
Notes & Comments

Customer Information
(Duplicate the following table for as many customers to be covered).
Areas to address Comments/Examples Time Frame/Notes/Who
Customer defnition List and/or describe the customers that are included in this SLA.
It is most likely that the customers will be all end users of IT services in the organization.
However, the SLA for this service may be only for particular function holders that are spread throughout
the organization).

Applicable Services Description of Service and/or Service identifcation code/s

NOTE: there can be no single correct defnition of an SLA that will cover all situations for all organiza-
tions.
This template, however, does prompt the reader to consider the most critical areas of an SLA, and it
provokes thought about other areas that could be included based on individual needs.
Recognizing the Need for ITIL services
Customers always seem to want the latest advances in IT yet have to contend with stiff budgets.
An IT-dependent customer has to work light, but also work smart as well.
According to the ITIL standard, to improve the effectiveness and effciency of your IT system, you will
need to implement Service Level Management or SLM.
A customer who is aware of the six ITIL service supports will be able to adopt IT service so that his IT
tools can function at their best.
First, there is confguration management which is reliant on the CMDB or Confguration Management
Database to control and manage infrastructure information.
The second area of ITIL service support is problem management which relies on a combination of active
174
and proactive analysis to allow automatic problem identifcation.
There is also incident management which permits defnition of incident workfows that functions by com-
bining states and transitions with defned and confgurable business processes.
Change management, on the other hand, allows management of changes in a coordinated fashion that
will be aligned with the documented management procedures.
Fifth is the service or help desk which attempts to ensure that ITIL practices rely on the best known re-
sponses to incidents and fxes these within the time limit.
Lastly, release management allows for all conclusions about the causes and proposed solutins of the
incidents to be made.
ITIL is essential since it attempts to improve IT service to the point that it functions in an effective and
effcient manner, resulting in good quality of service on the whole.
Some of the known IT service best practices would be continuous improvement of IT service delivery;
reduction of costs through the process of improvement; producing a higher level of effciency; reduction
of risks inherent to the business through rapid delivery of consistent and recoverable services; improve
communication to create better working relationships within IT and business organizations; and foster
the ability to succeed in business (among many others).
Though comprehensive IT management can be diffcult to achieve, organizations can succeed in imple-
menting ITIL process if they can fgure out the complexities that form part and parcel of it.
IT management decision-makers must accept the fact that there is no easy way or quick fxes to solve a
problem they have to pursue problem resolution one step at a time to iron out problems completely.
Roles and Responsibilities of Process Owner for
Service Level Management
IT Services
Roles and Responsibilities of Process Owner for Service Level Management
Process: Service Level Management
Status: In draft
Under Review
Sent for Approval
Approved
Rejected

Version: <<your version>>

Release Date:
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Detailed responsibilities of the Service Level Management process owner
The Service Level Manager
Description Notes/Comments
1. Will design, maintain, and review a structure for the process that covers the interactions of the people
involved and the expected content of Service Level Management related documents (involving IT and
Customers)
AND
Will coordinate any required Service Improvement Plans/Programs to eradicate falling Service Delivery
performance
2. Will coordinate process reviews utilizing independent parties to provide an objective view on the sim-
plicity of the process and areas for improvement.
Will be responsible for implementing any design improvements identifed.
3. Will establish, maintain, and review:
➢ Service Level Agreements with the business Customer (including a decision on SLA Structure)
➢ Operational Level Agreements with the IT provider
➢ Underpinning Contracts with third party providers (in cooperation with Supplier Management)
4. Is responsible for the creation, maintenance, marketing and distribution of the Service Catalog (which
documents the IT Services offered by the organization)
In larger or complex organizations, the responsibility may be assigned to another person.
As a result, the SLM role is responsible for working with the Service Catalog Management process
owner in ensuring that appropriate information about the service is represented in the Service Catalog.
5. Will control and review:
➢ Any outstanding process-related actions
➢ Current targets for service performance
➢ Performance against SLAs, OLAs, and UCs
6. Make available relevant, concise reports that are both timely and readable for customers and IT pro-
viders

Detailed skills of the Service Level Management process owner
The Service Level Manager
Description Notes/Comments
1. The Service Level Manager will display a communication style based around listening and demon-
strable genuine interest.
Ability to use and apply valuable information gained from customers.

2. High degree of people/relationship management focus and an ability to deal with an administrative
workload.
Will also tend to be balanced in negotiations—almost to the point of neutrality during discussions be-
tween the customer and the IT Service Provider.

3. The Service Level Manager will take an active interest in learning about services offered by external
and internal providers.
The manager will be interested in understanding how services are provided, rather than just accepting a
marketing statement.

4. The Service Level Manager must have good oral and presentation skills.
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They are a “champion” for this process and must display an air of confdence, without arrogance.

5. The Service Level Manager must be able to communicate with people at all levels of the organization.
This is one contributing factor that also will require a high degree of understanding of human emotion
and resistance.
6. The process manager must be able to demonstrate ways to “do things differently” that will improve
the process.
They must not be willing to take risks, but must be very risk conscious.

7. Although not a highly numeric role, the selected person must be able to understand the basics of sup-
ply and demand, with a commonsense attitude to service charging and a grip on basic statistical analy-
sis.

8. The process manager will need to be able to engage in technical discussions with technical people
(to ensure credibility) and to engage in business discussions with business people, about those technical
issues (of course in non-technical terms).
The True Meaning of ITIL
ITIL or Information Technology Infrastructure Library is a collection of the best standards and policies for
the service management for Information Technology.
The creation of ITIL is brought by the growing response of the business entrepreneurs’ dependence on
IT to achieve the needs of the business and its goals.
ITIL offers businesses with a framework of practices to meet service quality and to survive diffculties that
is associated by the growing of information technology systems.
It was the government of UK that created ITIL using the CCTA.
It was quickly adapted all over the world as a best practice standard for IT services.
ITIL is a Registered and Community Trade Mark of the government offce for commerce.
It was developed in 1980’s later years and eventually became the de facto standard for service manage-
ment world - wide in the mid 1990’s.
ITIL is popular since it has a scalable framework for public domain.
Small and large businesses and even the businesses in between have adapted processes using ITIL.
ITIL can be implemented according to the needs of each organization.
ITIL is composed of 6 sets and each is defned by its related feature.
The sets that comprise ITIL are: Service Support, Service Delivery, and Implementation of Service Man-
agement by Planning, Infrastructure Management of ICT, Application Management and The Business
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Perspective.
Each set describes a particular discipline.
There are also products and services included in ITIL such as qualifcation, training, IT service manage-
ment forums under the user groups and software tools.
ITIL covers many topics but it focuses mainly on the service management of IT.
ECM Insurance Services: Ensuring Compliance,
Effciency, and Productivity
There are different types of enterprise content management distribution systems.
The distribution methodology of ECM application is an important function in order to automate sharing
services as well as contact and follow-up facilities.
The frst developments of ECM were more focused on content management for internal information
needs.
With the development of different online distribution services and Internet based commerce, content dis-
tribution management became another architectural abstraction of the core ECM serving which functions
as a specifc line of business.
Most ECM applications provide extremely fexible ECM distribution facilities and functions for the service.
The frst and probably the most utilized function is the scheduled content distribution structure of ECM.
In this method, distribution of information is set by administrators to happen on specifc days in a month.
The regularity of distribution services is fexible enough to enable ECM administrators to establish regu-
lar contact with their frm’s costumers.
The second type of distribution service is event-triggered.
In this method, administrators will set specifc special event to launch content distribution on their contact
channels.
This is usually used on email marketing as a complement to regular or scheduled distribution.
The last method is on-demand content distribution services.
This is very popular nowadays especially on rich media content such as video or music services.
On demand distribution specifes that users or clients should request frst for a specifc content offered by
a company.
After the request, the company can immediately trigger the distribution service of their ECM to satisfy the
demands of the client.
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The volume of information and data being processed by insurance services and companies make them
an ideal candidate for ECM solution deployment.
In fact, the insurance service sector is one of the top users of enterprise content management.
The number of documents being fled everyday by insurance companies and the correspondences they
accomplish are reasons why they should deploy an ECM insurance service solution.
Insurance companies should understand that their market sector requires voluminous paper work and
they must satisfy the communication needs of their clients to stay afoat in the industry.
Offcial regulations also compel insurance agencies and companies to have very systematic data and
content management systems in order to protect the interests of the consumers.
With the use of ECM insurance service solutions, all these hard work could be made easier.
An effective enterprise content management could unify all the data needs and requirements of insur-
ance companies.
Thus, they can effectively manage thousands of accounts under their custodianship and deliver quality
service for their clients.
Through ECM, insurance companies can also effectively reduce their paper trails.
Different divisions would not make redundant documentary and paper work as the ECM application could
integrate these aspects into a unifed information system.
And because of the enterprise content management solution, insurance companies, agencies and ser-
vice providers can ensure that they are complying with the standards set by regulators for the insurance
industry.
This organization of standards therefore could signifcantly improve the effciency of service delivery thus
making a big impact on their productivity.
ITIL power management 1 O
ITIL power management 1 O ITIL power management 1 O belongs to Information Technology Infrastruc-
ture Library or ITIL.
ITIL is a complete set of best practices that offers best quality IT services.
ITIL or the IT Infrastructure Library is the widely used access to IT service management in the world.
ITIL brings forth a consistent set of top practices, imbibed from the public and private sectors world over.
ITIL power management 1 O represents a completely different approach to IT.
ITIL frames the entire activity under two main umbrellas.
They are: Service Support and Service Delivery.
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ITIL focuses on the critical business discipline and process required to deliver services around IT.
IT Services Implementation Plan/Project Plan
Skeleton Outline Process: Service Level Management
Status: In draft
Under Review
Sent for Approval
Approved
Rejected

Version: <<your version>>

Release Date:

Planning and implementation for Service Level Management
This document as described provides guidance for the planning and implementation of the Service Level
Management process.
The document is not to be considered an extensive plan as its topics have to be generic enough to suit
any reader for any organization.
However, the reader will certainly be reminded of the key topics that have to be considered for planning
and implementation of this process.
1.
Initial Planning
When beginning the process planning, the following items must be completed:
CHECK
☺:|☹ or •➢ or date DESCRIPTION
Get agreement on the objective, purpose, scope, and implementation approach (eg.
Internal, outsourced, hybrid) for the process.
Assign a person to the key role of process manager/owner.
This person is responsible for the process and all associated systems.
Conduct a review of activities that would currently be considered as an activity associated with this
process.
Make notes and discuss the “reusability” of that activity.
Create and gain agreement on a high-level process plan and a design for any associated process sys-
tems.
NOTE: The plan need not be detailed.
Too many initiatives get caught up in too much detail in the planning phase.
KEEP THE MOMENTUM GOING.
Review the fnances required for the process as a whole and any associated systems (expenditure
including people, software, hardware, accommodation).
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Don’t forget that the initial expenditure may be higher than the ongoing costs.
Don’t forget annual allowances for systems maintenance or customizations to systems by development
staff.
Agree to the policy regarding this process.
2.
Create strategic statements
Policy Statement
The policy establishes the “SENSE OF URGENCY” for the process.
It helps us think clearly about and agree on the reasons WHY effort is put into this process.
An inability to answer this seemingly simple but actually complex question is a major stepping stone
toward successful implementation.
The most common mistake made is that reasons regarding IT are given as the WHY we should do this.
Reasons like to make our IT department more effcient are far too generic and don’t focus on the real is-
sue behind why this process is needed.
The statement must leave the reader in no doubt that the benefts of this process will be far reaching and
contribute to the business in a clearly recognizable way.
Objective Statement
When you are describing the end or ultimate goal for a unit of activity that is about to be undertaken, you
are outlining the OBJECTIVE for that unit of activity.
Of course the activity may be some actions for just you or a team of people.
In either case, writing down the answer to WHERE will this activity lead me/us/the organization is a pow-
erful exercise.
There are many studies that indicate the simple act of putting a statement about the end result expected
onto a piece of paper, then continually referring to it, makes achieving that end result realistic.
As a tip regarding the development of an objective statement, don’t get caught up in spending hours on
this.
Do it quickly and go with your instincts or frst thoughts – BUT THEN, wait a few days and review what
you did for another short period of time and THEN commit to the outcome of the second review as your
statement.
Scope Statement
In defning the scope of this process, we are answering what activities and what “information interfaces”
does this process have.
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Don’t get caught up in trying to be too detailed about the information fow into and out of this process.
What is important is that others realize that information does in fact fow.
For example, with regard to the SERVICE LEVEL MANAGEMENT process, we can create a simple table
such as:
Service Level Management Information fow
Process Process Information
SLMMgt to FinancialMgt Customer budget details
FinancialMgt to SLMMgt Expected ROI calculations for new service

SLMMgt to ReleaseMgt Details regarding mandatory times for service availability
ReleaseMgt to SLMMgt Expected impact (+ve or –ve) of release

SLMMgt to ServiceDesk Client expectations regarding call pick up times (eg. 2 rings)
ServiceDesk to SLMMgt Details of irate callers

3.
Steps for Implementation
There can be a variety of ways to implement this process.
For a lot of organizations, a staged implementation may be suitable.
For others, a “big bang” implementation due to absolute equality may be appropriate.
In reality however, we usually look at implementation according to pre-defned priorities.
Consider the following options and then apply a suitable model to your own organization or case study.
STEPS NOTES/ /RELEVANCE/DATES/WHO
Produce the Service Catalog (see Service Catalog Implementation Plan).

Plan the SLA Structure.

Establish the Service Level Requirements.

Draft SLA and seek initial approval.

Establish monitoring levels.

Review agreements with internal and external suppliers.

Defne reporting standards.

Publicize and market.

The priority selection has to be made with other factors in mind, such as competitive analysis, any legal
requirements, and desires of “politically powerful infuencers”.
4.
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Costs
The cost of process implementation is something that must be considered before, during, and after the
implementation initiative.
The following points and table helps to frame these considerations.
(A variety of symbols have been provided to help you indicate required expenditure, rising or falling ex-
penditure, level of satisfaction regarding costs in a particular area, etc.)
Initial During Ongoing
Personnel
Costs of people for initial design of process, implementation, and ongoing support • ➢ ➢
Accommodation
Costs of housing new staff and any associated new equipment and space for documents or process
related concepts :| ☺ ☹
Software
New tools required to support the process and/or the costs of migration from an existing tool or system to
the new one
Maintenance costs
Hardware
New hardware required to support the process activities; IT hardware and even new desks for staff
Education
Re-education of existing staff to learn new techniques and/or learn to operate new systems
Procedures
Development costs associated with flling in the detail of a process activity.
The step-by-step recipe guides for all involved and even indirectly involved personnel.
In most cases, costs for process implementation have to be budgeted for (or allocated) well in advance
of expenditure.
Part of this step involves deciding on a charging mechanism (if any) for the new services to be offered.
5.
Build the team
Each process requires a process owner and, in most situations, a team of people to assist.
The Service Level Management process is perhaps the process in the Service Delivery set that has the
largest amount of initial and on-going activity.
The team size may or may not refect this.
Of course, a lot will be dependent on the timing of the implementation and whether it is to be staged or
implemented as one exercise.
6.
Analyze current situation and FLAG
Naturally, there are many organizations that have many existing procedures/processes and people in
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place that feel that the activities of SLM are already being done.
It is critical to identify these systems and consider their future role as part of the new process defnition.
Examples of areas to review are:
Area Notes
Power teams
Current formal procedures
Current informal procedures
Current role descriptions
Existing organizational structure
Spreadsheets, databases and other repositories
Others
7.
Implementation Planning
After base decisions regarding the scope of the process and the overall planning activities are complete,
we need to address the actual implementation of the process.
It is unlikely that there will not be some current activity or work being performed that would ft under the
banner of this process.
However, we can provide a comprehensive checklist of points that must be reviewed and done.
Implementation activities for Service Level Management
Activity Notes/Comments/Time Frame/Who
Review current and existing Service Level Management practices in greater detail.
Make sure you also review current process connections from these practices to other areas of IT Service
Delivery.
Review the ability of existing functions and staff.
Can we “reuse” some of the skills to minimize training, education and time required for implementation?
Establish the accuracy and relevance of current processes, procedures and meetings.
As part of this step, if any information is credible, document the transition from the current format to any
new format that is selected.
Decide how best to select any vendor that will provide assistance in this process area (including tools,
external consultancy or assistance to help with initial high workload during process implementation).
Establish a selection guideline for the evaluation and selection of tools required to support this process
area (IE SLA Management tools).
Purchase and install tools required to support this process (IE SLA Management tool).
Ensure adequate skills transfer and on-going support are considered if external systems are selected.
Create any required business processes interfaces for this process that can be provided by the auto-
mated tools (eg.
Reporting – frequency, content).
Document and get agreement on roles, responsibilities and training plans.

Communicate with and provide necessary education and training for staff that covers the actual impor-
tance of the process and the intricacies of the process itself.
An important point to remember is that if this process is to be implemented at the same time as other
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processes, it is crucial that both implementation plans and timing of work are complementary.
8.
Cutover to new processes
The question of when a new process actually starts is one that is not easy to answer.
Most process activity evolves without rigid starting dates and this is what we mean when we answer a
question with “that’s just the way it’s done around here”.
Ultimately we do want the new process to become the way things are done around here, so it may even
be best not to set specifc launch dates, as this will set the expectation that from the given date all issues
relating to the process will disappear (not a realistic expectation).
IT Services Business Justifcation Process: Service
Level Management
Status: In draft
Under Review
Sent for Approval
Approved
Rejected

Version: <<your version>>

Release Date:

Business Justifcation Document for Service Level Management
The document is not to be considered an extensive statement as its topics have to be generic enough to
suit any reader for any organization.
However, the reader will certainly be reminded of the key topics that have to be considered.
This document serves as a reference for HOW TO APPROACH THE TASK OF SEEKING FUNDS for the
implementation of the Service Level Management process.
This document provides a basis for completion within your own organization.

Service Level Management Business Justifcation
A strong enough business case will ensure that progress and funds are made available for any IT initia-
tive.
This may sound like a bold statement but it is true.
As IT professionals, we have (for too long) assumed that we miss out on funds while other functional
areas (EG Human resources and other shared services) seem to get all that they want.
185
However, the problem is not with them, it’s with US.
We are typically poor salespeople when it comes to putting our case forward.
We try to impress with technical descriptions, rather than talk in a language that a business person un-
derstands.
For example:
We say We should say
We have to increase IT security controls with the implementation of a new frewall.
Two weeks ago our biggest competitor lost information that is now rumored to be available on the Inter-
net.
The network bandwidth is our biggest bottleneck and we have to go to a switched local environment.
The e-mail you send to the other national managers will take 4 to 6 hours to be delivered.
It used to be 2 to 3 minutes, but we are now using our computers for many more tasks.
Changes to the environment are scheduled for a period of time when we expect there to be minimal
business impact.
We are making the changes on Sunday afternoon.
There will be less people working then.
Doesn’t that sound familiar?
To help reinforce this point even further, consider the situation of buying a new fridge.
What if the technically savvy sales person wants to explain “the intricacies of the tubing structure used
to super cool the high pressure gases, which fow in an anti-clockwise direction in the Southern hemi-
sphere”.
Wouldn’t you say “too much information, who cares, does it make things cold?”
Well, IT managers need to stop trying to tell business managers about the tubing structure and just tell
them what they are interested in.

So let’s now look at some benefts of Service Level Management.
Remember that the comments here are generic, as they have to apply to any organization.
Notes/Comments/Relevance
The most important aspect of Service Level Management is the monitoring and delivery of services that
lead to increasing satisfaction levels of customers.
(Note: In ITIL® terms, the customer is the person who “pays” for the IT Service.)

With Service Level Management, we focus on meeting the Service Level Requirements specifed to us
by customers.
The SLR gives us a blueprint to check our own Service Delivery against.
IT Services delivered that have no corresponding SLR may in fact be surplus to business requirements.

Service Level Management forces us into the creation of targets and metrics against which we can
measure performance.
If it can’t be measured, it can’t be managed.

Through the process of Service Level Management, we can develop a common language of understand-
186
ing between IT and customers.
The process of establishing and monitoring performance levels means that when IT and business people
discuss IT related issues, they are in fact talking about the same thing, and not—as it often happens—
talking at odds with each other.
For example, if a meeting is held to discuss the Service Level Agreement for the provision of email ser-
vices, then there is common ground for discussion.

Service Level Management also ensures that we have clearly defned roles and responsibilities.
This is a clear beneft in that we can easily identify those involved with negotiations, escalations, monitor-
ing, and reporting.
Even if one person performs many different roles within the process, we can clearly articulate what these
are.
(Importantly, the process also allows us to document customer responsibilities as well as IT.)

The monitoring aspect of SLM is the perfect way to discover weak or potentially weak areas of Service
Delivery.
Ideally, these weak areas should be identifed in advance so that remedial action can be taken (eg.
Service Improvement Plan – SIP).

SLM underpins supplier management (and vice versa).
In cases where services are outsourced, the SLAs are a key part of managing the relationship with the
third party.
In other cases, service monitoring allows the performance of suppliers (internal and external) to be
evaluated and managed.

When we create Service Level Agreements, the most widely known single activity of Service Level Man-
agement, we generally include a section on Pricing.
The SLA then becomes the basis of charging for IT Services.
(Note that IT Service Managers must be able to clearly articulate the difference between cost and value.
Cost is discussed in absolute monetary terms; value is a discussion regarding potential business im-
pact).

An important, but often overlooked part of this process is the identifcation of weaknesses in the use of IT
Services from the organization end user population.
Monitoring the nature of calls for support and general communication can help us identify such weak-
nesses and therefore suggest education programs that will address the lack of knowledge and skill.

Having a continuous improvement philosophy regarding IT Service delivery ensures that the IT Depart-
ment is (a) looking to reduce service disruptions and (b) decreasing the overall cost of service delivery
(without compromising the quality).

Service Catalog Management Business Justifcation
So let’s now look at some benefts of Service Catalog Management.
187
Remember that the comments here are generic, as they have to apply to any organization.
Notes/Comments/Relevance
The most important aspect of Service Catalog Management is providing a single source of information
for all operational services available to the customer.
(Note: In ITIL terms, the customer is the person who “pays” for the IT Service.)

With Service Catalog Management, we focus on creating a service defnition and service packages rel-
evant to the service requirements and service level requirements of the customer.
Service packages enable the service organization to provide the same service functionality at various
levels of warranty and price.

Service Catalog Management forces us into understanding the relationships between various service
components required to deliver the service.
Relationships are the basis for understanding the impact of risks, changes, and improvements to ser-
vices.

Through the process of Service Catalog Management, we can develop a common language of under-
standing between IT and Customers.
In cooperation with other Service Level Management processes, the process of communicating service
details enables both IT and customers to come to any discussion with the same basic information.

Service Catalog Management also ensures that we have clearly defned roles and responsibilities.
This is a clear beneft in that we can easily identify those involved with negotiations, escalations, monitor-
ing, and reporting.
Even if one person performs many different roles within the process, we can clearly articulate what these
are.
(Importantly, the process also allows us to document customer responsibilities as well as IT.)

The service models generated as part of the service are the perfect way to discover weak or potentially
weak areas of Service Delivery.
Ideally, these areas should be identifed in advance so that remedial action can be taken (eg.
Service Improvement Plan – SIP).

SLM underpins service portfolio management (and vice versa), where service portfolio is interested in
managing the investments in services.

Having a continuous improvement philosophy regarding IT Service delivery ensures that the IT Depart-
ment is (a) looking to reduce service disruptions and (b) decreasing the overall cost of service delivery
(without compromising the quality).
ITIL Books
ITIL Books ITIL is a wide concept and its application in the IT industry varies from the smallest level to
the highest level.
For people in the feld of ITIL it is very necessary that they read some ITIL books in detail.
188
These ITIL books will give a comprehensive understanding about service support, service delivery, ap-
plication management, infrastructure, security and service management.
For accurate implementation of ITIL processes these ITIL books serves as reference points.
Some of the most popular ITIL books available in the market are: Complete ITIL Library ITIL Security
Management ITIL ICT Infrastructure Management ITIL Application Management Book ITIL Book Set
(Value Set) The original ITIL Book Pack Many of the ITIL books are recommended by various organiza-
tions and institutions.
You can also make good use of whitepapers and online books for better understanding of ITIL.
What is so special about ITIL Service Management?
Many organisations are working with Service Level Agreements to have a common understanding of the
services the IT department delivers to the internal business clients. But as the results of the poll show
once again, most of the time these Service Level Agreements (SLA’s) are not achieving what you expect
from them. Why is this? Why do 34.1 % of the people say that their Service Level Agreements don’t
work at all? And only 20.5% that they work very much? The secret of a successful SLA is that Service
Level Agreements are part of the process of Service Level Management. The other activities in this
process are: Building a service catalog Mapping the service catalog to the service requirements of your
customer Negotiating and signing the service level agreement Reporting upon achieved service levels
Service Level improvement program Service Level Agreements are one of the physical outcomes. By
using a step-by-step approach that includes all the above-mentioned activities you ascertain yourself of
a structure and the successful use of the SLA’s. Because a SLA is a two-way communication document
with responsibilities and rights on both sides, these activities require involvement from your clients. How
does it work? The IT department puts together a service catalog with a price list. The service catalog
should be self-explaining and written in plain English. The internal client picks those services that are
necessary to run their business processes (IE Internet access, word processing tool for reporting). The
price list makes it easier to understand the cost involved in delivering the services to the client.
And it makes the client aware of the IT cost, even in an organisation that works on a fxed budget.
The clients put together a list of Service Requirements. What sort of service do they need to run their
business smoothly? How much time can IT use to deliver this service, or change something in the ser-
vice delivery.
When negotiating a Service Level Agreement the discussion is around the Service Level Requirements
build by the customer. There will be a mutual understanding of the content of the SLA and both parties
know exactly what to expect from each other. The clients also knows where the boundaries are in ser-
vice delivery and this will take away a lot of the frustration later on.
During the SLA negotiation, you also decide upon the reporting structure. 1.What sort of reports does
the client need? What information is necessary? 2.How often does the client need a report? 3.Does IT
also report when things are going according to the SLA? The frst SLA is agreed for 6 to 12 months and
during that period all necessary changes need to be documented. This is the input for a Service Level
Improvement Program (SIP). During the last 2 months of the SLA period a gap analysis has to be
conducted to allocate the areas for improvement. Without all of the activities, you will never achieve
effective service level agreement. And without a strong client involvement during these steps, chances
are that the expectations exceed the physical delivery with all the frustration and un-necessary energy
draining meetings attached to it. The object of IT Service Level Management is to maintain and gradu-
189
ally improve business aligned IT service quality, through a constant cycle of agreeing, monitoring,
reporting and reviewing IT service achievements and through instigating actions to eradicate unaccepta-
ble levels of service. IT Service Level Management is responsible for ensuring that the service targets
are documented and agreed in IT Service Level Management and monitors and reviews the actual
service levels achieved against their IT Service Level Management targets. SLM should also be trying to
proactively improve all service levels within the imposed cost constraints. SLM is the process that
manages and improves agreed level of service between two parties, the provider and the receiver of a
service. IT Service Level Management is responsible for negotiating and agreeing service requirements
and expected service characteristics with the Customer, measuring and reporting of Service Levels
actually being achieved against target, resources required, cost of service provision. IT Service Level
Management is also responsible for continuously improving service levels in line with business process-
es, with a SIP, co-coordinating other Service Management and support functions, including third party
suppliers, reviewing IT Service Level Management to meet changed business needs or resolving major
service issues and producing, reviewing and maintaining the service catalog. IT Service Level Manage-
ment addresses the entire life cycle of a service, from the implementation of the service to the retirement
or sun setting of the service. The review processes inherent to IT Service Level Management are
designed to address not only service delivery itself, but evaluates the ongoing viability of the current
service; whether or not it is still providing value to the organization. If valuable, the review process
addresses the adequacy of the services as provided. If no longer required, the IT Service Level Man-
agement process creates a new agreement with the customer as to how the service will be retired, what
services will replace the retired service and how the IT Service Level Management process initiates and
addresses the new replacement services as provided. The results of the IT Service Level Management
process are codifed in service level agreements (SLAs). Service level agreements also provide specifc
targets against which the performance of the IT Department can be evaluated. The successful IT
Service Level Management process results in an improvement in service quality, higher levels of cus-
tomer productivity, and a subsequent reduction in the overall cost of services provided. IT Service Level
Management also establishes and maintains the channels of communication between IT and its custom-
ers. Specifc benefts from SLM include: * Services provided by IT are those truly required by the
business All parties agree and have a clearer view of roles and responsibilities Specifc targets against
which service quality can be measured, monitored, and reported are in place Focuses IT effort on those
areas that the business considers important IT staff and customers having a clear and consistent expec-
tation of the level of service required and delivered The customer is engaged into the service delivery
chain The relationship between IT organizations is formalized The relationship between IT and suppliers
is formalized Positions IT, to more accurately account for and possibly recover the cost of services
provided to customers The scope of IT Service Level Management is to maintain and gradually improve
IT Service quality, through a constant cycle of agreeing, monitoring, and reporting upon IT service
achievements and instigation of actions to eradicate poor service - in line with business or cost justifca-
tion. IT Service Level Management is the name given to the processes of envisioning, planning, devel-
oping, and deploying IT service delivery to customers. Service level agreements provide the basis for
managing the relationship between the provider and the customer. The IT Service Level Management
Process is designed to establish, maintain, measure, and adjust to service requirement changes. It does
so through agreements with all parties involved in the service delivery process. In order to ensure
proper service delivery, IT establishes formal agreements with: Customers in the form of service level
agreements (SLAs) Internal IT organizations in the form of operating level agreements (OLAs) Suppliers
through underpinning contracts (UCs) Relationship to Other Processes: The successful implementation
of the IT Service Level Management process involves a coordinated effort of all service management
functions (SMFs). The creation of SLAs and OLAs requires input from all SMFs. The service level
manager must have an open line of communication to the business process owners and each SMF
manager and must provide the managers with guidelines for the reporting of OLA information. The
service level management process is not effective unless all SMF managers are willing to cooperate.
Recording and maintaining a Service Catalog is one of the most critical aspects of a Service Level
Managment process. A key success factor of a Service Catalog is being able to capture the availabilty
190
requirements for that service, the resolution time for that service, and which departments in the business
use that service. People keep asking me: ;what is so special about IT Service Management? After all,
there are numerous other management frameworks or models. Why do I like IT service Management so
much? Well, the reason is a very diffcult, and at the same time a very simple one: I like people and I like
quality. And IT Service Management combines the two into a very pragmatic, easy to follow, framework.
It’s not a dogmatic, rigid model that leaves no room for fexibility, but a fexible holistic approach to your
IT organisation. I am not an IT person in the usual sense of the word. I don’t like computers and don’t
know how to program. But I do work in the IT industry, for nearly 10 years now. I started in the IT
industry as a Quality Manager but soon enough learned the hard way that quality for the sake of quality
doesn’t work. There has to be a need, an urgency for quality. And if there isn’t, no CEO is going to
invest money in a major reorganisation project. Looking for a different and better way to make people
aware of the importance of quality in their organisation, I learned about a framework called IT Service
Management. And it is just that: a framework to help you manage your IT Services. In every organisa-
tion I have seen since, I have seen a need for more customer focus. Clients are complaining about the
services delivered by the IT shop. IT professionals make beautiful things, without consulting their clients
if there is a need for this functionality. A waste of money and time! CIO’s in particular struggle to become
a serious peer to CEO’s and CFO’s. They need to make the added value of their IT shop visible to the
entire organisation. Without this visibility and added value, it is very diffcult to engage IT into business
decisions and to allocate business budget for IT enhancements. So how does IT Service Management
help CIO’s in their struggle? IT Service Management consists of 10 processes, which help you focus on
your customer. The (internal) client determines what sort of service they need, and how much money
they want to pay for it. The process of Service Level Management coordinates all activities around this
question. Activities like setting up a service catalog and signing a Service Level Agreement for instance.
All activities in the IT shop are structured in processes, rather than functions. All IT functions work
together (across boundaries) to deliver the service to the client, according to the clients’ expectation. By
doing this, you link IT to the business and have the possibility to show the added value of IT for the
achievements of the broader organisational goals. The 10 IT Service Management processes are
subdivided into 2 sets: Service Support Set: Incident Management Problem Management Change
Management Release Management Confguration Management Service Desk (function, not a process!)
Service Delivery Set: Service Level Management Financial Management for IT Services Capacity
Management Availability Management IT Service Continuity Management Separate from these process-
es is the separate book of Security Management.
IT Services Service Enablers Processes: Service
Level Management Service Asset and Confguration
Management
Status: In draft
Under Review
Sent for Approval
Approved
Rejected

Version: <<your version>>

Release Date:

Document Control
Author
191
Prepared by <name and / or department>
Document Source
This document is located on the LAN under the path:
I:/IT Services/Service Delivery/Business and IT Service Mapping/
Document Approval
This document has been approved for use by the following:
• <frst name, last name>, IT Services Manager
• <frst name, last name>, IT Service Delivery Manager
• <frst name, last name>, National IT Help Desk Manager
Amendment History
Issue Date Amendments Completed By



Distribution List
When this procedure is updated, the following copyholders must be advised through email that an up-
dated copy is available on the intranet site:
<<organization name>> Business Unit Stakeholders
IT
Table of Contents
DOCUMENT CONTROL 1
AUTHOR 2
DOCUMENT SOURCE 2
DOCUMENT APPROVAL 2
AMENDMENT HISTORY 2
DISTRIBUTION LIST 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS 3
INTRODUCTION 4
PURPOSE 4
SCOPE 4
AUDIENCE 4
OWNERSHIP 4
RELATED DOCUMENTATION 4
1.
EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW 5
2.
SERVICE ENABLERS 5
3.
ENABLER RELATIONSHIPS AND IMPACT OF CHANGES 6
4.
MAPPING ENABLERS 6
5.
ADDING TO THE SERVICE DEFINITION 8
6.
APPENDICES 8
7.
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TERMINOLOGY 8
Introduction
Purpose
The purpose of this document is to provide IT departments with an understanding of how to identify and
associate service enablers to a defned service.
Scope
This document describes the following:
➢ Details of each enabler (service components)
➢ Description of dependencies
Audience
This document is relevant to all staff in <<organization name>>.
Ownership
IT Services has ownership of this document in conjunction with nominated Business Representatives.
Related Documentation
The following documents may help you complete or understand the purpose of this document:
➢ Eight Steps to Creating an Effective Service Catalog and relevant documentation
➢ ITIL® Service Design (Service Level Management, Service Catalog Management)
➢ COBIT 5

1.
Executive Overview
The intent of Service Design in ITIL is to provide a holistic approach to designing a service that focuses
on the components of the service solution, but also governing factors as processes, policies, resources
and capabilities.
In ITIL, there are fve aspects to consider in a holistic approach to effective Service Design:
• Service Solution
• Management information systems and tools
• Technology architectures and management architectures
• Processes
• Measurement methods and metrics
COBIT 5 also strives for a holistic approach in IT service management and introduces the concept of
enablers—factors that, individually or collectively, infuence whether something will work.
While the concept is directly applied to the governance and management of IT, enablers are useful to
understand at the service level.
The enablers identifed through COBIT 5 are:
• Principles, Policies, and Frameworks
• Processes
• Organizational Structures
• Culture, Ethics, and Behavior
• Information
• Services, Infrastructure, and Applications
• People, Skills, and Competencies
193
The intent of this document is to provide guidance in identifying enablers within the service organization,
as well as the dependencies that services will have on these enablers.
2.
Service Enablers
Service enablers are simply any factor or component required to ensure the effective delivery of a ser-
vice.
As demonstrated in Service Defnitions, some services may be an enabler to another service; all ena-
bling services or enhancing services are considered enablers.
The architectures, processes, and policies used to formulate and control a service are also enablers, as
well as the resources and capabilities allocated to the service and other enablers supporting the service.
See Service Design – The Big Picture and The Key Links, Inputs and Outputs of Service Design to un-
derstand the potential inputs into designing a service, and thus, identifying enablers.
A confguration item within the context of ITIL is an enabler.
However, COBIT presents a few enablers which are not easily recognized as confguration items, such
as organizational structures, cultures, or even competencies.
Nevertheless, most enablers to a service are indeed confguration items which can be managed and
controlled.
Because enablers can be confguration items, most information about them will be stored and managed
within the Confguration Management System.
COBIT 5 asserts that all enablers have a set of shared dimensions, such as:
• Stakeholders – people who are interested in the enabler working well and as expected
• Goals – a set of expectations or achievements for the enabler which demonstrates value to the service
• Lifecycle – a beginning and an end which requires some level of planning, design, development, imple-
mentation, operation, monitoring, and improving for individual enablers
• Good Practices – best practices associated to the individual enablers for control, maintenance, monitor-
ing, and operation
3.
Enabler Relationships and Impact of Changes
The reason to discuss enablers is simple—the effectiveness of the service is often attributed to the inter-
relationships between its components.
If the service revolves around a networked application, the availability of that application to the end user
is dependent on the availability of the network, the server hosting the application, and the application
itself.
One purpose of confguration management is to establish relationships between the various confgura-
tion items it controls, and by doing so, provides a more comprehensive picture of the IT environment.
194
By establishing the relationships between enablers of a service, the service provider also gains the
means of assessing the impact of any service changes.
From a holistic viewpoint, a change in one enabler will induce a direct or indirect change in every related
enabler.
For service management, change is inevitable so the goal is to be able to predict and control change ap-
propriately to minimize its impact.
While some change may result because of a request (change management, request fulflment), other
changes are the result of the service lifecycle (demand, system degradation).
4.
Mapping Enablers
Using the enabler types identifed earlier, we can begin mapping them to the service defnitions created
in the frst step (Service Defnitions) and based on the alignment with Business Process.
The enabler types are:
• Principles, Policies, and Frameworks
• Processes
• Organizational Structures
• Culture, Ethics and Behavior (Countries, Regions, and Languages)
• Information
• Services, Infrastructure, and Applications
• People, Skills, and Competencies
By using the list as a context, begin asking the question, “What must be in place for the service to be
effective in meeting the outcomes of the business process?” For existing services, the components may
already be in place, though improvements may be required to align with business outcomes.
For new services, a few components may need to be designed and implemented.
Some answer may come easily, while others will need further discussion.
Here are some obvious answers:
• Any service which has a security requirement will need to adhere to the Information Security Policy.
• Any service with a network storage solution may need to adhere to defned storage architectures, such
as SAN or NAS, based on the service provider’s current design constraints.
• The availability of the service will be determined and managed by Availability Management.
• The capacity and performance of the service will be determined and managed by Capacity Manage-
ment.
• The Service Desk provides single point of contact for all end-user requests and incidents.
• Any service supporting a critical business process must have a corresponding continuity plan.
• Confdential information managed by the service must be stored separately from general information.
The level of information management, competencies, and even infrastructure may require additional
analysis to determine.
195
The goal of this analysis is to identify the minimum or acceptable requirements for the particular service
in these areas.
Evidenced in the answers above, several enablers will actually be associated to many, if not all, services.
For instance, it is unlikely that the Service Desk, acting as a single point of contact, will not be utilized to
support customer-facing services, though they may not be deeply involved in any supporting (enabling)
services, such as server maintenance.
Another practice in mapping enablers to services is to establish roles and responsibilities related to the
goals or objectives the service wants to achieve, specifcally processes or organizational functions.
RACI Charts are the most practiced means of performing this mapping.
The beneft of mapping at this level is that it enables the service provider to clearly understand how
changes in specifc enablers will impact the individual objectives of the service and, thus, the business
process, allowing them to ensure the enablers are aligned appropriately.
5.
Identifying Enablers
Use the following table to identify potential enablers for the service and their support of the specifc ser-
vice objectives.
The table can be expanded as more enablers or objectives are found.
NOTE: If you completed the Functional Specifcation Template and the Technical Specifcation Template
in the frst step, many of the enablers may have been identifed already.
See Service Defnition.
Enabler <Objective 1> <Objective 2> <Objective 3> <Objective 4>
Principles, Policies, and Frameworks




Processes




Organizations




Countries, Regions, and Languages


196


Information (Sources)




Supporting Services




Infrastructure




Applications and Software




Competencies (Unique Skills)




6.
Adding to the Service Defnition
Enablers can be individual components with their own descriptions and can be shared between services.
Most descriptions will be stored and managed within the Confguration Management System.
At minimum, associations can be established by referencing the descriptions within the service defnition.
Full descriptions of enablers within the service defnition are not necessary and can overwhelm the ser-
vice catalog.
When using a catalog for product shopping, an operator’s manual is unlikely to be part of the product you
are interested in; however, the existence of an operator’s manual may be mentioned.
Controlled enablers, like confguration items, documents, etc., will typically have a unique identifer to
distinguish them.
When referencing an enabler, it is best to include the name and unique identifer for the enabler.
Some organizations may choose to also include the location of the enabler description and its owner/
197
primary contact.
7.
Appendices
List any appendices needed in conjunction with this document.
8.
Terminology
Use this section to defne any unfamiliar or misused terms related to this document.
9.
Using Reference Documents
The document, Service Design – The Big Picture, provides a graphical illustration of the development
and implementation of an individual service across the ITIL-defned service design processes.
This illustration supports the concept of service enablers by identifying the key deliverables from each
service management process that is needed in defning the service.
It also shows the relationship of the service catalog as a means for collecting and presenting these key
deliverables.
The document, The Key Links, Inputs and Outputs of Service Design, provides a broader perspective to
Service Design, specifcally addressing the stage’s relationship with other lifecycle stages identifed in
ITIL.
Also present in this graphical illustration is the role of the service catalog in supporting each stage by
capturing and presenting information from one stage which can be used in another stage.
These documents are included to provide reference to the role and capabilities of a comprehensive ser-
vice catalog, an approach which is encouraged by the Toolkit.
They should be used to create a context for the service catalog in your organization; specifcally ad-
dressing the potential purpose and use of the service catalog to support IT management and operations,
as well as alignment with the business.
Learning from Successful Example of Prince2
Successful example of Prince2 includes its use in implementing a modernization plan to improve police
force consolidation and crime management, product launch and delivery, and company reorganization
and integration of new service delivery, among others.
In fact, Prince2 can be used in any type of projects whether implemented by private companies or
government institutions.Managers and Chief Executives know that initiating, managing, and delivering a
project is a painstaking process which could be a source of big headaches.
198
Every stage of the project and every little step required to push the project forward will necessitate care-
ful planning and smooth coordination between managers and implementers.
These are complicated processes which should be handled correctly through a fail safe project manage-
ment model.Prince2 or Projects in Controlled Environments could be the answer to all the woes that
hound any type of project delivery.
Prince2 has been successfully used in numerous projects not just in UK but throughout the globe.
This project management methodology can ensure smooth implementation, coordination, and control of
a specifc project.
Not only that, Prince2 could guarantee on time and within budget delivery of a project.
This is due to the fact that Prince2 uses tight integration and timely communication for every stage and
fow of the project at hand.
In doing this, the risk of veering away from the core substance of the project is eliminated and glitches
could be addressed quickly.Prince2 is every manager’s solution to project management, control, and
delivery.
Skills in using Prince2 are necessary in order to ensure the success of any given project.
IT Services Process: Service Level Management
Service Options
Status: In draft
Under Review
Sent for Approval
Approved
Rejected

Version: <<your version>>

Release Date:

Document Control
Author
Prepared by <name and / or department>
Document Source
This document is located on the LAN under the path:
I:/IT Services/Service Delivery/Service Level Management/Service Options
Document Approval
This document has been approved for use by the following:
• <frst name, last name>, IT Services Manager
• <frst name, last name>, IT Service Delivery Manager
• <frst name, last name>, National IT Help Desk Manager
Amendment History
Issue Date Amendments Completed By
199



Distribution List
When this procedure is updated, the following copyholders must be advised through email that an up-
dated copy is available on the intranet site:
<Company Name> Business Unit Stakeholders
IT
Table of Contents
DOCUMENT CONTROL 2
AUTHOR 2
DOCUMENT SOURCE 2
DOCUMENT APPROVAL 2
AMENDMENT HISTORY 2
DISTRIBUTION LIST 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS 3
INTRODUCTION 4
PURPOSE 4
SCOPE 4
AUDIENCE 4
OWNERSHIP 4
RELATED DOCUMENTATION 4
1.
EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW 5
2.
SERVICE LEVEL MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW 5
3.
SERVICE OPTIONS 6
4.
APPENDICES 7
5.
TERMINOLOGY 7
Introduction
Purpose
The purpose of this document is to provide the IT Organization with a breakdown of options for the Ser-
vices listed in the Service Catalog.
Scope
This document describes the following:
➢ Service Options
➢ <<any additional items that you want>>
Audience
This document is relevant to all staff in <company name>
Ownership
IT Services has ownership of this document.
Related Documentation
Include in this section any related Service Level Management reference numbers and other associated
200
documentation:
➢ SLM Implementation Plan/Project Plan
➢ SLM Policies, Guidelines, and Scope Document
➢ SLM Process Template
➢ Service Catalog

1.
Executive Overview
Note:
The intent of this document is to provide a simple breakdown of options available for IT Services.
This document is to be used in conjunction with SLM2200 Service Catalog.
2.
Service Level Management Overview
Summarize the organization defnition for crucial Service Level Management components here.
The defnition of an SLA is:
<< insert your company’s defnition here >>
The defnition of an OLA is:
<< insert your company’s defnition here >>
The defnition of a UC is:
<< insert your company’s defnition here >>
The defnition of a service is:
<< insert your company’s defnition here >>

3.
Service Options
The following table breaks down each service and the available options.
This is a template and is used to illustrate for the user of this document the available options and struc-
ture to use when creating service options.
The below table should be created for each individual service offered in the Service Catalog.
IT Service: Business Process:
IT Owner: Business Owner:
Service Criticality: Business Process Criticality:
201
Service Components Service Options
Platinum Gold Silver Bronze Default
Availability
Capacity
Response SLA
Recovery SLA
Service Hours
Recovery Options
Security
Pricing

4.
Appendices
Include any applicable appendices that are needed.
5.
Terminology
Make sure that all terminology is captured and documented correctly.
ITIL Role
ITIL Resumes An impressive resume is likely to get you a fruitful job and what create an impressive
resume are effective qualifcations.
Degrees and basic qualifcations are very primary elements for a job in IT Service Management.
ITIL certifcations convert them into impressive ITIL resumes.
Companies look out for skilled managers who have knowledge which is specifc to a particular feld.
For effective ITIL resumes, ITIL certifcation at any level helps to get better jobs compared to people who
do not have any professional qualifcation.
If you wish to enter into Service Management, a foundation’s certifcate will lay a strong foundation.
If you are already working, Practitioner’s or Manager’s certifcate will be very useful add on to your ITIL
resume.
ITIL Role What cannot be ignored in the present IT industry is the ITIL role.
It has transformed the functioning of the IT sector by introducing a range of Service Management op-
tions.
202
The major ITIL role is to organize any company and increase the productivity along with cost reduction.
In the recent past, ITIL has been able to provide some excellent facilities that never existed before be-
cause no-one thought of introducing management at the professional level.
Service support and service delivery are the major technological ITIL role.
All these functions are accomplished through different departments that are assigned to handle a par-
ticular issue or subject.
Confguration management looks after the infrastructure of the company and is responsible for recruiting
and training employees.
Problem management is targeted at solving any problem and determining preventive measures as well.
Similarly there are other departments aimed at boosting company’s progress and working conditions.
Confguration Management ITIL
COBIT ITIL COBIT and ITIL lead to effective and better IT program.
Control Objectives for Information Technology or COBIT is an over-arching framework that standardizes
all IT activities.
Whereas Information Technology Infrastructure Library or ITIL is a set of standards for IT service man-
agement.
Therefore, COBIT ITIL allows generic control objectives for each IT processes.
COBIT ITIL provides management guidelines in such a way the management can align with IT processes
and business requirements.
For this purpose a team of experts at The Art of Service provides comprehensive COBIT ITIL consul-
tancy and management training.
Moreover, COBIT has recognized data management as key to running IT and ITIL is increasingly being
employed to set up effective data centers.
Therefore, COBIT ITIL can be effciently used to build new data center architecture.
COBIT is concerned with COBIT provides an over-arching framework covering all IT activities.
ITIL is focused mostly on service management (COBIT’s Delivery , Support domain).
ITIL is more detailed and process oriented.
COBIT ITIL helps link ITIL best practices to real business requirements and IT process owners.
COBIT’s metrics help defne SLA , OLA criteria.
COBIT ITIL and other standards EG ISO17799 provide a more complete set of best practices.
203
Background to COBIT:- Development by ISACA started in 1992 - Derived from original Control Objec-
tives - aim was to provide a set of best practices meaningful to IT people, auditors, and users - First
version launched in 1996 containing a new Framework, control objectives and audit guidelines - Based
on major research study into all relevant existing standards and best practices - In 2000 management
guidelines added providing maturity models, performance indicators and critical success factors What
does COBIT ITIL Provide? - Framework for IT governance aligning IT with business requirements - An IT
process classifcation scheme - Generic control objectives for each IT process - Management guidelines
enabling management to align IT activities and priorities with business requirements: o Consider critical
success factors o Set metrics (Goal Indicators- KGIs and Performance Indicators - KPIs) o Assess as-is
and to-be capability using maturity models To help IT organizations understand how to use COBIT ITIL
for improving the performance of their operations.
COBIT provides organizations with a way to determine whether they are exercising proper governance
over their IT operations.
COBIT consists of 34 control objectives with greater detail to explain how each one can be objective, can
be implemented, and its performance evaluated.
ITIL is a collection of best practices in such areas as service delivery, service support, service security,
infrastructure management, and application management.
Although ITIL attempts to cover all areas of IT, its guidance is stronger in areas of service delivery and
support than in application development.
COBIT has been developed as a generally applicable and accepted standard for good Information Tech-
nology (IT) security and control practices that provides a reference framework for management, users,
and IS audit, control and security practitioners.
COBIT, issued by the IT Governance Institute and now in its third edition, is increasingly internationally
accepted as good practice for control over information, IT and related risks.
Its guidance enables an enterprise to implement effective governance over the IT that is pervasive and
intrinsic throughout the enterprise.
In particular, COBIT’s Management Guidelines component contains a framework responding to manage-
ment’s need for control and measurability of IT by providing tools to assess and measure the enterprise’s
IT capability for the 34 COBIT IT processes.
The tools include: Performance measurement elements (outcome measures and performance drivers for
all IT processes) A list of critical success factors that provides succinct, non-technical best practices for
each IT process Maturity models to assist in benchmarking and decision-making for capability improve-
ments Much of COBIT is available for download on a complimentary basis.
Hard copies are available for purchase from the ISACA Bookstore.
COBIT components include: - Executive Summary - Framework - Control Objectives - Audit Guidelines
- Implementation Tool Set - Management Guidelines The IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) refers to a set of
comprehensive, consistent and coherent codes of best practice for IT Service Management.
It comprises a library developed by the Central Computer , Telecommunications Agency (CCTA) in the
United Kingdom.
204
Since 01 the CCTA is renamed into OGC (Offce of Government Commerce).
The library describes a number of related processes.
ITIL was developed in the late 1980’s in response to the recognition that organizations were becoming
increasingly dependent on Information Systems (IS).
The objective of the OGC in developing ITIL is to promote business effectiveness in the use of IS due to
increasing organizational demands to reduce costs while maintaining or improving IT services.
The ITIL concepts for best practices, through the involvement of leading industry experts, consultants
and practitioners remain the only holistic, non-proprietary best practice framework available.
As a result, it has quickly become the global benchmark by which organizations measure the quality of IT
service management.
Each described process in the Infrastructure Library covers a specifc part of IT Service Management
and its relationship to other processes.
Each book can be read, and the process implemented, independently of the others.
The overall provision of IT services, however, can be optimized by considering each process as part of
the whole, such that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
This holistic approach suggests that organizations are likely to gain the most beneft from implementing
all processes rather than some processes discretely.
The most popular ITIL processes are contained in the two sets representing key elements of IT Service
Management.
The Service Support and Service Delivery sets describe the processes that any IT service provider must
address to enhance the provision of quality IT services for its customers.
In addition, these sets form the basis of the certifcations granted by the Netherlands Examination Insti-
tute for IT (EXIN) and the Information Systems Examinations Board (ISEB).
Many organizations have embraced the ITIL concept because it offers a systematic and professional ap-
proach to the management of IT service provision.
There are many benefts to be reaped by adopting the guidance provided by ITIL.
Such benefts include but are not limited to: - Improved customer satisfaction - Reduced cost in develop-
ing practices and procedures - Better communication fows between IT staff and customers - Greater
productivity and use of skills and experience ITIL provides IT professionals with the knowledge and
resources they need to run and maintain an effective and effcient IT Infrastructure that meets the needs
of their clients while keeping costs at a minimum.
Of the three major frameworks getting a lot of mindshare nowadays - ITIL and CMM being the other two -
COBIT is the only one to recognize data management as key to running IT. (I’ve been quite disappointed
in CMM and ITIL for this reason; neither one seems to have any awareness of the particular disciplines
and issues around data architecture and management.) If your company is trying to address SOX and
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looking for a framework, I highly recommend COBIT.
Not that it’s mutually exclusive with ITIL or CMM; they all cover somewhat different areas - but again,
only COBIT really pays attention to data.
They even mention data models, repositories, and data dictionaries! Confguration Management ITIL
Confguration Management ITIL is concerned with providing a logical model of IT infrastructure.
For this purpose, it identifes, controls, maintains and verifes the version of the confguration compo-
nents of your system.
Confguration Management ITIL is not just an asset register, it comprises of information of maintenance,
movement and probable problems that confguration components may experience.
Confguration Management ITIL is an important discipline that software developers, IT Service providers
and managers should get well versed with.
It puts you in charge of IT assets thus enabling economical delivery of quality IT Services.
ITIL Pins
ITIL Performance Management The concept of ITIL performance management is very simple as the
name suggests.
This department is responsible for measuring and checking the level of performance in terms of produc-
tivity and cost reduction.
The aim of the ITIL framework is to provide cost effective IT services to the companies.
This is a separate department that will determine how the practices including it are performing.
Feedback is taken from different sources and data collected to keep a record.
This is an effective policy because the nature of ITIL framework is that it requires constant check and
changes according to the need of the clients and the company.
Examples of ITIL performance management monitors are: Online response times Workloads Turnaround
of batch timings The use of the hardware and the software in the company ITIL Pins When you pass an
ITIL examination, you will not only be provided a certifcate but it will be accompanied by the presentation
of ITIL pins.
ITIL pins are a kind of distinguishing badges in the form of internationally recognized ITIL logo.
This logo exists in three colors: Green color is for the Foundation Certifcate Blue color is for Practi-
tioner’s Certifcate, and Red color is for Manager’s Certifcate You will get the ITIL logo over almost every
ITIL book or related items.
The ITIL pins consist of small diamond like structure that is accepted worldwide.
The meaning and the shape of the diamond depicts coherence in the IT industry (infrastructure as well).
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The four corners of the pin symbolizes service support, service delivery, Infrastructure Management and
IT Management.
What is it to get an ITIL Job?
Due to higher demand of businesses in the use of computer, organizations seek to fnd better solutions
to their day to day problems in the managing of their IT.
Most of the businesses nowadays have implemented the use of ITIL in their organizations.
The thorough understanding of the ITIL makes it worthwhile to implementing to your organization, if you
are geared toward high quality of delivering IT service.
In as much as ITIL has been internationally accepted, the higher demand for ITIL jobs have risen.There
is a need to give concern and focus to your IT.
That’s the same reason that most businesses adapt ITIL.
In cases where you would want to give attention to expanding, you can outsource the managing of your
IT.
A lot of service providers offer the IT Service Management.
Service providers have created opportunities for IT people to work for IT Service Management.
An ITIL Service Delivery Manager for example salary ranges from 28,000 pounds to 50,000 pounds with
car incentive and a bonus.
Taking this position as a case is what it takes to manage a team.
So you could just imagine how many people would a team require for each business to have their IT
managed.
ITIL jobs are not just attractive in the salaries that they offer but it is also a challenging job.
You become involved in company events; you create and deliver product demonstration.
On top of it all, you become an integral part of a team.
Your contribution is counted at all times.
IT Governance Problems: Technological Setbacks
Improper implementation of IT governance will certainly put the company at a disadvantage over its
competitors.
While IT governance promises to be a more effective and effcient way of managing or IT investment,
it may prove to be a disadvantage if there is no clear plan on how to manage and implement it.Many
organizations create different IT governance systems.
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While this may be an effective short-term solution to their problem, the disadvantage is that it may not be
the long term solution to their business goals.
By designing an IT governance based on the enterprise’s objectives and performance goals, the organi-
zation can eradicate this particular disadvantage.A minor disadvantage of IT governance is that learning
it can take time.
But so does any other newly implemented project.
It should therefore be planned and managed in such a way that there is minimal or no change in design
unless there is a need to change the desired behavior.
Otherwise, frequent redesigning of IT governance will only add to the disadvantage of re-learning new or
modifed tools.The company should have a clear set business goal in its IT governance.
Otherwise, the disadvantage of conficting goals will inevitably come up.
Confusion, complexity, mixed messages, mixed outputs, unmanageable teams, and many others add to
the disadvantage of a properly manage IT governance.
It is therefore imperative that only appropriate and authorized stakeholders have the power to approve
processes--usually those in the ;Chief or ;Executive level.Removing one disadvantage from another is a
challenging goal for many CIOs, but with proper teamwork and a clear goal, a good IT governance can
be achieved by the organization.
In IT Governance framework, any decision made by an individual in the team can give you a positive or a
negative effect especially on the objectives that are established in an organization.
Whatever the effects may be, decision making is inevitably part of business functions.
What you need to do is analyze the different situations and assess the different decisions taken and cor-
rect the methods.
IT governance also helps businesses in determining the processes in deciding money matters.
Prioritization and justifcation of the investments is very important in an organization.
That is why application of IT governance will assist businesses to manage IT investments, service deliv-
eries and projects in change management.
IT governance is an effective tool that eliminates the reoccurring diffculties in IT.
It is a useful method that controls and coordinates in various areas of work.
This tool is used to meet and achieve the internal policies, goal and regulation of the company.
With IT Governance you can track your expenses and justify the spending of investments.
Not only that, this technique can align the roles and responsibilities of specifc individuals who are as-
signed to create the necessary decisions in IT.
In this way, decisions depend on not just one person but various individuals from departments like f-
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nance, IT, operations, administration, etc.
Are accountable to the decisions made in IT.
IT Governance accomplishes the management form for IT investment, service delivery and change man-
agement.
This can help businesses in improving IT and at the same time achieving their business goals.
In promoting IT in Business, there is a need for a defnite control from an agreed upon authority by both
the Business managers and IT executive.
IT Governance can be characterized as hasving control of the work being done.
It is an essential part in Business, where IT is considered as an investment that in some cases amount to
at least ten (10) percent in the business expenses.
This does not say that it is a costly venture, rather, this further exemplifes that there is a cost for every-
thing.
For one, many companies have trouble in increasing their earnings even after having IT as a part of their
respective companies.
This shouldn’t be the case; in fact, their earnings should’ve gotten higher with IT.
The problem that commonly arises to result such decrease has always been the absence of good gov-
ernance in the company, which then results to costly and unecessary setbacks.
Good governance will ensure that the deliver of services in a fashion that is more acceptable to the busi-
ness.
Good governance will also ensure that there is a constant monitoring of these services and make sure
that the problems in the fxing and program support are aligned to Business’ needs.
Now add IT in the equation and there comes out It Governance, which can, in its many forms achieve
this type of management.
For further investments there will always be a need to implement changes in projects and service deliv-
ery.
And there is a real need to apply governance to the IT systems themselves to prevent problems from
occurring.
IT Service Management and ITIL Working Together
Towards Total Customer Satisfaction
Customer satisfaction is one of the main goals, if not the top priority of a service-oriented company.
If customers are happy with the service being provided to them, then it also means continued patronage
and a key determinant in improving the quality of provisioned service within an imposed cost constraint.
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In information technology, an IT service concept also focuses on what the consumer receives and this is
where Information Technology Service Management (ITSM) fts within the organization.IT Service Man-
agement focuses on managing the IT components so as to provide the best quality service to customers
in the most cost effective and effcient way.
Like Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL), ITSM involves embracing of well-defned best
practices that organization should adapt.
The concept of ITSM is at the heart of ITIL and is generally divided into two main areas: Service Delivery
and Service Support.
Service Delivery consists of all the planning, development and delivery of quality IT services and in the
long run, involves the processes on fnding out ways to improve the quality of service delivered.
The 5 disciplines under Service Delivery are: Service Level Management, Capacity Management, Con-
tingency Planning, Availability Management and IT Financial Management.
On the other hand, Service Support is a discipline that focuses on the users of the ICT services, in which
they get involved in the process whenever they ask for changes or updates in the service, have diffcul-
ties accessing the service, or have queries about the service.
The 6 Service Support disciplines are: Confguration Management, Problem Management, Incident Man-
agement, Change Management, Service Help Desk and Release Management.
Service Management ITIL
Service Management ITIL Service management ITIL is changing the way IT services are perceived in the
industry.
Service management ITIL is classifed into two broad categories: Service Delivery and Service Support.
Service Delivery category of service management ITIL is further divided into fve areas: service level
management, capacity management, continuity management, availability management and IT fnancial
management.
Likewise the Service Support category of service management ITIL has six functional areas: confgura-
tion management, incident management, problem management, change management, service desk and
release management.
Service management ITIL standardizes the frame work of IT based service management and thus re-
duces TCO and operations cost while giving a boost to ROI through enhanced client satisfaction.
Solutions ITIL
Solutions ITIL In today’s highly competitive market, it has become essential for the IT companies to shift
to recognized IT frameworks.
ITIL came at the right time and it has been widely accepted as a benefcial IT framework that is global in
nature.
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Solutions ITIL are features of ITIL that have increased the progress rate of the IT companies.
IT service delivery and IT service support are the two major categories under which all the Service Man-
agement policies are installed.
Solutions ITIL describes practices at high level thus taking the level of professionalism to a different
level.
The work within and outside the organization has therefore become more organized and regulated.
More than that, there is a complete help desk developed for establishing progressive communication
with the end-users.
The problem and incident managements have reduced the number of accidents in the company thus
ensuring minimum loss.
Recruiting and training has become integral with the ITIL framework.
The Benefts of Having an Agreement Level Service:
A Strategy Worth Keeping
It is but a very strategic move to pair up with another company that shares the same vision and offers
almost similar services to its prospective market.
This will not only widen your marketability range as far as the products and services being offered are
concerned, but it will also make way for new goals to achieve and meet, an indication that your company
is indeed moving forward toward success.
But then again, it is also a very important rule to come up with an agreement level service just to make
sure that certain expectations were set so as to avoid conficts in the future, indeed a win-win situation to
both parties.The agreement should encompass all the things that defne the factors that can contribute to
the success of the business.
Some factors are the following: (a)Defnition of Services: describes the services to be rendered and the
manner on how these services are to be delivered.
The information of the service should be accurate and detailed as this is the most critical portion of the
agreement. (b)Performance Management: deals with the monitoring and measuring of service level
performance to make sure that conditions are being followed and standards / targets are being met. (c)
Problem Management: recognizes the possible problems or threats that may be encountered and speci-
fes a preventive activity to reduce such occurrences. (d)Customer Duties and Responsibilities: defnes
the role of the customer in the service delivery process. (e) Security: both parties should comply with the
confdentiality of information to abide by the security policies and procedures as mandated by the agree-
ment itself.
Service Operation Functions
Know your role, do your job
Team motto describing the goal for every player, coach and general staff member of the Kansas City
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Chiefs.
Functions refer to the people (or roles) and automated measures that execute a defned process, an
activity or combination of both.
The functions within Service Operation are needed to manage the ‘steady state operation IT environ-
ment.
Just like in sports where each player will have a specifc role to play in the overall team strategy, IT Func-
tions defne the different roles and responsibilities required for the overall Service Delivery and Support
of IT Services.
Note: These are logical functions and do not necessarily have to be performed by equivalent organiza-
tional structure.
This means that Technical and Application Management can be organized in any combination and into
any number of departments.
The lower groupings (EG Mainframe, Server) are examples of activities performed by Technical Manage-
ment and are not a suggested organizational structure.
ITIL Capacity Management
ITIL Capacity Management ITIL capacity management is one of the fve service delivery processes in IT
service management with ITIL standards.
ITIL capacity management is an IT management aspect that makes sure that the infrastructure is provid-
ed at the right time, in the right volume and at the right price so that the information technology is used in
the most effcient manner.
ITIL capacity management also anticipates as to what level of contingency will be needed and what will
be the cost of resulting infrastructure.
It involves processes like Performance monitoring, Workload monitoring, Application sizing, Resource
forecasting, Demand forecasting and modeling.
Ultimately these processes of ITIL capacity management result in a standardized and effcient capacity
plan, forecasts, tuning data and Service Level Management guidelines.
ITIL and Data Center
ITIL and Data Center ITIL delivers certain guidelines that act as best practices for the management of
data center.
By implementing the processes of ITIL you can build a data center framework for your organization.
ITIL and data center implement service support and service delivery processes for improved service
management.
The main aim of ITIL and data center is to manage information and provide security for it.
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The ITIL and data center build a few service sections for better functioning of ITIL.
These sections include: change management, release management, incident management, capacity and
availability management, confguration management and service desk.
All these services work together to build a customer focused approach.
You can avail these services with the help of our experts.
We at The Art of Service provide ITIL consultancy services and management training for ITIL.
The Capabilities and Challenges of Distributed
Information Systems
Information systems auditor is a hit to many companies due to the increasing demand for professionals
who can analyze IT problems and create solutions to them.
That is why many are now willing to take courses on Information Systems and Management to answer
this big demand.
However, aside from taking this famous course, it is also valuable for companies and different individuals
aiming for this career to be a Certifed Information Systems Auditor.A Certifed Information Systems Audi-
tor is a professional auditor that was already certifed for the feld.
There are a lot of benefts being a Certifed Information Systems Auditor and among these is being a real
professional in the feld and acquiring better opportunities and higher salary.
However, before being a Certifed Information Systems Auditor, one should frst pass an examination for
the certifcation which includes the six Context Areas.
These are the IS Audit Process, which covers 10 percent of the entire examination; IT Governance, 15
percent; Systems and Infrastructure Lifecycle Management, 16 percent; IT Service Delivery and Support,
14 percent; Protection of Information Assets, 31 percent; and Business Continuity and Disaster Recov-
ery, 14 percent.
There are also requirements needed before taking the exam to become a Certifed Information Systems
Auditor.
The candidate should have at most one year experience in information systems or fnancial/operational
auditing.
If he or she has completed at least 60 to 120 college semester credit hours on related feld, this can also
be substituted to the one-year experience required.
A two-year experience as a full-time university instruction in computer science, information systems
auditing, accounting, and other related felds can also substitute the one-year experience needed.These
prerequisites are the stepping stones for anyone dreaming to have a better career in being a Certifed
Information Systems Auditor.
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Procedures, people, and technologies can be collectively called as the Information System.
This single group is highly essential for many organizations in order to create, maintain, and manage a
vast number of information.
This process is called the Management Information System.
If the Information System is only a plain group of people, hardware, and software, then the Management
Information System is a concept or discipline that aims in managing them all to achieve a certain goal.
Among the many Management Information Systems available now are the Distributed Information Sys-
tems.
Distributed Information Systems involve the process of distributing or sharing the Information Systems in
a certain network in order to achieve a common goal.
These systems are split up into many parts.
Each part should have the ability to run simultaneously using multiple computers that are communicating
over a single network.
This network can be as small as a local area network or it can also be as vast as the wide area network.
Although various parts are equally distributed to different computers using the Distributed Information
Systems, these processes often involve the use of different environments, varying network links, and
unpredictable network failure.
With this kind of system, one part of the Distributed Information Systems may be working well in one
computer while other parts are not working well on some computers.
The Distributed Information Systems can be designed depending on the organization’s needs and the
real challenge of professionals is to achieve their specifc goal using the best of the Distributed Informa-
tion Systems capabilities.
But the common goal of many professionals working with these systems is to connect resources and us-
ers in an open, transparent, and very scalable manner.
When this is done, one can say that he has overcome the real challenge of Distributed Information Sys-
tems.
IT Services Business and IT Service Mapping Process:
Service Level Management
Status: In draft
Under Review
Sent for Approval
Approved
Rejected

Version: <<your version>>
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Release Date:

Document Control
Author
Prepared by <name and / or department>
Document Source
This document is located on the LAN under the path:
I:/IT Services/Service Delivery/Business and IT Service Mapping/
Document Approval
This document has been approved for use by the following:
• <frst name, last name>, IT Services Manager
• <frst name, last name>, IT Service Delivery Manager
• <frst name, last name>, National IT Help Desk Manager
Amendment History
Issue Date Amendments Completed By



Distribution List
When this procedure is updated, the following copyholders must be advised through email that an up-
dated copy is available on the intranet site:
<<organization name>> Business Unit Stakeholders
IT
1 Table of Contents
DOCUMENT CONTROL 1
AUTHOR 2
DOCUMENT SOURCE 2
DOCUMENT APPROVAL 2
AMENDMENT HISTORY 2
DISTRIBUTION LIST 2
1 TABLE OF CONTENTS 3
2 INTRODUCTION 5
PURPOSE 5
SCOPE 5
AUDIENCE 5
OWNERSHIP 5
RELATED DOCUMENTATION 5
1.
EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW 6
2.
CASCADING ENTERPRISE GOALS TO IT 6
3.
MAPPING BUSINESS PROCESS AND IT SERVICE: AN APPROACH 8
4.
VISION STATEMENT 10
5.
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MISSION STATEMENT 11
6.
BUSINESS PROCESS SUMMARY 12
7.
BUSINESS PROCESS A 13
7.1 DEPARTMENT 13
7.2 PROCESS 13
7.3 PROCESS OWNER 13
7.4 DESCRIPTION 13
7.5 PARENT BUSINESS ACTIVITY/PROCESS 13
7.6 PRIMARY PRODUCT(S) OR OUTCOMES 13
7.7 TRIGGER(S) 13
7.8 SUB-PROCESSES 14
7.9 STANDARD PATH EVENTS/ACTIVITIES 14
7.10 ALTERNATIVE PATH EVENTS/ACTIVITIES 14
7.11 INPUTS 14
7.12 SECONDARY PRODUCTS 14
7.13 PARTICIPANTS 14
7.14 IT SERVICES 14
8.
BUSINESS PROCESS B 16
9.
BUSINESS PROCESS AND IT SERVICE SUMMARY 17
10.
APPENDICES 19
11.
TERMINOLOGY 19
2 Introduction
Purpose
The purpose of this document is to provide IT departments with an understanding of how the IT Services
provided map to the organization’s business processes.
Scope
This document describes the following:
➢ Details of each Business Process and the corresponding IT Service provided by the IT departments
within the organization
➢ Description of business process
➢ Description of service
➢ Business contacts
➢ Service contacts
Note: It is assumed for each Business Process and IT Service described in this document that the sup-
porting back-end technology is already in place and operational.
Audience
This document is relevant to all staff in <<organization name>>
Ownership
216
IT Services has ownership of this document in conjunction with nominated Business Representatives.
Related Documentation
The following documents may help you complete or understand the purpose of this document:
➢ Relevant SLA and procedural documents
➢ Relevant IT Services Catalog
➢ Relevant Technical Specifcation documentation
➢ Relevant Functional Specifcation documentation
➢ Relevant User Guides and Procedures

1.
Executive Overview
In the past, organization’s IT Services functions have generally grown and developed into large complex
environments.
Unfortunately, this growth has not always been as structured and pre-planned as it should have been.
The result has been an IT department not having a very clear picture of all the services they currently
provide, and with no accurate profle of the actual customers for each of these services.
With increasing demands being placed on IT services and increasing reliance on IT systems, it has be-
come imperative for the IT department to establish an accurate picture of the services it provides and to
whom it provides them.
This document describes an approach for mapping IT Services to the Business Process.
That is, mapping what services are provided by IT to the business areas that use them.
2.
Cascading Enterprise Goals to IT
COBIT 5 introduces the concept of goals cascade, that is, the infuence of stakeholder needs to the de-
sign and implementation of IT solutions.
The cascade process can be performed within four (4) steps and introduces fve (5) distinct levels of
infuencing factors for IT:
• Stakeholder Drivers (Stakeholder Drivers infuence Stakeholder Needs) – Drivers are those factors in
the background of every stakeholder’s perspective and decisions, including the environment, technology
consideration, strategies, and regulatory concerns.
• Stakeholder Needs (Stakeholder Needs become Enterprise Goals) – The needs of the stakeholder on
the business and IT can be summarized into three governance areas: realizing benefts of IT, optimizing
the risks related to IT, and optimizing resource allocations (costs).
• Enterprise Goals (Enterprise Goals become IT-related Goals) – The enterprise or customer will have
specifc goals, objectives, and outcomes which need to be supported by IT.
COBIT 5 defnes 17 generic enterprise goals.
• IT-Related Goals (IT-Related Goals become Enabler Goals) – IT-related outcomes are represented by
goals, statements on what to expect and why.
COBIT 5 defnes 17 generic IT-related goals.
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• Enabler Goals – Enablers are the processes, organizational structures, and information used to deliver
the IT-related goals.
Each enabler will have its own set of relevant goals.
This is especially important since an enabler may support the achievement of multiple IT-related goals.
The generic goals for both enterprise and IT are associated with dimensions of the balanced scorecard.
They are listed below (from page 19, COBIT 5: A Business Framework for the Governance and Manage-
ment of Enterprise IT).
Balance Scorecard Enterprise Goal IT-related Goals
Financial 01 Stakeholder value of business investments 01 Alignment of IT and business strategy
02 Portfolio of competitive products and services 02 IT compliance and support for business compliance
with external laws and regulations
03 Managed business risk (safeguarding of assets) 03 Commitment of executive management for mak-
ing IT-related decisions
04 Compliance with external laws and regulations 04 Managed IT-related business risk
05 Financial transparency 05 Realized benefts from IT-related investments and services portfolio
06 Transparency of IT costs, benefts and risks
Customer 06 Customer-oriented service culture 07 Delivery of IT services in line with business require-
ments
07 Business service continuity and availability 08 Adequate use of applications, information, and tech-
nology solutions
08 Agile response to a changing business environment
09 Information-based strategic decision making
10 Optimization of service delivery costs
Internal 11 Optimization of business process functionality 09 IT agility
12 Optimization of business process costs 10 Security of information, processing infrastructure, and ap-
plications
13 Managed business change programs 11 Optimization of IT assets, resources, and capabilities
14 Operational and staff productivity 12 Enablement and support of business processes by integrating
applications and technology into business processes
15 Compliance with internal policies 13 Delivery of programs - delivering benefts, on time, on budget,
and meeting requirements and quality standards
14 Availability of reliable and useful information for decision making
15 IT compliance with internal policies
Learning and Growth 16 Skilled and motivated people 16 Competent and motivated business and IT
personnel
17 Product and business innovation culture 17 Knowledge, expertise, and initiatives for business in-
novation
The goals cascade and related generic goals can provide a context for mapping business processes and
IT services, specifcally as an effort to achieve the frst IT-related goal of aligning IT and business strat-
egy.
In ITIL, a service is defned as “a means of delivering value to customers by facilitating outcomes cus-
218
tomers want to achieve without the ownership of specifc costs or risks” (Service Strategy, page 13).
In other words, the purpose of an IT service is to ensure that the outcomes of the business process are
achieved.
From a COBIT perspective, achieving the goals for enablers, IT, and the enterprise will ensure that the
stakeholder’s needs are met.
3.
Mapping Business Process and IT Service: An approach
Most organizations now understand the benefts of having Information Technology (IT) throughout their
structure.
Few realize the potential of truly aligning the IT department’s objectives with the business objectives.
However, more and more organizations are beginning to recognize IT as being a crucial delivery mecha-
nism of services to their customers.
When the IT services are so critical, steps must be in place to ensure that the IT group adds value and
delivers consistently.
In line with this concept, the frst step in mapping IT Services to the needs of the business is to under-
stand the context in which the organization operates, or the stakeholder enablers.
These are the infuencing and, often, external factors that guide decision making within the organization.
Some common factors are:
• Industry
• Market Spaces
• Laws and Regulations
• Standards
• Technologies

Within this context, the organization will begin to shape itself, starting with a vision statement.
The Vision Statement defnes where it is that the organization wants to go.
By understanding where the organization wishes to position itself within its market space, then we can
start looking at how its short term and long term objectives align with this.
The vision statement can be seen as a compass for the organization, but they still need the means of
reaching their destination.
This is defned through the creation of a Mission Statement.
A mission defnes the purpose and intentions of the organization; it communicates what must be done,
but not how it is done.
After creating the vision and mission, some clarity may occur around the needs of the organization.
219
At this point, we need to see the “objectives and strategies” of the organization.
These complement the mission by defning the criteria and rules for getting what needs to be done com-
pleted.
By having this information, IT departments are more likely to be aware of the pressing business issues
and needs that may impact the services that they provide.
For example, the organization may have an objective of expanding its business into new markets within
the next 12 months, requiring additional offces and staff.
The direct impact on IT departments would be the successful planning of capacity of new IT Services,
the successful planning of how to change our current services to meet the demands of the business, and
being fexible enough to meet these demands.
The organization’s objectives and strategies will fall into one of the 17 generic enterprise goals intro-
duced in the previous section.
However, an objective is not suffcient enough to determine how IT departments should be delivering its
services.
The organization will meet these objectives by changing, enhancing, or creating new business process-
es.
These business processes are the means of achieving the organization’s mission.
For example, Administration staff may need additional resources, a new ordering package may be re-
quired, or perhaps a new billing process needs to be implemented to meet these objectives.
Therefore, after capturing the organizational objectives, we need to understand how these map to cur-
rent business process if the current business processes are changing or if they are becoming obsolete
and if there will be any new business processes.
This is where the IT departments need to capture the Business Processes being used by the organiza-
tion.
Once the IT departments have a clear view of each of the business units involved in the business pro-
cess, we need to capture the fact that the business processes need one or more IT services (EG CRM
application, e-mail, word processing, fnancial tools) to function.
Each of these IT services runs on IT infrastructure.
This is where IT departments now map the IT Services to those business processes listed above.
IT-related objectives which are aligned and facilitate the achievement of the organization’s objectives
and strategies (goals) can be created.
With this information, IT Departments will now be able to clearly defne how their IT Infrastructure / IT
Components (enablers) can be used to meet IT-related objectives and, if aligned properly, enterprise
objectives and stakeholder needs relevant to the organization’s business processes.
220
This allows IT to better deliver aligned IT Services to the organization.
A simple model for this approach is illustrated below.
• What are the Objectives of the organization? What is its Mission and Vision?
• What Business Processes are in place or will be in place to meet these needs?
• What IT Services are needed or in place to service the Business Processes?

IMPORTANT: The discussion above speaks of the vision and mission of the enterprise, or customer, of
the service provider as a means of aligning the business and IT.
The service provider may also have a defned vision and mission defning the quality of service delivery
to their customers.
Often, a service provider’s vision and mission will be generic enough to accommodate alignment of IT
services with the business processes of multiple customers.
4.
Vision Statement
In this section, document the Vision statement for the organization.
Below is a text example of what may be included in this section.
Listed below is the Vision Statement for <<organization name>>:
• Quality care
• Convenient service
• Good experiences
• Care at competitive prices
• Service you’ll recommend to friends and family
These are the major goals of the staff at <<organization name>>.
With over xxx services and xxx staff, we constantly strive to provide the highest-quality service through-
out the xxxxxxxx. >>
5.
Mission Statement
A mission statement describes the purpose and intention of the organization.
Without an understanding of the mission statement of an organization, it becomes hard to defne what it
is that the organization is trying to achieve.
For instance, one of the vision statements above is ‘good experience.’ The mission statement provides
an opportunity of elaborating on what is meant in this statement, such as:
• The organization will provide excellent customer service.
• The organization will provide world-class customer service.
• Customers will come back often and recommend to friends for products and services
• Products and services are easy to fnd and obtain through our advanced web application
221
Any of these statements may adequately provide a good experience.
In this section of the document, capture the mission statement of the organization.
It is important to show that the IT department is aware of the business.

6.
Business Process Summary
The below table is an example of a Business Process Summary Table.
Columns and Rows can be added as needed.
A more detailed breakdown of each process is provided in the following pages.
<<
Business Process Name: The name of the process if available
Process Owner: The name of the Department head or Business Representative for the process
Description: A brief description of the process
Department(s): The Department(s) that is/are involved or use(s) this process
Parent Process: Any process that may be considered a lead into this process or is seen has having a
higher business criticality
Triggers: What causes the process to start? This is important as IT can then determine if and how their
services interact with other business process or external organizations.
Objectives/Outcomes: What does the business process expect or intend to achieve?
>>
BUSINESS Process Name Process Owner Description Department(s) Parent Process Triggers





7.
Business Process A
This section of the document should be repeated for each Business Process.
Section 8 is designed to be a template for documenting each Business Process and has no explana-
tions.
7.1 Department
Name of the department.
The department is the business entity which is accountable to the business process, as a business pro-
cess may be cross-functional in nature, such as human resources.
The department becomes the ‘primary’ customer of the service.
222
7.2 Process
Name of the process and offcial abbreviation, if any.
This is how the customer or customer organization recognizes the business process, not the service
provider.
7.3 Process Owner
Name of the department head or person responsible for ensuring the effectiveness and effciency of the
process
7.4 Description
Briefy explain the purpose of the business process.
What does the business process do? What are its objectives? How is it aligned with the business’ current
strategy? Is this a critical process? What is the impact to the business if it fails?
7.5 Parent Business Activity/Process
Name of the parent business activity or process, if any.
The process may be a subset of a larger scope of work.
For instance, a skills database may be managed as part of education and training and/or human re-
source management.
7.6 Primary Product(s) or Outcomes
List the primary product(s) and explain if necessary.
Identify the customer for each primary product.
What is expected or required of the process when it completes and who benefts?
7.7 Trigger(s)
List the event(s) that trigger the process. (Triggers can be a calendar date, as well as an actual event.)
Also identify who triggers the process: the end-customer, a manager, a staff member, a monitored event.
7.8 Sub-processes
If the process is subdivided, list the sub-processes here.
7.9 Standard Path Events/Activities
List the important activities and/or events that occur as part of the standard path for this process.
If an activity or event occurs in a specifc sub-process, identify the sub-process that includes the activity/
event.
Note any locations where an alternative path breaks off from the standard path.
7.10 Alternative Path Events/Activities
List the important activities and/or events that occur as part of the alternative path for this process,
beginning with a note on where the alternative path breaks off from the standard path, and ending with a
note on where the alternative path rejoins the standard path, if it does.
If an activity or event occurs in a specifc sub-process, identify the sub-process that includes the activity/
event.
Alternative Paths are usually triggered when escalations are required due to a complaint, an incident, a
problem, or some form of abnormality in the environment.
7.11 Inputs
List the inputs to the process and explain if necessary.
223
Identify the source of the input.
If the input is specifc to a sub-process, identify the sub-process.
7.12 Secondary Products
List the by-products, or minor outputs that result from the process.
Identify the customer for each output.
If the secondary product is specifc to a sub-process, identify the sub-process.
7.13 Participants
List the participants (actors) in the process and explain their function briefy.
If the participant is active only in a specifc sub-process, identify the sub-process.
7.14 IT Services
The following section provides a table for capturing those IT Services that help support the business
process described in this section.
<<
Fields:
• IT Service: In this feld, capture the name of the IT Service.
A likely source of this information would be the IT Service Catalog.
• Description: Write a brief description about the service.
• IT Service Owner: List any responsibilities for this IT Service.
This would include the owner of the IT Service and any additional support personnel that are involved in
the deliver of the IT Service.
• Hours of Availability: List the hours of support for the particular IT Service.
Eg. 24 hours x 7 Days per week, Monday – Friday: 8.00am – 6.00pm, etc.
• Contract: Is the IT Service provided under the agreement of a contract? If so, it is important to capture
any contracts that may be in place for the IT Service.
Contracts will have a direct impact on how the IT Service is delivered.
• Service Level Agreements: List any applicable SLAs for the IT Service.
• Impact: If the particular IT Service was unavailable, how would this impact the Business Process.
>>
This table should be used on a landscape page layout.
IT Service Description IT Service Owner Hours of Availability Contract Service Level Agreements Impact






8.
Business Process B
Process Name Process Owner
224
Department
Description
Parent Business Activity/Process
Primary Products(s)/Outcomes
Secondary Products
Trigger(s)
Sub-processes
Standard Path Events/Activities
Alternative Path Events/Activities
Inputs
Participants
IT Service Description IT Service Owner Hours of Availability Contract Service Level Agreements Impact



9.
Business Process and IT Service Summary
This section provides a summary matrix table of the business processes and their corresponding IT
Services.
This is a comprehensive summary table designed to be tailored for your needs.
If necessary, add or remove rows and columns as needed.
A simpler matrix may be just as effective for your needs.
The table breaks down the IT Services and offers you the ability to capture the owner of the IT Service,
the impact of the service on the business process and the agreed service hours.
The impact is an arbitrary value that IT and the business need to agree upon.
These values may be defned within the Service Catalog or the Service Level Agreements.
The table also breaks down the Business Processes and offers you the ability to capture the
department(s) that are involved in that particular business process, the business owner of the process,
and the business rating.
The Business Owner may be hard to defne in an organization.
In this instance, there may be a number of owners of the process which would generally be made up of
the department heads.
The Business Rating is also an arbitrary value that the business needs to agree upon.
In most instances, each department will rate their business processes Critical or Very High.
The easy way to determine the Business Rating of the process would be to ascertain if the business
225
could still deliver its services if that business process was unavailable for a period of time.

Business Process A Business Process B
Department Owner Business Rating Department Owner Business Rating
IT Services Accounting <<Business Process Owner>> Very High Admin <<Business Process Owner>>
Medium
Service A Owner <<IT Service Owner>>

Impact Very High
Service Hours 24 x 7
Service B Owner <<IT Service Owner>>


Impact High
Service Hours Mon-Fri: 8am - 6pm
Service C Owner <<IT Service Owner>>

Impact Medium
Service Hours Mon-Sat: 6am - 6pm
Service D Owner <<IT Service Owner>>


Impact Low
Service Hours Mon-Fri: 6am - 10pm

10.
Appendices
List any appendices needed in conjunction with this document.
The following documents are provided to support the improvement and management of an effective Ser-
vice Level Management process and its role in supporting a Service Catalog:
• SLM Process Template
• SLM Review Doc
11.
Terminology
IT Infrastructure: includes hardware, software, procedures, policies, documentation, etc.
12.
Using Referenced Documents
The processes, Service Level Management and Service Catalog Management, are tightly associated
with each other.
The processes were separated as part of the ITILv3 update, but the service catalog is still a part of the
226
ISO/IEC 20000 requirement for Service Level Management.
As a result, any conversation about the Service Catalog will eventually require discussing service levels
and the service level management process.
To support the process work required for service catalog, we have included the policies, objectives, and
scope documents for both Service Level Management and Service Catalog Management.
These documents are designed to support an organization who has not implemented either or both pro-
cesses.
Some organizations may still be treating the service catalog as part of service level management and
would like to become more skilled in managing the service catalog: the respective document should aid
in this endeavor.
Also included is a process template for Service Level Management, which is a worksheet for determining
the key characteristics of the process implemented in your organization.
The Service Catalog Toolkit, in its entirety, is acting in the capacity of a worksheet for the Service Catalog
Management process.
The SLM Review Doc provides a means to survey the organization about knowledge related to the Ser-
vice Level Management process.
Both the process template and review document should be used when there are questions about the
integrity or acceptance of the Service Level Management process currently defned for the organization.
Because of the tight integration with Service Catalog Management, any break in effectively executing
the Service Level Management process may have a direct and signifcant impact on the development,
implementation, and maintenance of the Service Catalog.
A Short Defnition of ITIL Best Practice
If we rely on the regular meaning of the words Best Practice, it may lead us to thinking that Best Practice
refers to a job performance rating.
However, ITIL Best Practice actually pertains to areas intended for application of the service manage-
ment concepts.
These areas are listed in a series of informative books which provide guidance on how IT services
should be implemented properly.
Below is a list of Best Practice functions and a brief description of each function.
Service Support relates to 5 areas of discipline such as Confguration Management; Problem Manage-
ment; Change Management; Help Desk; and Software Control and Distribution.
These 5 areas all enable IT Services to be provided.
227
Service Delivery is the management of IT services itself.
Under Service Delivery would be Service Level Management; Capacity Management; Contingency Man-
agement; Availability Management; and Cost Management for IT Services.
These areas mentioned allow us a snapshot of the role of Service Delivery management which is to
ensure that the overall effciency of delivery of services to customers can be sustained.
The area of Planning to Implement Service Management is an important ITIL framework.
Its work is to align the business needs with IT resources.
It therefore includes the following necessary elements in analysis: creates a vision; helps in analysis of
the organization; supports setting of goals, facilitates implementation of IT services; and allows for meas-
urement of goals.
ICT Infrastructure Support and Management provides the necessary support in line with Best Practice
guidance on any requirements needed, planning, design, testing, deployment, operations necessitating
technical support, and management.
ITIL Application Management identifes the service level requirements of the business.
Through it, ITIL can then be used to standardize the business procedures in accordance with ITIL Best
Practice.
Lastly, The Business Perspective involves looking at how IT resources can be incorporated into the busi-
ness from the perspective of how the business normally operates.
It should effectively merge the preferred technology with the needs of the people being served if the
business needs are truly understood.
ITIL Provides
ITIL Provides ITIL provides help to all the IT organizations who want to form a service led IT department.
ITIL is a framework of certain practices, which improve the computing services in the IT sector.
ITIL provides a model that enables best practices in the service management of an organization.
IT service management is seen as such an important functional area in an IT organization that it has
acquired the British Standard accreditation.
ITIL offers a number of benefts to an organization with its comprehensive procedures.
Not only this, ITIL provides a glossary of terms that enable better communication in the organization.
ITIL provides the best practices that serve as the guidelines for data center management.
You can build a service delivery model with the help of the processes described under the service sup-
port and service delivery discipline of ITIL.
228
We at The Art of Service provide you consultancy and training in ITIL to guide you on how to take help of
the ITIL processes.
ITIL Process Review
ITIL Process Review There are organizations who conduct self-assessment, but this ITIL Process Re-
view of progress is not end to end service delivery.
These organizations try to implement the ITIL processes straight from the book and after failing; they
blame the structure of ITIL.
The proper way to use the ITIL process Review is thorough customization.
They need to be adapted according to the function, demand, scope and structure of your organization.
You should not get confused in selection of the proper process, all the process should be applied at
once.
This is the Service Management process that is far benefcial than individual processes.
You can also apply the process of quick wins’ but you should be careful about any tampering with the
long-term goals.
The business perspective, Management of the applications, Delivery of the IT services, Support of the IT
services and Management of the infrastructure are the main elements of the processes.
Customer Reviews
5.0 out of 5 stars ITIL V3 Foundations Complete Certifcation Kit, , 2009 By Rajesh Srivastava (GA,USA)
Excellant source to prep for Foundations course.
It is important to go through all questions in the books and online quizzes. 4.0 out of 5 stars ITIL v3
Foundation Complete Certifcation Kit, , 2009 By Toby Hosterman (Florida) I recommend this product.
I like the combination of book and online presentations.
While at frst I was a little surprised by how thin the book was, I’m very satisfed with the depth and
breadth of content.
I’m still reading the book, but so far I am retaining the information very well.
This is partly because I’m reading the text frst, then following up with the online presentations.
I like the section review questions.
I haven’t tried the test prep stuff yet, but I’m confdent that I’ll be well-prepared. 5.0 out of 5 stars ITIL V3
Foundation Certifcation Kit, , 2009 By Blanca H.
Pardo Camacho Helena Excellent service and great material.
229
The book and online chapter presentations provide a study alternative.
I will recommend it. 5.0 out of 5 stars Prompt and excellent, , 2009 By Carol Meade Got it on time and
ITIL is a signifcant value add to the process of proj management.
The kit is wonderful and complete and I recommend it for anyone wanting to certify.
Thanks a lot to the Art of Service folks.. 4.0 out of 5 stars A Must Read for any IT Manager, , 2009 By
Jayson DS (Bay Area CA) The ITIL V3 Foundation is a must ready for any IT / Operations Manager.
It provides a holistic approach to managing your companies IT department in a effcient and effective
method.
I’ve read the book, taken the online / in book tests and had passed the ITIL V3 Foundation certifcation
with no problem.
Thank you Jayson DS 5.0 out of 5 stars ITIL v3 Foundation Complete Certifcation Kit, , 2009 By Stuart
L.
Koegle (Virginia Beach, Virginia United States) Complete study course with excellent video from the
WEB page.
I would highly recommend this for any beginner needing to understand more about ITIL. 5.0 out of 5
stars Great start for a great price!, , 2009 By William C.
Lisse Jr.
Security Shark (Dayton, OH United States) The IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) is a consistent and com-
prehensive documentation of best practice for IT Service Management (ITSM).
As the most widely accepted approach to ITSM in the world, it is a keystone for IT professionals.
The ITIL V3 Foundation Complete Certifcation Kit delivers on its promises and provides an easy to un-
derstand and convient method that enables people to understand the terminology used within ITIL.
It focuses on foundation knowledge with regard to the ITIL Service Support and Service Delivery sets
necessary for the EXIN Certifcation Exam.
Access and navigation are also easy.
The eBook supports the online presentations.
Best of all is its reasonable price! 5.0 out of 5 stars ITIL V3 - Art of Service - Great Material, , 2009 By
Sean Leader Consultant (Ft.
Lauderdale, Florida) I used the book and online course in preparation for the ITIL v3 Foundation certifca-
tion test.
The information in the book is on target and clear to understand.
I read the book, did the online course along with the practice questions and re-read the book to strength-
en my understanding of the ITIL processes.
230
I passed the exam on my frst try.
I will continue to use this book as a reference.
Highly recommended ! 5.0 out of 5 stars ITIL V3 Foundation Certifcation Kit Review, , 2009 By Al Martin
(Chicago, IL United States) This is an excellent resource for those interested in taking the ITIL Founda-
tion certifcation exam.
Communication by the seller is excellent and extremely helpful.
The online course is fantastic.
It also has multiple practice quizzes as well as a 40 question mock exam at the end.
Very nicely done! Cheers! 4.0 out of 5 stars Does what it says on the tin, , 2009 By S.
Barker (Rotherham, UK) The book is short and sweet telling you what you need to know to pass the
exam.
This is what I bought it for an after 4 days of reading the book and doing the practice exams I took and
passed the foundation exam.
IT Services Costs of Service and Pricing Processes:
Financial Management for IT and Service Catalog
Management
Status: In draft
Under Review
Sent for Approval
Approved
Rejected

Version: <<your version>>

Release Date:

Document Control
Author
Prepared by <name and / or department>
Document Source
This document is located on the LAN under the path:
I:/IT Services/Service Delivery/Business and IT Service Mapping/
Document Approval
This document has been approved for use by the following:
• <frst name, last name>, IT Services Manager
• <frst name, last name>, IT Service Delivery Manager
• <frst name, last name>, National IT Help Desk Manager
Amendment History
231
Issue Date Amendments Completed By



Distribution List
When this procedure is updated, the following copyholders must be advised through email that an up-
dated copy is available on the intranet site:
<<organization name>> Business Unit Stakeholders
IT
Table of Contents
DOCUMENT CONTROL 1
AUTHOR 2
DOCUMENT SOURCE 2
DOCUMENT APPROVAL 2
AMENDMENT HISTORY 2
DISTRIBUTION LIST 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS 3
INTRODUCTION 4
PURPOSE 4
SCOPE 4
AUDIENCE 4
OWNERSHIP 4
RELATED DOCUMENTATION 4
1.
EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW 5
2.
CALCULATING COST OF SERVICE 5
3.
COST UNITS AND PRICING 7
4.
APPENDICES 8
5.
TERMINOLOGY 8
Introduction
Purpose
The purpose of this document is to provide IT departments with an approach for determining the cost of
service using analysis from information provided by the service catalog for the purposes of generating a
service price.
Scope
This document describes the following:
➢ Description of cost models
➢ Description of cost analysis
Audience
This document is relevant to all staff in <<organization name>>
Ownership
232
IT Services has ownership of this document in conjunction with nominated Business Representatives.
Related Documentation
The following documents may help you complete or understand the purpose of this document:
➢ Eight Steps to Creating an Effective Service Catalog and relevant documentation
➢ ITIL® Service Design (Service Level Management, Service Catalog Management)
➢ Price List

1.
Executive Overview
IT Services are not free and at some stage, the service provider must be able to recover the costs they
spend.
For internal service providers, this recover is often in the form of corporate budgets.
However, in some cases, the funding comes from the budgets of individual lines of business.
For external service providers, recovery occurs through the charging of services to the customer.
At the same time, service providers strive to improve the effciency of the services they provide.
If they charge a fat rate for the service, increased effciency will make the service more proftable.
If they can pass those savings on to their customers, there will be increased customer satisfaction and
longer term agreements.
No matter the reasons or the situation, it is clear that understanding the costs attributed to each service
is important.
For the service catalog, the cost of service contributes to determining an appropriate price.
A well-formed service catalog can be the basis for determining the cost of service.
2.
Calculating Cost of Service
In the previous four (4) steps of creating a service catalog, we identifed:
1.
What the service does? (see Service Defnition)
2.
How the service supports the customer? (see Business and IT Service Mapping)
3.
What the service depends on to be effective in meeting business and IT objectives? (see Service Ena-
blers)
4.
233
What service targets are in place? (see Service Agreements)
At each step, discussions related to service costs may already have been conducted.
At this step, we will look closely at how service costs can be calculated.
There are actually two approaches that can be taken, which are dependent on strategies and decisions
made before defning a service: a top-down approach and a bottom-up approach.
The top-down approach has a pre-defned budget allocated to the service.
All decisions about the service must consider how much of this budget is used.
The service provider and customer may follow through the previous 4 steps without making any deci-
sions in this approach.
But when creating a service level agreement, negotiate what can be included or excluded from the ser-
vice based on budget limitations.
A bottoms-up approach is more comprehensive way of determining service costs.
It looks at the components of the service (the enablers) to determine their individual lifecycle costs.
These costs are compiled together to create the total cost of service.
For most organizations, both approaches may be appropriate depending on the situation.
A budget ensures the costs of services are contained and controlled, while understanding the full lifecy-
cle costs of IT components provides opportunities of precise estimates and optimization of costs.
What is meant by lifecycle costs at the component level? Here is a simplifed rundown of potential costs:
• Costs related to research and design
• The cost of purchasing, leasing, or procuring the component
• Costs related to preparing, confguring, and implementing the component
• Maintenance and operations costs
• Costs related to managing incidents and problems related to component
• Improvement costs
• Costs to remove, replace, and dispose of component
Costs can be broken down into cost types, such as:
• Hardware
• Software
• People
• Facilities
• Consulting services
• Transfer costs
In addition to the costs listed above, the costs related to the loss or absence of a component is also
important.
Because of budgetary constraints, often an essential component is left out of the solution because it may
have a high initial investment.
234
However, other components will have to take up the slack resulting in higher operational costs over time.
Costs can also be categorized as direct or indirect.
Direct costs are attributed to a customer, while indirect costs are shared across multiple costs.
So customers may have a dedicated server which they own or lease, but the costs to power and cool
that server may be shared with other customers.
Costs can also be classifed in terms of capital and operational costs.
3.
Cost Models
Costs models are a framework used to determine the costs of providing services and allocating them
appropriately.
Cost models can be created:
• By organization
• By service
• By customer
• By location
• By any combination above
Cost models are pertinent to the service catalog because they provide a clear picture of where money is
being spent and how those expenditures can be linked to specifc services and/or customers.
They aid in calculating the cost of ownership for a service.
Many variables can enter in creating a cost model for a service.
The best recommendation is to work with your Finance department to understand the principles, policies,
and processes needed to formulate cost models and track costs of service.
4.
Cost Units and Pricing
The concept of a cost unit is important in documenting a service within a service catalog.
A cost unit is the lowest level category which costs will be allocated, such as megabyte in storage ser-
vices, kbps (kilobytes per second) in networking, or user accounts in volume.
The basic principle is to break down the cost model into its smallest tangible composition for the service,
then calculate the cost to provide that unit.
This breakdown may not be as simple as it sounds.
For instance, consider network storage.
235
The cost unit for one gigabyte of storage can be calculated and it would seem that multiplying that by ten
will mean multiplying the service costs by ten, but that’s not the case.
The cost unit for the storage would indeed increase, however the cost unit for the network used to com-
municate the stored data may not.
Therefore, when calculating the cost unit, it is advisable to determine where the costs of service will be
impacted if the number of units comprising the service increase or decrease.
This is particularly important to service providers who provide the same service at different levels of
service.
Once the cost units have been calculated and understood, determining a price can be simple.
Pricing is typically set based on the type of service provider:
• Internal service providers are typically cost centers; the expectation is the pricing of the service is equal
to the costs of providing the service.
• External service providers are typically proft centers; the expectation is the pricing will be more than
the actual costs of providing the service, thus allowing a proft to be made.
• Some cloud computing services provide free IT services, especially in the area of online storage.
However, the customer should understand that these services have conditions and constraints that may
make them unattractive for long term use.
For instance, the service may have limited functionality with an infated premium price or the service may
recoup costs by allowing advertisements or sharing limited customer information with partnerships.
For more information about pricing, see the Price List document in the Toolkit.
5.
Service Options
Often, the service provider will offer the same service with different options: scalable services with differ-
ent functionality and/or warranties resulting in different pricing.
In some cases, the options are scalable and the pricing is automatically adjusted based on the current
demand.
For other services, the pricing is the same and the services are not scalable.
An increase and demand will require renegotiation of the service.
The service options are usually defned within the service level agreement.
Use the Service Options worksheet to document the different service options for each service.
6.
Appendices
List any appendices needed in conjunction with this document.
236
7.
Terminology
8.
Using Referenced Documents
Pricing is still a process managed through the Service Level Management process and is detailed in
respective service level agreements.
However, the service catalog may or may not provide an avenue for communicating the pricing of ser-
vices; the dependency is often based on the services themselves.
General services like cloud storage or Internet applications may publish a subscription fee for the service
based on projected use.
This is often true for most online IT services.
However, managed services are often customized by the service provider to meet the customer’s needs.
The services may be advertised within an online service catalog, but the pricing must be negotiated.
Whether prices are to be published in the service catalog or not, determining the cost of services and the
price of the service to the customer is an important step in defning and managing the service.
The Price List document provides a means of brainstorming and deciding on the different factors which
may impact pricing for a particular service.
ITIL Categories
ITIL Categories If you are interested in ITIL then it is very important to know the available ITIL categories
that are accepted widely across the world.
In broad sense there are two ITIL categories: Service support Service delivery These two categories are
further divided into sub-sections that are specifc to the particular area of work.
An organization should implement services of both the categories for better output but the number of ap-
plications depends on the requirement.
The two ITIL categories are further divided as follows: Service support include confguration manage-
ment, incident management, problem management, service/help desk and release management Service
delivery include service level management, capacity management, continuity management, availability
management and IT fnancial management.
Find WiMax Equipment Availability
WiMax refers to standard technology that allows delivery of wireless broadband services anytime, any-
where.
237
WiMax technology has been incorporated in notebook computers and PDAs making these equipments
WiMax compliant.Vendors need to be WiMax certifed to sell their equipment as WiMax certifed.
WiMax equipment requires certifcation or a stamp approval from WiMax Forum to ensure the level of
interoperability and conformance with consumer and government regulations.
Those who have passed the conformance and interoperability test achieve the WiMax Certifcation.
Vendors of WiMax products display the mark of approval on their equipment as WiMax ready, WiMax
compliant or pre-WiMax if not offcially certifed by WiMax Forum.Vendors whose products are certifed
as WiMAX interoperable solutions are able to post their WiMax equipment on websites, that provide
adverstisement to various WiMax equipments and solutions.
These WiMax industry leadeing websites provide link to WiMax vendors websites, allowing vistors of the
site to obtain more information of the WiMax equipment.WiMax equipment is designed to serve cellular
and radio communications dealers, wireless communications carriers and self-maintained end users of
communications systems.
These WiMax equipment manufacturers provide customers with power systems solutions for emergency
backup, alternative energy sources, or out-of-grid power requirements.
WiMax equipment for Mobile WiMAX networks provide advanced antenna systems and support adaptive
beamforming and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) as this requires indoor customer premise.
These will allow for multi-megabit service delivery, increased coverage, and greater indoor penetration.
In today’s world of mobility, WiMax equipment becomes a necessity in dealing with our responsibilities at
home or at work.
WiMax equipment allows you to keep updated anywhere and at anytime.
Get a WiMax equipment ready and get yourself connected over the internet.
Know More About ITIL Procedures
ITIL procedures are those steps that are outlined in the Information Technology Infrastructure Library
pertaining to the efforts of organizations (particularly businesses) in securing fnancial value and quality
in their information technology operations.
ITIL procedures are defned as supplier-dependent steps that should help organizations be guided when
implementing development, infrastructure and operations for their information technology system.At pre-
sent, the ITIL version that people have to be certifed in is the ITIL v3 iteration.
The ITIL v3 procedures are listed in fve publications, namely, Service Strategy, Service Design, Service
Transition, Service Operation, and Continual Service Improvement.
These fve texts take off from the ITIL v2 iteration while making ITIL more comprehensive in the realm of
IT service management.At present, the eight existing publications under the ITIL v2 iteration are: Service
Delivery, and Service Support (which fall under the IT Service Management category); ICT Infrastructure
Management, Security Management, The Business Perspective, Application Management, and Soft-
ware Asset Management (which are categorized as Other Operational Guidance publications); and the
238
eight which is Planning to Implement Service Management (that deals mostly with Service Management
implementation.) There is also a ninth publication now dubbed ITIL Small-Scale Implementation which
is devoted to operational guidelines for IT systems on a reduced scale.One reason ITIL procedures are
so widely-accepted and recognized throughout the world by many organizations is because it is able to
standardize the vocabulary of information technology infrastructure so that only one clear set of defni-
tions about terms for the components of IT systems will be used by end-users throughout the world.
The ITIL Certifcation Course
Companies and businesses today all want to maximize their IT operations.
With so many ways to approach a given IT situation, organizations all want the most effective method,
procedure, process or technique.
This is known as best practice.
But with information technology increasingly getting more complicated, a set of best practices has been
established in what is now called the Information Technology Infrastructure Library or ITIL.
And now more and more companies are getting an ITIL certifcation.Getting an ITIL certifcation has now
become a worldwide standard for all IT service management.
The basic concepts and principles established by the UK Offce of Government Commerce have not
changed and will still cover service strategy, service design, service transition, service operation and
continual service improvement.
It will also include service support and service delivery.
Today, ITIL courses come in ITIL v2 and ITIL v3 but individuals and corporations wishing to get a com-
plete ITIL certifcation still have to fnish three subjects: Foundation, Practitioner and Manager.
All ITIL Certifcation courses will begin with the basic foundation of ITIL.
Defnitions, terminologies, its history and basic principles will thoroughly be discussed along with a dis-
cussion on service support and service delivery.
At the end of this course, participants are expected to take the ITIL Foundation Certifcation exam.Upon
completion of and passing the ITIL Foundation Certifcation, the Practitioner s Certifcate is the next step.
An ITIL Change, Confguration and Release Management exam and an ITIL Service Desk, Incident and
Problem Management exam will be given in order for the student to get the ITIL Certifcation for Practi-
tioner.Experienced professionals who have mastered the ITIL service management functions can take
the ITIL Certifcation for Managers or ITIL Manager s Certifcate.ITIL v3 library is the latest addition to
ITIL.
Published in 07, it encompasses the most adopted worldwide standard for best practices in IT manage-
ment.
And ITIL Certifcation for v3 is also given to individuals who have fnished the courses of v2.
239
IT Services Service Catalog Perspectives Process:
Service Catalog Management
Status: In draft
Under Review
Sent for Approval
Approved
Rejected

Version: <<your version>>

Release Date:

Document Control
Author
Prepared by <name and / or department>
Document Source
This document is located on the LAN under the path:
I:/IT Services/Service Delivery/Business and IT Service Mapping/
Document Approval
This document has been approved for use by the following:
• <frst name, last name>, IT Services Manager
• <frst name, last name>, IT Service Delivery Manager
• <frst name, last name>, National IT Help Desk Manager
Amendment History
Issue Date Amendments Completed By



Distribution List
When this procedure is updated, the following copyholders must be advised through email that an up-
dated copy is available on the intranet site:
<<organization name>> Business Unit Stakeholders
IT
Table of Contents
DOCUMENT CONTROL 1
AUTHOR 2
DOCUMENT SOURCE 2
DOCUMENT APPROVAL 2
AMENDMENT HISTORY 2
DISTRIBUTION LIST 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS 3
INTRODUCTION 4
PURPOSE 4
SCOPE 4
AUDIENCE 4
OWNERSHIP 4
RELATED DOCUMENTATION 4
1.
240
EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW 5
2.
UNDERSTANDING PERSPECTIVE 5
3.
DETERMINING THE RIGHT PERSPECTIVE 5
4.
APPENDICES 7
5.
TERMINOLOGY 7
Introduction
Purpose
The purpose of this document is to provide IT departments with an understanding of the different uses of
the service catalog and how these can be distinguished by establishing various perspectives.
Scope
This document describes the following:
➢ Description of perspective
➢ Description of catalog uses
Audience
This document is relevant to all staff in <<organization name>>
Ownership
IT Services has ownership of this document in conjunction with nominated Business Representatives.
Related Documentation
The following documents may help you to complete or understand the purpose of this document:
➢ Eight Steps to Creating an Effective Service Catalog and relevant documentation
➢ ITIL® Service Design (Service Catalog Management)

1.
Executive Overview
When creating a service catalog, the service provider should consider all possible ways for the service
catalog to be used.
A narrow view in this situation will often lead to an ineffective service catalog in the long term.
Organizations may have numerous reasons for creating a service catalog:
• Regulated by standards (ISO/IEC 20000)
• Recommended through improvement initiatives
• Compiling a list of services
• Investigating effciencies
The service catalog can be used in each of these capacities and much more.
Your organization must decide how the service catalog will be used.
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These decisions will determine what perspectives the service catalog should have.
2.
Understanding Perspective
Consider you have a massive amount of data and information about your service in front of you.
And now, you have been asked to shift through this information and extract what is relevant and what is
not.
The problem is, relevancy is subjective depending on the perspective you are taking.
The customer or business may be looking at the fnancial information to determine if the service has
value or is being delivered in a quality manner.
A manager may be trying to understand how the service works within the context of IT service manage-
ment or within a specifc context.
A service designer may attempt to determine the impact a change would have on service delivery.
A technical person could be looking at who to involve when dealing with an incident or problem.
While much will depend on what information is available, understanding the perspective from which the
information is viewed is also a critical aspect to creating a service catalog.
For our purposes, the goal is to provide a service catalog that can be used by everyone.
For you, the goal may be to focus on one perspective, rather than several.
In many implementations of the service catalog, the initial project may be to implement a single perspec-
tive and add a new perspective every few months.
3.
Determining the Right Perspective
A service catalog will have two major perspectives: customer and technical.
Each of these perspectives can be further broken down depending on what the service provider needs.
Some organizations will focus on either a customer or a technical perspective, while mature service pro-
viders will maintain both perspectives.
Some organizations will maintain separate catalogs based on perspective, though modern technology
has allowed us to create web-based entry points into the same collection of information.
Generally speaking, the frst perspective of the service catalog should be the customer perspective.
A customer-facing service catalog is a requirement of ISO/IEC 20000 and a key element in managing the
relationship between the customer and the service provider.
242
The ISO requirement asserts that each customer should have its own service catalog, though creating a
perspective into a comprehensive service catalog for each customer will serve the same purpose.
The demographics of the customer base may lead to some ideas for what perspectives to create in a
customer service catalog, such as:
• Wholesale and retail customers
• Small, medium, and large business customers
• Corporate and department-based customers
• Customers based on location or industry
The premise behind providing a specifc perspective is to give the customer what they need without giv-
ing them too much information.
While some individual customers may require more or less information, a standard perspective would
resolve most customers’ catalog needs.
The same concepts can be applied to any technical catalogs created, though having different perspec-
tives is not usually necessary unless the separation serves a distinct purpose, such as to isolate IT
components for a specifc customer.
Since most technical information is actually sourced from the confguration management system, imple-
menting different perspectives may be more appropriate from there rather than the service catalog.
4.
Creating a Service Catalog Perspective
When creating a standard perspective for use by all customers, the question to ask is:
What information will provide value to the customer and demonstrate that the service can and is achiev-
ing its objectives for the customer?
The intent of the service catalog is to provide a before and after picture of the service.
The ‘before’ picture simply details what the service is and will be received by the customer.
The core of this part is the service description and all relevant service level agreements.
The ‘after’ picture describes the actual service performance specifc to the customer, which is detailed in
service reports, but may be referenced or summarized within the service catalog.

The cost of maintaining the service catalog should be considered when determining how many perspec-
tives will be established or what information will be included or referenced.
At best, the same catalog perspective should be used for all customers; thus reducing any additional
costs attributed to managing custom solutions.
5.
Appendices
243
List any appendices needed in conjunction with this document.
6.
Terminology
7.
Using Referenced Documents
No template exists for creating a service catalog perspective; however, feedback has encouraged more
discussion in this area and will continue to do so.
Included as part of the bonus documents are two documents that discuss perspectives in greater detail
from different contexts.
They are designed to facilitate discussion which will hone the value of the service catalog for the organi-
zation, but are not necessary reading for creating a service catalog.
Please enjoy:
• The Evolving Service Catalog
• Viewpoints in Creating a Service Catalog
ITIL Defnition
ITIL Defnition ITIL stands for Information Technology Infrastructure Library.
As per ITIL defnition it comprises of six sets namely Service Support, Service Delivery, Planning to Im-
plement Service Management, ICT Infrastructure Management, Applications Management and Business
Perspective and best practices of IT managed service processes.
The ITIL defnition outlines its quality approach that helps in achieving more effcient and effective busi-
ness processes.
Of the complete ITIL defnition, if we talk about IT service management or ITSM, ITIL comprises of two
main sets: Service delivery and Service Support.
These two components of ITIL defnition together comprise of 10 disciplines that allow provision and
management of effective IT services.
Please note, that ITIL defnition nowhere states that it is a methodology, rather it is a set of standards
and best ITSM practices.
Capacity Management of ITIL
One of the fve elements in the area of ITIL service delivery is the capacity management.
244
This work is responsible for assuring that the needs of the business and defnition of the services are
completed by making use of the minimum resources for measurement.
The activities included in capacity management are: The utilization of the necessary changes by analyz-
ing, implementing, monitoring and tuning the resources, and focusing on the better understanding of the
business needs and priorities by managing the demand of the measuring resources.
The implementation of capacity management allows the business to get more out of the IT resources
that already exist and also to improve the cost per unit of the service position.
It also helps eliminate repetition of work and make sure that reporting of the progress of the business is
done consistently.
Capacity management is done to adjust the infrastructure components and applications for the improve-
ment of the performance, less consumption and also to eliminate delays.
The team of capacity management usually works together with the team for ITIL service level manage-
ment and areas for fnancial management.
With the help of capacity management, the business can monitor and improve its service level and fnan-
cial standing thereby allowing the leaders of the business to make wiser decisions.
Capacity management should be implemented frst since it gives fast and early achievement of the sav-
ing the cost of resources.
The savings can be used for the remaining procedures left to be done in the ITIL project.
The benefts that capacity management can offer make it the frst good implementation of all the areas of
ITIL service delivery.
ITIL Framework The Backbone of ITIL Functions and
Processes
Information Technology Infrastructure Library or ITIL is comprised of a series of books written for the
purpose of outlining a set of management procedures to facilitate the delivery of high quality services in
the feld of Information Technology (IT).
It is a framework of interlinking processes developed to assist with the increasing challenges linked to
maintaining a more secure, compliant and stable IT organization.The ITIL framework has turned out to
be the benchmark for IT organizations.
It consists of seven modules that constitute the core of ITIL with the task of determining how IT can best
serve the needs of the business.
These are the following:(a)Service Delivery covers the processes required for the development, and
planning of quality IT services and improvement of services delivered looking forward. (b)Service Sup-
port focuses on the processes associated with the day-to-day support and maintenance activities that in-
clude ensuring all users of the ICT services have access to the appropriate tools to support the business
functions. (c)ICT Infrastructure Management involves processes within ITIL that are linked to ICT equip-
ment and software. (d)Planning to Implement Service Management examines the issues and tasks in-
245
volved in planning, implementing and improving Service Management processes within the organization.
(e)Application Management describes how to manage applications through the life-cycle of software
development projects. (f)The Business Perspective a collection of best practices and guidance to help
IT personnel understand their contribution to the business objectives. (g)Security Management - details
the process of planning and managing a defned level of security to guarantee the safety of information.
ISO 20000 Audit
ISO 20000 is an international quality standard that defnes standards in the IT Services Management.
If you have the ISO 20000, it certainly helps in getting new business and making new bonds.
ISO 2000 audit improves operational effciency and expands business horizons.
It essentially vouches for the adoption of an integrated process to effectively deliver services that meet
customer requirements.
ISO 20000 audit covers all the aspects of managing an IT Services outft.
An overview of an IT Services Company has the following parameters: 1.Scope of business 2.Planning
and implementing service management 3.Service Delivery Process 4.Control Process 5.Relationship
Process 6.Release Process ISO 20000 Audit is conducted by international organizations for standards
and other quality forums.
These entities check the processes of an organization and fnd out its strengths and weaknesses, and
accordingly suggest improvements.
Then they re-check the same systems and processes.
Thereafter, the organization is recommended for the certifcation.
A systematic process is followed in the whole certifcation process.
There are checks and re-checks that are performed by internal as well as external auditors.
The internal quality auditor works in tandem with the external quality auditor.
Generally, ISO 20000 auditors and quality consultants charge a certain amount of fees for the certifca-
tion.
The IT Services is a people intensive business, hence the certifcation can enhance the performance and
reputation of these companies.
The ISO 20000 Certifcation also helps to motivate the workforce.
Moreover, it can create healthy competition by spreading information about the good performance of a
certifed company.
ITIL course
246
ITIL course Service Management is one term that has become an integral part of the IT industry.
The Art of Service has put an effort to let you understand and learn about ITIL Service Management.
You can take up our ITIL course, if you wish to create a career in IT Service Management or if you are
already working in this feld.
Our ITIL course structure is very comprehensive and suitable for people with any type of time constraints
and budget.
Our coursees are of international standards because they are accredited by the institutions like ISEB and
EXIN.
The foundation level of the ITIL course introduces you to the basic concepts of ITIL management terms.
It lets you know how it works in a general sense.
After completing the foundation coursee you are allowed to move to the practitioner’s level.
You will learn here about the practices of ITIL service application.
IT Management Services like Problem Management, Service Desk and Confguration Management are
some of the important ITIL service applications.
Management level coursee will equip you with valuable skills in ITIL Service Delivery and ITIL Service
Report.
IT Services Technical Specifcation Process: Service
Level Management
Service: <service name>
Status: In draft
Under Review
Sent for Approval
Approved
Rejected

Version: <<your version>>

Release Date:

Document Control
Author
Prepared by <name and / or department>
Document Source
This document is located on the LAN under the path:
I:/IT Services/Service Delivery/Technical Specifcations
247
Document Approval
This document has been approved for use by the following:
• <frst name, last name>, IT Services Manager
• <frst name, last name>, IT Service Delivery Manager
• <frst name, last name>, National IT Help Desk Manager
Amendment History
Issue Date Amendments Completed By



Distribution List
When this procedure is updated, the following copyholders must be advised through email that an up-
dated copy is available on the intranet site:
<<Organization name>> Business Unit Stakeholders
IT
Table of Contents
DOCUMENT CONTROL 2
AUTHOR 2
DOCUMENT SOURCE 2
DOCUMENT APPROVAL 2
AMENDMENT HISTORY 2
DISTRIBUTION LIST 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS 3
INTRODUCTION 5
PURPOSE 5
SCOPE 5
AUDIENCE 5
OWNERSHIP 5
RELATED DOCUMENTATION 5
1.
EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW 6
2.
SERVICE OVERVIEW 6
2.1.
SERVICE DESCRIPTION 6
2.2.
SERVICE FUNCTIONAL CAPABILITIES 6
2.3.
USER CHARACTERISTICS 6
2.4.
USER OPERATIONS AND PRACTICES 6
2.5.
GENERAL CONSTRAINTS 7
2.6.
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ASSUMPTIONS 7
2.7.
OTHER SERVICES 7
3.
SPECIFIC FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS 7
3.1.
DESCRIPTION 7
3.2.
INPUTS 7
3.3.
PROCESSING 7
3.4.
OUTPUTS 7
4.
EXTERNAL INTERFACES 8
4.1.
USER INTERFACES 8
4.2.
HARDWARE INTERFACES 8
4.3.
SOFTWARE INTERFACES 8
4.4.comMUNICATION INTERFACES 9
5.
PERFORMANCE 9
6.
SERVICE DESIGN CONSTRAINTS 9
7.
ATTRIBUTES 9
7.1.
SECURITY 9
7.2.
RELIABILITY, AVAILABILITY, MAINTAINABILITY 9
7.3.
INSTALLATION AND DISTRIBUTION 9
7.4.
249
USABILITY 10
8.
ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS 10
8.1.
ADMINISTRATION 10
9.
APPENDICES 11
10.
TERMINOLOGY 12
Introduction
Purpose
The purpose of this document is to provide relevant IT Units with the technical specifcations for the
range of services provided by IT Services to the <<Organization name>> community.
Scope
This document describes the following:
➢ Details of each service provided by IT Services including:
➢ Description of service
➢ Functional capabilities of the service
➢ User characteristics
➢ User operations and practices
➢ Software and hardware interfaces
➢ Service contacts
➢ Details of procedures for the service
Note: It is assumed for each service described in this document that the supporting functional awareness
of the service is already known.
Audience
This document is relevant to IT staff in <<Organization name>>
Ownership
IT Services has ownership of this document.
Related Documentation
Include in this section any related Service Level Agreement reference numbers and other associated
documentation:
➢ Relevant SLA and procedural documents
➢ Relevant IT Services Catalog
➢ Relevant Technical Specifcation documentation
➢ Relevant User Guides and Procedures

1.
Executive Overview
Describe the purpose, scope, and organization of the Technical Specifcation document.
2.
Service Overview
2.1.
Service Description
250
Describe briefy the reason for the service, and list the most important features and capabilities.
Also include the service’s relationship to the business processes.
2.2.
Service technical capabilities
This section presents a list of the technical aspects that the service will be required to perform.
Where the service comprises technical aspects, a table may be developed to illustrate these relation-
ships.
2.3.
User characteristics
This section describes the intended users of the service in terms of job function, specialized knowledge,
or skill levels required.
This section should consider various user classes or profles such as managers, engineers, equipment
operators, IT support staff, and network or database administrators.
2.4.
User operations and practices
Describe how persons will normally use the service and the tasks they will most frequently perform.
Also cover how users might use the service on an occasional basis.
Consider using a formal “Use Case” to specify the end users’ expected use of the service.
This may also be derived from the Service Level Requirements.
2.5.
Assumptions
This section lists any assumptions that were made in specifying the technical requirements of this ser-
vice.
2.6.
Other services
How does the service technically interact with other services?
3.
Specifc Technical Descriptions
This section is repeated for each technical aspect of the service.
Some examples of technical aspects are: Processing, Backup, Archive, Restore.
3.1.
Description
The description describes the technical aspect and its role in the service.
3.2.
Inputs
Describe the inputs to the aspect.
Data feeds from other systems, human input, or automated timed activities are examples of inputs.
3.3.
Processing
251
Describe what is done.
For example, with regard to backups, we would describe the database close, backup, and database
restart activities.
3.4.
Outputs
This section describes the outputs.
For example, if we are describing the archive activity, we would expect to end up with a media storage
device that would be stored in a secure location.
Reports generated are also defned.
4.
Other technical considerations
The interfaces in this section are specifed by documenting: the name and description of each item,
source or input, destination or output, ranges, accuracy and tolerance, units of measure, timing, display
formats and organization, availability and capacity requirements, and any relevant agreements that may
impact the service.
4.1.
Hardware details
Describe the technical components needed to provide the service, and also other output or input devices
such as printers or handheld devices.
4.2.
Software details
Describe the technical aspects of the software used to provide the service (eg.
Client server details), operating system levels, backup software used, virus protection details, other sup-
porting services and applications that contribute to the service availability.
4.3.communication details
Describe how the service will communicate with itself (for multi-platform applications) or other software
applications or hardware, including items such as networking, email, intranet, and Internet communica-
tions, PABX, IP telephony, etc.
5.
Performance
Discuss items such as response time, throughput requirements, data volume requirements, maximum
data fle size or problem complexity, maximum number of concurrent uses, and peak load requirements
(for web-based applications).
Include expected response times for entering information, querying data fles and databases, performing
calculations of various complexities, and importing/exporting data.
6.
Technical Design Constraints
Examples of technical constraints that affect service design choices are items such as memory con-
straints involving minimum and maximum RAM and hard disk space, and limitations arising from hard-
ware, software, or communications standards.
7.
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Additional Requirements
Describe other characteristics that the service must have that were not covered in the prior sections.
7.1.
Administration
Include any periodic updating or data management needed for the service.
• User documentation: Describes the user documentation to be delivered in conjunction with the service,
including both hard copy and online requirements.
• Other requirements: Describes any other requirements not yet covered above that need to be consid-
ered during the design of the service.
ITIL Community
ITIL Community ITIL Community comprises of IT companies, IT enabled organizations and IT profession-
als who have thoughtfully aligned ITIL with their day-to-day functioning to achieve better results.
ITIL community works as per the ITIL defnition, vision and the best practices of IT service management
including service support and service delivery.
This comes from the quality approach to attain business effectiveness and effciency through integration
of information systems with the business.
For those who wish to be part of the growing ITIL community of organizations and professionals pursuing
the practices of ITIL, there are a number of online forums dedicated to ITIL.
This e-domain of ITIL community shares information and latest updates on ITIL with their members who
are placed worldwide.
Service Delivery: Capacity Management In ITIL
Capacity management ensures that the business is able to deliver existing and future IT infrastructure
requirements at the right moment, right time and in the most cost- effective way.
Capacity management falls under the Service Delivery of ITIL and involves three other sub-processes
namely, Business Capacity Management, Service Capacity Management and Resource Capacity Man-
agement.
In ITIL v3, Resource Capacity Management was renamed Component Capacity Management.IT is ever
expanding and growing and requirements in terms of processing power, memory and other hardware
components immediately follow.
Without capacity management, businesses will continually make unnecessary upgrades resulting in
unwanted expenses.
But with capacity management or ITIL, these will be eliminated because organizations will be able to
monitor, analyze and fne tune current server load and then properly predict how and what the demands
will be over time.Organizations which choose to implement capacity management or ITIL in their busi-
nesses will reap the long term benefts of their investment.
253
By being proactive in their approach to business needs rather than reactive, organizations can maximize
their IT resources and increase performance of applications and infrastructure components by proper
performance analysis of existing and new releases.
Organizations will also be able to get rid of redundant work by fne tuning performance of existing infra-
structure and identifying the most effcient way to use it.
With an effcient infrastructure, organizations will be more accurate and consistent in their reporting
which will enable them to have informed business decisions and plans.Being less reactive, capacity
management or ITIL will save the company unnecessary expenses because it identifes the possible
sources of business growth hindrances and can immediately provide corrective actions before it hap-
pens.
Benefts of Cloud Computing
The appeal of Cloud Computing is, in part, due to its obfuscated nature.
The underlying delivery infrastructure is hidden in the Cloud and is, therefore, less of a concern and can
be somewhat ignored by the individual or organization.
Cloud Computing offers many other benefts including:
Speed
Time and energy is often spent on defning the right infrastructure, hardware, and software in order to
deliver the services required.
Cloud Computing delivers faster application development speed, allowing resources to be shared among
different people.
Cost-Effciency
The goal of Cloud Computing is to make the cost of resources less expensive than what you can provide
for and manage yourself.
Cloud Computing eliminates the set-up and maintenance costs of an application delivery network, allow-
ing for greater fexibility and scaling.organizations utilizing Cloud Computing do not bear the costs of idle
hours and, therefore, do not waste their IT resources, including both infrastructure components, such as
hardware, software, power, and space and people resources that manage and secure the systems.
Control
While some may argue that Cloud Computing takes away an element of control, the control that is
gained must also be recognized.
With your data in the cloud, it can be accessed from anywhere.
An individual does not need to be in the offce to access fles, but can work with them from any mobile
device, such as a laptop, iPhone, or BlackBerry.
254
Cloud Computing allows control of whenever and wherever business occurs.
Capacity
Current super computers handle tens of trillions of computations per second.
Cloud Computing aims to apply such power to business services, allowing computing capacity to rise
dramatically.
The further beneft here is that it can be tapped into through an Internet connection, rather than being
provided by local infrastructure.
Environmental Factors
Servers can be shared or virtualized for operating systems and applications in the cloud, resulting in
fewer servers.
Fewer servers mean less required space and, therefore, less power.
In a climate that offers ambient or natural cooling, Cloud Computing minimizes energy usage.
Equality
The capabilities of Cloud Computing mean that small businesses can beneft in the same way as large
corporations.
Without needing to fund and take the time to build their own infrastructures, Cloud Computing allows
smaller companies to tap into the infrastructure of larger corporate giants.
Agility and Responsiveness
One of the most pressing issues facing many IT service providers stems from the time, effort, risks, and
costs associated with managing large changes to their services and architecture.
Whether as a result of complex interdependency in IT services, lack of development and test environ-
ments, a vendor lock-in, or requirement for uninterrupted service, a lack of agility and responsiveness to
handle business change is seen as one of the primary reasons to investigate Cloud Computing platforms
for many organizations.
The promise of being able to provision and access signifcant resources on demand, which was previ-
ously (fnancially) impossible, is highly alluring to many smaller organizations when compared with the
traditional in-sourced or out-sourced offerings.
While the agility of the IT service provider does in many ways tie-in to the fnancial issues already
discussed, the use of Cloud platforms can also offer other business and enterprise applications more
readily than most organizations can effectively investigate, acquire, test, and implement into their own
environment.
Traditional software licensing models can also add to the reluctance to utilize new offerings, so, depend-
ing on the specifc business requirements, the license models used by many Cloud Computing vendors
may reduce the total cost of ownership.
These can include licensing for the number of concurrent users, virtual servers/nodes allocated, or per
255
month user allocations.
While an increase in agility may be found for some organizations utilizing Cloud Computing as part of
their service delivery model, others may fnd that giving up their operational control and ownership of the
infrastructure may restrict their ability to provide the business with a source of strategic advantage.
As a result, careful analysis should be performed as to the current capabilities of the IT group as well as
the value (not just defned by cost-savings) of migrating to some form of Cloud Computing offering.
ITIL Service Manager
ITIL Service Manager The ITIL service manager course is aimed at students who have fve or more
years of experience in IT and intermediate-level knowledge of ITIL.
To pursue this course the students must have previously done the Foundation Certifcate in IT Service
Management.
The primary aim of ITIL service manager program is to prepare the students for the examination leading
to the Manager’s certifcate in IT Service Management.
Theartofservice.com provides ITIL service manager course guide that includes lectures, tutorials, assign-
ments, and mock tests.
The course duration is of two weeks.
While the frst week concentrates completely on service support course, the second week pertains to
service delivery course.
The ITIL service manager course prepares the students for the two 3-hour essay-style exams that lead
to the ISEB or EXIN Manager’s Certifcate in IT Service Management.
In order to achieve certifcation, the students are also required to clear the in-course assessment admin-
istered by the course leaders.
IT Services Publishing a Service Catalog Process:
Service Catalog Management
Status: In draft
Under Review
Sent for Approval
Approved
Rejected

Version: <<your version>>

Release Date:

Document Control
Author
256
Prepared by <name and / or department>
Document Source
This document is located on the LAN under the path:
I:/IT Services/Service Delivery/Business and IT Service Mapping/
Document Approval
This document has been approved for use by the following:
• <frst name, last name>, IT Services Manager
• <frst name, last name>, IT Service Delivery Manager
• <frst name, last name>, National IT Help Desk Manager
Amendment History
Issue Date Amendments Completed By



Distribution List
When this procedure is updated, the following copyholders must be advised through email that an up-
dated copy is available on the intranet site:
<<organization name>> Business Unit Stakeholders
IT
Table of Contents
DOCUMENT CONTROL 1
AUTHOR 2
DOCUMENT SOURCE 2
DOCUMENT APPROVAL 2
AMENDMENT HISTORY 2
DISTRIBUTION LIST 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS 3
INTRODUCTION 4
PURPOSE 4
SCOPE 4
AUDIENCE 4
OWNERSHIP 4
RELATED DOCUMENTATION 4
1.
OVERVIEW 5
2.
PRINTED CATALOGS 5
3.
ONLINE DOCUMENT-BASED CATALOGS 5
4.
INTERACTIVE CATALOGS 5
5.
EXAMPLE SERVICE CATALOG 6
6.
SERVICE CATALOG IMPLEMENTATION 7
7.
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APPENDICES 8
8.
TERMINOLOGY 8
Introduction
Purpose
The purpose of this document is to provide IT departments with an understanding of the different means
of publishing a service catalog
Scope
This document describes the following:
➢ Description of publishing approaches
Audience
This document is relevant to all staff in <<organization name>>
Ownership
IT Services has ownership of this document in conjunction with nominated Business Representatives.
Related Documentation
The following documents may help you complete or understand the purpose of this document:
➢ Eight Steps to Creating an Effective Service Catalog and relevant documentation
➢ ITIL® Service Design (Service Catalog Management)

1.
Overview
There are a variety of ways to publish a service catalog open to a service provider.
The major factors are usually dependent on the customer (audience), the foundation (catalog tool), and
the information to be published.
As mentioned in the Service Catalog Perspective document, the perspective will aid in determining the
audience and whether the service catalog will have one or many views into its stored data.
The next major question for publishing is the tool used to manage and publish the service catalog.
There are several commercial tools available specifcally to support service catalog management.
Some organizations choose to create their own structured database to support their catalogs.
Though managing the information contained within the Service Catalog is important, it loses its value if
that information cannot be published or can be accessible to the audience.
2.
Printed Catalogs
Printed catalogs are the most expensive form of publication to utilize, whether used in marketing the
service catalog or a single service.
258
Providing a printed catalog in its entirety is not recommended because the information can become out-
dated very quickly, specifcally if the service is new or unstable.
Additionally, references from the printed catalog must be managed with greater rigor than other means of
publication.
<<Determine and list what printed materials may be used to publish or promote the service catalog.>>
3.
Online Document-based Catalogs
Publishing the catalog electronically is the most cost-effective approach for a service provider.
Publishing the catalog as a document may not be the best choice for the service provider either, espe-
cially if they plan to support multiple perspectives.
An electronic document-based catalog does have the ability to support reference links to outside sources
and documents, making management of all the information easier to execute.
<<Determine and list what online resources will encompass the service catalog or will be used as a
source of information for the service catalog.>>
4.
Interactive Catalogs
The best approach for a mature organization is an interactive catalog, which is accessible online and is
generated based on the person or role viewing the catalog.
With this approach, the service catalog becomes an application for any numerous processes, for exam-
ple:
• Providing a list of services to be requested by the end user (Request Fulflment, Access Management)
• As a self-help tool (Incident Management, Problem Management, Change Management)
• Providing an entry point into comprehensive reporting on services (Service Level Management, Busi-
ness Relationship Management)
• Supporting customer satisfaction feedback (Business Relationship Management)
• Understanding the basic service model and/or design components (Design Coordination)
• Understanding risks (IT Service Continuity Management, Information Security Management)
• Understanding the relationship between service delivery and service components (Service Asset and
Confguration Management)
An interactive service catalog can either be used to display information relevant to the services or can be
used to facilitate and initiate processes by providing the base information needed to invoke a process.
As the service catalog becomes more integrated into the service management system, more opportuni-
ties should open for using the contained information in creating and worthwhile ways.
<<Determine, list, and prioritize what service management processes will beneft from the information
contained or organized by the service catalog.
Make sure to describe how the service catalog will be used.>>
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5.
Example Service Catalog
Some organizations only maintain either a Business Service Catalog or a Technical Service Catalog.
More mature organizations will maintain both perspectives within a single Service Catalog, which is part
of a totally integrated Service Management activity and Service Portfolio.
The Business Service Catalog facilitates the development of a much more proactive or even preemptive
SLM process, allowing it to develop more into the feld of Business Relationship Management.
The Technical Service Catalog is extremely benefcial when constructing the relationship between ser-
vices, SLAs, OLAs, and other underpinning agreements and components, as it will identify the technol-
ogy required to support a service and the support group(s) that support(s) the components.
The combination of a Business Service Catalog and a Technical Service Catalog is invaluable for quickly
assessing the impact of incidents and changes on the business.
An example of relationships between the Business and Technical portions of a Service Catalog is shown
below.

Source: OGC Service Design
Review the following documents to see different formats for a printed Business Service Catalog:
• Service Catalog Medium
• Service Catalog Large
• Service Catalog Extended
6.
Service Catalog Implementation
The process for implementing the service catalog truly begins before step one of creating the service
catalog; however, it is during the actual publication of the catalog that many implementations will arise.
For persons unfamiliar with the intent or scope of the service catalog, a cursory glance at the previous
six steps may be necessary before even approaching the service catalog topic within the organization.
A number of documents are included in the Toolkit to aid you in obtaining support, planning, and commu-
nicating of the service catalog, including:
• Business Justifcation
• Communication Plan
• Email Test
• Service Catalog Implementation Plan
• Service Level Project Plan

7.
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Appendices
List any appendices needed in conjunction with this document.
8.
Terminology
9.
Using Referenced Documents
This step provides a number of templates which can be used to support the actual implementation of the
service catalog.
They are generalized to aid the majority of Toolkit clients and should be adapted to meet the specifc
needs and requirements of your implementation.
The following documents provide the means to construct a service catalog with different levels of infor-
mation detail.
• Service Catalog Medium
• Service Catalog Large
• Service Catalog Extended
The documents, The Evolving Service Catalog and Viewpoints in Creating a Service Catalog (found in
the bonus documents folder of the Toolkit), provide links to a number of web-based service catalogs,
which the customer is welcome to survey for ideas.
ITSM ITIL
ITSM ITIL ITSM ITIL is a complete package that determines all the functions and implementation of Ser-
vice Management processes.
With the emergence of ITSM ITIL, not only has the productivity increased many folds, there has also
been a huge reduction in the cost of production.
Moreover, accidents and unfavorable incidences in the IT industry have come down.
ITSM ITIL is a comprehensive and well-planned set of directions that enhance performance and improve
infrastructure.
Customers have easy access to the management.
ITSM has made the industry more interactive and active.
This is benefcial in the short and long-term.
ITIL Service Management is divided in two major categories of Service Support and Service Delivery.
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Security Management is an independent category that ensures company’s safety.
The Growing Trend in Saas Delivery
Today the entire market for total business applications is able to do software as a service (or saas) deliv-
ery across the vast Internet marketplace as a means of service and a healthy one at that as well.
The demand for it is getting healthier and healthier, continuously and steadily feeding on what marketing
and research analysts all say will most likely be an extremely steady diet of newer, stronger and more
revived subscriptions not and in the future.This ever growing brand of saas delivery is what some may
look at as the latter-day turn of events on the different types of existing hosted applications model that
unfortunately fell out of favor during the gloomy years of the dot-com bust.
Then again, while many businesses in the Internet industry can still fnd ways to locate many vendors
who are willing to host their enterprise resource planning (or ERP) and other types of applications off-
site, the undeniable attractiveness of the software as a service delivery model is that all of these busi-
nesses combined are enabled to use the application tap in the same was as the software, having for
themselves a shared type of model that can allow providers to decrease the cost of its ownership.The
applications are so attractive and generate so much attention when they are delivered as a service (or
on-demand as well) that two years ago one research frm confdently predicted that they will slowly but
surely dominate around twenty fve percent of the business software market, with a target end to date of
2011.
Defne ITIL
Customizable and set of best practice recommendations for common defnitions and terminology, to lev-
erage performance in the IT sector; best defne ITIL or Information Technology Infrastructure Library.
It is a framework of the globally accepted IT sector practices for IT service management.
The parameters that defne ITIL insist on having consistent, documented and repeatable processes to
better serve the businesses aligned with IT.
It is like an interface between the business and the technology and works on elements like business
perspective, service management, service support, service delivery, security management and ICT struc-
ture.
ITIL has been promoted as a standard for IT service management.
It is similar to Information Services Procurement Library (ISPL), Application Services Library (ASL),
Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM), and Control Objectives for Information and related
Technology (COBIT).
The process-model view of controlling and managing business processes defne ITIL.
How to Effectively Use an ITIL Interactive Process Map
Information Technology Infrastructure Library or ITIL has long defned the best practices in the IT indus-
try.
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ITIL is an excellent guide on how an organization can go about planning, implementing, maintaining and
improving the quality of service that an IT company delivers to its clients and customers.
Naturally, each organization has a different set of objectives but the good thing about ITIL is that the
guidelines and framework is not followed to the letter.
Instead, they can be defned according to the needs of your organization.
One of the best ways for you to have a deeper understanding of the ITIL language is with the use of an
ITIL interactive process map.
Here, you will be given a wide array of activity sequences involving the different levels and areas of IT
service management.
For example, a Service Delivery Manager who is ITIL certifed will know what to do when developing
service catalogs, establishing contracts, as well as monitoring, reporting and analyzing service levels all
with the help of an ITIL interactive process map.
Using this helpful tool, an IT manager can modify existing process models easily rather than starting from
scratch.
Also, he can easily document the processes using the ITIL models and document templates to ensure
that effcient IT services will be provided to the clients.
Finally, with an ITIL interactive process map, you will be given a set of user-friendly ITIL tools and know-
how’s regarding your projects on IT process management, which all aim to improve your company and
your business as a whole.
ITIL V3 Service Operation Book
By focusing on delivery and control process activities, a highly desirable, steady state of managing ser-
vices can be achieved on a day-to-day basis.
To ensure it is integrated with the rest of the ITIL library, guidance is based on a selection of familiar ser-
vice support and service delivery control points.
Concepts and guidance in the Service Operation publication include: Application ManagementChange
ManagementOperations ManagementControl processes and functionsScaleable practicesMeasurement
and control
ISO9000 ITIL
ISO9000 ITIL ITIL is a framework that standardizes the IT service management.
Quality management of IT services describes the ISO9000 ITIL relationship.
This means the conjugation of the two will guide the organizations in planning and implementing a qual-
ity IT management system.
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The ISO9000 ITIL conjugation, besides defning the procedures involved, dependencies and the partici-
pating people, also, establishes methods for post-implementation activities and audits in order to attain a
continuous level of quality.
The ISO9000 ITIL implemented to the service support processes involve aspects like confguration man-
agement, service desk/incident management, problem management, change management and release
management.
Besides it also oversees the service delivery processes such as service level management, availabil-
ity management, capacity management, fnancial management of IT services and IT service continuity
management.
Implementation of ITIL can speed up the process of attaining ISO9000 certifcation.
The ISO9000 ITIL conjugation helps you reach the desired and mandatory levels of quality.
The Importance of ITIL certifcations
The ITIL is a series of documents created by the UK government to promote and implement an effcient
framework for IT service management (also called ITSM).
This framework defnes and organizes a system of network management within individual user organiza-
tions.
It is devoted to establishing consistency in standards that helps businesses improve on their core com-
petencies by letting certifed ITIL personnel handle their IT infrastructure in-house.
There are three levels under ITIL certifcation.
First is the Foundation Certifcate, second is the Practitioner Certifcate, and third is the Manager s Cer-
tifcate.
The Foundation Certifcate is awarded to a person who understands the terms used within the world of
ITIL.
It focuses upon the basic knowledge applied to Information Technology Infrastructure Library services,
support and service delivery; as well as the general ITIL philosophy and background.
It is a mandatory certifcate that you need to attain before you may aspire to both the Practitioner and the
Manager s certifcates in IT Service Management.
The Practitioner Certifcate focuses upon your understanding of the function of a specifc process within
the IT service management discipline.
Having a Practitioner Certifcate implies that you are a specialist in design and implementation of ITIL
procedures.
The last certifcate called The Manager s Certifcate goes to the most experienced professionals who are
involved in managerial service functions.
They are responsible for the set-up and execution of ITIL from the top down.
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Relying on ITIL will help organizations keep their costs to a minimum; assure quick results; segregate
staff concerned with technical issues from those who are of a non-technical capacity; and be able to
have the ability to measure technical support performance.
IT Asset Management Service
IT asset management services, popularly known as asset management is a set of practices that com-
bines fnancial, contractual and the inventory operations.
It helps support the life cycle management and strategic decision for the IT sector.
In addition, it keeps track of the software and hardware assets that often forms part of the business envi-
ronment.
The basic objective of the asset management services is to enable an agency to meet its objectives
concerning the service delivery in an effective manner.
Functions of IT asset management services: An effective IT asset management performs several es-
sential tasks such as follows: - It ensures the proper usage and maintenance of IT based assets, thereby
making most of their service potential. - It minimizes the demand for new assets without eating into your
budget through non-asset service delivery alternatives and effective management techniques. - It adds
value for money by evaluating several economic options that take into account life cycle and complete
costs, involvement in the private sector and value management techniques. - It helps reduce the unwant-
ed acquisition of assets by updating the agencies with information related to the payment of the entire
cost of holding and using of assets. - It focuses on the results by assigning responsibility, accountability
and reporting requirements in a specifed manner.
Your ITIL Foundation Coverage
To be able to compete to the wide range of people or businesses engaged in IT Service Management,
you or your company should realized that accreditation would be the best thing to do, in order to take the
lead in the industry.
Inasmuch as ITIL has been widely accepted worldwide, you need to be abreast with the present system.
How well you know about ITIL will certainly counts.
Attendance to an ITIL Foundation Course would be your best move.The ITIL Foundations covers the
concepts, terms objectives, defnitions, benefts and relationships within core IT service management
processes and functions, according to ITIL.
It aims to prepare participants for an examination that if passed would entitle participants to acquire the
Foundation Certifcate in IT Service Management.
The ITIL Foundation Certifcate is given to those who have successfully completed an examination
administered by an accredited third party (EG EXIN).Areas that should be covered by ITIL Foundation
Course are the following:1) Service Management processes covers the service desk area.
The understanding of the role and functions in the IT structures and its relationship 2.Service Sup-
265
port processes covers the area on Incident Management, Problem Management, Confguration
Management,Change Management and Release Management. 3.Service Delivery Processes covers the
area on Service Level Management, Financial Management for IT Services, Availability Management,
Capacity Management and IT Service Continuity Management It should be noted that preparation for the
ITIL Foundation exam may be done through attendance to classroom session where there is interaction
between students and instructor, web based foundation preparatory course where it is self-paced learn-
ing and cost effective or through self-study.
Whatever your choice will be, your ITIL Foundation Certifcate is your ticket to the world of IT Service
Management
Peep Into An ITIL Managers Certifcate Exam Blog
The ITIL managers certifcate exam is a serious course which is intended to help IT service managers to
be aware of the need to have in-depth knowledge and gain more practical understanding in ITIL process-
es, whether they are organizational or process-oriented.
Practical oriented courses leading one to be trained in the ITIL managers certifcate include activities
such as role-playing and case studies, which aim both to test and improve the managerial skills of the
participants.
One of the main objectives to be born in mind when training a service manager is to provide the neces-
sary practical information and skills in planning, management, implementation and improvement of ITIL
service support and service delivery processes.
Moreover, there are other key objectives in training a service manager which are: understanding the
foundation of all the best ITIL practices; being aware of the importance of IT service management; being
able to do impact analysis; determining organizational improvement; and preparation for future certifca-
tions.
Part of the certifcation process consists of an in-course assessment.
Before you may obtain a manager s certifcate in IT service management, the in-course assessment
must have satisfactory results.
Assessment ensures the candidate possesses the skills that are necessary for him to function as a man-
ager in IT organization, or perhaps as a consultant.
Having an ITIL foundation certifcate under your belt, and possessing good writing and speaking skill,
as well as being blessed with two or more years of experience as a professional manager or consultant
in the IT management feld are all necessary prerequisites for one planning on taking the managerial
certifcate.
The main objective of these managerial certifcate exams are for exam takers to obtain knowledge in
managing, recording and improving ITIL processes; be able to describe IT service management process-
es; be able to implement changing processes; and of course having adequate verbal and writing skills to
permit creation of coherent reports, memos and project plans.
All these are considered important for one to be able to imbibe the important skills that are required to
become a successful service manager.
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ITIL, Quality Manager
ITIL, Quality Manager Each and every department in an IT company requires a good Quality Manager.
Quality manager should have a complete sense of the products and services that are produced in the
company.
What sells in the market is a good quality product and this is exactly what the ITIL quality manager en-
sures.
He has to keep a standard and within that standard measure the output of the company.
ITIL quality manager has the responsibility of reporting the quality standard to the head of the company
and if there is any need for correction the message is forwarded o the production department.
The work of the ITIL quality manager is not only confned to products but services as well.
He has to make sure that the quality of communication, service support and service delivery is according
to standards.
ITIL Methodology
ITIL Methodology Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) is a collection of best practices that
have been developed over the course of time.
There is no fxed formula but a general framework defning ITIL methodology.
The purpose of ITIL framework is to provide an effective level of computing services to the IT industry.
Management of IT services has become very essential these days and there is an exhaustive structure
determined for particular job.
A complete ITIL methodology is divided in 7 broad categories that are further divided in sections popu-
larly known as disciplines.
Service Delivery, Service Support, Planning and Implement service Management, Security Management,
Information and Communications Technology (ITC) Infrastructure Management, the Business Perspec-
tive and Application Management.
ITIL methodology itself is amongst the many frameworks that are still in practice at many places.
ITIL is considered to be very fexible and it is the best when adapted according to the situation in the
company.
Prince2 and ITIL - Making a Difference in the IT
Industry
Prince2 and ITIL works hand in hand in seeing to it that projects are done within the scope of certain
standards and best practices.
267
ITIL, which stands for Information Technology Infrastructure Library, holds a set of practices and con-
cepts that are used to manage the development, infrastructure and operations of Information Technology
(IT).
As you can see, ITIL has a broader scope as it encompasses every single thing that is IT-related, from
service delivery and support, to other major functions that include problem management, change man-
agement and availability management among others.
The area where Prince2 is used mostly on ITIL is ICT Infrastructure Management, specifcally on ICT
Deployment Management.
This area of ITIL provides a structure for the successful management of various activities involved in an
ICT project.
These processes include designing, building, testing and rolling the product out to consumers.
Following the Prince2 processes and principles will defnitely make ICT projects successful.However, it is
a must that appropriate planning is done before anything else.
In a Prince2 environment, planning has always been a part of the process so as to ensure if there is re-
ally a need for a certain project to be done.
In the market today, a lot of innovations have been introduced, each promises to provide convenience to
consumers.
But you may also have noticed that some products that after a couple of months of release, they are no
longer a hit to the market, simply because due to lack of value and importance.
It is a fact that consumers are getting smarter and so project proposals should also follow.
This is where ITIL and Prince2 stand, that every thing should be carefully planned and executed towards
customer satisfaction.
What covers the ITIL Framework?
As a business organization adapts ITIL, it should be understood that ITIL documents are not just the best
practices but it also embodies framework and methodology.
The ITIL also covers complete scope of people, processes, products and the use of partners called as
ITIL framework.
The ITIL Framework provides modules that show the overall scenario and structure of ITIL.
From the ITIL Framework it will show that the business environment is closely aligned with the Business
Perspective Module and technology with the ICT Infrastructure management module.
The Service Delivery and Service Support modules are in the heart of the ITIL Framework process.
The following are the seven modules that comprise the ITIL Framework:1) Service Delivery: includes the
required process in planning, specifcally on the long term planning of improving the delivery of quality IT
268
service. 2.Service Support: covers the day-to-day support and maintenance functions in the IT services.
3.IT Infrastructure Management (IT IM): covers the work from identifying the business requirements from
the bidding process, to the testing, installation, deployment, and ongoing operation and optimization of
the IT components and IT services. 4.Planning to Implement Service Management: covers the areas in
planning, implementing and improving service management processes of the organization. 5.Application
Management: describes how to manage applications.
From the start of business need, through the application of lifecycle, up to retirement. 6.The Business
Perspective: includes advice and guidance for IT personnel to better understand on how they can con-
tribute to the attainment of the business objective to maximize proft. 7) Security Management: includes
the defnition of the level of security information and IT services.
It is only through the understanding of the ITIL Framework, an organization will appreciate the use of
ITIL.
What Is IT Governance?
Governance is very important in IT investments, service delivery and change projects.
Application of governance in systems can actually help us in managing and giving solutions to common
IT problems.
IT governance is used to explain the different processes and procedures in decision making and spend-
ing money.
With IT governance you will be able to prioritize and defend why you made such investments in your
company.
You can now control and budget your fnances well.
IT governance is utilized in various aspects in IT change.
This is often used in project management and controlling of portfolio on projects.
It makes sure that the processes in IT change meet the needs of regulatory requirements.
IT governance covers the deployment of IT staff and organizes the expenses and changes to align with
the business plan.
IT governance is a division of Corporate Governance that concentrates on IT systems, risk management
and how they perform.
Usually managing IT by board level directors is passed to IT professionals.
IT governance means that stake holders, board members, fnance executives and internal customers are
part of the decision making process.
Now the stakeholders, most commonly the IT department, are not the only one to be blamed for the poor
decisions that may take place.
In this way you can get rid of users from complaining that the system is not working as they have ex-
269
pected.
IT governance is an essential tool to effectively improve your IT system and successfully align your busi-
ness goals to serve your clients effciently.
IT Services Price List Process: Service Level
Management
Status: In draft
Under Review
Sent for Approval
Approved
Rejected

Version: <<your version>>

Release Date:

Price List Considerations for Service Level Management
The document is not to be considered an extensive statement as its topics have to be generic enough to
suit any reader for any organization.
However, the reader will certainly be reminded of the key topics that have to be considered.
This document serves as a GUIDE FOR DETERMINING THE PRICE OF IT SERVICE DELIVERY TO
CUSTOMERS.
This document provides a basis for completion within your own organization.

There are three (3) considerations to review when looking to establish the prices for IT Services that are
delivered.
It is the combination of these areas that will help the Service Level Manager (along with the process
owner for Financial Management for IT Services) set and negotiate pricing for IT Service delivery.
These considerations are:
1) The degree of IT costs that are expected to be recovered
Such a decision will generally come from a business policy regarding cost recovery for other shared
services.
For example, if Human Resources department aims to recover all costs from the departments or user
groups it supports, it is likely that this will also apply to IT.
2) The degree that IT wants to change consumption patterns of customers and users
There is no surer thing.
Once services start to cost, then behaviors will change and demand will decrease.
270
Of course, the major challenge of looking to use pricing to infuence (drive down) consumption is the
major resistance that can be expected.
3) Budget infuence
Careful and well articulated pricing for IT Services allows better predictions regarding the expected
budget required for a future time period.
This positive infuence helps reduce the number of unexpected surprises that can often happen when
budget funds cannot support requirements.
Use the following table with examples to help determine which IT Services will be charged for in your
organization and the basis upon which you will levy that charge.
Chargeable Item (examples) Ancillary Services Cost basis
Sales transaction Network connection Personal Computer File server processing
Simple cost per transaction, or;
Cost per speed of processing, or;
Cost per size of transaction
E-mail sent Network connection to mail server Personal Computer Internet connection
Per unit, or;
Stored limit, or;
Mail items in the “inbox”
An important point to consider regarding the pricing of services is the case when a customer claims that
they can buy the service cheaper from an external provider.
While this may be the case, the overall impact on the organization may be negative, so it may be neces-
sary to impose restrictions regarding purchase of external services when suitable internal services are
available.
Once the pricing differential is identifed, a controlled process of (a) reducing costs or (b) outsourcing to
an external provider can be carried out.
The fnal point to consider regarding the price of IT Services is whether actual funds transfer will take
place or if charges are just imaginary (or “nominal”).
Nominal charging allows customers to see the costs of the IT Services they consume, but they are not
expected to transfer funds from their cost centers to the IT department.
This method can have a low impact in that without transferring funds, the effect on behavior may be
negligible.
Service Operation Functions
“Know your role, do your job”
Team motto describing the goal for every player, coach, and general staff member of the Kansas City
Chiefs.
Functions refer to the people (or roles) and automated measures that execute a defned process, an
activity, or combination of both.
The functions within Service Operation are needed to manage the ‘steady state’ operation IT environ-
ment.
Just like in sports where each player will have a specifc role to play in the overall team strategy, IT func-
271
tions defne the different roles and responsibilities required for the overall Service Delivery and Support
of IT Services.
Note: These are logical functions, which are not necessarily performed by equivalent organizational
structure.
Due to this, any combination and any number of departments can include aspects of Technical and Ap-
plication Management.
Technical Management includes activities that are performed by the lower groupings (EG, Mainframe,
Server), which are not suggested organizational structures.
ITIL Demo Process: The Jigsaw Diagram
Companies adopting ITIL best practices are on the rise because it is a proven cost- effective, effcient
way for IT managers to maximize the control their IT infrastructure.
The ITIL process follows two diagrams: ITIL Jigsaw and the ITIL BS15000) The ITIL process demo
diagram explained below is the Jigsaw Diagram and is one of the two diagrams used by ITIL training
schools today.The Jigsaw Diagram shows fve principal elements of ITIL drawn like a jigsaw puzzle.
The concept of this ITIL process demo diagram is that the major elements of ITIL can be linked together
like a jigsaw puzzle--some of the pieces may ft perfectly and some may not.
The overlapping pieces represent the need to integrate each process of the diagram.
They are the business perspective, service delivery, service support, ICT infrastructure management and
applications managementThe business perspective illustrates the strategic level of the ITIL Jigsaw and
will discuss issues on continuity management, partnerships, change survival and change in business
practice.Service delivery covers the management of the applications in a tactical level and will include
capacity management, fnancial management for IT services, service level management, availability
management and continuity of IT service.
If continuous service delivery is important, service support will equally be just as important because it will
ensure that the customer or user has continuous access to the IT service.
Service support covers the service desk, incident, problem, confguration, release and change manage-
ment.ICT infrastructure management is the core of service delivery and support while the applications
management identifes the issues of change and will provide a solution to the situation.The Jigsaw
Diagram is an ITIL process demo diagram which shows how different pieces can ft together to form one
common goal.
Will ITIL V5 still have Capacity Management as a
process? Or is it replaced by Cloud Management?
Cloud Computing & Scalability Issues computing in general is the ability of various apps and web objects
to effectively scale up or down in order to match the system that they’re running on; the goal being to
provide equal (or near equal) access to everyone connected to the cloud.
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Most individuals seem to be adrift in the belief that all scalability issues are automatically dealt with by
the cloud itself; this is O ne of the most pertinent issues facing cloud certainly not the case at all.
Many cloud networks may be set up to grant certain individuals access to greater amounts of system
resources than other cloud users.
These kinds of setups can cause scalability issues as well.
But most of the time scalability issues are just an expression of too many individuals accessing the same
data at the same time.
This is a signifer that data delivery capabilities might need to be signifcantly upgraded.
What is Scalability in Cloud Computing? -- Cloud Computing killed the Capacity star I know - my
thoughts are not completely fnished yet, so I am not ready to put it in a presentation to attack the confer-
ence / speaking circuit but I am sure I am on to something!!!! Just like that song in the 1980’s “Video
killed the radio Star”, we will be thinking about Capacity Management quite differently a few years from
now...
There may still be a need for it but in a completely different way, and for different audiences..
After all, we still listen to the radio and not everybody watches MTV-music videos! Will ITIL®1 V5 still
have Capacity Management as a process? Or is it replaced by Cloud Management? the networking
cocktail party on Monday.
That morning Eric had explained how Nortel transitioned their IT strategy.
This was needed partially due to the way the world is changing and turning towards hyperconnectivity.
Examples of hyperconnectivity he gave are the 4-fold increase of Internet commerce transactions, the
amount of new Facebook registrations each day and NIKE wif shoes.
Eric also discussed how Nortel implemented a unifed communications strategy where the desktop is
completely integrated with telephony (voip) and other cool things.
In the afternoon there was a panel to T his was the discussion I had Are we really going to need Capac-
ity Management in the future? discuss the balance between capacity, resource and cost.
Anyway those were the triggers for the discussion.
So with our rapidly changing industry and the fact that this change is not just the change in technology,
but also the change in customer demands and expectations - are we really going to need Capacity Man-
agement in the future? Clients want access to an IT service and they want it NOW - this is what they are
used to in the consumer technology market...
And with the options of Cloud Computing, SaaS, virtualization and other web-based services we can
pretty much deliver everything our clients want....
Within their expectations for timeframe...
So why bother with capacity management? Well - because you still need to have an idea of where the
company is going; what are the corporate objectives, what is important to the bottom line of the com-
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pany, what type of service are they going to need in the future? So you will probably always need to do
Business Capacity Management (the future looking part of the process).
The nitty gritty part of the process - the routine activities of monitoring, measuring and analysing utiliza-
tion and performance of individual components will probably not be as important anymore in the future.
All that stuff is dealt with at the supplier side.
The ‘cloud’ ...
You don’t control those components so you don’t need to perfomance manage them.
The internal IT shop will need to manage the performance of the web-based services -- the outcomes of
that service, that is! So a much closer link to Service Level Management than we currently have.
And probably closely linked to supplier and vendor management as we Are we really going to need Ca-
pacity Management in the future? currently know it in outsourcing situations.
So I don’t think the process will be eliminated or deleted from the framework, but the activities to be
performed will change.
You can’t stop the control activities but you can eliminate a lot of the operational activities.
Interesting times coming our way! -- he title is a little ‘tongue in cheek’ but the message is still true: Yes-
terday we got hit by a massive storm and due to this we have not had any power in our house since 5pm
yesterday afternoon (it is now 12pm).
So almost 20 hours and counting...
When I just spoke to our security lady she mentioned that the ‘blackout’ could take up to 48 hours! After
my initial shock - and some quick calculations of the value of the content in our freezers that is now
slowly defrosting, I started thinking about the effects this has on our service delivery: • My husband’s
laptop and Internet connection runs of the main power and can’t be used at the moment.
My laptop has internal mobile internet access so in theory should be able to work for at least 4 hours or
so on the battery.
Our exchange server and fle server in the offce shut down during the storm as well so nobody in the
offce could get to their emails and server directories. The benefts of Cloud Computing in relation to
Climate change...
Not a good scenario really - and with the current climate change the experts are forecasting more of
these storms to hit in the coming summer season...
They are even speculating of a possible hurricane / cyclone to hit South East Queensland! What can we
do to improve our Service delivery capability: • Purchase backup generators to ensure ongoing power
during these blackouts.
Purchase backup batteries to go into the laptops as a fail over system.
Purchase another mobile Internet connection for the other laptop.
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And then it hit me: OR...
We can use cloud computing as our solution! With cloud computing you don’t need to worry about your
laptop or desktop...
You can go to any Internet cafe that still has power and access all your data from there! All your emails
are stored offsite so your exchange server is not affected by this power outage at all because it is in a
different area! OK, OK - you still need power to run a computer or laptop but you are not restricted by
location.
When the power is out in one location, you simply move to another one where this is power.
It’s very simple really...
If only there was an easy solution to my defrosting meat issue...
Barbecue anyone?! PS: when we follow ITIL Service Continuity Management processes we should have
thought of all of this beforehand, I know that...
But let’s say we decided NOT to put any countermeasures in place for a ‘once in 2 decade’ chance.
Green IT - pie in the sky? No...
Head for the clouds! important ‘tool’ in the aim for Green IT.
Reason for this is that cloud computing makes a lot of things easier to manage - sometimes even easier
than when you have your IT internal..
And because most people follow the path of least resistance, the opportunities for Cloud Computing are
almost without bound.
So what will happen? Organizations will consolidate their own internal datacentres and use virtualization
techniques to achieve this.
Many Software applications will be purchased (or rented) on a ‘pay per use’ basis through SaaS solu-
tions.
And additional storage space and temporary capacity will be added through Amazon S3 and similar of-
ferings.
What does this mean for the internal IT organisation? • Consolidation of internal datacentres means that
there is less foor space needed for the servers etc.
Or that we can offer more services with the same foorspace.
It means that rather than purchasing new servers who use electricity and need cooling, we utilize what
we already have.
T he more I discuss the possibilities of Cloud Computing with people the more I am getting convinced
that this will become an Green IT - pie in the sky? No...
Head for the clouds! -- Cloud computing or rather...
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Computing in the cloud global roaming plan?? This will probably only be on domestic fights as I can’t
imagine the legal battles you will have to fght in relation to sales taxes when you start offering this to
international fights...
Or would this be part of the on board duty free shopping?! Is switching off a bad thing? What will hap-
pen to our emotional state? I must admit that I enjoy the fact that in a plane I can’t log onto the Internet, I
can’t check my emails and I can read a girly novel without feeling guilty..
I don’t have to do any business related activities and I can switch off my brain because I have an excuse!
It is my ultimate relaxation...
But when there is the option of wireless Internet I know I will take it and I continue to answer emails,
write blogs, articles etc...
So even though with my company we educate our clients on the benefts of hyperconnectivity, cloud
computing and IT Service Management in general, I must admit that sometimes I feel that it is better that
there are times where you cannot work on your laptop, you cannot get connected to the Internet, and not
be in touch with other people. (and usually I don’t talk to the people who sit next to me on the plane...
Hence the girly novel!) As business people we all need time to refect, time to completely distance our-
selves from our business, our clients and partners...
We need time to recharge our business battery and to take a helicopter view on everything that is hap-
pening.
And reading a trashy girly novel can give you some amazing business ideas...
Trust me! It is a great strategy to build your business. (but that is a different blog entry altogether!!) ITIL
Information Security Management - the facebook way acronym CIA: Confdentiality, Integrity, Availability
of data and associated systems, service assets etc.
What we discuss is that information has to be dealt with in a very cautious manner as there are a lot of
potential legal implications when you don’t manage this correctly.
Think about breaching of privacy laws and regulations for instance.
This goes to the extent of sample data for test scripts: are you allowed to take a sample from the pro-
duction database, or do you need to create a fctional sample due to the sensitivity of the information?
In order to manage this properly, you need to discuss with the Customers what their service level needs
and requirements are and based on this, come up with a security baseline.
A minimum level of security that will guarantee the levels of CIA required to deliver the IT Services to our
clients as per the agreed service levels.
With this in the back of my mind I am just amazed with the stunt that Facebook pulled last week: As per
the 4th of 09 they W hen I teach my students about the ITIL process of Information security Manage-
ment the biggest concept to teach is the ITIL Information Security Management - the facebook way
changed their Terms of Service (read SLA) without notifying the users in advance... (strike 1) The new
TOS stipulates that ALL content placed on Facebook, including - but not limited to- photos are owned by
Facebook.
This includes information that are contained in (backups of ) closed accounts (strike 2) AND Facebook
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retains the right to do whatever they want with this material.
Including - but not limited to using your image AND name as part of advertising campaigns (strike 3).
So basically, Facebook is doing everything wrong when you compare it to the formal ITIL Framework of
good IT Service practices.
Availability of content is not just about having it available; it is just as much about keeping certain infor-
mation UNavailable.
You should only be able to get to the information on a ‘need to know’ basis.
Also, what Facebook is doing is playing straight into the cards of everybody who is opposed to Cloud
Computing practices.
You can just wait for the blogs to appear with titles like: “I told you so, cloud computing is NOT secure”..
A great opportunity for better value for money in the form of Software as a Service, Platform as a Ser-
vice, Hosted Services and other cloud computing related service offerings has now been compromised.
Companies who are ethical and have a high level of integrity and who WANT to offer cloud computing
services to its clients will have a more diffcult sales job to do because of the stunt that Facebook pulled
this month.
Because: “When Facebook can do something like this, what to say that you are not?!” So what can we
do about this? well..
Nothing really: it’s a case of ‘too little too late’ as information on Facebook’s databases and ITIL Informa-
tion Security Management - the facebook way backups can still be used at random.
Even when you close your account and delete your information, it may still be available on backups.
Why do I care? That was a question I asked myself this morning when I read a waterfall of twitter entries
about the updated Facebook Terms of Services.
Initially, I didn’t think much of it as I work on the principle that everything I put on the internet will end up
somewhere and nothing is really private anyway.
But I drew the line when I read the sentence that I made bold in the license paragraph taken from the
Terms of Service: • Licenses - You are solely responsible for the User Content that you Post on or
through the Facebook Service.
You hereby grant Facebook an irrevocable, perpetual, non-exclusive, transferable, fully paid, worldwide
license (with the right to sublicense) to (a) use, copy, publish, stream, store, retain, publicly perform or
display, transmit, scan, reformat, modify, edit, frame, translate, excerpt, adapt, create derivative works
and distribute (through multiple tiers), any User Content you (i) Post on or in connection with the Fa-
cebook Service or the promotion thereof subject only to your (http://www.facebook.com/privacy/) or (ii)
enable a user to Post, including by offering a Share Link on your website and (b) to use your name,
likeness and image for any purpose, including commercial or advertising, each of (a) and (b) on or in
connection with the Facebook Service or the promotion thereof.
You represent and warrant that you have all rights and permissions to grant the foregoing licenses. ITIL
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Information Security Management - the facebook way I do not wish for my face, name and other per-
sonal information to be used for a marketing campaign or commercial or advertising without my explicit
approval.
I mean: the chance of this actually happening is minuscule but still.....
This is where I draw the line.
I just don’t know what to do, apart from removing all photos and lay low for a few years to let this blow
over...
Maybe they use annual incremental backups so with a bit of luck I will be safe in about 18 months or so.
Is this the end of an era? Will Cloud Computing separate the “boys from the men”? owner of a niche spe-
cialist IT provider for the retail industry (http:// www.retailcare.com.au) about the effect Cloud Computing
has and will have on this part of the IT industry.
The discussion really started when somebody asked about our experience with migrating from Exchange
based email services to Google apps based services.
And Scott made a valid point: the small IT support shop around the corner that services the Small Busi-
ness segment will really feel the change in the market.
Ask yourself the question...
Seriously...
If you had to start all over again, and set up IT systems for your business, would you purchase propri-
etary software or would you start off with Google Apps for your email, word processing, basic spread-
sheets, intranet pages, etc? H ad an interesting discussion today at lunch with the owner of an IT support
company in Brisbane (http://itleaders.com.au) and the Is this the end of an era? I know what I would do..
We did it a few months ago: we no longer use Microsoft Exchange Server.
We no longer need the IT support that goes with managing email ID’s etc.
That could amount up to a massive cost saving for the small business owner, but what will it mean for
the small IT shop?!?! The only way to succeed in this industry (imho) is to be amazing with your services.
Your clients will want to stay with you - not for the money, but for the unparalleled service which they
can NOT get anywhere else! Technology is replaceable for something with the exact same features and
benefts - service is not. ITIL framework like tide in the ocean? or is this start of a tsunami?! And I’ll tell
you why: in the ‘80s and ‘90s ITIL came up from a mainframe / Datacenter centric IT delivery model and
it worked really well.
This type of IT infrastructure really thrived on the structure and disciplines offered by the ITIL framework.
As such, the ITIL framework became very popular and offered lots of value to many IT organisations
worldwide.
It created improvements in service stability, customer satisfaction, effciencies and as a result better
value for money.
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But then came the Client/Server delivery model and ITIL moved out of the datacenter into the generic IT
realm; broadening its reach into network support and application management and maintenance.
IT became more visible to the average business employee through the desktop interface.
The desktop was a separate ‘organism’ and so much more than the terminals we had before.
There where so many more things that could go wrong; connections could break, mechanical things
could stop working and software was added that made the entire system quite vulnerable to issues,
problems and downright failure.
To this date I feel that many W here am I going with this? Well...I am starting to see the frst lead indica-
tors of a changing trend in the use of the ITIL framework. ITIL framework like tide in the ocean? or is
this start of a tsunami?! IT Professionals are still unclear on how exactly ITIL can help them in their daily
tasks of maintaining a piece of equipment, infrastructure or software application.
We all know that ITIL is good for us - that we can only beneft from structures and discipline - but when
you ask the average technical IT professional they can’t tell you exactly how ITIL will help them with their
part of the job.
And that’s where theory and real life differ: the books say that ITIL touches all areas of the IT organisa-
tion, and I personally believe that this is true, but in real life there are many areas where technical exper-
tise and ad-hoc problem solving is needed on a day-to-day basis.
And then came cloud computing.
More and more organisations are using cloud based solutions for their IT Service delivery.
Storage is in the cloud, Processing capability in the cloud and through server and desktop virtualization
we have basically come full circle to a scenario where IT Service delivery is handled by specialist groups
and companies that manage a large Datacenter.
All IT Services are consumed via thin client or Zero client appliances which look remarkably like a mobile
version of the ‘old’ mainframe terminals...
Am I saying that ITIL is no longer needed? NO ITIL is needed - probably more so than ever, and that is
what I mean by the Tsunami in the title of this article.
But ITIL will retract into the dungeons of IT Service Delivery where the structure and disciplines are
needed to consistently manage multi tenanted servers where the customer dependency is 1 to many.
ITIL is needed more than ever because one simple mistake or oversight will ITIL framework like tide
in the ocean? or is this start of a tsunami?! have massive implications for multiple services delivered to
multiple clients and their end users.
The interdependence between services becomes more important and as a result of this the need for ITIL
processes.
Maybe Cloud Computing will be the saving grace for the ITIL framework because it is clear again what
the value add is of the framework and the guidance; it becomes a logical part of managing the services
and because clients expect ‘always on’ IT Services the business case for ITIL Service Management is
simple.
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Let the experts deal with the technology while the business enjoys the experience.
The tsunami happens in the datacenter and the IT groups, while the consumers of IT Services enjoy a
relaxing day at the beach...
An experience that matches exactly the description in the brochure based on which they purchased the
service in the frst place. Lessons learnt from running Cloud Computing without ITIL Processes enable
more streamlined customer interaction and more effciency in account management.
The CRM software we used didn’t work the way we wanted it and after some research (mainly because
we used Microsoft Exchange with Outlook as an email client) we looked to start using MS Dynamic CRM
as our contact and account management software.
Because of the nature of our business I didn’t want software on the server in the offce so we opted to
sign up for a SaaS / hosted solution.
This seemed to be the best of both worlds: • No upfront large capital expenditure.
Pay as you Go, no long term contracts.
Internet based, so we have access to customer data no matter where we are in the world.
Well - not such a good story, I’m afraid ...
The company we signed up with didn’t realise or understand that when you provide hosted solutions, O
nce upon a time, really not that long ago...
Approximately 3 years to be exact....
I wanted to improve our business processes to Lessons learnt Software as a Service or ANY cloud
based services....
You really need to be very mature in your IT Service Management Processes.
Or at the very least your communication with the clients has to be exceptional.
This company didn’t seem to have any of these disciplines in place..
There was no upfront communication with clients on planned maintenance and on a regular basis we
didn’t have access to our customer data on the weekend or came into the offce on Monday morning to
fnd out that the server upgrades or patches hadn’t worked on the weekend....
Leaving us stranded as the offine version wasn’t confgured properly with MS Vista (for whatever reason
this seemed to be extremely diffcult to do.).
And with the type of business that we are (and we discussed this with this provider prior to signing up
with them) we really needed 24x6 availability because our workweek runs until Saturday afternoon
around 3pm due to the US timezones...
So a planned unavailability on Friday evening or Saturday morning was quite disruptive to our busi-
ness...
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Yes, I agree that I was probably a highly demanding client (those of you who know me personally are not
surprised by this statement!) ; due to the business that I run I don’t accept mediocre service levels from
anybody..
I know things can be better and I expect to see clear improvement processes.
After the second issue, I told them that my company specialises in IT Service Management education
and that I’d be more than happy to come over to their offce to give their IT staff an overview of ITIL and
ITSM and how it could help them in their service levels and customer satisfaction.
They declined. Lessons learnt As the client their service delivery came across as being very ad hoc and
not well managed at all...
Didn’t give me the confdence that my client data and contacts where in safe hands.
As the ultimate control freak that I am, this didn’t sit very well with me. (and that is even without discuss-
ing the fact that we PAID for this service..
In the understanding and expectation that we would have access to our customer data when we needed
it. ) I mean - isn’t that IT on demand? It culminated in a disastrous Server upgrade (which we were NOT
notifed about) that went horribly wrong, with servers crumbling, dying...
Raid arrays packing it in and corrupted data fles.
To top it all off, this company only did a full backup every 4 weeks and had to revert back to this backup
to restore from...
Needless to say I terminated the contract and looked for another solution..
Whereas before a local presence and specialisation in hosted service was important, NOW we realised
that reputation and proven ability to provide availability of service was on the top of my selection list! (PS
- while I typed this I checked the company’s website...
And it only seems to be a placeholder with no content anymore..
Maybe they no longer exist?) This is only one example of a small company terminating its contract with a
cloud computing service provider....
Just imagine the implications and political fallout when this would have happened to a government de-
partment moving towards Cloud Based Services (and you know...
This sort of stuff ALWAYS happens in an election year). Lessons learnt Lessons learnt: • An IT Service
mis-managed is an IT Service mis managed..
Whether the IT Service is delivered locally in house or via Cloud based technology.
ITSM will be the saving grace for many Cloud Based Service Delivery companies.
NOT having ITIL or ITSM Processes will have a much bigger impact on business continuity because of
the larger scale and exposure.
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As client you are very concerned about privacy and security of your data and content...
As the IT provider it is double important to manage expectations and placate nerves at the client site. •
When you have a hosted or cloud based solution, try to have the offine version available to you (to miti-
gate the risk of not having access at all when the internet connection is unavailable). • Be demanding as
a client. ( I didn’t manage the project well enough...
I did NOT ask to see the SLA before signing up to the contract and it turned out that the service availabil-
ity was defned as 95% ping to the server .).
How does the company manage their continuity of services? What is their methodology, what is their
proven track record? Ask about the values and policies of the company; what is important to them? Even
when you are a small client to this supplier - what service approach do they use? Does ITIL still cover all
Service Management aspects when you utilize Cloud Computing? T his week I have been engaged in an
email discussion on the subject of the limits of ITIL when it is used in a cloud computing environment.
Should there be an extension to ITIL specifc for Cloud Computing environments? (hey - idea, just
thought of this..
We could call this ITIL V3.1 or ITIL V4...
Just kidding!).
Following is the summary of some of the emails we exchanged as I thought that it might give some food
for thought for other people who work in this space.
The question: where does ITIL fall short in a Cloud Computing environment? My initial response is: no-
where...
But let me think about this a bit more…..
Does ITIL still cover all Service Management aspects This is an interesting question as it links in to two
(and probably more) factors: • Do you see ITIL as an operational framework, or as a component of IT
Service Management as a whole.
Do you see cloud computing as a collection of various internet / virtual based IT services? Cloud comput-
ing is more than only desktop or server virtualization although most organisations are working with Cloud
Computing concepts in this context.
Cloud computing is also Software as a Service, Platform as a Service and Storage as a Service, as well
as Web based (hosted) database and application services.
When you continue on this train of thought, you can also think about WHERE the ITIL framework is be-
ing utilized: at the delivery side of cloud computing services, or at the receiving side of cloud computing
services? OK –frst scenario: Let’s assume that we are part of an IT organisation that DELIVERS Cloud
Computing Services (and SaaS in particular).
Which areas of ITIL are not coherent with this delivery model? Myanswer is easy: NONE.
All components of ITIL are of interest and importance as the SaaS is a service delivery to external cus-
tomers so you need to consider all phases in the lifecycle from Strategy to Operation and CSI.
You will need to have controls and management structures in place to build a sustainable IT infrastruc-
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ture that has the ability to deliver the 226 Does ITIL still cover all Service Management aspects Soft-
ware Services as per the agreed Service Levels.
You probably need MORE controls because you always have the unknown factor of the ISP or internet
connection to deal with.
Second scenario: Virtual server environment as part of a data centre that utilizes ITIL processes for Ser-
vice Management controls.
The ‘boxes’ still have to ft in with the overall service offering, you still need to manage their entire lifecy-
cle.
Capacity management and Confguration Management are extremely important as automated sniffng
tools might have some issues with an accurate overview of the Confguration Items.
I fully agree with the fact that is only the process component of IT Service Management, and there is a
whole lot more to managing your IT Services in a consistent and quality way than to simply look at the
ITIL books.
In fact – most ITIL implementations fail to deliver any value and measurable benefts because of the
isolated focus on ITIL and not ITIL in the context of IT Service Management.
So we absolutely agree on that point.
I have attached the frst few pages of one of our Cloud Computing publications – it might inspire you.
ITIL is by no means the holy grail to fx all problems within the IT industry, but the point that I was trying
to make is that it shouldn’t make a difference how and where you get your service components – the
delivery management controls should stay the same! Mind you – I am not looking
Does ITIL still cover all Service Management aspects at this from a technical point of view..
I agree that at a technical level a lot of the activities will be (slightly) different, but when you approach this
question from a Service Management point of view it stays very much the same.
Even the RACI diagrams for most roles will be unaffected by the introduction of cloud computing ser-
vices.
One of the reasons why I feel so strongly about the need for ITIL Service Management processes with
appropriate levels of control and coordination is because I have been at the receiving end of a SaaS
service provider who clearly didn’t have those controls.
And I can tell you from personal experience that this is highly frustrating.
I am sure I will be writing about this more often... What Software Application do companies want in the
cloud? T he following question was posted in a Linkedin forum: “By 2012, according to Gartner, 20% of
your industry will be going to the cloud, OK then what software applications and in what market seg-
ment”? My answer: Hi Peter, for the last 2 years I have been following this ‘cloud computing’ phenomena
with a lot of interest.
The interest is not so much from a technology point of view, but purely from a Service Management and
business point of view.
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I feel that we’re at a point in the maturity of the IT industry that businesses can truly leverage the promise
of effciency and effectiveness through IT Services.
The thing that came to mind as an answer to your question is: Small to medium businesses will be the
winners of the cloud computing solutions.
Through the use of Saas, Paas and various hosted services, small businesses can reap the benefts of
economy of scale that they never had before.
Mobile computing, storage and processing capabilities are fexible and What Software Application do
companies want in the cloud? -- No need to fear - the private cloud is here different in 5 years from now!
Don’t become a Dodo - grow your wings and learn to fy! • Hooray for the private Cloud: Now - before
you get all depressed...
There is also something called ‘the private cloud’ and many IT Professionals grab on to this ‘compromise’
with both hands! The private cloud is ideal for larger organisations.
It can offer the benefts of subscription based IT services and ‘on demand’ delivery of IT Services without
having to go externally to an external Cloud Computing provider.
This means that the IT organisation still needs all support, maintenance and management skills.
The benefts are great for IT staff because they have a better chance of keeping their job in the current
organisation.
It also means that the business probably won’t achieve the full economic benefts and potential of Cloud
Computing Services.
It is a compromise and mostly sold by IT specialists as a ‘more secure’ offering to the business. (makes
you wonder..
Is it more secure for the business, or the IT professional?) For now this private cloud offering seems to
be the happy medium for business and IT Support teams but I’m not sure how long this will last - is it
only delaying the inevitable?? What Sao Paulo forgot to do ... (follow on from ITIL Capacity Manage-
ment) like a good idea.
However, what São Paulo forgot to do are the demand forecasting, sizing and modeling activities...
The city grew way bigger than expected and so did the use of cars.
So even WITH the restriction traffc is an absolute nightmare.
I spoke with one of the federal police people and he mentioned that São Paulo needs at least 450km of
public transport lines (mainly metro, tram, train) and they currently have 125km!! This is part of the prob-
lem - walking is not an option as it is too dangerous.
Public transport is not an option as there is not enough supply.
So people use their car and the taxi system...
So what can we learn from this as IT professionals? Well, I think we can improve the way we do our
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capacity planning in a number of ways: A few days ago I wrote about the license plate based restriction
on car use in São Paulo.
And you must agree that in theory this sounds.
What Sao Paulo forgot to do Business focus Whatever we do in the IT department should be in line with
business strategy, business growth and business expectations.
At the absolute minimum, review your capacity plan every year.
The Signifcant Role of ITIL Management
It is mandatory for a management team to display a high level of commitment and competence to help
an organization navigate its way to success.
However, in the highly competitive world of business, that may no be enough.
Management may also need to fnd ways to improve the quality of service to provide their customers.
The best way to do so is through updating the Information Technology resources of the organization,
which is what many industries do nowadays.
Through the clear understanding of Information Technology Infrastructure, management can make sure
the organization will be able to to improve IT-dependent services to customers.
Successful application of the technology is further achieved when management is reliant on the Informa-
tion Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) approach is utilized.
The basic function of ITIL Management is to manage the Service Support and Service Delivery depart-
ments which are the two key areas of ITIL Management.
ITIL Management incorporates an overview of the business into its systems design for the beneft of sen-
ior management so that they can oversee the effective delivery of IT services to customers.
Both the positions of Service Support and Service Delivery should be occupied by competent senior
managers who hold an accredited ITIL Foundation Certifcate, and an ITIL Service Manager Certifcate
as well.
The ITIL Service Support Manager and the ITIL Service Delivery Manager must also possess 5 years of
training and experience in any of the following areas: IT Service Support, IT Service Delivery, IT Con-
sultancy, IT Project Management and IT Program Management.They should be highly knowledgeable in
ITIL best practices.
They must furthermore be able to fully support the integration of ITIL Service Improvement programs
within the organization.
Lastly, they ought to be able to make the most of all the necessary resources so that the business can
truly beneft from the IT environment they have created.
ITIL Based
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ITIL and IT Service Management ITIL and IT service management can’t go separate in the present day
scenario.
ITIL or Information Technology Infrastructure Library is a set of standards for IT service management.
ITIL and IT Service management are divided into two broad categories, which are further divided into 10
components in all.
The frst category of ITIL and IT Service Management is Service Delivery which includes service level
management, capacity management, continuity management, availability management and IT fnancial
management.
The second category of ITIL and IT service management is Service Support and it includes confgura-
tion management, incident management, problem management, change management, service desk and
release management.
ITIL framework is completely customizable and thus can be applied within any type of business or or-
ganization that functions in alignment with IT.
ITIL Based Most of the organizations are making their IT service management ITIL based.
This is to ensure compliance to internationally accepted service management standards and infuse more
effcient functioning.
ITIL based service management will lead to more client satisfaction since the agreed service level will be
easily and effectively achieved and the ITIL based service desk will support the service delivery proac-
tively.
ITIL based IT service management is founded on quality and supports all business requirements.
It is an investment and not an expense.
ITIL based framework leads to reduction in cost of operation, proactive IT management and predefned
processes.
The ITIL based IT fnancial service allows simultaneous calculation and management of TCO and ROI
and Higher IT system users’ productivity due to reduced down times.
How Do You Defne Change Management ITIL?
It is but a very strategic move to pair up with another company that shares the same vision and offers
almost similar services to its prospective market.
This will not only widen your marketability range as far as the products and services being offered are
concerned, but it will also make way for new goals to achieve and meet, an indication that your company
is indeed moving forward toward success.
But then again, it is also a very important rule to come up with an agreement level service just to make
sure that certain expectations were set so as to avoid conficts in the future, indeed a win-win situation to
both parties.The agreement should encompass all the things that defne the factors that can contribute to
the success of the business.
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Some factors are the following: (a)Defnition of Services: describes the services to be rendered and the
manner on how these services are to be delivered.
The information of the service should be accurate and detailed as this is the most critical portion of the
agreement. (b)Performance Management: deals with the monitoring and measuring of service level
performance to make sure that conditions are being followed and standards / targets are being met. (c)
Problem Management: recognizes the possible problems or threats that may be encountered and speci-
fes a preventive activity to reduce such occurrences. (d)Customer Duties and Responsibilities: defnes
the role of the customer in the service delivery process. (e) Security: both parties should comply with the
confdentiality of information to abide by the security policies and procedures as mandated by the agree-
ment itself.First, ITIL is the Information Technology Infrastructure Library, a collection of manuals that
give the best practices in IT service management.
IT service management is a broader term that encompasses change management.Change management
is concerned with the ability of an organization to handle change with regard to the IT infrastructure of
the concerned organization.
A change is defned as any incident which would cause one or more components of the IT confguration
to have a new status afterward.
The change should be sanctioned by management, be a cost-effective solution, and even support busi-
ness processes without endangering the IT infrastructure.
Change management entails establishment of a certain standard for methods and procedures so that
when changes are needed to be done or changes happen without warning, daily operations of the or-
ganization will not be severely affected.The major objectives of change management can be said to be:-
Reducing service disruption to the bare minimum - Keeping back-out activities minimized - Managing
resources economically (those that are involved in the change process.)When Change Management ITIL
is involved, then it means that there is a defnite ITIL-based procedure for conducting change manage-
ment.
The form that is used within the organization is the Request for Change form which is initiated by the
Change Requestor to the Change Management administrator.
The schedule document which will list all the possible changes that the Change Requestor intends to ini-
tiate is called the Forward Schedule of Changes.An organization that has been able to comply fully with
ITIL standards can be certifed under ISO/IEC 2000.
ITIL Questions
ITIL Qualifcations ITIL Service Management is one sector that has reached a remarkable height and
entails promising careers.
More and more people are entering into this feld with relevant ITIL qualifcations.
It is true that you need to be hard-working and with a good organizational skill but without ITIL qualifca-
tions, you may not be that successful.
OGC (Offce of Government Commerce) conducts ITIL qualifying exams at three levels that are meant
for different categories of professionals.
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Entry level In the race for ITIL qualifcations, a foundation certifcate will mark your effective entry in IT
Service Management feld.
Mid-level This is the stage where you try to reach the top and want to improve your performance.
A practitioner certifcate will help you to enhance your career growth potential.
Top level This is the stage when further developments are made in Service Management.
The professional reaches a new height with the Manager’s certifcate.
ITIL Questions When you go for ITIL examinations at any level, you should be aware of the ITIL ques-
tions, their pattern and structure.
This can be done because the examinations are held at an international level under fxed guidelines.
ITIL questions at foundation level exam There will be 40 multiple choice questions confned to a general
overview of the ITIL framework, processes and general application.
There will be four options with one correct answer.
A score of more than 65 percent will be enough to pass this exam.
ITIL questions at practitioner’s level There is a difference in the level of ITIL questions as they are related
to case studies where you will have to apply theories.
More in-depth knowledge is required in this case.
ITIL questions at manager’s level The questions will be very tough as this level is for absolute profes-
sionals.
The two day exam (one for service support and another for service delivery) will test your skill in convert-
ing theories into applications.
ITIL Foundation: The First Step To ITIL Success
All businesses today are highly dependent on IT.
But with IT advances, some companies are fnding it hard to implement a successful IT infrastructure.
This is where ITIL comes in.
A certifcation in ITIL will promise you improved effciency, reduced risk and faster resolution of problems.
This translates to better handling of resources and reduced cost.
ITIL Foundation is the frst step in understanding the concepts of ITIL.
The ITIL Foundation will introduce you to the terminologies, philosophies, background and history of ITIL.
The ITIL Foundation is ideal for all IT managers and staff engaged in the development of service and
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support of their IT infrastructure.
This is the beginner s level which will give an overview to the participants allow them to have familiarity
with all best practices in ITIL.
The ITIL Foundation is also ideal for people who are not directly involved in the implementation of the
best practices but are required to understand ITIL concepts and terminologies in order for them to
evaluate properly IT service management.Getting an understanding of the ITIL Foundation will enable
the business to clearly classify roles and responsibilities of its IT managers and staff resulting in a more
effcient and effective organization.
Since the adopted IT processes and procedures are standardized, understood, streamlined and well ar-
ranged, service delivery will be improved and businesses can focus more consistent and reliable partner-
ships with its customers and users.There are now several institutions offering ITIL Foundation trainings,
seminars and workshops both online and in-house.
They will be giving you case studies, sample exam questions, reviews and different activities in order to
prepare you for the ITIL Foundation certifcation.
Service Management Processes
The concept of services and processes can sometimes be confusing: In ITSM, change management is
a process, not a service: however IT services require that change management be in place to manage
service changes.
In this respect, it is important to understand what is meant by a service change.
From a holistic perspective, a service change is any change which impacts the purpose, functional, per-
formance, or quality component of the service.
A new or changed transaction using the fnancial application is not a service change; but if the applica-
tion programming was updated to make the transaction more effcient, that would be a service change.
In this context, change management is the means by which the change is deployed with minimum im-
pact to the environment or customer.
Let’s look at several defnitions for a process:
• From ISO/IEC 20000 (actually ISO 9000:2005): a process is a set of interrelated or interacting activities
which transforms inputs into outputs.
• From ITIL 2011: a process is a structured set of activities designed to accomplish a specifc objective.
A process takes one or more defned inputs and turns them into defned outputs.
It may include any of the roles, responsibilities, tools, and management controls required to reliably
deliver the outputs.
A process may defne policies, standards, guidelines, activities and work instructions if they are needed.
• From COBIT5: a process is, generally, a collection of practices infuenced by the enterprise’s policies
and procedures that takes inputs from a number of sources (including other processes), manipulates the
inputs and produces outputs (EG, products, services).
Scope note: Processes have clear business reasons for existing, accountable owners, clear roles and
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responsibilities around the execution of the processes, and the means to measure performance.
The components of a process are consistent across each of these defnitions: inputs, outputs, and activi-
ties (practices).
The purpose of the process is to manipulate inputs to create outputs.
Both the ITIL and COBIT defnitions identify additional components that provide more detail related to
this manipulation; but for the moment, only the three key components will be looked at.
Below is a list of service management processes from our leading frameworks (using their individual
categories):
ITIL 2011 COBIT5 ISO/IEC 20000
ITIL Service Strategy Evaluate, Direct and Monitor Relationship Processes
1 Strategy Management for IT Services
2 Service Portfolio Management
3 Financial Management for IT Services
4 Demand Management
5 Business Relationship Management 1 Ensure Governance Framework Setting and Maintenance
2 Ensure Business Delivery
3 Ensure Risk Optimization
4 Ensure Resource Optimization
5 Ensure Stakeholder Transparency 1 Business Relationship Management
2 Supplier Management
ITIL Service Design Align, Plan and Organize Service Delivery Processes
6 Design Coordination
7 Service Catalogue Management
8 Service Level Management
9 Availability Management
10 Capacity Management
11 IT Service Continuity Management
12 Information Security Management
13 Supplier Management 6 Manage the IT Management Framework
7 Manage Strategy
8 Manage Enterprise Architecture
9 Manage Innovation
10 Manage Portfolio
11 Manage Budget and Costs
12 Manage Human Resources
13 Manage Relationships
14 Manage Service Agreements 15 Manage Suppliers
16 Manage Quality
17 Manage Risk
18 Manage Security 3 Service Level Management
4 Service Reporting
5 Service Continuity and Availability Management
6 Budgeting and Accounting for Services
7 Capacity Management
8 Information Security Management
ITIL Service Transition Build, Acquire and Implement Control Processes
14 Transition Planning and Support
15 Change Management
16 Service Asset and Confguration Management
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17 Release and Deployment Management
18 Service Validation and Testing
19 Change Evaluation
20 Knowledge Management 19 Manage Programs and Projects
20 Manage Requirements Defnition
21 Manage Solutions Identifcation and Build
22 Manage Availability and Capacity
23 Manage Organizational Change Enablement
24 Manage Changes
25 Manage Change Acceptance and Transitioning
26 Manage Knowledge
27 Manage Assets
28 Manage Confguration 9 Confguration Management
10 Change Management
11 Release and Deployment Management
ITIL Service Operation Deliver, Service and Support Resolution Process
21 Event Management
22 Incident Management
23 Request Fulfllment
24 Problem Management
25 Access Management 29 Manage Operations
30 Manage Service Requests and Incidents
31 Manage Problems
32 Manage Continuity
33 Manage Security Services
34 Manage Business Process Controls 12 Incident and Service Request Management
13 Problem Management
ITIL Continual Service Improvement Monitor, Evaluate and Assess Design and Transition of new or
changed services
26 Seven-step Improvement Process 35 Monitor, Evaluate and Assess Performance and Conformance
36 Monitor, Evaluate and Assess the System of Internal Controls
37 Monitor, Evaluate and Assess Compliance with External Requirements 14a Plan new or changed
services
14b Design and Development or new or changed services
14c Transition of new or changed services
While not precisely accurate, the processes listed in one framework can be loosely mapped to similar
processes of other frameworks using the relevant categories.
This mapping can also be tied back to the ITSM structure introduced earlier.
What is important to understand at this point is there are many similarities in all the frameworks without
much effort needed in mapping specifc IT processes.
Anatomy of an IT Service
The defnitions of service describe a means or provision of delivering value; which begs the question of
what is the means.
To answer this, one must look at the construction of a service.
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Every service has the same basic components to it:
• Purpose – defnes why the service exists.
A service may be further categorized as:
o Core Service – this service is directly tied to customer satisfaction and its existence is typically related
to a business process.
For instance, the customer utilizes an application to manage fnancial transactions; the core service
would be ensuring the application is available and accessible to authorized persons responsible for ex-
ecuting the business process.
o Enabling Service – this service is designed to support the core service and is often transparent to the
customer.
In most cases, enabling services ensures that functional aspects of the core service are available and
accessible.
For instance, the data used in the fnancial transaction must be stored in permanent memory; so an
enabling service may ensure that suffcient storage capacity is available after the transaction (storage
management) or a service may be allow data sets to be searched and used appropriately (database
management).
o Enhancing Service – this type of service is unnecessary to the actual service delivery to the customer,
but its existence serves to enhance satisfaction, trust, and competence in the perception of the custom-
er.
A Service Desk can be seen as an enhancing service to serve the customer, not the service.
• Function – defnes that the service does.
Also referred as the utility or ft for purpose for the service.
The goal of function is to achieve the service’s stated purpose.
For example, to ensure the availability and accessibility of the application in the example, a functional
application must exist.
• Performance – defnes how the service behaves: more specifcally, how the service functions behave.
Also referred as the warranty or ft for use for the service, the performance is tightly associated with
service targets.
Availability, reliability, volume, speed, security, compatibility and accessibility are examples of measur-
able targets used to defne the performance of a service.
• Quality – both function and performance can be defned as requirements.
Quality refers to how effectively those requirements are met.
Changes to function or performance have the potential to change the service, but not the quality of the
service.
Continuous improvement focuses on improving service quality – how effectively the service achieves its
stated purpose.
Service Providers who support multiple customers understand that the purpose of a service can be ful-
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flled using different degrees of function and performance depending on what the customer requires.
To clearly defne the service, they rely on the development and acceptance of a Service Level Agree-
ment.
When a service provider and customer agree on the service to be delivered, what they are actually
agreeing to is a service package: a set of functions and service targets which meet the customer’s re-
quirements at a cost affordable to both the service provider and customer.
A service package will defne the core, enabling, and enhancing services available to the customer.
These will typically be tied to the service functions, but not necessarily.
Service provider’s will try to create service packages which the same functionality to meet similar pur-
poses for the customer, including using the same services for different and unrelated purposes.
The greater consistency in function, the more the costs of providing IT services can be leveraged.
Service packages can also be defned by service options, which are typically associated with perfor-
mance.
For instance, availability of the application may be 24/7 or within business hours (8:00am to 6:00pm
Monday through Friday).
With this simple clarifcation, the expected performance of the service changes depending on the time of
day.
Changes in performance requirements also impacts cost: an application which requires 24/7 availability
costs more to provide than another option, because more resources are being used.
The type of resources used may also change performance: the availability of high performance resourc-
es is more expensive than common resources, even if both are used at the same time.
COBIT ITIL
COBIT ITIL COBIT and ITIL lead to effective and better IT program.
Control Objectives for Information Technology or COBIT is an over-arching framework that standardizes
all IT activities.
Whereas Information Technology Infrastructure Library or ITIL is a set of standards for IT service man-
agement.
Therefore, COBIT ITIL allows generic control objectives for each IT processes.
COBIT ITIL provides management guidelines in such a way the management can align with IT processes
and business requirements.
For this purpose a team of experts at The Art of Service provides comprehensive COBIT ITIL consul-
tancy and management training.
Moreover, COBIT has recognized data management as key to running IT and ITIL is increasingly being
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employed to set up effective data centers.
Therefore, COBIT ITIL can be effciently used to build new data center architecture.
COBIT is concerned with COBIT provides an over-arching framework covering all IT activities.
ITIL is focused mostly on service management (COBIT’s Delivery , Support domain).
ITIL is more detailed and process oriented.
COBIT ITIL helps link ITIL best practices to real business requirements and IT process owners.
COBIT’s metrics help defne SLA , OLA criteria.
COBIT ITIL and other standards EG ISO17799 provide a more complete set of best practices.
Background to COBIT:- Development by ISACA started in 1992 - Derived from original Control Objec-
tives - aim was to provide a set of best practices meaningful to IT people, auditors, and users - First
version launched in 1996 containing a new Framework, control objectives and audit guidelines - Based
on major research study into all relevant existing standards and best practices - In 2000 management
guidelines added providing maturity models, performance indicators and critical success factors What
does COBIT ITIL Provide? - Framework for IT governance aligning IT with business requirements - An IT
process classifcation scheme - Generic control objectives for each IT process - Management guidelines
enabling management to align IT activities and priorities with business requirements: o Consider critical
success factors o Set metrics (Goal Indicators- KGIs and Performance Indicators - KPIs) o Assess as-is
and to-be capability using maturity models To help IT organizations understand how to use COBIT ITIL
for improving the performance of their operations.
COBIT provides organizations with a way to determine whether they are exercising proper governance
over their IT operations.
COBIT consists of 34 control objectives with greater detail to explain how each one can be objective, can
be implemented, and its performance evaluated.
ITIL is a collection of best practices in such areas as service delivery, service support, service security,
infrastructure management, and application management.
Although ITIL attempts to cover all areas of IT, its guidance is stronger in areas of service delivery and
support than in application development.
COBIT has been developed as a generally applicable and accepted standard for good Information Tech-
nology (IT) security and control practices that provides a reference framework for management, users,
and IS audit, control and security practitioners.
COBIT, issued by the IT Governance Institute and now in its third edition, is increasingly internationally
accepted as good practice for control over information, IT and related risks.
Its guidance enables an enterprise to implement effective governance over the IT that is pervasive and
intrinsic throughout the enterprise.
In particular, COBIT’s Management Guidelines component contains a framework responding to manage-
ment’s need for control and measurability of IT by providing tools to assess and measure the enterprise’s
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IT capability for the 34 COBIT IT processes.
The tools include: Performance measurement elements (outcome measures and performance drivers for
all IT processes) A list of critical success factors that provides succinct, non-technical best practices for
each IT process Maturity models to assist in benchmarking and decision-making for capability improve-
ments Much of COBIT is available for download on a complimentary basis.
Hard copies are available for purchase from the ISACA Bookstore.
COBIT components include: - Executive Summary - Framework - Control Objectives - Audit Guidelines
- Implementation Tool Set - Management Guidelines The IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) refers to a set of
comprehensive, consistent and coherent codes of best practice for IT Service Management.
It comprises a library developed by the Central Computer , Telecommunications Agency (CCTA) in the
United Kingdom.
Since 01 the CCTA is renamed into OGC (Offce of Government Commerce).
The library describes a number of related processes.
ITIL was developed in the late 1980’s in response to the recognition that organizations were becoming
increasingly dependent on Information Systems (IS).
The objective of the OGC in developing ITIL is to promote business effectiveness in the use of IS due to
increasing organizational demands to reduce costs while maintaining or improving IT services.
The ITIL concepts for best practices, through the involvement of leading industry experts, consultants
and practitioners remain the only holistic, non-proprietary best practice framework available.
As a result, it has quickly become the global benchmark by which organizations measure the quality of IT
service management.
Each described process in the Infrastructure Library covers a specifc part of IT Service Management
and its relationship to other processes.
Each book can be read, and the process implemented, independently of the others.
The overall provision of IT services, however, can be optimized by considering each process as part of
the whole, such that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
This holistic approach suggests that organizations are likely to gain the most beneft from implementing
all processes rather than some processes discretely.
The most popular ITIL processes are contained in the two sets representing key elements of IT Service
Management.
The Service Support and Service Delivery sets describe the processes that any IT service provider must
address to enhance the provision of quality IT services for its customers.
In addition, these sets form the basis of the certifcations granted by the Netherlands Examination Insti-
tute for IT (EXIN) and the Information Systems Examinations Board (ISEB).
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Many organizations have embraced the ITIL concept because it offers a systematic and professional ap-
proach to the management of IT service provision.
There are many benefts to be reaped by adopting the guidance provided by ITIL.
Such benefts include but are not limited to: - Improved customer satisfaction - Reduced cost in develop-
ing practices and procedures - Better communication fows between IT staff and customers - Greater
productivity and use of skills and experience ITIL provides IT professionals with the knowledge and
resources they need to run and maintain an effective and effcient IT Infrastructure that meets the needs
of their clients while keeping costs at a minimum.
Of the three major frameworks getting a lot of mindshare nowadays - ITIL and CMM being the other two -
COBIT is the only one to recognize data management as key to running IT. (I’ve been quite disappointed
in CMM and ITIL for this reason; neither one seems to have any awareness of the particular disciplines
and issues around data architecture and management.) If your company is trying to address SOX and
looking for a framework, I highly recommend COBIT.
Not that it’s mutually exclusive with ITIL or CMM; they all cover somewhat different areas - but again,
only COBIT really pays attention to data.
They even mention data models, repositories, and data dictionaries!
cisa cissp
Taking a Closer Look at CISSP and CISA CertifcationsDo you want to get a high paying job? Well, eve-
ryone else does.
Who does not want to be paid well while at the same time, enjoy the work that you are doing like it is not
even work at all? Then get yourself an information security certifcation and you will surely never regret it
as bigger rewards await those fortunate ones who will pass.
Two of the most sought after certifcations nowadays are Certifed Information Systems Security Profes-
sional (CISSP) and Certifed Information Systems Auditor (CISA).
Getting both CISSP and CISA certifcations require potential candidates to meet certain requirements as
accredited by two institutions: Systems Security Certifcation Consortium or (ISC)2 for CISSP and Infor-
mation Systems Audit and Control Association or ISACA for CISA.
While a CISSP candidate needs to answer 250 questions in a six-hour time frame, a CISA aspirant has
to answer 200 questions within four hours, both of which come in multiple choice formats.For CISSP,
exam questions will be derived from the ten Common Body of Knowledge (CBK) domains, which are the
following: Access Control Systems , Methodology, Applications , Systems Development, Business Conti-
nuity Planning, Cryptography, Law, Investigation , Ethics, Operations Security, Physical Security, Secu-
rity Architecture , Models, Security Management Practices and Telecommunications, Network , Internet
Security.
For CISA, possible exam questions were taken from the six Content Areas, and these are: IS Audit
Process, IT Governance, Systems , Infrastructure Lifecycle Management, IT Service Delivery , Support,
Protection of Information Assets, and Business Continuity , Disaster Recovery.
Should you wish to register for a CISSP or CISA exam, please visit their web sites at http://www.isc2.org/
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www.isc2.organd http://www.isaca.org/ www.isaca.org.
Service Catalog : These options are published and
distributed in some form of….
Applying Automation Many of the areas where automation is used are: • Change Management Confgu-
ration Management Compliance to Standards and Regulations Availability Management Capacity Man-
agement Service Level Management For any business, the effort to automate systems starts with defn-
ing the requirements relevant to the business and IT processes being supported by the infrastructure.
A clearly defned requirement provides the appropriate conditions or thresholds where some action must
be taken: for instance, “access to system” should be redefned to “user is authenticated and authorized
to use system” and “high availability” should be redefned as “99.995% availability”.
One of the frst steps in automation is to monitor the system for these conditions or thresholds.
Monitoring is a continuous effort that should be performed before and after applying any automation.
Ideally, everything should be monitored, but unfortunately, each monitored item has a specifc cost as-
sociated to it.
As a result, some balance between effort and cost must be maintained to ensure that monitoring of the
system does not adversely affect the capabilities of the system to deliver value to the business.
Automated solutions may routine-test the system against business and technical requirements rather
than perform real-time monitoring.
Other solutions to relieve the costs are logging events for later review.
The goal of IT is to improve the availability, reliability, security, and performance of the IT infrastructure.
Considerations in automation should be consistent with achieving this goal, specifcally using automation
to optimize the environment.
Once a task has been automated, it should not be ignored.
Attempts should be made to continue optimization, which may include further defnition of the require-
ment and monitoring of the environment.
After applying automation to the task, the results should be tested.
In a virtualized environment, this can be done easily by isolating the affected components before deploy-
ing the change to the entire environment.
Once the change has been verifed and applied to the environment, the process returns to defning the
next requirement.
Self-Service A beneft to automation is the ability of a cloud provider to provide an essential characteristic
of cloud computing—on-demand self-service.
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Whether the cloud is publicly accessible or has been privatized, self-service requires that a set of simple,
well-defned, and standardized options to the service offering has been agreed upon between the service
provider and the consumer.
These options are published and distributed in some form of service catalog from the service provider,
allowing the consumer to understand what services they are entitled to and the appropriate pricing based
on the option chosen.
The charge for the service option is by subscription or based on usage.
Self-service can also be directly applicable to metered services and broad network access, which are
also supported by automation.
Privatized cloud services may incorporate richer descriptions of how cloud resources are provisioned in
a self-service capacity.
Many of the concepts have been adopted by public cloud providers, but transparency does not require
much need for publishing how those concepts have been adopted.
Plans to use cloud services must start with understanding of the basic concepts.
The frst set of concepts includes defnitions, such as: • Tenant – A single user or organization granted
access to cloud resources through defned services.
A tenant is represented as an account or subscription to the service.
In private cloud solutions, organizations may recognize specifc users as administrators responsible for
managing the policy and fnancial aspects of using the service. • Service – A composite defned resourc-
es designed to support a specifc workload or capabilities required by the business.
A tenant may own several services from a single provider or a single service from several providers.
While each service provider may provide a service catalog for the options they offer, the IT organization
may create a service catalog consisting of all the service offerings approved for use within a business. •
Identity – Individual service providers will essentially require some form of unique identity to authenticate
the user.
This identity is used to ensure the tenant obtains the resources they require and tracks the usage of
those resources.
For businesses utilizing the services of multiple cloud providers, identity may be used to limit the ser-
vices and number of resources available to individual tenants.
The defnitions above expose one critical aspect to an enterprise’s use of cloud resources.
While the cloud infrastructure and services may be on-demand and self-accessible, it is possible to limit
this functionality from outside the service provider’s current capabilities.
Therefore, enterprises should be sensitive that they do not severely hinder the very characteristics they
wish to exploit.
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Each service that is offered by a service provider is a packaged set of resources, which includes: • Com-
puting resources Storage resources Network resources Operating System For PaaS and SaaS offerings,
additional tools and applications Different packages may offer unique features.
For example, storage resources may be available only for the life of the instance or may “persist” be-
tween different instances used by the tenant.
Different packages may offer increased number of computer resources or even different types of com-
puter resources.
Different operating systems may also be supported.
When a tenant accesses a service from the provider, an instance of the service must be created.
This process will generally consist of tenant verifcation, verifcation of the allowed service, identifcation
of the service package, and creation of the instance with the basic resources as defned by the package.
During the life of the instance, the activities and demands of the tenant are monitored to ensure that the
appropriate resources are available.
This may require some transparent changes with the infrastructure to maintain an acceptable level of
availability and performance for the tenant or it may be driven by increased usage of resources by the
tenant.
Resource management requires operational tasks related to service in areas like: • Allocating and
de-allocating resources Confguring, upgrading, and migrating resources Managing errors and failures
Managing service levels To support resource management, constant monitoring and reporting within the
environment is required, including: • User activity Resource quotas Resource usage Chargeback and
billing
IT Service Management IT Service Management does the following: • Establishes objectives, plans, and
policies Enforces achievement of service objectives and continuous improvement Ensures customer
satisfaction by verifying customer requirements are documented and are being met by services Ensures
services are being coordinated and managed Ensures resources are available to plan, implement, moni-
tor, review, and improve service delivery Manages risk to the service management organization and
services provided Ensures service reviews are conducted periodically to ensure effectiveness in meeting
customer requirements Within the domain of IT Service Management are IT specifc processes that are
used to ensure that services are identifed and are being delivered.
Like an enterprise, there are core processes, enabling processes, and shared processes.
It very easy to get caught up in providing and managing these processes as services, but that does not
ensure that the IT infrastructure adequately supports the business.
Let us take a closer at this.
Consider a business process with several services that require a dedicated server to be in place for each
service.
So now, we have several servers present in the IT infrastructure.
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Managing these servers independently from each other can be extremely costly and requires a lot of
resources.
Each of these servers has the same basic requirements, such as how long they must 88 89 be available
and what their minimum performance levels are.
IT Service Management identifes these similar requirements and realizes that the costs and resources
can be managed better by consolidating the efforts and will authorize the development and implementa-
tion of Availability Management and Capacity Management processes.
While Availability Management and Capacity Management are important to the successful management
of the IT infrastructure, they are not the focus of IT.
The focus is to ensure that each of the servers being supported is operating consistently to support the
business process.
The IT processes need to be managed appropriately and IT Service Management ensures they are
within the context of meeting business requirements.
Service Brokering When using cloud computing, IT Service Management will be used primarily to “bro-
ker” services.
Imagine a situation where all business services can be supported using a cloud solution, but the cloud
solution for a particular service may come from a different service provider.
In this situation, the customer (business, business functions, business processes) provides the service
requirements to the broker (IT Service Management).
These requirements and further notations about the service will be documented within a service portfolio.
The broker will evaluate the different service providers to identify who can provide the best level of ser-
vice at the most reasonable cost.
Once a service provider is identifed, an agreement is made between the provider and broker, on behalf
of the customer.
The details of the agreement are documented in a portion of the service portfolio, commonly referred to
as the service catalog.
This service catalog is available to the customer.
From it, they can choose the services they would like to utilize.
Whenever the customer opens the connection to the service, they are invoking the service on the service
provider’s infrastructure.
In short: 1.The service provider manages their IT infrastructure and provides a service. 2.The broker
manages the service to ensure that it meets the customer’s requirement. 3.The customer uses the ser-
vices.
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This brokerage approach also works to identify and provide services from in-house technical teams.
The above scenario is no different from supporting the business using traditional service providers, or
suppliers.
IT Service Management, in some form of supplier management process, will: gather requirements;
request potential service providers to review the requirements and make a bid on providing support;
negotiate with the supplier to obtain the greatest value for the customer at the lowest cost available; and
manage the supplier during the lifecycle of the service provision.
The service provider is still responsible for their IT infrastructure and provides the service according to an
underpinning contract with defned service levels.
So why relate to IT Service Management as a service broker? IT Service Management has a responsibil-
ity to the business—to ensure the best possible service is available to the business.
This is done by supporting the business through technology and growing the business by identifying new
opportunities.
If the entire IT infrastructure is cloud-based and is supplied by service providers, the role of IT Service
Management changes from managing the technology to managing the providers exclusively.
Unfortunately, this greatly simplifes the role of IT Service Management.
While some very important processes performed in an internal environment are used less when external
service providers are used, other processes need greater focus.
For companies who already have IT Service Management in place and plan to move to cloud-based
provided solutions, they may fnd some of their IT processes to be lacking in defnition and maturity.
And it cannot be any more stressed that the services provided by cloud providers must be suffcient to
support the business.
Managing Private versus Private Clouds IT Service Management can be affected by whether the cloud
being used is a public or private cloud.
The Private Cloud Reference Model illustrates IT Service Management for private cloud support.
In addition to supporting the various cloud service models, the reference model divides the service pro-
cesses into three categories: systems management processes, service operations, and service delivery.
The management processes identify those technical areas required to support the individual aspects of
the cloud solution.
Although some integration may be present, the model suggests that these distinct management areas
have specifc roles in delivering the cloud at a component level.
The service operations processes also have distinct roles, but elements can be found across the whole
set of management processes.
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Both the service operations and systems management processes must be in place to deploy, manage,
and maintain the cloud.
They are defned by the service delivery processes to ensure that the cloud services available from the
provider meet the requirements of the business.
While the model was specifcally designed to show the service management requirements of a private
cloud, the same model can be adopted in various ways to illustrate the service management require-
ments of a public cloud.
As mentioned earlier, a level of transparency exists between the customer and the provider.
From a service management perspective and using the reference model above, this transparency occurs
between the service delivery process and the rest of the model.
The result of this transparency for the customer organization is the need to deploy service delivery pro-
cesses, but not systems management or service operations processes.
Within this context, the service delivery processes must still defne the service levels required and man-
age the service provider to ensure the service is in place.
Service Management must defne how the service should be used to meet business requirements.
The simple demarcation between service delivery and the rest of the model is appropriate for cloud ser-
vices that are SaaS-based, but the transparency changes based on the service model being provided.
For an organization obtaining platform services from a cloud provider, the demarcation line drops to
below the Software service block or midway into the Platform service.
This has an impact on the systems management, as well as on the service operations processes be-
cause the customer organization must now establish some processes to support the upper part of the
model.
In short, a set of management and service operation processes must exist for both the customer and the
service provider.
These processes may not be entirely the same because some are more appropriate for hardware sup-
port over application support.
However, some processes may exist in both areas, such as security management or incident and prob-
lem management.
Because the line of transparency still exists, the same rules still apply as far as defning the services and
ensuring the service is used to support the business are concerned.
With the introduction of additional processes, the transparency demands that the management and ser-
vice operations processes developed by the customer be independent from those of the service provider.
--
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Service Operations Processes The processes of Service Operations are used to defne the rules and
policies of systems management.
The purpose of service operations is to manage the infrastructure in a manner where the business re-
quirements defned by service delivery are executed and to achieve the predicted value for the customer.
The processes include: • Change Management Service Asset and Confguration Management Release
and Deployment Management Knowledge Management Incident and Problem Management Request
Fulflment Access Management Systems Administration Most of these processes will be familiar to any
person exposed to the principles of service management.
However, their execution is noticeably different within a cloud infrastructure.
The premise for the assertion is the realization of a highly adaptable, rapid response and virtualized envi-
ronment supported by a highly defned physical infrastructure.
The majority of the actions that take place within the infrastructure will be automatic and will follow spe-
cifc guidelines.
For this reason, several principles must be adopted by service operations: • Minimal human interaction –
Any required human interaction with the infrastructure or the virtualization layer will greatly diminish the
performance capabilities of the environment.
Dynamic changes to the infrastructure will be quick to arrive and will expect almost instantaneous resolu-
tion.
Standard changes should be identifed and rules should be set up.
Human interaction will be required in non-standard changes and for monitoring of operational perfor-
mance to ensure that the rules are executed as designed. • Layer separation – A large full service could
potentially has hundreds of thousands of events, alerts, and tasks performed in a given time period.
The best approach to managing a cloud is in layers.
Within the infrastructure layer is the physical infrastructure and the abstract layer.
Both should be managed separately especially with confguration management.
This may 109 require two distinct confguration management databases or two separate confguration
management systems.
As platform and software layers are added, each should also be independently managed.
This level of separation allows the IT organization to focus on and resolve any issues for each layer.
• Eliminate variability – The more variables present in the infrastructure, the greater the complexity in
managing the environment.
A perfect cloud infrastructure will utilize the same hardware devices and confgurations.
This level of consistency ensures that the entire infrastructure can be structured and abstracted uniform-
ly and increases the predictability of the physical and virtual use of the infrastructure.
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Service Delivery Processes The Service Delivery processes will be present in any cloud implementation.
These processes defne the requirements from the business in the cloud, and they also ensure that the
delivered services from the cloud are used as designed by the business.
The general processes include: • Service Catalog Management Financial Management Demand Man-
agement Capacity Planning and Management Availability Management and Continuity Planning Service
Level Management Business Relationship Management The application of these processes to manage
cloud infrastructures was discussed within the various topics throughout this course, including the advan-
tages and disadvantages of utilizing cloud services.
Within the context of delivering cloud services, the goal of the IT organization is to ensure that the busi-
ness can use the service.
Service from public clouds will be highly generic and can be adopted under numerous conditions, but
policies within the organization may prevent the use of public services due to concerns in security, port-
ability, or functionality.
As cloud services become more privatized, the ability to customize services to address a specifc re-
quirement becomes possible, but increases the ownership for the delivery of the service.
The IT organization must be able to balance these conditions against their strategic objectives.
Managing Service Providers When providing cloud services, IT Service Management performs the role
of a broker; they take the requirements from the customer and searches for a service provider to meet
those requirements.
They then “negotiate” with the cloud service provider and arrive at an agreement to make the service
available to the customer.
During the life of the contract, they manage the services to ensure that the services meet the customer’s
changing requirements.
From this little description, IT Service Management provides three functions: 1.Assists the customer in
fnding services to meet requirements 2.Negotiates with service providers to provide the service 3.Man-
ages the service to provide quality and value To sum up, IT Service Management must support the
management of service providers or suppliers.
Before proceeding, three situations must be addressed: • In-house Cloud Infrastructure – Some large
companies are developing their own internal cloud infrastructures rather than outsourcing to external
service providers or a hybrid of both.
The principles of IT Service Management and supplier management will apply in this situation.
The only difference is that the service provider is an internal IT department.
One may think that any “negotiation” with an internal service provider is inappropriate or unnecessary,
but from a service management perspective, this is not the case.
The same considerations and documentation should be in place whether the service provider is external
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or internal to the IT department. • Easy Accessibility – Let us repeat the obvious.
Cloud services require only an Internet connection and is very easy to sign up with a credit card.
It is even easier than booking a fight to a client’s city and then taking them out to dinner.
Both signing up for a cloud service and taking a business trip can be business expenditures that can be
justifed.
Companies are fnding employees who are signing up for cloud services for business purposes and
expensing to them to the business.
A few years ago, the same problems occurred when managers would bypass the procurement process
that could take several days to go to their local offce supply store and buy a computer using their corpo-
rate credit card.
Implementing ITIL
Implementing ITIL Implementing ITIL is important for IT sector in order to facilitate their services beyond
technical support.
ITIL extends the scope of IT to complete service management.
In fact, an increasing number of IT consultants advise their clients for implementing ITIL in order to incor-
porate best IT sector practices and standardizing their process for enhanced performance and IT service
management.
Implementing ITIL aligns its exacting standards to the fve support processes: incident management,
problem management, change management, confguration management and release management and
fve service delivery processes: capacity management, fnancial management, availability management,
service level management, and IT service continuity management.
It can help you better access the total cost of ownership, identify problems and resolve them proactively,
and also assess performance.
Thus, you can achieve continuous improvement by implementing ITIL.
How You Can Get Truly Accredited IT Service
Management Training
For your IT Service Management Training to be considered accredited, it now has to meet the global
standard for IT service management which is ISO/IEC 20000 (that was created by the ISO (or Interna-
tional Organization for Standardization) and the IEC (or International Electrotechnical Commission.) The
ISO/IEC 20000 meets the ITIL process approach meaning auditors can certify ITIL compliance as well.
ISO/IEC 20000 acts as a benchmarking high-water mark by which organizations can gauge their capac-
ity to managed-service delivery, service-level parameter measurement, and performance assessment.
The fact that it can help organizations meet ITIL compliance standards too is a bonus in an age when
IT companies will have to prove their ITIL certifcation in order to meet demands of customers, assess
outsourcing providers, and meet business goals and objectives of any sort (particularly those set by cor-
305
porate clients.)One organization from which an IT Service Management training provider can get its ITIL
certifcation is the EXIN.
Training providers can rely on the Art of Service program of EXIN to secure their accreditation.
EXIN can provide your IT personnel, on the other hand, with either the IT Service Management Founda-
tion Certifcate, the IT Service Management Practitioner’s Certifcate, and the IT Service Management
Manager’s Certifcate.
EXIN gets its authority to provide certifcation globally for ITIL training from the OGC, which is the UK
agency that owns and controls ITIL right now.So when scouting around for a training provider, make sure
it is accredited frst by EXIN so that your own people get the right certifcation themselves.
IT Services Customer-Based SLA Template Process:
Service Level Management
Status: In draft
Under Review
Sent for Approval
Approved
Rejected

Version: <<your version>>

Release Date:

Customer-Based Service Level Agreement (SLA)
The document is not to be considered an extensive statement as its topics have to be generic enough to
suit any reader for any organization.
However, the reader will certainly be reminded of the key topics that have to be considered.
This document serves as a GUIDE FOR THE CREATION OF AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE SER-
VICE LEVEL MANAGEMENT PROCESS OWNER AND THE CUSTOMER OF IT SERVICES (Covering
all the IT Services they use).
This document provides a basis for completion within your own organization.
The customer-based SLA is usually preferred by customers as it allows a single document to cover all
the IT Services that they use.
It means less administration time spent in negotiating different documents and generally only requires a
single representative to participate on behalf of the business.
It is an agreement with an individual customer group, covering all the services they use.
For example, agreements may be reached with an organization’s Finance Department covering, say,
the Finance System, the Accounting System, the Payroll System, the Billing System, the Procurement
System and any other IT systems that they use.
Customer-based SLA Advantage An agreement with an individual customer groups could cover all of the
services they use.
Disadvantage An inability to deal with differing requirements among users in the same customer group
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The following form can be used as the Customer-Based SLA document.
The SLA does not have to be in a lengthy written format and in fact it is more likely to be adopted if it is
kept concise, with only salient details.
With regard to Customer-Based SLA the following points should be addressed:
Overall SLA Information
Areas to address Comments/Examples Time Frame/Notes/Who
Description of the “agreement” Brief description of the contents of this SLA
Note: The SLA may cover several IT Services.
Use this section simply as an executive summary.
Do not try to describe each service here.
Reference number Unique identifying number for the SLA (for inclusion in the Confguration Manage-
ment Data Base – CMDB)
Owner Functional role description of who is responsible for this SLA (Who would participate in a review
of this document?)
Representatives from customer and IT
(Special tip: Avoid using names as it dates the document quickly.)
Customer defnition List and/or describe the customers that are considered in this SLA.
SLA Validity period Duration that this SLA is expected to remain in place before it is reviewed.
SLA Review Procedure The process for reviewing the SLA and who is involved.
Special Tip: Avoid using people’s names and use role descriptions to avoid dating the document.
Version Control Information SLA Creation Date
SLA Last Modifed Date
Specifc Service Information
(Duplicate the following table for each service to be covered in this SLA.)

Areas to address Comments/Examples Time Frame/Notes/Who
Service Name Preferably use a name that is common language in the organization (not a technical
name).
Service Description (Business)
(Refer to end of table for technical considerations.) Briefy describe the primary function of the service.
Use language that is business user friendly.
(eg.
Instead of “NT Server, with 2GB RAM and 500GB of disk storage” – we would say “large central server
designed for all customers to use and share information”)
Service Expectation Level This is a unique concept to this SLA design template.
Far too often, we write descriptions of IT Services in a clinical fashion.
These clinical descriptions set an expectation for the customer /end user about the IT Service.
Quite often, the description is interpreted by the reader in a way not intended by the writer.
Use this section to set the expectations of the reader.
If you feel that there could be some interruptions to service delivery because the service is relatively
new, then document that here.
However, remember that using the reason “new service” has only a limited life-span.
307
Service Security Considerations Briefy list any considerations regarding security for this service.
Are there any differences in the level of accessibility for different people/roles for this service? (Try to use
role descriptions, instead of names.)
Service Target Response priorities If the SLA accommodates different priorities, they must be listed here
with a description on the type of service that each priority level should receive.
Service Target Response time Here, we document the agreed response time for the different priority
levels.
Service Support Hours
(Availability)
Consider marginally longer support hours (if less than 24).
Maximum number of accepted outages
Minimum percentage availability
Maximum number of errors or reruns
Service Out of Hours support procedure Are the in-hours support staff the same as out of hours?
Phone numbers and what information will be required when support is called
What does the user do if the nominated person is not available?

Service Charging policy Do we require external staff to only act if they have a validated cost code for
work?
Are there any special aspects of the work that has to be recorded for later charging?
Service Metrics for performance What will be the performance numbers for the work performed under
this UC?
Will the expected performance be higher than negotiated in the SLA to allow a safety margin?
Service Breach Clause Perhaps your organizational culture is built upon imposing penalties for poor
performance.
If this is the case, then the penalties for failing to meet the stated metrics must be listed here.
If the SLA is not to have a penalty focus, then simply remove this line.
Continuity Considerations
(Should be linked to the IT Service Continuity Plan) If the agreed support hours cannot be met, then it is
necessary to invoke a continuity option for this service.
The defnition of when this invocation should occur will be listed here.
Cross-referencing to the IT Service Continuity Plan is also required.
UC Cross references Reference number to related and closely coupled UCs
OLA Cross references Reference number to any closely coupled agreements with internal IT department
Technical considerations In this section, you can describe any technical considerations that are essential
to document.
It is more likely, however, that you will include here a link to the Service Catalog or Technical Specifca-
tion.
Notes & Comments
NOTE: There can be no single correct defnition of an SLA that will cover all situations for all organiza-
tions.
This template, however, does prompt the reader to consider the most critical areas of an SLA, and it
provokes thought about other areas that could be included based on individual needs.
The Qualities of an Effective Call Center Financial
Services Representative
If you are interested in establishing a career in the call center industry, there are a lot of different job
positions to choose from, ranging from an entry level position as a call center representative to as high
308
as a managerial position.
Mostly, call center professionals work their way up from a call center agent to service delivery manager.
It usually depends on how well acquainted you are when it comes supporting customers on your project.
There are different projects that a call center handles.
One of which is fnancial services.
The team who handles fnancial services calls should have at least a brief background when it comes to
banking, fnance and commerce, though this is not a requirement really.
As a matter of fact, you can consider this job as if you are working in a bank, credit card or loaning insti-
tution.
As a fnancial service representative, here are some of your possible duties and responsibilities:(a)Pro-
vides assistance to customers in opening new accounts (b)Processes loan applications (c)Gives general
information about the different programs or promos that the company offers (d)Processes / Cancels
credit card subscriptions (e)Ensures reduction of customer payment delinquency by reminding custom-
ers about their monthly payments and establish arrangements whenever necessary (f)Assists customers
with fraud claims and other account-related issues.Since handling such calls will be a bit challenging at
times due to money issues, a fnancial service representative should display patience and understand-
ing.
You can also use your charm and friendly approach to make customers realize that you are there to help
them with their concerns.
ITIL Management
ITIL Management OGC (Offce of Government of Commerce) has designed a comprehensive model
regarding ITIL management and its application.
This is a complete overview of the ITIL management structure that is divided into fve major sections.
1.Business perspective ITIL management in this section functions at the strategic level for any organiza-
tion.
This helps in overall understanding of the needs of the company.
Business continuity management determines the functioning of business perspective 2.Service delivery
In this tactical level the customers are provided adequate attention.
It include fnancial, availability, continuity, service level and capacity management. 3.Service support This
is concerned with business support function that includes service desk, incident, problem, confgura-
tion, change and release management. 4.ICT Infrastructure Management This is built on the core of the
service support and delivery.
System management, network service and operations management are some of the elements. 5.Ap-
plication Management This is completely dedicated to the software development life cycle and in solving
issues regarding IT services.
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ITIL Service Delivery
ITIL Service Delivery ITIL Service Management is divided in two broad categories; one is Service Sup-
port while the other is Service Delivery.
ITIL Service Delivery is a segment that deals with more complicated and minute issues.
Both ITIL Service Delivery and Service Support are complementary to each other.
ITIL Service Delivery is a set of Management practices in the following areas: Service Level Manage-
ment is oriented towards the Service led activities present in the IT industry.
Financial Management for IT services takes care of all the monetary aspects of the company and tries to
maintain a proftable balance between income and expenses.
Capacity management and Continuity Management deal with the progress of the company and of man-
aging the intermediary elements.
Availability Management is one area that ensures that each and every service is at place and ready for
delivery both within and outside the company.
Security Management is the last part of Service Delivery dedicated to safeguarding the services of the
company.

Contents
Process: Service Catalog Management - Functional Specification 6 Do My IT People Need to Be ITIL Certified? 13 ITIL and IT Service Management 14 IT Services Service-Based SLA Template Process: Service Level Management 14 Important Facts About IT Governance 17 ITIL PPT File The Best Way to Creating ITIL Presentations 18 Service Level Management 19 ITIL Application Integration 20 ITIL Management Release 20 ITIL Made Easy 22 Sample Questions of ITIL Foundation 22 IT Service Management-An Introduction based on ITIL 23 How ITIL software asset management can benefit you 24 The ITIL Prince2 Combination: Integration means Improved Organizational Performance24 The Scope of ITIL Best Practices 25 All About ITIL Foundation Certificate in IT Service Management 27 How does ITIL help? 28 The Service Management of ITIL 29 Features of Any Standard ITIL Service Delivery Case 29 Specialist Training 30 The ITIL Capacity Process 85 ISO 20000 Uptake Gaining momentum 85 ISO 20000 86 ITIL Book 87 A Short Description of ITIL History- The Best Way to Define ITIL 87 Understanding the ITIL Concepts and Terminologies 88 Learning ITIL through Poster 88 IT Services Catalog Maintenance and Improvement 89 ITIL Capacity Management Towards Provision of Consistent Levels of Service 92 ITIL Overview 93 IT Service Management Service Catalog 94 Vision of Responsive Leadership 101 What Good it is to Practice IT ITIL Management Service? 105 IT Services Service Agreements Processes: Service Level Management Supplier Management 106 IT Governance And Management: Finding The Right Strategy 111 What is Best Practice? 112 What is ITIL methodology 112 ITIL Model 113 Is ITIL for IT Organisations Only? 113 ITIL compliance supports goals 114 Understanding the Business Role of IT Management 115 What is ISO 20000? 116
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